WorldWideScience

Sample records for motor proficiency aging

  1. Motor Proficiency Traits of Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Denis; Broadhead, Geoffrey D.

    1982-01-01

    Children at the Louisiana State School for the Deaf were tested for motor proficiency using the Short Form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. The children appeared to lack balancing skills but scored better than hearing children in visual motor control. Sex and age differences are noted. (PP)

  2. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

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    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  3. Assessment of Preschoolers' Gross Motor Proficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

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    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2011-01-01

    Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…

  4. Fine motor skill proficiency in typically developing children: On or off the maturation track?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, David; Issartel, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Fine motor skill proficiency is an essential component of numerous daily living activities such as dressing, feeding or playing. Poor fine motor skills can lead to difficulties in academic achievement, increased anxiety and poor self-esteem. Recent findings have shown that children's gross motor skill proficiency tends to fall below established developmental norms. A question remains: do fine motor skill proficiency levels also fall below developmental norms? The aim of this study was to examine the current level of fine motor skill in Irish children. Children (N=253) from 2nd, 4th and 6th grades (mean age=7.12, 9.11 and 11.02 respectively) completed the Fine Motor Composite of the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2nd Edition (BOT-2). Analysis revealed that only 2nd grade children met the expected level of fine motor skill proficiency. It was also found that despite children's raw scores improving with age, children's fine motor skill proficiency was not progressing at the expected rate given by normative data. This leads us to question the role and impact of modern society on fine motor skills development over the past number of decades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Motor proficiency in normal children and with learning difficulty: a comparative and correlational study based on the motor proficiency test of Bruininks-Oseretsky

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    Nilson Roberto Moreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to verify the difference between children with learning disabilities and children without learning disabilities through motor proficiency test of Bruininks and Ozeretsky (1978. The sample was constituted by 30 children, with 8-year average age, 15 males and 15 females, subdivided into two groups of 15 children from both sexes: children without learning disabilities attending 3rd grade and children with learning disabilities attending 2nd grade having failed a term once. All of them came from a middle class background, according to Grafar scale (adapted by Fonseca, 1991. All children presenting any other disabilities were excluded from the sample. Intelligence factor “G” was controlled by using a percentile, higher or equal to 50 (middle and high level, measured by Raven’s (1974 progressive combinations test. In motor proficiency, children with learning disabilities showed significant differences when compared with normal children of the same age, in all components of global, composed and fine motricity. The tests administered showed a strong correlation between the variables of the motor proficiency components. The results lead to the conclusion that there were significant differences in motor proficiency between normal children and children with learning disabilities, who showed specific motor difficulties evincing a more vulnerable motor profile and not the presence of neurological dysfunction signs.

  6. Motor Proficiency and Physical Fitness in Adolescent Males with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

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    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…

  7. Motor Proficiency and Physical Fitness in Adolescent Males with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…

  8. Influences of gender and socioeconomic status on the motor proficiency of children in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, David; Till, Kevin; Ogilvie, Paul; Turner, Graham

    2015-12-01

    As the development of movement skills are so crucial to a child's involvement in lifelong physical activity and sport, the purpose of this study was to assess the motor proficiency of children aged 4-7 years (range=4.3-7.2 years), whilst considering gender and socioeconomic status. 369 children (176 females, 193 males, aged=5.96 ± 0.57 years) were assessed for fine motor precision, fine motor integration, manual dexterity, bilateral co-ordination, balance, speed and agility, upper-limb co-ordination and strength. The average standard score for all participants was 44.4 ± 8.9, classifying the participants towards the lower end of the average score. Multivariate analysis of covariance identified significant effects for gender (pmotor skills and boys outperformed girls for catch and dribble gross motor skills. High socioeconomic status significantly outperformed middle and/or low socioeconomic status for total, fine and gross motor proficiency. Current motor proficiency of primary children aged 4-7 years in the UK is just below average with differences evident between gender and socioeconomic status. Teachers and sport coaches working with primary aged children should concentrate on the development of movement skills, whilst considering differences between genders and socioeconomic status.

  9. Gender impacts on motor skill proficiency-physical activity relationship in children

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    Diana Samara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Physical activity is the greatest contributor to achievement of adequate physical activity. Children performing adequate daily physical activity will get positive benefits from their activity. Several studies indicate a difference in motor skills between boys and girls. To understand the development of motor skill proficiency and physical activity in boys and girls, a study was conducted to determine the role of gender on motor skill proficiency and physical activity in children aged 6-12 years. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was conducted and a total of 162 children were included at a primary school in the Grogol area, West Jakarta. Data collection was by questionnaire-based interviews, covering age, gender, and physical activity (watching TV, playing games, and outdoor play. Assessment of motor skills was performed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test–Second Edition (BOT-2. Data analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows release 17.0 and level of significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS Multiple linear regression results showed that in boys the strength subset was the most influential factor on TV watching activity, with the higher scores for strength indicating a lower TV watching activity (â=-0.125;p=0.021. Age was the most influential factor on outdoor playing activity in girls, with older girls having lower outdoor playing activity (â=-0.375;p=0.016. CONCLUSIONS This study revealed that gender difference impacts on motor skills and physical activity in children. Higher motor proficiency increases outdoor playing activity only in boys. Primary school pupils should be given opportunities for performing outdoor playing activities to improve their motor proficiency.

  10. Fundamental motor skill proficiency is necessary for children's motor activity inclusion

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    José Angelo Barela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor development is influenced by many factors such as practice and appropriate instruction, provided by teachers, even in preschool and elementary school. The goal of this paper was to discuss the misconception that maturation underlies children's motor skill development and to show that physical education, even in early years of our school system, is critical to promote proficiency and enrolment of children's in later motor activities. Motor skill development, as a curricular focus, has been marginalized in many of our physical education proposal and in doing so, we have not promote motor competence in our children who lack proficiency to engage and to participate in later motor activities such as sport-related or recreational.

  11. Retrospective Analysis of Predictors of Proficient Power Mobility in Young Children With Severe Motor Impairments.

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    Mockler, Shelley R; McEwen, Irene R; Jones, Maria A

    2017-10-01

    To determine if child characteristics, maternal education, intervention parameters, type of wheelchair control mechanism, or a combination of these variables were associated with proficient power mobility skills in children with severe motor impairments aged 14 to 30 months; and to determine if performance on the Wheelchair Skills Checklist (WSC) was associated with performance on the Powered Mobility Program (PMP). Secondary data analyses on data collected from 2 previously completed randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Intervention and outcomes measurements took place in natural environments. Participants included children who were assigned to the intervention groups in 2 RCTs (N=31). Children practiced maneuvering individually customized power wheelchairs for 12 months in natural environments. Proficiency was assessed using the WSC and the PMP. The Battelle Developmental Inventory and Merrill-Palmer-Revised were used to assess baseline cognition and motor skills. Baseline mobility was assessed using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory. Cognition, fine motor skills, and wheelchair control mechanism were associated with proficiency. Cognition, type of wheelchair control, and diagnosis all predicted proficiency while controlling for other covariates using multiple regression analysis. Agreement between the WSC and PMP was 94.7%. Cognition, type of wheelchair control, and diagnosis might predict power mobility proficiency in young children with severe motor impairments. These factors however should not be used to determine whether a child has the opportunity to participate in a training program. Agreement between the WSC and PMP could help researchers and clinicians compare results across studies that use only one of these outcome measures. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

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    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  13. Core stability exercise is as effective as task-oriented motor training in improving motor proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder: a randomized controlled pilot study.

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    Au, Mei K; Chan, Wai M; Lee, Lin; Chen, Tracy Mk; Chau, Rosanna Mw; Pang, Marco Yc

    2014-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a core stability program with a task-oriented motor training program in improving motor proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Randomized controlled pilot trial. Outpatient unit in a hospital. Twenty-two children diagnosed with DCD aged 6-9 years were randomly allocated to the core stability program or the task-oriented motor program. Both groups underwent their respective face-to-face training session once per week for eight consecutive weeks. They were also instructed to carry out home exercises on a daily basis during the intervention period. Short Form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (Second Edition) and Sensory Organization Test at pre- and post-intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no significant between-group difference in the change of motor proficiency standard score (P=0.717), and composite equilibrium score derived from the Sensory Organization Test (P=0.100). Further analysis showed significant improvement in motor proficiency in both the core stability (mean change (SD)=6.3(5.4); p=0.008) and task-oriented training groups (mean change(SD)=5.1(4.0); P=0.007). The composite equilibrium score was significantly increased in the task-oriented training group (mean change (SD)=6.0(5.5); P=0.009), but not in the core stability group (mean change(SD) =0.0(9.6); P=0.812). In the task-oriented training group, compliance with the home program was positively correlated with change in motor proficiency (ρ=0.680, P=0.030) and composite equilibrium score (ρ=0.638, P=0.047). The core stability exercise program is as effective as task-oriented training in improving motor proficiency among children with DCD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners.

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    Nip, Ignatius S B; Blumenfeld, Henrike K

    2015-06-01

    Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Speech movements of 29 native English speakers with low or high proficiency in Spanish were recorded while producing simple and syntactically complex sentences in English and Spanish. Sentences were loaded with cognate (e.g., baby-bebé) or noncognate (e.g., dog-perro) words. Effects of proficiency, lexicality (cognate vs. noncognate), and syntactic complexity on maximum speed, range of movement, duration, and speech movement variability were examined. In general, speakers with lower L2 proficiency differed in their speech motor control and performance from speakers with higher L2 proficiency. Speakers with higher L2 proficiency generally had less speech movement variability, shorter phrase durations, greater maximum speeds, and greater ranges of movement. In addition, lexicality and syntactic complexity affected speech motor control and performance. L2 proficiency, lexicality, and syntactic complexity influence speech motor control and performance in adult L2 learners. Information about relationships between speech motor control, language proficiency, and cognitive-linguistic demands may be used to assess and treat bilingual clients and language learners.

  15. Perceptual Estimates of Motor Skill Proficiency Are Constrained by the Stability of Coordination Patterns.

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    Buchanan, John J

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated that motor skill proficiency ratings are constrained by the same order parameter dynamics that constrain action production and action perception processes. Participants produced rhythmic actions simulated by an animated stick figure of the human arm. The primary finding was that participants' proficiency ratings covaried most with relative phase (φ) variability compared to mean relative phase. In-phase (φ = 0°) was produced with the least variability and received the highest proficiency rating, whereas the patterns φ = ±150° were attempted with the most variability and received the lowest proficiency ratings. A temporal delay in attempting to produce the animated pattern had a large impact on produced relative phase, yet had little impact on the proficiency ratings. Proprioceptive processes provide individuals information on motor skill proficiency. The lead or lag motion of the hand to forearm segment of the animated arm was identified consistently through visual processes and revealed asymmetries in the mapping of visual input to motor output. The results are consistent with concepts from the dynamic pattern theory of coordination and are discussed with regard to relative phase as an informational variable that constraints the perception-action system across many levels.

  16. Motor proficiency, strength, endurance, and physical activity among middle school children who are healthy, overweight, and obese.

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    Nunez-Gaunaurd, Annabel; Moore, James G; Roach, Kathryn E; Miller, Tracie L; Kirk-Sanchez, Neva J

    2013-01-01

    To compare motor proficiency, strength, endurance, and physical activity among children from minority backgrounds who were healthy weight (HW), overweight (OW), or obese (OB). Eighty-six children, aged 10 to 15 years, of mostly Hispanic ethnicity, participated. Children were categorized according to body mass index-for-age percentile. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT2) Short Form, Sit-to-Stand (STS), Timed Up and Down Stairs, and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) were administered. Physical activity was measured by using activity monitors. Forty-five percent of children were classified as OW/OB. Children who were OB had lower mean BOT2, STS, and 6MWT performance than children of HW. Among children who were OW/OB, daily mean steps were lower and sedentary minutes higher than children of HW. In children who were OW/OB, body mass index was negatively correlated with BOT2, STS, and abdominal curls. Children who are OB demonstrate greater impairments in motor proficiency, strength, and endurance and participate in less physical activity than peers of HW.

  17. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Method: Speech…

  18. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Method: Speech…

  19. Effects of proficiency and age of language acquisition on working memory performance in bilinguals

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    Vejnović Dušan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined language proficiency and age of language acquisition influences on working memory performance in bilinguals. Bilingual subjects were administered reading span task in parallel versions for their first and second language. In Experiment 1, language proficiency effect was tested by examination of low and highly proficient second language speakers. In Experiment 2, age of language acquisition was examined by comparing the performance of proficient second language speakers who acquired second language either early or later in their lives. Both proficiency and age of language acquisition were found to affect bilingual working memory performance, and the proficiency effect was observed even at very high levels of language competence. The results support the notion of working memory as a domain that is influenced both by a general pool of resources and certain domain specific factors.

  20. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment

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    van Beurden Eric

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and subsequent adolescent physical activity and fitness. Methods In 2000, children's motor skill proficiency was assessed as part of a school-based physical activity intervention. In 2006/07, participants were followed up as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study and completed assessments for perceived sports competence (Physical Self-Perception Profile, physical activity (Adolescent Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire and cardiorespiratory fitness (Multistage Fitness Test. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to determine whether perceived sports competence mediated between childhood object control skill proficiency (composite score of kick, catch and overhand throw, and subsequent adolescent self-reported time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results Of 928 original intervention participants, 481 were located in 28 schools and 276 (57% were assessed with at least one follow-up measure. Slightly more than half were female (52.4% with a mean age of 16.4 years (range 14.2 to 18.3 yrs. Relevant assessments were completed by 250 (90.6% students for the Physical Activity Model and 227 (82.3% for the Fitness Model. Both hypothesised mediation models had a good fit to the observed data, with the Physical Activity Model accounting for 18% (R2 = 0.18 of physical activity variance and the Fitness Model accounting for 30% (R2 = 0.30 of fitness variance. Sex did not act as a moderator in either model. Conclusion Developing a high perceived sports competence through object control skill development in childhood is important for both boys and girls in determining adolescent physical activity participation and fitness. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to target and improve the perceived sports competence of youth.

  1. Motor Proficiency and Emotional/Behavioural Disturbance in Autism and Asperger's Disorder: Another Piece of the Neurological Puzzle?

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    Papadopoulos, Nicole; McGinley, Jennifer; Tonge, Bruce; Bradshaw, John; Saunders, Kerryn; Murphy, Anna; Rinehart, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The relationship of motor proficiency with emotional/behavioural disturbance, autistic symptoms and communication disturbance was investigated in children diagnosed with autism and Asperger's disorder (AD). The Movement Assessment Battery for Children was used as a measure of motor impairment, and the Developmental Behavioural Checklist was used…

  2. Ecological validity of the German Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency - 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinçon, Sabine; Green, Dido; Blank, Rainer; Jenetzky, Ekkehart

    2016-11-07

    The diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is based on poor motor coordination in the absence of other neurological disorders. In order to identify the presence of movement difficulties, a standardised motor assessment is recommended to determine the extent of movement problems which may contribute to deficits in daily task performance. A German version of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (German BOT-2) was recently published. This study aimed to determine the ecological validity of the German BOT-2 by considering the relationship between assessment of fundamental motor skills with the BOT-2 and performance of everyday motor activities as evaluated by parents. This study used data obtained from the German BOT-2 standardisation study (n=1.177). Subtests were compared with theoretically corresponding tasks via parental ratings of overall fine and gross motor abilities and performance in six typical motor activities. Non-parametric Jonckheere Terpstra test was used to identify differences in ordered contrasts. Subtests reflecting 'Strength', 'Running Speed and Agility', 'Upper-Limb Coordination', 'Balance', and 'Fine Motor Precision' were associated with parental evaluation of gross motor skills (pMotor Integration' significantly correlated with parental ratings of females' fine motor skills. Parental ratings of males' fine motor skills were associated with three further subtests. Regarding everyday motor activities, the first three fine motor BOT-2 subtests were associated with parent evaluations of drawing, writing and arts and crafts (pmotor subtests of 'Bilateral Coordination' and 'Balance' showed no relationship to bike riding or performance in sports. Subtests of 'Upper-Limb Coordination' and 'Strength' showed significant correlations with sports, ball games and cycling. The results of this study suggest that the closer the proximity in the nature of the motor skills assessed in the German BOT-2 to daily motor

  3. The bilingual brain. Proficiency and age of acquisition of the second language.

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    Perani, D; Paulesu, E; Galles, N S; Dupoux, E; Dehaene, S; Bettinardi, V; Cappa, S F; Fazio, F; Mehler, J

    1998-10-01

    Functional imaging methods show differences in the pattern of cerebral activation associated with the subject's native language (L1) compared with a second language (L2). In a recent PET investigation on bilingualism we showed that auditory processing of stories in L1 (Italian) engages the temporal lobes and temporoparietal cortex more extensively than L2 (English). However, in that study the Italian subjects learned L2 late and attained a fair, but not an excellent command of this language (low proficiency, late acquisition bilinguals). Thus, the different patterns of activation could be ascribed either to age of acquisition or to proficiency level. In the current study we use a similar paradigm to evaluate the effect of early and late acquisition of L2 in highly proficient bilinguals. We studied a group of Italian-English bilinguals who acquired L2 after the age of 10 years (high proficiency, late acquisition bilinguals) and a group of Spanish-Catalan bilinguals who acquired L2 before the age of 4 years (high proficiency, early acquisition bilinguals). The differing cortical responses we had observed when low proficiency volunteers listened to stories in L1 and L2 were not found in either of the high proficiency groups in this study. Several brain areas, similar to those observed for L1 in low proficiency bilinguals, were activated by L2. These findings suggest that, at least for pairs of L1 and L2 languages that are fairly close, attained proficiency is more important than age of acquisition as a determinant of the cortical representation of L2.

  4. Rasch analysis of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition in intellectual disabilities.

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    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2009-01-01

    The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition (BOT-2) is widely used to assess motor skills for both clinical and research purposes; however, its validity has not been adequately assessed in intellectual disabilities (ID). This study used partial credit Rasch model to examine the measurement properties of the BOT-2 among 446 children and adolescents with ID aged 4-18 years. Seventeen items were identified as problematic in the Rasch modeling. After removal of these items, the appropriateness of the response categories was examined in the 36 remaining items. Where the item response categories failed to express an increasing level of the trait (disordered thresholds), collapsing adjacent categories was performed to address this issue. After rescoring most items, items in each composite of the revised BOT-2 showed good fit to the Rasch model and demonstrated excellent reliability (range 0.90-0.97). No differential item functioning was detected with respect to age and gender. The ability of the revised composites to differentiate between mild versus moderate to severe ID was better than those of the original BOT-2. Items from the manual coordination and strength and agility composites were well targeted to the sample, whereas items from fine manual control and body coordination composites were mostly targeted at the lower levels of ability in these domains. Items of higher difficulty may be supplemented to increase the range of ability levels of the people to whom these two composites can be applied with precision.

  5. Examining Relative Age Effects in Fundamental Skill Proficiency in British Children Aged 6-11 Years.

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    Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel W; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Birch, S, Cummings, L, Oxford, SW, and Duncan, MJ. Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2809-2815, 2016-The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances, relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in nonselective groups of children, and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six FMS (sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys and 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± SD = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = 0.0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared with girls (p = 0.012), and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = 0.001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = 0.003), and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than those born in Q2 (p = 0.015), Q3 (p = 0.019), and Q4 (p = 0.01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared with girls (p = 0.013) and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than those born in Q4 (p = 0.038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children

  6. Motor proficiency of 6-to 9-year-old children with speech and language problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne; Moolenaar, Ben; Lyons, Jim; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Hartman, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Aim This study compared the gross motor skills of school-age children (mean age 7y 8mo, range 6-9y) with developmental speech and language disorders (DSLDs; n=105; 76 males, 29 females) and typically developing children (n=105; 76 males, 29 females). The relationship between the performance

  7. What Does Age Have to Do with Skills Proficiency? Adult Skills in Focus #3

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    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Adults tend to lose their information-processing skills as they age, especially if they do not use them. While older adults may compensate for this loss by developing other valuable skills, the importance of being proficient in information-processing skills in determining wages and employment does not diminish as workers age. Probably the most…

  8. School-Age Test Proficiency and Special Education After Congenital Heart Disease Surgery in Infancy.

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    Mulkey, Sarah B; Bai, Shasha; Luo, Chunqiao; Cleavenger, Jordyn E; Gibson, Neal; Holland, Greg; Mosley, Bridget S; Kaiser, Jeffrey R; Bhutta, Adnan T

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate test proficiency and the receipt of special education services in school-age children who had undergone surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) at age Education longitudinal database containing achievement test scores in literacy and mathematics for grades 3-4 and special education codes. The primary negative outcome was not achieving grade-level proficiency on achievement tests. Logistic regression accounting for repeated measures was used to evaluate for associations between achieving proficiency and demographic data, maternal education, and clinical factors. A total of 362 of 458 (79%) children who underwent surgery for CHD were matched to the Arkansas Department of Education database, 285 of whom had grade 3 and/or 4 achievement tests scores. Fewer students with CHD achieved proficiency in literacy and mathematics (P education predicted proficiency in literacy (P special education services (26.9% vs 11.6%; P special education services than all state students. Results from this study support the need for neurodevelopmental evaluations as standard practice in children with CHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Brief Report: Children with ADHD without Co-Morbid Autism Do Not Have Impaired Motor Proficiency on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nicole; Rinehart, Nicole; Bradshaw, John L.; McGinley, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Motor proficiency was investigated in a sample of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined type (ADHD-CT) without autism. Accounting for the influence of co-morbid autistic symptoms in ADHD motor studies is vital given that motor impairment has been linked to social-communication symptoms in children who have co-morbid ADHD…

  10. Proficient motor impulse control in Parkinson disease patients with impulsive and compulsive behaviors.

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    Claassen, Daniel O; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Harrison, Madaline B; van Wouwe, Nelleke C; Kanoff, Kristen; Neimat, Joseph S; Wylie, Scott A

    2015-02-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) patients treated with dopamine agonist therapy can develop maladaptive reward-driven behaviors, known as impulse control disorder (ICD). In this study, we assessed if ICD patients have evidence of motor-impulsivity. We used the stop-signal task in a cohort of patients with and without active symptoms of ICD to evaluate motor-impulsivity. Of those with PD, 12 were diagnosed with ICD symptoms (PD-ICD) and were assessed before clinical reduction of dopamine agonist medication; 12 were without symptoms of ICD [PD-control] and taking equivalent dosages of dopamine agonist. Levodopa, if present, was maintained in both settings. Groups were similar in age, duration, and severity of motor symptoms, levodopa co-therapy, and total levodopa daily dose. All were tested in the dopamine agonist medicated and acutely withdrawn (24 h) state, in a counterbalanced manner. Primary outcome measures were mean reaction time to correct go trials (go reaction time), and mean stop-signal reaction time (SSRT). ICD patients produce faster SSRT than both Healthy Controls, and PD-Controls. Faster SSRT in ICD patients is apparent in both dopamine agonist medication states. Also, we show unique dopamine medication effects on Go Reaction time (GoRT). In dopamine agonist monotherapy patients, dopamine agonist administration speeds GoRT. Conversely, in those with levodopa co-therapy, dopamine agonist administration slows. PD patients with active ICD symptoms are significantly faster at stopping initiated motor actions, and this is not altered by acute dopamine agonist withdrawal. In addition, the effect of dopamine agonist on GoRT is strongly influenced by the presence or absence of levodopa, even though levodopa co-therapy does not appear to influence SSRT. We discuss these findings as they pertain to the multifaceted definition of 'impulsivity,' the lack of evidence for motor-impulsivity in PD-ICD, and dopamine effects on motor-control in PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  11. Vietnamese Immigrant and Refugee Women's Mental Health: An Examination of Age of Arrival, Length of Stay, Income, and English Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…

  12. Effects of aging on motor cortex excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, A; Profice, P; Tonali, P A; Pilato, F; Saturno, E; Dileone, M; Ranieri, F; Di Lazzaro, V

    2006-05-01

    To determine whether aging is associated with changes in excitability of the cerebral cortex, we evaluated the excitability of the motor cortex with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We compared TMS related measures obtained in a group of young people with those of a group of old people. Motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude was significantly smaller in older than in younger controls (1.3+/-0.8 mV versus 2.7+/-1.1 mV; p<0.0071). Mean cortical silent period (CSP) duration was shorter in older than in younger controls (87+/-29 ms versus 147+/-39 ms; p<0.0071). SP duration/MEP amplitude ratios were similar in both groups. Our results are consistent with an impaired efficiency of some intracortical circuits in old age.

  13. Infant motor development predicts sports participation at age 14 years: northern Finland birth cohort of 1966.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte L Ridgway

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor proficiency is positively associated with physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between the timing of infant motor development and subsequent sports participation during adolescence. METHODS: Prospective observational study. The study population consisted of 9,009 individuals from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Motor development was assessed by parental report at age 1 year, using age at walking with support and age at standing unaided. At follow up aged 14 years, data were collected on the school grade awarded for physical education (PE. Self report was used to collect information on the frequency of sports participation and number of different sports reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Earlier infant motor development was associated with improved school PE grade, for age at walking supported (p<0.001 and standing unaided (p = <0.001. Earlier infant motor development, in terms of age at walking supported, was positively associated with the number of different sports reported (p = 0.003 and with a greater frequency of sports participation (p = 0.043. These associations were independent of gestational age and birth weight, as well as father's social class and body mass index at age 14 years. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier infant motor development may predict higher levels of physical activity as indicated by higher school PE grade, participation in a greater number of different types of sports and increased frequency of sports participation. Identification of young children with slower motor development may allow early targeted interventions to improve motor skills and thereby increase physical activity in later life.

  14. EFL Learners’ L1 Conceptual Transfer and Its Relation to Their Language Proficiency and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Bagherian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to scrutinize the possibility and extent of transfer at the level of concepts in parity and internal content based on Jarvis’ (2007 framework among Iranian EFL learners having the following in focus:  concepts in Persian that do not have counterparts in English, concepts that are broader than a corresponding concept in English or vice versa, and concepts in Persian and English that seem to be broadly equivalent but are still different. Also, it investigated to examine the role of the two learner-based variables of language proficiency and age in Iranian EFL learners’ possible conceptual transfer. To serve the purpose, the data were collected from 100 Iranian learners (70 females, 30 males studying English as a foreign language in an English Language School in Mobarakeh, Isfahan. With the data being submitted to statistical analyses, the findings revealed significant cases of conceptual transfer from Persian to English. It was also noticed that the participants’ level of English proficiency played a significant role in their transfer of concepts but their age did not.

  15. Enriched Childhood Experiences Moderate Age-related Motor and Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Metzler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with deterioration of skilled manual movement. Specifically, aging corresponds with increased reaction time, greater movement duration, segmentation of movement, increased movement variability, and reduced ability to adapt to external forces and inhibit previously learned sequences. Moreover, it is thought that decreased lateralization of neural function in older adults may point to increased neural recruitment as a compensatory response to deterioration of key frontal and intra-hemispheric networks, particularly of callosal structures. However, factors that mediate age-related motor decline are not well understood. Here we show that music training in childhood is associated with reduced age-related decline of bimanual and unimanual motor skills in a MIDI keyboard motor learning task. Compared to older adults without music training, older adults with more than a year of music training demonstrated proficient bimanual and unimanual movement, evidenced by enhanced speed and decreased movement errors. Further, this group demonstrated significantly better implicit learning in the weather prediction task, a non-motor task. The performance of older adults with music training in those tasks was comparable to young adults. Older adults, however, displayed greater verbal ability compared to young adults irrespective of a past history of music training. Our results indicate that music training early in life may reduce age-associated decline of neural motor and cognitive networks.

  16. Population Estimates of School Age Language Minorities and Limited English Proficiency Children of the United States, 1979-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Jorge

    Estimates of the school-age, 5-17-year-old, language minority and Limited-English-Proficient (LEP) populations in the United States are discussed. The estimates are based on the population counts for first, second, and third generation Hispanics, Anglos, Asians, and Blacks derived from the June 1988 Current Population Survey. The language minority…

  17. Age of Acquisition and Proficiency in a Second Language Independently Influence the Perception of Non-Native Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archila-Suerte, Pilar; Zevin, Jason; Bunta, Ferenc; Hernandez, Arturo E.

    2012-01-01

    Sensorimotor processing in children and higher-cognitive processing in adults could determine how non-native phonemes are acquired. This study investigates how age-of-acquisition (AOA) and proficiency-level (PL) predict native-like perception of statistically dissociated L2 categories, i.e., within-category and between-category. In a similarity…

  18. The Relationship between Language Learning Strategies, Proficiency, Age and Self-Efficacy Beliefs: A Study of Language Learners in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magogwe, Joel Mokuedi; Oliver, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    This research seeks to extend our current knowledge by exploring the relationship between preferred language strategies, age, proficiency, and self-efficacy beliefs. Responding to the call for more replication of strategy research and for research in different cultural contexts, this research was undertaken in Botswana between 2002 and 2005. The…

  19. Motor skill learning: age and augmented feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Henk

    2006-01-01

    Learning motor skills is fundamental to human life. One of the most critical variables affecting motor learning, aside from practice itself, is augmented feedback (performance-related information). Although there is abundance of research on how young adults use augmented feedback to learn motor skil

  20. Neuronal mechanisms of motor learning are age dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, Kelly M. M.; De Rond, Veerle; Zijdewind, Inge; Koch, Giacomo; Veldman, Menno P.; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    There is controversy whether age-related neuroanatomical and neurophysiological changes in the central nervous system affect healthy old adults' abilities to acquire and retain motor skills. We examined the effects of age on motor skill acquisition and retention and potential underlying mechanisms b

  1. The effect of age of acquisition, socioeducational status, and proficiency on the neural processing of second language speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archila-Suerte, Pilar; Zevin, Jason; Hernandez, Arturo E

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the role of age of acquisition (AoA), socioeducational status (SES), and second language (L2) proficiency on the neural processing of L2 speech sounds. In a task of pre-attentive listening and passive viewing, Spanish-English bilinguals and a control group of English monolinguals listened to English syllables while watching a film of natural scenery. Eight regions of interest were selected from brain areas involved in speech perception and executive processes. The regions of interest were examined in 2 separate two-way ANOVA (AoA×SES; AoA×L2 proficiency). The results showed that AoA was the main variable affecting the neural response in L2 speech processing. Direct comparisons between AoA groups of equivalent SES and proficiency level enhanced the intensity and magnitude of the results. These results suggest that AoA, more than SES and proficiency level, determines which brain regions are recruited for the processing of second language speech sounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rehearsal strategies during motor-sequence learning in old age : Execution vs motor imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, Arjan J. R.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Kamsma, Yvo P. T.; Mulder, Theo

    2008-01-01

    Motor imagery and action-based rehearsal were compared during motor sequence-learning by young adults (M = 25 yr., SD = 3) and aged adults (M = 63 yr., SD = 7). General accuracy of aged adults was lower than that of young adults (F-1,F-28 = 7.37, p = .01) even though working-memory capacity was equi

  3. Rehearsal strategies during motor-sequence learning in old age : Execution vs motor imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, Arjan J. R.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Kamsma, Yvo P. T.; Mulder, Theo

    2008-01-01

    Motor imagery and action-based rehearsal were compared during motor sequence-learning by young adults (M = 25 yr., SD = 3) and aged adults (M = 63 yr., SD = 7). General accuracy of aged adults was lower than that of young adults (F-1,F-28 = 7.37, p = .01) even though working-memory capacity was equi

  4. Neural convergence for language comprehension and grammatical class production in highly proficient bilinguals is independent of age of acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Monica; Cafiero, Riccardo; Marin, Dario; Tettamanti, Marco; Iadanza, Antonella; Fabbro, Franco; Perani, Daniela

    2013-05-01

    In bilinguals, native (L1) and second (L2) languages are processed by the same neural resources that can be modulated by age of second language acquisition (AOA), proficiency level, and daily language exposure and usage. AOA seems to particularly affect grammar processing, where a complete neural convergence has been shown only in bilinguals with parallel language acquisition from birth. Despite the fact that proficiency-related neuroanatomical differences have been well documented in language comprehension (LC) and production, few reports have addressed the influence of language exposure. A still unanswered question pertains to the role of AOA, when proficiency is comparably high across languages, with respect to its modulator effects both on LC and production. Here, we evaluated with fMRI during sentence comprehension and verb and noun production tasks, two groups of highly proficient bilinguals only differing in AOA. One group learned Italian and Friulian in parallel from birth, whereas the second group learned Italian between 3 and 6 years. All participants were highly exposed to both languages, but more to Italian than Friulian. The results indicate a complete overlap of neural activations for the comprehension of both languages, not only in bilinguals from birth, but also in late bilinguals. A slightly extra activation in the left thalamus for the less-exposed language confirms that exposure may affect language processing. Noteworthy, we report for the first time that, when proficiency and exposure are kept high, noun and verb production recruit the same neural networks for L1 and L2, independently of AOA. These results support the neural convergence hypothesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failure in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry`s large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs.

  6. Motor unit changes in normal aging: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudoraşcu, Iulia; Sfredel, Veronica; Riza, Anca Lelia; Dănciulescu Miulescu, Rucsandra; Ianoşi, Simona Laura; Dănoiu, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Aging is explored by multiple lines of research, in a pursuit of understanding this natural process. The motor response is usually the main dependent variable in studies regarding physical or cognitive decline in aging. It is therefore critical to understand how the motor function changes with age. The present review, aims at presenting briefly some of the most recently published works in the field, focusing on the three key components of the motor unit. The changes that the skeletal muscle undergoes aging sarcopenia, alteration of fiber type distribution and also intimate metabolic transformations. The neuromuscular junction suffers at cellular and molecular level, with possible implications of various cell components, mediators and oxidative stress. Motoneuron loss and change in their physiological properties accompany remodeling in the motor units. The applicability of knowledge in this field lies in possible interventions intended to counteract these age-related losses.

  7. Multisensor fusion for induction motor aging analysis and fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbay, Ali Seyfettin

    Induction motors are the most commonly used electrical drives, ranging in power from fractional horsepower to several thousand horsepowers. Several studies have been conducted to identify the cause of failure of induction motors in industrial applications. Recent activities indicate a focus towards building intelligence into the motors, so that a continuous on-line fault diagnosis and prognosis may be performed. The purpose of this research and development was to perform aging studies of three-phase, squirrel-cage induction motors; establish a database of mechanical, electrical and thermal measurements from load testing of the motors; develop a sensor-fusion method for on-line motor diagnosis; and use the accelerated aging models to extrapolate to the normal aging regimes. A new laboratory was established at The University of Tennessee to meet the goals of the project. The accelerated aging and motor performance tests constitute a unique database, containing information about the trend characteristics of measured signatures as a function of motor faults. The various measurements facilitate enhanced fault diagnosis of motors and may be effectively utilized to increase the reliability of decision making and for the development of life prediction techniques. One of these signatures is the use of Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) using wavelets. Using MRA in trending different frequency bands has revealed that higher frequencies show a characteristic increase when the condition of a bearing is in question. This study effectively showed that the use of MRA in vibration signatures can identify a thermal degradation or degradation via electrical charge of the bearing, whereas other failure mechanisms, such as winding insulation failure, do not exhibit such characteristics. A motor diagnostic system, called the Intelligent Motor Monitoring System (IMMS) was developed in this research. The IMMS integrated the various mechanical, electrical and thermal signatures, and

  8. Keyboard Proficiency: An Essential Skill in a Technological Age. Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmon, Eve

    A structured keyboard skills training scheme for students in England should be included within school curricula. Negative attitudes toward keyboard training prevail in schools although employers value keyboard application skills. There are several reasons why keyboard proficiency, which facilitates the efficient input and retrieval of text and…

  9. Development of kinesthetic-motor and auditory-motor representations in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagerer, Florian A; Clark, Jane E

    2015-07-01

    In two experiments using a center-out task, we investigated kinesthetic-motor and auditory-motor integrations in 5- to 12-year-old children and young adults. In experiment 1, participants moved a pen on a digitizing tablet from a starting position to one of three targets (visuo-motor condition), and then to one of four targets without visual feedback of the movement. In both conditions, we found that with increasing age, the children moved faster and straighter, and became less variable in their feedforward control. Higher control demands for movements toward the contralateral side were reflected in longer movement times and decreased spatial accuracy across all age groups. When feedforward control relies predominantly on kinesthesia, 7- to 10-year-old children were more variable, indicating difficulties in switching between feedforward and feedback control efficiently during that age. An inverse age progression was found for directional endpoint error; larger errors increasing with age likely reflect stronger functional lateralization for the dominant hand. In experiment 2, the same visuo-motor condition was followed by an auditory-motor condition in which participants had to move to acoustic targets (either white band or one-third octave noise). Since in the latter directional cues come exclusively from transcallosally mediated interaural time differences, we hypothesized that auditory-motor representations would show age effects. The results did not show a clear age effect, suggesting that corpus callosum functionality is sufficient in children to allow them to form accurate auditory-motor maps already at a young age.

  10. Effects of ageing on gastrointestinal motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Existing data on the effect of ageing on gastrointestinal motility are few. In this study, we assessed the propulsive effect of all main segments of the gastrointestinal tract in a group of healthy older people. METHODS: 16 healthy volunteers (eight women, eight men) of mean age 81...... mass index and smoking on the motility variables. The results were compared with data from 16 healthy individuals (eight women, eight men) of mean age 24 years (range 20-30 years). RESULTS: Advanced age did not influence gastric emptying or small intestinal transit rate. Older individuals had a slower...

  11. Effects of ageing on gastrointestinal motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Existing data on the effect of ageing on gastrointestinal motility are few. In this study, we assessed the propulsive effect of all main segments of the gastrointestinal tract in a group of healthy older people. METHODS: 16 healthy volunteers (eight women, eight men) of mean age 81 ye...

  12. Effects of ageing on gastrointestinal motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Existing data on the effect of ageing on gastrointestinal motility are few. In this study, we assessed the propulsive effect of all main segments of the gastrointestinal tract in a group of healthy older people. METHODS: 16 healthy volunteers (eight women, eight men) of mean age 81...... mass index and smoking on the motility variables. The results were compared with data from 16 healthy individuals (eight women, eight men) of mean age 24 years (range 20-30 years). RESULTS: Advanced age did not influence gastric emptying or small intestinal transit rate. Older individuals had a slower.......0022). CONCLUSION: Normal ageing seems to reduce the propulsive capacity of the colon, whereas gastric and small intestinal motility is not affected....

  13. Limited motor performance and minor neurological dysfunction at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Lieke H. J.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between motor performance and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) at school age. Methods: Two hundred and fifty-three children (158 boys, 95 girls; mean age 8 years and 7 months) of whom 167 children received mainstream education and 86 children special educatio

  14. Functional activity and white matter microstructure reveal the independent effects of age of acquisition and proficiency on second-language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Emily S; Joanisse, Marc F

    2016-12-01

    Two key factors govern how bilingual speakers neurally maintain two languages: the speakers' second language age of acquisition (AoA) and their subsequent proficiency. However, the relative roles of these two factors have been difficult to disentangle given that the two can be closely correlated, and most prior studies have examined the two factors in isolation. Here, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion tensor imaging to identify specific brain areas that are independently modulated by AoA and proficiency in second language speakers. First-language Mandarin Chinese speakers who are second language speakers of English were scanned as they performed a picture-word matching task in either language. In the same session we also acquired diffusion-weighted scans to assess white matter microstructure, along with behavioural measures of language proficiency prior to entering the scanner. Results reveal gray- and white-matter networks involving both the left and right hemisphere that independently vary as a function of a second-language speaker's AoA and proficiency, focused on the superior temporal gyrus, middle and inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and the basal ganglia. These results indicate that proficiency and AoA explain separate functional and structural networks in the bilingual brain, which we interpret as suggesting distinct types of plasticity for age-dependent effects (i.e., AoA) versus experience and/or predisposition (i.e., proficiency).

  15. Late preterm infants’ motor development until term age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Viviane Martins; Formiga, Cibelle Kayenne Martins Roberto; de Mello, Paulo Roberto Bezerra; Leone, Cléa Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze the motor development of late preterm newborn infants (LPI) from birth to term-corrected age using the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) and to compare the obtained results with those of term infants at birth. METHODS: Prospective cohort study, 29 late preterm newborn infants were evaluated by the TIMP at birth and every two weeks until term-corrected age. The TIMP was administered to 88 term infants at birth. RESULTS: The mean TIMP score of late preterm newborn infants was 51.9±5.8 at 34–35 weeks and 62.6±5.2 at 40 weeks. There was a significant increase at 38–39 weeks in the LPI group (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the motor evaluations between term infants at birth and LPI at the equivalent age. CONCLUSION: The LPI presented a gradual progression of motor development until the term-corrected age, but differences with term infants at birth were not detected.

  16. Effects of normal aging on visuo-motor plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Carrie A.; Cohen, Helen S.; Kimball, Kay T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2002-01-01

    Normal aging is associated with declines in neurologic function. Uncompensated visual and vestibular problems may have dire consequences including dangerous falls. Visuo-motor plasticity is a form of behavioral neural plasticity, which is important in the process of adapting to visual or vestibular alteration, including those changes due to pathology, pharmacotherapy, surgery or even entry into microgravity or an underwater environment. To determine the effects of aging on visuo-motor plasticity, we chose the simple and easily measured paradigm of visual-motor rearrangement created by using visual displacement prisms while throwing small balls at a target. Subjects threw balls before, during and after wearing a set of prisms which displace the visual scene by twenty degrees to the right. Data obtained during adaptation were modeled using multilevel modeling techniques for 73 subjects, aged 20 to 80 years. We found no statistically significant difference in measures of visuo-motor plasticity with advancing age. Further studies are underway examining variable practice training as a potential mechanism for enhancing this form of behavioral neural plasticity.

  17. Brain Plasticity and Motor Practice in Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyang eCai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades, there have been extensive studies of experience-based neural plasticity exploring effective applications of brain plasticity for cognitive and motor development. Research suggests that human brains continuously undergo structural reorganization and functional changes in response to stimulations or training. From a developmental point of view, the assumption of lifespan brain plasticity has been extended to older adults in terms of the benefits of cognitive training and physical therapy. To summarize recent developments, first, we introduce the concept of neural plasticity from a developmental perspective. Secondly, we note that motor learning often refers to deliberate practice and the resulting performance enhancement and adaptability. We discuss the close interplay between neural plasticity, motor learning and cognitive aging. Thirdly, we review research on motor skill acquisition in older adults with, and without, impairments relative to aging-related cognitive decline. Finally, to enhance future research and application, we highlight the implications of neural plasticity in skills learning and cognitive rehabilitation for the aging population.

  18. Brain plasticity and motor practice in cognitive aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liuyang; Chan, John S. Y.; Yan, Jin H.; Peng, Kaiping

    2014-01-01

    For more than two decades, there have been extensive studies of experience-based neural plasticity exploring effective applications of brain plasticity for cognitive and motor development. Research suggests that human brains continuously undergo structural reorganization and functional changes in response to stimulations or training. From a developmental point of view, the assumption of lifespan brain plasticity has been extended to older adults in terms of the benefits of cognitive training and physical therapy. To summarize recent developments, first, we introduce the concept of neural plasticity from a developmental perspective. Secondly, we note that motor learning often refers to deliberate practice and the resulting performance enhancement and adaptability. We discuss the close interplay between neural plasticity, motor learning and cognitive aging. Thirdly, we review research on motor skill acquisition in older adults with, and without, impairments relative to aging-related cognitive decline. Finally, to enhance future research and application, we highlight the implications of neural plasticity in skills learning and cognitive rehabilitation for the aging population. PMID:24653695

  19. Lyapunov exponent for aging process in induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Duygu; Ünnü, Sezen Yıdırım; Şeker, Serhat

    2012-09-01

    focused on the controlling the mechanical parameters of the electrical machines. Brushless DC motor (BLDCM) and the other general purpose permanent magnet (PM) motors are the most widely examined motors [1, 8, 9]. But the researches, about Lyapunov Exponent, subjected to the induction motors are mostly focused on the control theory of the motors. Flux estimation of rotor, external load disturbances and speed tracking and vector control position system are the main research areas for induction motors [10, 11, 12-14]. For all the data sets which can be collected from an induction motor, vibration data have the key role for understanding the mechanical behaviours like aging, bearing damage and stator insulation damage [15-18]. In this paper aging of an induction motor is investigated by using the vibration signals. The signals consist of new and aged motor data. These data are examined by their 2 dimensional phase portraits and the geometric interpretation is applied for detecting the Lyapunov Exponents. These values are compared in order to define the character and state estimation of the aging processes.

  20. Alpha oscillatory correlates of motor inhibition in the aged brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene eBoenstrup

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Exerting inhibitory control is a cognitive ability mediated by functions known to decline with age. The goal of this study is to add to the mechanistic understanding of cortical inhibition during motor control in aged brains. Based on behavioral findings of impaired inhibitory control with age we hypothesized that elderly will show a reduced or a lack of EEG alpha-power increase during tasks that require motor inhibition. Since inhibitory control over movements has been shown to rely on prior motor memory formation, we investigated cortical inhibitory processes at two points in time - early after learning and after an overnight consolidation phase and hypothesized an overnight increase of inhibitory capacities. Young and elderly participants acquired a complex finger movement sequence and in each experimental session brain activity during execution and inhibition of the sequence was recorded with multi-channel EEG. We assessed cortical processes of sustained inhibition by means of task-induced changes of alpha oscillatory power. During inhibition of the learned movement, young participants showed a significant alpha power increase at the sensorimotor cortices whereas elderly did not. Interestingly, for both groups, the overnight consolidation phase improved up-regulation of alpha power during sustained inhibition. This points to deficits in the generation and enhancement of local inhibitory mechanisms at the sensorimotor cortices in aged brains. However, the alpha power increase in both groups implies neuroplastic changes that strengthen the network of alpha power generation over time in young as well as elderly brains.

  1. The relationship between fundamental movement skill proficiency and physical self-confidence among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, Bronagh; Belton, Sarahjane; Powell, Danielle; Issartel, Johann

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to assess fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency, physical self-confidence levels, and the relationship between these variables and gender differences among adolescents. Three hundred and ninety five adolescents aged 13.78 years (SD = ±1.2) from 20 schools were involved in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD), TGMD-2 and Victorian Skills Manual were used to assess 15 FMS. Participants' physical self-confidence was also assessed using a valid skill-specific scale. A significant correlation was observed between FMS proficiency and physical self-confidence for females only (r = 0.305, P confidence levels than females (P = 0.001). Males scored significantly higher than females in FMS proficiency (P confidence group were significantly less proficient at FMS than the medium (P confidence groups (P confidence and FMS proficiency.

  2. Effects of sex and proficiency in second language processing as revealed by a large-scale fNIRS study of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Lisa; Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Katura, Takusige; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2015-10-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies in adults have revealed that first and second languages (L1/L2) share similar neural substrates, and that proficiency is a major determinant of the neural organization of L2 in the lexical-semantic and syntactic domains. However, little is known about neural substrates of children in the phonological domain, or about sex differences. Here, we conducted a large-scale study (n = 484) of school-aged children using functional near-infrared spectroscopy and a word repetition task, which requires a great extent of phonological processing. We investigated cortical activation during word processing, emphasizing sex differences, to clarify similarities and differences between L1 and L2, and proficiency-related differences during early L2 learning. L1 and L2 shared similar neural substrates with decreased activation in L2 compared to L1 in the posterior superior/middle temporal and angular/supramarginal gyri for both sexes. Significant sex differences were found in cortical activation within language areas during high-frequency word but not during low-frequency word processing. During high-frequency word processing, widely distributed areas including the angular/supramarginal gyri were activated in boys, while more restricted areas, excluding the angular/supramarginal gyri were activated in girls. Significant sex differences were also found in L2 proficiency-related activation: activation significantly increased with proficiency in boys, whereas no proficiency-related differences were found in girls. Importantly, cortical sex differences emerged with proficiency. Based on previous research, the present results indicate that sex differences are acquired or enlarged during language development through different cognitive strategies between sexes, possibly reflecting their different memory functions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Phonological Proficiency of Two Cleft Palate Toddlers with School-Age Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Joan I.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the speech-sound production at ages two-three, five, and seven of two children with repaired bilateral cleft lip and palate. Results indicated individual differences in that one S's emerging phonological system was more characteristic of developmental delay while the other was more characteristic of structural…

  4. Fundamental movement skills proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder: does physical self-concept matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Sit, Cindy H P; Capio, Catherine M; Burnett, Angus; Ha, Amy S C; Huang, Wendy Y J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1) examine differences in fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency, physical self-concept, and physical activity in children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and (2) determine the association of FMS proficiency with physical self-concept while considering key confounding factors. Participants included 43 children with DCD and 87 age-matched typically developing (TD) children. FMS proficiency was assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development - second edition. Physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed using self-report questionnaires. A two-way (group by gender) ANCOVA was used to determine whether between-group differences existed in FMS proficiency, physical self-concept, and physical activity after controlling for age and BMI. Partial correlations and hierarchical multiple regression models were used to examine the relationship between FMS proficiency and physical self-concept. Compared with their TD peers, children with DCD displayed less proficiency in various components of FMS and viewed themselves as being less competent in physical coordination, sporting ability, and physical health. Physical coordination was a significant predictor of ability in object control skills. DCD status and gender were significant predictors of FMS proficiency. Future FMS interventions should target children with DCD and girls, and should emphasize improving object control skills proficiency and physical coordination. Children with DCD tend to have not only lower FMS proficiency than age-matched typically developing children but also lower physical self-concept. Self-perceptions of physical coordination by children with DCD are likely to be valuable contributors to development of object control skills. This may then help to develop their confidence in performing motor skills. Children with DCD need supportive programs that facilitate the development of object control skills. Efficacy of training

  5. Age and gender effects on submental motor-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Oshrat; Jones, Richard D; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2014-01-01

    It is not known whether there are age- and/or gender-related differences in magnitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the submental muscles. Knowledge of this is important in investigations of neurophysiological aspects of swallowing. Forty healthy participants (20 males, 20 females; 20 young [21-35 years], 20 old [53-88 years]) were recruited. Surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed at midline underlying the submental muscle group. Age- and gender-related differences were evaluated in two neurophysiologic measures of swallowing: MEPs stimulated by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the motor cortex and surface electromyography (sEMG) recorded from the same submental muscle group during non-stimulated swallows. The older participants had larger MEPs during saliva swallowing than the young participants (p = 0.04, d = 0.86). Conversely, the older participants had lower amplitude submental EMG activity during non-stimulated swallows (p = 0.045, d = 0.67). Gender had no significant effect on MEP magnitude and on submental activity during saliva swallowing. There were no effects of age or gender on MEP latencies. These findings suggest deterioration in muscle function with age in a sample of healthy adults presenting with functional swallowing. We speculate that muscular decline is partially ameliorated by increased cortical activity-i.e., increased submental MEPs-so as to preserve swallowing function in healthy older subjects. These findings emphasize the need for different reference points for evaluation of submental MEPs of different age groups.

  6. The role of age of acquisition and language usage in early, high-proficient bilinguals: an fMRI study during verbal fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perani, Daniela; Abutalebi, Jubin; Paulesu, Eraldo; Brambati, Simona; Scifo, Paola; Cappa, Stefano F; Fazio, Ferruccio

    2003-07-01

    We assessed the effects of age of acquisition and language exposure on the cerebral correlates of lexical retrieval in high-proficient, early-acquisition bilinguals. Functional MRI was used to study Spanish-Catalan bilinguals who acquired either Spanish or Catalan as a first language in the first years of life. Subjects were exposed to the second language at 3 years of age, and have used both languages in daily life since then. Subjects had a comparable level of proficiency in the comprehension of both languages. Lexical retrieval with the verbal fluency task resulted in the well-established pattern of left hemispheric activation centered on the inferior frontal region. The effect of age of acquisition was assessed by dividing the subjects into two groups, on the basis of the language acquired first (Catalan-born or Spanish-born bilinguals). Functional comparisons indicated that less extensive brain activation was associated with lexical retrieval in the language acquired earlier in life. The two groups were also different in language usage/exposure, as assessed with a specific questionnaire; in particular, the exposure to the second language (Spanish) was less intensive in the case of Catalans. This was reflected in a significant interaction, indicating a more extensive activation in Catalans during production in Spanish. Overall, these results indicate that, during a production task, both age of acquisition and language exposure affect the pattern of brain activation in bilinguals, even if both languages are acquired early and with a comparable level of proficiency.

  7. Neural correlates of the age-related changes in motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley R King

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s population ages, a deeper understanding of the relationship between aging and motor learning will become increasingly relevant in basic research and applied settings. In this context, this review aims to address the effects of age on motor sequence learning (MSL and motor adaptation (MA with respect to behavioral, neurological and neuroimaging findings. Previous behavioral research investigating the influence of aging on motor learning has consistently reported the following results. First, the initial acquisition of motor sequences is not altered, except under conditions of increased task complexity. Second, older adults demonstrate deficits in motor sequence memory consolidation. And, third, although older adults demonstrate deficits during the exposure phase of MA paradigms, the aftereffects following removal of the sensorimotor perturbation are similar to young adults, suggesting that the adaptive ability of older adults is relatively intact. This paper will review the potential neural underpinnings of these behavioral results, with a particular emphasis on the influence of age-related dysfunctions in the cortico-striatal system on motor learning.

  8. Motor skill learning in the middle-aged: limited development of motor chunks and explicit sequence knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, W.B.; Abrahamse, E.L.; Ruitenberg, M.F.L.; Jiménez, L.; Kleine, de E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined whether middle-aged participants, like young adults, learn movement patterns by preparing and executing integrated sequence representations (i.e., motor chunks) that eliminate the need for external guidance of individual movements. Twenty-four middle-aged participants (age

  9. Motor imagery : The relation between age and imagery capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Th.; Hochstenbach, J. B. H.; van Heuvelen, M. J. G.; den Otter, A. R.

    2007-01-01

    The imagination of motor actions forms not only a theoretical challenge for cognitive neuroscience but may also be seen as a novel therapeutic tool in neurological rehabilitation, in that it can be used for relearning motor control after damage to the motor system. However, since the majority of reh

  10. Infants with Down Syndrome: Percentage and Age for Acquisition of Gross Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS…

  11. Motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments (VI). Children with VI are at risk of poor motor skill performance, as vision guides and controls the acquisition, differentiation, and automatization of motor skills. Yet though the presence or absence

  12. Motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments (VI). Children with VI are at risk of poor motor skill performance, as vision guides and controls the acquisition, differentiation, and automatization of motor skills. Yet though the presence or absence

  13. The relation between age of attainment of motor milestones and future cognitive and motor development in Bangladeshi children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadani, Jena Derakhshani; Tofail, Fahmida; Cole, Tim; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for easily administered, low-cost measures to assess child development in large field studies. Many researchers evaluate the age of attainment of motor milestones, but there is little information on their validity. A large longitudinal study (MINIMat) was conducted in a poor rural area of Bangladesh and we assessed the age of attainment of motor milestones in a subsample of over 2000 children. We examined their association with scores on the Bayley psychomotor development index (PDI) and mental development index (MDI) at 18 months and with scores on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children and with intelligence quotient (IQ) on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence at 64 months. A field worker visited the children's homes monthly from 3 to 12 months of age and then at 15 months and examined the children. Mothers recorded the date of attainment of the milestones. Age of attainment of walking and standing alone was moderately correlated with the PDI and had significant but low associations with later motor development. They were as good as the PDI in predicting later motor development and could be used in field studies for that purpose. Milestone age of attainment had significant but low correlations with MDI and later IQ. Height for age at 15 months was related to milestones and later IQ and motor development and accounted for some of the association between milestones and IQ. Milestone age of attainment may not be sensitive enough to be used as an indicator of later IQ.

  14. White matter integrity of motor connections related to training gains in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Robert; Zimerman, Máximo; Timmermann, Jan E; Wessel, Maximilian J; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2014-06-01

    Impaired motor skill acquisition is a feature of older age. Acquisition of new motor skills requires the interplay between different cortical motor areas. Using diffusion tensor imaging we reconstructed cortico-cortical connections between the primary motor cortex (M1) and secondary motor areas in 11 older and 11 young participants who took part in a motor skill acquisition paradigm with the nondominant left hand. Examining the extent to which tract-related integrity correlated with training gains we found that white matter integrity of fibers connecting contralateral M1 with both contralateral (r = 0.85) and ipsilateral supplementary motor areas (r = 0.92) were positively associated in old participants. Also, fibers connecting contralateral M1 with ipsilateral dorsal premotor (r = 0.82) and fibers connecting ipsilateral dorsal premotor and supplementary motor area (r = 0.88) were positively related to skill acquisition (all p healthy aging.

  15. Word Naming in Bodo-Assamese Bilinguals: The Role of Semantic Context, Cognate Status, Second Language Age of Acquisition and Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sugandha

    2017-04-12

    The current study investigated the effects of the semantic context, cognate status of the word and second language age of acquisition and proficiency in two word naming experiments (Experiment 1 and 2). Three groups of Bodo-Assamese bilinguals named cognate and non-cognate words in their first language, Bodo and second language, Assamese, which were presented in categorized and randomized lists. Experiment 1 demonstrated significant category interference for both cognate and non-cognate words; whereas, in Experiment 2, category interference was observed only in case of cognate words, indicating that naming in L2 was more prone to semantic effects. In Experiment 1, the magnitude of the category interference effect was larger for the low proficient bilinguals, but in Experiment 2, only the high proficient bilinguals demonstrated category interference effect. Further, cognate facilitation effect was not observed in both experiments which is in line with the findings of previous studies. The findings are discussed in light of the predictions of the Revised Hierarchical Model.

  16. The Functional Integration in the Sensory-Motor System Predicts Aging in Healthy Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Chang, Xin; Shan, Yan; Cao, Weifang; Gong, Jinnan; Klugah-Brown, Benjamin; Bobes, Maria A.; Biswal, Bharat; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Healthy aging is typically accompanied by a decrease in the motor capacity. Although the disrupted neural representations and performance of movement have been observed in older age in previous studies, the relationship between the functional integration of sensory-motor (SM) system and aging could be further investigated. In this study, we examine the impact of healthy aging on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the SM system, and investigate as to how aging is affecting the...

  17. Effects of Age and Visual-Motor Skills on Preschool Children's Computer-Game Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strein, William

    1987-01-01

    The relationship of both age and visual-motor skills to performance on an arcade-like video game was studied with 16 preschool children. While age was positively related to performance, no significant relationship was found for the visual-motor skills variable. (Author/CB)

  18. Aging and Concurrent Task Performance: Cognitive Demand and Motor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinet, Cedric; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Beasman, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    A motor task that requires fine control of upper limb movements and a cognitive task that requires executive processing--first performing them separately and then concurrently--was performed by 18 young and 18 older adults. The motor task required participants to tap alternatively on two targets, the sizes of which varied systematically. The…

  19. Older age relates to worsening of fine motor skills: A population based study of middle-aged and elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.Y. Hoogendam (Jory); F. van der Lijn (Fedde); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); A. Hofman (Albert); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); A. van der Lugt (Aad); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); J.N. van der Geest (Jos)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In a population-based study of 1,912 community-dwelling persons of 45 years and older we investigated the relation between age and fine motor skills using the Archimedes spiral drawing test. Also, we studied the effect of brain volume on fine motor skills. Methods: Particip

  20. Comparing the Effects of Drug Therapy, Perceptual Motor Training, and Both Combined on the Motor Skills of School-Aged Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft Yazd, Susan Nasiri; Ayatizadeh, Farahnaz; Dehghan, Faezeh; Machado, Sergio; Wegner, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of drug therapy, perceptual motor training and a combination of drug therapy and perceptual motor training on gross and fine motor skills of 6 to 12 year-old Iranian attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children. Thirty-six attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children currently under treatment in three Iranian psychological-neurological clinics participated in this research study. Participants were sampled from the accessible population and randomly assigned to three experimental groups (n = 12 each). The Conners Parent Rating Scale was used to classify the children and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency was administered before and after a three month treatment/ training session. Participants in the first experimental group received drug therapy (including methylphenidate). In the second group participants took part in 18 sessions of perceptual-motor skill training for six consecutive weeks, and in the third group children received both interventions. The results indicated that interventions using perceptual-motor training alone or in combination with a drug therapy significantly improved both gross and fine motor skills over a period of six weeks. Participants in the drug-only group showed no improvement in motor performance.

  1. Greater length-for-age increases the odds of attaining motor milestones in Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shibani; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Dearden, Kirk A; Marsh, David R; Ha, Tran Thu; Tran, Thach Duc; Pachón, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood malnutrition has been associated with delayed development. Limited data exist however about the timing of developmental delay early in life. We assessed motor milestone (MM) achievement using the World Health Organization's windows of achievement for gross motor milestones. We performed secondary analysis of baseline data of 158 Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months from a randomized community intervention trial. Median age of motor milestone achievement was compared to WHO reported medians. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic, anthropometric and dietary factors associated with motor milestone achievement during the windows of achievement. Thirty four per cent of the children were stunted. Median age of MM achievement of Vietnamese children lagged by 2.4-3.7 months, compared to the WHO median for all MMs. Greater length-for-age increased the odds for walking with assistance, standing alone and walking alone by more than 3 times. Greater weight-for-age increased the odds by 3.6 for hand-and-knees crawling. Likewise, frequency of daily complementary feeding raised the odds by 3.6 for standing with assistance. In this first application of WHO windows of achievement in Viet Nam, pre-schoolers achieved motor milestones later than WHO reported median age. High prevalence of stunting and association of length-for-age with motor milestone achievement underscore the importance of addressing chronic malnutrition to optimize children's growth and development.

  2. Age-related variations of visuo-motor adaptation beyond explicit knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert eHeuer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation suffers at older working age. The age-related decline of behavioural adjustments is accompanied by reduced explicit knowledge of the visuo-motor transformation. It disappears when explicit knowledge is kept constant across the age range, except for particularly high levels of explicit knowledge. According to these findings, at older adult age both the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its application for strategic corrections become poorer. Recently it has been posited that visuo-motor adaptation can involve model-free reinforcement mechanisms of learning in addition to model-based mechanisms. We tested whether age-related declines of reinforcement learning can also contribute to the age-related changes of visuo-motor adaptation. Therefore we enhanced the contribution of reinforcement learning to visuo-motor adaptation by way of introducing salient markers of success and failure during practice. With such modified practice conditions, there were residual age-related variations of behavioural adjustments at all levels of explicit knowledge, even when explicit knowledge was absent. The residual age-related variations were observed for practiced target directions only, but not for new target directions. These findings are consistent with an age-related decline of model-free reinforcement learning as a third factor in the age-related decline of visuo-motor adaptation. Under practice conditions, which spur model-free reward-based learning, this factor adds to the decrements of the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its use for strategic corrections.

  3. Memories that last in old age: motor skill learning and memory preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C D; Walton, A; Loveland, A D; Umberger, G H; Kryscio, R J; Gash, D M

    2005-06-01

    Using an automated test panel, age-associated declines in learning, remembering and performing a novel visuomotor task were assessed in 497 normal adults ranging from 18 to 95 years old. As predicted, task performance times slowed with increasing age in the cross-sectional portion of the study. However in the subsequent longitudinal study, while motor learning was significantly slower in adults over 62 years old, motor memory was pristinely preserved in normal adults from 18 to 95 years old. When tested 2 years after the first training session and without intervening rehearsal, mean performance times were retained and continued to improve by 10% in young adults and 13% in aged adults, reflecting long lasting preservation of motor memories. While the maximum lifetime of an unpracticed, novel motor memory in humans is not known, the present study suggests that new motor memories can be retained for at least 2 years without rehearsal in normal aged adults. This age-resistant component of motor memory stands in contrast to the well-known decrements in other motor and cognitive processes with human aging.

  4. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, All States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  5. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 8 - Denver

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  6. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 4 - Atlanta

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  7. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 6 - Dallas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  8. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 3 - Philadelphia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  9. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, HHS Region 1 - Boston

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  10. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 5 - Chicago

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  11. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 2 - New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  12. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 7 - Kansas City

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  13. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 9 - San Francisco

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  14. Parental questionnaire as a screening instrument for motor function at age five

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordbye-Nielsen, Kirsten; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2014-01-01

    .... Our aim was to evaluate the correlation between a parental questionnaire assessing motor function at the age of five years and the clinical test Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC...

  15. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 10 - Seattle

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  16. Parental questionnaire as a screening instrument for motor function at age five

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordbye-Nielsen, Kirsten; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2014-01-01

    expressed concern about the child’s motor development had a sensitivity of 17.0% and a specificity of 93.9%. 
 Conclusion: A parental questionnaire used as a screening instrument to identify children with motor problems has a reasonable specificity, but a low sensitivity. The six questions can be used......Introduction: No standardised method is used to determine motor function in children in general practice in Denmark. Our aim was to evaluate the correlation between a parental questionnaire assessing motor function at the age of five years and the clinical test Movement Assessment Battery...... for Children (M-ABC), and to assess whether one or more questions could be used to screen for motor problems at the age of five years. Methods: This study was based on a parental questionnaire containing ten questions. The M-ABC was used as the gold standard. n = 755 children. The Mann-Whitney rank sum test...

  17. The Contribution of Advanced Glycation End product (AGE) accumulation to the decline in motor function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, Hans; Zuidema, Sytse; Bunt, Steven; Bautmans, Ivan; van der Schans, Cees; Hobbelen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Diminishing motor function is commonly observed in the elderly population and is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences. Advanced Glycation End products (AGE's) may contribute to age-related decline in the function of cells and tissues in normal ageing. Although the negative eff

  18. Motor unit discharge rate in dynamic movements of the aging soleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, Jouni; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, Janne

    2014-01-01

    % in concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions. Soleus intramuscular EMG was recorded with bipolar fine-wire electrodes and decomposed to individual trains of motor unit discharges. In ISO the MUDR increased with each force level from 40 to 100% MVC. In dynamic contractions the descriptive analysis showed......Aging is related to a variety of changes at the muscular level. It seems that the age-related changes in motor unit activation are muscle- and intensity dependent. The purpose of this study was to examine the motor unit discharge rate (MUDR) in both isometric and dynamic contractions of the aging...... a higher MUDR in CON compared to ISO or ECC. The difficulties of recording single motor units in dynamic contractions, especially in the elderly is discussed....

  19. Morphological, motor and technical determinants of fighting efficiency of Croatian female cadet age karate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Josefina; Katić, Ratko; Bala, Gustav

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the significance of morphological factors, factors of basic motor and specific motor abilities, and the factors of technical efficiency, on the karate fight success in Croatian female cadet karate athletes. With this purpose, the group of 18 anthropometric measures, 10 basic motor tests, 5 situational karate motor tests, the group of 8 evaluations of 6 basic karate techniques, and 2 karate kata performances was applied on the sample of 101 Croatian karateka aged 14 to 16. Inside the morphological area, the factor analysis isolated: Body mass and volume factor, Subcutaneous fat tissue factor, Longitudinal skeleton dimensionality factor, and Transversal fist dimensionality factor; in the basic motor area: General motor efficiency factor; in the situational motor area: General specific motor efficiency factor; in the area of karate technique performance evaluation: General technical efficiency factor. After that, the application of canonical discriminative analysis determined the differences between high and lower quality karate athletes in the overall area of the isolated factors. The discriminative function showed that high quality female karate athletes compared to those of lower quality differ the most in higher technical efficiency, higher basic and specific motor efficiency, while having somewhat less fat tissue and somewhat wider wrist and fist diameter.

  20. The Role of Brain Aging in Cognition and Motor Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.Y. Hoogendam (Jory)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Aging of the population is accompanied by many challenges, such as the maintenance of health and quality of life during older age. An important aspect of living longer is that old age is related to disease and loss of functions. The loss of brain functions poses a large

  1. Computer proficiency questionnaire: assessing low and high computer proficient seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D; Mitzner, Tracy; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran

    2015-06-01

    Computers and the Internet have the potential to enrich the lives of seniors and aid in the performance of important tasks required for independent living. A prerequisite for reaping these benefits is having the skills needed to use these systems, which is highly dependent on proper training. One prerequisite for efficient and effective training is being able to gauge current levels of proficiency. We developed a new measure (the Computer Proficiency Questionnaire, or CPQ) to measure computer proficiency in the domains of computer basics, printing, communication, Internet, calendaring software, and multimedia use. Our aim was to develop a measure appropriate for individuals with a wide range of proficiencies from noncomputer users to extremely skilled users. To assess the reliability and validity of the CPQ, a diverse sample of older adults, including 276 older adults with no or minimal computer experience, was recruited and asked to complete the CPQ. The CPQ demonstrated excellent reliability (Cronbach's α = .98), with subscale reliabilities ranging from .86 to .97. Age, computer use, and general technology use all predicted CPQ scores. Factor analysis revealed three main factors of proficiency related to Internet and e-mail use; communication and calendaring; and computer basics. Based on our findings, we also developed a short-form CPQ (CPQ-12) with similar properties but 21 fewer questions. The CPQ and CPQ-12 are useful tools to gauge computer proficiency for training and research purposes, even among low computer proficient older adults. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Aging-associated changes in motor axon voltage-gated Na(+) channel function in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Rosberg, Mette Romer; Alvarez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating myelin abnormalities and conduction slowing occur in peripheral nerves during aging. In mice deficient of myelin protein P0, severe peripheral nervous system myelin damage is associated with ectopic expression of Nav1.8 voltage-gated Na(+) channels on motor axons aggravating...... the functional impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular aging on motor axon function with particular emphasis on Nav1.8. We compared tibial nerve conduction and excitability measures by threshold tracking in 12 months (mature) and 20 months (aged) wild-type (WT) mice....... With aging, deviations during threshold electrotonus were attenuated and the resting current-threshold slope and early refractoriness were increased. Modeling indicated that, in addition to changes in passive membrane properties, motor fibers in aged WT mice were depolarized. An increased Nav1.8 isoform...

  3. Structural and functional connectivity in healthy aging: Associations for cognition and motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsiger, Sarah; Koppelmans, Vincent; Mérillat, Susan; Liem, Franziskus; Erdeniz, Burak; Seidler, Rachael D; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-03-01

    Age-related behavioral declines may be the result of deterioration of white matter tracts, affecting brain structural (SC) and functional connectivity (FC) during resting state. To date, it is not clear if the combination of SC and FC data could better predict cognitive/motor performance than each measure separately. We probed these relationships in the cingulum bundle, a major white matter pathway of the default mode network. We aimed to attain deeper knowledge about: (a) the relationship between age and the cingulum's SC and FC strength, (b) the association between SC and FC, and particularly (c) how the cingulum's SC and FC are related to cognitive/motor performance separately and combined. We examined these associations in a healthy and well-educated sample of 165 older participants (aged 64-85). SC and FC were acquired using probabilistic tractography to derive measures to capture white matter integrity within the cingulum bundle (fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity) and a seed-based resting-state functional MRI correlation approach, respectively. Participants performed cognitive tests measuring processing speed, memory and executive functions, and motor tests measuring motor speed and grip force. Our data revealed that only SC but not resting state FC was significantly associated with age. Further, the cingulum's SC and FC showed no relation. Different relationships between cognitive/motor performance and SC/FC separately were found, but no additive effect of the combined analysis of cingulum's SC and FC for predicting cognitive/motor performance was apparent.

  4. Restauration of age related motor impairment: Role of IGF-1 based gene therapy and microglial activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Falomir Lockhart

    2015-05-01

    In the current study we implemented ICV IGF-I gene therapy in very old rats (28 months and assessed the motor performance pre and 17-days after surgery. Glial immunoreactivity in striatum was evaluated by Iba1 and GFAP markers. Results: As we previously reported, IGF-I restored motor coordination and forelimb grip strength in aged rats (Sanchez et al., 2008. We found that microglia immunoreactivity (Iba-1+ was significantly increased for at least 17 days after treatment with IGF-I (Xm-senil-IGF-I=8.370±0.3297 vs Xm-senil-DsRed= 5.557±0.2553; p<0.0001, astrocytes (GFAP+ showed not changes. Our results identify a novel function of microglia in the maintenance of motor permormance and suggest an original approach for reversing age-associated motor and exploratory performance recorded in rats.

  5. The relationship between social and motor cognition in primary school age-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorcan eKenny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThere is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat independent of theory of mind and low-level motor control. Here we test if a similar pattern is shown in child development. A sample of 101 primary school aged children with a wide ability range completed tests of IQ (Raven’s matrices, theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding and imitation. Parents reported on their children’s social, motor and attention performance as well as developmental concerns. The results showed that action understanding and imitation correlate, with the latter having a weak link to motor control. Theory of mind was independent of the other tasks. These results imply that independent cognitive processes for social interaction (theory of mind and for motor control can be identified in primary school age children, and challenge approaches that link all these domains together.

  6. Motor function at school age in children with a preschool diagnosis of developmental language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Richard I; Majnemer, Annette; Platt, Robert W; Shevell, Michael I

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate fine motor (FM) and gross motor (GM) function shortly after school entry in children with a preschool diagnosis of developmental language impairment (DLI). A cohort of children (n = 70) diagnosed at pre-school age with DLI was reevaluated in elementary school. Language, cognitive, and motor outcomes were assessed through the use of the Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI). Language was further assessed through the use of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary, and Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Tests. Performance below -1.5 SD of the normative mean on any test was considered to represent impairment. Forty-three children (mean age, 7.4 +/- 0.7 years) underwent reassessment at a mean of 3.8 +/- 0.7 years after initial preschool assessment. Mean scores for BDI motor domains (FM, 78.3 +/- 11.4; GM, 84.9 +/- 13.3) fell below normative values. Twenty-two children (52%) had motor impairment (FM, 17 of 42; GM, 15 of 42); 35 of 43 (81%) continued to have language impairment. BDI communication raw scores correlated most strongly with FM (rho = 0.73, P < .001) and GM (rho = 0.58, P = .003) raw scores but showed only moderate correlations with cognitive raw scores (rho = 0.41, P = .05). Impaired motor function is an important comorbidity in DLI. Factors critical to motor performance may also contribute to language deficits in DLI.

  7. Red raspberries can improve motor function in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Many foods rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds have been shown to increase health and reduce markers of aging. A number of berry fruits high in polyphenols are known to ameliorate age-related declines in cellular, cognitive and behavioral function in rats. OBJECTIVES: Thi...

  8. The Contribution of advanced glycation End product (AGE) accumulation to the decline in motor function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, Hans; Zuidema, Sytse; Bunt, Steven; Bautmans, Ivan; Schans, Cees van der; Hobbelen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Diminishing motor function is commonly observed in the elderly population and is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences. Advanced Glycation End products (AGE’s) may contribute to age-related decline in the function of cells and tissues in normal ageing. Although the negative eff

  9. The beneficial effects of berries on cognition, motor behavior, and neuronal function in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, it has been shown that strawberry or blueberry supplementations, when fed to rats from 19-21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenol...

  10. Proactive and retroactive transfer of middle age adults in a sequential motor learning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verneau, M.; Kamp, J. van der; Savelsbergh, G,J.; Looze, M.P. de

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effects of aging in the transfer of motor learning in a sequential manual assembly task that is representative for real working conditions. On two different days, young (18-30years) and middle-aged adults (50-65years) practiced to build two products that consisted of the same six com

  11. Age-related changes in consolidation of perceptual and muscle-based learning of motor skills

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca M. C. Spencer; Pace-Schott, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Improvements in motor sequence learning come about via goal-based learning of the sequence of visual stimuli and muscle-based learning of the sequence of movement responses. In young adults, consolidation of goal-based learning is observed after intervals of sleep but not following wake, whereas consolidation of muscle-based learning is greater following intervals with wake compared to sleep. While the benefit of sleep on motor sequence learning has been shown to decline with age, how sleep c...

  12. The relative age effect on anthropometric characteristics and motor performances in Turkish children aged between 8 and 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslofça Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of relative age on anthropometric properties and motor performance in Turkish children (girls n=423, boys n=601. Anthropometric measurement sites and techniques have been set out by the ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. A group of tests involved in Eurofit Test Battery and other standard tests were used. For each age, the data of those who were born within the first three months and the last three months of the year were compared. The MedCalc Statistics Program was used for the differentiation and variation percentages between two periods were studied (p≤ 0.001, p= 0.05. Consequently effect of relative age was observed on anthropometric characteristics and motor performances of Turkish girls and boys between 8 and 12 years old. Researchers, trainers, families, sports managers and organizers are advised to consider Effect of Relative Age.

  13. Age-related motor dysfunction: Manual slowing in Gorilla gorilla gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahovetz, Lindsay M; Stoinski, Tara S

    2015-12-01

    Aging in humans and rhesus monkeys is commonly associated with motor function decrements including dexterity, speed, and strength. Despite their longevity and phylogenetic relatedness to humans, the effects of aging on motor function in non-human apes have been minimally studied. We conducted two experiments with western lowland gorillas (11-54 years of age) to determine whether aged gorillas exhibit motor deficits similar to those seen in other species. In experiment one, gorillas extracted up to 12 food rewards lodged in holes of a Lexan board. Extraction rates were calculated for eight test sessions. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed no main effects of session or sex on extraction rate, but a significant main effect of age. Comparisons between the first and last sessions showed that experience significantly improved extraction rates in young but not aged gorillas. In experiment two, gorillas retrieved a hex nut from three differently shaped rods with each hand for a reward. Latencies of retrieval were calculated for 16 test sessions. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant main effects of age class, sex, and session. There were significant interactions between session and sex, session and age, and session, sex, and age. These findings held when analyzing each rod shape separately. Post hoc comparisons revealed that young gorillas were significantly faster at the task than aged gorillas, and females were faster than males. This finding held only for the question mark shaped rod when analyzing each rod shape separately. Comparisons between the first and last sessions showed that experience did not significantly improve latencies in either age or sex class. The direction of these results are congruent with previous findings in humans and monkeys and suggest that aged gorillas experience deficits in bimanual coordination compared to younger gorillas and that age and sex influence fine motor ability in gorillas.

  14. Multisession Anodal tDCS Protocol Improves Motor System Function in an Aging Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dumel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of five consecutive, daily 20-minute sessions of M1 a-tDCS on motor learning in healthy, cognitively intact, aging adults. Design. A total of 23 participants (51 to 69 years old performed five consecutive, daily 20-minute sessions of a serial reaction time task (SRT task concomitant with either anodal (n=12 or sham (n=11 M1 a-tDCS. Results. We found a significant group × training sessions interaction, indicating that whereas aging adults in the sham group exhibited little-to-no sequence-specific learning improvements beyond the first day of training, reproducible improvements in the ability to learn new motor sequences over 5 consecutive sessions were the net result in age-equivalent participants from the M1 a-tDCS group. A significant main effect of group on sequence-specific learning revealed greater motor learning for the M1 a-tDCS group when the five learning sessions were averaged. Conclusion. These findings raise into prominence the utility of multisession anodal TDCS protocols in combination with motor training to help prevent/alleviate age-associated motor function decline.

  15. Prematurely delivered rats show improved motor coordination during sensory-evoked motor responses compared to age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Megan E; Brumley, Michele R

    2014-05-10

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat.

  16. Aging-associated changes in motor axon voltage-gated Na(+) channel function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Rosberg, Mette Romer; Alvarez, Susana; Klein, Dennis; Martini, Rudolf; Krarup, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating myelin abnormalities and conduction slowing occur in peripheral nerves during aging. In mice deficient of myelin protein P0, severe peripheral nervous system myelin damage is associated with ectopic expression of Nav1.8 voltage-gated Na(+) channels on motor axons aggravating the functional impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular aging on motor axon function with particular emphasis on Nav1.8. We compared tibial nerve conduction and excitability measures by threshold tracking in 12 months (mature) and 20 months (aged) wild-type (WT) mice. With aging, deviations during threshold electrotonus were attenuated and the resting current-threshold slope and early refractoriness were increased. Modeling indicated that, in addition to changes in passive membrane properties, motor fibers in aged WT mice were depolarized. An increased Nav1.8 isoform expression was found by immunohistochemistry. The depolarizing excitability features were absent in Nav1.8 null mice, and they were counteracted in WT mice by a Nav1.8 blocker. Our data suggest that alteration in voltage-gated Na(+) channel isoform expression contributes to changes in motor axon function during aging.

  17. Age-related decreases in motor unit discharge rate and force control during isometric plantar flexion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, J; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, J

    2012-01-01

    Aging is related to multiple changes in muscle physiology and function. Previous findings concerning the effects of aging on motor unit discharge rate (DR) and fluctuations in DR and force are somewhat contradictory. Eight YOUNG and nine OLD physically active males performed isometric ramp (RECR......) and isotonic (ISO) plantar flexions at 10 and 20% of surface EMG at MVC. Motor unit (MU) action potentials were recorded with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes and decomposed with custom build software "Daisy". DR was lower in OLD in RECR-10% (17.9%, p...

  18. Neurodevelopmental Outcome of ECMO Survivors at Five Years of Age: The Potential for Academic and Motor Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbacher, Deborah; Nield, Toni; Poulsen, Marie Kanne

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive and motor functioning of 52 survivors of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) at age 5. Ten percent were diagnosed with mental retardation, while an additional 12 percent presented other disabilities. A common pattern of specific vulnerabilities in cognitive, gross motor, fine motor, and motor…

  19. The Movement Assessment Battery in Greek Preschoolers: The Impact of Age, Gender, Birth Order, and Physical Activity on Motor Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of…

  20. Motor-skill learning in older adults—a review of studies on age-related differences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    .... The reviewed studies suggest that although motor performance tends to decline in old age, learning capabilities remain intact, and older adults are able to achieve considerable performance gains...

  1. Age-dependent distractor suppression across the vision and motor domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevorach, Carmel; Spaniol, Mayra Muller; Soden, Matthew; Galea, Joseph M

    2016-09-01

    The ability to inhibit distracting information-distractor suppression-is a fundamental process for the visual and motor systems. Whereas aging is typically linked to a general decline in cognitive processing, a specific impairment in distractor suppression is found during visual attention tasks. Despite this, the effect of aging on a human's capacity to inhibit distracting information during a motor task is currently unknown. Therefore, we tested the ability of young and older adults to inhibit distracting information during a visual attention (global-local) and a motor (reaching) task. When faced with distractors, younger and older adults displayed significant behavioral impairments (accuracy and speed) across both tasks. However, these deficits were substantially enhanced in older adults. Intriguingly, the amount of distractor impairment observed within each participant was correlated across the visual and motor tasks, irrespective of age group. Thus, while all participants' ability to inhibit distractors was correlated across the visual and motor domain, older adults displayed a generalized distractor inhibition deficit. We propose that a shift from proactive to reactive control in older adults could explain such impairment. These results may have important implications regarding the ability of older adults to effectively deal with distractors during complex visuomotor tasks such as driving.

  2. Cognitive Control in Bilingual Children Disentangling the Effects of Second-Language Proficiency and Onset Age of Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struys, E.; Mohades, G.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2015-01-01

    Studies comparing the cognitive control of bilingual and monolingual speakers are inconclusive about the nature and underlying mechanisms of differences in language-related processing. In the present study, in order to disentangle the impact of second-language onset age of acquisition and

  3. Cognitive control in bilingual children disentangling the effects of second-language proficiency and onset age of acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struys, E.; Mohades, G.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2015-01-01

    Studies comparing the cognitive control of bilingual and monolingual speakers are inconclusive about the nature and underlying mechanisms of differences in language-related processing. In the present study, in order to disentangle the impact of second-language onset age of acquisition and bilinguali

  4. Cognitive control in bilingual children disentangling the effects of second-language proficiency and onset age of acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struys, E.; Mohades, G.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2015-01-01

    Studies comparing the cognitive control of bilingual and monolingual speakers are inconclusive about the nature and underlying mechanisms of differences in language-related processing. In the present study, in order to disentangle the impact of second-language onset age of acquisition and bilinguali

  5. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  6. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  7. The effects of acute alcohol on motor impairments in adolescent, adult, and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-03-01

    Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a

  8. Motor skills in children aged 7-10 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyatt, Caroline P; Craig, Cathy M

    2012-09-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as indicated by a significant general motor impairment in the group with autism. However, sub-analysis of the M-ABC2 revealed that there were only 2 out of 8 subcomponent skills which showed universal significant specific deficits for the autism group; i.e. catching a ball and static balance. These results suggest that motor skill deficits associated with autism may not be pervasive but more apparent in activities demanding complex, interceptive actions or core balance ability.

  9. No interrelation of motor planning and executive functions across young ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Wunsch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the developmental trajectories of motor planning and executive functioning in children. To this end, we tested 217 participants with three motor tasks, measuring anticipatory planning abilities (i.e. the bar-transport-task, the sword-rotation-task and the grasp-height-task, and three cognitive tasks, measuring executive functions (i.e. the Tower-of-Hanoi-task, the Mosaic-task, and the D2-attention-endurance-task. Children were aged between 3 and 10 years and were separated into age groups by one-year bins, resulting in a total of eight groups of children and an additional group of adults. Results suggested (1 a positive developmental trajectory for each of the sub-tests, with better task performance as children get older; (2 that the performance in the separate tasks was not correlated across participants in the different age groups; and (3 that there was no relationship between performance in the motor tasks and in the cognitive tasks used in the present study when controlling for age. These results suggest that both, motor planning and executive functions are rather heterogeneous domains of cognitive functioning with fewer interdependencies than often suggested.

  10. Motor Skills Enhance Procedural Memory Formation and Protect against Age-Related Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, N.C.; Genzel, L.K.E.; Konrad, B.N; Pawlowski, M.; Neville, D.; Fernandez, G.; Steiger, A.; Dresler, M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to consolidate procedural memories declines with increasing age. Prior knowledge enhances learning and memory consolidation of novel but related information in various domains. Here, we present evidence that prior motor experience-in our case piano skills-increases procedural learning

  11. The effect of sleep on motor learning in the aging and stroke population - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, W; Kempe, S; Hummel, F C

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence for positive effects of sleep on motor learning in young individuals; however, the effects of sleep on motor learning in people with stroke and in healthy older individuals are not well understood. The aim of this systematic review was to quantify the association between sleep and procedural memory performance - a marker for motor learning - in healthy older people and people with stroke. After searches in PubMed, Medline and Embase fourteen studies, including 44 subjects after stroke and 339 healthy older participants were included. Overall, sleep was found to enhance motor performance in people after stroke in comparison to an equivalent time of wakefulness. In addition, although evidence is limited, sleep only enhanced motor performance in people after stroke and not in age-matched healthy older adults. In older adults the effect of a sleep intervention did - in general - not differ from equivalent periods of wakefulness. Tasks with whole hand or whole body movements could show significant changes. The results suggest a delayed retention effect after longer breaks including sleep, hinting towards a changed learning strategy as a result of aging. Current evidence for sleep dependent learning in people after stroke is promising, however sparse.

  12. Fast but fleeting: adaptive motor learning processes associated with aging and cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Kevin M; Garcia, Angeles; Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2014-10-01

    Motor learning has been shown to depend on multiple interacting learning processes. For example, learning to adapt when moving grasped objects with novel dynamics involves a fast process that adapts and decays quickly-and that has been linked to explicit memory-and a slower process that adapts and decays more gradually. Each process is characterized by a learning rate that controls how strongly motor memory is updated based on experienced errors and a retention factor determining the movement-to-movement decay in motor memory. Here we examined whether fast and slow motor learning processes involved in learning novel dynamics differ between younger and older adults. In addition, we investigated how age-related decline in explicit memory performance influences learning and retention parameters. Although the groups adapted equally well, they did so with markedly different underlying processes. Whereas the groups had similar fast processes, they had different slow processes. Specifically, the older adults exhibited decreased retention in their slow process compared with younger adults. Within the older group, who exhibited considerable variation in explicit memory performance, we found that poor explicit memory was associated with reduced retention in the fast process, as well as the slow process. These findings suggest that explicit memory resources are a determining factor in impairments in the both the fast and slow processes for motor learning but that aging effects on the slow process are independent of explicit memory declines.

  13. Aging in Sensory and Motor Neurons Results in Learning Failure in Aplysia californica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Kempsell

    Full Text Available The physiological and molecular mechanisms of age-related memory loss are complicated by the complexity of vertebrate nervous systems. This study takes advantage of a simple neural model to investigate nervous system aging, focusing on changes in learning and memory in the form of behavioral sensitization in vivo and synaptic facilitation in vitro. The effect of aging on the tail withdrawal reflex (TWR was studied in Aplysia californica at maturity and late in the annual lifecycle. We found that short-term sensitization in TWR was absent in aged Aplysia. This implied that the neuronal machinery governing nonassociative learning was compromised during aging. Synaptic plasticity in the form of short-term facilitation between tail sensory and motor neurons decreased during aging whether the sensitizing stimulus was tail shock or the heterosynaptic modulator serotonin (5-HT. Together, these results suggest that the cellular mechanisms governing behavioral sensitization are compromised during aging, thereby nearly eliminating sensitization in aged Aplysia.

  14. [Evaluation of visual-motor integration functions in children between 6-15 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekok Kiliç, Ayda; Elmastas-Dikec, Banu; Can, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Visual-motor integration skills are considered an essential domain of clinical and psycho-educational assessment. The goal of the present investigation is to provide the Turkish norms for the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Visual-Motor Integration Test (VMI-4th) for children and adolescents between the ages of 6-15 years as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. A total of 1887 children from elementary and high schools in the city of Bursa were recruited for this study. From this sample 44 children were re-tested 3-4 weeks following the first administration for test-retest reliability. Findings showed clear developmental trajectories in visual-motor integration skills. Significant performance increments were observed in six month intervals for ages 6 and 7. Starting from age 8, norms were established for each age group separately. Girls and boys performed similarly on the VMI-4. Test- retest correlation was modest but within an acceptable range. The age-based norms established for the VMI-4 in this study can be used to assess children between the ages of 6-15 years as part of a clinical neuropsychological and a psycho-educational assessment. The mean VMI scores presented in this study represent performance of children in middle and middle-upper socio-economic status and may not represent the normal performance range of children from lower SES.

  15. VALIDITY OF THE SITUATIONAL-MOTOR TESTS WITH FOOTBALL PLAYERS AT THE AGE OF 15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Gardašević

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted on 120 young football players aged 15 from the following football clubs: FC Sutjeska, FC Čelik, FC Polet Stars i OFC Nikšić, all from town Nikšić. They were tested by 12 situational-motor tests for estimating 4 situationalmotor abilities, aiming to establish their validity. Using different types of factor analysis there has been evidenced that the tests for estimating the speed of ball control appear to be of the greatest validity especially for estimating the situational-motor abilities with the tested football players.

  16. Working memory, short-term memory and reading proficiency in school-age children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Sneha V; Maricle, Denise; Green, Laura; Allman, Tamby

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to examine short-term memory and working memory through both visual and auditory tasks in school-age children with cochlear implants. The relationship between the performance on these cognitive skills and reading as well as language outcomes were examined in these children. Ten children between the ages of 7 and 11 years with early-onset bilateral severe-profound hearing loss participated in the study. Auditory and visual short-term memory, auditory and visual working memory subtests and verbal knowledge measures were assessed using the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV Integrated and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children II. Reading outcomes were assessed using the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test III. Performance on visual short-term memory and visual working memory measures in children with cochlear implants was within the average range when compared to the normative mean. However, auditory short-term memory and auditory working memory measures were below average when compared to the normative mean. Performance was also below average on all verbal knowledge measures. Regarding reading outcomes, children with cochlear implants scored below average for listening and passage comprehension tasks and these measures were positively correlated to visual short-term memory, visual working memory and auditory short-term memory. Performance on auditory working memory subtests was not related to reading or language outcomes. The children with cochlear implants in this study demonstrated better performance in visual (spatial) working memory and short-term memory skills than in auditory working memory and auditory short-term memory skills. Significant positive relationships were found between visual working memory and reading outcomes. The results of the study provide support for the idea that WM capacity is modality specific in children with hearing loss. Based on these

  17. Gross Motor Coincidence Timing by Children with Learning Difficulties and Children Matched on Mean Chronological and Mental Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the learning of a gross motor coincidence timing task by children with learning difficulties, compared with that by children of average intelligence of an equivalent chronological age and mental age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  18. Motor excitability measurements: the influence of gender, body mass index, age and temperature in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, I; Diaz, A; Pinto, S; de Carvalho, M

    2014-04-01

    The technique of threshold tracking to test axonal excitability gives information about nodal and internodal ion channel function. We aimed to investigate variability of the motor excitability measurements in healthy controls, taking into account age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and small changes in skin temperature. We examined the left median nerve of 47 healthy controls using the automated threshold-tacking program, QTRAC. Statistical multiple regression analysis was applied to test relationship between nerve excitability measurements and subject variables. Comparisons between genders did not find any significant difference (P>0.2 for all comparisons). Multiple regression analysis showed that motor amplitude decreases with age and temperature, stimulus-response slope decreases with age and BMI, and that accommodation half-time decrease with age and temperature. The changes related to demographic features on TRONDE protocol parameters are small and less important than in conventional nerve conduction studies. Nonetheless, our results underscore the relevance of careful temperature control, and indicate that interpretation of stimulus-response slope and accommodation half-time should take into account age and BMI. In contrast, gender is not of major relevance to axonal threshold findings in motor nerves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status Among School-aged Children of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Asghari Jafarabadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL, motor ability and weight status in children.Methods:Two hundred forty children ages 9-11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran,Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL.Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT.Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status.Results: Psychosocial,physical,and total health related qualities of life (all P< 0.05 were significantly lowered for obese when compared to normal weight participants. In contrast, the mean scores for each HRQOL domain in motor ability category were not significant. No significant interaction was apparent when examining HRQOL scores, BMAT variables and weight status.Conclusion:Regardless of motor ability levels,reducing body weight among children is a potential avenue for promoting improved HRQOL.Over weight boys reported significantly worse school performance than over weight girls, suggesting the importance in considering such dimensions in programs aimed at further understanding obesity in children.

  20. Differential effects of preterm birth and small gestational age on cognitive and motor development

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, J; Pharoah, P; Cooke, R.; Stevenson, R

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the differential effects of preterm birth and being small for gestational age on the cognitive and motor ability of the child.
METHODS—A longitudinal cohort of all infants of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks born to mothers resident in the counties of Cheshire and Merseyside in 1980-1 was studied. The children were assessed at the age of 8 to 9 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the Neale analysis of reading ability, and the Stott-Moyes-Henderson test of mot...

  1. Age-related changes in motor cortical representation and interhemispheric interactions: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eCoppi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the physiological mechanisms responsible for the differential motor cortex functioning in aging, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate interhemispheric interactions and cortical representation of hand muscles in the early phase of physiological aging, correlating these data with participants’ motor abilities.Right-handed healthy subjects were divided into a younger group (n=15, 25.4 ± 1.9 y.o and an older group (n=16, mean age 61.1 ± 5.1 y.o. Activity of the bilateral abductor pollicis brevis (APB and abductor digiti minimi (ADM was recorded. Ipsilateral silent period (ISP was measured in both APBs. Cortical maps of APB and ADM were measured bilaterally. Mirror movements (MM were recorded during thumb abductions. Motor abilities were tested using Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT, finger tapping (FT and grip strength. ISP was reduced in the older group on both sides, in terms of duration (p=0.025, onset (p=0.029 and area (p=0.008. RMT did not differ between groups. APB and ADM maps were symmetrical in the younger group, but were reduced on the right compared to the left hemisphere in the older group (p=0.008. The APB map of the right hemisphere was reduced in the older group compared to the younger (p=0.021. Older subjects showed higher frequency of MM and worse motor abilities (p<0.001. The reduction of right ISP area correlated significantly with the worsening of motor performances.Our results showed decreased interhemispheric interactions in the early processes of physiological aging and a decreased cortical muscles representation over the non-dominant hemisphere. The decreased ISP and increased frequency of MM suggest a reduction of transcallosal inhibition. These data demonstrate that early processes of normal aging are marked by a dissociation of motor cortices, characterized, at least, by a decline of the non-dominant hemisphere, reinforcing the hypothesis of the right hemi-aging model.

  2. Age independent and position-dependent alterations in motor unit activity of the biceps brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, B; Edwards, D L; Jakobi, J M

    2010-09-01

    In the biceps brachii, age-related differences in synaptic excitability and muscle architecture may affect motor unit (MU) activity differently depending on the position of the forearm. It was hypothesised that as a result of these age-related differences, greater changes in MU activity would accompany a change in forearm position in old when compared with young men. Six young (22 +/- 3 years) and six old (84 +/- 3 years) men maintained isometric elbow flexion at 10% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) during changes in forearm position. Forty-nine MUs in the short (SBB) and long (LBB) heads of the biceps brachii were followed. Motor unit recruitment and de-recruitment thresholds, motor unit discharge rates (MUDRs), and MU discharge variability were measured. Although an age-related decrease in MU recruitment thresholds, and increase in MU discharge variability was evident, changes in forearm position influenced MUDRs similarly in young and old men (P = 0.27). Motor unit recruitment thresholds of the SBB were highest in the pronated position (8.2 +/- 2.9 %MVC), whereas in the LBB they were highest in the supinated position (8.6 +/- 2.0 %MVC). Motor unit discharge rates of the LBB did not change with forearm position. In the SBB, MUDRs were highest when the forearm was supinated, and also greater when compared with the LBB in this position. No position-dependent changes were observed for MU discharge variability in the LBB, but the SBB exhibited greatest MU discharge variability in the pronated position. The results suggest that MU activity is modulated following a change in forearm position, but the response is similar in young and old adults.

  3. Age-specific activation of cerebral areas in motor imagery - a fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Li [Chongqing University, Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing (China); Third Military Medical University, Department of Medical Image, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing (China); Qiu, Mingguo; Zhang, Jingna; Zhang, Ye; Sang, Linqiong [Third Military Medical University, Department of Medical Image, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing (China); Liu, Chen; Yang, Jun [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Yan, Rubing [Third Military Medical University, Department of Rehabilitation, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Zheng, Xiaolin [Chongqing University, Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing (China)

    2014-04-15

    The objectives of this study were to study the age-specific activation patterns of cerebral areas during motor execution (ME) and motor imaging (MI) of the upper extremities and to discuss the age-related neural mechanisms associated with ME or MI. The functional magnetic resonance imaging technique was used to monitor the pattern and intensity of brain activation during the ME and MI of the upper extremities in 20 elderly (>50 years) and 19 young healthy subjects (<25 years). No major differences were identified regarding the activated brain areas during ME or MI between the two groups; however, a minor difference was noted. The intensity of the activated brain area during ME was stronger in the older group than in the younger group, while the results with MI were the opposite. The posterior central gyrus and supplementary motor area during MI were more active in the younger group than in the older group. The putamen, lingual, and so on demonstrated stronger activation during dominant hand MI in the older group. The results of this study revealed that the brain structure was altered and that neuronal activity was attenuated with age, and the cerebral cortex and subcortical tissues were found to be over-activated to achieve the same level of ME and MI, indicating that the activating effects of the left hemisphere enhanced with age, whereas the inhibitory effects declined during ME, and activation of the right hemisphere became more difficult during MI. (orig.)

  4. Age-dependent time courses of recovery for motor functions following acute toluene intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel-Herter, Susan R; Slaght, Shelby L; McKay, Bruce E

    2014-05-01

    Toluene is a psychoactive chemical found in many household products including adhesives and thinners. Inhalation of these vapors can cause euphoria and impairments in motor control and neurological functioning. Misuse and abuse of toluene is most common in children, which may in part be due to an age-dependent neurobehavioral sensitivity to toluene. Here we assessed the effects of acute binge-like toluene inhalations (15 or 30 min; ∼5,000 ppm) on tasks that examine locomotion, exploration, balance, gait, and neurological functioning for adolescent (1 month), young adult (2-3 months), adult (5-6 months), and older adult (10-12 months) rats. Both motor and neurological functions were impaired following acute toluene inhalation at all ages. However, only the duration to recover from deficits in motor functions differed among age groups, with adolescent and young adult rats requiring notably longer recovery times than older rats. Our results are suggestive of an age-dependent vulnerability to the intoxicating effects of toluene. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Infant motor development and cognitive performance in early old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-06-01

    Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age.

  6. Combinations of motor measures more strongly predict adverse health outcomes in old age: the rush memory and aging project, a community-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Steven E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Motor impairment in old age is a growing public-health concern, and several different constructs have been used to identify motor impairments in older people. We tested the hypothesis that combinations of motor constructs more strongly predict adverse health outcomes in older people. Methods In total, 949 people without dementia, history of stroke or Parkinson's disease, who were participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project (a longitudinal community-based cohort study, underwent assessment at study entry. From this, three constructs were derived: 1 physical frailty based on grip strength, timed walk, body mass index and fatigue; 2 Parkinsonian Signs Score based on the modified motor section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; and 3 a motor construct, based on nine strength measures and nine motor performances. Disability and cognitive status were assessed annually. A series of Cox proportional-hazards models, controlling for age, sex and education, were used to examine the association of each of these three constructs alone and in various combinations with death, disability and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Results All three constructs were related (mean r = 0.50, all P Conclusions Physical frailty, parkinsonian signs score and global motor score are related constructs that capture different aspects of motor function. Assessments using several motor constructs may more accurately identify people at the highest risk of adverse health consequences in old age.

  7. Proficiency: Understanding the Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantolf, James P.; Frawley, William

    1988-01-01

    Argues against the current oral proficiency testing approach in favor of an approach in which researchers come to understand what it means for real speakers to interact with each other in the everyday world of human activity. Problematic trends are addressed, and a principled theory of oral proficiency is identified. (DJD)

  8. Moving Forward: Age Effects on the Cerebellum Underlie Cognitive and Motor Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2014-01-01

    Though the cortical contributions to age-related declines in motor and cognitive performance are well-known, the potential contributions of the cerebellum are less clear. The diverse functions of the cerebellum make it an important structure to investigate in aging. Here, we review the extant literature on this topic. To date, there is evidence to indicate that there are morphological age differences in the cerebellum that are linked to motor and cognitive behavior. Cerebellar morphology is often as good as -- or even better -- at predicting performance than the prefrontal cortex. We also touch on the few studies using functional neuroimaging and connectivity analyses that further implicate the cerebellum in age-related performance declines. Importantly, we provide a conceptual framework for the cerebellum influencing age differences in performance, centered on the notion of degraded internal models. The evidence indicating that cerebellar age differences associate with performance highlights the need for additional work in this domain to further elucidate the role of the cerebellum in age differences in movement control and cognitive function. PMID:24594194

  9. The Functional Integration in the Sensory-Motor System Predicts Aging in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Chang, Xin; Shan, Yan; Cao, Weifang; Gong, Jinnan; Klugah-Brown, Benjamin; Bobes, Maria A; Biswal, Bharat; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is typically accompanied by a decrease in the motor capacity. Although the disrupted neural representations and performance of movement have been observed in older age in previous studies, the relationship between the functional integration of sensory-motor (SM) system and aging could be further investigated. In this study, we examine the impact of healthy aging on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the SM system, and investigate as to how aging is affecting the rsFC in SM network. The SM network was identified and evaluated in 52 healthy older adults and 51 younger adults using two common data analytic approaches: independent component analysis and seed-based functional connectivity (seed at bilateral M1 and S1). We then evaluated whether the altered rsFC of the SM network could delineate trajectories of the age of older adults using a machine learning methodology. Compared with the younger adults, the older demonstrated reduced functional integration with increasing age in the mid-posterior insula of SM network and increased rsFC among the sensorimotor cortex. Moreover, the reduction in the rsFC of mid-posterior insula is associated with the age of older adults. Critically, the analysis based on two-aspect connectivity-based prediction frameworks revealed that the age of older adults could be reliably predicted by this reduced rsFC. These findings further indicated that healthy aging has a marked influence on the SM system that would be associated with a reorganization of SM system with aging. Our findings provide further insight into changes in sensorimotor function in the aging brain.

  10. Aberrant post-translational modifications compromise human myosin motor function in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meishan; Ogilvie, Hannah; Ochala, Julien; Artemenko, Konstantin; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Naoto; Bergquist, Jonas; Larsson, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Novel experimental methods, including a modified single fiber in vitro motility assay, X-ray diffraction experiments, and mass spectrometry analyses, have been performed to unravel the molecular events underlying the aging-related impairment in human skeletal muscle function at the motor protein level. The effects of old age on the function of specific myosin isoforms extracted from single human muscle fiber segments, demonstrated a significant slowing of motility speed (P old age in both type I and IIa myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms. The force-generating capacity of the type I and IIa MyHC isoforms was, on the other hand, not affected by old age. Similar effects were also observed when the myosin molecules extracted from muscle fibers were exposed to oxidative stress. X-ray diffraction experiments did not show any myofilament lattice spacing changes, but unraveled a more disordered filament organization in old age as shown by the greater widths of the 1, 0 equatorial reflections. Mass spectrometry (MS) analyses revealed eight age-specific myosin post-translational modifications (PTMs), in which two were located in the motor domain (carbonylation of Pro79 and Asn81) and six in the tail region (carbonylation of Asp900, Asp904, and Arg908; methylation of Glu1166; deamidation of Gln1164 and Asn1168). However, PTMs in the motor domain were only observed in the IIx MyHC isoform, suggesting PTMs in the rod region contributed to the observed disordering of myosin filaments and the slowing of motility speed. Hence, interventions that would specifically target these PTMs are warranted to reverse myosin dysfunction in old age.

  11. Accuracy of Two Motor Assessments during the First Year of Life in Preterm Infants for Predicting Motor Outcome at Preschool Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia J Spittle

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS and Neuro-Sensory Motor Developmental Assessment (NSMDA over the first year of life for predicting motor impairment at 4 years in preterm children. The secondary aims were to assess the predictive value of serial assessments over the first year and when using a combination of these two assessment tools in follow-up.Children born <30 weeks' gestation were prospectively recruited and assessed at 4, 8 and 12 months' corrected age using the AIMS and NSMDA. At 4 years' corrected age children were assessed for cerebral palsy (CP and motor impairment using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2nd-edition (MABC-2. We calculated accuracy of the AIMS and NSMDA for predicting CP and MABC-2 scores ≤15th (at-risk of motor difficulty and ≤5th centile (significant motor difficulty for each test (AIMS and NSMDA at 4, 8 and 12 months, for delay on one, two or all three of the time points over the first year, and finally for delay on both tests at each time point.Accuracy for predicting motor impairment was good for each test at each age, although false positives were common. Motor impairment on the MABC-2 (scores ≤5th and ≤15th was most accurately predicted by the AIMS at 4 months, whereas CP was most accurately predicted by the NSMDA at 12 months. In regards to serial assessments, the likelihood ratio for motor impairment increased with the number of delayed assessments. When combining both the NSMDA and AIMS the best accuracy was achieved at 4 months, although results were similar at 8 and 12 months.Motor development during the first year of life in preterm infants assessed with the AIMS and NSMDA is predictive of later motor impairment at preschool age. However, false positives are common and therefore it is beneficial to follow-up children at high risk of motor impairment at more than one time point, or to use a combination of assessment

  12. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo, Elyonara M.; Gonçalves, Rejane V.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object) and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. Method: The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time) of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r) movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. Results: Results revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (p<0.001), the time of manipulation (p<0.001) and gross motor function (p<0.001) over time, as well as associations between reaching and gross motor function (R2=0.84; p<0.001) and manipulation and gross motor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02) from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. Conclusion: The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development. PMID:25714437

  13. Hip displacement in relation to age and gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Larnert, Per; Risto, Olof; Hägglund, Gunnar; Wagner, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hip dislocation in cerebral palsy (CP) is a serious complication. By radiographic screening and prophylactic surgery of children at risk most dislocations can be prevented. CPUP, the Swedish CP registry and follow-up program, includes annual radiographic examinations of children at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III–V. Data from CPUP were analysed to assess the risk of hip displacement in relation to GMFCS levels and age. Methods All children at GMFCS levels...

  14. Use of a physiological profile to document motor impairment in ageing and in clinical groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, S R; Delbaere, K; Gandevia, S C

    2016-08-15

    Ageing decreases exercise performance and is frequently accompanied by reductions in cognitive performance. Deterioration in the physiological capacity to stand, locomote and exercise can manifest itself as falling over and represents a significant deterioration in sensorimotor control. In the elderly, falling leads to serious morbidity and mortality with major societal costs. Measurement of a suite of physiological capacities that are required for successful motor performance (including vision, muscle strength, proprioception and balance) has been used to produce a physiological profile assessment (PPA) which has been tracked over the age spectrum and in different diseases (e.g. multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease). As well as measures of specific physiological capacities, the PPA generates an overall 'score' which quantitatively measures an individual's cumulative risk of falling. The present review collates data from the PPA (and the physiological capacities it measures) as well as its use in strategies to reduce falls in the elderly and those with different diseases. We emphasise that (i) motor impairment arises via reductions in a wide range of sensorimotor abilities; (ii) the PPA approach not only gives a snapshot of the physiological capacity of an individual, but it also gives insight into the deficits among groups of individuals with particular diseases; and (iii) deficits in seemingly restricted and disparate physiological domains (e.g. vision, strength, cognition) are funnelled into impairments in tasks requiring upright balance. Motor impairments become more prevalent with ageing but careful physiological measurement and appropriate interventions offer a way to maximise health across the lifespan.

  15. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Motor control centers; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; O`Hearn, E. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., Inc., Blue Bell, PA (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) commercial nuclear power plant motor control centers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  16. Motor and Cognitive Outcomes Through Three Years Of Age In Children Exposed To Prenatal Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Haning, William; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Lin, Hai; Lester, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) use among pregnant women is an increasing problem in the United States. The impact of prenatal MA exposure on development in childhood is unknown. Objective To examine the effects of prenatal MA exposure on motor and cognitive development in children at 1, 2, and 3 years of age. Design/Methods IDEAL enrolled 412 mother-infant pairs at four sites (Tulsa OK, Des Moines IA, Los Angeles CA, and Honolulu HI). MA subjects (n=204) were identified by self-report or GC/MS confirmation of amphetamine and metabolites in infant meconium. Comparison subjects (n=208) were matched (race, birth weight, maternal education, type of insurance), denied amphetamine use, and had a negative meconium screen. Both groups included prenatal alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use, but excluded use of opiates, lysergic acid diethylamide, phencyclidine or cocaine only. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS-2) were administered to the infants at the 1 and 3 year visits. This analysis includes a subsample (n=350) of the IDEAL study with completed 1 and/or 3 year visits (n= 330 and 281, respectively). At each annual visit we also conducted the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II) as a general evaluation of mental and motor development. The BSID-II analysis includes a subsample (n=356) of the IDEAL study with completed 1, 2, and/or 3 year visits (n= 331, 288, and 278 respectively). GLM analysis conducted on the PDMS-2 and BSID-II examined the effects of MA exposure and heavy MA exposure (≥3 days of use/week), with and without covariates. Longitudinal analyses were used to examine the effects of MA exposure on changes in motor and cognitive performance over time. Results Heavy MA exposure was associated with significantly lower grasping scores than some and no use at 1 year (P = 0.018). In longitudinal analysis, lower grasping scores associated with any MA exposure and heavy exposure persisted to 3 years. There were no effects of MA exposure, including

  17. Parental questionnaire as a screening instrument for motor function at age five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbye-Nielsen, Kirsten; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2014-12-01

    No standardised method is used to determine motor function in children in general practice in Denmark. Our aim was to evaluate the correlation between a parental questionnaire assessing motor function at the age of five years and the clinical test Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), and to assess whether one or more questions could be used to screen for motor problems at the age of five years. This study was based on a parental questionnaire containing ten questions. The M-ABC was used as the gold standard. n = 755 children. The Mann-Whitney rank sum test, Pearson's χ(2)-test, logistic regression analyses and sensitivity and specificity were used to assess the correlation between the questionnaire and the M-ABC test. The best screening tool was six questions in combination: sensitivity 39.8%, specificity 87.1%. Asking if a health professional ever expressed concern about the childs motor development had a sensitivity of 17.0% and a specificity of 93.9%. A parental questionnaire used as a screening instrument to identify children with motor problems has a reasonable specificity, but a low sensitivity. The six questions can be used to identify children who do not have motor function difficulties with a relatively high certainty, and it can fairly well identify children with motor function problems. This study was primarily supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Additional support was obtained from The Danish Health and Medicines Authority, the Lundbeck Foundation, Ludvig & Daara Elsass Foundation, the Augustinus Foundation, and Aase & Ejnar Danielsens Foundation. The Danish National Research Foundation has established the Danish Epidemiology Science Centre that initiated and created the Danish National Birth Cohort. The cohort is furthermore a result of a major grant from this Foundation. Additional support for the Danish National Birth Cohort is obtained from the Pharmacy Foundation, the Egmont

  18. TDP-43 Toxicity Proceeds via Calcium Dysregulation and Necrosis in Aging Caenorhabditis elegans Motor Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggad, Dina; Vérièpe, Julie; Tauffenberger, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a heterogeneous disease with either sporadic or genetic origins characterized by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons. At the cellular level, ALS neurons show protein misfolding and aggregation phenotypes. Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has recently been shown to be associated with ALS, but the early pathophysiological deficits causing impairment in motor function are unknown. Here we used Caenorhabditis elegans expressing mutant TDP-43A315T in motor neurons and explored the potential influences of calcium (Ca2+). Using chemical and genetic approaches to manipulate the release of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+stores, we observed that the reduction of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) rescued age-dependent paralysis and prevented the neurodegeneration of GABAergic motor neurons. Our data implicate elevated [Ca2+]i as a driver of TDP-43-mediated neuronal toxicity. Furthermore, we discovered that neuronal degeneration is independent of the executioner caspase CED-3, but instead requires the activity of the Ca2+-regulated calpain protease TRA-3, and the aspartyl protease ASP-4. Finally, chemically blocking protease activity protected against mutant TDP-43A315T-associated neuronal toxicity. This work both underscores the potential of the C. elegans system to identify key targets for therapeutic intervention and suggests that a focused effort to regulate ER Ca2+ release and necrosis-like degeneration consequent to neuronal injury may be of clinical importance. PMID:25186754

  19. Older age relates to worsening of fine motor skills: a population-based study of middle-aged and elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, Y.Y.; Van der Lijn, F.; Vernooij, M.W.; Hofman, A.; Niessen, W.J.; Van der Lugt, A.; Arfan Ikram, M.; Van der Geest, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In a population-based study of 1,912 community-dwelling persons of 45 years and older, we investigated the relation between age and fine motor skills using the Archimedes spiral-drawing test. Also, we studied the effect of brain volume on fine motor skills. Methods: Participants were

  20. The relationship of motor skills and social communicative skills in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale A

    2013-07-01

    Motor skill deficits are present and persist in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Staples & Reid, 2010). Yet the focus of intervention is on core impairments, which are part of the diagnostic criteria for ASD, deficits in social communication skills. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the functional motor skills, of 6- to 15-year-old children with high-functioning ASD, predict success in standardized social communicative skills. It is hypothesized that children with better motor skills will have better social communicative skills. A total of 35 children with ASD between the ages of 6-15 years participated in this study. The univariate GLM (general linear model) tested the relationship of motor skills on social communicative skills holding constant age, IQ, ethnicity, gender, and clinical ASD diagnosis. Object-control motor skills significantly predicted calibrated ASD severity (p communicative skill deficits. How this relationship exists behaviorally, needs to be explored further.

  1. Loneliness and the rate of motor decline in old age: the rush memory and aging project, a community-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Steven E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being alone, as measured by less frequent social interactions, has been reported to be associated with a more rapid rate of motor decline in older persons. We tested the hypothesis that feeling alone is associated with the rate of motor decline in community-dwelling older persons. Methods At baseline, loneliness was assessed with a 5-item scale in 985 persons without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a longitudinal community-based cohort study. Annual detailed assessment of 9 measures of muscle strength and 9 motor performances were summarized in a composite measure of global motor function. Results Linear mixed-effects models which controlled for age, sex and education, showed that the level of loneliness at baseline was associated with the rate of motor decline (Estimate, -0.016; S.E. 0.006, p = 0.005. For each 1-point higher level of loneliness at baseline, motor decline was 40% more rapid; this effect was similar to the rate of motor decline observed in an average participant 4 years older at baseline. Furthermore, this amount of motor decline per year was associated with about a 50% increased risk of death. When terms for both feeling alone (loneliness and being alone were considered together in a single model, both were relatively independent predictors of motor decline. The association between loneliness and motor decline persisted even after controlling for depressive symptoms, cognition, physical and cognitive activities, chronic conditions, as well as baseline disability or a history of stroke or Parkinson's disease. Conclusions Among community-dwelling older persons, both feeling alone and being alone are associated with more rapid motor decline, underscoring the importance of psychosocial factors and motor decline in old age.

  2. Benefits of physical exercise on basic visuo-motor functions across age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika eBerchicci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor performance deficits of older adults are due to dysfunction at multiple levels. Age-related differences have been documented on executive functions; motor control becomes more reliant on cognitive control mechanisms, including the engagement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, possibly compensating for age-related sensorimotor declines. Since at functional level the PFC showed the largest age-related differences during discriminative response task, we wonder whether those effects are mainly due to the cognitive difficulty in stimulus discrimination or they could be also detected in a much easier task. In the present study, we measured the association of physical exercise with the PFC activation and response times (RTs using a simple response task (SRT, in which the participants were asked to respond as quickly as possible by manual key-press to visual stimuli. Simultaneous behavioral (RTs and electroencephalographic (EEG recordings were performed on 84 healthy participants aged 19-86 years. The whole sample was divided into three cohorts (young, middle-aged and older; each cohort was further divided into two equal sub-cohorts (exercise and not-exercise based on a self-report questionnaire measuring physical exercise. The EEG signal was segmented in epochs starting 1100 prior to stimulus onset and lasting 2-s. Behavioral results showed age effects, indicating a slowing of RTs with increasing age. The EEG results showed a significant interaction between age and exercise on the activities recorded on the PFC. The results indicates that: a the brain of older adults needs the PFC engagement also to perform elementary task, such as the SRT, while this activity is not necessary in younger adults, b physical exercise could reduce this age-related reliance on extra cognitive control also during the performance of a SRT, and c the activity of the PFC is a sensitive index of the benefits of physical exercise on sensorimotor decline.

  3. Factors influencing the motor development of prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-09-01

    Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weightmotor development was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2). The children's neuropsychological and academic performance was assessed with the Token Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity.

  4. Aging and defect characterization of motor-operated valves: progress based on NPAR strategy. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program strategy is directed at carrying out comprehensive aging assessments in order to define and resolve issues related to aging (including service wear) of electrical and mechanical components and structures at operating reactor facilities and their possible impact on plant safety. This paper describes work recently completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory which applied the NPAR strategy to motor-operated valves (MOVs). The objective of the work was primarily to develop an understanding of the operating history and conditions and the failure modes of MOVs in nuclear plant service as a preliminary to identifying and recommending methods for trending aging degradation. A second objective was to demonstrate, using MOVs as an example, that the NPAR strategy can be applied to many electrical and mechanical components of nuclear power plants.

  5. Structural Model of Motor Readiness of Young Gymnasts Aged 6-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Худолій

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to determine the factor structure of the motor readiness of young gymnasts aged 6—8. Research methods. To achieve the tasks set, the research relies on theoretical and empirical methods used: analysis and collation of scientific and methodological literature; modeling, pedagogical observations and experiment, factor analysis. The research recorded the following indicators: the number of repetitions required to teach the exercises; score for the unit-directional movement coordination exercise (test 3; score for the differently directed movement coordination exercise (test 4; error in spatial precision of hand movements (test 9; error in spatial accuracy of leg movements (test 14; error in time accuracy of executing the sitting-to-lying event (test 17; error in time accuracy of five jumps on marks in 5 seconds (test 18; error in evaluation of muscular efforts with visual control (test 24; error in evaluation of muscular efforts without visual control (test 25; vestibular stability, error (test 28; wrist strength; back strength; standing long jump. The participants in the study were 40 gymnasts aged 6-7 and 32 gymnasts aged 7-8. Research results. The young gymnasts aged 6-8 have quite distinct elements that determine the development of their sports skills, namely: learning ability, motor experience, coordination complexity of exercises; relationship between the strength development and the ability to differentiate muscular efforts; movement coordination, movement control and vestibular apparatus stability.

  6. Proactive and retroactive transfer of middle age adults in a sequential motor learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verneau, Marion; van der Kamp, John; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; de Looze, Michiel P

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effects of aging in the transfer of motor learning in a sequential manual assembly task that is representative for real working conditions. On two different days, young (18-30 years) and middle-aged adults (50-65 years) practiced to build two products that consisted of the same six components but which had to be assembled in a partly different order. Assembly accuracy and movement time during tests, which were performed before and after the practice sessions, were compared to determine proactive and retroactive transfer. The results showed proactive facilitation (i.e., benefits from having learned the first product on learning the second one) in terms of an overall shortening of movement time in both age-groups. In addition, only the middle-aged adults were found to show sequence-specific proactive facilitation, in which the shortening of movement time was limited to components that had the same the order in the two products. Most likely, however, the sequence-specific transfer was an epiphenomenon of the comparatively low rate of learning among the middle-aged adults. The results, however, did reveal genuine differences between the groups for retroactive transfer (i.e., effects from learning the second product on performance of the first). Middle-aged adults tended to show more pronounced retroactive interference in terms of a general decrease in accuracy, while younger adults showed sequence-specific retroactive facilitation (i.e., shortening of movement times for components that had the same order in the two products), but only when they were fully accurate. Together this suggests that in the learning of sequential motor tasks the effects of age are more marked for retroactive transfer than for proactive transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Age effects shrink when motor learning is predominantly supported by nondeclarative, automatic memory processes: evidence from golf putting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvel, Guillaume; Maquestiaux, François; Hartley, Alan A; Joubert, Sven; Didierjean, André; Masters, Rich S W

    2012-01-01

    Can motor learning be equivalent in younger and older adults? To address this question, 48 younger (M = 23.5 years) and 48 older (M = 65.0 years) participants learned to perform a golf-putting task in two different motor learning situations: one that resulted in infrequent errors or one that resulted in frequent errors. The results demonstrated that infrequent-error learning predominantly relied on nondeclarative, automatic memory processes whereas frequent-error learning predominantly relied on declarative, effortful memory processes: After learning, infrequent-error learners verbalized fewer strategies than frequent-error learners; at transfer, a concurrent, attention-demanding secondary task (tone counting) left motor performance of infrequent-error learners unaffected but impaired that of frequent-error learners. The results showed age-equivalent motor performance in infrequent-error learning but age deficits in frequent-error learning. Motor performance of frequent-error learners required more attention with age, as evidenced by an age deficit on the attention-demanding secondary task. The disappearance of age effects when nondeclarative, automatic memory processes predominated suggests that these processes are preserved with age and are available even early in motor learning.

  8. Age-related changes in motor unit firing pattern of vastus lateralis muscle during low-moderate contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kohei; Holobar, Aleš; Kouzaki, Motoki; Ogawa, Madoka; Akima, Hiroshi; Moritani, Toshio

    2016-06-01

    Age-related changes in motor unit activation properties remain unclear for locomotor muscles such as quadriceps muscles, although these muscles are preferentially atrophied with aging and play important roles in daily living movements. The present study investigated and compared detailed motor unit firing characteristics for the vastus lateralis muscle during isometric contraction at low to moderate force levels in the elderly and young. Fourteen healthy elderly men and 15 healthy young men performed isometric ramp-up contraction to 70 % of the maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) during knee extension. Multichannel surface electromyograms were recorded from the vastus lateralis muscle using a two-dimensional grid of 64 electrodes and decomposed with the convolution kernel compensation technique to extract individual motor units. Motor unit firing rates in the young were significantly higher (~+29.7 %) than in the elderly (p  0.05). Firing rates at 60 % of the MVC force level for the motor units recruited at MVC were significantly correlated with MVC force in the elderly (r = 0.885, p  0.05). These results suggest that the motor unit firing rate in the vastus lateralis muscle is affected by aging and muscle strength in the elderly and/or age-related strength loss is related to motor unit firing/recruitment properties.

  9. Influence of aging on visual perception and visual motor integration in Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated age-related changes of cognitive function in Korean adults using the Korean-Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2 (K-DTVP-2) and the Visual Motor Integration-3rd Revision (VMI-3R) test, and determined the main factors influencing VP and VMI in older adults. For this research, 139 adults for the K-DTVP-2 and 192 adults for the VMI-3R, from a total of 283 participants, were randomly and separately recruited in province, Korea. The present study showed that the mean s...

  10. A review of five tests to identify motor coordination difficulties in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, Beth; Licari, Melissa; Piek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties with low motor competence in childhood and adolescence, such as that seen in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), often persist into adulthood. Identification of DCD at all ages is particularly challenging and problematic because of the diversity of motor symptoms. Many tests of motor proficiency and impairment have been developed for children up to 12 years of age. Whilst identification of DCD is important during childhood, it is of equal importance to identify and monitor the impact of this impairment as an individual grows and develops. Currently there is no test specifically designed to support diagnosis and monitor change in the age range 16-30 years. In this article we review five tests that have been used to assess motor competence among young adults (Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2, McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development, Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2, Tufts Assessment of Motor Performance and the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment). Key issues relevant to testing motor skills in older populations, such as the inclusion of age appropriate skills, are explored. While the BOT-2 provided the most evidence for valid and reliable measurement of Criterion A of the diagnostic criteria for DCD among this age group, no test adequately evaluated Criterion B. Further evaluation of motor skill assessment among the young adult population is needed.

  11. Influence of aging on visual perception and visual motor integration in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhwi; Park, Young-Kyung; Byun, Yong-Hyun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Hong

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated age-related changes of cognitive function in Korean adults using the Korean-Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2 (K-DTVP-2) and the Visual Motor Integration-3rd Revision (VMI-3R) test, and determined the main factors influencing VP and VMI in older adults. For this research, 139 adults for the K-DTVP-2 and 192 adults for the VMI-3R, from a total of 283 participants, were randomly and separately recruited in province, Korea. The present study showed that the mean score of the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R in 10-yr age increments significantly decreased as age increased (K-DTVP-2, F= 41.120, PVMI-3R, F= 16.583, PVMI-3R and K-DTVP-2 were significantly decreased in participants in their 50s compared to those in their 20s (PVMI-3R score. K-DTVP-2 score (Standardized β= -0.611) decreased more sensitively with aging than VMI-3R (Standardized β= -0.467). The two measurements had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.855, PVMI should be regularly checked from an individual's 50s, which is a critical period for detecting cognitive decline by aging. Both the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R could be used for determining the level of cognitive deficit by aging.

  12. Dynein mutations associated with hereditary motor neuropathies impair mitochondrial morphology and function with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbach, Judith; Sinniger, Jérôme; Bouitbir, Jamal; Fergani, Anissa; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard; René, Frédérique; Larmet, Yves; Marion, Vincent; Baloh, Robert H; Harms, Matthew B; Shy, Michael E; Messadeq, Nadia; Weydt, Patrick; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Ludolph, Albert C; Dupuis, Luc

    2013-10-01

    Mutations in the DYNC1H1 gene encoding for dynein heavy chain cause two closely related human motor neuropathies, dominant spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance (SMA-LED) and axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, and lead to sensory neuropathy and striatal atrophy in mutant mice. Dynein is the molecular motor carrying mitochondria retrogradely on microtubules, yet the consequences of dynein mutations on mitochondrial physiology have not been explored. Here, we show that mouse fibroblasts bearing heterozygous or homozygous point mutation in Dync1h1, similar to human mutations, show profoundly abnormal mitochondrial morphology associated with the loss of mitofusin 1. Furthermore, heterozygous Dync1h1 mutant mice display progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in muscle and mitochondria progressively increase in size and invade sarcomeres. As a likely consequence of systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, Dync1h1 mutant mice develop hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia and progress to glucose intolerance with age. Similar defects in mitochondrial morphology and mitofusin levels are observed in fibroblasts from patients with SMA-LED. Last, we show that Dync1h1 mutant fibroblasts show impaired perinuclear clustering of mitochondria in response to mitochondrial uncoupling. Our results show that dynein function is required for the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function with aging and suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to dynein-dependent neurological diseases, such as SMA-LED.

  13. Effects of Gait and Cognitive Task Difficulty on Cognitive-Motor Interference in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Plummer-D'Amato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although gait-related dual-task interference in aging is well established, the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on dual-task interference is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on cognitive-motor interference in aging. Fifteen older adults (72.1 years, SD 5.2 and 20 young adults (21.7 years, SD 1.6 performed three walking tasks of varying difficulty (self-selected speed, fast speed, and fast speed with obstacle crossing under single- and dual-task conditions. The cognitive tasks were the auditory Stroop task and the clock task. There was a significant Group × Gait Task × Cognitive Task interaction for the dual-task effect on gait speed. After adjusting for education, there were no significant effects of gait or cognitive task difficulty on the dual-task effects on cognitive task performance. The results of this study provide evidence that gait task difficulty influences dual-task effects on gait speed, especially in older adults. Moreover, the effects of gait task difficulty on dual-task interference appear to be influenced by the difficulty of the cognitive task. Education is an important factor influencing cognitive-motor interference effects on cognition, but not gait.

  14. Effect of ageing on the force development in tetanic contractions of motor units in rat medial gastrocnemius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łochyński, Dawid; Kaczmarek, Dominik; Krutki, Piotr; Celichowski, Jan

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ageing on the rate of force generation of motor units, and the mechanical efficiency of contraction produced by a doublet discharge. The study was carried out on isolated motor units of rat medial gastrocnemius muscle of young (5-10 mo) and two groups of old (24-25 and 28-30 mo) Wistar rats. Motor units were classified into the fast fatigable (FF), fast resistant (FR) and slow (S) ones. The force output and rate of force development were determined for non-doublet unfused tetanic contractions evoked by a series of a constant-rate trains of pulses and corresponding doublet contractions starting with an initial brief interpulse interval of 5 ms, and for maximal tetanic contraction. In FF motor units the rate of force development and the force produced by the doublet discharge increased transiently at the age of 24-25 mo, while in S and FR motor units this increase was observed at the age of 28-30 mo. Age-related decrease in the rate of force development of skeletal muscle cannot be attributed to a decline in efficiency of force production by functioning motor units.

  15. The ecological approach to cognitive–motor dual-tasking: Findings on the effects of expertise and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eSchaefer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of studies on cognitive–motor dual-tasking is that resources are limited, and when they have to be shared between a cognitive and a motor task, performances will suffer. Resource competition should therefore be particularly pronounced in children, older adults, or people who are just acquiring a new motor skill. The current review summarizes expertise and age comparative studies that have combined a cognitive and a motor task. Expertise studies have often assessed sports performances (e.g., golf putting, soccer dribbling, rugby drills and have shown that experts are more successful than novices to keep up their performances in dual-task situations. The review also presents age-comparative studies that have used walking (on narrow tracks or on a treadmill as the motor task. Older adults often show higher costs than young adults, and they tend to prioritize the motor domain. These findings are discussed in relation to the ecological approach to dual-task research originally introduced by K. Z. H. Li, Krampe, and Bondar (2005. The approach proposes to study ecologically valid dual-task situations, and always to investigate dual-task costs for both domains (cognitive and motor performance in order to assess potential tradeoffs. In addition, task difficulties should be individually adjusted, and differential-emphasis instructions should be included in the study design.

  16. Relationship between motor and executive functioning in school-age children with pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, Erik; Houwen, S; Visscher, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the motor skills and executive functioning (EF) of 28 children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; mean age: 10 years 6 months, range: 7-12 years; 19 boys, 9 girls) in comparison with age- and gender-matched typically developing child

  17. Relationship between motor and executive functioning in school-age children with pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, Erik; Houwen, S; Visscher, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the motor skills and executive functioning (EF) of 28 children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; mean age: 10 years 6 months, range: 7-12 years; 19 boys, 9 girls) in comparison with age- and gender-matched typically developing

  18. Aging increases the susceptibility to motor memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    2014-01-01

    -line gains in motor skill learning after practice in children, young, and older adults. Subjects performed a ballistic task (A) followed by an accuracy-tracking task (B) designed to disrupt the consolidation of A. Retention tests of A were performed immediately and 24 hours after B. Older adults showed...

  19. Age-related changes in consolidation of perceptual and muscle-based learning of motor skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. C. Spencer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in motor sequence learning come about via goal-based learning of the sequence of visual stimuli and muscle-based learning of the sequence of movement responses. In young adults, consolidation of goal-based learning is observed after intervals of sleep but not following wake, whereas consolidation of muscle-based learning is greater following intervals with wake compared to sleep. While the benefit of sleep on motor sequence learning has been shown to decline with age, how sleep contributes to consolidation of goal-based versus muscle-based learning in older adults has not been disentangled. We trained young (n=62 and older (n=50 adults on a motor sequence learning task and re-tested learning following 12 hr intervals containing overnight sleep or daytime wake. To probe consolidation of goal-based learning of the sequence, half of the participants were re-tested in a configuration in which the stimulus sequence was the same but, due to a shift in stimulus-response mapping, the movement response sequence differed. To probe consolidation of muscle-based learning, the remaining participants were tested in a configuration in which the stimulus sequence was novel, but now the sequence of movements used for responding was unchanged. In young adults, there was a significant condition (goal-based v. muscle-based learning by interval (sleep v. wake interaction, F(1,58=6.58, p=.013: Goal-based learning tended to be greater following sleep compared to wake, t(29=1.47, p=.072. Conversely, muscle-based learning was greater following wake than sleep, t(29=2.11, p=.021. Unlike young adults, this interaction was not significant in older adults, F(1,46=.04, p=.84, nor was there a main effect of interval, F(1,46=1.14, p=.29. Thus, older adults do not preferentially consolidate sequence learning over wake or sleep.

  20. Incorporation of proficiency criteria for basic laparoscopic skills training: how does it work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdaasdonk, E.G.; Dankelman, J.; Lange, J.F.; Stassen, L.P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background - It is desirable that surgical trainees are proficient in basic laparoscopic motor skills (eye–hand coordination). The present study evaluated the use of predefined proficiency criteria on a basic virtual reality (VR) simulator in preparation for a laparoscopic course on animal models. M

  1. Incorporation of proficiency criteria for basic laparoscopic skills training: How does it work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Verdaasdonk (Egg); J. Dankelman (Jenny); J.F. Lange (Johan); L.P. Stassen (Laurents)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: It is desirable that surgical trainees are proficient in basic laparoscopic motor skills (eye-hand coordination). The present study evaluated the use of predefined proficiency criteria on a basic virtual reality (VR) simulator in preparation for a laparoscopic course on anima

  2. Concurrent language and motor performance in bilinguals: a test of the age of acquisition hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, J C; Webster, W G

    1991-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the age at which a second language is acquired influences the pattern of cerebral lateralization associated with that language. Subjects who differed in terms of the age at which they had acquired their second language (English or French) were tested on a concurrent task paradigm involving motor and language performance. Hemispheric processing was inferred from the pattern of lateralized and generalized interference between the tasks. No support was found for the age-of-acquisition hypothesis. Instead, the data indicated a language-specific effect. Regardless of age of acquisition and of whether the first language was English or French, bilingual subjects showed lateralized interference effects consistent with left-hemisphere processing when reading in English and translating from French into English, but no lateralized interference when reading in French and translating from English into French. Whether this effect reflects characteristics of the two languages or the influence of social factors in subject-experimenter interaction is considered.

  3. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  4. TEN DAYS TRAINING EFECTIVITY ON MEASURED SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES OF BASKETBALL PLAYERS 15 YEARS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavle Rubin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Research took place in the basketball camp “Kikinda 07”. The sample consisted of 20 basketball players, 15 years of age (cadets, from Kikindas basketball clubs. On the inicial (9.VIII 2007. year and final (19.VIII 2007. year measurement, 9 tests spe- cific motor abilities (SMA were done: Player movement with the ball, Ball manipulation and Player movement without the ball. The aim was to prove 10 days training efektivity (15 trainings at 90 min. on specific motor abilities (SMA at cadets. Basketball players (cadets were trained under programme made by author of this research. The differences between two measurements (initial and final were proven using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Using this results the significant statistical difference appeared between two measuremeents (on .00 level. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA proved a statistical significant better results after training (in final measurement in 4 tests (variable: “Kamikaze” (shorted with driving (on .05 level; Driving the ball aro- und central circle (on .00 level (for SMA measurement movement player with a ball; and for SMA ball manipulation: Driblling with variations and Circling with ball around a body (on .00 level.

  5. Bilingual Education and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, California instituted a statewide test measuring English proficiency for English learners, students who are not proficient in English. In 2003 and 2004, nearly 500,000 English learners in grades 1-5 took this test each year. The relationship between bilingual education receipt and English proficiency is estimated using value-added…

  6. Facets of Speaking Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen F.; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the componential structure of second-language (L2) speaking proficiency. Participants--181 L2 and 54 native speakers of Dutch--performed eight speaking tasks and six tasks tapping nine linguistic skills. Performance in the speaking tasks was rated on functional adequacy by a panel of judges and formed the dependent variable in…

  7. Implementing Hansen's Proficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J. Lon; Cohn, Raymond L.; Ramsey, David D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an economics department framework that incorporates the William Lee Hansen curriculum proficiencies. Identifies tools students should be able to use to complete specific activities, significant prerequisite changes for upper division courses, and the development of a capstone project to employ student skills and knowledge. (JEH)

  8. Conceptualizing Language Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Songren

    1993-01-01

    Discusses both Canale's and Bachman's theoretical frameworks of language proficiency (LP). These theories share the same standpoint: language use for communication is dynamic; LP is both knowledge and skills; and LP includes at least grammatical competence, discourse/textual competence, and sociolinguistic competence. (Contains 38 references.) (JP)

  9. Making Shifts toward Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGatha, Maggie B.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    The Leading for Mathematical Proficiency (LMP) Framework (Bay-Williams et al.) has three components: (1) The Standards for Mathematical Practice; (2) Shifts in classroom practice; and (3) Teaching skills. This article briefly describes each component of the LMP framework and then focuses more in depth on the second component, the shifts in…

  10. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane F. Maggi; Lívia C. Magalhães; Alexandre F. Campos; Bouzada,Maria Cândida F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to compare the motor coordination, cognitive, and functional development of preterm and term children at the age of 4 years. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study of 124 four-year-old children, distributed in two different groups, according to gestational age and birth weight, paired by gender, age, and socioeconomic level. All children were evaluated by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition (MABC-2), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory...

  11. ALS disrupts spinal motor neuron maturation and aging pathways within gene co-expression networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ritchie; Sances, Samuel; Gowing, Genevieve; Amoroso, Mackenzie Weygandt; O'Rourke, Jacqueline G.; Sahabian, Anais; Wichterle, Hynek; Baloh, Robert H.; Sareen, Dhruv

    2016-01-01

    Modeling Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) aims to reenact embryogenesis, maturation, and aging of spinal motor neurons (spMNs) in vitro. As the maturity of spMNs grown in vitro compared to spMNs in vivo remains largely unaddressed, it is unclear to what extent this in vitro system captures critical aspects of spMN development and molecular signatures associated with ALS. Here, we compared transcriptomes among iPSC-derived spMNs, fetal, and adult spinal tissues. This approach produced a maturation scale revealing that iPSC-derived spMNs were more similar to fetal spinal tissue than to adult spMNs. Additionally, we resolved gene networks and pathways associated with spMN maturation and aging. These networks enriched for pathogenic familial ALS genetic variants and were disrupted in sporadic ALS spMNs. Altogether, our findings suggest that developing strategies to further mature and age iPSC-derived spMNs will provide more effective iPSC models of ALS pathology. PMID:27428653

  12. Age-related motor neuron degeneration in DNA repair-deficient Ercc1 mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. de Waard (Monique); I. van der Pluijm (Ingrid); N. Zuiderveen Borgesius (Nils); L.H. Comley (Laura); E.D. Haasdijk (Elize); Y.M. Rijksen (Yvonne); Y. Ridwan (Yanto); G. Zondag (Gerben); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); Y. Elgersma (Ype); T.H. Gillingwater (Thomas); D. Jaarsma (Dick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDegeneration of motor neurons contributes to senescence-associated loss of muscle function and underlies human neurodegenerative conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy. The identification of genetic factors contributing to motor neuron vulnerability

  13. Motor development in 3-month-old healthy term-born infants is associated with cognitive and behavioural outcomes at early school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marrit; Roze, Elise; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.

    2014-01-01

    AIM To determine whether motor development at 3 months of age is associated with cognitive, motor, and behavioural outcomes in healthy children at early school age. METHOD In this cohort study, we included 74 term-born, healthy children (44 males, 30 females; median gestational age 40.1wks, range 38

  14. Motor development in 3-month-old healthy term-born infants is associated with cognitive and behavioural outcomes at early school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marrit; Roze, Elise; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.

    AIM To determine whether motor development at 3 months of age is associated with cognitive, motor, and behavioural outcomes in healthy children at early school age. METHOD In this cohort study, we included 74 term-born, healthy children (44 males, 30 females; median gestational age 40.1wks, range

  15. Age-related changes in consolidation of perceptual and muscle-based learning of motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2013-01-01

    Improvements in motor sequence learning come about via goal-based learning of the sequence of visual stimuli and muscle-based learning of the sequence of movement responses. In young adults, consolidation of goal-based learning is observed after intervals of sleep but not following wake, whereas consolidation of muscle-based learning is greater following intervals with wake compared to sleep. While the benefit of sleep on motor sequence learning has been shown to decline with age, how sleep contributes to consolidation of goal-based vs. muscle-based learning in older adults (OA) has not been disentangled. We trained young (n = 62) and older (n = 50) adults on a motor sequence learning task and re-tested learning following 12 h intervals containing overnight sleep or daytime wake. To probe consolidation of goal-based learning of the sequence, half of the participants were re-tested in a configuration in which the stimulus sequence was the same but, due to a shift in stimulus-response mapping, the movement response sequence differed. To probe consolidation of muscle-based learning, the remaining participants were tested in a configuration in which the stimulus sequence was novel, but now the sequence of movements used for responding was unchanged. In young adults, there was a significant condition (goal-based vs. muscle-based learning) by interval (sleep vs. wake) interaction, F(1,58) = 6.58, p = 0.013: goal-based learning tended to be greater following sleep compared to wake, t(29) = 1.47, p = 0.072. Conversely, muscle-based learning was greater following wake than sleep, t(29) = 2.11, p = 0.021. Unlike young adults, this interaction was not significant in OA, F(1,46) = 0.04, p = 0.84, nor was there a main effect of interval, F(1,46) = 1.14, p = 0.29. Thus, OA do not preferentially consolidate sequence learning over wake or sleep.

  16. Recreational Activities and Motor Skills of Children in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Viviene A.; Crane, Jeff R.; Brown, Amy; Williams, Buffy-Lynne; Bell, Rick I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developmental theorists suggest that physical activity during early childhood promotes fundamental motor skill (FMS) proficiency; and that differences in FMS proficiency are largely related to children's experiences. Aim: To examine associations between participation in different types of recreation/leisure and FMS proficiency of boys…

  17. The relationship between spasticity in young children (18 months of age with cerebral palsy and their gross motor function development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschuren Olaf

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is thought that spasticity has an influence on the development of functional motor abilities among children with cerebral palsy (CP. The extent to which spasticity is associated with the change in motor abilities in young children with CP has not been established. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship of initial spasticity in young children with CP and their gross motor function development over one year. Methods Fifty children with CP aged 18 months, GMFCS-levels I-V participated in a longitudinal observational study. Change in gross motor functioning (GMFM-66 was measured over one year. The level of spasticity measured at the first assessment was determined with the Modified Tardieu Scale in three muscle groups of the lower extremity (adductor muscles, the hamstrings and the m. gastrocnemius. The Spasticity Total Score per child was calculated with a maximum score of 12 points. Results Spearman's Rho Correlation (-0.28 revealed a statistically significant relationship (p Conclusion Our findings indicate that when measured over one year, spasticity is marginally related to gross motor function development in infants with CP. The initial level of spasticity is only one of the many child, environmental and family factors that determines gross motor development of a young child with CP.

  18. Influence of behaviour and risk factors on motor performance in preterm infants at age 2 to 3 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Akkermans, R.P.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Kollee, L.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the influence of test-taking behaviour and risk factors for delayed motor performance in 437 preterm infants (244 males, 193 females; < or = 32 weeks of gestation) at the corrected age of 2 to 3 years (mean 29mo [SD 3.3]). Other mean (SD)

  19. Video Analysis of Sensory-Motor Features in Infants with Fragile X Syndrome at 9-12 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, Grace T.; Danko, Cassandra D.; Skinner, Martie L.; Donald B., Jr.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Roberts, Jane E.; Mirrett, Penny L.

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized retrospective video analysis to distinguish sensory-motor patterns in infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS) (n=11) from other infants [i.e., autism (n=11), other developmental delay (n=10), typical (n=11)] at 9-12 months of age. Measures of development, autistic features, and FMRP were assessed at the time of entry into the…

  20. The Effect of Residence Area and Mother's Education on Motor Development of Preschool-Aged Children in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kyparos, Antonios; Fotiadou, Eleni; Angelopoulou, Nickoletta

    2007-01-01

    Development occurs according to the rhythm that is established by the genetic potential and the influence of environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the child's residence area and maternal education on child's motor development. Eight hundred children (384 boys and 416 girls, aged 37-72 months), randomly…

  1. [The prevalence of exposure of children under the age of 18 to second-hand smoke inside motor vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrol, M T; Tolosana, M; Soler, M T; Taló, M; Godoy, P

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the level of exposure of children under the age of 18 to second-hand smoke (SHS) inside motor vehicles. A prevalence study was conducted on the exposure of children under the age of 18 to SHS in motor vehicles in Lleida (Spain). The population was the users of private motor vehicles. The sample was random, and the data were collected by direct observation. The study variables were: the age and sex of the driver, whether the driver was smoking, and the presence of an exposed passenger under the age of 18. A total of 1600 vehicles were observed, 134 of which (8.4%) were carrying a child. In 8 of these 134 vehicles (6%; 95% CI: 2.5-11.0) a child was exposed to SHS. In all these cases, the driver was a male (P=0.02), and in 75% of cases he was over 40 years old. The rate of child exposure to SHS is very high. There is, therefore, a case for organising campaigns to prevent smoking tobacco inside motor vehicles in the presence of children in Spain. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of prenatal PCB and dioxin background exposure on cognitive and motor abilities in Dutch children at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, HJI; Lanting, Caren; Mulder, PCH; Boersma, ER; Weisglas-Kuperus, N

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate whether effects of exposure to environmental levels of PCBs and dioxins on development in the Dutch cohort persist until school age. Study design: In the Dutch PCB/dioxin study, cognitive and motor abilities were assessed with the McCarthy Scales of Children's

  3. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. METHOD

  4. Effects of age and timing of augmented feedback on learning muscle relaxation while performing a gross motor task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, H; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objective: To examine the combined effect of age and timing of augmented feedback on learning muscle relaxation. Performing a gross motor task, subjects had to lower their trapezius muscle activity using the electromyographic signal as visual myofeedback. Design: Healthy subjects (16 young adults:

  5. Validity of the Fine Motor Area of the 12-Month Ages and Stages Questionnaire in Infants Following Major Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cally; Wallen, Margaret; Walker, Karen; Bundy, Anita; Rolinson, Rachel; Badawi, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) are parent-report screening tools to identify infants at risk of developmental difficulties. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and internal reliability of the fine motor developmental area of the ASQ, 2nd edition (ASQ2-FM) for screening 12-month-old infants following major surgery. The…

  6. The English Proficiency of the Academics of the Teacher Training and Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saukah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at describing the general English proficiency level of the academics of Teacher Training and Education Institutions (LPTK's as indicated by their TOEFL scores. Specifically, the study is focused on finding out whether there is any difference among the academics' English proficiencies when they are grouped in terms of the geographic regions of their institutions and their fields of study. This study is also intended to reveal any possible relationship between the academics' English proficiency and their age. The results indicate that the English proficiency of the academics on the average is far below the average of that of the international students. The academics in West Java are the highest in their English proficiency, and the English group, as expected, has the best English proficiency. In addition, there is a negative correlation between English proficiency and age

  7. Age-related differences in practice-dependent resting-state functional connectivity related to motor sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Wens, Vincent; Op de Beeck, Marc; Leproult, Rachel; De Tiège, Xavier; Peigneux, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    Decreased neural plasticity is observed with healthy ageing in the primary sensorimotor (SM1) cortex thought to participate in motor learning and memory consolidation processes. In the present magnetoencephalography study, the post-training reorganization of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and its relation with motor learning and early consolidation in 14 young (19-30 years) and 14 old (66-70 years) healthy participants were investigated. At the behavioral level, participants were trained on a motor sequence learning task then retested 20-30 min later for transient offline gains in performance. Using a sensorimotor seed-based approach, rsFC relying on beta band power envelope correlation was estimated immediately before and 10 min after the learning episode. Post-training changes in rsFC (from before to after learning) were correlated with motor learning performance and with the offline improvement in performance within the hour after learning. Young and old participants exhibited differential patterns of sensorimotor-related rsFC, bearing specific relationships with motor learning and consolidation. Our findings suggest that rsFC changes following learning reflect the offline processing of the new motor skill and contribute to the early memory consolidation within the hour after learning. Furthermore, differences in post-training changes in rsFC between young and old participants support the hypothesis that ageing modulates the neural circuits underlying the learning of a new motor skill and the early subsequent consolidation stages. Hum Brain Mapp 38:923-937, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Concurrent validity of the wide range assessment of visual motor abilities in typically developing children ages 4 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obler, Doris R; Avi-Itzhak, Tamara

    2011-10-01

    Pediatric clinicians working with school-age children use the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) as a method for evaluating visual perception and motor skills in children despite limited information on concurrent validity. Whether it may be substituted for the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) and has suitable estimates of concurrent validity were examined with a convenience sample of 91 typically developing children ages 4 to 11 years. No systematic concurrent validity between the WRAVMA and the VMI emerged. Only two subtests of the WRAVMA (Matching with Visual Perception, and Pegboard with Motor Coordination) gave scores statistically significantly correlated with those on the VMI, and these correlations were weak, accounting for very small amounts of the shared variance. As such, they have low clinical relevance. These findings do not provide evidence of concurrent validity to support the use of WRAVMA as an alternative method for the VMI for assessing children's visual perception and motor skills.

  9. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Anneke; Sagvolden, Terje

    2006-10-09

    Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1) Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2) Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3) Are there gender differences? (4) Is there an effect of age? (5) Are there differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand? A total of 528 children (264 classified as having symptoms of ADHD and 264 matched comparisons) of both genders and from seven different South African ethnic groups participated in the study. They were assessed with three simple, easy to administer instruments which measure various functions of motor speed and eye-hand coordination: The Grooved Pegboard, the Maze Coordination Task, and the Finger Tapping Test. The results were analysed as a function of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance. The findings indicate that children with symptoms of ADHD performed significantly poorer on the Grooved Pegboard and Motor Coordination Task, but not on the Finger Tapping Test than their comparisons without ADHD symptoms. The impairment was most severe for the subtype with symptoms of ADHD-C (combined) and less severe for the subtypes with symptoms of ADHD-PI (predominantly inattentive) and ADHD-HI (predominantly hyperactive/impulsive). With few exceptions, both genders were equally affected while there were only slight differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand. The deficiencies in motor control were mainly confined to the younger age group (6-9 yr). An association between the symptoms of ADHD and motor problems was demonstrated in terms of accuracy and speed in fairly complex tasks, but not in simple motor tests of speed. This deficiency is found mainly in the children with ADHD-C symptoms, but also to a

  10. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Anneke

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1 Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2 Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3 Are there gender differences? (4 Is there an effect of age? (5 Are there differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand? Method A total of 528 children (264 classified as having symptoms of ADHD and 264 matched comparisons of both genders and from seven different South African ethnic groups participated in the study. They were assessed with three simple, easy to administer instruments which measure various functions of motor speed and eye-hand coordination: The Grooved Pegboard, the Maze Coordination Task, and the Finger Tapping Test. The results were analysed as a function of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance. Results The findings indicate that children with symptoms of ADHD performed significantly poorer on the Grooved Pegboard and Motor Coordination Task, but not on the Finger Tapping Test than their comparisons without ADHD symptoms. The impairment was most severe for the subtype with symptoms of ADHD-C (combined and less severe for the subtypes with symptoms of ADHD-PI (predominantly inattentive and ADHD-HI (predominantly hyperactive/impulsive. With few exceptions, both genders were equally affected while there were only slight differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand. The deficiencies in motor control were mainly confined to the younger age group (6 – 9 yr. Conclusion An association between the symptoms of ADHD and motor problems was demonstrated in terms of accuracy and speed in fairly complex tasks, but not in simple motor tests of speed. This deficiency is found

  11. Evaluation of relations between body posture parameters with somatic features and motor abilities of boys aged 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Lizis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Body posture is an individual characteristic for everyone, it shows great differentiation – especially in people during their progressive development. As a result, the variability of the development and lack of physical activity impose body posture defects in children and youth. In the literature there is a great lack of measureable data on the relations between correct body posture with somatic features, especially motor features in children at the developing age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations between correct body posture parameters, measured with the photogrammetric method, with some of the somatic features and motor abilities of boys at the age of 14. [b]material and methods[/b]. The study included 133 boys aged 14 attending junior secondary schools in the Kraków area of Poland. Only boys with the correct body posture were examined. Posture was examined by the Moire method, through which six parameters were obtained in the sagittal plane, seven in the frontal plane, and one in the transverse plane. The somatic measurements included basic parameters, such as body weight and body height. The measurements of motor features included: marching balance test, speed movement test of the arms and their functional strength. To evaluate the relationships between correct body posture with the characteristics of somatic and motor abilities, the Spearman rank correlation was used. The lowest level of statistical significance was accepted at p ≤ 0,05. [b]results[/b]. No correlations were noted between some of the correct body posture features and the somatic features, and some of the motor abilities of the examined boys at the level of p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.01. [b]conclusions[/b]. The irregular correlation between the correct body posture and somatic and motor features probably results from the rather big development variability of the boys during puberty.

  12. Interrelationships among Age, Sex, and Depth of Sport Experience on a Complex Motor Task by 4- to 9-Year Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Jolynn S.; Beitel, Patricia A.

    Age, gender, and/or previous experience seem to be related to the performance/learning of new perceptual motor tasks. This study sought to determine the relative interrelationships of age, gender, and the depth of sport experience on initial practice of a complex perceptual motor soccer task for 46 children 4- to 9-years-old who were enrolled in a…

  13. Motor and Tactile-Perceptual Skill Differences between Individuals with High-Functioning Autism and Typically Developing Individuals Ages 5-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Dahab, Sana M. N.; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Holm, Margo B.; Rogers, Joan C.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    We examined motor and tactile-perceptual skills in individuals with high-functioning autism (IHFA) and matched typically developing individuals (TDI) ages 5-21 years. Grip strength, motor speed and coordination were impaired in IHFA compared to matched TDI, and the differences between groups varied with age. Although tactile-perceptual skills of…

  14. Sleep spindle and slow wave frequency reflect motor skill performance in primary school-age children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astill, Rebecca G; Piantoni, Giovanni; Raymann, Roy J E M; Vis, Jose C; Coppens, Joris E; Walker, Matthew P; Stickgold, Robert; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: The role of sleep in the enhancement of motor skills has been studied extensively in adults. We aimed to determine involvement of sleep and characteristics of spindles and slow waves in a motor skill in children. Hypothesis: We hypothesized sleep-dependence of skill enhancement a

  15. Does transcranial direct current stimulation enhance cognitive and motor functions in the ageing brain? A systematic review and meta- analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Jeffery J; Kang, Nyeonju; Cauraugh, James H

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to enhance cognitive and motor functions has enjoyed a massive increase in popularity. Modifying neuroplasticity via non-invasive cortical stimulation has enormous potential to slow or even reverse declines in functions associated with ageing. The current meta-analysis evaluated the effects of tDCS on cognitive and motor performance in healthy older adults. Of the 81 studies identified, 25 qualified for inclusion. A random effects model meta-analysis revealed a significant overall standardized mean difference equal to 0.53 (SE=0.09; medium heterogeneity: I(2)=57.08%; and high fail-safe: N=448). Five analyses on moderator variables indicated significant tDCS beneficial effects: (a) on both cognitive and motor task performances, (b) across a wide-range of cognitive tasks, (c) on specific brain areas, (d) stimulation offline (before) or online (during) the cognitive and motor tasks. Although the meta-analysis revealed robust support for enhancing both cognitive and motor performance, we outline a number of caveats on the use of tDCS.

  16. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane F. Maggi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to compare the motor coordination, cognitive, and functional development of preterm and term children at the age of 4 years. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study of 124 four-year-old children, distributed in two different groups, according to gestational age and birth weight, paired by gender, age, and socioeconomic level. All children were evaluated by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition (MABC-2, the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI, and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS. RESULTS: preterm children had worse performance in all tests, and 29.1% of the preterm and 6.5% of term groups had scores on the MABC-2 indicative of motor coordination disorder (p = 0.002. In the CMMS (p = 0.034, the median of the standardized score for the preterm group was 99.0 (± 13.75 and 103.0 (± 12.25 for the term group; on the PEDI, preterm children showed more limited skill repertoire (p = 0.001 and required more assistance from the caregiver (p = 0.010 than term children. CONCLUSION: this study reinforced the evidence that preterm children from different socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have motor, cognitive, and functional development impairment, detectable before school age, than their term peers.

  17. Diffusion tensor imaging correlates of cognitive-motor decline in normal aging and increased Alzheimer's disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Kara M; Goyal, Aman I; Sergio, Lauren E

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is typically associated with impairments in memory and other aspects of cognition, while deficits in complex movements are commonly observed later in the course of the disease. Recent studies, however, have indicated that subtle deteriorations in visuomotor control under cognitively demanding conditions may in fact be an early identifying feature of AD. Our previous work has shown that the ability to perform visuomotor tasks that rely on visual-spatial and rule-based transformations is disrupted in prodromal and preclinical AD. Here, in a sample of 30 female participants (10 young: mean age = 26.6 ± 2.7, 10 low AD risk: mean age = 58.7 ± 5.6, and 10 high AD risk: mean age = 58.5 ± 6.9), we test the hypothesis that these cognitive-motor impairments are associated with early AD-related brain alterations. Using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we examined changes in white matter (WM) integrity associated with normal aging and increased AD risk, and assessed the relationship between these underlying WM alterations and cognitive-motor performance. Our whole-brain analysis revealed significant age-related declines in WM integrity, which were more widespread in high relative to low AD risk participants. Furthermore, analysis of mean diffusivity measures within isolated WM clusters revealed a stepwise decline in WM integrity across young, low AD risk, and high AD risk groups. In support of our hypothesis, we also observed that lower WM integrity was associated with poorer cognitive-motor performance. These results are the first to demonstrate a relationship between AD-related WM alterations and impaired cognitive-motor control. The application of these findings may provide a novel clinical strategy for the early detection of individuals at increased AD risk.

  18. Motor neuron disease mortality and lifetime petrol lead exposure: Evidence from national age-specific and state-level age-standardized death rates in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Sammy; Laidlaw, Mark A S; Rowe, Dominic B; Ball, Andrew S; Mielke, Howard W

    2017-02-01

    The age standardized death rate from motor neuron disease (MND) for persons 40-84 years of age in the Australian States of New South Wales, Victoria, and Queensland increased dramatically from 1958 to 2013. Nationally, age-specific MND death rates also increased over this time period, but the rate of the rise varied considerably by age-group. The historic use of lead (Pb) additives in Australian petrol is a candidate explanation for these trends in MND mortality (International Classification of Disease (ICD)-10 G12.2). Leveraging temporal and spatial variation in petrol lead exposure risk resulting from the slow rise and rapid phase-out of lead as a constituent in gasoline in Australia, we analyze relationships between (1) national age-specific MND death rates in Australia and age-specific lifetime petrol lead exposure, (2) annual between-age dispersions in age-specific MND death rates and age-specific lifetime petrol lead exposure; and (3) state-level age-standardized MND death rates as a function of age-weighted lifetime petrol lead exposure. Other things held equal, we find that a one percent increase in lifetime petrol lead exposure increases the MND death rate by about one-third of one percent in both national age-specific and state-level age-standardized models of MND mortality. Lending support to the supposition that lead exposure is a driver of MND mortality risk, we find that the annual between-age group standard deviation in age-specific MND death rates is strongly correlated with the between-age standard deviation in age-specific lifetime petrol lead exposure. Legacy petrol lead emissions are associated with age-specific MND death rates as well as state-level age-standardized MND death rates in Australia. Results indicate that we are approaching peak lead exposure-attributable MND mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between Age Cognitive Decline and Performance of Cognitive Motor Tasks in Seniors

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    Jiří Mudrák

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between Age Cognitive Decline and Performance of Cognitive Motor Tasks in Seniors Relationship between the age-related cognitive decline and decline in cognitive processing speed, in a variety of cognitive motor tasks was examined. The sample consisted of 33 well-adjusted older adults (on average 68 years old, recruited from several physical activity programs. The participants performed five cognitive tests selected from the Vienna test system battery. Subsequently, the relationship of their age and the measures of cognitive function was analyzed. It was found that the age of respondents was related only to their performance in complex tasks which included a processing speed component. The participant’s performance in simple tasks and in measures unaffected by processing speed was unrelated to age. Results are consistent with the processing speed theory of adult age differences in cognition (Salthouse, 1996. Furthermore, the performance in complex cognitive tasks was influenced by the level of participation in leisure physical activities; this suggests that physically active lifestyle may limit the impact of age on cognitive function. Stárnutí a rychlost zpracování kognitivních funkcí V předkládáné studii se zabýváme některými aspekty věkem podmíněného úbytku kognitivních funkcí. Konkrétně zkoumáme předpoklady vycházející z teorie rychlosti zpracování (Salthouse, 1996 týkající se toho, že věkem podmíněný pokles kognitivních funkcí je dán především poklesem rychlosti kognitivních procesů, což se projevuje především u komplexních kognitivních úkolů. Vzorek v naší studii se skládal z 33 seniorů a seniorek (průměrný věk byl 68 let, které jsme oslovili prostřednictvím několika programů pro seniory. Respondenti byli testováni prostřednictvím pěti testů kognitivních funkcí, které jsme vybrali z testové baterie Vienna test systém. Následně jsme analyzovali

  20. Influence of L2 Proficiency on Speech Movement Variability: Production of Prosodic Contrasts by Bengali-English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of age of immersion and proficiency in a second language on speech movement consistency in both a first and a second language. Ten monolingual speakers of English and 20 Bengali-English bilinguals (10 with low L2 proficiency and 10 with high L2 proficiency) participated. Lip movement variability was assessed based…

  1. Compensation aids skilled reaching in aging and in recovery from forelimb motor cortex stroke in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaverdashvili, M; Whishaw, I Q

    2010-04-28

    Compensatory movements mediate success in skilled reaching for food after stroke to the forelimb region of motor cortex (MtCx) in the rat. The present study asks whether the neural plasticity that enables compensation after motor stroke is preserved in aging. In order to avoid potential confounding effects of age-related negative-learning, rats were trained in a single pellet reaching task during young-adulthood. Subgroups were retested before and after contralateral forelimb MtCx stroke via pial stripping given at 3, 18, or 23 months of age. Over a two-month post-stroke rehabilitation period, end point measures were made of learned nonuse, recovery, retention, and performance ratings were made of reaching movement elements. Prior to stroke, young and aged rats maintained equivalent end point performance but older rats displayed compensatory changes in limb use as measured with ratings of the elements of forelimb movement. Following stroke, the aged groups of rats were more impaired on end point, movement, and anatomical measures. Nevertheless, the aged rats displayed substantial recovery via the use of compensatory movements. Thus, this study demonstrates that the neural plasticity that mediates compensatory movements after stroke in young adults is preserved prior to and following stroke in aging.

  2. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo,Elyonara M.; Rejane V. Gonçalves; Marisa C. Mancini

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulat...

  3. Correlations between brain activity and components of motor learning in middle-aged adults: An fMRI study

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    Katie P Wadden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Implicit learning may be shown by improvements in motor performance, which occur unconsciously with practice and are typically restricted to the task that was practiced. The purpose of this study was to examine behaviorally relevant brain activation associated with change in motor behaviour during sequence-specific motor learning of a perceptuomotor continuous tracking (CT task in middle-aged adults. To gain further insight into the neural structures associated with change in motor behaviour, overall improvement in tracking (root mean square error; RMSE was decomposed into two components – temporal precision and spatial accuracy. A group of middle-aged healthy individuals performed the CT task, which contains repeated and random segments for seven days. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data was collected on the first and seventh day while the participants performed the task. To assess behaviorally relevant changes in the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD response associated with individual sequence-specific tracking performance, separate statistical images were created for each participant and weighted by the difference score between repeated and random performance for days 1 and 7. On Day 7 the resultant group statistical fMRI image demonstrated a positive correlation between RMSE difference score and bilateral cerebellar activation (lobule VI. In addition, individuals who showed greater sequence-specific temporal precision demonstrated increased activation in the precentral gyrus, middle occipital gyrus and putamen of the right hemisphere and the thalamus, cuneus and cerebellum of the left hemisphere. In the present study, behavioral performance was associated with neural correlates of individual variation in motor learning that characterized the ability to implicitly learn a sequence-specific CT task.

  4. Maternal medical conditions during pregnancy and gross motor development up to age 24 months in the Upstate KIDS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassabian, Akhgar; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Wylie, Amanda; Bell, Erin; Bello, Scott C; Yeung, Edwina

    2016-07-01

    We examined whether children of mothers with a medical condition diagnosed before or during pregnancy took longer to achieve gross motor milestones up to age 24 months. We obtained information on medical conditions using self-reports, birth certificates, and hospital records in 4909 mothers participating in Upstate KIDS, a population-based birth cohort. Mothers reported on their children's motor milestone achievement at 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. After adjustment for covariates (including pre-pregnancy body mass index), children of mothers with gestational diabetes took longer to achieve sitting without support (hazard ratio [HR]=0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-0.93), walking with assistance (HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.98), and walking alone (HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.99) than children of females with no gestational diabetes. Similar findings emerged for maternal diabetes. Gestational hypertension was associated with a longer time to achieve walking with assistance. These associations did not change after adjustment for gestational age or birthweight. Severe hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were related to a longer time to achieve milestones, but not after adjustment for perinatal factors. Children exposed to maternal diabetes, gestational or pre-gestational, may take longer to achieve motor milestones than non-exposed children, independent of maternal obesity. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  5. The Click Test: A Novel Tool to Quantify the Age-Related Decline of Fast Motor Sequencing of the Thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodranghien, Florian; Mahé, Helene; Baude, Benjamin; Manto, Mario U; Busegnies, Yves; Camut, Stéphane; Habas, Christophe; Marien, Peter; de Marco, Giovanni; van Dun, Kim

    2017-05-10

    The thumb plays a critical role for manual tasks during the activities of daily life and the incidence of neurological or musculoskeletal disorders affecting the voluntary movements of the thumb is high in the elderly. There is currently no tool to assess repetitive motor sequencing of the thumb during ageing. To report a novel procedure (the Click Test) assessing the effects of ageing on fast motor sequencing of the thumb. Healthy subjects (n = 252; mean age +/- SD: 49.76 +/- 19.97 years; range: 19-89 years; F/M: 151/101) were asked to perform fast repeated flexion/extension movements of the thumb using a mechanical counter. Motor performances (assessed by the number of clicks during 3 time periods: 15, 30 and 45 sec), significantly decreased as a function of age for both the dominant (age effect; p < 0.0001 for 15, 30 and 45 sec) and the non-dominant hand (p < 0.0001 for 15, 30 and 45 sec). The number of clicks was significantly higher in males (gender effect; p < 0.001) and was higher on the dominant side as compared to the non-dominant side (handedness effect: p < 0.001). The Click Test is characterized by high repeatability (coefficients of variation from 3.20 to 4.47%), excellent intra-rater reliability (intra-class coefficients ICC ranging from 0.89 to 0.98), high inter-rater reproducibility (Pearson's product correlation ranging from 0.85 to 0.96), high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha coefficient = 0.95) and is highly correlated in terms of relative performances with the box and block test and the 9-hole peg test (positive linear correlation with the results of the box and block test: p < 0.001 for 15, 30 and 45 sec for both the dominant and the non-dominant hand; negative linear correlation with the results of the 9-hole peg test: p < 0.001 for 15, 30 and 45 sec for both the dominant and the non-dominant hand). The Click Test is an entirely novel and very low cost tool to reliably discriminate the ageing effects upon the performances during fast

  6. Motor Impairment in Sibling Pairs Concordant and Discordant for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Claudia List; Zhang, Yi; Whilte, Megan R.; Klohr, Cheryl L.; Constantino, John

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Although motor impairment is frequently observed in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the manner in which these impairments aggregate in families affected by autism is unknown. We used a standardized measure of motor proficiency to objectively examine quantitative variation in motor proficiency in sibling pairs concordant and…

  7. A Progress Report: The Relationship Between Mother-Infant Interaction and Sensory-Motor Development According to Age, Sex and Social Class Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Frank; And Others

    This paper describes the purposes and procedures of a longitudinal study designed to: (1) relate mother-infant interaction patterns to infant age, sex, and social class; (2) relate mother-infant interaction patterns to infant sensory-motor development; and (3) to examine the relationship between infant sensory-motor development and infant sex and…

  8. Qualitative alteration of peripheral motor system begins prior to appearance of typical sarcopenia syndrome in middle-aged rats

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    Tetsuro eTamaki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative changes in the peripheral motor system were examined using Young, Adult, Middle-aged and Old-aged rats in order to assess before and after the appearance of sarcopenia symptoms. Significant loss of muscle mass and strength, and slow-type fiber grouping with a loss of innervated nerve fibers were used as typical markers of sarcopenia. Dynamic twitch and tetanus tension and evoked electromyogram (EEMG were measured via electrical stimulation through the sciatic nerve under anesthesia using our force-distance transducer system before and after sciatectomy. Digital and analogue data sampling was performed and shortening and relaxing velocity of serial twitches was calculated with tension force. Muscle tenderness in passive stretching was also measured as stretch absorption ability, associated with histological quantitation of muscle connective tissues. The results indicated the validity of the present model, in which Old-aged rats clearly showed the typical signs of sarcopenia, specifically in the fast-type plantaris muscles, while the slow-type soleus showed relatively mild syndromes. These observations suggest the following qualitative alterations as the pathophysiological mechanism of sarcopenia: 1 reduction of shortening and relaxing velocity of twitch; 2 decline of muscle tenderness following an increase in the connective tissue component; 3 impaired recruitment of motor units (sudden depression of tetanic force and EEMG in higher stimulation frequencies over 50-60 Hz; and 4 easy fatigability in the neuromuscular junctions. These findings are likely to be closely related to significant losses in fast-type motor units, muscle strength and contraction velocity, which could be a causative factor in falls in the elderly. Importantly, some of these symptoms began in Middle-aged rats that showed no other signs of sarcopenia. Thus, prevention should be started in middle age that could be retained relatively higher movement ability.

  9. Desenvolvimento motor de crianças pré-termo moderadas aos sete e oito anos de idade Motor development of moderate preterm children at seven and eight years of age

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    Ana Cristina Resende Camargos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Crianças pré-termo podem apresentar distúrbios leves do desenvolvimento motor, que podem ser imperceptíveis até a idade pré-escolar ou escolar. O objetivo desse estudo foi comparar o desenvolvimento motor de crianças pré-termo moderadas com crianças a termo aos sete e oito anos de idade. Foram coletados dados de 13 crianças pré-termo e 13 crianças a termo de uma escola da rede municipal de Betim. Foi utilizada a Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor para avaliar motricidade fina, motricidade global, equilíbrio, esquema corporal, organização espacial e organização temporal, bem como a idade motora geral e o quociente motor geral. O teste Mann-Whitney foi utilizado para comparar as idades motoras e os quocientes motores entre os grupos. Foi encontrada diferença significativa somente nos valores da motricidade fina entre os grupos (p=0,01, sendo que o grupo pré-termo apresentou desempenho inferior. Dessa forma, crianças pré-termo moderadas que não apresentam características de alto risco biológico ao nascimento também podem necessitar de acompanhamento ambulatorial até a idade escolar.Preterm children may have light motor developmental impairments, which may be imperceptible until pre-school age or even school age. The aim of this study was to compare the motor development of moderate preterm children with full-term ones at seven and eight years of age. Data from 13 preterm and 13 full-term children were collected from a public school in Betim-MG. The Motor Development Scale was used to access fine and global motricity, balance, body scheme, spatial organization, time organization, as well as general motor age and general motor quotient. The Mann-Whitney's Test was used to compare the motor ages and motor quotients between the groups. A significant difference was only found in the fine motricity values between the groups (p=0.01, the preterm group having shown a poorer performance. Therefore, moderate preterm children who do not

  10. Kinematic analysis of motor strategies in frail aged adults during the Timed Up and Go: how to spot the motor frailty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Asma; Kubicki, Alexandre; Brost, Vincent; Mourey, France; Yang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to analyze and compare the movement kinematics of sit-to-stand (STS) and back-to-sit (BTS) transfers between frail aged adults and young subjects, as well as to determine the relationship between kinematic changes and functional capacities. We analyzed the Timed Up and Go (TUG) movements by using a 3D movement analysis system for real-time balance assessment in frail elderly. Ten frail aged adults (frail group [FG]) and ten young subjects (young group [YG]) performed the TUG. Seven spatiotemporal parameters were extracted and compared between the two groups. Moreover, these parameters were plotted with TUG test duration. The experiments revealed that there were significant differences between FG and YG in trunk angle during both STS and BTS, and in TUG duration. The trunk angle of the young subjects was more than two times higher than that of the FG. As expected, the TUG duration was higher in the FG than in YG. Trunk angles during both transfers were the most different parameters between the groups. However, the BTS trunk angle and STS ratio were more linked to functional capacities. There was a relationship between kinematic changes, representing the motor planning strategies, and physical frailty in these aged adults. These changes should be taken into account in clinical practice.

  11. Increased prospective memory interference in normal and pathological aging: different roles of motor and verbal processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J L; Cheung, R T F; Chan, Y S; Chu, L W; Lee, T M C

    2013-01-01

    This is a study on prospective memory (PM) and the PM interference effect in normal and pathological aging. One hundred and seven subjects, including 41 healthy young adults, 40 non-demented older adults and 26 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) participated in this study using a laboratory event-based PM task. PM task performance was comparable between the non-demented older and young adults, but impaired in the AD patients. The PM interference effect increased progressively from the healthy young adults, the non-demented older adults, to the AD patients. Path analysis revealed that the possible mechanism mediating the increased PM interference was the slow motor processing speed in normal aging, while it was the slow verbal speed in pathological aging. It is suggested that different neuropsychological mechanisms may underpin the affected performance of PM task in normal and pathological aging.

  12. The effects of perceptual motor development programs on balance and quickness at preschool children aged between 4 and 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Tüfekçioğlu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Preschool is the term that allows the most positive and permanent contributions to movements skills to be realized. This term includes the development stages that may shape whole life. It is known that, apporpriate education programs in sensitive age terms accelerate development at children. Therefore, the effects of perceptual motor development programs on balance and qucikness will be examined in this study.Pre-test Post-test control group model is carried out  in this study. 62 children, consisting of 30 for test group and 32 for control gorup and ages of which changing between 4 and 6 were participated in this study. Perceptual motor development activities were applied on test group for a period of 14 weeks and pre-test and post-test differences were analized by independent samples t test between the groups. Consequently; while significant differences (p<0.01 were seen at within-group measurements, there was no significant difference at between-group measurements (p>0.05 at the pre-test post test values of motor performance of test group and control gorup.

  13. The effects of perceptual motor development programs on balance and quickness at preschool children aged between 4 and 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Tüfekçioğlu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Preschool is the term that allows the most positive and permanent contributions to movements skills to be realized. This term includes the development stages that may shape whole life. It is known that, apporpriate education programs in sensitive age terms accelerate development at children. Therefore, the effects of perceptual motor development programs on balance and qucikness will be examined in this study.Pre-test Post-test control group model is carried out in this study. 62 children, consisting of 30 for test group and 32 for control gorup and ages of which changing between 4 and 6 were participated in this study. Perceptual motor development activities were applied on test group for a period of 14 weeks and pre-test and post-test differences were analized by independent samples t test between the groups. Consequently; while significant differences (p0.05 at the pre-test post test values of motor performance of test group and control gorup.

  14. Regulatory instrument review: Aging management of LWR cables, containment and basemat, reactor coolant pumps, and motor-operated valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werry, E.V.; Somasundaram, S.

    1995-09-01

    The results of Stage 2 of the Regulatory Instrument Review are presented in this volume. Selected regulatory instruments, such as the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Regulatory Guides, and ASME Codes, were investigated to determine the extent to which these regulations apply aging management to selected safety-related components in nuclear power plants. The Regulatory Instrument Review was funded by the NRC under the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. Stage 2 of the review focused on four safety-related structures and components; namely, cables, containment and basemat, reactor coolant pumps, and motor-operated valves. The review suggests that the primary-emphasis of the regulatory instruments was on the design, construction, start-up, and operation of a nuclear power plant, and that aging issues were primarily addressed after an aging-related problem was recognized. This Stage 2 review confirms the results of the prior review; (see Regulatory Instrument Review: Management of Aging of LWR Major Safety-Related Components NUREG/CR-5490. The observations indicate that the regulations generally address management of age-related degradation indirectly. Specific age-related degradation phenomena frequently are dealt with in bulletins and notices or through generic issues, letters, etc. The major recommendation of this report, therefore, is that the regulatory instruments should more directly and explicitly address the aging phenomenon and the management of the age-related degradation process.

  15. A window of opportunity? Motor skills and perceptions of competence of children in Kindergarten

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    LeGear Mark

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to examine the relationship between motor skill proficiency and perceptions of competence of children in their first year of school. We also explored gender-based differences. Findings Participants were 260 kindergarten children (mean age = 5y 9 m; boys = 52% from eight schools; representing 78% of eligible children in those schools. Motor skills were measured using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and perceptions of physical competence were assessed using the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children. Motor skill scores were generally low (percentile ranks ranged from 16 - 24 but perceptions of physical competence were positive (boys = 18.1/24.0, girls = 19.5/24.0. A MANOVA showed a significant overall effect for gender (Wilk's lambda = .84 with F (3, 254 = 15.84, p Conclusions Although motor skill levels were quite low, the children generally held positive perceptions of their physical competence. These positive perceptions provide a window of opportunity for fostering skillfulness. The modest relationships between perceptions of competence and motor skill proficiency suggest that the children are beginning to make self-judgments at a young age. Accordingly, opportunities for children to become and feel physically competent need to occur early in their school or preschool life.

  16. Motor performance and functional ability in preschool- and early school-aged children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: a cross-sectional study

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    Takken Tim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe the level of motor performance and functional skills in young children with JIA. Methods In a cross-sectional study in 56 preschool-aged (PSA and early school- aged children (ESA with JIA according to ILAR classification, motor performance was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC. Functional skills were measured with the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI. Disease outcome was measured with a joint count on swelling/range of joint motion, functional ability and joint pain. Results Twenty two PSA children (mean age 2.1 years with a mean Developmental Index of the BSID2 of 77.9 indicating a delayed motor performance; 45% of PSA children showed a severe delayed motor performance. Mean PEDI scores were normal, 38% of PSA scored below -2 SD in one or more domains of the PEDI. Thirty four ESA children (mean age 5.2 years with a mean M-ABC 42.7, indicating a normal motor performance, 12% of ESA children had an abnormal score. Mean PEDI scores showed impaired mobility skills, 70% of ESA children scored below -2 SD in one or more domains of the PEDI. Disease outcome in both age groups demonstrated low to moderate scores. Significant correlations were found between age at disease onset, disease duration and BSID2 or M-ABC and between disease outcome and PEDI in both age cohorts. Conclusion More PSA children have more impaired motor performance than impaired functional skills, while ESA children have more impairment in functional skills. Disease onset and disease duration are correlated with motor performance in both groups. Impaired motor performance and delayed functional skills is primarily found in children with a polyarticular disease course. Clinical follow up and rehabilitation programs should also focus on motor performance and functional skills development in young children with JIA.

  17. THE RELATIONS BETWEEN BODY COMPOSITION AND MOTORICAL SKILLS BY THE CHILDREN OF AGE 7

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    Sabolč Halaši

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available On the example of 125 respondents, 65 boys and 63 girls at 7.39 decimal years, who attended first grade at Primary Schools „Majšanski Put“ and „Jovan Jovanovic Zmaj“ from Subotica, basical antropometrical characteristics are measured, general motorical skills are proved on the basis of 7 motorical tests, body composition is showed by In Body 230 machine. With regressive analysis it is proved that the predictorical system of variables for the percentage of body composition (the whole quantity of body fat, water and muscles is statistically significantly connected with the criteria defined as general motorical factor and with that it is described that 39 % of boys and 34 % of girls have the same variables. Standardized regressional coefficient showed that by boys and girls at 7.39 decimal years the whole quantity of body fat and body weight have a statistically negative influence on general motorics, and by girls body height has a statistically positive influence on it.

  18. Co-occurrence of TDP-43 mislocalization with reduced activity of an RNA editing enzyme, ADAR2, in aged mouse motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideyama, Takuto; Teramoto, Sayaka; Hachiga, Kosuke; Yamashita, Takenari; Kwak, Shin

    2012-01-01

    TDP-43 pathology in spinal motor neurons is a neuropathological hallmark of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and has recently been shown to be closely associated with the downregulation of an RNA editing enzyme called adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) in the motor neurons of sporadic ALS patients. Because TDP-43 pathology is found more frequently in the brains of elderly patients, we investigated the age-related changes in the TDP-43 localization and ADAR2 activity in mouse motor neurons. We found that ADAR2 was developmentally upregulated, and its mRNA expression level was progressively decreased in the spinal cords of aged mice. Motor neurons normally exhibit nuclear ADAR2 and TDP-43 immunoreactivity, whereas fast fatigable motor neurons in aged mice demonstrated a loss of ADAR2 and abnormal TDP-43 localization. Importantly, these motor neurons expressed significant amounts of the Q/R site-unedited AMPA receptor subunit 2 (GluA2) mRNA. Because expression of unedited GluA2 has been demonstrated as a lethality-causing molecular abnormality observed in the motor neurons, these results suggest that age-related decreases in ADAR2 activity play a mechanistic role in aging and serve as one of risk factors for ALS.

  19. Developmental outcomes at preschool age after fetal exposure to valproic acid and lamotrigine: cognitive, motor, sensory and behavioral function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihtman, Tanya; Parush, Shula; Ornoy, Asher

    2013-11-01

    This prospective, observational study assessed the development of preschool children aged 3-6 years, 11 months (n=124) after in-utero anti-epileptic drug (AED) monotherapy exposure to valproic acid (VPA) (n=30, mean age 52.00[±15.22] months) and lamotrigine (LT) (n=42, mean age 50.12[±12.77] months), compared to non-exposed control children (n=52, mean age 59.96[±14.51] months). As a combined group, AED-exposed children showed reduced non-verbal IQ scores, and lower scores on motor measures, sensory measures, and parent-report executive function, behavioral and attentional measures. When the VPA- and LT-exposed groups were analyzed separately, no cognitive differences were found, but control-VPA and control-LT differences emerged for most motor and sensory measures as well as control-VPA parent-report behavioral and attentional differences. No differences were noted between the VPA and LT groups. These findings suggest that VPA- and LT-exposed children should be monitored on a wider range of developmental measures than currently used, and at differing developmental stages.

  20. Effect of preterm birth on motor development, behavior, and school performance of school-age children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-01-01

    to examine and synthesize the available knowledge in the literature about the effects of preterm birth on the development of school-age children. this was a systematic review of studies published in the past ten years indexed in MEDLINE/Pubmed, MEDLINE/BVS; LILACS/BVS; IBECS/BVS; Cochrane/BVS, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycNET in three languages (Portuguese, Spanish, and English). Observational and experimental studies that assessed motor development and/or behavior and/or academic performance and whose target-population consisted of preterm children aged 8 to 10 years were included. Article quality was assessed by the Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scales; articles that did not achieve a score of 80% or more were excluded. the electronic search identified 3,153 articles, of which 33 were included based on the eligibility criteria. Only four studies found no effect of prematurity on the outcomes (two articles on behavior, one on motor performance and one on academic performance). Among the outcomes of interest, behavior was the most searched (20 articles, 61%), followed by academic performance (16 articles, 48%) and motor impairment (11 articles, 33%). premature infants are more susceptible to motor development, behavior and academic performance impairment when compared to term infants. These types of impairments, whose effects are manifested in the long term, can be prevented through early parental guidance, monitoring by specialized professionals, and interventions. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of preterm birth on motor development, behavior, and school performance of school-age children: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela S. Moreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to examine and synthesize the available knowledge in the literature about the effects of preterm birth on the development of school-age children. SOURCES: This was a systematic review of studies published in the past ten years indexed in MEDLINE/Pubmed, MEDLINE/BVS; LILACS/BVS; IBECS/BVS; Cochrane/BVS, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycNET in three languages (Portuguese, Spanish, and English. Observational and experimental studies that assessed motor development and/or behavior and/or academic performance and whose target-population consisted of preterm children aged 8 to 10 years were included. Article quality was assessed by the Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scales; articles that did not achieve a score of 80% or more were excluded. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: the electronic search identified 3,153 articles, of which 33 were included based on the eligibility criteria. Only four studies found no effect of prematurity on the outcomes (two articles on behavior, one on motor performance and one on academic performance. Among the outcomes of interest, behavior was the most searched (20 articles, 61%, followed by academic performance (16 articles, 48% and motor impairment (11 articles, 33%. CONCLUSION: premature infants are more susceptible to motor development, behavior and academic performance impairment when compared to term infants. These types of impairments, whose effects are manifested in the long term, can be prevented through early parental guidance, monitoring by specialized professionals, and interventions.

  2. Verb-Noun Collocation Proficiency and Academic Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally vocabulary and collocations in particular have significant roles in language proficiency. A collocation includes two words that are frequently joined concurrently in the memory of native speakers. There have been many linguistic studies trying to define, to describe, and to categorise English collocations. It contains grammatical collocations and lexical collocations which include nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverb. In the context of a foreign language environment such as Iran, collocational proficiency can be useful because it helps the students improve their language proficiency. This paper investigates the possible relationship between verb-noun collocation proficiency among students from one academic year to the next. To reach this goal, a test of verb-noun collocations was administered to Iranian learners. The participants in the study were 212 Iranian students in an Iranian university. They were selected from the second term of freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years. The students’ age ranged from 18 to 35.The results of ANOVA showed there was variability in the verb-noun collocations proficiency within each academic year and between the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests demonstrated that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, and between the third and the fourth academic year; however, students require at least two years to show significant development in verb-noun collocation proficiency.  These findings provided a vital implication that lexical collocations are learnt and developed through four academic years of university, but requires at least two years showing significant development in the language proficiency. Keywords: Language proficiency, Collocation, Communicative Competence, academic year, Iranian EFL learners

  3. The informative value of motor, mental, and moral qualities in the personality structure of preschool children aged 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangelova N.E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was to determine the presence or usefulness of the main components of the relationship of physical and psycho-physiological state in the personality structure of children of preschool age. The experiment involved 107 children aged 4 years (54 male, 53 female. Factor analysis of the structure of the motor system, the intellectual and moral sphere of children. Found that it is determined six orthogonal factors. The results give reason to believe that the development of the physical, intellectual and moral sphere of children of this age is complex. The interpretation of these data in the pedagogical aspect suggests that pre-school children are becoming a person under the influence of biological and psychological factors. Their activation is possible in the process of physical education.

  4. Differential motor alterations in children with three types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Poblano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine frequency of motor alterations in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Method We evaluated 19 children aged 7-12 years with ADHD classified in three sub-types: Combined (ADHD-C, with Inattention (ADHD-I, and with Hyperactivity (ADHD-H. Controls were age- and gender matched healthy children. We utilized Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP for measuring motor skills. Results We observed differences between children with ADHD and controls in BOTMP general score and in static coordination, dynamic general- and hand- coordination, and in synkinetic movements. We also found differences in dynamic hand coordination between controls and children with ADHD-C; in dynamic general coordination between controls and children with ADHD-H; and in frequency of synkinetic movements between controls and children with ADHD-H. Conclusion Children with ADHD with a major degree of hyperactivity showed greater frequency of motor alterations.

  5. Prenatal exposure to low-level methylmercury alters the child's fine motor skills at the age of 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prpić, Igor; Milardović, Ana; Vlašić-Cicvarić, Inge; Špiric, Zdravko; Radić Nišević, Jelena; Vukelić, Petar; Snoj Tratnik, Janja; Mazej, Darja; Horvat, Milena

    2017-01-01

    To compare motor, cognitive and language characteristics in children aged 18 months who were prenatally exposed to low-level methyl-mercury (MeHg), and to analyze the eventual differences in these characteristics in relation to cord blood THg concentration. The total number of 205 child-mother pairs was included in the study, and total cord blood mercury was measured in 198 of them. Out of the 198 already measured samples, 47 of them have also been tested for methyl-mercury in cord blood. Data regarding the 47 samples of MeHg levels has been used for calculating the correlation between cord blood THg and cord blood MeHg. MeHg and THg showed a significant correlation (r=0.95, pskills were conducted on 168 children using The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III). Regarding the cord blood THg concentration, 135 children were divided in 4 quartile groups. Their neurodevelopmental characteristics have been compared. The cord blood THg concentration median and inter-quartile range was 2.98ng/g (1.41-5.61ng/g). There was a negative correlation between cord blood THg concentration and fine motor skills (rho=-0.22, p=0.01). It is evident that children grouped in 2nd ,3rd and 4th quartile had statistically significant lower fine motor skills assessment related to those grouped in 1st quartile (2nd quartile -1.24, p=0.03; 3rd quartile -1.28, p=0.03; 4th quartile -1.45, p=0.01). The differences in fine motor skills assessments between children in 2nd and 3rd and 3rd and 4th quartile were not statistically significant. Intrauterine exposure to low-level THg (MeHg) is associated with alterations in fine motor skills at the age of 18 months. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. ELL High School Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategy Use and Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Nam, Kay

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the metacognitive awareness and reading strategies use of high school-­aged English language learners (ELLs) and the relationship between ELL reading strategy use and reading proficiency as measured by a standardized reading test and self-­rated reading proficiency. Results reveal that participants reported moderate use of…

  7. Development and Validation of the Spanish-English Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyk, Ekaterina; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gorin, Joanna S.; Gray, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the development and validation of a criterion-referenced Spanish-English Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS) that was designed to assess the oral language skills of sequential bilingual children ages 4-8. This article reports results for the English proficiency portion of the scale. Method: The SELPS assesses syntactic…

  8. Qualitative alteration of peripheral motor system begins prior to appearance of typical sarcopenia syndrome in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Tetsuro; Hirata, Maki; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative changes in the peripheral motor system were examined using young, adult, middle-aged, and old-aged rats in order to assess before and after the appearance of sarcopenia symptoms. Significant loss of muscle mass and strength, and slow-type fiber grouping with a loss of innervated nerve fibers were used as typical markers of sarcopenia. Dynamic twitch and tetanus tension and evoked electromyogram (EEMG) were measured via electrical stimulation through the sciatic nerve under anesthesia using our force-distance transducer system before and after sciatectomy. Digital and analog data sampling was performed and shortening and relaxing velocity of serial twitches was calculated with tension force. Muscle tenderness in passive stretching was also measured as stretch absorption ability, associated with histological quantitation of muscle connective tissues. The results indicated the validity of the present model, in which old-aged rats clearly showed the typical signs of sarcopenia, specifically in the fast-type plantaris muscles, while the slow-type soleus showed relatively mild syndromes. These observations suggest the following qualitative alterations as the pathophysiological mechanism of sarcopenia: (1) reduction of shortening and relaxing velocity of twitch; (2) decline of muscle tenderness following an increase in the connective tissue component; (3) impaired recruitment of motor units (MUs) (sudden depression of tetanic force and EEMG) in higher stimulation frequencies over 50-60 Hz; and (4) easy fatigability in the neuromuscular junctions. These findings are likely to be closely related to significant losses in fast-type MUs, muscle strength and contraction velocity, which could be a causative factor in falls in the elderly. Importantly, some of these symptoms began in middle-aged rats that showed no other signs of sarcopenia. Thus, prevention should be started in middle age that could be retained relatively higher movement ability.

  9. Posture and gaze tracking of a vertically moving target reveals age-related constraints in visuo-motor coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotirakis, H; Kyvelidou, A; Stergiou, N; Hatzitaki, V

    2017-07-27

    Previously we have demonstrated that the effect of aging on posture and gaze active tracking of a visual target moving in the horizontal direction is dependent on target's complexity. In this study, we asked whether a similar phenomenon is present when tracking a visual target moving with varying complexity in the vertical direction. Ten young (22.98±2.9years) and 10 older adults (72.45±4.72years) tracked for 120s, a visual target moving vertically by shifting their bodyweight in the anterior-posterior direction. Three target motions were tested: a simple periodic (sine wave), a more complex (Lorenz attractor) and an ultra-complex random (Surrogated Lorenz attractor) pattern. Cross-spectral analysis revealed lower sway-target coherence as a function of age, regardless of target motion's complexity. This age effect was significant for the sway-target gain but not for the phase index. Gaze-target analysis revealed age related differences only when tracking the more complex targets. Regardless of age, tracking of the complex target was associated with lower cross Approximate Entropy. It is concluded that tracking of visual targets oscillating in the vertical direction reveals age related constraints that are independent of visual motion's complexity. These constraints are evident in the spatial and not temporal aspects of visuo-motor coupling, which suggests the presence of neuromuscular deficiencies in controlling visually guided postural sway in the anterior-posterior direction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Motor Development Stimulation on Anthropometric Indices of Infants Aged 1-12 Months in Foster Care Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezou NikNezhad Jalali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first three years of life have a pivotal role in growth and development of infants. Extra-uterine environment largely affects brain development of infants during the first year of life.However,no specific programs are available for brain development stimulation in foster homes. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of motor development stimulation package on anthropometric indices of infants staying in foster homes. Method: This experimental study was conducted on 50 infants aged 1-12 months at Ali Asghar foster home of Mashhad, Iran in 2013. Infants were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (n=25 and control (n=25. Motor development stimulation packages were used for intervention group three times a week for eight consecutive weeks (24 sessions, two hours each. Anthropometric indices of infants were evaluated using standard instruments before and after intervention. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.11.5 using independent T-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: In this study, mean age of infants in intervention and control groups was 6.04±3.48 and 4.3±3.70 months, respectively. In total, 68% of infants were male, and 32% were female. After intervention, Mann-Whitney test results showed no statistically significant difference in height (P=0.47 and head circumference (P=0.11 of infants between the groups. However, independent T-test showed a statistically significant difference in body weight of infants (P=0.007 between the groups after intervention with the stimulation care package. Implications for Practice: According to the results of this study, use of evidence-based motor development stimulation package for eight weeks resulted in increased weight of infants, while it had no effect on height and head circumference. Therefore, it is recommended that complementary studies be conducted in this regard.

  11. Modulation of motor cortical outputs to the reading hand of braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Leone, A; Cammarota, A; Wassermann, E M; Brasil-Neto, J P; Cohen, L G; Hallett, M

    1993-07-01

    We used focal transcranial magnetic stimulation to map the motor cortical areas targeting the first dorsal interosseous and the abductor digiti minimi muscles bilaterally in 10 proficient braille readers and 10 blind controls who were matched for age (mean, 50.6 yr) and age at time of blindness (mean, 7.5 yr). The proficient braille readers had learned braille at age 8 to 14 years and used it daily for 5 to 10 hours. Controls had not learned braille until age 17 to 21 years and used it daily for braille readers, the representation of the first dorsal interosseous muscle in the reading hand was significantly larger than that in the nonreading hand or in either hand of the controls. Conversely, the representation of the abductor digiti minimi muscle in the reading hand was significantly smaller than that in the nonreading hand or in either hand of the controls. These differences were not due to differences in motor thresholds. Our results suggest that the cortical representation of the reading finger in proficient braille readers is enlarged at the expense of the representation of other fingers.

  12. Age-dependent effects of chronic intermittent ethanol treatment: Gross motor behavior and body weight in aged, adult and adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Douglas B; Mittleman, Guy

    2017-09-14

    The proportion of people in the population who are elderly is rapidly increasing. In addition, dangerous alcohol consumption in this demographic is rising. Approximately 33% of all people with an alcohol use disorder are diagnosed with late onset alcoholism. However, few suitable animal models for late onset alcoholism exist, making it difficult to investigate the impact of alcoholism later in life. The current study investigated if chronic intermittent ethanol exposure via intraperitoneal injections every other day for 20days in aged, adult and adolescent male rats differentially alters body weight and impairs gross motor behavior as measured by the aerial righting reflex. The body weight of aged and adult rats were significantly decreased by chronic intermittent ethanol exposure while the body weight of adolescent rats was not impacted. In addition, the aerial righting reflex of aged rats was significantly more impaired by alcohol exposure than the aerial righting reflex of adult or adolescent animals. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure did not produce tolerance in the aerial righting reflex for any of the three age groups. The differential age sensitivity in the aerial righting reflex was not due to differential blood ethanol concentrations. The current work demonstrates the risk factors of chronic alcohol use in the elderly and highlights the need for additional study in this vulnerable demographic. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The Comparison of School-Age Children's Performance on Two Motor Assessments: The Test of Gross Motor Development and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Morera, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Competence in the motor domain is associated with positive, health-related outcomes. Physical education teachers often administer assessments into their programs to measure motor competence for a variety of reasons. Recently, researchers have questioned the relatedness of performance on different assessments. Purpose: The purpose of…

  14. Language proficiency and nursing registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    This discussion paper focuses on English proficiency standards for nursing registration in Australia, how Australia has dealt with the issue of language proficiency, and the factors which have led to the establishment of the current language standards. Also, this paper will provide a comparison of the two language tests that are currently accepted in Australia (OET and IELTS), including the appropriateness of these tests and the minimum standards used. The paper will also examine the use of educational background as an indicator of language proficiency. Finally, communication-based complaints in the post-registration environment will be explored, and some discussion will be provided about why pre-registration measures might have failed to prevent such problematic situations from occurring.

  15. Motor unit number estimates and neuromuscular transmission in the tibialis anterior of master athletes: evidence that athletic older people are not spared from age-related motor unit remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Mathew; Ireland, Alex; Coulson, Jessica; Stashuk, Dan W; Hamilton-Wright, Andrew; Swiecicka, Agnieszka; Rutter, Martin K; McPhee, Jamie S; Jones, David A

    2016-10-01

    Muscle motor unit numbers decrease markedly in old age, while remaining motor units are enlarged and can have reduced neuromuscular junction transmission stability. However, it is possible that regular intense physical activity throughout life can attenuate this remodeling. The aim of this study was to compare the number, size, and neuromuscular junction transmission stability of tibialis anterior (TA) motor units in healthy young and older men with those of exceptionally active master runners. The distribution of motor unit potential (MUP) size was determined from intramuscular electromyographic signals recorded in healthy male Young (mean ± SD, 26 ± 5 years), Old (71 ± 4 years) and Master Athletes (69 ± 3 years). Relative differences between groups in numbers of motor units was assessed using two methods, one comparing MUP size and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) determined with MRI, the other comparing surface recorded MUPs with maximal compound muscle action potentials and commonly known as a "motor unit number estimate (MUNE)". Near fiber (NF) jiggle was measured to assess neuromuscular junction transmission stability. TA CSA did not differ between groups. MUNE values for the Old and Master Athletes were 45% and 40%, respectively, of the Young. Intramuscular MUPs of Old and Master Athletes were 43% and 56% larger than Young. NF jiggle was slightly higher in the Master Athletes, with no difference between Young and Old. These results show substantial and similar motor unit loss and remodeling in Master Athletes and Old individuals compared with Young, which suggests that lifelong training does not attenuate the age-related loss of motor units.

  16. Motor Coordination and Social-Emotional Behaviour in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piek, Jan P.; Bradbury, Greer S.; Elsley, Sharon C.; Tate, Lucinda

    2008-01-01

    School-age children with movement problems such as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are known to have social and emotional difficulties. However, little research has investigated younger children to determine whether these problems emerge at school age or are present earlier. The aim of the current study was to investigate the…

  17. The effects of nutrition on cognition and motor function in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Average lifespans have increased dramatically over the last century and by the year 2050 fully 30% of the total population will be over 65 years of age. There is a high probability that these people will be exhibiting the most common behavioral changes that occur in “normal” aging - impaired mobilit...

  18. AMPK Agonist AICAR Improves Cognition and Motor Coordination in Young and Aged Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobilo, Tali; Guerrieri, Davide; Zhang, Yongqing; Collica, Sarah C.; Becker, Kevin G.; van Praag, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    Normal aging can result in a decline of memory and muscle function. Exercise may prevent or delay these changes. However, aging-associated frailty can preclude physical activity. In young sedentary animals, pharmacological activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a transcriptional regulator important for muscle physiology, enhanced…

  19. The Early Motor Repertoire of Children Born Preterm Is Associated With Intelligence at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, Janneke L. M.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N.; Bos, Arend F.

    OBJECTIVE: The goal was to determine whether the quality of general movements (GMs) for preterm children had predictive value for cognitive development at school age. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 60 preterm infants (gestational age, median: 30.0 weeks [range: 25-33 weeks]; birth

  20. M(o)TOR of aging: MTOR as a universal molecular hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-07-01

    A recent ground-breaking publication described hypothalamus-driven programmatic aging. As a Russian proverb goes "everything new is well-forgotten old". In 1958, Dilman proposed that aging and its related diseases are programmed by the hypothalamus. This theory, supported by beautiful experiments, remained unnoticed just to be re-discovered recently. Yet, it does not explain all manifestations of aging. And would organism age without hypothalamus? Do sensing pathways such as MTOR (mechanistic Target of Rapamycin) and IKK-beta play a role of a "molecular hypothalamus" in every cell? Are hypothalamus-driven alterations simply a part of quasi-programmed aging manifested by hyperfunction and secondary signal-resistance? Here are some answers.

  1. Acid-base status at birth, spontaneous motor behaviour at term and 3 months and neurodevelopmental outcome at age 4 years in full-term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, J; Feron, FJM; Hendriksen, JGM; van Hall, M; Gavilanes-Jiminez, DWD; Hadders-Algra, M; Vles, JSH

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between acid-base status and quality and quantity of General Movements (GMs) at birth and quality of GMs at age 3 months and motor, cognitive and behavioural functioning at the age of 4 years. Methods: From a cohort of 84 term children w

  2. Acid-base status at birth, spontaneous motor behaviour at term and 3 months and neurodevelopmental outcome at age 4 years in full-term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, J; Feron, FJM; Hendriksen, JGM; van Hall, M; Gavilanes-Jiminez, DWD; Hadders-Algra, M; Vles, JSH

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between acid-base status and quality and quantity of General Movements (GMs) at birth and quality of GMs at age 3 months and motor, cognitive and behavioural functioning at the age of 4 years. Methods: From a cohort of 84 term children

  3. Academic proficiency in children after early congenital heart disease surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkey, Sarah B; Swearingen, Christopher J; Melguizo, Maria S; Reeves, Rachel N; Rowell, Jacob A; Gibson, Neal; Holland, Greg; Bhutta, Adnan T; Kaiser, Jeffrey R

    2014-02-01

    Children with early surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) are known to have impaired neurodevelopment; their performance on school-age achievement tests and their need for special education remains largely unexplored. The study aimed to determine predictors of academic achievement at school age and placement in special education services among early CHD surgery survivors. Children with CHD surgery at codes. Predictors for achieving proficiency in literacy and mathematics and the receipt of special education were determined. Two hundred fifty-six children who attended Arkansas public schools and who had surgery as infants were included; 77.7 % had either school-age achievement-test scores or special-education codes of mental retardation or multiple disabilities. Scores on achievement tests for these children were 7-13 % lower than those of Arkansas students (p < 0.01). They had an eightfold increase in receipt of special education due to multiple disabilities [odds ratio (OR) 10.66, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.23-22.35] or mental retardation (OR 4.96, 95 % CI 2.6-8.64). Surgery after the neonatal period was associated with decreased literacy proficiency, and cardiopulmonary bypass during the first surgery was associated with decreased mathematics proficiency. Children who had early CHD surgery were less proficient on standardized school assessments, and many received special education. This is concerning because achievement-test scores at school age are "real-world" predictors of long-term outcomes.

  4. Age-related changes in the effects of stress in pregnancy on infant motor development by maternal report: The Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; Stapleton, Helen; Cobham, Vanessa; King, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of a natural disaster (a sudden onset flood) as a stressor in pregnancy on infant fine and gross motor development at 2, 6, and 16 months of age. Whether the timing of the stressor in pregnancy or sex of the infant moderated the impact of the prenatal maternal stress on motor development was also explored. Mothers' objective experiences of the flood, emotional reactions and distress, and their cognitive appraisal of the event were assessed retrospectively. Infants' fine and gross motor skills were assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, and results showed age-related changes in the effects of prenatal maternal stress on these domains. At 2 months, higher levels of prenatal maternal stress was positively related to infant motor development, yet at 6 and 16 months of age there was a negative association, particularly if flood exposure occurred later in pregnancy and if mothers had negative cognitive appraisals of the event. Results also showed differential effects of the maternal stress responses to the floods on infants' fine and gross motor development at each age and that infant sex did not buffer these effects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 640-659, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparing a parent-report and a performance-based measure of children's motor skill abilities: are they associated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Lane, Haylee

    2014-10-01

    Both parent-report and performance-based assessment approaches are used in occupational therapy practice to gather information about children's motor skill abilities. This study investigated whether an association existed between the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency- 2(nd) edition (BOT-2), a performance-based motor-skill assessment and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2(nd) edition (MABC-2) Checklist, a parent-report scale of children's motor abilities. A convenience sample of 50 typically developing children aged 7-16 years were recruited. Scores from the BOT-2 and MABC-2 Checklist were analyzed using Spearman's rho correlations and linear regression analyses with several significant correlations found. The following BOT-2 derived scores were correlated with the MABC-2 Checklist: (1) BOT-2 subscales of Fine Motor Precision (rho = .33, p Coordination (rho = .39, p Coordination (rho = .33, p Coordination composite area scores.

  6. Examining the effects of age, sex, and body mass index on normative median motor nerve excitability measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, John C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to build a large reference database of excitability measures in normal subjects and to examine the effects of age, sex, and BMI. METHODS: One hundred and five healthy subjects had median motor nerve excitability testing performed at the wrist using the automated threshold-tracking program, QTRAC. Statistical linear regression was used to explore relationships between nerve excitability and the independent variables. RESULTS: The main effect of age is a reduced superexcitability. Lesser effects are flattening of the normalized stimulus response curve and reduction in threshold change following strong hyperpolarizing currents. Females have lower thresholds than males and small but significant differences in voltage-gated potassium channel (KCNQ) mediated properties (late subexcitability, accommodation half time, and threshold undershoot following depolarizing electrotonus), as well as a small increase in superexcitability. BMI has no influence on nerve excitability data and does not explain sex-related differences in threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Age and sex have few and small effects on excitability parameters. SIGNIFICANCE: The expression of nodal KCNQ channels appears to be greater in females. Age-related increases in subexcitability may be attributable to changes in the muscle fibre and not the nerve.

  7. Acute and rebound effects of lorazepam on orolingual motor function in young versus aged Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Stanford, John A

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the acute effects of lorazepam [a short-acting benzodiazepine (BZ) with no active metabolites] on orolingual motor function in young (6 months) versus aged (24 months) Fischer 344/Brown Norway hybrid (F344/BN) rats. Rats licked water from an isometric force-sensing operandum so that the number of licks per session, licking rhythm (licks/second), and lick force could be measured during daily sessions. Acute doses (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) of lorazepam were administered 30 min before the testing sessions, 4 days apart. Whereas aged rats produced more licks per session, lorazepam increased this measure primarily in the young group. On the days after each lorazepam dose, rats licked less than they did before receiving the drug. This effect was shown by both groups. Aged rats showed significantly slower licking rhythm than young rats. Lorazepam slowed this measure in both groups. Peak tongue forces were significantly increased by lorazepam. These findings suggest that BZs such as lorazepam can affect tongue force output and exacerbate age-related tongue motility deficits. They also suggest that although BZs can directly influence motivation to engage in water-reinforced tasks, opposite 'rebound' effects may occur, even after acute dosing.

  8. Enriched childhood experiences moderate age-related motor and cognitive decline

    OpenAIRE

    Megan J. Metzler; Metz, Gerlinde A.; Saucier, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with deterioration of skilled manual movement. Specifically, aging corresponds with increased reaction time, greater movement duration, segmentation of movement, increased movement variability, and reduced ability to adapt to external forces and inhibit previously learned sequences. Moreover, it is thought that decreased lateralization of neural function in older adults may point to increased neural recruitment as a compensatory response to deterioration of key frontal and...

  9. Alberta K-12 ESL Proficiency Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Kathy; Ettrich, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The Alberta K-12 ESL Proficiency Benchmarks are organized by division: kindergarten, grades 1-3, grades 4-6, grades 7-9, and grades 10-12. They are descriptors of language proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The descriptors are arranged in a continuum of seven language competences across five proficiency levels. Several…

  10. Second Language Proficiency Assessment and Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    A discussion of the role of second language proficiency assessment in the evaluation of language programs argues that for four reasons, the use of proficiency is inappropriate as a central element in evaluation. The reasons are: (1) the construct of proficiency has not been operationalized in a way that enables it to be used usefully; (2)…

  11. An Accounting Writing Proficiency Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firch, Tim; Campbell, Annhenrie; Filling, Steven; Lindsay, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Although there has been much discussion about improving college student writing with college-level courses, little is known about how accounting programs, in particular, are addressing the writing proficiency challenge. This study surveys the 852 accounting programs in the United States to identify the frequency and types of accounting writing…

  12. Regional Expertise and Culture Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    to unique challenges cultural differences can create. Rothstein (2006) Cultural sensitivity Non- ethnocentrism , tolerance, sensitivity; acceptance...use all 12 REC competencies to rate REC proficiency requirements; however, as stated previously this would be a highly time consuming task, and not...quite costly and time- consuming . In a development context, feedback may represent an essential element of the overall process. Other Assessment

  13. Data-Driven Proficiency Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Behrooz; Liu, Zhongxiu; Barnes, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Deep Thought is a logic tutor where students practice constructing deductive logic proofs. Within Deep Thought is a data-driven mastery learning system (DDML), which calculates student proficiency based on rule scores weighted by expert-decided weights in order to assign problem sets of appropriate difficulty. In this study, we designed and tested…

  14. Visual function and fine-motor control in small-for-gestational age infants Função visual e controle motor apendicular em lactentes pequenos para a idade gestacional

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    Heloisa G.R.G. Gagliardo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare visual function and fine-motor control of full-term infants small-for-gestational age (SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA, in the first three months. METHOD: We evaluated prospectively 31 infants in the 1st month; 33 in the 2nd and 34 infants in the 3rd month, categorized as full-term; birth weight less than 10th percentile for SGA and 25th to 90th percentile for the AGA group. Genetic syndromes, infections, multiple congenital malformations were excluded. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II were used, especially items related to visual function and to fine-motor control outcomes. RESULTS: The Motor Index Score (IS was significantly lower in the SGA group in the 2nd month. The items "attempts to bring hands to mouth", in the 1st month and "reaches for suspended ring", in the 3rd month showed higher frequency in the SGA group. CONCLUSION: The Motor IS was lower in the 2nd month and items of fine-motor control in the 1st month and in the 3rd month showed higher frequency in the SGA group.OBJETIVO: Comparar a função visual e o controle motor apendicular de lactentes nascidos a termo pequenos para a idade gestacional (PIG com lactentes adequados para a idade gestacional (AIG, no primeiro trimestre. MÉTODO: Amostra de 31 lactentes no 1º mês, 33 no 2º e 34 lactentes no 3º mês, nascidos a termo; peso de nascimento < percentil 10 para o grupo PIG e percentil 25 a 90 para o grupo AIG. Síndromes genéticas, infecções ou malformações congênitas múltiplas foram excluídas. Foram utilizadas as Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, especialmente itens relacionados com a evolução da função visual e controle motor apendicular. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença significativa no Index Score (IS Motor no 2º mês, havendo pontuação menor no grupo PIG. Os itens "tenta trazer mão à boca", no 1º mês e "alcança aro suspenso" no 3º mês foram mais freqüentes no grupo PIG. CONCLUSÃO: No grupo PIG, o IS

  15. Relationship between speech motor control and speech intelligibility in children with speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; Pukonen, Margit; Goshulak, Debra; Yu, Vickie Y; Kadis, Darren S; Kroll, Robert; Pang, Elizabeth W; De Nil, Luc F

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to investigate the impact of speech motor issues on the speech intelligibility of children with moderate to severe speech sound disorders (SSD) within the context of the PROMPT intervention approach. The word-level Children's Speech Intelligibility Measure (CSIM), the sentence-level Beginner's Intelligibility Test (BIT) and tests of speech motor control and articulation proficiency were administered to 12 children (3:11 to 6:7 years) before and after PROMPT therapy. PROMPT treatment was provided for 45 min twice a week for 8 weeks. Twenty-four naïve adult listeners aged 22-46 years judged the intelligibility of the words and sentences. For CSIM, each time a recorded word was played to the listeners they were asked to look at a list of 12 words (multiple-choice format) and circle the word while for BIT sentences, the listeners were asked to write down everything they heard. Words correctly circled (CSIM) or transcribed (BIT) were averaged across three naïve judges to calculate percentage speech intelligibility. Speech intelligibility at both the word and sentence level was significantly correlated with speech motor control, but not articulatory proficiency. Further, the severity of speech motor planning and sequencing issues may potentially be a limiting factor in connected speech intelligibility and highlights the need to target these issues early and directly in treatment. The reader will be able to: (1) outline the advantages and disadvantages of using word- and sentence-level speech intelligibility tests; (2) describe the impact of speech motor control and articulatory proficiency on speech intelligibility; and (3) describe how speech motor control and speech intelligibility data may provide critical information to aid treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prenatal Second-Hand Smoke Exposure Measured with Urine Cotinine May Reduce Gross Motor Development at 18 Months of Age.

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    Evlampidou, Iro; Bagkeris, Manolis; Vardavas, Constantine; Koutra, Katerina; Patelarou, Evridiki; Koutis, Antonis; Chatzi, Leda; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the association of second-hand smoke exposure of pregnant mothers using urine cotinine with the neurodevelopment of their children at 18 months of age in the mother-child cohort in Crete (Rhea Study). Selected participants were Greek mothers with singleton pregnancies, had never smoked, and had available urine cotinine measurements in pregnancy, and their children for whom a neurodevelopmental assessment was completed. We performed face-to-face interviews twice during pregnancy and postnatally, and assessed children's neurodevelopment at 18 months of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. We used linear regression and generalized additive models. Of 599 mothers, 175 (29%) met the inclusion criteria. Maternal urine cotinine levels were low (mean: 10.3 ng/mL, SD: 11.7 ng/mL). Reported passive smoking from different sources was strongly associated with urine cotinine levels. A negative association was observed between cotinine levels in pregnancy and child's gross motor function (beta = -3.22 per 10 ng/mL, 95% CI -5.09 to -1.34) after adjusting for factors potentially associated with neurodevelopment; results were similar in both sexes. A negative association was also observed for cognitive and receptive communication scales but the effect was small and not statistically significant. Maternal exposure during pregnancy to second-hand smoke measured through urine cotinine was associated with a decrease in gross motor function among 18-month-old children, even at low levels of exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Motor competence in Czech children aged 11-15: What is the incidence of a risk of developmental coordination disorder?

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    Jakub Kokštejn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current findings suggest that the prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD ranges widely between countries. A major reason for this wide range of prevalence is how cases of DCD are identified. Gender differences in level of motor competence in children with movement difficulties may play a key role in the choice of type of intervention. Objective: The aim of the study was to reveal the prevalence of significant movement difficulties with high probability of presence of DCD in Czech children aged 11 to 15. At the same time we wanted to assess possible gender differences in different types of the movement difficulties. Methods: A total sample of 507 children (age 11-15 years, 262 boys, 245 girls from all Czech regions was included. The MABC-2 test was used for the identification of movement difficulties with different severity. Children whose total test score (TTS was ≤ 15th percentile were considered at risk for having DCD (children with rDCD. Children whose TTS was ≤ 5th percentile were considered as having significant movement difficulties with high probability of presence of DCD. An analysis of gender differences of children with rDCD in MABC-2 motor components and tests were carried out. Results: From the entire sample, 33 participants (22 boys, 11 girls were identified as at risk of having DCD (rDCD. 1.4% of the total sample met the criterion for significant movement difficulties with high probability of presence of DCD. 5.1% of the total sample met the criterion for identification of the risk for having movement difficulties. Almost twice as high predisposition for the occurrence of movement difficulties was revealed in boys as compared to girls in a population of children with rDCD (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.16-2.74. Girls with rDCD performed better in manual dexterity with a medium effect of the gender (Cohen's d = 0.58, whereas boys with rDCD achieved better results in aiming and catching also with a

  18. Characterization of age-related modifications of upper limb motor control strategies in a new dynamic environment

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    Dario Paolo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past, several research groups have shown that when a velocity dependent force field is applied during upper limb movements subjects are able to deal with this external perturbation after some training. This adaptation is achieved by creating a new internal model which is included in the normal unperturbed motor commands to achieve good performance. The efficiency of this motor control mechanism can be compromised by pathological disorders or by muscular-skeletal modifications such as the ones due to the natural aging process. In this respect, the present study aimed at identifying the age-related modifications of upper limb motor control strategies during adaptation and de-adaptation processes in velocity dependent force fields. Methods Eight young and eight elderly healthy subjects were included in the experiment. Subjects were instructed to perform pointing movements in the horizontal plane both in a null field and in a velocity dependent force field. The evolution of smoothness and hand path were used to characterize the performance of the subjects. Furthermore, the ability of modulating the interactive torque has been used as a paradigm to explain the observed discoordinated patterns during the adaptation process. Results The evolution of the kinematics during the experiments highlights important behavioural differences between the two groups during the adaptation and de-adaptation processes. In young subjects the improvement of movement smoothness was in accordance with the expected learning trend related to the consolidation of the internal model. On the contrary, elders did not show a coherent learning process. The kinetic analysis pointed out the presence of different strategies for the compensation of the external perturbation: older people required an increased involvement of the shoulder with a different modulation of joint torque components during the evolution of the experiments. Conclusion The results

  19. Performance of motor sequences in children at heightened vs. low risk for ASD: A longitudinal study from 18 to 36 months of age

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    VALENTINA eFOCAROLI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that motor difficulties are a prominent component of the behavioral profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD and are also apparent from early in development in infants who have an older sibling with ASD (High Risk; HR. Delays have been reported for HR infants who do and who do not receive an eventual diagnosis of ASD. A growing body of prospective studies has focused on the emergence of early motor skills primarily during the first year of life. To date, however, relatively little work has examined motor skills in the second and third years. Thus, the present research was designed to investigate motor performance in object transport tasks longitudinally in HR and LR (Low Risk children between the ages of 18 and 36 months. Participants (15 HR children and 14 LR children were observed at 18, 24, and 36 months. Children completed two motor tasks, the Ball Task and the Block Task, each of which included two conditions that varied in terms of the precision demands of the goal action. Kinematic data were acquired via two magneto inertial sensors worn on each wrist. In the Block Task, HR children reached more slowly (i.e., mean acceleration was lower compared to LR children. This finding is in line with growing evidence of early delays in fine motor skills in HR children and suggests that vulnerabilities in motor performance may persist into the preschool years in children at risk for ASD.

  20. Motor asymmetries in preterm infants at 18 weeks corrected age and outcomes at 1 year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deGroot, L; Hopkins, B; Touwen, B

    1997-01-01

    Persisting asyymmetries in the motility and posture of preterm infants after term age is a common finding, but their diagnostic and prognostic significance has proved to be difficult to interpret. It has been claimed that if an asymmetry is of central origin, then it should be most prominently detec

  1. Age-Related Visual Changes and Their Impications for the Motor Skill Performance of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Kathleen M.; Trick, Linda R.

    Physical changes in and conditions of the eye associated with the normal aging process are discussed with reference to their impact on performance in physical and recreational activities. Descriptions are given of characteristic changes in visual acuity in the areas of: (1) presbyopia (inability to clearly focus near images); (2) sensitivity to…

  2. Raspberry supplementation alleviates age-related motor dysfunction in select populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-related declines in balance, muscle strength and coordination often lead to a higher incidence of falling. Among older adults, falls are the leading cause of distress, pain, injury, loss of confidence, and ultimately, loss of independence and death. Previous studies in our laboratory have demons...

  3. The Natural History of Gross Motor Development in Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 1 to 15 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckung, E.; Carlsson, G.; Carlsdotter, S.; Uvebrant, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore motor development in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using developmental curves for CP, subtypes, and the five severity levels of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the GMFCS were applied to 317 children (145 females, 172 males) with CP, aged…

  4. Biostatic indicators of the senior preschool age children with disorders of the supporting-motor apparatus

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    Bondar O.M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The biostatic body's indexes of senior preschool age children are studied. 80 children of the age of 5-6 years old took part in research. To determine their biostatic indicators used methods for determining the common center of gravity and methods of determining the stability of the body. It is set that 12,5 % сhildren do not have a change of posture, 87,5 % inspected children have violations of posture. It is educed, that the biostatic indexes of children body (height of location of general body gravity centre in relation to the area of support, front and back, right and left moments of stability, radiuses of stability, front and back, right and left corners of stability change at violations of posture. The obtained data must be used for development of individual correction-prophylactic measures.

  5. Inhibitory motor control in old age: evidence for de-automatization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylor, Elizabeth Ann; Birak, Kulbir Singh; Schlaghecken, Friederike

    2011-01-01

    To examine age-related effects on high-level consciously controlled and low-level automatically controlled inhibitory processes, the Simon task was combined with the masked prime task in a hybrid procedure. Young and older adults responded to the identity of targets (left/right key-press to left-/right-pointing arrows) that appeared on the left/right of the screen and were preceded by left-/right-pointing backward-masked arrow primes at fixation. Responses were faster and more accurate when the target was congruent with its location than incongruent (Simon effect), and when the target was incompatible with the prime than compatible (negative compatibility effect; NCE). The Simon effect was disproportionately larger, and the NCE disproportionately delayed, in older adults compared to young adults, indicating both high- and low-level inhibitory control deficits with aging. Moreover, the two effects were additive in young adults, but interactive in older adults, providing support for the dedifferentiation hypothesis of aging. Specifically, older adults' prime-related inhibitory control appeared improved on incongruent relative to congruent trials, suggesting that impaired automatic control was substituted by high-level, non-automatic processes.

  6. Inhibitory motor control in old age: evidence for de-automatization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Maylor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine age-related effects on high-level consciously-controlled and low-level automatically-controlled inhibitory processes, the Simon task was combined with the masked prime task in a hybrid procedure. Young and older adults responded to the identity of targets (left/right key-press to left-/right-pointing arrows that appeared on the left/right of the screen and were preceded by left-/right-pointing backward-masked arrow primes at fixation. Responses were faster and more accurate when the target was congruent with its location than incongruent (Simon effect, and when the target was incompatible with the prime than compatible (negative compatibility effect; NCE. The Simon effect was disproportionately larger, and the NCE disproportionately delayed, in older adults compared to young adults, indicating both high- and low-level inhibitory control deficits with aging. Moreover, the two effects were additive in young adults, but interactive in older adults, providing support for the dedifferentiation hypothesis of aging. Specifically, older adults’ prime-related inhibitory control appeared improved on incongruent relative to congruent trials, suggesting that impaired automatic control was substituted by high-level, non-automatic processes.

  7. The influence of summary knowledge of results and aging on motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, H; Vandervoort, A A; Swanson, L R

    1996-09-01

    This study examined whether older adults (mean age = 75.0 years) use summary knowledge of results (KR) to facilitate learning in a manner similar to that of young adults (mean age = 22.5 years). All subjects were required to learn a computer-key-pressing task in a specified goal time. During acquisition, subjects received either KR after every trial, or summary KR. All subjects then performed no-KR retention trials. In acquisition, KR after every trial facilitated timing accuracy for both the younger and older groups in comparison to the summary KR groups. The young subjects were equally variable in both KR practice groups. For older subjects summary KR facilitated more consistent performance. In retention, the summary groups were more accurate than those subjects who received KR after every trial. There were no accuracy or variability differences between the two age groups during retention. These results suggest that older adults are able to use summary KR to facilitate learning in a manner similar to that of young adults.

  8. Loss of Spatial Memory, Learning, and Motor Function During Normal Aging Is Accompanied by Changes in Brain Presenilin 1 and 2 Expression Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaja, Simon; Sumien, Nathalie; Shah, Vidhi V; Puthawala, Imran; Maynard, Alexandra N; Khullar, Nitasha; Payne, Andrew J; Forster, Michael J; Koulen, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in presenilin (PS) proteins cause familial Alzheimer's disease. We herein tested the hypothesis that the expression levels of PS proteins are differentially affected during healthy aging, in the absence of pathological mutations. We used a preclinical model for aging to identify associations between PS expression and quantitative behavioral parameters for spatial memory and learning and motor function. We identified significant changes of PS protein expression in both cerebellum and forebrain that correlated with the performance in behavioral paradigms for motor function and memory and learning. Overall, PS1 levels were decreased, while PS2 levels were increased in aged mice compared with young controls. Our study presents novel evidence for the differential expression of PS proteins in a nongenetic model for aging, resulting in an overall increase of the PS2 to PS1 ratio. Our findings provide a novel mechanistic basis for molecular and functional changes during normal aging.

  9. Language proficiency and metacognition as predictors of spontaneous rehearsal in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebko, James M; McMorris, Carly A; Metcalfe, Alisa; Ricciuti, Christina; Goldstein, Gayle

    2014-03-01

    Despite decades of research on fundamental memory strategies such as verbal rehearsal, the potential underlying skills associated with the emergence of rehearsal are still not fully understood. Two studies examined the relative roles of language proficiency and metamemory in predicting rehearsal use, as well as the prediction of metamemory performance by language proficiency. In Study 1, 59 children, 5 to 8 years old, were administered a serial recall task, 2 language measures, a nonverbal cognitive measure, and a rapid automatized naming (RAN) task. Language proficiency, RAN, and age were significant individual predictors of rehearsal use. In hierarchical regression analyses, language proficiency mediated almost completely the age → rehearsal use relation. In addition, automatized naming was a strong but partial mediator of the contribution of language proficiency to rehearsal use. In Study 2, 54 children were administered a metamemory test, a language measure, and a serial recall task. Metamemory skills and, again, language proficiency significantly predicted rehearsal use in the task. The predictive strength of metamemory skills was mediated by the children's language proficiency. The mutually supportive roles of automatized naming, language, and metamemory in the emergence of spontaneous cumulative verbal rehearsal are discussed in the context of the resulting model, along with the minimal roles of age and aspects of intelligence.

  10. Learning of a simple grapho-motor task by young children and adults: Similar acquisition but age-dependent retention

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    Mona eJulius

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many new skills are acquired during early childhood. Typical laboratory skill learning tasks are not applicable for developmental studies that involve children younger than 8 years of age. It is not clear whether young children and adults share a basic underlying skill learning mechanism. In the present study, the learning and retention of a simple grapho-motor pattern were studied in three age groups: 5-6 years, 7-8 years, and 19-29 years. Each block of the task consists of identical patterns arranged in a spaced writing array. Progression across the block involves on-page movements while producing the pattern, and off-page movements between patterns. The participants practiced the production of the pattern using a digitizing tablet and were tested at 24 hours and two weeks post-practice. All age groups produced the task blocks more quickly with practice, and the learning rate was inversely related to the initial production time across and within the groups. All groups exhibited additional gains 24 hours post-practice that were well retained 2 weeks later. The accuracy of the participants was maintained throughout the two-week period. These findings suggest that young children and young adults use a similar mechanism when learning the task. A separate analysis of the on-page and off-page movement times per block indicated that during retention testing, the 6-year-olds spent more time off-page than when tested at 24 hours post-practice, thus supporting the notion that an age advantage may exists in the long-term retention of skills due to planning-dependent aspects.

  11. Left-Handers and Cognitive Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Mary M.

    In this research report, the influences of handedness, hand position while writing, and familial sinistrality (presence of left-handed relatives) on children's intellectual, reading, and visual-motor performance were investigated. Forty left- and right-handed children between the ages of 7 and 10 served as subjects. To assess hand positions, an…

  12. Differences in Gross Motor Achievements among Children of Four to Five Years of Age in Private and Public Institutions in Prishtine, Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita; Bahtiri, Abedin

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to examine differences in gross motor achievements among children of four to five years of age as the result of the development of physical education programmes offered by private and public institutions in Kosovo. Research was focused on 118 children, out of which 61 (27 girls, 34 boys) were from the public…

  13. Effects of neonatal enteral glutamine supplementation on cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van Zwol, Annelies; Boehm, Guenther; Lafeber, Harrie N; van Elburg, Ruurd M

    2012-12-28

    In very preterm ( glutamine supplementation between day 3 and day 30 of life had neither beneficial nor detrimental effects on long-term cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes of very preterm and/or VLBW children at school age, although visuomotor abilities were poorer in children that received glutamine.

  14. Exploring the Relationship between Participation in a Structured Sports Program and Development of Gross Motor Skills in Children Ages 3 to 6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahagirdar, Ishanee; Venditti, Laura Anne; Duncan, Andrea; Reed, Nick; Fleming, Sean

    2017-01-01

    This study looked at the relationship between participation in a structured sports program and gross-motor-skills development in children aged 3 to 6 years. Twenty-seven children participated in the study, with 16 children receiving an eight-week sports program intervention. Children were assessed at pre- and postintervention using a modified…

  15. Effects of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure and age on social behavior, spatial response perseveration errors and motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A; Barto, Daniel; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-08-01

    Persistent deficits in social behavior are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked deficits in social behavior following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to functional alterations in the ventrolateral frontal cortex [21]. In addition to social behaviors, the regions comprising the ventrolateral frontal cortex are critical for diverse processes ranging from orofacial motor movements to flexible alteration of behavior in the face of changing consequences. The broader behavioral implications of altered ventrolateral frontal cortex function following moderate PAE have, however, not been examined. In the present study we evaluated the consequences of moderate PAE on social behavior, tongue protrusion, and flexibility in a variant of the Morris water task that required modification of a well-established spatial response. PAE rats displayed deficits in tongue protrusion, reduced flexibility in the spatial domain, increased wrestling, and decreased investigation, indicating that several behaviors associated with ventrolateral frontal cortex function are impaired following moderate PAE. A linear discriminant analysis revealed that measures of wrestling and tongue protrusion provided the best discrimination of PAE rats from saccharin-exposed control rats. We also evaluated all behaviors in young adult (4-5 months) or older (10-11 months) rats to address the persistence of behavioral deficits in adulthood and possible interactions between early ethanol exposure and advancing age. Behavioral deficits in each domain persisted well into adulthood (10-11 months), however, there was no evidence that aging enhances the effects of moderate PAE within the age ranges that were studied.

  16. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN FINE AND GROSS MOTOR SKILLS OF NORMALLY DEVELOPING OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE ADOLESCENTS

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    Şehmus ASLAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compare girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. 18 girls and 28 boys with 12-18 age range, in totally 46 overweight and obese adolecents participated in the study. Body mass index of participants were calculated. Fine and gross motor skills of adolescents were assessed by Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF. There was no differences between girls and boys for BOT-2 SF total scores (p>0.05, but it was found differences in several items of BOT-2 SF. Scores of test items for fine motor scores in the girls were higher than the boys (p0.05. Gross motor skill tests including jumping in place, dribling a ball, sit-ups, one- legged stationary hop test scores were higher in the boys, while tapping feet and fingers test score was higher in the girls (p<0.05. Our results suggested that there is differences between girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. Girls have better fine motor skill performance while boys have better gross motor skill performance in overweight and obese adolescents.

  17. Effects of age at cordotomy and subsequent exercise on contraction times of motor units in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L A; Eldred, E; Edgerton, V R

    1993-12-01

    The contraction times (CTs) of functionally isolated motor units (MUs) in the soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles were determined in cats that had been spinalized at ages 2 (n = 15) or 12 (n = 9) wk and then either subjected to exercise on a treadmill or simply given manipulative care of the hindlimbs. The MUs were tested approximately 12 wk after the low-thoracic cordotomy, and comparisons were made with data from control animals. The CT of 50.9 ms obtained for SOL units (n = 163) in the spinal cats was 22% shorter than the mean of 65.0 ms for MUs (n = 57) from control cats (n = 4). Contrary to expectation, the CT in animals spinalized at 12 wk was significantly shorter than that in the 2-wk group. The CT for MG units (n = 105) in spinal cats was also significantly shorter (11%) than that in controls cats (n = 66, 6 cats), and those units identified by their high fatigue index as being of slow or fatigue-resistant type had a shorter CT than units with a low index. No distinction in CT of exercised and nonexercised groups was detected for either muscle. These findings are discussed in relation to the bearing influences of supraspinal and segmental origin have on CT duration in SOL and MG muscles during growth of the kitten. A slight, significant decrease (6%) in the fatigue index of SOL MUs (n = 144) was detected, but the values remained high (mean 0.87).

  18. Proficiency deficiency: mastery of fundamental movement skills and skill components in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Rachel A; Steele, Julie R; Baur, Louise A

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to compare the mastery of 12 fundamental movement skills (FMS) and skill components between a treatment-seeking sample of overweight/obese children and a reference sample from the United States. Mastery of six locomotor and six object-control skills (24 components in each subdomain) were video-assessed by one assessor using the test of gross motor development-2 (TGMD-2). The 153 overweight/obese children (mean ± s.d. age = 8.3 ± 1.1 years, BMI z-score = 2.78 ± 0.69, 58% girls, 77% obese) were categorized into age groups (for the underhand roll and strike: 7-8 years and 9-10 years; all other FMS: 6-7 years and 8-10 years) and mastery prevalence rates were compared with representative US data (N = 876) using χ(2) analysis. For all 12 skills in all age groups, the prevalence of mastery was lower among overweight/obese children compared with the reference sample (all P Physical activity programs designed for overweight and obese children may need to address deficiencies in FMS proficiency to foster the movement capabilities required for participation in health-enhancing physical activity.

  19. Over the hill at 24: persistent age-related cognitive-motor decline in reaction times in an ecologically valid video game task begins in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joseph J; Blair, Mark R; Henrey, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey [1]. Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load.

  20. Over the Hill at 24: Persistent Age-Related Cognitive-Motor Decline in Reaction Times in an Ecologically Valid Video Game Task Begins in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joseph J.; Blair, Mark R.; Henrey, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey [1]. Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load. PMID:24718593

  1. Over the hill at 24: persistent age-related cognitive-motor decline in reaction times in an ecologically valid video game task begins in early adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Thompson

    Full Text Available Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey [1]. Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load.

  2. Communicative Testing of Oral Proficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利波

    2005-01-01

    The advent of the theory of communicative competence raised new issues for language teaching and testing. The importance of communicative ability is emphasized in language teaching. Therefore test that could reflect a student's communicative competence need to be constructed. Communicative testing is such a potentially effective approach.This paper is concerned with the theoretical basis of communicative testing, its distinguishing features and the construction of oral proficiency tests, so as to demonstrate how the theory of communicative testing is built into practical tests.

  3. Problem solving, working memory, and motor correlates of association and commissural fiber bundles in normal aging: a quantitative fiber tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, Natalie M; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2009-02-01

    Normal aging is accompanied by decline in selective cognitive and motor functions. A concurrent decline in regional white matter integrity, detectable with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), potentially contributes to waning function. DTI analysis of white matter loci indicates an anterior-to-posterior gradient distribution of declining fractional anisotropy (FA) and increasing diffusivity with age. Quantitative fiber tracking can be used to determine regional patterns of normal aging of fiber systems and test the functional ramifications of the DTI metrics. Here, we used quantitative fiber tracking to examine age effects on commissural (genu and splenium), bilateral association (cingulate, inferior longitudinal fasciculus and uncinate), and fornix fibers in 12 young and 12 elderly healthy men and women and tested functional correlates with concurrent assessment of a wide range of neuropsychological abilities. Principal component analysis of cognitive and motor tests on which the elderly achieved significantly lower scores than the young group was used for data reduction and yielded three factors: Problem Solving, Working Memory, and Motor. Age effects--lower FA or higher diffusivity--in the elderly were prominent in anterior tracts, specifically, genu, fornix, and uncinate fibers. Differential correlations between FA or diffusivity in fiber tracts and scores on Problem Solving, Working Memory, or Motor factors provide convergent validity to the biological meaningfulness of the integrity of the fibers tracked. The observed pattern of relations supports the possibility that regional degradation of white matter fiber integrity is a biological source of age-related functional compromise and may have the potential to limit accessibility to alternative neural systems to compensate for compromised function.

  4. Motor coordination: influence of age, sex, socio-economic status and levels of adiposity, in peruvian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André F. Teixeira Seabra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe motor coordination (CoM levels, in addition to the infl uence of age, socioeconomic status (SES, sex and subcutaneous adiposity on the CoM of Peruvian children aged six to eleven years. The sample size was 4007 children (n=1889 females; n=2118 males from several schools in the metropolitan area of Lima, Peru. CoM was assessed with the KTK (Kiphard and Schilling, 1974 test battery that includes 4 tests: balancing backward (BB, hopping on one leg (HO, jumping sideways (JS and shifting platforms (SP. Subcutaneous adiposity included the sum of several skinfolds: triceps, subscapular and calf. Socioeconomic status (SES was evaluated according to the physical location of each school (type of neighborhood. Exploratory, descriptive and inferential statistical analyses (ANOVA II as well as regression linear models were performed using SPSS 15. Signifi cant increases in mean values of CoM were observed in both sexes and across age. Children with high adiposity exhibited lower performance in all tests. Boys outperformed girls. High SES has a greater infl uence only on HO, and a low SES proved relevant to BB performance. It can be concluded that CoM is highly specifi c to each gender. Body fat levels have a negative infl uence on each coordination test, as well as on overall coordination. SES does not seem to be a conclusive predictor of motor coordination in children. resumo Caracterizar el nivel de la coordinación motora (CoM y determinar la infl uencia de la edad, sexo, estatus socioeconómico y de la adiposidad subcutánea en la CoM de escolares peruanos de seis a los once años de edad. El tamaño de la muestra comprendió a 4,007 niños (mujeres= 1889; varones= 2118 de escuelas del área metropolitana de Lima, Perú. La CoM fue determinado a través de la batería de pruebas KTK (Kiphard y Schilling, 1974 que comprende cuatro pruebas: equilibrio a la retaguardia (ER, saltos laterales (SL, saltos monopedales

  5. Motor competence assessment in children: convergent and discriminant validity between the BOT-2 Short Form and KTK testing batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Job; D'Hondt, Eva; Bourgois, Jan; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated convergent and discriminant validity between two motor competence assessment instruments in 2485 Flemish children: the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 Short Form (BOT-2 Short Form) and the KörperKoördinationsTest für Kinder (KTK). A Pearson correlation assessed the relationship between BOT-2 Short Form total, gross and fine motor composite scores and KTK Motor Quotient in three age cohorts (6-7, 8-9, 10-11 years). Crosstabs were used to measure agreement in classification in children scoring below percentile 5 and 15 and above percentile 85 and 95. Moderately strong positive (r=0.44-0.64) associations between BOT-2 total and gross motor composite scores and KTK Motor Quotient and weak positive correlations between BOT-2 Short Form fine motor composite and KTK Motor Quotient scores (r=0.25-0.37) were found. Levels of agreement were fair to moderate. Therefore, some proof of convergent and discriminant validity between BOT-2 Short Form and KTK was established in this study, underlining the notion that the evaluation of motor competence should not be based upon a single assessment instrument.

  6. Academic Proficiency (Language and Content) and the Role of Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This report continues the work of Krashen and Brown (2007), developing and evaluating a set of hypotheses for the development of academic proficiency. That article defined academic proficiency as having two components: academic language proficiency and knowledge of academic content.

  7. Can Quantitative Muscle Strength and Functional Motor Ability Differentiate the Influence of Age and Corticosteroids in Ambulatory Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckon, Cathleen; Sienko, Susan; Bagley, Anita; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Fowler, Eileen; Staudt, Loretta; Heberer, Kent; McDonald, Craig M.; Sussman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the absence of a curative treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), corticosteroid therapy (prednisone, deflazacort) has been adopted as the standard of care, as it slows the progression of muscle weakness and enables longer retention of functional mobility. The ongoing development of novel pharmacological agents that target the genetic defect underlying DMD offer hope for a significant alteration in disease progression; however, substantiation of therapeutic efficacy has proved challenging. Identifying functional outcomes sensitive to the early, subtle changes in muscle function has confounded clinical trials. Additionally, the alterations in disease progression secondary to corticosteroid therapy are not well described making it difficult to ascertain the benefits of novel agents, often taken concurrently with corticosteroids. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine outcome responsiveness to corticosteroid therapy and age at the onset of a natural history study of ambulatory boys with DMD. Methods: Eighty-five ambulatory boys with DMD (mean age 93 mo, range 49 to 180 mo) were recruited into this study. Fifty participants were on corticosteroid therapy, while 33 were corticosteroid naïve at the baseline assessment. Within each treatment group boys were divided in two age groups, 4 to 7 years and 8 and greater years of age. The Biodex System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess muscle strength. Motor skills were assessed using the upper two dimensions (standing/walking, running & jumping) of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM 88) and Timed Motor Tests (TMTs) (10-meter run, sit to stand, supine to stand, climb 4-stairs). Two way analysis of variance and Pearson correlations were used for analysis. Results: A main effect for age was seen in select lower extremity muscle groups (hip flexors, knee extensors and ankle dorsiflexors), standing dimension skills, and all TMTs with significantly greater weakness and loss of

  8. Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government…

  9. Psychometric Properties of IRT Proficiency Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; Tong, Ye

    2010-01-01

    Psychometric properties of item response theory proficiency estimates are considered in this paper. Proficiency estimators based on summed scores and pattern scores include non-Bayes maximum likelihood and test characteristic curve estimators and Bayesian estimators. The psychometric properties investigated include reliability, conditional…

  10. Intelligibility and Perceptions of English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooy, Susan Coetzee-Van

    2009-01-01

    More and more learners of English from the Expanding Circle are travelling to Outer Circle contexts to learn English or to improve their English proficiency. This is also the case for some Korean families who moved to Potchefstroom, South Africa. This phenomenon poses challenges in terms of assessment of English proficiency, and emphasizes the…

  11. Proficiency test for aflatoxin in pig feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC [1] and is

  12. Proficiency test for aflatoxin in pig feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC [1] and is

  13. The Leadership Proficiency of Commissioners of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Kristen N.; Bruce, Jacklyn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine the self-perceived proficiency level of Commissioners of Agriculture in six leadership skill areas. Major findings noted their proficiency in these areas. Researchers recommend providing professional development opportunities and software training for Commissioners at their annual…

  14. Oral Proficiency Testing: A Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantolf, James P.; Frawley, William

    1985-01-01

    Discusses problems with the ACTFL/ETS Oral Proficiency Guidelines and examines inconsistencies relating to three assumptions of oral proficiency (OPT)--hours of study, accuracy/interest, and errors. Further, it is argued that the main problems with OPT arise from an analytic approach and the native speaker yardstick. (SED)

  15. Proficiency-Based Education. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Proficiency-Based Education is a contemporary instructional model that grew out of the competency-based education movement of the 1980's and 90's. It is based on the premise that TIME is flexible and that students work at their own pace until they have mastered necessary content and skills. As students demonstrate proficiency, then move on to more…

  16. Proficiency test for allergens in food 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Alamenou, P.; Elbers, I.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    In the autumn of 2014 a proficiency test for allergens in baby cereal was organized by RIKILT, Wageningen UR. This PT-test enabled laboratories to evaluate their competence for the analysis of allergens in baby cereal. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were accepted. The proficiency test was

  17. Language Learning Strategy Use across Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…

  18. Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government…

  19. Australian Cerebral Palsy Child Study: protocol of a prospective population based study of motor and brain development of preschool aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Roslyn N; Jordan, Rachel; Pareezer, Laura; Moodie, Anne; Finn, Christine; Luther, Belinda; Arnfield, Evyn; Pym, Aaron; Craven, Alex; Beall, Paula; Weir, Kelly; Kentish, Megan; Wynter, Meredith; Ware, Robert; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; McKinlay, Lynne; Guzzetta, Andrea

    2013-06-11

    Cerebral palsy (CP) results from a static brain lesion during pregnancy or early life and remains the most common cause of physical disability in children (1 in 500). While the brain lesion is static, the physical manifestations and medical issues may progress resulting in altered motor patterns. To date, there are no prospective longitudinal studies of CP that follow a birth cohort to track early gross and fine motor development and use Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to determine the anatomical pattern and likely timing of the brain lesion. Existing studies do not consider treatment costs and outcomes. This study aims to determine the pathway(s) to motor outcome from diagnosis at 18 months corrected age (c.a.) to outcome at 5 years in relation to the nature of the brain lesion (using structural MRI). This prospective cohort study aims to recruit a total of 240 children diagnosed with CP born in Victoria (birth years 2004 and 2005) and Queensland (birth years 2006-2009). Children can enter the study at any time between 18 months to 5 years of age and will be assessed at 18, 24, 30, 36, 48 and 60 months c.a. Outcomes include gross motor function (GMFM-66 & GMFM-88), Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS); musculoskeletal development (hip displacement, spasticity, muscle contracture), upper limb function (Manual Ability Classification System), communication difficulties using Communication and Symbolic Behaviour Scales-Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP), participation using the Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), parent reported quality of life and classification of medical and allied health resource use and determination of the aetiology of CP using clinical evaluation combined with MRI. The relationship between the pathways to motor outcome and the nature of the brain lesion will be analysed using multiple methods including non-linear modelling, multilevel mixed-effects models and generalised estimating equations. This protocol

  20. Adult Age Differences and the Role of Cognitive Resources in Perceptual–Motor Skill Acquisition: Application of a Multilevel Negative Exponential Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Lindenberger, Ulman; Raz, Naftali

    2010-01-01

    The effects of advanced age and cognitive resources on the course of skill acquisition are unclear, and discrepancies among studies may reflect limitations of data analytic approaches. We applied a multilevel negative exponential model to skill acquisition data from 80 trials (four 20-trial blocks) of a pursuit rotor task administered to healthy adults (19–80 years old). The analyses conducted at the single-trial level indicated that the negative exponential function described performance well. Learning parameters correlated with measures of task-relevant cognitive resources on all blocks except the last and with age on all blocks after the second. Thus, age differences in motor skill acquisition may evolve in 2 phases: In the first, age differences are collinear with individual differences in task-relevant cognitive resources; in the second, age differences orthogonal to these resources emerge. PMID:20047985

  1. Classification of cerebral palsy: association between gender, age, motor type, topography and Gross Motor Function Classificação da paralisia cerebral: associação entre gênero, idade, tipo motor, topografia e Função Motora Grossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Iara Pfeifer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the relation between gender, age, motor type, topography and gross motor function, based on the Gross Motor Function System of children with cerebral palsy. Trunk control, postural changes and gait of one hundred children between 5 months and 12 years old, were evaluated. There were no significant differences between gender and age groups (p=0.887 or between gender and motor type (p=0.731. In relation to body topography most children (88% were spastic quadriplegic. Most hemiplegics children were rated in motor level I, children with diplegia were rated in motor level III, and quadriplegic children were rated in motor level V. Functional classification is necessary to understand the differences in cerebral palsy and to have the best therapeutic planning since it is a complex disease which depends on several factors.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a relação entre gênero, idade, tipo motor, topografia e Função Motora Grossa, baseado no Sistema de Função Motora Grossa em crianças com paralisia cerebral. Participaram desta pesquisa 100 crianças com idade entre 5 meses a 12 anos que foram observadas em relação ao controle de tronco, trocas posturais e marcha. Não houve diferenças significativas entre gêneros e grupos etários (p=0,887 e entre gênero e tipo motor (p=0,731. Em relação à topografia corporal, houve predomínio de crianças com quadriplegia, sendo que a maioria (88% era do tipo espástico. Quanto ao nível motor, as crianças hemiplégicas pertenciam em sua maioria ao nível I, as diplégicas ao nível III e as quadriplégicas ao nível V. Sendo a paralisia cerebral uma condição complexa que depende de diversos fatores, beneficia-se de classificações funcionais para compreensão da diversidade e melhor planejamento terapêutico.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS ON THE LEVEL OF EARLY-SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN’S MOTOR ABILITIES – BLURRING OF DIFFERENCES IN THE ECONOMICALLY UNDERDEVELOPED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to determine differences in the level of motor abilities of 7-9-year-old girls and boys in relation to the socioeconomic status of their families . Material and Methods: The research was conducted in 12 primary schools in two regions of Poland namely of Warmia & Mazury and Pomorskie voivodeship, on the total of 1205 pupils (584 boys and 621 girls aged 7-9. Selected economic factors such as the type of school (public or private, monthly income per household member, and the number of children in a given family were accepted as the independent variables. The factors behind social status included the place of residence and parents’ educational background. In order to determine the level of motor abilities, 13 motor tests were applied. Results: The research revealed that motor tests such as 1 and 3 min. Burpee test and medicine ball throws (forward and backward appeared to show the biggest differences in the level of motor abilities of the children whose social and economic status varied. The results of these tests as well as those of the shuttle run were significantly higher for the girls from the families of high social status than for the boys of low social status. Social status to a greater extent than economic one differentiated the tested motor abilities, especially in the case of the girls from families marked by high social status, who scored better than boys. The exception is the skipping with clapping of hands – 8 s trial, which differentiated only the tested categories of economic status, especially when referred to the girls. Conclusions: Owing to the small number of significant differences between high and low social and economic status in both sex groups in the motor tests applied, it can be assumed that in the less developed, agriculture and tourism-oriented areas there has occurred blurring of the differences in the level of children’s motor abilities depending on their social and economic status.

  3. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.

  4. Proficiency effect on L2 pragmatic competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper synthesizes cross-sectional studies of the effect of proficiency on second language (L2 pragmatics to answer the synthesis question: Does proficiency affect adult learners’ pragmatic competence? Findings have revealed an overall positive proficiency effect on pragmatic competence, and in most cases higher proficiency learners have higher pragmatic competence. However, increased proficiency does not guarantee a native-like pragmatic performance because proficiency effect varies depending on the nature of target pragmatic features such as types of speech acts (degrees of directness and conventionality (e.g., Cook & Liddicoat, 2002; Félix-Brasdefer, 2007, modalities of pragmatic performance (comprehension and production (e.g., Bradovi-Harlig, 2008, 2009, social variables involved in task situations, such as social status (e.g., Allami & Naeimi, 2011, social distance (e.g., Maeshiba, Yoshinaga, Kasper, & Ross, 1996, and power relationship (e.g., Al-Gahtani & Roever, 2012. Moreover, proficiency effect is mediated by contextual variables such as length of stay in the target language community (e.g., Shardakova, 2005; Taguchi, 2011, 2013; Xu, Case, & Wang, 2009.

  5. Wheel running from a juvenile age delays onset of specific motor deficits but does not alter protein aggregate density in a mouse model of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spires Tara L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly affecting the cerebral cortex and striatum. Transgenic mice (R6/1 line, expressing a CAG repeat encoding an expanded polyglutamine tract in the N-terminus of the huntingtin protein, closely model HD. We have previously shown that environmental enrichment of these HD mice delays the onset of motor deficits. Furthermore, wheel running initiated in adulthood ameliorates the rear-paw clasping motor sign, but not an accelerating rotarod deficit. Results We have now examined the effects of enhanced physical activity via wheel running, commenced at a juvenile age (4 weeks, with respect to the onset of various behavioral deficits and their neuropathological correlates in R6/1 HD mice. HD mice housed post-weaning with running wheels only, to enhance voluntary physical exercise, have delayed onset of a motor co-ordination deficit on the static horizontal rod, as well as rear-paw clasping, although the accelerating rotarod deficit remains unaffected. Both wheel running and environmental enrichment rescued HD-induced abnormal habituation of locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in the open field. We have found that neither environment enrichment nor wheel running ameliorates the shrinkage of the striatum and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in HD mice, nor the overall decrease in brain weight, measured at 9 months of age. At this age, the density of ubiquitinated protein aggregates in the striatum and ACC is also not significantly ameliorated by environmental enrichment or wheel running. Conclusion These results indicate that enhanced voluntary physical activity, commenced at an early presymptomatic stage, contributes to the positive effects of environmental enrichment. However, sensory and cognitive stimulation, as well as motor stimulation not associated with running, may constitute major components of the therapeutic benefits associated with enrichment

  6. Age of sitting unsupported and independent walking in very low birth weight preterm infants with normal motor development at 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Gabriel, M A; Pallás Alonso, C R; De La Cruz Bértolo, J; Caserío Carbonero, S; López Maestro, M; Moral Pumarega, M; Alonso Díaz, C; Lora Pablos, D

    2009-11-01

    The aims of this study is to (i) determine the age of sitting unsupported and independent walking in preterm infants with birth weight under 1500 g (very low birth weight, VLBW); (ii) estimate differences between VLBW children and a reference population and (iii) estimate the association between clinical characteristics and late age at sitting and walking. A longitudinal study was conducted of a cohort of 876 children with VLBW. The World Health Organization (WHO) motor development study population was used as a reference. Ages for both skills were established by interview with parents. Means were compared with t-test, ANOVA and Bonferroni adjustment where appropriate. The inclusion criteria were complied with 694 patients; 50% of VLBW sat at 7 m corrected age (CA) and walked at 13 m CA. Both motor skills were acquired later (7.3 +/- 1.5 and 13.6 +/- 2.8 m) compared with the control group (6 +/- 1.1 and 12.1 +/- 1.8 m). Weight or head circumference at birth below the 10th percentile or the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia were associated with delayed acquisition of both skills. Very low birth weight infants typically sit unsupported and walk later than term infants. Tables describing reference values for milestones acquisition for different categories of infants (gestational age, birth weight and other determinants) may contribute to inform the decision making process on access to available resources.

  7. Age-related differences in motor coordination during simultaneous leg flexion and finger extension: influence of temporal pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Tarek; Yiou, Eric; Larue, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Although the effect of temporal pressure on spatio-temporal aspects of motor coordination and posture is well established in young adults, there is a clear lack of data on elderly subjects. This work examined the aging-related effects of temporal pressure on movement synchronization and dynamic stability. Sixteen young and eleven elderly subjects performed series of simultaneous rapid leg flexions in an erect posture paired with ipsilateral index-finger extensions, minimizing the difference between heel and finger movement onsets. This task was repeated ten times under two temporal conditions (self-initiated [SI] vs. reaction-time [RT]). Results showed that, first, temporal pressure modified movement synchronization; the finger extension preceded swing heel-off in RT, and inversely in SI. Synchronization error and associated standard deviation were significantly greater in elderly than in young adults in SI only, i.e. in the condition where proprioception is thought to be crucial for temporal coordination. Secondly, both groups developed a significantly shorter mediolateral (ML) anticipatory postural adjustment duration in RT (high temporal pressure) than in SI. In both groups, this shortening was compensated by an increase in the anticipatory peak of centre-of-gravity (CoG) acceleration towards the stance-leg so that ML dynamic stability at foot-off, quantified with the "extrapolated centre-of-mass", remained unchanged across temporal conditions. This increased CoG acceleration was associated with an increased anticipatory peak of ML centre-of-pressure shift towards the swing-leg in young adults only. This suggested that the ability to accelerate the CoG with the centre-of-pressure shift was degraded in elderly, probably due to weakness in the lower limb muscles. Dynamic stability at foot-off was also degraded in elderly, with a consequent increased risk of ML imbalance and falling. The present study provides new insights into the ability of elderly adults to deal

  8. Age-related differences in motor coordination during simultaneous leg flexion and finger extension: influence of temporal pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Hussein

    Full Text Available Although the effect of temporal pressure on spatio-temporal aspects of motor coordination and posture is well established in young adults, there is a clear lack of data on elderly subjects. This work examined the aging-related effects of temporal pressure on movement synchronization and dynamic stability. Sixteen young and eleven elderly subjects performed series of simultaneous rapid leg flexions in an erect posture paired with ipsilateral index-finger extensions, minimizing the difference between heel and finger movement onsets. This task was repeated ten times under two temporal conditions (self-initiated [SI] vs. reaction-time [RT]. Results showed that, first, temporal pressure modified movement synchronization; the finger extension preceded swing heel-off in RT, and inversely in SI. Synchronization error and associated standard deviation were significantly greater in elderly than in young adults in SI only, i.e. in the condition where proprioception is thought to be crucial for temporal coordination. Secondly, both groups developed a significantly shorter mediolateral (ML anticipatory postural adjustment duration in RT (high temporal pressure than in SI. In both groups, this shortening was compensated by an increase in the anticipatory peak of centre-of-gravity (CoG acceleration towards the stance-leg so that ML dynamic stability at foot-off, quantified with the "extrapolated centre-of-mass", remained unchanged across temporal conditions. This increased CoG acceleration was associated with an increased anticipatory peak of ML centre-of-pressure shift towards the swing-leg in young adults only. This suggested that the ability to accelerate the CoG with the centre-of-pressure shift was degraded in elderly, probably due to weakness in the lower limb muscles. Dynamic stability at foot-off was also degraded in elderly, with a consequent increased risk of ML imbalance and falling. The present study provides new insights into the ability of

  9. STUDY ON THE CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CERTAIN FUNCTIONAL INDICES AND THE CONDITIONAL MOTOR SKILLS ON AGE GROUPS IN ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMINA LIANA MUSAT

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Effort represents in sports one of the essential environmental factors, vital both in the body’s harmonious development, and in maintaining its health. Motor activity, through the phenomena of adaptation, compensation and overcompensation that it generates, stimulates and in some cases guides in growth and development, has twocomponents: a genetic one, referring to inborn characteristics, the genetic information making up the genotype and manifested as the fenotype (the external manifestation form, and an acquired one, obtained through exercises influenced by environmental conditions. The present study undertaken by means of multivaried analysis of conditional motor skills evinced that the indices of conditional motor skills may remain strongly connected during many years with certain functional indices, and then these correlations may suffer essential alterations

  10. Pregnancy serum concentrations of perfluorinated alkyl substances and offspring behaviour and motor development at age 5-9 years - a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Obel, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    were grouped into country specific as well as pooled tertiles as well as being used as continuous variables for statistical analyses. Child motor development and behaviour at follow-up (2010-2012) were measured by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ) and Strength......) and offspring behaviour and motor development at 5-9 years of age. METHODS: Maternal sera from the INUENDO cohort (2002-2004) comprising 1,106 mother-child pairs from Greenland, Kharkiv (Ukraine) and Warsaw (Poland) were analysed for PFOS and PFOA, using liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry. Exposures...... difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to PFOS and PFOA may have a small to moderate effect on children's neuro-behavioural development, specifically in terms of hyperactive behaviour. The associations were strongest in Greenland where exposure contrast is largest....

  11. Stability and Decline in Gross Motor Function among Children and Youth with Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 21 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven E.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Palisano, Robert J.; Walter, Stephen D.; Avery, Lisa; Russell, Dianne J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the construction of gross motor development curves for children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to assess whether function is lost during adolescence. We followed children previously enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort study for an additional 4 years, as they entered adolescence and young adulthood. The…

  12. Invariant principles of speech motor control that are not language-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rahul

    2012-12-01

    Bilingual speakers must learn to modify their speech motor control mechanism based on the linguistic parameters and rules specified by the target language. This study examines if there are aspects of speech motor control which remain invariant regardless of the first (L1) and second (L2) language targets. Based on the age of academic exposure and proficiency in L2, 21 Bengali-English bilingual participants were classified into high (n = 11) and low (n = 10) L2 (English) proficiency groups. Using the Optotrak 3020 motion sensitive camera system, the lips and jaw movements were recorded while participants produced Bengali (L1) and English (L2) sentences. Based on kinematic analyses of the lip and jaw movements, two different variability measures (i.e., lip aperture and lower lip/jaw complex) were computed for English and Bengali sentences. Analyses demonstrated that the two groups of bilingual speakers produced lip aperture complexes (a higher order synergy) that were more consistent in co-ordination than were the lower lip/jaw complexes (a lower order synergy). Similar findings were reported earlier in monolingual English speakers by Smith and Zelaznik. Thus, this hierarchical organization may be viewed as a fundamental principle of speech motor control, since it is maintained even in bilingual speakers.

  13. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    These limitations range from testing collocational knowledge and another aspect of vocabulary knowledge in the same test battery (e.g. Mochizuki 2002 and Nizonkiza. 2011) to .... with overall proficiency, depth, and vocabulary size tests.

  14. The influence of non-native language proficiency on speech perception performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eKilman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined to what extent proficiency in a non-native language influences speech perception in noise. We explored how English proficiency affected native (Swedish and non-native (English speech perception in four speech reception threshold (SRT conditions including two energetic (stationary, fluctuating noise and two informational (two-talker babble Swedish, two-talker babble English maskers. Twenty-three normal-hearing native Swedish listeners participated, age between 28 and 64 years. The participants also performed standardized tests in English proficiency, non-verbal reasoning and working memory capacity. Our approach with focus on proficiency and the assessment of external as well as internal, listener-related factors allowed us to examine which variables explained intra-and interindividual differences in native and non-native speech perception performance. The main result was that in the non-native target, the level of English proficiency is a decisive factor for speech intelligibility in noise. High English proficiency improved performance in all four conditions when target language was English. The informational maskers were interfering more with perception than energetic maskers, specifically in the non-native language. The study also confirmed that the SRT's were better when target language was native compared to non-native.

  15. Serum BDNF correlates with connectivity in the (pre)motor hub in the aging human brain--a resting-state fMRI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Arelin, Katrin; Möller, Harald E; Sacher, Julia; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Villringer, Arno; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2016-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been discussed to be involved in plasticity processes in the human brain, in particular during aging. Recently, aging and its (neurodegenerative) diseases have increasingly been conceptualized as disconnection syndromes. Here, connectivity changes in neural networks (the connectome) are suggested to be the most relevant and characteristic features for such processes or diseases. To further elucidate the impact of aging on neural networks, we investigated the interaction between plasticity processes, brain connectivity, and healthy aging by measuring levels of serum BDNF and resting-state fMRI data in 25 young (mean age 24.8 ± 2.7 (SD) years) and 23 old healthy participants (mean age, 68.6 ± 4.1 years). To identify neural hubs most essentially related to serum BDNF, we applied graph theory approaches, namely the new data-driven and parameter-free approach eigenvector centrality (EC) mapping. The analysis revealed a positive correlation between serum BDNF and EC in the premotor and motor cortex in older participants in contrast to young volunteers, where we did not detect any association. This positive relationship between serum BDNF and EC appears to be specific for older adults. Our results might indicate that the amount of physical activity and learning capacities, leading to higher BDNF levels, increases brain connectivity in (pre)motor areas in healthy aging in agreement with rodent animal studies. Pilot results have to be replicated in a larger sample including behavioral data to disentangle the cause for the relationship between BDNF levels and connectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimized Motor Imagery Paradigm Based on Imagining Chinese Characters Writing Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhaoyang; Allison, Brendan Z; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xingyu; Li, Wei; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    motor imagery (MI) is a mental representation of motor behavior. The MI-based brain computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide communication for the physically impaired. The performance of MI-based BCI mainly depends on the subject's ability to self-modulate electroencephalogram signals. Proper training can help naive subjects learn to modulate brain activity proficiently. However, training subjects typically involve abstract motor tasks and are time-consuming. to improve the performance of naive subjects during motor imagery, a novel paradigm was presented that would guide naive subjects to modulate brain activity effectively. In this new paradigm, pictures of the left or right hand were used as cues for subjects to finish the motor imagery task. Fourteen healthy subjects (11 male, aged 22-25 years, and mean 23.6±1.16) participated in this study. The task was to imagine writing a Chinese character. Specifically, subjects could imagine hand movements corresponding to the sequence of writing strokes in the Chinese character. This paradigm was meant to find an effective and familiar action for most Chinese people, to provide them with a specific, extensively practiced task and help them modulate brain activity. results showed that the writing task paradigm yielded significantly better performance than the traditional arrow paradigm (p paradigm was easier. the proposed new motor imagery paradigm could guide subjects to help them modulate brain activity effectively. Results showed that there were significant improvements using new paradigm, both in classification accuracy and usability.

  17. iPLA2• Knockout Mouse, a Genetic Model for Progressive Human Motor Disorders, Develops Age-Related Neuropathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Helene; Taha, Ameer Y.; Cheon, Yewon; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Turk, John; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group VIa (iPLA2β) preferentially releases docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from the sn-2 position of phospholipids. Mutations of its gene, PLA2G6, are found in patients with several progressive motor disorders, including Parkinson disease. At 4 months, PLA2G6 knockout mice (iPLA2β−/−) show minimal neuropathology but altered brain DHA metabolism. By 1 year, they develop motor disturbances, cerebellar neuronal loss, and striatal α-synuclein accumulation. We hypothesized that older iPLA2β−/− mice also would exhibit inflammatory and other neuropathological changes. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were performed on whole brain homogenate from 15 to 20-month old male iPLA2β−/− or wild-type (WT) mice. These older iPLA2β−/− mice compared with WT showed molecular evidence of microglial (CD-11b, iNOS) and astrocytic (glial fibrillary acidic protein) activation, disturbed expression of enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism, loss of neuroprotective brain derived neurotrophic factor, and accumulation of cytokine TNF-α messenger ribonucleic acid, consistent with neuroinflammatory pathology. There was no evidence of synaptic loss, of reduced expression of dopamine active reuptake transporter, or of accumulation of the Parkinson disease markers Parkin or Pink1. iPLA2γ expression was unchanged. iPLA2β deficient mice show evidence of neuroinflammation and associated neuropathology with motor dysfunction in later life. These pathological biomarkers could be used to assess efficacy of dietary intervention, antioxidants or other therapies on disease progression in this mouse model of progressive human motor diseases associated with a PLA2G6 mutation. PMID:24919816

  18. Modulation of manual preference induced by lateralized practice diffuses over distinct motor tasks: age-related effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rosana M; Coelho, Daniel B; Teixeira, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of use of the non-preferred left hand to practice different motor tasks on manual preference in children and adults. Manual preference was evaluated before, immediately after and 20 days following practice. Evaluation was made with tasks of distinct levels of complexity requiring reaching and manipulation of cards at different eccentricities in the workspace. Results showed that left hand use in adults induced increased preference of that hand at the central position when performing the simple task, while left hand use by the children induced increased preference of the left hand at the rightmost positions in the performance of the complex task. These effects were retained over the rest period following practice. Kinematic analysis showed that left hand use during practice did not lead to modification of intermanual performance asymmetry. These results indicate that modulation of manual preference was a consequence of higher frequency of use of the left hand during practice rather than of change in motor performance. Findings presented here support the conceptualization that confidence on successful performance when using a particular limb generates a bias in hand selection, which diffuses over distinct motor tasks.

  19. Modulation of manual preference induced by lateralized practice diffuses over distinct motor tasks: age-related effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Machado de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effect of use of the nonpreferred left hand to practice different motor tasks on manual preference in children and adults. Manual preference was evaluated before, immediately after and 20 days following practice. Evaluation was made with tasks of distinct levels of complexity requiring reaching and manipulation of cards at different eccentricities in the workspace. Results showed that left hand use in adults induced increased preference of that hand at the central position when performing the simple task, while left hand use by the children induced increased preference of the left hand at the rightmost positions in the performance of the complex task. These effects were retained over the rest period following practice. Kinematic analysis showed that left hand use during practice did not lead to modification of intermanual performance asymmetry. These results indicate that modulation of manual preference was a consequence of higher frequency of use of the left hand during practice rather than of change in motor performance. Findings presented here support the conceptualization that confidence on successful performance when using a particular limb generates a bias in hand selection, which diffuses over distinct motor tasks.

  20. Reading, Mathematics and Fine Motor Skills at 5 Years of Age in US Children who were Extremely Premature at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miryoung; Pascoe, John M; McNicholas, Caroline I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of extreme prematurity at birth has increased, but little research has examined its impact on developmental outcomes in large representative samples within the United States. This study examined the association of extreme prematurity with kindergarteners' reading skills, mathematics skills and fine motor skills. Methods The early childhood longitudinal study-birth cohort, a representative sample of the US children born in 2001 was analyzed for this study. Early reading and mathematics skills and fine motor skills were compared among 200 extremely premature children (EPC) (gestational age sampling weights, children's age, race, sex, and general health status, and parental marital status and education among singleton children. Results At age 5 years, EPC were 2.6(95 % CI 1.7-3.8) times more likely to fail build a gate and were 3.1(95 % CI 1.6-5.8) times more likely to fail all four drawing tasks compared to TC (p values gate, 1.3[95 % CI 1.0-1.7]; failed to draw all four shapes, 1.1[95 % CI 0.8-1.6]) was not significantly different from TC. Mean early reading scale score (36.8[SE:1.3]) of EPC was 4.0 points lower than TC (p value sample of infants, the biological risk of extreme prematurity persists after adjusting for other factors related to development.

  1. Parâmetros motores e envelhecimento: um estudo de idosos de 60 a 83 anos de Ivoti, RS = Motor parameters and ageing: a study of elderly aged from 60 to 83 years from Ivoti, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccoli, João Carlos Jaccottet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi traçar o perfil motor de idosos de 60 a 83 anos, residentes na cidade de Ivoti, RS, estratificados por gêneros e faixa etária (60 a 70 e acima de 70. Na investigação, de tipo descritivo, participaram 202 idosos, 140 do gênero feminino e 62 do masculino, selecionados por conveniência, submetidos à Escala Motora para a Terceira Idade de Rosa Neto (2002, que avaliou as seguintes variáveis: Motricidade Fina, Coordenação Global, Equilíbrio, Esquema Corporal e Rapidez, Organização Espacial e Organização Temporal. A análise estatística foi através do teste “t” de Student a partir do programa SPSS, versão 16. 0 para Windows. Os idosos do gênero masculino entre 60 e 70 anos, classificaram-se, predominantemente, entre os níveis motores “normal baixo” e “alto” e os de maior idade, entre “normal médio” a “muito inferior”. Já as mulheres de ambos os grupos etários se classificaram num nível motor que variou de “normal médio” a “muito inferior”. Comparando-se os resultados médios dos idosos nos testes, entre as faixas etárias, observaram-se resultados superiores no grupo de 60 a 70 anos, quando comparados aos de maior idade (p D 0,05. Concluiu-se que os homens apresentaram resultados superiores aos das mulheres em todos os testes, com exceção do equilíbrio e organização temporal, nos idosos acima de 70 anos

  2. Unique Contributions of Maternal Reading Proficiency to Predicting Children's Preschool Receptive Vocabulary and Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Linda M.; Norris, Stephen P.; Hayward, Denyse V.; Lovell, Meridith A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether mothers' measured reading proficiency and their educational level predict, over and above each other, their children's receptive vocabulary and reading proficiency when confounding factors of speaking a minority language, ethnicity, number of children in the family, and marital and employment status are controlled.…

  3. English Language Proficiency and Early School Attainment Among Children Learning English as an Additional Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Katie E; Gooch, Debbie; Norbury, Courtenay F

    2016-09-20

    Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4-5). Academic attainment was assessed in reception and Year 2 (ages 6-7). Relative to monolingual peers with comparable English language proficiency, children with EAL displayed fewer social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties in reception, were equally likely to meet curriculum targets in reception, and were more likely to meet targets in Year 2. Academic attainment and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning in children with EAL are associated with English language proficiency at school entry.

  4. Can a Horse Be a Donkey? Semantic and Form Interference Effects in Translation Recognition in Early and Late Proficient and Nonproficient Spanish-Catalan Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, Pilar; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Guasch, Marc

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the developmental aspect of the revised hierarchical model (Kroll & Stewart, 1994) concerning the access to the conceptual store from the second language (L2). We manipulated the level of proficiency and age of L2 acquisition. We tested Spanish-Catalan bilinguals (49 early proficient bilinguals, 28 late proficient…

  5. Influence of Second Language Proficiency and Syntactic Structure Similarities on the Sensitivity and Processing of English Passive Sentence in Late Chinese-English Bilinguists: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was…

  6. Influence of Second Language Proficiency and Syntactic Structure Similarities on the Sensitivity and Processing of English Passive Sentence in Late Chinese-English Bilinguists: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was…

  7. Disparities in Hypertension Associated with Limited English Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Taekyu; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Rose, Adam J; Hanchate, Amresh D

    2017-06-01

    Limited English proficiency (LEP) is associated with poor health status and worse outcomes. To examine disparities in hypertension between National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) respondents with LEP versus adequate English proficiency. Retrospective analysis of multi-year survey data. Adults 18 years of age and older who participated in the NHANES survey during the period 2003-2012. We defined participants with LEP as anyone who completed the NHANES survey in a language other than English or with the support of an interpreter. Using logistic regression, we estimated the odds ratio for undiagnosed or uncontrolled hypertension (systolic blood pressure (SBP) > 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > 90 mmHg) among LEP participants relative to those with adequate English proficiency. We adjusted for sociodemographic, acculturation-related, and hypertension-related variables. Fourteen percent (n = 3,269) of the participants had limited English proficiency: 12.4% (n = 2906) used a Spanish questionnaire and 1.6% (n = 363) used an interpreter to complete the survey in another language. Those with LEP had higher odds of elevated blood pressure on physical examination (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.47 [1.07-2.03]). This finding persisted among participants using an interpreter (AOR = 1.88 [1.15-3.06]) but not among those using the Spanish questionnaire (AOR = 1.32 [0.98-1.80]). In a subgroup analysis, we found that the majority of uncontrolled hypertension was concentrated among individuals with a known diagnosis of hypertension (AOR = 1.80 [1.16-2.81]) rather than those with undiagnosed hypertension (AOR = 1.14 [0.74-1.75]). Interpreter use was associated with increased odds of uncontrolled hypertension, especially among patients who were not being medically managed for hypertension (AOR = 6.56 [1.30-33.12]). In a nationally representative sample, participants with LEP were more likely to have poorly

  8. Aptidão física relacionada ao desempenho motor em escolares de sete a 15 anos Physical fitness related to motor performance in scholars aged seven to 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Carvalho Dumith

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os benefícios do desenvolvimento da aptidão física sobre a saúde estão bem evidenciados na literatura científica. O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever a aptidão física relacionada ao desempenho motor de crianças e adolescentes e examinar as diferenças de acordo com sexo, idade, tipo de escola (pública ou privada e região geográfica da escola (urbana ou rural. Uma bateria de cinco testes motores foi aplicada a 526 alunos entre sete e 15 anos do ensino fundamental de Rio Grande, RS: salto em distância parado, arremesso de "medicine-ball", barra modificada, corrida de 20 metros e quadrado. Os resultados apontam que o desempenho em todos os testes foi superior para os rapazes e aumentou diretamente com a faixa etária. Estes foram os principais preditores da aptidão física dentre as variáveis examinadas. O tipo de escola só teve influência sobre o desempenho no teste de arremesso de "medicine-ball", em que alunos da rede privada obtiveram valores médios maiores. Escolares da zona urbana atingiram um melhor desempenho em todos os testes, exceto no teste de barra modificada (sem diferença por região geográfica. A realização de pesquisas com o mesmo enfoque em outras regiões do Brasil permitirá explorar a consistência destes achados e compreender possíveis diferenças.There is strong evidence regarding the benefits of physical fitness development upon health. The aim of this study was to describe the physical fitness related to motor performance in children and adolescents, and to examine if there are differences according to sex, age, type of school (public or private and geographic region (urban or rural. A battery comprising of five motor tests were administered to 526 students aged seven to 15 years from elementary schools of Rio Grande, Brazil: stationary long jump, medicine-ball throw, modified pull-up, 20-meter run and 4-meter shuttle-run. The results indicate that the performance in all tests were higher

  9. The Impact of Child Safety Restraint Status and Age in Motor Vehicle Collisions in Predicting Type and Severity of Bone Fractures and Traumatic Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftis, Christopher M; Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Eubanks, James W; Kelly, Derek M

    2016-01-11

    Although morbidity and mortality in children increases in motor vehicle collisions (MVC) if child restraints are not used, no data exist correlating specific injuries with proper or improper use of safety restraints or age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate correlations between childhood MVC injuries, age, and restraint status. A medical record search for pediatric patients involved in a MVC was conducted at a pediatric hospital (level 1 trauma). Charts were reviewed for demographics and injury-specific information. Patients were grouped by age, restraint use, and injuries. Nine hundred sixty-seven patients ≤12 years (average age 6.39 y) were identified. Being properly restrained was most common in all age groups except the 4- to 8-year age group in which being improperly restrained was most common. Unrestrained patients were most commonly found in the 9- to 12-year age group. A statistically significant difference was not observed for orthopaedic injuries among the restraint groups, but internal thoracic injuries, open head wound, and open upper extremity wounds were significantly more common in improperly or unrestrained patients. Improperly restrained infants had a significantly higher rate of intracranial bleeds and abrasions than those properly restrained. Unrestrained and improperly restrained 9- to 12-year olds had significantly more open head, open upper extremity, and vascular injuries. When comparing injury types with age groups, upper extremity fractures, femoral fractures, dislocations, and spinal fractures were found to be significantly higher in older children. Preventing orthopaedic injuries in older children may be accomplished by changes in regulations or automotive safety equipment. Rear-facing child safety seats could possibly be improved to prevent head trauma in the youngest patients. There is a continued need to reinforce the importance of proper use of child safety devices to parents. Knowledge of the patient's age, along with

  10. Training implications of maximal forces on a computer-controlled and motor-driven leg press by age group, sex, footplate direction, and speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Brian W.; Hart-Hughes, Stephanie; Gordon, Mark T.; Bulat, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Strength training that overloads lengthening muscle fibers may result in greater strength gains with less effort and perceived exertion than conventional training modalities. This study evaluates a device capable of this overloading (a motor-driven and computer-controlled leg press) to develop recommendations for future training interventions. Unimpaired younger and older men and women (7/group, total n=28) performed three maximal-effort trials for both directions of footplate motion (IN and OUT) at three speed profiles (knee rotation speeds of 15, 25, and 35°/s) on a motor-driven and computer-controlled leg press. Normalized forces were tested for effects of age group, sex, direction of footplate motion, and knee rotation speed. Peak forces were 57% greater for younger and 20% greater for IN. Trends of greater IN relative to OUT forces (IN overloading) were present in women, but this was due to an inverse correlation between strength and IN overloading that was independent of age group and sex. Leg press strength training on a device that is capable of overloading lengthening muscle fibers is a promising new training method that appears to have the greatest potential benefits for the weakest participants. Training target profiles on the device tested and others similar to it should be set based on participant-specific maximums across the ROM in both IN and OUT directions at a speed in the middle of the range to be trained. PMID:22289381

  11. Beyond English Proficiency: Rethinking Immigrant Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Massey, Douglas S.; Frank, Reanne

    2014-01-01

    We develop and test a conceptual model of English language acquisition and the strength of the latter in predicting social and cultural assimilation. We present evidence that the path to English proficiency begins with exposure to English in the home country and on prior U.S. trips. English proficiency, then, has direct links to the intermediate migration outcomes of occupational status in the U.S., the amount of time in the U.S. since the most recent trip, and the co-ethnic residential context in the U.S. In turn, pre-migration characteristics and the intermediate characteristics work in tandem with English proficiency to determine social assimilation in the U.S., while cultural assimilation is primarily determined by pre-migration habits. A shift in focus to English use is desirable in studies of immigrant integration. PMID:24576636

  12. Self-Ratings of Spoken Language Dominance: A Multilingual Naming Test (MINT) and Preliminary Norms for Young and Aging Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Weissberger, Gali H.; Runnqvist, Elin; Montoya, Rosa I.; Cera, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated correspondence between different measures of bilingual language proficiency contrasting self-report, proficiency interview, and picture naming skills. Fifty-two young (Experiment 1) and 20 aging (Experiment 2) Spanish-English bilinguals provided self-ratings of proficiency level, were interviewed for spoken proficiency, and…

  13. Gross and fine motor function in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Omid; Fors, Egil A; Borchgrevink, Petter Chr; Öhberg, Fredrik; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This paper aimed to investigate motor proficiency in fine and gross motor function, with a focus on reaction time (RT) and movement skill, in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods A total of 60 individuals (20 CFS, 20 FM, and 20 HC), age 19–49 years, participated in this study. Gross motor function in the lower extremity was assessed using a RT task during gait initiation in response to an auditory trigger. Fine motor function in the upper extremity was measured during a precision task (the Purdue Pegboard test) where the number of pins inserted within 30 s was counted. Results No significant differences were found between FM and CFS in any parameters. FM and CFS groups had significantly longer RT than HC in the gait initiation (p=0.001, and p=0.004 respectively). In the Purdue Pegboard test, 20% in the FM group, 15% in the CFS groups, and 0% of HC group, scored below the threshold of the accepted performance. However, there were no significant differences between FM, CFS, and HC in this task (p=0.12). Conclusion Compared to controls, both CFS and FM groups displayed significantly longer RT in the gait initiation task. Generally, FM patients showed the worst results in both tests, although no group differences were found in fine motor control, according to the Purdue Pegboard test. PMID:28223840

  14. And Who Assesses the Bilingual Teacher's Language Proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle-Zepeda, Veronica; Saldate, Macario, IV

    1978-01-01

    Describes the rationale and design of the Zepeda/Saldate Spanish Language Proficiency Exam developed at the University of Arizona for use in evaluating the language proficiency of applicants for bilingual/bicultural teacher education programs. (JG)

  15. Proficient Readers' Reading Behavior in Taiwan: The Study of Young Chinese Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reading behavior of young proficient Chinese readers at preschool age. Especially, the roles of phonetic skill and Chinese Character recognition in reading comprehension were explored. 10 kindergartens were recruited to participate in the study. Subjects were 72-98 kindergarten children. Instruments…

  16. Tap and Text: Using Poetry to Develop Rhythmic Proficiency in Percussive Dance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Ryan P.

    2017-01-01

    As a longtime student and aficionado of both poetry and percussive dance, Ryan Casey presents ways in which poetry--both written and spoken word--can be used in a dance class to develop rhythmic proficiency in percussive dancers of varying ages and skill levels, and explains why he believes this practice is accessible and educational. Although the…

  17. Native Language Phonological Skills in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the link between low second language performance and difficulties with native language phonological processing. Participants were native Hebrew speakers, 19-31 years of age, who learned English as a second language in a school setting. Individuals with dyslexia performed below high-proficiency second language learners on…

  18. Parental Interactions with Latino Infants: Variation by Country of Origin and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Natasha J.; Shannon, Jacqueline D.; West, Jerry; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    This study examined variation in mother-infant interactions, father engagement, and infant cognition as a function of country of origin, socioeconomic status, and English language proficiency in a national sample of Latino infants (age 9 months) born in the United States and living with both biological parents (N=1,099). Differences between…

  19. Tap and Text: Using Poetry to Develop Rhythmic Proficiency in Percussive Dance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Ryan P.

    2017-01-01

    As a longtime student and aficionado of both poetry and percussive dance, Ryan Casey presents ways in which poetry--both written and spoken word--can be used in a dance class to develop rhythmic proficiency in percussive dancers of varying ages and skill levels, and explains why he believes this practice is accessible and educational. Although the…

  20. Native Language Phonological Skills in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the link between low second language performance and difficulties with native language phonological processing. Participants were native Hebrew speakers, 19-31 years of age, who learned English as a second language in a school setting. Individuals with dyslexia performed below high-proficiency second language learners on…

  1. Relating Input Factors and Dual Language Proficiency in French-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The input factors that may cause variation in bilingual proficiency were investigated in 38 French-English bilinguals aged six to eight, of middle-to-high socio-economic status, attending an international state school in France. Data on children's current and cumulative language exposure and family background were collected through questionnaires…

  2. Using genre pedagogy to promote student proficiency in the language required for interpreting line graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Jantien; Bakker, Arthur; van Eerde, Dolly; Kuijpers, Maggie

    2016-09-01

    The importance of language in mathematics learning has been widely acknowledged. However, little is known about how to make this insight productive in the design and enactment of language-oriented mathematics education. In a design-based research project, we explored how language-oriented mathematics education can be designed and enacted. We drew on genre pedagogy to promote student proficiency in the language required for interpreting line graphs. In the intervention, the teacher used scaffolding strategies to focus students' attention on the structure and linguistic features of the language involved in this particular domain. The research question addressed in this paper is how student proficiency in this language may be promoted. The study comprised nine lessons involving 22 students in grades 5 and 6 (aged 10-12); of these students, 19 had a migrant background. In light of the research aim, we first describe the rationale behind our design. Next, we illustrate how the design was enacted by means of a case study focusing on one student in the classroom practice of developing proficiency in the language required for interpreting line graphs. On the basis of pre- and posttest scores, we conclude that overall their proficiency has increased. Together, the results indicate that and how genre pedagogy may be used to help students become more proficient in the language required in a mathematical domain.

  3. Mastery and Exercise Play Interventions: Motor Skill Development and Verbal Recall of Children with and without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Nadia Cristina; Pierosan, Licia; Rudisill, Mary E.; Hastie, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fundamental motor skill proficiency is essential for engagement in sports and physical play and in the development of a healthy lifestyle. Children with motor delays (with and without disabilities) lack the motor skills necessary to participate in games and physical activity, and tend to spend more time as onlookers than do their…

  4. Analysis of Reach-to-Grasp by School-Aged Children with Down Syndrome Elucidates Limitations in Upper Extremity Motor Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvano, Joanne; Hogy, Sara; Worster, Kate; Ma, Julie; Denniston, Nancy; Winders, Patricia; Rapport, Mary Jane; Pan, Zhaoxing; Carollo, James J

    2017-11-01

    To identify limitations in preparatory planning (PP) and movement execution that constrain performance of reach-to-grasp (RTG) movements in school-aged children with Down syndrome (DS) and examine the effect of chronological age (CA) on performance. Nine children with DS ages 6 to 12 years and nine with typical development (TD) participated in this pilot descriptive study. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis was applied to RTG movements performed in the context of two functional tasks. PP variables focused on the coordination of reach and grasp. Compared to the group with TD, the group with DS demonstrated significant limitations in anticipatory slowing down of hand transport and orientation of the hand in preparation for object contact. There was also relatively late onset of preparatory grip formation in the group with DS. In regard to movement execution, reach trajectories of the group with DS showed significantly greater deviation from the straight path. Correlations of study variables with CA were low and insignificant in both groups. Motor control mechanisms that mediate both PP and execution of the fundamental RTG movement are potential factors limiting upper extremity activity in school-aged children with DS. They should be addressed in future intervention-based research.

  5. PREDICTIVE CONTRIBUTION OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR ABILITIES ON THE RESULT OF RUNNING THE 60m HURDLES IN BOYS AGED 12 - 13 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zana Bujak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is to determine predictive contributions of morphological characteristics and motor abilities on the 60m hurdles, with an aim to form a group of easily applicable field tests so as to identify boys who are talented in hurdl e racing . The subject sample of this study was comprised of 60 boys aged 12 - 13. The variable sample consisted of a 60m hurdles criterion variable and a set of 13 p re dictor variables comprising of morphological characteristics, speed - strength abilities and the subjects' coordina tion qualities . Applying the regression analysis , the predictive contribution of a complete variable s et of morpholog ical characteristics and motor abilities was determined as an above average statistical significance, influencing 60m hurdle outcome. The greatest individual statistically significant predictive contribution was achieved by the variables of speed - strength quality assessment: 20m flying start r ace result with a standing long jump; and only one variable from the field of morphological characteristics: the shin length. The results support the following conclusion: the two specific variables of speed - strength quality, and 20m flying start race results along with standing long jump , can be relevant predictors of successful outcome in hurdle races .

  6. A Validation Study of the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lynn E.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Rhodes, Nancy C.

    This study validated the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA), an oral proficiency instrument designed for students in elementary foreign language programs. Elementary students who were tested with the SOPA were also administered other instruments designed to measure proficiency. These instruments included the Stanford Foreign Language Oral…

  7. Taking Charge: Teacher Candidates' Preparation for the Oral Proficiency Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, JoAnn Hammadou

    2011-01-01

    Within second language education, concern over teachers' content knowledge has typically manifested itself as concern over the teacher's target language proficiency. In increasing numbers, teacher preparation programs are turning to ACTFL's Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) for measurement of this proficiency and using OPI ratings as high-stakes…

  8. 34 CFR 300.27 - Limited English proficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited English proficient. 300.27 Section 300.27... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.27 Limited English proficient. Limited English proficient has the meaning given the term in section 9101(25) of the ESEA. (Authority:...

  9. Segmentation and accuracy-based scores for the automatic assessment of oral proficiency for proficient L2 speakers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Wet, Febe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the automatic assessment of oral proficiency for advanced second language speakers. A spoken dialogue system is used to guide students through an oral test and to record their answers. Indicators of oral proficiency...

  10. Speaking Strategies: Meeting NCATE Oral Proficiency Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    The teaming of ACTFL and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education resulted in the requirement that teacher candidates speak at the Advanced Low (AL) or higher level on the Oral Proficiency scale. Providing the means to help candidates meet that minimum standard for certification is a fundamental consideration. This article…

  11. Foreign language proficiency and working memory capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hugdahl, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the hypothesis that working memory capacity interacts with (foreign) language proficiency was tested on multilinguals, who were native (L1) Dutch speakers, were fluent in their second (L2) language, German, and had recently started the acquisition of their third (L3) language,

  12. Proficiency test for antibiotics in beef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of antibiotics in bovine tissues, including the screening analysis. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for screening and quantitative and

  13. Moving Readers from Struggling to Proficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    If we want to move children from struggling to read to being proficient readers, we must address the disparate ways that teachers respond to readers with varying abilities. Restorative practices, akin to restorative justice, build relationships, make connections, and foster a reader's sense of ownership and empowerment. What would happen if…

  14. ESL Proficiency and a Word Frequency Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlech-Jones, Brian

    1983-01-01

    In a study of the vocabulary proficiency of some South African ESL teacher trainees, the General Service List of English Words' validity was evaluated. It was found that mastery of this list would meet most of the vocabulary needs of the test group. Recommendations are made for practical uses of word counts. (MSE)

  15. Commercial Spanish: Developing Proficiencies and Business Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Tudela, Jose E.

    A commercial Spanish course offered at Marywood College (Scranton, Pennsylvania) serves both Spanish majors and majors in international business. In addition to language proficiency activities common to most commercial language courses, students have identified two projects as most functional and challenging: (1) a "carpeta" or file into which…

  16. Proficiency study for quinolones in egg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Studie naar het voorkomen van quinolonen in eieren, beschrijving van de testmaterialen, evaluatie van de toegepaste methoden, resultaten en discussieThe aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of quinolones i

  17. Adapting Query Expansion to Search Proficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Boscarino (Corrado); V. Hollink (Vera); A.P. de Vries (Arjen); B. Carterette; E. Kanoulas; P. Clough; M. Sanderson

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractWe argue that query expansion (QE) based on the full ses- sion improves the overall search experience provided that we know how to adapt the QE weighting schema to a user's search proficiency. We propose a strategy to predict search ability from session parameters. Us- ing an

  18. Foreign language proficiency and working memory capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hugdahl, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the hypothesis that working memory capacity interacts with (foreign) language proficiency was tested on multilinguals, who were native (L1) Dutch speakers, were fluent in their second (L2) language, German, and had recently started the acquisition of their third (L3) language, Norwegi

  19. The Accreditation of Laboratories Proficiency and Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Recently, China National Accreditation Board for Laboratories (CNAL) has released CNAL/AC23:2004 Medical Laboratories: Accreditation Criteria For Quality and Proficiency, and meanwhile GB 19489 Laboratories: General Requirements For Biosafety and ISO 15190 Medical Laboratories-Requirements For Safetywill be adopted by CNAL as the accreditation criteria for laboratories safety.

  20. Proficiency test for antibiotics in bovine muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of antibiotics in bovine muscle, including the screening analysis. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for screening and quantitative conf

  1. Business Spanish: Role Playing for Oral Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael Scott

    The situation card used in the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages/Educational Testing Service (ACTFL/ETS) Oral Proficiency Interview provides a kind of linguistic-topographical map of the student's foreign language ability by measuring what the student of business Spanish is able or unable to do in business situations in that…

  2. Peculiarities of changes in latent periods of sensor motor responses in young athletes aged 13-16 years depending on the orientation of their training process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoroshukha M.F.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown peculiarities of the specific impact of various types of training loads on the body of young athletes. In experiment involved 263 young athletes engaged in different sports (group A- speed-strength sports, group B-endurance sports and 62 secondary school pupils, who don't go in for sports, aged of 13-16 years. A technique of psycho-physiological research was considered. A comparative analysis of changes in rates of psycho-physiological reactions of the surveyed studies for data research'80s and 2000s is shown. It is established that the specificity of the training process is reflected in the nature of the changes of the latent period of simple and complex sensor motor reactions that have the majority of cases are genetically determined. Substantiated the importance of changes in these parameters in the practice of physical education.

  3. Central Determinants of Age-Related Declines in Motor Function (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Volume 515)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-18

    Medullary Functions in Aged Rats under Anesthesia. By MIEKO KUROSAWA , AKIO SATO, YUKO SATO, and HARUE SUZUKI ... 329 Part V. Plasticity and...light or sound showed rises from the 20s to the 60s of between 0 and 25% and a mean of 14.5%’o. With choice WELFORD: SPEED OF PERFORMANCE ANt) AGE 3 󈧑...come up with a model that will fit the bill -causes us to lose sight of what we have in front of us. It is quite clear that there are a lot of

  4. Relationship between English Language Learners' Proficiency in Reading, Writing, Listening, and Speaking and Proficiency on Maryland School Assessments in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics proficiency of English language learners (ELLs) on the Maryland School Assessments (MSA) for mathematics continues to lag behind the proficiency level of students who are proficient English speakers. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a statistically significant relationship between English language learner's…

  5. A study on some motoric and anthropometric attributes of competitive and non - competitive taekwondo athletes between the age group 9 - 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu SEVİNÇ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to examine some motoric and antrophometric attributes of competitive and non - competitive taekwondo athletes within the age group 9 - 12 years and to det ermine the difference between those two groups. Material and method: 31 competitive and 29 non - competitive licensed taekwondo athletes voluntarily participated in the study. The average ages, heights and weight of competitive and non - competitive athletes w ere 11,16±,93 year, 150,58±17,14 cm and 43,80± 13,97 kg, 9,62±,82 year, 137,31±8,80 cm and 35,24±8,28 kg respectively. Both groups have been practising regularly taekwondo for 2,5 years, 2 days a week and two hours a day. Flamingo balance test, test of dis k touching, sit and reach flexibility test, long jump while standing still, 30 sec sit - up test, bent arm pull - up test and 10x5m push up run, right and left hand grip strength test and 20 m shuttle run of the Eurofit test battery were used. Body fat percen t, body fat mass, fat free mass, body mass index values were measured. Such antrophometric attributes as hand length, calf and femur circumference, arm length, biceps circumference in flexion, arm span length were measured. Results: Results of statistical analyses showed a significant difference between two groups in terms of motoric scores (p<0,01, p<0,001, antrophometric characteristics ( p<0,01, p<0,001, and fat free mass ( p<0,001 in favor of the competitive group. Conclusion: Compared with the no n - competitive group, significant differences in competitive group can be explained by their active participation in competitions.

  6. Physical activity level in people with age related white matter changes correlates to better motor performance, lower comorbidity and higher cognitive level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Anna F; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Bronge, Lena; Olsson, Elisabeth; Amberla, Kaarina; Baezner, Hansjoerg; Crisby, Milita

    2017-07-12

    Physical activity plays a pivotal role in the development of disability and may modify the negative effect of vascular risk factors on progression of both cardio and cerebrovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity level in people with age-related white matter changes as identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to motor performance, cognition and perceived health. Data came from the first year follow up of one participating centers of the LADIS study. Fifty one subjects were first enrolled in the study. Complete first year follow up data was available for 41 subjects. Information on comorbidity, physical activity level, physical function, cognition, level of white matter changes and perceived health was collected. Physical activity level was classified with a yes or no question and with the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI). Only 36% of the subjects in this study were physically active according to the yes/no question. 27.5% of the subjects were active according to the FAI score which evaluates the everyday activities. Being active discriminated subjects with better physical function. Subjects active according to the FAI score had a higher cognitive level (p ≤ 0.01), lower comorbidity (p = 0.02) and performed better on all motor function tasks as assessed by walking speed (p ≤ 0.01) and the Short Physical Performance battery (SPPB) (p ≤ 0.01). Being physically active seems to be a long term protective factor. In our study, the majority of subjects with Age Related White Mattter Changes (ARWMC) with no or mild Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) disability did not attain recommended level of activity at first year follow up. Whether or not increasing physical activity may slow down cognitive decline and lessen development of disability in physically inactive subjects with manifest ARWC remains to be studied. not applicable.

  7. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

  8. Behavioral Senescence and Aging-Related Changes in Motor Neurons and Brain Neuromodulator Levels Are Ameliorated by Lifespan-Extending Reproductive Dormancy in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick R. Nässel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The lifespan of Drosophilamelanogaster can be extended substantially by inducing reproductive dormancy (also known as diapause by lowered temperature and short days. This increase of longevity is accompanied by lowered metabolism and increased stress tolerance. We ask here whether behavioral senescence is ameliorated during adult dormancy. To study this we kept flies for seven or more weeks in normal rearing conditions or in diapause conditions and compared to 1-week-old flies in different behavioral assays of sleep, negative geotaxis and exploratory walking. We found that the senescence of geotaxis and locomotor behavior seen under normal rearing conditions was negligible in flies kept in dormancy. The normal senescence of rhythmic activity and sleep patterns during the daytime was also reduced by adult dormancy. Investigating the morphology of specific neuromuscular junctions (NMJs, we found that changes normally seen with aging do not take place in dormant flies. To monitor age-associated changes in neuronal circuits regulating activity rhythms, sleep and walking behavior we applied antisera to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, serotonin and several neuropeptides to examine changes in expression levels and neuron morphology. In most neuron types the levels of stored neuromodulators decreased during normal aging, but not in diapause treated flies. No signs of neurodegeneration were seen in either condition. Our data suggest that age-related changes in motor neurons could be the cause of part of the behavioral senescence and that this is ameliorated by reproductive diapause. Earlier studies established a link between age-associated decreases in neuromodulator levels and behavioral decline that could be rescued by overexpression of neuromodulator. Thus, it is likely that the retained levels of neuromodulators in dormant flies alleviate behavioral senescence.

  9. Relations between Some Anthropometric Characteristics and the Variable for Assess Situation - Motoric Knowledge Smash from the Zone 4 for the Women Volleyball Players in the Age of 14 - 18 in Republic of Macedonia in the Season 2009/10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijana M ISOVSKI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was made on a sample of 151 female volleyball players in the age of 14 - 18 in Macedonia, which represents the population of players competing in state championships for the young categories in season 2009/10. The study applied 1 variable to assessment situation - motor knowledge and 18 variables for the assessment of the anthropometric characteristics . In order to determine the relationship between anthropometrical characteristics and variables for assessment of the situation - motor knowledge linear regression analysis is applied, were the criteria for assessment situation - motor knowledge is the variabl e smash from the zone 4 and predictors are the anthropometrical variables. Based on the obtained results it can be determined that the predictor system of anthropometrical variables has statistically significant relationships on variable for assessment of the situation - motor knowledge.

  10. Investigating elementary school pupils’ proficiency in mastering English vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Achmad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available English has been taught at elementary schools as one of the local content subjects. It is necessary to study English from an early age in order to achieve good mastery in it. To master English means to master the four skills in it and also the language aspects, including vocabulary. As one of the language aspects, vocabulary plays an important role in language learning. This study reports on pupils’ proficiency in mastering English vocabulary after three years of studying in elementary school. The writer chose 55 grade-four pupils of SD Methodist Banda Aceh as a sample for this study. They were given a vocabulary test related to reading and writing skills consisting of 26 items. The test was to be done in 20 minutes. After calculating the data, it was found that the mean score (x of the pupils was 69.5, with the highest score at 92.3 and the lowest score at 26.9. More than 50% of the pupils could answer the questions correctly in less than 20 minutes. Only 4 out of the 55 pupils answered the questions less than 50% correctly and no one answered 100% correct. According to these results, this study showed that the pupils achieved good proficiency in vocabulary.

  11. Influence of Second Language Proficiency and Syntactic Structure Similarities on the Sensitivity and Processing of English Passive Sentence in Late Chinese-English Bilinguists: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was correct. Sentences were classified into literal translation sentences with the similar structure between the two languages and free translation sentences with the different structure. Behavioral data showed: shorter reaction times and higher accuracy rates occurred in the high-proficient group than those in the intermediate-proficient group; shorter reaction times and higher accuracy rates were observed in literal translation sentences than those in free translation sentences. ERP results showed literal translation sentences elicited an enhanced P200 and P600 while free translation sentences elicited a larger N400. The high-proficient group showed a larger P600 in syntactic violations and double violations while the intermediate-proficient group evoked an enhanced N400 in semantic violations and double violations. Literal translation sentences caused a larger P200 while free translation sentences elicited more negative-going N400. Behavioral and ERP data revealed the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on L2 sentence processing, and L2 proficiency played a predominate role.

  12. Implicit motor sequence learning in schizophrenia and in old age: reduced performance only in the third session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J; De Boer, Peter; Dumont, Glenn; Coppens, Violette; Morsel, Anne; Janssens, Luc; Timmers, Maarten; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Morrens, Manuel; Hulstijn, Wouter

    2016-12-01

    Although there still is conflicting evidence whether schizophrenia is a neurodegenerative disease, cognitive changes in schizophrenia resemble those observed during normal aging. In contrast to extensively demonstrated deficits in explicit learning, it remains unclear whether implicit sequence learning is impaired in schizophrenia and normal aging. Implicit sequence learning was investigated using a computerized drawing task, the 'implicit pattern learning task (IPLT)' in 30 stable patients with schizophrenia, 30 age-matched controls and 30 elderly subjects on two consecutive days and after 1 week (sessions 1, 2 and 3). Fixed sequence trials were intermixed with random trials, and sequence learning was assessed by subtraction of the response time in fixed sequence trials from random trials. Separate analyses of response times and movement accuracy (i.e., directional errors) were performed. Explicit sequence knowledge was assessed using three different awareness tasks. All groups learned equally during sessions 1 and 2. In session 3, control subjects showed significantly larger learning scores than patients with schizophrenia (p = .012) and elderly subjects (p = .021). This group difference is mainly expressed in movement time and directional errors. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrated less subjective sequence awareness, and both patients with schizophrenia and elderly subjects had less explicit sequence recall. Explicit recall was positively correlated with task performance in all groups. After a short 24 h interval, all subjects showed similar improvements in implicit sequence learning. However, no benefit of prior task exposure 1 week later was observed in patients with schizophrenia and elderly subjects compared to controls. As patients with schizophrenia and elderly both display less explicit sequence recall, the control group superiority after 1 week could be explained by an explicit learning component. The few patients with schizophrenia and

  13. tDCS Over the Motor Cortex Shows Differential Effects on Action and Object Words in Associative Word Learning in Healthy Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meret Branscheidt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is accompanied by a continuous decline in cognitive functions. For example, the ability to learn languages decreases with age, while the neurobiological underpinnings for the decline in learning abilities are not known exactly. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, in combination with appropriate experimental paradigms, is a well-established technique to investigate the mechanisms of learning. Based on previous results in young adults, we tested the suitability of an associative learning paradigm for the acquisition of action- and object-related words in a cohort of older participants. We applied tDCS to the motor cortex (MC and hypothesized an involvement of the MC in learning action-related words. To test this, a cohort of 18 healthy, older participants (mean age 71 engaged in a computer-assisted associative word-learning paradigm, while tDCS stimulation (anodal, cathodal, sham was applied to the left MC. Participants’ task performance was quantified in a randomized, cross-over experimental design. Participants successfully learned novel words, correctly translating 39.22% of the words after 1 h of training under sham stimulation. Task performance correlated with scores for declarative verbal learning and logical reasoning. Overall, tDCS did not influence associative word learning, but a specific influence was observed of cathodal tDCS on learning of action-related words during the NMDA-dependent stimulation period. Successful learning of a novel lexicon with associative learning in older participants can only be achieved when the learning procedure is changed in several aspects, relative to young subjects. Learning success showed large inter-individual variance which was dependent on non-linguistic as well as linguistic cognitive functions. Intriguingly, cathodal tDCS influenced the acquisition of action-related words in the NMDA-dependent stimulation period. However, the effect was not specific for the associative

  14. A systematic review of clinimetric properties of measurements of motivation for children aged 5-16 years with a physical disability or motor delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura; Ziviani, Jenny; Boyd, Roslyn Nancy

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this systematical review was to appraise the clinimetric properties of measures of motivation in children aged 5-16 years with a physical disability or motor delay. Six electronic databases were searched. Studies were included if they reported measuring motivation in school-aged children across occupational performance areas. Two reviewers independently identified measures from included articles. Evaluation of measures was completed using the COSMIN (consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments) checklist. A total of 13,529 papers were retrieved, 15 reporting measurement of motivation in this population. Two measures met criteria: Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ) and Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire (PVQ). There was evidence of adequate validity for DMQ, and preliminary evidence of test-retest reliability. Psychometric evidence for PVQ was poor. Both measures demonstrated good clinical utility. The large number of retrieved papers highlights the importance being attributed to motivation in clinical studies, although measurement is seldom performed. Both identified measures show promise but further psychometric research is required.

  15. Building proficient enzymes with foldamer prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Clemens; Müller, Manuel M; Gellman, Samuel H; Hilvert, Donald

    2014-07-01

    Foldamers are non-natural oligomers that adopt stable conformations reminiscent of those found in proteins. To evaluate the potential of foldameric subunits for catalysis, semisynthetic enzymes containing foldamer fragments constructed from α- and β-amino acid residues were designed and characterized. Systematic variation of the α→β substitution pattern and types of β-residue afforded highly proficient hybrid catalysts, thus demonstrating the feasibility of expanding the enzyme-engineering toolkit with non-natural backbones.

  16. Investigating Language Proficiency and Learning Style Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bradford; Pirotto, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Individual differences (ID) among language learners (e.g. language aptitude or motivation), are variables that are theorized to affect the degree of success one will have in acquiring a second language (L2). This study sought to add to the body of literature on learning style. 225first year students (divided into two groups based on English proficiency) at a private Japanese university were surveyed to determine their preferred learning style(s). The data obtained were then examined in relati...

  17. Ageing-induced changes in the redox status of peripheral motor nerves imply an effect on redox signalling rather than oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, Brian; Scullion, Siobhan M; Vasilaki, Aphrodite; Pollock, Natalie; McArdle, Anne; Jackson, Malcolm J

    2016-05-01

    Ageing is associated with loss of skeletal muscle fibres, atrophy of the remaining fibres and weakness. These changes in muscle are accompanied by disruption of motor neurons and neuromuscular junctions although the direct relationship between the nerve and muscle degeneration is not understood. Oxidative changes have been implicated in the mechanisms leading to age-related loss of muscle mass and in degeneration of the central nervous system, but little is known about age-related changes in oxidation in specific peripheral nerves that supply muscles that are affected by ageing. We have therefore examined the sciatic nerve of old mice at an age when loss of tibialis anterior muscle mass and function is apparent. Sciatic nerve from old mice did not show a gross increase in oxidative damage, but electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies indicated an increase in the activity of superoxide and/or peroxynitrite in the nerves of old mice at rest that was further exacerbated by electrical stimulation of the nerve to activate muscle contractions. Proteomic analyses indicated that specific redox-sensitive proteins are increased in content in the nerves of old mice that may reflect an adaptation to regulate the increased superoxide/peroxynitrite and maintain redox homoeostasis. Analysis of redox active cysteines showed some increase in reversible oxidation in specific proteins in nerves of old mice, but this was not universally seen across all redox-active cysteines. Detailed analysis of the redox-active cysteine in one protein in the nerve of old mice that is key to redox signalling (Peroxiredoxin 6, Cys 47) showed a minor increase in reversible oxidation that would be compatible with a change in its redox signalling function. In conclusion, the data presented indicate that sciatic nerve from old mice does not show a gross increase in oxidative damage similar to that seen in the TA and other muscles that it innervates. Our results indicate an adaptation to increased

  18. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning.

  19. Immigration, language proficiency, and autobiographical memories: Lifespan distribution and second-language access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports.

  20. More than use it or lose it: the number-of-speakers effect on heritage language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H; Starr, Jennie; Ferreira, Victor S

    2015-02-01

    Acquiring a heritage language (HL), a minority language spoken primarily at home, is often a major step toward achieving bilingualism. Two studies examined factors that promote HL proficiency. Chinese-English and Spanish-English undergraduates and Hebrew-English children named pictures in both their languages, and they or their parents completed language history questionnaires. HL picture-naming ability correlated positively with the number of different HL speakers participants spoke to as children, independently of each language's frequency of use, and without negatively affecting English picture-naming ability. HL performance increased also when primary caregivers had lower English proficiency, with later English age of acquisition, and (in children) with increased age. These results suggest a prescription for increasing bilingual proficiency is regular interaction with multiple HL speakers. Responsible cognitive mechanisms could include greater variety of words used by different speakers, representational robustness from exposure to variations in form, or multiple retrieval cues, perhaps analogous to contextual diversity effects.

  1. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... properties of this facility in the path from synaptic sites to the motor axon is reviewed with emphasis on voltage sensitive ion channels and regulatory metabotropic transmitter pathways. The catalog of the intrinsic response properties, their underlying mechanisms, and regulation obtained from motoneurons...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  2. Verbal abilities in low and highly proficient bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Georgia; Karapetsas, Anargyros

    2004-09-01

    The study investigated native language verbal skills among low and highly proficient bilinguals, using the WISC III verbal subtests. Highly proficient bilinguals showed a superiority for almost all verbal subtests. This finding lends support to Threshold Theory which maintains that bilinguals need to achieve high levels of linguistic proficiency before bilingualism can promote cognitive development. Our study also shows that verbal ability underlying proficiency in the native language can be generalized to a foreign language, revealing a causal connection between native and foreign language learning.

  3. Proficiência nas habilidades motoras fundamentais é necessária para inclusão de crianças em atividades motorasSe requiere dominio de las destrezas básicas de movimiento para la inclusión de los niños en las actividades motoras

    OpenAIRE

    José Angelo Barela

    2013-01-01

    Motor development is influenced by many factors such as practice and appropriate instruction, provided by teachers, even in preschool and elementary school. The goal of this paper was to discuss the misconception that maturation underlies children's motor skill development and to show that physical education, even in early years of our school system, is critical to promote proficiency and enrolment of children's in later motor activities. Motor skill development, as a curricular focus, has be...

  4. Screening Accuracy of the Parent-Completed Ages and Stages Questionnaires--Second Edition as a Broadband Screener for Motor Problems in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Van Schuerbeeck, Lise; Braeken, Marijke A. K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders are at risk for motor problems. However, this area is often overlooked in the developmental evaluation in autism diagnostic clinics. An alternative can be to identify children who should receive intensive motor assessment by using a parent-based screener. The aim of this study was to examine whether the Ages…

  5. Screening Accuracy of the Parent-Completed Ages and Stages Questionnaires--Second Edition as a Broadband Screener for Motor Problems in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Van Schuerbeeck, Lise; Braeken, Marijke A. K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders are at risk for motor problems. However, this area is often overlooked in the developmental evaluation in autism diagnostic clinics. An alternative can be to identify children who should receive intensive motor assessment by using a parent-based screener. The aim of this study was to examine whether the Ages…

  6. Influence of aging on the severity of different motor signs in Parkinson disease%年龄对帕金森病患者运动功能障碍的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶瑞东; 雷辉; 屈秋民; 王新来; 李会琪; 宋春霞; 林海; 刘健; 赵钢

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the contribution of aging to the severity of different motor signs of Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: 93 PD patients were evaluated using unified PD rating scale (UPDRS). The total UPDRS motor score was divided into 6 motor domains (tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, facial expression, speech, and axial impairment). We assessed the correlation of each motor score with sex, years of education, age at the examination, duration of disease, age at the onset, and medication. Results: The total UPDRS motor score was correlated with cognitive level and age. Tremor was correlated with the duration of disease. Linear regression analysis showed that age was the most significant influential factor for the total motor score and axial impairment. Conclusion: Axial (gait and postural) impairment in PD may result from the combined effect of the disease and the aging process. More attention should be paid to the axial impairment, especially in the aged PD patients.%目的:探讨帕金森病(PD)患者运动功能障碍的影响因素.方法:93例PD患者接受了调查.采用PD统一评分量表(UPDRS)评估患者各项运动功能障碍如震颤、肌强直、动作缓慢、面部表情、语言表达和中轴(步态和姿势)损伤.分析患者的性别、年龄、发病年龄、病程、受教育情况、治疗情况与UPDRS评分的相关性.结果:患者的UPDRS评分与认知水平和年龄显著相关;震颤与病程相关.回归分析显示患者年龄是影响UPDRS评分及中轴损伤的主要因素.结论:PD患者中轴损伤症状可能源于正常衰老和疾病本身共同作用的结果,在治疗中应重视老年患者的中轴运动损伤症状.

  7. 76 FR 66318 - Announcement of Funding Awards; Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program (LEPI), Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards; Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program (LEPI... for currently funded Initiatives under the Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program is 14.421... funding under the Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Limited English Proficiency...

  8. Dyspraxia, motor function and visual-motor integration in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M; Chukoskie, L; Zinni, M; Townsend, J; Trauner, D

    2014-08-01

    This project assessed dyspraxia in high-functioning school aged children with autism with a focus on Ideational Praxis. We examined the association of specific underlying motor function including eye movement with ideational dyspraxia (sequences of skilled movements) as well as the possible role of visual-motor integration in dyspraxia. We found that compared to IQ-, sex- and age-matched typically developing children, the children with autism performed significantly worse on: Ideational and Buccofacial praxis; a broad range of motor tests, including measures of simple motor skill, timing and accuracy of saccadic eye movements and motor coordination; and tests of visual-motor integration. Impairments in individual children with autism were heterogeneous in nature, although when we examined the praxis data as a function of a qualitative measure representing motor timing, we found that children with poor motor timing performed worse on all praxis categories and had slower and less accurate eye movements while those with regular timing performed as well as typical children on those same tasks. Our data provide evidence that both motor function and visual-motor integration contribute to dyspraxia. We suggest that dyspraxia in autism involves cerebellar mechanisms of movement control and the integration of these mechanisms with cortical networks implicated in praxis.

  9. MOTORIC STIMULATION RELATED TO FINE MOTORIC DEVELOPMENT ON CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Triharini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor developmental stimulation is an activity undertaken to stimulate the children basic skills and so they can grow and develop optimally. Children who obtain a direct stimulus will grow faster than who get less stimulus. Mother’s behavior of stimulation is very important for children, it is considering as the basic needs of children and it must be fulfilled. Providing good stimulation could optimize fine motor development in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze mother’s behavior about motor stimulation with fine motor development in toddler age 4-5 years old. Method: Design have been  used in this study was cross sectional. Population were mothers and their toddler in Group A of Dharma Wanita Persatuan Driyorejo Gresik Preschool. Sample were 51 respondents recruited by using purposive sampling technique according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The independent variable was mother’s behavior about motor stimulation whereas dependent variable was fine motor development in toddler. The data were collected using questionnaire and conducting observation on fine motor development based on Denver Development Screening Test (DDST. Data then analyzed using Spearman Rho (r test to find relation between mother’s behaviors about stimulation motor on their toddler fine motor development. Result: Results  of this study showed that there were correlations between mother’s knowledge and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, between mother’s attitude and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, and between mother’s actions and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000. Analysis: In sort study found that there were relation between fine motor development and mother’s behavior. Discussion: Therefore mother’s behavior needed to be improved. Further research about stimulation motor and fine motor development aspects in toddler is required.

  10. 核电厂安全级电机质量鉴定中的热老化试验%Thermal Aging Test for Safety Class Motor Quality Identification in Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄慧洁; 徐学敏; 吴燕茹

    2014-01-01

    热老化试验是核电厂安全级电气设备鉴定中的主要项目之一,用于确保核电站在设计年限内安全运行。电机是核电站大量应用的设备,由于绝缘系统复杂,其热老化试验的设计和实施极具代表性。以6.6 kV电机40年寿命验证项目为例,介绍了核电厂安全级电机质量鉴定程序中的热老化试验方法,阐述了三点法确定活化能的试验及数据处理过程,与热重分析法进行对比,分析了整机热老化试验条件的确定方法及结果判断条件。%Thermal aging test is one of the key items for safety class electrical equipment quality identification in nuclear power plant, aiming to ensure safety running of nuclear power plant during its design life. Motors are widely used in nuclear power plant. Since insulation system is complicated, the design and implementation of thermal aging test for motors are representative. Taking 6.6 kV motor as an example, the method of three temperature thermal aging test for safety class motor in nuclear power plant was introduced. The test procedure and data processing to decide activation energy using three point method were discussed. And compared with thermogravimetric analysis, the decision of test temperature and aging time, the test criteria of end-product thermal aging were also analyzed.

  11. Motor syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Francesco; Micheli, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Motor disturbances alone or associated with other focal deficits are the most common symptoms suggesting a neurovascular event. An appropriate clinical assessment of these signs and symptoms may help physicians to better diagnose and to both better treat and predict outcome. In this paper the main clinical features of motor deficit are described together with other motor-related events such as ataxia and movement disturbances.

  12. Piano Proficiency: The Perfect Accompaniment for Successful Music Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobetsky, Victor V.

    2004-01-01

    Do prospective music teachers with piano proficiency have an advantage in the job market? Can playing the piano well help practicing teachers achieve greater success in the classroom? In this article, the author stresses that piano proficiency is a necessary survival tool for music teachers regardless of their primary instrument or vocal specialty…

  13. Achieving the Advanced Oral Proficiency in Arabic: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimy, Keiko K.

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on a case study of a white American graduate student, Mark, who achieved "Superior" oral proficiency in Arabic according to the ACTFIi Oral Proficiency Scale. Based on multiple data sources (e.g., interviews, observation, document analysis), the study highlights Mark's multiple identities as a language learner, language…

  14. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument (panel

  15. Second Language Grammatical Proficiency and Third Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtadi, Laleh; Koosha, Mansour; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza

    2014-01-01

    The main concern of the present study was to investigate the probable correlation between the bilinguals' second language grammatical proficiency level and their third language grammatical proficiency level. The current study was implemented on selecting a total of 100 Iranian female high school students studying at second grade from two…

  16. Across the Threshold: A Call for ILR Proficiency Descriptor Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Don

    2017-01-01

    Whereas the Interagency Language Roundtable Language Skill Level Descriptions broke new ground for assessing proficiency in foreign languages, the need for user-oriented (rather than assessment-oriented) proficiency scales has led, especially in Europe, to the creation of scales consisting of positively formulated "can-do" statements,…

  17. The Relationship between Demotivation and EFL Learners' English Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rou-Jui Sophia

    2011-01-01

    To what extent does demotivation affect EFL learners' English language proficiency attainment? The present study addresses this question by investigating the relationship between technological institute EFL students' past demotivating factors and their English language proficiency. Although the role of demotivation in foreign language achievement…

  18. Proficiency test for tropane alkaloids in food en feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom-de Fauw, D.P.K.H.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC [1] and is

  19. The Proficiency-Based German Class: Experiences and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Arthur; Resch, Margit

    The demand for an improved international dimension in American education is a move in the right direction, and American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) and Educational Testing Service efforts in defining foreign language proficiency guidelines and developing a reliable mechanism for testing oral proficiency have resulted in…

  20. Current Developments in Proficiency Evaluation for African Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, David J., Ed.

    The essays collected here describe events, trends, and issues in the development of language proficiency testing for African languages. Papers include: "A Brief History of Proficiency Testing" (Richard T. Thompson, Dora E. Johnson); "The 1986 Stanford ACTFL Training Workshop" (William Leben); "The 1987 Madison-MSU Team…

  1. Naming abilities in low-proficiency second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in second language (L2) learning are often associated with recognizable learning difficulties in native language (L1), such as in dyslexia. However, some individuals have low L2 proficiency but intact L1 reading skills. These L2 learners experience frequent tip-of-the-tongue states while naming in L1, which indicates that they have a weakness in retrieval of phonological codes of words. The authors hypothesized that if naming ability is shared across languages, this difficulty would reemerge in L2 naming, which was tested using the tip-of-the-tongue experimental paradigm. Consistent with this hypothesis, low-proficiency L2 learners (n = 15) reported more tip-of-the-tongue states, more frequently mispronounced correctly retrieved words, and benefited less from phonological cuing compared to high-proficiency L2 learners (n = 23). It is notable that low-proficiency L2 learners performed worse than individuals with dyslexia (n = 16) on some of these measures, despite the same level of L2 proficiency. These results indicate that L2 naming difficulties of low-proficiency L2 learners are a manifestation not merely of their low L2 proficiency but rather of a general weakness in phonological word form retrieval, which is shared across languages. More broadly, the study provides further evidence for the existence of a distinct profile of cognitive weaknesses characteristic of the behavioral phenotype of low-proficiency L2 learners.

  2. Proficiency Testing and Poverty: Looking within a Large Urban District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Michael P.

    The relationship between success on proficiency tests and poverty has been widely discussed. This study explores the use of a neighborhood indicator of socioeconomic status based on school lunch participation of elementary school students in that neighborhood, and examines the relationship of poverty to success on a high school proficiency test in…

  3. Variables Affecting Proficiency in English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Josefina C.; García-Santillán, Arturo; Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena

    2017-01-01

    This study explores different variables leading to proficiency in English as a second language. Level of English on a placement exam taken upon entering a private university in Mexico was correlated to several variables. Additionally, participants (N = 218) were asked their perception of their own proficiency. A linear regression and a one-factor…

  4. Measuring Language Dominance and Bilingual Proficiency Development of Tarahumara Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciotto, Carla

    This paper examines the language dominance and oral bilingual proficiency of Tarahumara-Spanish speaking students from Chihuahua, Mexico, within the framework of Cummins' model of bilingual proficiency development. Cummins' model distinguishes between basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency…

  5. Teaching English through English: Proficiency, Pedagogy and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.

    2017-01-01

    Most of the world's English language teachers speak English as a second or third language rather than as their first language. For many, their level of proficiency in English may not reach benchmarks established by their employers, raising the issue that is the focus of this article, namely, what kind of proficiency in English is necessary to be…

  6. Early Childhood Education for Limited-English-Proficient Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegl, Juergen

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the benefits of early childhood education (ECE) for children whose proficiency in English is limited. Specifically, the paper (1) defines the basic characteristics of limited English proficient (LEP) children; (2) discusses educational risk factors and preschool enrollments of LEP children; (3) presents the…

  7. Proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, D.P.K.H.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Jong, de J.; Lee, van der M.K.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The here described proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed was organised by RIKILT, Wageningen UR in accordance with ISO 17043. RIKILT Wageningen UR has an ISO/IEC 17043 accreditation for proficiency tests of residues in products of animal origin. However, this specific test is not part

  8. Reconnecting Proficiency, Literacy, and Culture: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warford, Mark K.; White, William L.

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to capably communicate across languages? This article introduces two theoretical models and a lesson plan format designed to facilitate the integration of proficiency, literacy, and culture teaching in foreign language teaching. The Second Symbolic Competencies Model configures proficiency and literacy as subordinate clusters of…

  9. Phonological Awareness and Oral Language Proficiency in Learning to Read English among Chinese Kindergarten Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Susanna S.; Chan, Carol K. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2…

  10. Transition in Modern Foreign Languages: A Longitudinal Study of Motivation for Language Learning and Second Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Louise

    2017-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examines the similarities and differences between primary and secondary foreign language curricula and pedagogy along with the development of motivation for language learning and second language proficiency. Data from 26 English learners of French (aged 10-11) were collected across three times points over a 12-month…

  11. The Relationship between Extrinsic Motivation, Home Literacy, Classroom Instructional Practices, and Reading Proficiency in Second-Grade Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yin-kum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated how students' extrinsic motivation, home literacy and classroom instructional practices were related to the students' reading proficiency of 734 Chinese second-graders (48.2 per cent girls and 51.4 per cent boys) from twenty-two classes in seven primary schools in Hong Kong. The mean student age was 7.5 years. All…

  12. The relationship between task repetition and language proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mojavezi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Task repetition is now considered as an important task-based implementation variable which can affect complexity, accuracy, and fluency of L2 speech. However, in order to move towards theorizing the role of task repetition in second language acquisition, it is necessary that individual variables be taken into account. The present study aimed to investigate the way task repetition correlates with language proficiency and the differential effects that task repetition might have on the complexity, accuracy, and fluency of L2 learners with different levels of proficiency. Fifty language learners of different levels of proficiency, selected from two different language centers, participated in this study. They were asked to perform an oral narrative task twice with a one-week interval. Results revealed that, compared to the participants with lower L2 proficiency, participants with higher levels of L2 proficiency produced more complex, accurate, and fluent speech on the second encounter with the same task.

  13. The effects of methylmercury on motor activity are sex- and age-dependent, and modulated by genetic deletion of adenosine receptors and caffeine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Olga; Kahlström, Johan; Salmi, Peter; Ogren, Sven Ove; Vahter, Marie; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B; Daré, Elisabetta

    2007-11-30

    Adenosine and its receptors are, as part of the brain stress response, potential targets for neuroprotective drugs. We have investigated if the adenosine receptor system affects the developmental neurotoxicity caused by the fish pollutant methylmercury (MeHg). Behavioral outcomes of low dose perinatal MeHg exposure were studied in mice where the A(1) and A(2A) adenosine receptors were either partially blocked by caffeine treatment or eliminated by genetic modification (A(1)R and A(2A)R knock-out mice). From gestational day 7 to day 7 of lactation dams were administered doses that mimic human intake via normal diet, i.e. 1microM MeHg and/or 0.3g/l caffeine in the drinking water. This exposure to MeHg resulted in a doubling of brain Hg levels in wild type females and males at postnatal day 21 (PND21). Open field analysis was performed at PND21 and 2 months of age. MeHg caused time-dependent behavioral alterations preferentially in male mice. A decreased response to amphetamine in 2-month-old males pointed to disturbances in dopaminergic functions. Maternal caffeine intake induced long-lasting changes in the offspring evidenced by an increased motor activity and a modified response to psychostimulants in adult age, irrespectively of sex. Similar alterations were observed in A(1)R knock-out mice, suggesting that adenosine A(1) receptors are involved in the alterations triggered by caffeine exposure during development. Perinatal caffeine treatment and, to some extent, genetic elimination of adenosine A(1) receptors, attenuated the behavioral consequences of MeHg in males. Importantly, also deletion of the A(2A) adenosine receptor reduced the vulnerability to MeHg, consistent with the neuroprotective effects of adenosine A(2A) receptor inactivation observed in hypoxia and Parkinson's disease. Thus, the consequences of MeHg toxicity during gestation and lactation can be reduced by adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptor inactivation, either via their genetic deletion or by

  14. Patterns of Various ESOL Proficiency Test Scores by Native Language and Proficiency Levels. Occasional Papers on Linguistics, No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisama, Kay K.

    A profile method was used to analyze the patterns of four English proficiency tests (Comprehensive English Language Test for Speakers of English as a Second Language: Structure, CELT: Listening, Reading for Understanding Test, and The New Cloze Test) regarding two examinee characteristics: their language proficiency levels and native language. One…

  15. Associations among dispositional mindfulness, self-compassion, and executive function proficiency in early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee-Sung; Black, David S; Shonkoff, Eleanor Tate; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2016-12-01

    The study objective was to examine the effects of two conceptually related constructs, self-compassion and dispositional mindfulness, on executive function (EF) proficiency among early adolescents. Executive function refers to a set of psychological processes governing emotional regulation, organization, and planning. While the benefits of positive psychology appear evident for mental health and wellness, little is known about the etiological relationship between dispositional mindfulness and self-compassion in their associations with EF. Two hundred and ten early adolescents attending middle school (age M=12.5 years; SD=0.5; 21% Hispanic, 18% Mixed/bi-racial, 47% White, and 9% Other/Missing; 37.1% on free lunch program) self-reported levels of dispositional mindfulness (Mindful Attention Awareness Scale; MAAS), self-compassion (Self-Compassion Scale; SCS; self-judgment and self-kindness domains), and EF proficiency (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function; BRIEF-SR). A sequential linear regression stepwise approach was taken entering the independent variables as separate models in the following order: self-kindness, self-judgement, and dispositional mindfulness. All models controlled for participant age and sex. SCS self-kindness was not associated with EF proficiency, but SCS self-judgment (reverse-coded) contributed to the variance in EF (β=0.40, pself-compassion domains, when independent of contemplative training.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR COORDINATION AND VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Haris MEMISEVIC; Selmir HADZIC

    2013-01-01

    Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegbo...

  17. Modeling the Maturation of Grip Selection Planning and Action Representation: Insights from Typical and Atypical Motor Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eFuelscher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the purported association between developmental changes in grip selection planning and improvements in an individual’s capacity to represent action at an internal level (i.e., motor imagery. Participants were groups of healthy children aged 6-7 years and 8-12 years respectively, while a group of adolescents (13-17 years and adults (18-34 years allowed for consideration of childhood development in the broader context of motor maturation. A group of children aged 8-12 years with probable DCD (pDCD was included as a reference group for atypical motor development. Participants’ proficiency to generate and/or engage internal action representations was inferred from performance on the hand rotation task, a well-validated measure of motor imagery. A grip selection task designed to elicit the end-state comfort (ESC effect provided a window into the integrity of grip selection planning. Consistent with earlier accounts, the efficiency of grip selection planning followed a non-linear developmental progression in neurotypical individuals. As expected, analysis confirmed that these developmental improvements were predicted by an increased capacity to generate and/or engage internal action representations. The profile of this association remained stable throughout the (typical developmental spectrum. These findings are consistent with computational accounts of action planning that argue that internal action representations are associated with the expression and development of grip selection planning across typical development. However, no such association was found for our sample of children with pDCD, suggesting that individuals with atypical motor skill may adopt an alternative, sub-optimal strategy to plan their grip selection compared to their same-age control peers.

  18. A retrospective study on anthropometrical, physical fitness and motor coordination characteristics that influence drop out, contract status and first-team playing time in high-level soccer players, aged 8 to 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Dieter; Fransen, Job; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Vaeyens, Roel

    2014-12-02

    The goal of this manuscript was twofold and a two-study approach was conducted. The first study aimed to expose the anthropometrical, physical performance and motor coordination characteristics that influence drop out from a high-level soccer training program in players aged 8-16 years. The mixed-longitudinal sample included 388 Belgian youth soccer players who were assigned to either a 'club group' or a 'drop out group'. In the second study, cross-sectional data of anthropometry, physical performance and motor coordination were retrospectively explored to investigate which characteristics influence future contract status (contract vs. no contract group) and first-team playing time for 72 high-level youth soccer players (mean age=16.2 y).Generally, club players outperformed their drop out peers for motor coordination, soccer-specific aerobic endurance and speed. Anthropometry and estimated maturity status did not discriminate between club and drop out players. Contract players jumped further (p=0.011) and had faster times for a 5m sprint (p=0.041) than no contract players. The following prediction equation explains 16.7% of the variance in future playing minutes in adolescent youth male soccer players: -2869.3 + 14.6 * standing broad jump.Practitioners should include the evaluation of motor coordination, aerobic endurance and speed performances to distinguish high-level soccer players further succeeding a talent development program and future drop out players, between 8 and 16 years. From the age of 16 years, measures of explosivity are supportive when selecting players into a future professional soccer career.

  19. Motorized mobility scooters: the use of training/intervention and technology for improving driving skills in aging adults - a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Bunting, Matthew; Howe, Carol; Mohler, Jane; Sprinkle, Jonathan; Najafi, Bijan

    2014-01-01

    Motorized mobility scooters (MMS) have become the most acceptable powered assistive device for those with impaired mobility, who have sufficient upper body strength and dexterity, and postural stability. Although several benefits have been attributed to MMS usage, there are likewise risks of use, including injuries and even deaths. The aim of the current review was to summarize results from clinical studies regarding the enhancement of MMS driver safety with a primary focus on improving driving skills/performance using clinical approaches. We addressed three main objectives: (1) to identify and summarize any available evidence (strong, moderate, or weak evidence based on the quality of studies) regarding improved driving skills/performance following training/intervention; (2) to identify types of driving skills/performance that might be improved by training/intervention, and (3) to identify the use of technology in improving MMS performance or training procedure. Articles were searched for in the following medical and engineering electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, EI Compendix, IEEE Explore, and REHABDATA. Inclusion criteria included: aging adults or those with ambulatory problems, intervention or targeted training, and clinical trial. Outcomes included: MMS skills/performance. Six articles met the inclusion criteria and are analyzed in this review. Four of the six articles contained training approaches for MMS drivers including skill trainings using real MMS inside and outside (i.e. in the community) and in a 3D virtual environment. The other two studies contain infrastructural assessments (i.e. the minimum space required for safe maneuverability of MMS users) and additional mobility assistance tools to improve maneuverability and to enhance driving performance. RESULTS from the current review showed improved driving skills/performance by training, infrastructural assessments, and

  20. Motor homopolar

    OpenAIRE

    Agustín Martín Muñoz

    2007-01-01

    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  1. The Effects of Rhythm and Robotic Interventions on the Imitation/Praxis, Interpersonal Synchrony, and Motor Performance of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha M. Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the effects of three interventions, rhythm, robotic, and standard-of-care, on the imitation/praxis, interpersonal synchrony, and overall motor performance of 36 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD between 5 and 12 years of age. Children were matched on age, level of functioning, and services received, prior to random assignment to one of the three groups. Training was provided for 8 weeks with 4 sessions provided each week. We assessed generalized changes in motor skills from the pretest to the posttest using a standardized test of motor performance, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, 2nd edition (BOT-2. We also assessed training-specific changes in imitation/praxis and interpersonal synchrony during an early and a late session. Consistent with the training activities practiced, the rhythm and robot groups improved on the body coordination composite of the BOT-2, whereas the comparison group improved on the fine manual control composite of the BOT-2. All three groups demonstrated improvements in imitation/praxis. The rhythm and robot groups also showed improved interpersonal synchrony performance from the early to the late session. Overall, socially embedded movement-based contexts are valuable in promoting imitation/praxis, interpersonal synchrony, and motor performance and should be included within the standard-of-care treatment for children with ASD.

  2. Ultrasonic Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    and T. Higuchi, "Cylindrical Micro Ultrasonic Motor Utilizing Bulk Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT)," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 1-Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers, vol. 38, pp. 3347-3350, 1999.

  3. Declínio de desempenho motor no envelhecimento é específico à tarefa Caída del desempeño motor en el envejecimiento es específico a la tarea Task-specific performance decline in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Augusto Teixeira

    2006-12-01

    tareas: tiempo de reacción, tiempo de movimiento en contacto con un objetivo, fuerza manual máxima, sincronización, control de fuerza, toques repetidos con una vara vertical, figuras en secuencia y toques entre los dedos. El análisis de los resultados indicó perfiles variables de desempeño entre las tareas motoras en comparación a las edades, con disminución motor a una tasa moderada entre 20 y 60 años para tiempo de reacción, caídas más acentuadas de desempeño en la transición entre 20 y 40 años en tareas requiriendo velocidad de ejecución de movimientos simples o precisión temporal, caídas más acentuadas en la transición entre 60 y 70 años para fuerza máxima y habilidad gráfica y mantenimiento de capacidad de desempeño con el envejecimiento para control de fuerza manual. De esta forma, esos resultados se muestran contradictorios con hipótesis de factor único, y ofrecen soporte a la hipótesis alternativa de que la tasa de descenso de desempeño sensor-motor durante el envejecimiento es específica a la tarea.Decline of motor performance characteristically observed in the aging process has been proposed to be caused by a single factor: deterioration of the central information processing capacity. If so, motor performance in different tasks should decline in a similar way as an individual gets older. In order to test this hypothesis, motor performance of 19- to 73-years-old physical active individuals was studied in eight motor tasks: reaction time, movement time in aiming, handgrip strength, anticipatory timing, force control, repetitive tapping, sequential drawing and sequential fingers movements. The analysis indicated a diversity of performance profiles between tasks across ages, with motor decline at a moderate rate between 20 and 60 years for reaction time, larger performance decline in the transitions between 20 and 40 years in tasks requiring movement speed in simple movements or temporal accuracy, larger decline in the transition

  4. Motor ability and weight status are determinants of out-of-school activity participation for children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Lee, Velma Y L; Chan, Nerita N C; Chan, Rachel S H; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y C

    2011-01-01

    effects of age and gender, motor ability and weight category explained 7.6% and 5.0% of the variance in participation diversity, respectively, for children with DCD. Children with DCD showed less diverse and less intense out-of-school activity participation than typically developing children. Motor impairment and weight status were independently associated with the lower participation diversity. Interventions aiming at improving participation for children with DCD should target weight control and training in motor proficiency. Further study is needed to identify other factors that may hinder participation in this group of children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum…

  6. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum disorder."…

  7. Chinese high-proficiency learners'communication strategy use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高煜

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction This essay intends to clarify Chinese high-proficiency learners' communication strategy use to some extent, The analysis is based on the data from the corpus group in my MA course collected in 2008.

  8. THE BANGLADESHI EMPLOYMENT SECTOR: EMPLOYER PERSPECTIVES CONCERNING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills

  9. Bilingual Vocational Education for Youths with Limited English Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Mary Jo

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Bilingual Vocational Education Program for Refugee Youth in Richmond, Virginia. Presents data that support the concept of mainstreaming refugee youth with limited English proficiency into public vocational education programs using the assistance of bilingual aides. (Author)

  10. Effect of curriculum changes to enhance generic skills proficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of curriculum changes to enhance generic skills proficiency of 1st-year ... Feedback from these different evaluation methods identified specific needs in the ... positive effect on students' selfreported acquisition of generic learning skills.

  11. Proficiency Testing and Language Teaching: Russian and Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimma Garn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential application of proficiency testing in U.S. colleges and universities. Specific consideration is giv-en to: the Oral Proficiency Interview, based on ILR or ACTFL guidelines, administered on a large scale at the Defense Language In-stitute and occasionally employed in American academia; the Diag-nostic Assessment Interview, the assessment tool of choice at DLI, basically unheard of in academia; and the new Polish proficiency test, which is part and parcel of the standardized series of language tests administered throughout Europe, based on Language Testers of Eu-rope guidelines. The author proposes that introducing the underlying principles of proficiency testing into American academia and promot-ing a better awareness of level tasks and expectations on the part of language teachers could help to eliminate the disconnect between testing and teaching. It could benefit instruction from early to ad-vanced stages.

  12. Manufacturing Industry Employers’ Perception of Graduates’ English Language Skills Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Proficiency in English language skills among graduates that create advantages for the organization is preferred by prospective employers as one of the main criteria for employability.  This article provides an overview of undergraduates in higher education and also workplace literacy from the perspective of the employers in the manufacturing industry. The result from the research demonstrates that Malaysian manufacturing industry employers perceive that the graduate employees’ English language proficiency skills are still below their expectations. Therefore, this study recommends that there is a need for intervention into language teaching to improve the English language syllabus level of English proficiency at primary, secondary and tertiary level. At the same time, emphasis on the importance of English in everyday use should be inculcated without neglecting the national language of Malaysia.  This will ensure that the teaching of English will be in line with globalization and current workplace demands.Keywords: English language skills proficiency, manufacturing industry employers, graduates

  13. The relationship between language proficiency and attentional control in Cantonese-English bilingual children: Evidence from Simon, Simon switching, and working memory tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Shing eTse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By administering Simon, Simon switching, and operation-span working memory tasks to Cantonese-English bilingual children who varied in their first-language (L1, Cantonese and second-language (L2, English proficiencies, as quantified by standardized vocabulary test performance, the current study examined the effects of L1 and L2 proficiency on attentional control performance. Apart from mean performance, we conducted ex-Gaussian analyses to capture the modal and positive-tail components of participants’ reaction time distributions in the Simon task. Bilinguals’ L2 proficiency was associated with higher scores in the operation span task, and a shift of reaction time distributions in incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials (Simon effect in µ, and the tail size of reaction time distributions (τ regardless of trial types. Bilinguals’ L1 proficiency, which was strongly associated with participants’ age, showed similar results, except that it was not associated with the Simon effect in µ. In contrast, neither bilinguals’ L1 nor L2 proficiency modulated the global switch cost or local switch cost in the Simon switching task. After taking into account potential cognitive maturation by partialling out the participants’ age, only (a scores in the working memory task and (b RT in incongruent trials and (c Simon effect in µ in the Simon task could still be predicted by bilinguals’ L2 proficiency. Overall, the current findings suggest that bilingual children’s L2 proficiency was associated with their conflict resolution and working memory capacity, but not goal maintenance or task-set switching, when they performed the cognitive tasks that demanded attentional control. This was not entirely consistent with the findings of college-age bilinguals reported in previous studies.

  14. The correlation between accent perception accuracy and listening proficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田方

    2012-01-01

    This study tries to examine the correlation between Chinese EFL learners' accent perception accuracy of and their lis- tening proficiency. Accent annotation data were collected from 80 English-majored freshmen and sophomores. Results show that their accent perception accuracy is positively related to their listening proficiency. Therefore, it is concluded that the teaching of the accent should be enhanced to help students overcome some supersegmental obstacles in their listening.

  15. STRATEGIES OF MAINTAINING PROFICIENCY BY TEACHERS OF ENGLISH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Mistar, Alfan Zuhairini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are four-fold: (1 to identify the types of strategies to maintain proficiency used by teachers of English in Indonesia, (2 to know the intensity of use of the obtained strategy types, (3 to measure the inter-correlation in the use of the obtained strategy types, and (4 to investigate the effect of proficiency level on the use of maintaining strategies. The subjects were 93 teachers applying for S2 degree in 2010/2011 at the postgraduate program of the Islamic University of Malang. They were given two sets of instrument, a Likert-scale questionnaire of English proficiency maintaining strategies and a TOEFL test. Then, a factor analysis identified nine strategy categories, including language focusing, metacognitive and affective developing, reading and writing activating, language resource utilizing, cognitive processing, culture learning, social communicating, text analyzing, and radio listening strategies. These strategy types explained 63.84% of variances of maintaining strategies and they were used at high level of intensity. Moreover, the use of the nine strategy types were found to be inter-correlated with one another. Finally, no significant effect of proficiency level on strategy use was found, indicating that teachers with different level of proficiency reported using the same strategies of maintaining their proficiency.

  16. Evidence for dual mechanisms of action prediction dependent on acquired visual-motor experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Desmond; Lohse, Keith R; Hodges, Nicola J

    2016-10-01

    To test mechanisms underpinning action prediction, we directly controlled experience in a dart-throwing training study. A motor-visual group physically practiced throwing darts and a perceptual training group learned to associate dart throw actions (occluded video clips) with landing outcomes. A final control group did not practice. Accuracy was assessed on related prediction tests before and after practice (involving temporally occluded video clips). These tests were performed while additionally performing simple, action-incongruent secondary motor tasks with either the right (observed throwing arm) or left effector, in addition to an attention control task. Motor proficiency tests were also performed. Although both trained groups improved their prediction accuracy after training, only the motor-visual group showed interference associated with the right-arm secondary motor task after practice. No interference was shown for the left-arm motor task. These effects were evidenced regardless of whether predictions were made in response to video stimuli or static clips. Moreover, improvements on the motor proficiency test were only shown for the motor-visual group. These results show evidence in support of motor simulation processes during action prediction among observers with motor experience. Prediction accuracy can be achieved via nonmotor processes (for the perceptual group), but there was no evidence that physically experienced performers could effectively switch processes to maintain prediction accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Motor Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aaron L; Haith, Adrian M; Krakauer, John W

    2015-08-01

    Motor planning colloquially refers to any process related to the preparation of a movement that occurs during the reaction time prior to movement onset. However, this broad definition encompasses processes that are not strictly motor-related, such as decision-making about the identity of task-relevant stimuli in the environment. Furthermore, the assumption that all motor-planning processes require processing time, and can therefore be studied behaviorally by measuring changes in the reaction time, needs to be reexamined. In this review, we take a critical look at the processes leading from perception to action and suggest a definition of motor planning that encompasses only those processes necessary for a movement to be executed-that is, processes that are strictly movement related. These processes resolve the ambiguity inherent in an abstract goal by defining a specific movement to achieve it. We propose that the majority of processes that meet this definition can be completed nearly instantaneously, which means that motor planning itself in fact consumes only a small fraction of the reaction time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR COORDINATION AND VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris MEMISEVIC

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegboard Test. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by planned com­parisons between the age groups. We also performed a regression analysis to assess the influence of age and motor coordination on visual-motor integration. The results showed that age has a great effect on the development of fine motor skills. Furthermore, the results indicated that there are possible sensitive periods at preschool age in which the development of fine motor skills is accelerated. Early intervention specialists should make a thorough evaluations of fine motor skills in preschool children and make motor (rehabilitation programs for children at risk of fine motor delays.

  19. Overlapping neural circuitry for narrative comprehension and proficient reading in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Vannest, Jennifer J; Holland, Scott K

    2013-11-01

    Narrative comprehension is a perinatal linguistic ability which is more intuitive than reading activity. Whether there are specific shared brain regions for narrative comprehension and reading that are tuned to reading proficiency, even before reading is acquired, is the question of the current study. We acquired fMRI data during a narrative comprehension task at two age points, when children are age 5-7 (K-2nd grade) and later when the same children were age 11 (5th-7th grade). We then examined correlations between this fMRI data and reading and reading comprehension scores from the same children at age 11. We found that greater frontal and supramarginal gyrus (BA 40) activation in narrative comprehension at the age of 5-7 years old was associated with better word reading and reading comprehension scores at the age of 11. A shift towards temporal and occipital activation was found when correlating their narrative comprehension functional data at age 11, with reading scores at the same age point. We suggest that increased reliance on executive functions and auditory-visual networks when listening to stories before reading is acquired, facilitates reading proficiency in older age and may be a biomarker for future reading ability. Children, who rely on use of imagination/visualization as well as auditory processing for narrative comprehension when they reach age 11, also show greater reading abilities. Understanding concordant neural pathways supporting auditory narrative and reading comprehension might be guide for development of effective tools for reading intervention programs.

  20. Handwriting Error Patterns of Children with Mild Motor Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy-Miller, Theresa; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A test of handwriting legibility and 6 perceptual-motor tests were completed by 66 children ages 7-12. Among handwriting error patterns, execution was associated with visual-motor skill and sensory discrimination, aiming with visual-motor and fine-motor skills. The visual-spatial factor had no significant association with perceptual-motor…

  1. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  2. Contribution of laparoscopic training to robotic proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Jordan; Gomez, Michael S; Baig, Mirza M; Abaza, Ronney

    2013-08-01

    Robotic surgical technology has been adopted by surgeons with and without previous standard laparoscopic experience. The necessity or benefit of prior training and experience in laparoscopic surgery is unknown. We hypothesized that laparoscopic training enhances performance in robotic surgery. Fourteen medical students with no surgical experience were instructed to incise a spiral using the da Vinci(®) surgical robot with time to completion and errors recorded. Each student was then trained for 1 month in standard laparoscopy, but with no further robotic exposure. Training included a validated laparoscopic training program, including timed and scored parameters. After completion of the month-long training, the students repeated the cutting exercise using the da Vinci robot as well as with standard laparoscopic instruments and were scored within the same parameters. The mean time to completely incise the spiral robotically before training was 16.72 min with a mean of 6.21 errors. After 1 month of validated laparoscopic training, the mean robotic time fell to 9:03 min (p=0.0002) with 3.57 errors (p=0.02). Laparoscopic performance after 1 month of validated laparoscopic training was 13.95 min with 6.14 errors, which was no better than pretraining robotic performance (p=0.20) and worse than post-training robotic performance (p=0.01). Formal laparoscopic training improved the performance of a complex robotic task. The initial robotic performance without any robotic or laparoscopic training was equivalent to standard laparoscopic performance after extensive training. Additionally, after laparoscopic training, the robot allowed significantly superior speed and precision of the task. Laparoscopic training may improve the proficiency in operation of the robot. This may explain the perceived ease with which robotics is adopted by laparoscopically trained surgeons and may be important in training future robotic surgeons.

  3. Modeling the Maturation of Grip Selection Planning and Action Representation: Insights from Typical and Atypical Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuelscher, Ian; Williams, Jacqueline; Wilmut, Kate; Enticott, Peter G.; Hyde, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the purported association between developmental changes in grip selection planning and improvements in an individual’s capacity to represent action at an internal level [i.e., motor imagery (MI)]. Participants were groups of healthy children aged 6–7 years and 8–12 years respectively, while a group of adolescents (13–17 years) and adults (18–34 years) allowed for consideration of childhood development in the broader context of motor maturation. A group of children aged 8–12 years with probable DCD (pDCD) was included as a reference group for atypical motor development. Participants’ proficiency to generate and/or engage internal action representations was inferred from performance on the hand rotation task, a well-validated measure of MI. A grip selection task designed to elicit the end-state comfort (ESC) effect provided a window into the integrity of grip selection planning. Consistent with earlier accounts, the efficiency of grip selection planning followed a non-linear developmental progression in neurotypical individuals. As expected, analysis confirmed that these developmental improvements were predicted by an increased capacity to generate and/or engage internal action representations. The profile of this association remained stable throughout the (typical) developmental spectrum. These findings are consistent with computational accounts of action planning that argue that internal action representations are associated with the expression and development of grip selection planning across typical development. However, no such association was found for our sample of children with pDCD, suggesting that individuals with atypical motor skill may adopt an alternative, sub-optimal strategy to plan their grip selection compared to their same-age control peers. PMID:26903915

  4. Child, family, and school characteristics related to English proficiency development among low-income, dual language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Kyong; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about 2nd language development among young, low-income, language-minority children. This article examined the longitudinal English development of low-income, dual language learners (DLLs) in Miami (n = 18,532) from kindergarten through 5th grade. Growth curve modeling indicated that social skills, good behavior, Spanish (L1) competence in preschool, having a mother born in the United States, and attending larger schools with fewer DLLs were associated with higher initial levels of English proficiency in kindergarten and/or steeper growth over time. Survival analyses indicated that it took about 2 years for half of the sample to become proficient in English according to the school district's criterion. Higher initial proficiency in kindergarten, not receiving free/reduced lunch, not being Hispanic or Black, strong cognitive, language, and socioemotional skills at age 4, and maternal education were associated with faster attainment of English proficiency. It is important for teachers, parents, researchers, and policy makers to understand that DLL students come from diverse backgrounds and that poverty and other factors influence the speed of English language development for DLLs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Accuracy of physician self-report of Spanish language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Anne; Wang, Frances; Schillinger, Dean; Pérez Stable, Eliseo J; Fernandez, Alicia

    2011-04-01

    As health systems strive to meet the needs of linguistically diverse patient populations, determining a physician's non-English language proficiency is becoming increasingly important. However, brief, validated measures are lacking. To determine if any of four self-reported measures of physician Spanish language proficiency are useful measures of fluency in Spanish. Physician self-report of Spanish proficiency was compared to Spanish-speaking patients' report of their physicians' language proficiency. 110 Spanish-speaking patients and their 46 physicians in two public hospital clinics with professional interpreters available. Physicians rated their Spanish fluency with four items: one general fluency question, two clinically specific questions, and one question on interpreter use. Patients were asked if their doctor speaks Spanish ("yes/no"). Concordance, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were calculated for each of the items, and receiver operating (ROC) curves were used to compare performance characteristics. Concordance between physician and patient reports of physician Spanish proficiency ranged from 84 to 91%. The PPV for each of the four items ranged from 91 to 99%, the NPV from 60 to 90%, and the area under their ROC curves from 90 to 95%. The general fluency question gave the best combination of PPV and NPV, and the item on holding sensitive discussions had the highest PPV, 99%. Physicians who reported fluency as "fair" were as likely to have patients report they did not speak Spanish as that they did. Physician self-report of Spanish language proficiency is highly correlated with patient report, except when physicians report "fair" general fluency. In settings where no financial or other incentives are linked to language skills, simple questions may be a useful way to assess physician language proficiency.

  6. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  7. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  8. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...

  9. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...

  10. Motor skills of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-03-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as a subset of 58 children followed longitudinally. Gross motor and fine motor age equivalent scores were obtained for all children. A 'motor difference' variable was calculated for each child's gross and fine motor skills by taking the absolute difference of the children's age equivalent motor score and their respective chronological age. In Study 1 (the cross-sectional analysis), ANCOVA (co-varied for nonverbal problem solving) revealed significant group differences in the gross motor and fine motor age difference variables. Post-hoc analysis revealed that gross motor and fine motor differences became significantly greater with each 6-month period of chronological age. In Study 2, 58 children were measured twice, an average of 12 months apart. Results indicate that the gross motor and fine motor difference scores significantly increased between the first and second measurements. The importance of addressing motor development in early intervention treatments is discussed.

  11. Understanding motor acts and motor intentions in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparaci, Laura; Stefanini, Silvia; Marotta, Luigi; Vicari, Stefano; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2012-06-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder associated with unusually hyper-social demeanor and ease with strangers. These personality traits are accompanied by difficulties in social interactions, possibly related, at least in part, to a difficulty in understanding others' mental states. Studies on mentalizing capacities in individuals with WS have often led to contrasting results, some studies revealing specific impairments, others highlighting spared mentalizing capacities. So far, however, no study investigated the performance of individuals with WS in non-inferential understanding of others' motor intentions. In the present study we investigated this capacity by using a computer-based behavioral task using pictures of hand-object interactions. We asked individuals with WS first to describe what the other was doing (i.e. a task implying no kind of intention reading), and secondly, if successful in answering the first question, to describe the motor intention underlying the observed motor acts (i.e. why an act was being done, a task requiring non-inferential motor intention understanding). Results showed that individuals with WS made more errors in understanding what the other was doing (i.e. understanding a motor act) compared to both mental-age matched controls and chronological-age matched peers with typical development, while showing mental-age appropriate performance in understanding why an individual was acting (i.e. understanding a motor intention). These findings suggest novel perspectives for understanding impairments in social behavior in WS.

  12. The proficiency testing of determination of dioxins in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, R.; Tsutsumi, T.; Maitani, T. [National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Toyoda, M. [Jissen Womens Univ., Hino (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Food intake is the main route of human dioxin exposure, making the determination of dioxins in food indispensable for risk assessment and risk management of dioxins. The uncertainty of analytical results, however, can be very great because of the low concentration of the analytes and complicated cleanup procedures. The risk assessment of dioxins based on analytical results also suffers from a similar degree of uncertainty. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan has published ''Guideline for the Determination of Dioxins in Food'' to standardize the analytical procedures. The guideline contains the quality assurance procedures to obtain reliable analytical results and recommends participation in the relevant proficiency testing scheme. The proficiency testing provides the fair evaluation of the analytical results. The central science laboratory in England and the food and drug safety center in Japan offer the proficiency testing on food. The National Institute of Health Sciences of Japan (NIHS) also has carried out proficiency testing of dioxins in food since 1998 to assure the quality of analytical results for dioxins. In this presentation we will show the results of 5 rounds of proficiency testing.

  13. Preconception Micronutrient Supplementation with Iron and Folic Acid Compared with Folic Acid Alone Affects Linear Growth and Fine Motor Development at 2 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Young, Melissa F; Truong, Truong Viet; Hoang, Hue; Nguyen, Huong; Nguyen, Son; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2017-08-01

    Background: Maternal health and nutrition play a crucial role in early child growth and development. However, little is known about the benefits of preconception micronutrient interventions beyond the role of folic acid (FA) and neural tube defects.Objective: We evaluated the impact of weekly preconception multiple micronutrient (MM) or iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child growth and development through the age of 2 y compared with FA alone.Methods: We followed 1599 offspring born to women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of preconception supplementation in Vietnam. Women received weekly supplements that contained either 2800 μg FA, 60 mg Fe and 2800 μg FA, or 15 MMs including IFA, from baseline until conception followed by daily prenatal IFA supplements until delivery. Child anthropometry was measured at birth and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo. Child development was measured with the use of the Bayley Scales for Infant Development III at 24 mo.Results: The groups were similar for baseline maternal and offspring birth characteristics. At 24 mo of age, the offspring in the IFA group had significantly higher length-for-age z scores (LAZs) (0.14; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.26), reduced risk of being stunted (0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.99), and smaller yearly decline in LAZs (0.10; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.15) than the offspring in the FA group. Similar trends were found for the offspring in the MM group compared with the FA group for LAZs (0.10; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.22) and the risk of being stunted (0.88; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.01). Offspring in the IFA group had improved motor development (P = 0.03), especially fine motor development (0.41; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.77), at the age of 24 mo, but there were no differences for measures of cognition or language.Conclusions: Preconception supplementation with IFA improved linear growth and fine motor development at 2 y of age compared with FA. Future studies should examine whether these effects persist and improve child health and

  14. Learning Strategies Used by College Freshmen in Developing English Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLARIBELLE C. HABER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available - The main objective of this study was to determine the learning strategies used by College Freshmen to enhance the development of English language proficiency; and to find out the extent of using them along phonology, vocabulary and grammar. The survey-results served as the basis of devising an instructional tool that would offer more learning techniques and ways that would enhance further the development of English proficiency. The descriptive method of research was applied. Survey questionnaires of two parts were used. Part 1 was a diagnostic test in English focused on phonology, vocabulary and grammar. Part 2 was an inventory of English Language learning strategies that emphasized reading and study skills, which also determined the extent of using them along the three (3 elements of English. The research venue was Camarines Sur State Agricultural College where 255 College Freshmen served as respondents. The statistical tools used were score interval, weighted mean, averaging and ranking systems. Results showed that the College freshmen are moderately proficient both on vocabulary and grammar but are hardly proficient on phonology. Varied learning strategies on reading and studying exercises are frequently used by the respondents in developing English proficiency. The extent or frequency of using learning strategies along the English language elements revealed that the respondents moderately used target learning strategies along phonology while they frequently used said strategies along vocabulary and grammar elements of English language.”Language Strategies for Better English Proficiency” was devised to offer more learning ways and techniques that would enhance English proficiency development. The teaching tool entitled “Language Strategies for Better English Proficiency” was found valid to be used in the curriculum.

  15. Language anxiety and proficiency in a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R L; Ganschow, L; Artzer, M; Siebenhar, D; Plageman, M

    1997-10-01

    Study examined the extent to which there would be differences in oral and written proficiency in a foreign language among groups of low-, average-, and high-anxious high school students. Participants were 60 girls attending a single-sex, college-preparatory high school and completing the second year of a foreign language course. Analysis showed over-all differences on measures of proficiency in the foreign language among the three groups. The results support the hypothesis that anxiety about foreign language learning is likely to represent students' differences in language learning.

  16. Keeping Special Forces Special: Regional Proficiency in Special Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    than one month IOT allow Soldiers to listen to the language, conduct travel/recon etc. —Special Forces Soldier294 Immersion is the third method by...incentive lower. Conversely, a person with a lower interest in regional proficiency would rate the incentive higher. Variable Mean Std Dev Regional...Variable Mean Std Dev Regional Proficiency Interest 6.29 .99 Command Environment Value 4.41 1.62 PDSI 2.54 1.60 Promotion 2.92 1.62 153

  17. A STUDY ON ENGLISH READING PROFICIENCY OF STUDENTS IN COLLEGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾敏

    2008-01-01

    The study attempted to investigate the mean level of the participants' reading proficiency and identify what levels of reading comprehension questions (literal,reorganization and inferential)the participants are able to answer. A written reading comprehension test wag administered. The participants consisted of 45 students enrolled in college English class. The data obtained from a written reading comprehension test,a background questionnaire,and a structured interview which was analyzed by using SPSS. The results indicated that the participants' mean level of reading proficiency Was below the standard.

  18. Influence of aquatic physical therapy on gross motor skills in children under 5 years of age with cerebral palsy: Systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Latorre-García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aquatic environment has been used and is used to perform physiotherapy treatments in different pathologies including cerebral palsy. No method has been proven more effective than the others. Aim: The objective of this article is to carry out a systematic review of the scientific literature on how physical exercise in water affects the gross motor skills and neurodevelopment of children with cerebral palsy. Methods: A systematic search was carried out using the PRISMA model. The search for articles in this review was done in the databases through Scopus and PubMed, as well as in the Web of Science (WOS platform and in official websites of international organizations, such as the World Health Organization (WHO. The review was carried out between the months of June and December of the year 2016. Results: Of the 8 studies that met the inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design and the results were mixed. Most of the studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills, for group analyzes, after the aquatic programs were maintained from two to three sessions a week and lasted from 6 to 16 weeks. Participants were evaluated and classified according to the different development scales, and were less than 5 years old. Conclusions: Although the different studies have not demonstrated a greater efficacy of aquatic physiotherapy compared to other treatment concepts, neither has been less, so that the exercise in water increases the therapeutic possibilities to which the chronic nature of the Pathology must access the patient throughout his life. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; but the dosage parameters are not clear. However, in order to promote the prescription by physicians of this type of therapy, it is necessary to carry out research studies that demonstrate in a quantitative way the efficacy of the method, with longer and longer samples.

  19. Setting Language Proficiency Score Requirements for English-as-a-Second-Language Placement Decisions in Secondary Education. Research Report. ETS RR-16-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patricia A.; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect recommendations for minimum score requirements (cut scores) on the "TOEFL Junior"® English language proficiency test in order to guide decisions on the placement of learners into English as a second language (ESL) support classes. The TOEFL Junior test, intended primarily for students ages 11 and…

  20. The transfection of BDNF to dopamine neurons potentiates the effect of dopamine D3 receptor agonist recovering the striatal innervation, dendritic spines and motor behavior in an aged rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razgado-Hernandez, Luis F; Espadas-Alvarez, Armando J; Reyna-Velazquez, Patricia; Sierra-Sanchez, Arturo; Anaya-Martinez, Veronica; Jimenez-Estrada, Ismael; Bannon, Michael J; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Aceves-Ruiz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The progressive degeneration of the dopamine neurons of the pars compacta of substantia nigra and the consequent loss of the dopamine innervation of the striatum leads to the impairment of motor behavior in Parkinson's disease. Accordingly, an efficient therapy of the disease should protect and regenerate the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra and the dopamine innervation of the striatum. Nigral neurons express Brain Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) and dopamine D3 receptors, both of which protect the dopamine neurons. The chronic activation of dopamine D3 receptors by their agonists, in addition, restores, in part, the dopamine innervation of the striatum. Here we explored whether the over-expression of BDNF by dopamine neurons potentiates the effect of the activation of D3 receptors restoring nigrostriatal innervation. Twelve-month old Wistar rats were unilaterally injected with 6-hydroxydopamine into the striatum. Five months later, rats were treated with the D3 agonist 7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propy1-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT) administered i.p. during 4½ months via osmotic pumps and the BDNF gene transfection into nigral cells using the neurotensin-polyplex nanovector (a non-viral transfection) that selectively transfect the dopamine neurons via the high-affinity neurotensin receptor expressed by these neurons. Two months after the withdrawal of 7-OH-DPAT when rats were aged (24 months old), immunohistochemistry assays were made. The over-expression of BDNF in rats receiving the D3 agonist normalized gait and motor coordination; in addition, it eliminated the muscle rigidity produced by the loss of dopamine. The recovery of motor behavior was associated with the recovery of the nigral neurons, the dopamine innervation of the striatum and of the number of dendritic spines of the striatal neurons. Thus, the over-expression of BDNF in dopamine neurons associated with the chronic activation of the D3 receptors appears to be a promising strategy for restoring

  1. Language Proficiency of Migrants: The Relation with Job Satisfaction and Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Bloemen, Hans Gerald

    2013-01-01

    We empirically analyze the language proficiency of migrants in the Netherlands. Traditionally, the emphasis in studying language proficiency and economic outcomes has been on the relation between earnings and indicators for language proficiency, motivated by the human capital theory. Here we analyze whether there is a relation between proficiency of the destination language and job level. A lack of language skills may induce the migrant to work in jobs of a lower level leading to lower job sa...

  2. Language Proficiency of Migrants: The Relation with Job Satisfaction and Skill Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Hans G. Bloemen

    2014-01-01

    We empirically analyze the language proficiency of migrants in the Netherlands. Traditionally, the emphasis in studying language proficiency and economic outcomes has been on the relation between earnings and indicators for language proficiency, motivated by the human capital theory. Here we analyze whether there is a relation between proficiency of the destination language and job level. A lack of language skills may induce the migrant to work in jobs of a lower level leading to lower job sa...

  3. Modern knowledge about prevention and correction of functional disorders of the supporting-motor apparatus of the senior preschool age children in the process of physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashuba V.A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology of correction of violations of carriage is developed for the children of senior preschool age taking into account spatial organization of their body. Possibilities of application of technology are rotined in the system of physical education of child preschool age and in a medical physical culture. The flowsheet of organization of employments is offered correction-prophylactic macrocycle. Pulling in is selected in a chart, correcting and supporting sanitary the stages.

  4. Nocturnal motor activity in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholm, E; Alanen, E; Hyyppä, M T

    1993-09-01

    The relationships between nocturnal motor activity and daytime psychophysiological activation were investigated in a random community sample of 199 subjects aged 35-55 years. Nocturnal motor activity was recorded with the static charge sensitive bed (SCSB, Bio-Matt). The association of nocturnal motor activity with demographic features, health status, laboratory blood values, afternoon electrodermal activity (EDA) and psychological distress was studied. A model for nocturnal motor activity was constructed and statistically analyzed. The analysis revealed that psychological distress, breathing disturbance, plasma glucose level and sympathetic activity were related significantly and independently to nocturnal motor activity. Their relations and the associations of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), sleep latency and health status with nocturnal motor activity were discussed in the context of the arousal theory of poor sleep.

  5. 25 CFR 39.134 - How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient....134 How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student? A student is identified as limited English proficient (LEP) by using a nationally recognized scientifically research-based test. ...

  6. Language Proficiency and Language Policy in South Africa: Findings from New Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posel, Dorrit; Casale, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This study explores new data from 2008 on language proficiency and labour market outcomes in the context of South Africa's language-in-education policy. We show that the economic returns to English language proficiency are large and higher than those to home language proficiency for the majority of employed South Africans. This helps explain why…

  7. Validation of the Proficiency Examination for Diagnostic Radiologic Technology. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    The validity of the Proficiency Examination for Diagnostic Radiologic Technology was investigated, using 140 radiologic technologists who took both the written Proficiency Examination and a performance test. As an additional criterion measure of job proficiency, supervisors' assessments were obtained for 128 of the technologists. The resulting…

  8. Teaching for Proficiency, the Organizing Principle. The ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Theodore V., Ed.

    A collection of reports and case studies of second language instruction for proficiency includes: "Language Teaching and the Quest for the Holy Grail" (Theodore V. Higgs); "The ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines: A Historical Perspective" (Judith E. Liskin-Gasparro); "The Proficiency-Oriented Classroom" (Alice C. Omaggio); "Curriculum Development at the…

  9. Production of Routines in L2 English: Effect of Proficiency and Study-Abroad Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2013-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect of proficiency and study abroad experience on L2 learners' ability to produce routines. Participants were 64 Japanese students in an English-medium university in Japan. They were divided into three groups: Group 1 had lower proficiency with no study abroad experience, Group 2 had higher proficiency but no…

  10. The correlation between motor impairments and event-related desynchronization during motor imagery in ALS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasahara Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The event-related desynchronization (ERD in EEG is known to appear during motor imagery, and is thought to reflect cortical processing for motor preparation. The aim of this study is to examine the modulation of ERD with motor impairment in ALS patients. ERD during hand motor imagery was obtained from 8 ALS patients with a variety of motor impairments. ERD was also obtained from age-matched 11 healthy control subjects with the same motor task. The magnitude and frequency of ERD were compared between groups for characterization of ALS specific changes. Results The ERD of ALS patients were significantly smaller than those of control subjects. Bulbar function and ERD were negatively correlated in ALS patients. Motor function of the upper extremities did was uncorrelated with ERD. Conclusions ALS patients with worsened bulbar scales may show smaller ERD. Motor function of the upper extremities did was uncorrelated with ERD.

  11. Reading Processing Skills among EFL Learners in Different Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Yamada, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to understand how EFL learners in different reading proficiency levels comprehend L2 texts, using five-component skills involving measures of (1) vocabulary knowledge, (2) drawing inferences and predictions, (3) knowledge of text structure and discourse organization, (4) identifying the main idea and summarizing skills, and (5)…

  12. Beyond the Classroom: Maintaining and Improving Teachers' Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga-Canadas, Cynthia P.

    2010-01-01

    The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education and the ACTFL suggest that a high proficiency in the Spanish language is essential for all Spanish teachers. With the growth of the Spanish-speaking population in the United States and the diversity of Hispanic culture, teacher education programs need to ensure that teacher candidates are…

  13. Become proficient in speaking and writing good English

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Become Proficient in Speaking and Writing GOOD ENGLISH. The book offers practical advice for writing proper and attractive prose. It will help improve one's communication ability and skill. The topics cover Common Errors, Confusing set of Figures of Speech, Foreign Words and Phrases and various aspects of Grammar and Syntax....

  14. Listening to Authentic Czech. Authentic Listening Proficiency-Based Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privorotsky-Kabat, Grazyna

    The set of materials for development of listening skills in Czech is designed for students with advanced language proficiency and is intended to be used with cassette tapes (not included here) to supplement other instructional materials. It consists of 20 units grouped into 2 levels (advanced and advanced plus). At each level there are 10 units,…

  15. State Child Care Policies for Limited English Proficient Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firgens, Emily; Matthews, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG), the largest source of federal funding for child care assistance available to states, provides low-income families with help paying for child care. Studies have shown that low-income LEP (limited English proficient), as well as immigrant families, are less likely to receive child care assistance.…

  16. Conversion to a Proficiency Oriented Curriculum at the University Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carmen Villegas; And Others

    A state grant to the Department of Romance Languages of the University of Tennessee in Knoxville has allowed development of a proficiency-based curriculum for first- and second-year French and Spanish. Most of the effort to date has been preparation of the syllabus based on specified goals and objectives, or student outcomes, focusing on allowing…

  17. Developing Autonomous Learning for Oral Proficiency Using Digital Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SoHee

    2014-01-01

    Since online educational technology can support a ubiquitous language learning environment, there are many ways to develop English learners' autonomy through self-access learning. This study investigates whether English as a second language (ESL) learners can improve their oral proficiency through independent study by using online self-study…

  18. Second Language Proficiency and Cross-Language Lexical Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hell, J.G. van; Tanner, D.

    2012-01-01

    Although research has consistently shown that a bilingual's two languages interact on multiple levels, it is also well-established that bilinguals can vary considerably in their proficiency in the second language (L2). In this paper we review empirical studies that have examined how differences in

  19. Developing Autonomous Learning for Oral Proficiency Using Digital Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SoHee

    2014-01-01

    Since online educational technology can support a ubiquitous language learning environment, there are many ways to develop English learners' autonomy through self-access learning. This study investigates whether English as a second language (ESL) learners can improve their oral proficiency through independent study by using online self-study…

  20. Enhancing the Learning Proficiency of Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Corte, Erik; Masui, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Higher education is facing world-wide a number of problems such as: adjusting to larger and more homogeneous student populations, increasing the number of graduating students, and preparing them for lifelong learning. Enhancing students' learning proficiency can make a substantial contribution to solving each of these major concerns. Taking the…