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Sample records for mother-child segregation distortion

  1. Components of segregation distortion in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganetzky, B.

    1977-01-01

    The segregation distorter (SD) complex is a naturally occurring meiotic drive system with the property that males heterozygous for an SD-bearing chromosome 2 and an SD+-bearing homolog transmit the SD-bearing chromosome almost exclusively. This distorted segregation is the consequence of an induced dysfunction of those sperm that receive the SD+ homolog. From previous studies, two loci have been implicated in this phenomenon: the Sd locus which is required to produce distortion, and the Responder (Rsp) locus that is the site at which Sd acts. There are two allelic alternatives of Rsp-sensitive (Rsp/sup sens/) and insensitive (Rsp/sup ins/); a chromosome carrying Rsp/sup ins/ is not distorted by SD. In the present study, the function and location of each of these elements was examined by a genetic and cytological characterization of x-ray-induced mutations at each locus. The results indicate the following: the Rsp locus is located in the proximal heterochromatin of 2R; a deletion for the Rsp locus renders a chromosome insensitive to distortion; the Sd locus is located to the left of pr (2-54.5), in the region from 37D2-D7 to 38A6-B2 of the salivary chromosome map; an SD chromosome deleted for Sd loses its ability to distort; there is another important component of the SD system, E(SD), in or near the proximal heterochromatin of 2L, that behaves as a strong enhancer of distortion. The results of these studies allow a reinterpretation of results from earlier analyses of the SD system and serve to limit the possible mechanisms to account for segregation distortion

  2. The evolution of costly mate choice against segregation distorters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Andri; Lindholm, Anna K; Weissing, Franz J

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of female preference for male genetic quality remains a controversial topic in sexual selection research. One well-known problem, known as the lek paradox, lies in understanding how variation in genetic quality is maintained in spite of natural selection and sexual selection against low-quality alleles. Here, we theoretically investigate a scenario where females pay a direct fitness cost to avoid males carrying an autosomal segregation distorter. We show that preference evolution is greatly facilitated under such circumstances. Because the distorter is transmitted in a non-Mendelian fashion, it can be maintained in the population despite directional sexual selection. The preference helps females avoid fitness costs associated with the distorter. Interestingly, we find that preference evolution is limited if the choice allele induces a very strong preference or if distortion is very strong. Moreover, the preference can only persist in the presence of a signal that reliably indicates a male's distorter genotype. Hence, even in a system where the lek paradox does not play a major role, costly preferences can only spread under specific circumstances. We discuss the importance of distorter systems for the evolution of costly female choice and potential implications for the use of artificial distorters in pest control. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. The selfish Segregation Distorter gene complex of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larracuente, Amanda M; Presgraves, Daven C

    2012-09-01

    Segregation Distorter (SD) is an autosomal meiotic drive gene complex found worldwide in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. During spermatogenesis, SD induces dysfunction of SD(+) spermatids so that SD/SD(+) males sire almost exclusively SD-bearing progeny rather than the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio. SD is thus evolutionarily "selfish," enhancing its own transmission at the expense of its bearers. Here we review the molecular and evolutionary genetics of SD. Genetic analyses show that the SD is a multilocus gene complex involving two key loci--the driver, Segregation distorter (Sd), and the target of drive, Responder (Rsp)--and at least three upward modifiers of distortion. Molecular analyses show that Sd encodes a truncated duplication of the gene RanGAP, whereas Rsp is a large pericentromeric block of satellite DNA. The Sd-RanGAP protein is enzymatically wild type but mislocalized within cells and, for reasons that remain unclear, appears to disrupt the histone-to-protamine transition in drive-sensitive spermatids bearing many Rsp satellite repeats but not drive-insensitive spermatids bearing few or no Rsp satellite repeats. Evolutionary analyses show that the Sd-RanGAP duplication arose recently within the D. melanogaster lineage, exploiting the preexisting and considerably older Rsp satellite locus. Once established, the SD haplotype collected enhancers of distortion and suppressors of recombination. Further dissection of the molecular genetic and cellular basis of SD-mediated distortion seems likely to provide insights into several important areas currently understudied, including the genetic control of spermatogenesis, the maintenance and evolution of satellite DNAs, the possible roles of small interfering RNAs in the germline, and the molecular population genetics of the interaction of genetic linkage and natural selection.

  4. A genetic analysis of segregation distortion revealed by molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 90, No. ... Segregation analysis was based on 64 molecular markers, including 26 .... FHB of RIL populations was controlled by quantitative trait ... The authors acknowledge financial support by the National Basic.

  5. Genetic architecture of male sterility and segregation distortion in Drosophila pseudoobscura Bogota-USA hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Nitin

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation between recently diverged species is a central problem in evolutionary genetics. Here, I present analyses of the genetic architecture underlying hybrid male sterility and segregation distortion between the Bogota and USA subspecies of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Previously, a single gene, Overdrive (Ovd), was shown to be necessary but not sufficient for both male sterility and segregation distortion in F(1) hybrids between these subspecies, requiring several interacting partner loci for full manifestation of hybrid phenomena. I map these partner loci separately on the Bogota X chromosome and USA autosomes using a combination of different mapping strategies. I find that hybrid sterility involves a single hybrid incompatibility of at least seven interacting partner genes that includes three large-effect loci. Segregation distortion involves three loci on the Bogota X chromosome and one locus on the autosomes. The genetic bases of hybrid sterility and segregation distortion are at least partially--but not completely--overlapping. My results lay the foundation for fine-mapping experiments to identify the complete set of genes that interact with Overdrive. While individual genes that cause hybrid sterility or inviability have been identified in a few cases, my analysis provides a comprehensive look at the genetic architecture of all components of a hybrid incompatibility underlying F(1) hybrid sterility. Such an analysis would likely be unfeasible for most species pairs due to their divergence time and emphasizes the importance of young species pairs such as the D. pseudoobscura subspecies studied here.

  6. Genetic Architecture of Male Sterility and Segregation Distortion in Drosophila pseudoobscura Bogota–USA Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Nitin

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation between recently diverged species is a central problem in evolutionary genetics. Here, I present analyses of the genetic architecture underlying hybrid male sterility and segregation distortion between the Bogota and USA subspecies of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Previously, a single gene, Overdrive (Ovd), was shown to be necessary but not sufficient for both male sterility and segregation distortion in F1 hybrids between these subspecies, requiring several interacting partner loci for full manifestation of hybrid phenomena. I map these partner loci separately on the Bogota X chromosome and USA autosomes using a combination of different mapping strategies. I find that hybrid sterility involves a single hybrid incompatibility of at least seven interacting partner genes that includes three large-effect loci. Segregation distortion involves three loci on the Bogota X chromosome and one locus on the autosomes. The genetic bases of hybrid sterility and segregation distortion are at least partially—but not completely—overlapping. My results lay the foundation for fine-mapping experiments to identify the complete set of genes that interact with Overdrive. While individual genes that cause hybrid sterility or inviability have been identified in a few cases, my analysis provides a comprehensive look at the genetic architecture of all components of a hybrid incompatibility underlying F1 hybrid sterility. Such an analysis would likely be unfeasible for most species pairs due to their divergence time and emphasizes the importance of young species pairs such as the D. pseudoobscura subspecies studied here. PMID:21900263

  7. Gametocidal genes of Aegilops: segregation distorters in wheat-Aegilops wide hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjana, M

    2017-08-01

    Aegilops is a genus belonging to the family Poaceace, which have played an indispensible role in the evolution of bread wheat and continues to do so by transferring genes by wide hybridization. Being the secondary gene pool of wheat, gene transfer from Aegilops poses difficulties and segregation distortion is common. Gametocidal genes are the most well characterized class of segregation distorters reported in interspecific crosses of wheat with Aegilops. These "selfish" genetic elements ensure their preferential transmission to progeny at the cost of gametes lacking them without providing any phenotypic benefits to the plant, thereby causing a proportional reduction in fertility. Gametocidal genes (Gc) have been reported in different species of Aegilops belonging to the sections Aegilops (Ae. geniculata and Ae. triuncialis), Cylindropyrum (Ae. caudata and Ae. cylindrica), and Sitopsis (Ae. longissima, Ae. sharonensis, and Ae. speltoides). Gametocidal activity is mostly confined to 2, 3, and 4 homeologous groups of C, S, S 1 , S sh , and M g genomes. Removal of such genes is necessary for successful alien gene introgression and can be achieved by mutagenesis or allosyndetic pairing. However, there are some instances where Gc genes are constructively utilized for development of deletion stocks in wheat, improving genetic variability and chromosome engineering.

  8. Distortion

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Isabella Odorico; Zmylon, Nanna Nielsen; Britze, Juliane

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the audience’s perception of the music festival Distortion. By conducting a field-study focusing on the subject’s perception of Distortion, their perception of the Distortion-attendants, and their perception on the promotion of Distortion, the paper will relate the audience perception to the promotion of the event. Using the group’s own research on the promotion of Distortion, the paper points out both the consistencies and the inconsistencies between the promotion and...

  9. Segregation distortion causes large-scale differences between male and female genomes in hybrid ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmuni, Jonna; Seifert, Bernhard; Pamilo, Pekka

    2010-04-20

    Hybridization in isolated populations can lead either to hybrid breakdown and extinction or in some cases to speciation. The basis of hybrid breakdown lies in genetic incompatibilities between diverged genomes. In social Hymenoptera, the consequences of hybridization can differ from those in other animals because of haplodiploidy and sociality. Selection pressures differ between sexes because males are haploid and females are diploid. Furthermore, sociality and group living may allow survival of hybrid genotypes. We show that hybridization in Formica ants has resulted in a stable situation in which the males form two highly divergent gene pools whereas all the females are hybrids. This causes an exceptional situation with large-scale differences between male and female genomes. The genotype differences indicate strong transmission ratio distortion depending on offspring sex, whereby the mother transmits some alleles exclusively to her daughters and other alleles exclusively to her sons. The genetic differences between the sexes and the apparent lack of multilocus hybrid genotypes in males can be explained by recessive incompatibilities which cause the elimination of hybrid males because of their haploid genome. Alternatively, differentiation between sexes could be created by prezygotic segregation into male-forming and female-forming gametes in diploid females. Differentiation between sexes is stable and maintained throughout generations. The present study shows a unique outcome of hybridization and demonstrates that hybridization has the potential of generating evolutionary novelties in animals.

  10. Childhood overweight dependence on mother-child relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    -child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships – characterized and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child’s weight status according...... to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves...

  11. Disomic Inheritance and Segregation Distortion of SSR Markers in Two Populations of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanwen; Wu, Yanqi; Anderson, Jeff A; Moss, Justin Q; Zhu, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Common bermudagrass [C. dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon] is economically and environmentally the most important member among Cynodon species because of its extensive use for turf, forage and soil erosion control in the world. However, information regarding the inheritance within the taxon is limited. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to determine qualitative inheritance mode in common bermudagrass. Two tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36), first-generation selfed (S1) populations, 228 progenies of 'Zebra' and 273 from A12359, were analyzed for segregation with 21 and 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, respectively. It is concluded that the inheritance mode of tetraploid bermudagrass was complete or near complete disomic. It is evident that the two bermudagrass parents had an allotetraploid genome with two distinct subgenomes since 33 SSR primer pairs amplified 34 loci, each having two alleles. Severe transmission ratio distortions occurred in the Zebra population while less so in the A12359 population. The findings of disomic inheritance and segregation ratio distortion in common bermudagrass is significant in subsequent linkage map construction, quantitative trait locus mapping and marker-assisted selection in the species.

  12. Origin, evolution, and population genetics of the selfish Segregation Distorter gene duplication in European and African populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Cara L; Larracuente, Amanda M; Presgraves, Daven C

    2015-05-01

    Meiotic drive elements are a special class of evolutionarily "selfish genes" that subvert Mendelian segregation to gain preferential transmission at the expense of homologous loci. Many drive elements appear to be maintained in populations as stable polymorphisms, their equilibrium frequencies determined by the balance between drive (increasing frequency) and selection (decreasing frequency). Here we show that a classic, seemingly balanced, drive system is instead characterized by frequent evolutionary turnover giving rise to dynamic, rather than stable, equilibrium frequencies. The autosomal Segregation Distorter (SD) system of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a selfish coadapted meiotic drive gene complex in which the major driver corresponds to a partial duplication of the gene Ran-GTPase activating protein (RanGAP). SD chromosomes segregate at similar, low frequencies of 1-5% in natural populations worldwide, consistent with a balanced polymorphism. Surprisingly, our population genetic analyses reveal evidence for parallel, independent selective sweeps of different SD chromosomes in populations on different continents. These findings suggest that, rather than persisting at a single stable equilibrium, SD chromosomes turn over frequently within populations. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Segregation distortion in chicken and the evolutionary consequences of female meiotic drive in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Erik Gunnar; Albrechtsen, Anders; Van, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    As all four meiotic products give rise to sperm in males, female meiosis result in a single egg in most eukaryotes. Any genetic element with the potential to influence chromosome segregation, so that it is preferentially included in the egg, should therefore gain a transmission advantage; a process...

  14. Childhood Overweight Dependence on Mother-Child Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2014-04-26

    The causes of childhood overweight are numerous and inter-related. The mother-child relationship is of great significance for the child's health. Previous studies have found patterns of dysfunctional interaction in families with obese children. Therefore, development of childhood overweight could be due to the mother-child relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate how, and to what degree, the mother-child relationship, assessed by the mothers, was related to overweight among children aged seven to nine years. The study was a cross sectional case-controlled one. It included 111 overweight and 149 non-overweight seven to nine year old children and their mothers. Weight status was determined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference for children Body Mass Index, age and gender adjusted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to categorize the mother-child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships - characterized by the prototypes - between the overweight and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child's weight status according to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves and their children.

  15. Segregation distortion in homozygous lines obtained via anther culture and maize doubled haploid methods in comparison to single seed descent in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Adamski

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Segregation distortion in DH-AC populations was caused by the development of more than one plant of the same genotype from one callus. This distortion was minimized if only one plant per callus was included in the population. Selection of haploid wheat plants before chromosome doubling based on allele-specific markers allows us to choose genotypes that possess desirable Glu-1 alleles and to reduce the number of plants in the next steps of DH production. The SSD technique appeared to be the most advantageous in terms of Mendelian segregation, thus the occurrence of residual heterozygosity can be minimized by continuous selfing beyond the F6 generation.

  16. Invertebrate post-segregation distorters: a new embryo-killing gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P Sinkins

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic incompatibility induced by inherited intracellular bacteria of arthropods, and Medea elements found in flour beetles, are both forms of postsegregation distortion involving the killing of embryos in order to increase the ratio of progeny that inherit them. The recently described peel-zeel element of Caenorhabditis elegans also uses this mechanism; like Medea the genes responsible are in the nuclear genome but it shares a paternal mode of action with the bacteria. The peel-1 gene has now been shown to encode a potent toxin that is delivered by sperm, and rescued by zygotic transcription of the linked zeel-1. The predominance of self-fertilization in C. elegans has produced an unusual distribution pattern for a selfish genetic element; further population and functional studies will shed light on its evolution. The element might also have potential for use in disease control.

  17. Childhood overweight dependence on mother-child relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Brødsgaard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The causes of childhood overweight are numerous and inter-related. The mother-child relationship is of great significance for the child’s health. Previous studies have found patterns of dysfunctional interaction in families with obese children. Therefore, development of childhood overweight could be due to the mother-child relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate how, and to what degree, the mother-child relationship, assessed by the mothers, was related to overweight among children aged seven to nine years. The study was a cross sectional case-controlled one. It included 111 overweight and 149 non-overweight seven to nine year old children and their mothers. Weight status was determined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference for children Body Mass Index, age and gender adjusted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to categorize the mother-child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships – characterized by the prototypes – between the overweight and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child’s weight status according to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves and their children.

  18. Personalization in Mother-Child Emotion Talk across Three Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucirkova, Natalia; Tompkins, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    An unexplored aspect of contextual variation in emotion talk is the extent to which the emotions mothers and children discuss relate to the child, mother, or another self. To establish the extent to which mothers and children personalize the emotions they discuss, we examined the emotion talk of 40 American mother-child dyads in three…

  19. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  20. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Health, HPV and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Parent-child communication about sexual health is considered an effective ... This study used a brief survey to examine mother-child communication ... percent of mothers who reported being comfortable discussing HIV/sexual ... media should be considered as methods to reduce .... Examining attitudes and knowledge.

  1. Mutuality in Mother-Child Interactions in an Antillean Intervention Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomstra, Nienke W.; van Dijk, Marijn W. G.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a study on mutuality in mother-child interaction during reading and playing sessions. Within mother-child interaction, mutuality is seen as important in language acquisition. The study was executed within a group of Netherlands Antillean mother-child dyads who participated in an intervention programme. Mutuality was…

  2. High genetic differentiation between an African and a non-African strain of Drosophila simulans revealed by segregation distortion and reduced crossover frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuta, Haruki; Takano-Shimizu, Toshiyuki

    2009-11-01

    Drosophila simulans strains originating from Madagascar and nearby islands in the Indian Ocean often differ from those elsewhere in the number of sex comb teeth and the degree of morphological anomaly in hybrids with D. melanogaster. Here, we report a strong segregation distortion in the F1 intercross between two D. simulans strains originating from Madagascar and the US, possibly at both the gametic and zygotic levels. Strong bias against alleles of the Madagascar strain was observed for all ten marker loci distributed over the entire second chromosome in the F1 intercross, but only a few showed a weak distortion in the isogenic backgrounds of either strains. Significant deviations of genotype frequencies from Hardy-Weinberg proportions were consistently observed for the second chromosome. By contrast, the X and third chromosomes did not show any strong segregation distortion. Crossover frequency on the second chromosome was uniformly reduced in isogenic backgrounds whereas the map lengths in the F1 intercross were comparable to or larger than that of the standard D. melanogaster map. We discuss these findings in relation to previous studies on other traits and interspecific differences between D. mauritiana, which is endemic to Mauritius Island, and D. simulans.

  3. Transmission of mutans streptococci in mother-child pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Damle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Dental caries is an infectious, transmissible disease. Maternal transfer of mutans streptococci (MS has been a subject of research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transmission of MS from mother to children through genetic analysis. Methods: Thirty mother-child pairs were included and divided into three groups according to the age of the children. Saliva samples were collected and MS colonies from each mother-child pair were isolated. After inoculation and incubation, MS colonies were submitted to amplification technique by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for identification and arbitrarily primed PCRs (AP-PCRs to determine various MS genotypes. Results: From birth to six months of age, 30 per cent of children exhibited MS colonization, and by the age of 30 months, 100 per cent harboured the bacteria (P < 0.001. Factors associated with MS colonization were eruption of teeth (P < 0.001, feeding habits with mean colony count being significantly lower in breast-fed as compared to bottle-fed children (P < 0.001 and a significant association between mean MS count of child and mother′s practice of sharing spoon with child (P < 0.001. The AP-PCR fingerprinting profile analysis showed 17 MS groups (clusters containing identical or highly related isolates in mother-child pairs with a high level of similarity (77.27 %. Interpretation & conclusions: The presence of matching MS genotypes suggested vertical transmission from mothers to children. Feeding habits, gum cleaning and number of erupted teeth in children had significant effect on MS colonization. There is a need to develop strategies to present MS colonization in children.

  4. Informant Discrepancies in Assessing Child Dysfunction Relate to Dysfunction Within Mother-Child Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined whether mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems relate to dysfunctional interactions between mother and child and stress in the mother. Participants included 239 children (6–16 years old; 58 girls, 181 boys) referred for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior, and their mothers. Mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems were related to mother-child conflict. Moreover, maternal stress mediated this relationship. The findings sug...

  5. Effect on Performance Leadership Training and Hospital Nurse on Mother Child Hospital Eria Bunda Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    ibrahim, Restu; Andriani, Melan

    2014-01-01

    This study performed on mother child hospital Eria Bunda Pekanbaru. This study destination to determine how the variables influence and leadership training simultaneously and partially on the performance of nurses on mother child hospital Eria Bunda Pekanbaru. As for the population in the study was the nurses who work on mother child hospital Eria Bunda Pekanbaru which amounts to 69 people. Analysis of the data used is descriptive analysis, as it also uses namely Quantitative Analysis using m...

  6. Mother-Child Attachment and Cognitive Performance in Middle Childhood: An Examination of Mediating Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Katara K.; Mathews, Brittany L.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    Although mother-child attachment has been shown to predict cognitive performance, there has been a lack of attention to the mediating mechanisms that explain these associations. In the present study, we investigated relations of early mother-child attachment and cognitive performance in middle childhood (the latter in terms of both academic…

  7. Working and Playing Together: Prediction of Preschool Social-Emotional Competence from Mother-Child Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined mother-child interaction in play and teaching tasks. Mother-child interaction aggregates represented task orientation, positive emotion, and allowance of autonomy. Maternal interaction aggregates predicted teachers' ratings of children's positive social behavior, assertiveness, and sadness in the preschool setting. (BC)

  8. Families Created through Surrogacy: Mother-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment at Age 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…

  9. Chromosome rearrangements, recombination suppression, and limited segregation distortion in hybrids between Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Introgressive hybridization is an important evolutionary process that can lead to the creation of novel genome structures and thus potentially new genetic variation for selection to act upon. On the other hand, hybridization with introduced species can threaten native species, such as cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) following the introduction of rainbow trout (O. mykiss). Neither the evolutionary consequences nor conservation implications of rainbow trout introgression in cutthroat trout is well understood. Therefore, we generated a genetic linkage map for rainbow-Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. clarkii bouvieri) hybrids to evaluate genome processes that may help explain how introgression affects hybrid genome evolution. Results The hybrid map closely aligned with the rainbow trout map (a cutthroat trout map does not exist), sharing all but one linkage group. This linkage group (RYHyb20) represented a fusion between an acrocentric (Omy28) and a metacentric chromosome (Omy20) in rainbow trout. Additional mapping in Yellowstone cutthroat trout indicated the two rainbow trout homologues were fused in the Yellowstone genome. Variation in the number of hybrid linkage groups (28 or 29) likely depended on a Robertsonian rearrangement polymorphism within the rainbow trout stock. Comparison between the female-merged F1 map and a female consensus rainbow trout map revealed that introgression suppressed recombination across large genomic regions in 5 hybrid linkage groups. Two of these linkage groups (RYHyb20 and RYHyb25_29) contained confirmed chromosome rearrangements between rainbow and Yellowstone cutthroat trout indicating that rearrangements may suppress recombination. The frequency of allelic and genotypic segregation distortion varied among parents and families, suggesting few incompatibilities exist between rainbow and Yellowstone cutthroat trout genomes. Conclusions Chromosome rearrangements suppressed recombination in the hybrids. This result

  10. The relationship between mother-child in marasmus type malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Inés Restrepo Vásquez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This reflection aims to describe some theoretical reflections about the features that appear in the mother / son / food relational dynamic. It presents the research projects that are so far on the relationship between malnutrition and psychological aspects that accompany it. The chosen method in order to select the literature used the following search criteria: papers published between 2001 and 2011. It was used word-phrases: (Malnutrition, (marasmus, (marasmus type malnutrition and psychological and (mother / child relationship and malnutrition. As search facilities: Electronic databases (Ebsco, Medline, PubMed, SciELO, Embase. Priority was given to research work at national and local levels. Only those works which explicitly use the concept of malnutrition / stagnation / mother son bond were considerate. Also it was identified the most prominent authors in the field, and it was conducted exchanges with specialists on the field. Results show that so far there is no recent work related to this specific subject, except the work done by the doctor and psychoanalyst Rene Spitz in 1945. Conclusions: In this absence of research papers and given the particular phenomenon of marasmus type malnutrition, unacceptable as a problem that affects children’s mental health; there is the urge to create investigative actions that favor the construction of new intervention mechanisms for this complex reality. © Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales.

  11. Mothers' beliefs about emotions, mother-child emotion discourse, and children's emotion understanding in Latino families

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Rivera, Marie Belle

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand associations between acculturation, parental beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in Latino preschool-aged children. Research on Latino families may prove to be important given the little research that has focused on emotion understanding strictly in Latino cultures. Forty Latino mother-child dyads were observed throughout a series of naturalistic observations. Mothers self-reported their acculturation and their belie...

  12. Assessment of nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interaction in Central American refugee children

    OpenAIRE

    Laude Monica

    1999-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and December 1992 to assess the nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interactions in a group of 153 Nicaraguan refugee children living in Costa Rica. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric indices. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scale of Mental Development. Mother-child interaction was assessed with the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale and Caldwell's Home Observation and Measurem...

  13. Insatiable insecurity: maternal obesity as a risk factor for mother-child attachment and child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Sierau, Susan; Klein, Annette M; Bergmann, Sarah; Grube, Matthias; von Klitzing, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a rising health problem, and because parental obesity is a basic risk factor for childhood obesity, biological factors have been especially considered in the complex etiology. Aspects of the family interaction, e.g., mother-child attachment, have not been the main focus. Our study tried to fill this gap by investigating whether there is a difference between children of obese and normal weight mothers in terms of mother-child attachment, and whether mother-child attachment predicts child's weight, in a sample of 31 obese and 31 normal weight mothers with children aged 19 to 58 months. Mother-child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-Set. We found that (1) children of obese mothers showed a lower quality of mother-child attachment than children of normal weight mothers, which indicates that they are less likely to use their mothers as a secure base; (2) the attachment quality predicted child`s BMI percentile; and (3) the mother-child attachment adds incremental validity to the prediction of child's BMI beyond biological parameters (child's BMI birth percentile, BMI of the parents) and mother's relationship status. Implications of our findings are discussed.

  14. Mother-child interaction and cognitive development in children prenatally exposed to methadone or buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijnenberg, Carolien; Sarfi, Monica; Melinder, Annika

    2016-10-01

    To assess the influence of mother-child interaction on children's cognitive development in a group of children prenatally exposed to methadone or buprenorphine. The study is part of a prospective longitudinal project investigating the development of children born to women in opioid maintenance therapy (OMT). The sample includes 67 children born between 2005 and 2007, 35 of which prenatally exposed to either methadone or buprenorphine and 32 non-exposed comparison children. Both groups scored within the normal range of development. However, the OMT group scored significantly lower on measures of cognitive development and mother-child interaction compared to the comparison group. Cognitive development was found to be affected by both group status, F(1,54)=5.65, p=0.02, η(2)=0.10 and mother-child interaction F(1,54)=5.26, p=0.03, η(2)=0.09. Behavioral inhibition (statue), sensorimotor function (imitating hand positions), and short-term memory (sentences) was influenced by group status while narrative memory and vocabulary were found to be more influenced by mother-child interaction. Different risk factors may influence different cognitive functions in children of women in OMT. Specifically, language-related cognitive skills may be more related to mother-child interaction while performance in higher cognitive functions requiring precise control over sensorimotor responses may be more sensitive to other factors such as prenatal OMT exposure, genetics, and/or prenatal exposure to other substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mother-Child Interaction and Resilience in Children with Early Developmental Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenning, Rachel M.; Baker, Jason K.

    2014-01-01

    Although prenatal and genetic factors make strong contributions to the emergence of intellectual disability (ID), children's early environment may have the potential to alter developmental trajectories and to foster resilience in children with early risk. The present study examined mother-child interaction and the promotion of competence in 50 children with early developmental delays. Three related but distinct aspects of mother-child interaction were considered: maternal technical scaffolding, maternal positive-sensitivity, and mother-child dyadic pleasure. Children were classified as exhibiting undifferentiated delays at age three based upon performance on developmental assessments and the absence of known genetic syndromes. Mother-child interaction was assessed at age four through observational ratings of structured laboratory tasks and through naturalistic home observations. ID was identified at age five using the dual criteria of clinically significant delays in cognitive functioning and adaptive behavior. Maternal technical scaffolding and dyadic pleasure each uniquely predicted reduced likelihood of later ID, beyond the contributions of children's early developmental level and behavioral functioning. Follow-up analyses suggested that mother-child interaction was primarily important to resilience in the area of adaptive behavior, with scaffolding and dyadic pleasure differentially associated with particular sub-domains. Implications for theories of intellectual disability and for family-based early intervention and prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:22662771

  16. [Early Vojta- or Bobath-physiotherapy: what is the effect on mother-child relationship?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig, A; Mähler, C

    1999-01-01

    The present study is discussing the question of possible negative effects of early physiotherapy on the mother-child-relationship. Mothers and children in Vojta-physiotherapy are compared with mother-child-pairs in Bobath-therapy on the basis of the hypothesis that Vojta-treatment is more apt to stress the mother-child-relationship. Indicators here were the physical and emotional stress in mothers as well as their attitudes towards their children, expressed in a questionnaire. Results indicate the special stress of the Vojta-technique at the beginning of the therapy while with ongoing treatment no differences between Vojta- and Bobath-therapy were found. Generally it is claimed that psychological information and support should be provided for the concerned families.

  17. Maternal Attachment Status, Mother-Child Emotion Talk, Emotion Understanding, and Child Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conduct problems that emerge in childhood often persist into adolescence and are associated with a range of negative outcomes. It is therefore important to identify the factors that predict conduct problems in early childhood. The present study investigated the relations among maternal attachment status, mother-child emotion talk, child emotion understanding, and conduct problems in a sample of 92 (46 males typically developing children (M age = 61.3 months, SD = 8.3 months. The results support a model in which maternal attachment status predicts the level of appropriate/responsive mother-child emotion talk, which predicts child emotion understanding, which in turn negatively predicts child conduct problems. These findings further underline the developmental role of mother-child emotion talk as well as the importance of involving parents in programs designed to increase children’s emotion understanding and/or decrease the incidence of conduct problems.

  18. Work/non-workday differences in mother, child, and mother-child morning cortisol in a sample of working mothers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibel, Leah C; Trumbell, Jill M; Mercado, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Mothers have been shown to have higher morning cortisol on days they go to work compared to non-workdays; however, it is unknown how maternal workday associates with child morning cortisol or the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol. This study examined the presence and stability of morning cortisol levels and slopes (i.e., cortisol awakening response or CAR) in a sample of 2-4year old children in out-of-home child care with working mothers. In addition, we examined the differential contributions of maternal workday on mother-child attunement in morning cortisol. Mother and child morning cortisol was sampled twice a day (awakening and 30min later) across four consecutive days (2 non-workdays; 2 workdays) among 47 working mothers and their young children. Mothers also reported on compliance with sampling procedures and provided demographic information. While children exhibited stability in cortisol levels, children's CARs were variable, with children's non-work CARs not predictive of work CARs. Similarly, a significant morning rise in cortisol was only found on workdays, not non-workdays. Overall, mothers had higher cortisol levels and steeper CARs than their children. Further, maternal workday moderated the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol, such that mothers and children had concordant cortisol levels on non-workdays, but discordant cortisol levels on workdays. Morning cortisol may be more variable in pre-school aged children than adults but may be similarly responsive to the social environment. Further, workday mornings may be a time of reduced mother-child cortisol attunement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Observed Gender Differences in African American Mother-Child Relationships and Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Telesford, James M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Richman, Scott B.

    2012-01-01

    African American mother-child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were…

  20. Stability of Maternal Discipline Practices and the Quality of Mother-Child Interaction during Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Lee, Li-Ching; Miller, Therese; Genevro, Janice

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the stability of maternal punitive/high-power discipline (PD) and inductive/authoritative discipline (ID) over the second and third years of life and the effect of maternal discipline on quality of mother-child interactions. Data from a longitudinal sample with 179 mother-toddler dyads were analyzed, and selected factors (i.e.,…

  1. Trauma-related symptoms in neglected preschoolers and affective quality of mother-child communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Tristan; St-Laurent, Diane; Ethier, Louise S; Provost, Marc A

    2010-11-01

    This study (a) assessed whether child neglect is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative symptoms in the preschool period and (b) examined the role of quality of mother-child affective communication in the development of trauma-related symptoms among neglected children. Participants were 33 neglected and 72 non-neglected preschoolers (mean age = 60 months). Neglected children were recruited from the Child Protection Agencies. Neglected and non-neglected children victims of other form of abuse were excluded from the study. Trauma symptoms were evaluated through mother and preschool teacher reports. Quality of mother-child affective communication was assessed in a lab visit during an unstructured task. According to teachers, neglected children displayed more PTSD and dissociative symptoms than non-neglected children. Quality of mother-child communication was lower in neglected dyads. Mother-child affective communication predicted teacher-reported child trauma symptomatology, over and above child neglect. Discussion focuses on the traumatic nature of child neglect and the underlying parent-child relational processes.

  2. The mother - child nexus. Knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in Wayanad, Western Ghats, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the mother-child nexus (or process of enculturation) with respect to knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in a context where accelerated processes of modernization and acculturation are leading to the erosion of knowledge and cultural values associated with wild food

  3. Maternal Employment, Nonparental Care, Mother-Child Interactions, and Child Outcomes during Preschool Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between maternal employment, nonparental care, mother-child interactions, and preschoolers' outcomes. Data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 1,248) show that maternal employment during the previous year, especially full-time employment, was related to care by…

  4. Functions of Memory Sharing and Mother-Child Reminiscing Behaviors: Individual and Cultural Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkofsky, Sarah; Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined maternal beliefs about the functions of memory sharing and the relations between these beliefs and mother-child reminiscing behaviors in a cross-cultural context. Sixty-three European American and 47 Chinese mothers completed an open-ended questionnaire concerning their beliefs about the functions of parent-child memory…

  5. Positive and Negative Emotions and Coping as Mediators of Mother-Child Attachment and Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michelle M.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether emotions and coping explain (mediate) the association between mother-child attachment and peer relationships. Attachment, positive and negative emotion experience, coping, and peer relationships were examined in 106 fourth-grade through sixth-grade girls attending a 6-day residential camp. Attachment, experience of…

  6. Mother-Child Play: Children with Down Syndrome and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, P.; de Falco, S.; Esposito, G.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2009-01-01

    Child solitary and collaborative mother-child play with 21 children with Down syndrome and 33 mental-age-matched typically developing children were compared. In solitary play, children with Down syndrome showed less exploratory but similar symbolic play compared to typically developing children. From solitary to collaborative play, children with…

  7. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Mother-Child Interactions, and Children's Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueron-Sela, Noa; Camerota, Marie; Willoughby, Michael T.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the independent and mediated associations between maternal depression symptoms (MDS), mother-child interaction, and child executive function (EF) in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,037 children (50% boys) from predominantly low-income and rural communities. When children were 6, 15 and 24 months of age, mothers reported…

  8. Maintaining the Mother-Child Relationship within the Irish Prison System: The Practitioner Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Sinead; Devaney, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on the experience of motherhood within the Irish prison system. This paper considers the specific issue of facilitating contact between incarcerated mothers and their children. It is based on a study which explores the views of practitioners working directly with mothers in prison on how the mother-child relationship…

  9. Mother-Child Interactional Patterns in High- and Low-Risk Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, Laura; Cerezo, M. Angeles; Milner, Joel S.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 10 high-risk (of child physical abuse) and 10 demographically similar low-risk Spanish mother-child dyads investigated interactional patterns in the home. High-risk mothers made fewer neutral approaches to their children, displayed more negative behaviors toward their children, and made more indiscriminate responses to their children's…

  10. Mother-Child Relationship in Youths with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and their Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jane Pei-Chen; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-07-01

    Despite impaired mother-child interactions noted in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is no such information for their siblings. This study aimed to test whether the affected and unaffected siblings, like youth with ADHD, also encountered impaired mothering and mother-child relationships as compared to typically developing youth (TD). The sample consisted of 122 probands (107 males, 87.7 %), aged 10-16, with DSM-IV ADHD, 44 affected (26 males, 59.1 %) and 78 unaffected (28 males, 35.9 %) siblings, and 122 TD youth. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews (K-SADS-E) about the participants and reported maternal parenting style, mother-child interactions and child behavioral problems at home. Based on both reports, probands with ADHD and affected siblings (only youth report) had more impaired relationships, more behavioral problems at home, and less perceived family support than unaffected siblings and TD youth. Probands with ADHD had higher maternal authoritarian control than unaffected siblings. The findings suggest that impaired mothering, mother-child interactions, and family support are related to the presence of ADHD diagnosis in both probands and their affected siblings.

  11. Stability and Change in Mother-Child Planning over Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvain, Mary; Perez, Susan M.; Reisz, Z.

    2018-01-01

    This longitudinal research examines maternal and child behaviors during joint planning over a 3-year period of middle childhood. 118 mother-child dyads were observed once a year beginning when the children were 8 years of age. Coding focused on mother and child planning behaviors, maternal instructional support, and child task engagement.…

  12. Mothers' Experiences with a Mother-Child Education Programme in Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekman, Sevda; Koçak, Aylin Atmaca

    2013-01-01

    Although previous quantitative studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the mother-child education programme (MOCEP) that originated in Turkey in 1993, the study reported here uses a qualitative approach to gain an in-depth understanding of mothers' views of the outcomes of the programme. The study was conducted with 100 mothers from five…

  13. Mother-Child Dyadic Synchrony Is Associated with Better Functioning in Hyperactive/Inattentive Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Dione M.; Gopin, Chaya B.; Grossman, Bella R.; Campbell, Susan B.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyperactive/inattentive (HI) behaviors are common in preschoolers, but they result in functional impairment and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses in only some children. We examined whether the quality of mother-child interaction accounts for variance in level of functioning among preschool children with elevated…

  14. Assessment of nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interaction in Central American refugee children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Laude

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and December 1992 to assess the nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interactions in a group of 153 Nicaraguan refugee children living in Costa Rica. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric indices. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scale of Mental Development. Mother-child interaction was assessed with the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale and Caldwell's Home Observation and Measurement of the Environment Inventory. Correlational analysis was performed to examine the relationship between child cognitive development scores and mother-child interaction measures and also between anthropometric measures and child cognitive development scores. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the mother-child interaction measures and cognitive development scores, after adjusting by anthropometric measures. Thirty-three percent of the children were below the 10th percentile for height-for-age. There was no significant correlation between the total amount of mother-child interaction and child cognitive development. However, certain aspects of the home environment correlated with cognitive development, specifically the manner in which the mother responded emotionally and verbally to her child, and the organization of the child's physical and temporal environment. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the manner in which the mother responded and the child's weight-for-height were important in predicting child cognitive development. The child's weight-for-height and certain aspects of the home environment played an important role in the cognitive development of this refugee population. The findings indicate the importance of assessing nutritional status in this refugee population.

  15. Segregation distortion in homozygous lines obtained via anther culture and maize doubled haploid methods in comparison to single seed descent in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Adamski,Tadeusz; Krystkowiak,Karolina; Kuczynska,Anetta; Mikolajczak,Krzysztof; Ogrodowicz,Piotr; Ponitka,Aleksandra; Surma,Maria; Slusarkiewicz-Jarzina,Aurelia

    2014-01-01

    Background: The quality of wheat grain depends on several characteristics, among which the composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits, encoded by Glu-1 loci, are the most important. Application of biotechnological tools to accelerate the attainment of homozygous lines may influence the proportion of segregated genotypes. The objective was to determine, whether the selection pressure generated by the methods based on in vitro cultures, may cause a loss of genotypes with desirable G...

  16. Early mother-child attachment and behavior problems in middle childhood: the role of the subsequent caregiving environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Erin E; Scott, Marc A; McCormick, Meghan P; Weinberg, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated associations between early mother-child attachment, as well as mother-child and teacher-child relationships, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in middle childhood. Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were used. Findings from a series of individual growth curve analyses revealed that attachment security was negatively related to internalizing and externalizing behaviors, while insecure/other and avoidant attachment were positively related to internalizing behaviors. In addition, longitudinal associations were found between mother-child and teacher-child relationships and internalizing and externalizing behaviors across middle childhood. Implications for attachment theory are discussed.

  17. Mother-Child Conversation and Children's Social Understanding During Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, RaeAnne M; Pillow, Bradford H

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between mother-child conversation and children's social understanding during middle childhood. Thirty-eight mother-child pairs participated, including a younger group (5-7 years old) and an older group (8-10 years old). Children completed 2 measures of social understanding and mothers and children discussed 4 stories involving social dilemmas. Results indicated that compared to the younger group, the older group (a) performed better on both measures of social understanding and (b) produced more basic mental talk (i.e., talk about beliefs, emotions, personality traits, and desires), and more advanced mental talk (i.e., talk about contrasting perspectives, recursion and relationship between mental states, and advanced emotions). Mothers of older children also produced more basic and advanced mental talk. Mothers' advanced mental talk predicted both children's social understanding and children's advanced mental talk.

  18. Non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV in an experimental environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Paiva, Simone; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; de Almeida, Paulo César

    2010-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is predominant in the mother-child relation. This study aimed to analyze non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV. In an experimental environment, five HIV-positive mothers were evaluated during care delivery to their babies of up to six months old. Recordings of the care were analyzed by experts, observing aspects of non-verbal communication, such as: paralanguage, kinesics, distance, visual contact, tone of voice, maternal and infant tactile behavior. In total, 344 scenes were obtained. After statistical analysis, these permitted inferring that mothers use non-verbal communication to demonstrate their close attachment to their children and to perceive possible abnormalities. It is suggested that the mothers infection can be a determining factor for the formation of mothers strong attachment to their children after birth.

  19. Dietary lead intakes for mother/child pairs and relevance to pharmacokinetic models.

    OpenAIRE

    Gulson, B L; Mahaffey, K R; Vidal, M; Jameson, C W; Law, A J; Mizon, K J; Smith, A J; Korsch, M J

    1997-01-01

    Blood and environmental samples, including a quarterly 6-day duplicate diet, for nine mother/child pairs from Eastern Europe have been monitored for 12 to >24 months with high precision stable lead isotope analysis to evaluate the changes that occur when the subjects moved from one environment (Eastern Europe) to another with different stable lead isotopes (Australia). The children were between 6 and 11 years of age and the mothers were between 29 and 37 years of age. These data were compared...

  20. Mothers Reporting I: For Whom and Why is the Mother-Child Education Program Effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Bekman, Prof. Dr. Sevda; Atmaca Koçak, Aylin

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of the qualitative research conducted with 100 mothers, all participants of Mother-Child Education Program, (from five different countries). The aim was to investigate the characteristics of the participant mothers, their reasons for participation, and why and how the program was effective. Data, collected through in-depth interviews, revealed that participant mothers were determined and open to change. Mothers’ experiences with the group process, the Cogniti...

  1. Assessing quality of life: mother?child agreement in depressed and non-depressed Hungarian

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Purpose An important question in child psychiatry is the agreement between parents and children. We studied mother?child concordance about the quality of life of children (QoL). We hypothesized that mothers of depressed children rate lower QoL than children for themselves while mothers of non-depressed children rate better QoL; that inter-informant agreement is higher in the non-depressed sample; and finally that agreement incre...

  2. Mother/child bond in mothers of overweight and eutrophic children: depression and socioeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vieira Spada

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the presence of depression, age, level of schooling, occupation, marital status, number of children and nutritional status (maternal and of the child in mothers of overweight and eutrophic children and relate the data to mother/child bonding. Methods: A total of 120 mothers of children aged up to 10 years participated; 30 of them were overweight and 30 were eutrophic (low-income bracket; 30 were overweight and 30 eutrophic (high-income bracket. The control group was composed of eutrophic children paired according to sex, age, level of schooling, and social condition. Data collection was made through interviews. The assessment instruments were: Mother/Child Bonding Assessment Protocol and Beck Depression Inventory. The nutritional classification was defined by calculation of the body mass index, as per the curves of the World Health Organization. For statistics, McNemar, χ2, and Fisher’s exact tests were used. A 5% level of rejection of the null hypothesis was set. Results: There was no significant result between mother/child bonding and the variables studied, or between the presence of depression and level of schooling, marital status, occupation, and maternal nutritional status. Nevertheless, mothers of eutrophic children (high-income bracket showed less depression than mothers of eutrophic children (low-income bracket. Mothers with three or more children displayed more depression than mothers with less than three children. Mothers under 30 years of age showed more depression than mothers aged 30 years or older. Conclusion: There was no significant result between mother/child bonding and the variables studied, but the bond was compromised in all mothers of the sample. There was a significant result regarding the presence of depression.

  3. Maternal depressive symptoms, mother-child interactions, and children's executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueron-Sela, Noa; Camerota, Marie; Willoughby, Michael T; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha J

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the independent and mediated associations between maternal depression symptoms (MDS), mother-child interaction, and child executive function (EF) in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,037 children (50% boys) from predominantly low-income and rural communities. When children were 6, 15 and 24 months of age, mothers reported their level of depressive symptomatology. At 24 and 36 months of age, mother-child interactions during play were rated for warmth-sensitivity and harsh-intrusiveness, and dyadic joint attention and maternal language complexity were assessed from a book sharing activity. Children's EF (i.e., inhibitory control, working memory, and set shifting) were assessed at ages 36 and 48 months using a battery of six tasks. Results indicated that MDS at ages 15 and 24 months were negatively associated with children's EF at age 48 months. Additionally, harsh-intrusive mother-child interactions partially mediated this link. Although warmth-sensitivity, dyadic joint attention and maternal language complexity were all longitudinally related to EF, they did not serve as mediating mechanisms between MDS and EF. These results were obtained while controlling for multiple demographic factors, children's earlier cognitive abilities, maternal general distress and childcare experiences. Findings from this study identify 1 mechanism through which early exposure to MDS could be related to children's EF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Maternal attachment is differentially associated with mother-child reminiscing among maltreating and nonmaltreating families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Monica; Valentino, Kristin; McDonnell, Christina G; Speidel, Ruth

    2018-05-01

    In the current investigation, we examined associations between maternal attachment and the way that mothers and children discuss past emotional experiences (i.e., reminiscing) among 146 maltreating and 73 nonmaltreating mothers and their 3- to 6-year-old children. Recent studies demonstrate that maltreating mothers engage in less elaborative reminiscing compared with nonmaltreating mothers. To further explicate the nature of reminiscing among maltreating families, we examined maternal and child contributions to reminiscing, their interrelations, and associations with maternal attachment among dyads from maltreating and nonmaltreating families. Maternal attachment is theoretically and empirically associated with mother-child reminiscing, and an insecure maternal attachment style was hypothesized to exacerbate poor elaborative reminiscing among maltreating families. Mothers and children reminisced about four emotional experiences. Maternal attachment was measured with the Experience in Close Relationships-Revised questionnaire. Mothers and children from maltreating families engaged in less elaborative and emotion-rich reminiscing compared with nonmaltreating dyads. Maternal attachment anxiety was negatively associated with maternal elaborative reminiscing, but only among nonmaltreating mothers. Mother-child reminiscing among dyads with nonmaltreating and low attachment anxiety mothers was highly collaborative; whereas reminiscing among dyads with maltreating and high attachment anxiety mothers was less reciprocal. Our findings largely support communicative perspectives of attachment theory and also indicate that maternal attachment is differentially associated with mother-child reminiscing among maltreating and nonmaltreating families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Is mother-child transmission a possible vehicle for xylitol prophylaxis in acute otitis media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhauer, Jeffrey L; Kelly, Allison; Johnson, Carole E

    2011-10-01

    Xylitol can be a prophylaxis for acute otitis media (AOM), especially when administered via chewing gum, but that vehicle has limitations for children. This review sought evidence for links of mother-child transmission of bacteria and as a vehicle for xylitol as a prophylaxis for dental caries and its translation to AOM in infants and young children. Qualitative systematic review. Combining output from 43 search strings used earlier and submitting 20 new strings to PubMed resulted in 14 studies (six were excluded; eight were included). Included studies had to be published in English-language, peer-reviewed journals; involve mothers using xylitol; and assess bacteria or caries in their children. Evaluation forms were completed for search, retrieval, and quality assessment of included studies. The studies showed that mothers' chewing xylitol gum was a prophylaxis against bacteria and caries in their children. A mother-child transmission model was presented as a possible vehicle for use in comprehensive prevention programs for AOM. Potential for xylitol use to prevent AOM warrants further study. A mother-child model may apply to AOM for transmission of bacteria and as a prophylaxis, but alternative vehicles like nasal sprays should be investigated for ease of use and effectiveness.

  6. Attachment behavior and mother-child conversations as predictors of attachment representations in middle childhood: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Cyr, Chantal; Moss, Ellen

    2011-07-01

    This study examines longitudinal links between mother-child conversations and attachment patterns in early childhood and later attachment representations. It also tests the role of conversations as mediators in the association between behavioral security and attachment representations. Mother-child conversations (snack-time) and attachment behaviors (Separation-Reunion procedure) were assessed for 83 5.5-year-olds while attachment representations (attachment narratives) were measured at 8.5 years of age. Results showed correspondence between attachment behaviors and representations for secure-confident, ambivalent-preoccupied, and disorganized/controlling-frightened groups. Affective quality of mother-child conversations predicted both child attachment behaviors and representations. Secure and confident children showed greater integration of affective information, ambivalent and preoccupied children more affect exaggeration, and disorganized/controlling and frightened children more chaotic conversations. Avoidant children tended to show more affect minimization in conversations. Finally, mother-child conversations centered on the sharing of emotions and thoughts mediated the relation between behavioral and representational attachment security, which underscores the importance of mother-child conversations in the development of attachment representations in childhood.

  7. Behavior problems in middle childhood: the predictive role of maternal distress, child attachment, and mother-child interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Moss, Ellen; Cyr, Chantal; Pascuzzo, Katherine

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal relation between early school-age measures of maternal psychosocial distress, quality of mother-child interactions, and child attachment behavior, and behavior problem profiles in middle childhood using a multi-informant design. Participants were 243 French-speaking mother-child dyads (122 girls) who were part of an ongoing longitudinal project. Maternal psychosocial distress was assessed when children were between 4 and 6 years of age. Mother-child interactive quality and attachment patterns were observed at age 6 during a laboratory visit. At age 8.5, externalizing and internalizing problems were assessed using mother and child reports. Results show that maternal psychosocial distress predicted later social adaptation reported by the child through the mediation of mother-child interactions. Analyses also revealed that higher maternal psychosocial distress and controlling attachment patterns, either of the punitive or caregiving type, significantly predicted membership in both child internalizing and externalizing clinical problem groups. Lower mother-child interactive quality, male gender, and child ambivalent attachment were also predictors of externalizing clinical problems.

  8. Mother-child conversation in different social classes and communicative settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff-Ginsberg, E

    1991-08-01

    30 working-class and 33 upper-middle-class mothers were videotaped in dyadic interaction with their 18-29-month-old children in 4 settings--mealtime, dressing, book reading, and toy play. Samples of the mothers' adult-directed speech also were collected. There were significant social class differences in the mothers' child-directed speech and some parallel social class differences in the mothers' adult-directed speech. These findings suggested that some social class differences in child-directed speech may be instances of more general class differences in language use. There also were main effects of communicative setting on mothers' child-directed speech and interaction effects in which setting moderated the size of the class differences in maternal speech. These findings suggested that the amount of time mothers spend interacting with their children in different contexts may be at least as important an influence on children's linguistic experience as are average characteristics of their mothers' speech.

  9. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Simona; Emer, Alessandra; Martini, Laura; Rigo, Paola; Pruner, Sonia; Venuti, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  10. Garden of Ambivalence The Topology of the Mother-child Dyad in Grey Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defne Tüzün

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Maysles brothers’ 1975 documentary, Grey Gardens, portrays the lives of Edith Bouvier Beale and her daughter, Edith, known as Little Edie, the aunt and first cousin, respectively, of Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis. The mother and daughter live together in their East Hampton house that is literally falling apart. As their identical names imply, the Beales share a symbiotic relationship which is reflected in every aspect of their life. I argue that Grey Gardens calls for Julia Kristeva’s insistence on abjection as a crucial struggle with “spatial ambivalence (inside/outside uncertainty” and an attempt to mark out a space in the undifferentiated field of the mother-child symbiosis. In Powers of Horror, Kristeva (1982 states, “abjection preserves what existed in the archaism of pre-objectal relationship” (p. 10. Grey Gardens portrays the topology of the mother-child dyad, which pertains to a particular spatio-temporality: where this primordial relationship is concerned, object and subject crumble, and the distinction between past and present is irrelevant.

  11. Efficacy of a Latino mother-child communication intervention in elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Diane B; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis

    2015-04-01

    Children of Latino immigrants in the United States encounter ecological stressors that heighten their risk for depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and problems in school. Studies have shown that affirming parent-child communication is protective of child depressive symptoms and accompanying problems. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of an adapted mother-child communication intervention for Latino immigrant mothers and their fourth- to sixth-grade children delivered after school. The intervention, Family Communication ("Comunicación Familiar"), was delivered at children's elementary schools in six sessions lasting 2 hr each. Significant improvements were found in children's reports of problem-solving communication, with their mother and mothers' reports of reduced family conflict. Strengths of the intervention are improved mother-child communication, acquisition of communication skills that can transfer to relationships within the classroom, and a design that allows delivery by nurses or other professional members of the school support team. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. MATERNAL DEPRESSION AND ATTACHMENT: THE EVALUATION OF MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS DURING FEEDING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eSantona

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Internal working models of attachment (IWM can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation biological rhythms and the establishment of children’s autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasises parents’ emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother-child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children’s age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression,, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive

  13. Assessing quality of life: mother-child agreement in depressed and non-depressed Hungarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Eniko; Kapornai, Krisztina; Baji, Ildikó; Mayer, László; Vetró, Agnes

    2009-05-01

    An important question in child psychiatry is the agreement between parents and children. We studied mother-child concordance about the quality of life of children (QoL). We hypothesized that mothers of depressed children rate lower QoL than children for themselves while mothers of non-depressed children rate better QoL; that inter-informant agreement is higher in the non-depressed sample; and finally that agreement increases with age of the child. QoL of depressed children (N = 248, mean age 11.45 years, SD 2.02) were compared to that of non-depressed children (N = 1695, mean age 10.34 years, SD 2.19). QoL was examined by a 7 item questionnaire (ILK). Mothers of depressed children rated lower QoL than their children while mothers of nondepressed children rated higher QoL than their children. Agreement was low in both samples but higher in the controls. Inter-informant agreement was only influenced by depression. Our results show that mothers relate more serious negative effects to childhood depression than their children and rate less problems for their non-depressed children compared to self-reports. Mother-child agreement is negatively influenced by depression which further stresses the importance of obtaining reports from the child and at least one parent in order to understand the subjective experiences caused by the illness.

  14. Families created through surrogacy: Mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment at age 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  15. Developmental Pathways from Child Maltreatment to Adolescent Substance Use: The Roles of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Mother-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Susan; Kobulsky, Julia M.; Yoon, Dalhee; Kim, Wonhee

    2018-01-01

    While many studies have identified a significant relation between child maltreatment and adolescent substance use, the developmental pathways linking this relation remain sparsely explored. The current study examines posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, mother-child relationships, and internalizing and externalizing problems as potential longitudinal pathways through which child maltreatment influences adolescent substance use. Structural equation modeling was conducted on 883 adolescents drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). The pathways of PTS symptoms linked physical and sexual abuse to substance use, and the pathways of mother-child relationships linked emotional abuse and neglect to substance use. None of the four types of maltreatment affected substance use via internalizing or externalizing problems. The findings suggest that intervention efforts aimed at addressing posttraumatic stress symptoms and improving mother-child relationship quality may be beneficial in reducing substance use among adolescents with child maltreatment histories. PMID:29503490

  16. Direct observation of mother-child communication in pediatric cancer: assessment of verbal and non-verbal behavior and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Madeleine J; Rodriguez, Erin M; Miller, Kimberly S; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Saylor, Megan; Scheule, C Melanie; Compas, Bruce E

    2011-06-01

    To examine the acceptability and feasibility of coding observed verbal and nonverbal behavioral and emotional components of mother-child communication among families of children with cancer. Mother-child dyads (N=33, children ages 5-17 years) were asked to engage in a videotaped 15-min conversation about the child's cancer. Coding was done using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale (IFIRS). Acceptability and feasibility of direct observation in this population were partially supported: 58% consented and 81% of those (47% of all eligible dyads) completed the task; trained raters achieved 78% agreement in ratings across codes. The construct validity of the IFIRS was demonstrated by expected associations within and between positive and negative behavioral/emotional code ratings and between mothers' and children's corresponding code ratings. Direct observation of mother-child communication about childhood cancer has the potential to be an acceptable and feasible method of assessing verbal and nonverbal behavior and emotion in this population.

  17. The Association between Self-Reported Mother-Child Attachment and Social Initiative and Withdrawal in Chinese School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin-Bin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relations between mother-child attachment and social initiative and withdrawal in Chinese urban children. Participants were 487 school-aged children (247 boys, 240 girls) in Shanghai, the People's Republic of China. Data on mother-child attachment styles were collected from children's self-reports.…

  18. Daily Associations of Stress and Eating in Mother-Child Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve F; Dzubur, Eldin; Huh, Jimi; Belcher, Britni R; Maher, Jaclyn P; O'Connor, Sydney; Margolin, Gayla

    2017-06-01

    This study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in mother-child dyads to examine the day-level associations of stress and eating. Mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children ( N = 167 dyads) completed between three (weekday) and eight (weekend) EMA survey prompts per day at random nonschool times across 8 days. EMA measured perceived stress, and past 2-hour healthy (i.e., fruit and vegetables) and unhealthy (e.g., pastries/sweets, soda/energy drinks) eating. Children reported more healthy and unhealthy eating on days when their mothers also engaged in more healthy and unhealthy eating, respectively. On days when mothers' perceived stress was greater than usual, they reported more healthy eating. Eating behaviors were coupled between mothers and children at the day level. Mothers' stress was related to their own eating but not to children's eating.

  19. Identifying Mother-Child Interaction Styles Using a Person-Centered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; O'Brien, Marion; Grimm, Kevin J; Leerkes, Esther M

    2014-05-01

    Parent-child conflict in the context of a supportive relationship has been discussed as a potentially constructive interaction pattern; the current study is the first to test this using a holistic analytic approach. Interaction styles, defined as mother-child conflict in the context of maternal sensitivity, were identified and described with demographic and stress-related characteristics of families. Longitudinal associations were tested between interaction styles and children's later social competence. Participants included 814 partnered mothers with a first-grade child. Latent profile analysis identified agreeable , dynamic , and disconnected interaction styles. Mothers' intimacy with a partner, depressive symptoms, and authoritarian childrearing beliefs, along with children's later conflict with a best friend and externalizing problems, were associated with group membership. Notably, the dynamic style, characterized by high sensitivity and high conflict, included families who experienced psychological and relational stressors. Findings are discussed with regard to how family stressors shape parent-child interaction patterns.

  20. Social aspects of dental caries in the context of mother-child pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba MOIMAZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between mother and child in the context of oral health has traditionally been exposed by the scientific literature in microbiology, which lacks a broad and necessary discussion of health and illness seen as processes, both biological and social. Objective: Investigate the family social determinants associated with the caries history of children and the need for dental treatment (NDT among their mothers was the objective of this study. Material and methods: This research employed a cross-sectional study of mother-child pairs living in southern Brazil. Data collection occurred in public institutions of early childhood education. The instruments included a structured questionnaire administered to mothers and clinical oral examinations of the mothers and children. The social variables considered were marital status, maternal education, number of children, income, employment status, and frequency of visits to a dental professional. The measured outcomes were the maternal NDT and child caries history. Data were analyzed by the chi-square test (χ2 and by discriminant analysis. Results: The final sample consisted of 272 mother-child pairs and it was found that the greatest need for treatment was among mothers with low educational level and low family income who rarely or never visited a dentist. Tooth decay was less frequent in only child, and most frequent in children of mothers with low educational attainment, and in children in lower income households who rarely or never visited the dentist. The social determinants of caries in children and of the maternal NDT were similar. It follows that the maternal NDT and caries history among children were strongly associated with maternal education (p<0.0001, household income (p<0.0001, and frequency of visits to a dental professional (0.0018. Caries history among children was also associated with number of children in the household (p<0.0001. Conclusions: The results suggest that the caries

  1. Influence of older primiparity on childbirth, parenting stress, and mother-child interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonobe, Mami; Usui, Masami; Hiroi, Kayoko; Asai, Hiromi; Hiramatsu, Mayumi; Nekoda, Yasutoshi; Hirose, Taiko

    2016-04-01

    Delivery at 35 years and above has increased in Japan. While there is much research concerning obstetrical risk and delivery at advanced age, little research addresses child-rearing after birth. This study seeks to identify how older primiparas' characteristics of child-rearing, parenting stress, and mother-child interaction differ from those of younger mothers. Participants were primipara women aged 35 years and above and primiparas aged 20-29 years; all delivered in the hospital. Questionnaires were distributed during hospitalization after birth and during home visits at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years post-partum. Mother-child interactions during home visits were assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS). The older group included 13 primiparas, and the control group included seven primiparas at the study's end. Some older primiparas used fertility treatment and cesarean section, but primiparas in their 20s used neither. There were no significant differences in terms of depression, psychological health, size of networks, and number of daytime or night-time feedings. Statistically significant differences were as follows. Older primiparas experienced more social isolation and overall stress, and their children exhibited greater hypersensitivity/lack of adaptability at 3 months. Older mothers were more likely to report little effort by their children to please them at 1 and 2 years after birth. Under observation, older primiparas received higher NCATS caregiver scores, but children of primiparas in their 20s received higher child scores. Mothers and child-care specialists should recognize that older primiparas interact more favorably with their children, but have more parenting stress. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  2. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona eDe Falco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  3. Mother-child language style matching predicts children's and mothers' emotion reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Hannah F; Borelli, Jessica L; Smiley, Patricia A; Cohen, Chloe; Cheung, Ryan Cheuk Ming; Fox, Schuyler; Marvin, Matthew; Blackard, Betsy

    2017-05-15

    Co-regulation of behavior occurring within parent-child attachment relationships is thought to be the primary means through which children develop the capacity to regulate emotion, an ability that is protective across development. Existing research on parent-child co-regulation focuses predominantly on parent-infant dyads, and operationalizes co-regulation as the matching of facial expressions; however, matching can occur on other behaviors, including vocal tone, body movement, and language. Studies with young children find that greater matching is associated with children's lower emotion reactivity, but with unknown impacts on parents. In this study we examine a recently-developed metric of behavioral matching, language style matching (LSM), a composite measure of the similarity of function word use in spoken or written language between two or more people. We test whether LSM between mothers and their school-aged children is associated with children's and mothers' physiological and subjective emotion reactivity. Children completed a standardized stressor task while their mothers observed; children's and mother's cortisol and cardiovascular reactivity were assessed, as were their subjective reports of emotion reactivity. Following the stressor, children and mothers completed independent interviews about the experience, later assessed for LSM. Higher mother-child LSM was associated with lower emotion reactivity (lower cortisol reactivity, lower reports of negative emotion) for children, and with higher maternal cardiovascular but not cortisol or subjective reactivity. Further, higher LSM was more strongly associated with lower child cortisol reactivity when mothers were more reactive themselves. We conclude that mother-child LSM, thought to reflect a history of co-regulated interaction, confers protective benefits for children, but heightened reactivity for mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Persistent maternal depressive symptoms trajectories influence children's IQ: The EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waerden, Judith; Bernard, Jonathan Y; De Agostini, Maria; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Peyre, Hugo; Heude, Barbara; Melchior, Maria

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the association between timing and course of maternal depression from pregnancy onwards and children's cognitive development at ages 5 to 6. Potential interaction effects with child sex and family socioeconomic status were explored. One thousand thirty-nine mother-child pairs from the French EDEN mother-child birth cohort were followed from 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy onwards. Based on Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores assessed at six timepoints, longitudinal maternal depressive symptom trajectories were calculated with a group-based semiparametric method. Children's cognitive function was assessed at ages 5 to 6 by trained interviewers with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Third Edition (WPPSI-III), resulting in three composite scores: Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), and Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ). Five trajectories of maternal symptoms of depression could be distinguished: no symptoms, persistent intermediate-level depressive symptoms, persistent high depressive symptoms, high symptoms in pregnancy only, and high symptoms in the child's preschool period only. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that, compared to children of mothers who were never depressed, children of mothers with persistent high levels of depressive symptoms had reduced VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ scores. This association was moderated by the child's sex, boys appearing especially vulnerable in case of persistent maternal depression. Chronicity of maternal depression predicts children's cognitive development at school entry age, particularly in boys. As maternal mental health is an early modifiable influence on child development, addressing the treatment needs of depressed mothers may help reduce the associated burden on the next generation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Mother-Child Conflict and Its Moderating Effects on Depression Outcomes in a Preventive Intervention for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jami F.; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on mother-child conflict as an outcome and moderator of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a preventive intervention for depression. Forty-one adolescents (average age = 13.37, SD = 1.19) with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Adolescents…

  6. Maternal Parenting Styles and Mother-Child Relationship among Adolescents with and without Persistent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated mothering and mother-child interactions in adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 190 adolescents with persistent DSM-IV ADHD, 147 without persistent ADHD, and 223 without ADHD. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews for diagnosis of ADHD…

  7. Emotion Talk in Mother-Child Conversations of the Shared Past: The Effects of Culture, Gender, and Event Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fivush, Robyn; Wang, Qi

    2005-01-01

    We examined how mother-child emotional reminiscing is affected by culture, gender, and the valence of the event. Thirty-one Euro-American and 30 Chinese middle-class mothers and their 3-year-old children discussed 1 highly positive and 1 highly negative experience. Mothers and children in both cultures used a greater variety of negative emotion…

  8. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Mother-Child Interactions in Families of Multiple and Singleton Preterm Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Kristin F.; Burnson, Cynthia; Hane, Amanda; Samuelson, Anne; Maleck, Sarah; Poehlmann, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated family support as a buffer of stress in 153 mothers and preterm toddlers. Data were collected regarding maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and family support; infant health; and videotaped mother-child interactions. Although more parenting stress related to less optimal child play, only information support…

  9. Family Structure, Mother-Child Communication, Father-Child Communication, and Adolescent Life Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A.; Currie, Candace

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between mother-child and father-child communication and children's life satisfaction, and the moderating effect of communication with stepparents. Design/methodology/approach: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland…

  10. Mother--Child and Father--Child Emotional Expressiveness in Mexican-American Families and Toddlers' Peer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Rivera, Mitzie

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation explored the association of mother--child and father--child emotional expressiveness during toddlerhood to children's prosocial and aggressive behaviour with peers. Data were collected from 62 Mexican-American families with toddlers (29 females, 33 males) during a home visit. Children's peer interactions were also…

  11. Pathways to Conscience: Early Mother-Child Mutually Responsive Orientation and Children's Moral Emotion, Conduct, and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Forman, David R.; Aksan, Nazan; Dunbar, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Associations between early mother-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) and children's conscience have been previously established, but the mechanisms accounting for those links are not understood. We examined three such mediational mechanisms: (a) the child's enhanced enjoyment of interactions with the mother, (b) increased…

  12. Low-Income Mothers' Nighttime and Weekend Work: Daily Associations with Child Behavior, Mother-Child Interactions, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated low-income mothers' daily nighttime and weekend work and family outcomes. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children reported daily on work hours, mood, mother-child interaction, and child behavior for two weeks (N = 724 person-days). Although nighttime and weekend work are both nonstandard schedules, results showed…

  13. Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

  14. Looking beyond Maternal Sensitivity: Mother-Child Correlates of Attachment Security among Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Aesha; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Halliburton, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined correlates of attachment security among children with intellectual disabilities in urban India. Survey and observational data were gathered from 47 children, mothers, and teachers on children's attachment security, adaptive functioning, and mother-child emotional availability. The data were analyzed to examine whether child…

  15. [Actual care and funding situation with regard to mother-child units for psychic disorders associated with pregnancy in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Wolfgang; Bielau, Hendrik; Cohrs, Stefan; Hauth, Iris; Hornstein, Christiane; Marx, Alexandra; Reck, Corinna; von Einsiedel, Regina

    2012-07-01

    CONCERN: The current care and financial situation of mother-child units for psychic disorders associated with pregnancies in Germany should be documented in preparation for the development of the new reimbursement system for psychiatry and psychosomatics. In accordance with the last survey of 2005, a brief questionnaire was developed and a nationwide poll was conducted. The survey revealed severe (10 fold) service deficits for severely and gravely mentally ill mothers, who require an inpatient treatment with specific professional competence. Compared with the last poll, these service deficits have increased. This is due to continued insufficient funding and unresolved financing in the new reimbursement system. With the establishment of an additional code for mother-child treatment the precondition for ensuring the funding of this important care form in the new reimbursement system was created. It is to be hoped that the decision-makers of health policy will finally face up to their social responsibility and ensure adequate funding of the additional diagnostic and therapeutic expenditure of mother-child treatment. The health care providers have an obligation to implement a transparent record of services of the additional expenditure and to augment the national evaluation approaches to inpatient mother-child treatments. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Child Reactivity Moderates the Over-Time Association between Mother-Child Conflict Quality and Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.

    2015-01-01

    Constructive parent-child conflict interactions that teach children to problem-solve and negotiate can enhance children's social adjustment. This paper identifies constructive and destructive qualities of mother-child conflict and explores whether child temperament moderated associations with changes in externalizing problems over time. One…

  17. Maternal Depression and Mother-Child Interaction Patterns: Association with Toddler Problems and Continuity of Effects to Late Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckman-Westin, Emily; Cohen, Patricia R.; Stueve, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Increased behavior problems have been reported in offspring of mothers with depression. In-home observations link maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) and mother-child interaction patterns with toddler behavior problems and examine their persistence into late childhood. Method: Maternal characteristics (N = 153) and behaviors of…

  18. Construction of a high-density DArTseq SNP-based genetic map and identification of genomic regions with segregation distortion in a genetic population derived from a cross between feral and cultivated-type watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Runsheng; Ray, Rumiana; Li, Pingfang; Xu, Jinhua; Zhang, Man; Liu, Guang; Yao, Xiefeng; Kilian, Andrzej; Yang, Xingping

    2015-08-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an economically important vegetable crop grown extensively worldwide. To facilitate the identification of agronomically important traits and provide new information for genetic and genomic research on this species, a high-density genetic linkage map of watermelon was constructed using an F2 population derived from a cross between elite watermelon cultivar K3 and wild watermelon germplasm PI 189225. Based on a sliding window approach, a total of 1,161 bin markers representing 3,465 SNP markers were mapped onto 11 linkage groups corresponding to the chromosome pair number of watermelon. The total length of the genetic map is 1,099.2 cM, with an average distance between bins of 1.0 cM. The number of markers in each chromosome varies from 62 in chromosome 07 to 160 in chromosome 05. The length of individual chromosomes ranged between 61.8 cM for chromosome 07 and 140.2 cM for chromosome 05. A total of 616 SNP bin markers showed significant (P watermelon cultivar K3 allele and 103 were skewed toward PI 189225. The number of SNPs and InDels per Mb varied considerably across the segregation distorted regions (SDRs) on each chromosome, and a mixture of dense and sparse SNPs and InDel SDRs coexisted on some chromosomes suggesting that SDRs were randomly distributed throughout the genome. Recombination rates varied greatly among each chromosome, from 2.0 to 4.2 centimorgans per megabase (cM/Mb). An inconsistency was found between the genetic and physical positions on the map for a segment on chromosome 11. The high-density genetic map described in the present study will facilitate fine mapping of quantitative trait loci, the identification of candidate genes, map-based cloning, as well as marker-assisted selection (MAS) in watermelon breeding programs.

  19. Early relations between language development and the quality of mother-child interaction in very-low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, S; Korja, R; Matomäki, J; Lapinleimu, H; Haataja, L; Lehtonen, L

    2014-05-01

    It is not clearly understood how the quality of early mother-child interaction influences language development in very-low-birth-weight children (VLBW). We aim to analyze associations between early language and the quality of mother-child interaction, and, the predictive value of the features of early mother-child interaction on language development at 24 months of corrected age in VLBW children. A longitudinal prospective follow-up study design was used. The participants were 28 VLBW children and 34 full-term controls. Language development was measured using different methods at 6, 12 and at 24 months of age. The quality of mother-child interaction was assessed using PC-ERA method at 6 and at 12 months of age. Associations between the features of early interaction and language development were different in the groups of VLBW and full-term children. There were no significant correlations between the features of mother-child interaction and language skills when measured at the same age in the VLBW group. Significant longitudinal correlations were detected in the VLBW group especially if the quality of early interactions was measured at six months and language skills at 2 years of age. However, when the predictive value of the features of early interactions for later poor language performance was analyzed separately, the features of early interaction predicted language skills in the VLBW group only weakly. The biological factors may influence on the language development more in the VLBW children than in the full-term children. The results also underline the role of maternal and dyadic factors in early interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary lead intakes for mother/child pairs and relevance to pharmacokinetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, B L; Mahaffey, K R; Vidal, M; Jameson, C W; Law, A J; Mizon, K J; Smith, A J; Korsch, M J

    1997-12-01

    Blood and environmental samples, including a quarterly 6-day duplicate diet, for nine mother/child pairs from Eastern Europe have been monitored for 12 to >24 months with high precision stable lead isotope analysis to evaluate the changes that occur when the subjects moved from one environment (Eastern Europe) to another with different stable lead isotopes (Australia). The children were between 6 and 11 years of age and the mothers were between 29 and 37 years of age. These data were compared with an Australian control mother/child pair, aged 31 and 6 years, respectively. A rationale for undertaking this study of mother/child pairs was to evaluate if there were differences in the patterns and clearance rates of lead from blood in children compared with their mothers. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 3.9 microg/dl in the children and between 1.8 and 4.5 microg/dl in the mothers, but the mean of differences between each mother and her child did not differ significantly from zero. Duplicate diets contained from 2.4 to 31.8 microg Pb/kg diet; the mean+/- standard deviation was 5.5 +/- 2.1 microg Pb/kg and total daily dietary intakes ranged from 1.6 to 21.3 microg/day. Mean daily dietary intakes relative to body weight showed that the intake for children was approximately double that for the mothers (0.218 vs. 0. 113 microg Pb/kg body weight/day). The correlations between blood lead concentration and mean daily dietary intake either relative to body weight or total dietary intake did not reach statistical significance (p>0.05). Estimation of the lead coming from skeletal (endogenous) sources relative to the contribution from environmental (exogenous) sources ranges from 8 to 70% for the mothers and 12 to 66% for the children. The difference between mothers and children is not statistically significant (p = 0.28). The children do not appear to achieve the Australian lead isotopic profile at a faster rate than their mothers. These data provide evidence that

  1. Transactional processes in children born preterm: Influences of mother-child interactions and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Emily D; Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study examined the transactional relations among perceived maternal parenting stress, maternal insensitivity, and child behavior across toddlerhood through age 6 within families of a child born preterm. A sample of 173 mother-child dyads were followed from just before the infant was discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit to 6 years of age, with observational measurements of maternal insensitivity and child noncompliance (24 and 36 months), maternal self-reports of perceived parenting stress (24 months, 36 months, 6 years), and maternal reports of child externalizing behavior at 6 years. Results indicated that maternal insensitivity at 36 months significantly mediated the relation between parenting stress at 24 months and externalizing behaviors at 6 years. Parenting stress was also directly associated with child noncompliance at 36 months and with child externalizing behavior at 6 years. Neonatal risk was associated with increased maternal insensitivity at 24 months, but also decreased parenting stress at 24 months. No significant "child effects" from child behavior to either maternal insensitivity or parenting stress were found. Parenting stress appears to play a critical role for children born preterm, and it is associated with children's behavior both directly and through its influence on parenting. The role of neonatal risk needs continued investigation, as families traditionally considered to be at lower risk may still face significant challenges. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Characteristics of mother-child conflict and child sex predicting resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; Boyer, Brittany P; Sang, Samantha A; Wilson, Elizabeth K

    2014-04-01

    Data from 190 mothers and their 5- to 7-year-old children were used to evaluate how characteristics of mother-child conflict discussions contribute to the likelihood of reaching a compromise, a win-loss resolution, or a standoff. Dyads discussed 2 topics they reported having disagreements about that were emotionally arousing. Coders rated global measurements of mothers' emotional responsiveness, intrusiveness, and negativity; children's negativity; and the frequency of mothers' and children's constructive and oppositional comments. Child sex was examined as a moderator of the relation between discussion characteristics and resolution reached. Results indicated that more constructive comments by mothers and children increased the likelihood of reaching a resolution versus a standoff, but only children's constructive comments differentiated between a compromise and a win-loss resolution favoring mothers. Dyads with more emotionally responsive mothers who made fewer oppositional comments were also more likely to reach a compromise versus a win-loss resolution. A significant interaction with child sex revealed that, for boys, the use of more child oppositional comments was associated with a higher likelihood of reaching a standoff versus a compromise. Girls' oppositional comments did not predict resolution type. These results are discussed in terms of the children's developmental level and parents' socialization goals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Mother-child agreement on behavioral ratings in Tourette syndrome: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termine, Cristiano; Luoni, Chiara; Selvini, Claudia; Bandera, Valentina; Balottin, Umberto; Eddy, Clare M; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    In Tourette syndrome, motor and phonic tics are associated with a spectrum of psychiatric disorders. As proxy report instruments are commonly used to assess children with Tourette syndrome, we investigated the relationship between child and mother ratings of behavioral problems. We enrolled 28 children with Tourette syndrome (25 males; mean age, 13.9 years) and 61 gender- and age-matched healthy controls (55 males; mean age, 14.7 years). Clinicians completed measures of tic severity, and all children completed the Youth Self-Report version of the Child Behavior Checklist, while their mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist. In the clinical group, Youth Self-Report scores were significantly lower than mothers' Child Behavior Checklist scores across the majority of subscales (especially affect and somatization). In contrast, for the control group, mother and child ratings only differed for the externalizing behavior subscales. Clinicians should be aware of these differences between self and mother ratings for specific behavioral problems in Tourette syndrome.

  4. CANADA’S MOTHER-CHILD PROGRAM: EXAMINING ITS EMERGENCE, USAGE, AND CURRENT STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brennan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of many issues a mother must face while incarcerated is separation from her child(ren for an extended period of time. Empirical findings have consistently highlighted various negative effects for both mothers and their children as a result of this separation. To curb some of the negative effects, Correctional Service Canada’s Mother-Child Program offers full- and part-time visitation between children and their incarcerated mothers at various women’s federal correctional facilities in Canada. The current study involves an in-depth critical analysis of Canada’s MCP by asking three related questions. First, to what extent has the MCP been used since its full implementation in 2001? Second, to what extent is the MCP used today? Third, do any barriers exist currently that are inhibiting the success of the MCP and, if so, how can these be addressed? The results of the study reveal that, since the full implementation of the program in 2001, the participation rate declined from an already low starting point and has remained relatively low since. Further, three main factors were suggested as potential barriers impeding the success of the MCP: correctional overcrowding, a more punitive institutional culture, and a series of changes to the program’s eligibility criteria. Recommendations on ways to increase the usage of the program are offered and suggestions for future research are made.

  5. Mothers' physical abusiveness in a context of violence: effects on the mother-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Susan G; Thompson, Dianne; Culver, Michelle A; Urquiza, Anthony J; Altenhofen, Shannon

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mothers' physical abusiveness on the quality of the mother-child relationship, and note how it further varied by their exposure to interparental violence (IPV). The sample consisted of 232 clinic-referred children, aged 2 to 7 years, and their biological mothers. Slightly more than a quarter of the children (N = 63, 27.2%) had been physically abused by their mothers; approximately half of these children also had a history of exposure to IPV (N = 34, 54%). Investigating effects of physical abuse in the context of IPV history on mothers' and children's emotional availability, we found that physically abused children with no IPV exposure appeared less optimally emotionally available than physically abused children with an IPV exposure. However, subsequent analyses showed that although dyads with dual-violence exposure showed emotional availability levels similar those of nonabusive dyads, they were more overresponsive and overinvolving, a kind of caregiving controllingness charasteric of children with disorganized attachment styles. These findings lend some support to the notion that the effects of abuse on the parent-child relationship are influenced by the context of family violence, although the effects appear to be complex.

  6. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans count in Mother-child Pair of Working and Nonworking Mothers: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Goswami, Mousumi; Singh, Darrel; Massod, Shahid S; Nganba, Khundrakpam

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of Streptococcus mutans (MS) in mother-child pairs and to evaluate the correlation in the levels of salivary MS of working and nonworking mothers with that of their children and their associations with other related factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 100 mother-child pairs residing in New Multan Nagar Colony, New Delhi, India. A total of 50 children with their mothers were included in the working group and another 50 were included in the nonworking group. A questionnaire regarding the feeding habits, oral hygiene habits, daily intake of sugars of the children along with their weaning time was carried out. All mothers and children were clinically examined for recording decayed, extracted, and filled teeth (deft)/decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), and whole unstimulated saliva was collected and cultured for MS in the laboratory. The data were collected and subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square, Spearman's correlation, and logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of salivary MS in the children was 69%. A statistically significant correlation was found between the oral levels of MS in nonworking and working mother-child pairs. Regression analysis showed that those children who feed by bottle for more than 12 months, have daily sweet intake, have sugars in feeding bottle and have higher defts were more likely to have mutans score of 1 or 2. The mother, working or nonworking, being the primary care provider is the major source of transmission of MS to their child irrespective of the amount of time spent with them. Sharma P, Goswami M, Singh D, Massod SS, Nganba K. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans count in Mother-child Pair of Working and Nonworking Mothers: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):342-348.

  7. Synchrony of physiological activity during mother-child interaction: moderation by maternal history of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Mary L; Feurer, Cope; Sosoo, Effua E; Hastings, Paul D; Gibb, Brandon E

    2016-07-01

    Family environment plays an important role in the intergenerational transmission of major depressive disorder (MDD), but less is known about how day-to-day mother-child interactions may be disrupted in families with a history of MDD. Disruptions in mother-child synchrony, the dynamic and convergent exchange of physiological and behavioral cues during interactions, may be one important risk factor. Although maternal MDD is associated with a lack of mother-child synchrony at the behavioral level, no studies have examined the impact of maternal MDD on physiological synchrony. Therefore, this study examined whether maternal history of MDD moderates mother-child physiological synchrony [measured via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)] during positive and negative discussions. Children aged 7-11 years and mothers with either a history of MDD during the child's lifetime (n = 44) or no lifetime diagnosis of any mood disorder (n = 50) completed positive and negative discussion tasks while RSA was continuously recorded for both child and mother. Results indicated significant between-dyad and within-dyad group differences in physiological synchrony during positive and negative discussions. Between-dyad analyses revealed evidence of synchrony only among never depressed dyads, among whom higher average mother RSA during both discussions was associated with higher average child RSA. Within-dyad analyses revealed that never depressed dyads displayed positive synchrony (RSA concordance), whereas dyads with a history of maternal MDD displayed negative synchrony (RSA discordance) during the negative discussion and that the degree of negative synchrony exhibited during the negative discussion was associated with mothers' and children's levels of sadness. These results provide preliminary evidence that physiological synchrony is disrupted in families with a history of maternal MDD and may be a potential risk factor for the intergenerational transmission of depression. © 2016

  8. An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolchik, S A; West, S G; Sandler, I N; Tein, J Y; Coatsworth, D; Lengua, L; Weiss, L; Anderson, E R; Greene, S M; Griffin, W A

    2000-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 theory-based preventive interventions for divorced families: a program for mothers and a dual component mother-child program. The mother program targeted mother-child relationship quality, discipline, interparental conflict, and the father-child relationship. The child program targeted active coping, avoidant coping, appraisals of divorce stressors, and mother-child relationship quality. Families with a 9- to 12-year-old child (N = 240) were randomly assigned to the mother, dual-component, or self-study program. Postintervention comparisons showed significant positive program effects of the mother program versus self-study condition on relationship quality, discipline, attitude toward father-child contact, and adjustment problems. For several outcomes, more positive effects occurred in families with poorer initial functioning. Program effects on externalizing problems were maintained at 6-month follow-up. A few additive effects of the dual-component program occurred for the putative mediators; none occurred for adjustment problems.

  9. Predictive factors of mother-child communication patterns in the mothers referred to Khorramabad Shahid Madani hospital in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khatereh Anbari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : The quality of mother-child relationship play an important role in personality shaping, social functioning and mental health of children in the future . This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic factors of mother - child relationship patterns.   Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study 110 mothers admitted to children's hospital of Khorramabad selected by consecutive sampling method. Data gathering tool was Mother - Child Relationship Evaluation (MCRE questionnaire. At first the view points of the mothers about four communication patterns including: over protection, child rejection, overneglignce and child acceptance were examined, then according to each pattern cut off, the type of communication pattern was determined. Fisher's exact test and linear regression were used for data analysis.   Results: The mean age of participants was 28.6±6.46. Communication pattern in 66.4% of the mothers was over protection and 19.1% of them had overneglence pattern. Also communication pattern in 12.8% of the participants was child acceptance and 1.8% followed from child rejectoin communication pattern. A significant statistical relation was seen between age, education level, marital status, mothers residence and pregnancy status with the pattern of their relationship (P <0.05. In linear regression analysis, most important factors in predicting the communication pattern were single parent and unplanned pregnancy.   Conclusion: Raising awareness of mothers through workshops can increase proper child skills and led to the development of social skills and reducing child behavior problems in the future.

  10. The role of the mother-child relationship in the route from child ADHD to adolescent symptoms of depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2017-12-01

    We attempt to explain the co-variation between ADHD and symptoms of depressed mood, focusing on the family context and testing whether the mother-child relationship mediates or moderates the link between child ADHD and youth depressed mood symptoms. In a longitudinal study, we used mother and youth reports for 596 Swedish youth, 50% boys, from a community sample at 10, 15, and 18 years of age. The results did not support the mediation hypothesis. Only one moderation effect was found. Mother-child conflicts in mid-adolescence, as rated by mothers, increased symptoms of depressed mood symptoms in late adolescent only for youth with high levels of hyperactivity symptoms. However, depressed mood symptoms at age 18 were predicted by low mother-child involvement in mid-adolescence, over and above the effects of inattention symptoms. This latter finding was consistent across mother and youth ratings of the relationship. Implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mother-child interactions in depressed children and children at high risk and low risk for future depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J; Birmaher, Boris; Williamson, Douglas E; Silk, Jennifer S; Dahl, Ronald E; Axelson, David A; Ehmann, Mary; Ryan, Neal D

    2008-05-01

    To compare mother-child interactions and parenting styles in families of children with major depressive disorder, youths at high risk for depression, and healthy controls. Currently depressed (n = 43), high-risk (n = 28), and healthy control (n = 41) youths and their mothers engaged in a standardized videotaped problem-solving interaction. Measures of affect and behavior for both mothers and children were obtained, in addition to global measures of parenting. Depressed children demonstrated more negativity and less positivity in dyadic interactions than did children at high risk and control children. Mothers of depressed children were more disengaged than control mothers. Exploratory repeated-measures analyses in a subgroup of depressed children (n = 16) suggested mother-child interactions do not significantly change when children recover from depression. Children at high risk demonstrated less positivity in dyadic interactions than did controls. Mothers with a history of major depressive disorder and mothers with higher current depressive symptoms demonstrated patterns of disengagement and low control in interactions with children. Mother-child interactions in depressed youths are marked by maternal disengagement and low child positivity that may not improve when children recover. The bidirectional effects of maternal disengagement and low levels of child positivity may precede onset of major depressive disorder in children and serve as risk factors for recurrent depression in youths.

  12. The effects of mother-child mediated learning strategies on psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability of boys with learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuriel, David; Shomron, Vered

    2018-06-01

    The theoretical framework of the current study is based on mediated learning experience (MLE) theory, which is similar to the scaffolding concept. The main question of the current study was to what extent mother-child MLE strategies affect psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability of boys with learning disability (LD). Secondary questions were to what extent the home environment, severity of boy's LD, and mother's attitude towards her child's LD affect her MLE strategies and consequently the child's psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability. The main objectives of this study were the following: (a) to investigate the effects of mother-child MLE strategies on psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability among 7- to 10-year-old boys with LD, (b) to study the causal effects of distal factors (i.e., socio-economic status [SES], home environment, severity of child's LD, mother's attitude towards LD) and proximal factors (i.e., MLE strategies) on psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability. A sample of mother-child dyads (n = 100) were videotaped during a short teaching interaction. All children were boys diagnosed as children with LD. The interaction was analysed for MLE strategies by the Observation of Mediation Interaction scale. Children were administered psychological resilience tests and their cognitive modifiability was measured by dynamic assessment using the Analogies subtest from the Cognitive Modifiability Battery. Home environment was rated by the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME), and mothers answered a questionnaire of attitudes towards child's LD. The findings showed that mother-child MLE strategies, HOME, and socio-economic level contributed significantly to prediction of psychological resilience (78%) and cognitive modifiability (51%). Psychological resilience was positively correlated with cognitive modifiability (Rc = 0.67). Structural equation modelling analysis supported, in general

  13. Placental concentrations of heavy metals in a mother-child cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, E., E-mail: eamayag@ugr.es [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Gil, F. [Department of Legal Medicine, Toxicology and Physic Anthropology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Freire, C. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); National School of Public Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), 21041-210 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Olmedo, P. [Department of Legal Medicine, Toxicology and Physic Anthropology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Fernandez-Rodriguez, M. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Fernandez, M.F.; Olea, N. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    Heavy metals are environmental contaminants with properties known to be toxic for wildlife and humans. Despite strong concerns about their harmful effects, little information is available on intrauterine exposure in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate prenatal exposure to As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, and Pb and its association with maternal factors in a population-based mother-child cohort in Southern Spain. Between 2000 and 2002, 700 pregnant women were recruited and 137 placentas from the cohort were randomly selected and analyzed for the selected metals by atomic absorption. Maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were obtained by questionnaire after delivery. Bivariate analysis and multivariate linear regression were performed. Cd and Mn concentrations were detected in all placentas, while Cr, Pb, and Hg were found in 98.5%, 35.0%, and 30.7% of samples, respectively. The highest concentrations were observed for Pb (mean: 94.80 ng/g wet weight of placenta), followed by Mn (63.80 ng/g), Cr (63.70 ng/g), Cd (3.45 ng/g), and Hg (0.024 ng/g). Arsenic was not detected in any sample. Gestational age and smoking during pregnancy were associated with placental Cd concentrations, while no factor appeared to influence concentrations of Cr, Hg, Mn, or Pb. In comparison to results of European studies, these concentrations are in a low-intermediate position. Studies are required to investigate the factors contributing to early exposure to heavy metals and to determine how placental transfer of these toxic compounds may affect children's health.

  14. Mother-child reminiscing and autobiographical memory specificity among preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G; Piper, Brianna; Thomas, Taylor E; Fanuele, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall is more commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared with those without. Despite significant advances in theory and identification of mechanisms that underlie the etiology of OGM, there has been little integration between normative research on the development of autobiographical memory and research on OGM. Informed by a developmental psychopathology perspective and drawing on normative developmental research on the social construction of autobiographical memory, the current investigation examined whether the elaborative quantity and elaborative quality of maternal reminiscing are predictive of preschool-age children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, this investigation tested whether children's positive self-representations may explain these hypothesized associations. Participants consisted of 95 mother-child dyads. Children's ages ranged between 3.5 and 6 years, and the sample was predominantly low income and of minority race/ethnicity. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about 4 past events, and children participated in assessments of autobiographical memory specificity and self-representations. Results indicated that the elaborative quality, defined by maternal-sensitive guidance and emotional narrative coherence, but not the elaborative quantity, of maternal reminiscing style was significantly associated with children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between maternal reminiscing quality and child memory specificity through children's positive self-representations. Directions for future research are discussed, and potential clinical implications are addressed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children’s food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Methods Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ were also obtained from the mother. Results The children’s average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%, Haitian (34% and Latino (30%. Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother’s perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56 with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01. Conclusions Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing

  16. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Hennessy, Erin; Pirie, Alex; Must, Aviva; Gute, David M; Hyatt, Raymond R; Kamins, Christina Luongo; Hughes, Sheryl O; Boulos, Rebecca; Sliwa, Sarah; Galvão, Heloisa; Economos, Christina D

    2012-05-29

    Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children's food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. The children's average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%), Haitian (34%) and Latino (30%). Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother's perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56) with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01). Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing literature that suggests this type of feeding style may be a risk

  17. Systematic research review of observational approaches used to evaluate mother-child mealtime interactions during preschool years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Hetherington, Marion

    2015-01-01

    The family meal and social interactions during the meal are important events in a child's life. Specifically, mealtime interactions have been linked to child weight status, the development of children's eating patterns, and socialization. Mealtime interactions may be observed and evaluated to provide insights into this important event beyond self-reported measurements. We aimed to identify, review, and examine studies in which mother-child mealtime behaviors were measured through observation. MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES were systematically searched by using sensitive search strategies. We included observational studies of mother-child eating and mealtimes and associations between mother-child interactions and preschool child eating or weight status published to March 2014. Thirteen articles were included in our review. All studies but one were cross-sectional, and none of the studies evaluated how mutual dimensions (e.g., parent responsiveness to the child and child responsiveness to the parent) of dyadic interactions between mothers and children influence maternal feeding practices, children's eating, and weight. The parenting style was associated with maternal feeding practices but not directly with children's eating. Parental discouragements to eat and negative statements about food were associated with higher child weight status. Parental encouragement to eat was associated with higher child weight status as well as maternal body mass index. No associations were shown between maternal reports of feeding practices and observed maternal feeding practices. Parents' overarching attitudes and approaches to parenting appear to be associated with their feeding practices or styles. Future studies should implement longitudinal observational methods with the capacity to measure levels of dimensions within bidirectional parent-child interactions and the extent to which these factors influence maternal practices, children's eating, and weight status.

  18. Mother-child interactions in young children with excessive physical aggression and in typically developing young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain-Gauthier, Nadine; Wendland, Jaqueline

    2017-07-01

    Among the multiple risk factors, the emergence of conduct problems in young children may be linked to harsh parenting and child's temperamental difficulties, leading to a reciprocal early discordant relationship. Little is known about the characteristics of early parent-child interactions in young children with physical aggression. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the characteristics of mother-child interactions in dyads referred for excessive physical aggression in young children under 5 years of age compared to mother-child interactions in typically developing young children. Mother-child interactions were assessed during a free-play session in both a clinical sample ( N = 70, child mean age  = 3.5 years) and a nonclinical sample ( N = 80, child mean age  = 3.5 years) by using the Rating Scale of Interaction Style (Clark and Seifer, adapted by Molitor and Mayes). Significant differences were found between several interactive features in clinical and nonclinical dyads. In clinical dyads, mothers' behaviors were often characterized by intrusiveness and criticism toward children, and poor facilitative positioning. Children with excessive aggressive behavior often displayed poor communication, initiation of bids, and poor responsiveness toward the mother. They displayed fewer sustained bouts of play than typically developing children did. In clinical dyads, strong positive correlations were found between child responsiveness and maternal interest in engagement ( r = .41, p children with excessive aggressive behavior develop disrupted mother-infant interactions from a very young age. Several negative interactive features and correlations between child behavior and maternal behavior were found in clinical samples. The effects of these features add up and probably strengthen each other, thus leading to interactive difficulties from a very young age. More attention should be paid to early parent-child interactions in case of

  19. Waste segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    A scoping study has been undertaken to determine the state-of-the-art of waste segregation technology as applied to the management of low-level waste (LLW). Present-day waste segregation practices were surveyed through a review of the recent literature and by means of personal interviews with personnel at selected facilities. Among the nuclear establishments surveyed were Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and plants, nuclear fuel cycle plants, public and private laboratories, institutions, industrial plants, and DOE and commercially operated shallow land burial sites. These survey data were used to analyze the relationship between waste segregation practices and waste treatment/disposal processes, to assess the developmental needs for improved segregation technology, and to evaluate the costs and benefits associated with the implementation of waste segregation controls. This task was planned for completion in FY 1981. It should be noted that LLW management practices are now undergoing rapid change such that the technology and requirements for waste segregation in the near future may differ significantly from those of the present day. 8 figures

  20. Maternal attitude and child interest in various play activities before and after mother-child play sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soedjatmiko Soedjatmiko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Play stimulates children’s growth and development. When mothers and their children play, a positive attitude from the mother and adequate interest from the child is required. Little is known about the play activities that effectively stimulate such positive maternal attitude and child interest. Objective To assess for associations between various play activities with maternal attitude and child interest before and after mother-child play sessions. Methods Pre-post intervention questionnaires were distributed to mothers before and after playing with their children. Children were aged 1-5 years, from two play sites (in Surabaya and Makassar, and included using purposive sampling. Eight types of toys/play activities were provided. The allocated time for answering the 17-question survey was 15 minutes. Average scores before and after the mother-child play sessions were analyzed using paired T-test. Results We collected 264 valid questionnaires, 235 in Surabaya and 29 in Makassar. Improvement of maternal attitude after the mother-child play session was found in 132 mothers [mean diff. 0.07 (SD 0.42; 95%CI -0.117 to -0.015; P=0.011]. Play activities with significant improvements in maternal attitude were jigsaw puzzle [mean diff. 0.09 (SD 0.66; 95% CI 0.007 to 0.167;P= 0.033, Lego blocks (mean diff.-0.10 (SD 0.69; 95%CI -0.186 to -0.018; P=0.017, mini-gardening (mean diff. -0.15 (SD 0.75; 95%CI -0.238 to -0.057; P=0.002, sandbox [mean diff.-0.24 (SD 0.83; 95%CI -0.339 to – 0.138; P < 0.001], fishing [mean diff. -0.17 (SD 0.68; 95%CI -0.253 to -0.088; P < 0.001], and animal figurines [mean diff. -0.21 (SD 0.75; 95%CI -0.3 to -0.117;P <0.001]. Improvement of child interest was found in 161 children [mean diff. 0.20 (SD 0.52; 95%CI -0.264 to -0.116; P<0.001]. Play activities with significant improvements in child interest were jigsaw puzzle, Lego blocks, origami, mini-gardening, fishing, and animal figurines. Conclusion Some mother-child

  1. Risk factors in the mother-child relationship that predispose to the development of early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moimaz, S A S; Garbin, A J Í; Lima, A M C; Lolli, L F; Saliba, O; Garbin, C A S

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on the risk factors in mother-child relationship that predispose babies to the development of dental caries. A prospective cohort study with 80 mother-child pairs was conducted. The mothers responded at 12, 18 and 30 months after their children's birth, to questions about variables related to diet, sucking habits, and oral care. Children were clinically examined to verify caries lesions (white spot lesions or cavitation). Data were analysed using Chi squared or Fisher's exact tests. The significance level was set at 5%. Of the total, 3.75% showed cavitated lesions after 18 months; 6.25 and 45% had spot white lesions, respectively, at 18 and 30 months. The cariogenic diet was high at 12 (63.75%) and 30 (88.75%) months. Good oral hygiene was present in a minority of children at 12 months (46.25%), but increased at 30 months (65%), helping to prevent cavities and white spot lesions over this period (p = 0.0005). The variables of the blocks sucking habits and diet were not associated with caries. The lack of oral care in children was a risk factor for dental caries development.

  2. Relations between mothers' daily work, home, and relationship stress with characteristics of mother-child conflict interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; Boyer, Brittany P; Villarreal, Deyaun L; Smith, Olivia A

    2017-06-01

    This study examined whether daily variations in levels of mothers' work, home, and relationship stress were related to collaborative and oppositional qualities of mother-child conflict interactions across 1 week. Mothers reported on 1 specific conflict interaction with their 5- to 8-year-old child and their work, home, and relationship stress through online surveys each day for 7 consecutive days. Diary data from 142 mothers were analyzed in 6 multilevel models, each including within- and between-family levels of a stressor predicting collaborative or oppositional conflict qualities. Results suggested that families in the sample differed from each other, and also varied during the week, in collaborative and oppositional conflict qualities as well as stress in all 3 domains. Mothers reported a greater degree of oppositional conflict qualities on days characterized by higher perceptions of home chaos. Additionally, mothers who reported higher average levels of negativity in romantic relationships endorsed oppositional conflict qualities to a greater extent than mothers with lower relationship negativity. Two multilevel models including all 3 stressors in relation to collaborative and oppositional conflict revealed that for mothers managing multiple roles, average romantic relationship stress was the most important unique contributor to mother-child conflict qualities and daily relationship stress was particularly influential among mothers with sons compared to those with daughters. Results support the spillover hypothesis of stress within the family system and are discussed in terms of mothers' coping mechanisms and emotional engagement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Father-child and mother-child interaction in families with a child feeding disorder: The role of paternal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Meiri, Gal; Millikovsky, Maaian; Barkai, Anat; Dunaevsky-Idan, Maayan; Yerushalmi, Baruch

    2010-11-01

    To date, research about feeding disorder (FD) has focused almost exclusively on the mother-child dyad, ignoring fathers' roles. The current study investigated father-child interactions with children having FD. The sample consisted of 67 children (1-3 years old) and their mothers and fathers. Thirty-four children, diagnosed with a nonorganic-based FD (FD group) and 33 children without an FD (control group) were matched for age, gender, birth order, and maternal education. Data were collected during home visits. Mothers were interviewed about their and the father's involvement in childcare. In addition, mother-child and father-child interactions were videotaped during play and feeding. Both mothers and fathers from the FD group experienced less positive parent-child interactions than did parents in the control group. Furthermore, mothers in the FD group reported greater maternal versus paternal childcare involvement than did control group mothers. Finally, FD group mothers exhibited more parental sensitivity than did fathers during feeing interactions; however, this difference was observed only when coupled with low paternal involvement. In families where fathers were highly involved, no difference was evident in paternal and maternal sensitivity. These findings highlight the importance of fathers' involvement, especially in families with children exhibiting an FD. Copyright © 2010 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Maternal parenting styles and mother-child relationship among adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen

    2013-05-01

    We investigated mothering and mother-child interactions in adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 190 adolescents with persistent DSM-IV ADHD, 147 without persistent ADHD, and 223 without ADHD. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews for diagnosis of ADHD and other mental disorders; and reported on the Parental Bonding Instrument about mother's parenting style, the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents for interactions with mothers and home behavioral problems. The mothers also reported on their ADHD and neurotic/depressive symptoms. Our results based on both informants showed that both ADHD groups obtained less affection/care and more overprotection and control from the mothers, and perceived less family support than those without ADHD. Child's inattention and comorbidity, and maternal depression were significantly correlated with decreased maternal affection/care and increased maternal controls; child's hyperactivity-impulsivity and maternal neurotic trait were significantly correlated with maternal overprotection; and child's inattention and comorbidity, and maternal neurotic/depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with impaired mother-child interactions and less family support. Our findings suggested that, regardless of persistence, childhood ADHD diagnosis, particularly inattention symptoms and comorbidity, combining with maternal neurotic/depressive symptoms was associated with impaired maternal process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanisms of Contextual Risk for Adolescent Self-Injury: Invalidation and Conflict Escalation in Mother-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Baucom, Brian R.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Potapova, Natalia V.; Fitelson, Martha; Barth, Heather; Smith, Cindy J.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE According to developmental theories of self-injury, both child characteristics and environmental contexts shape and maintain problematic behaviors. Although progress has been made toward identifying biological vulnerabilities to self-injury, mechanisms underlying psychosocial risk have received less attention. METHOD In the present study, we compared self-injuring adolescents (n=17) with typical controls (n=20) during a mother-child conflict discussion. Dyadic interactions were coded using both global and microanalytic systems, allowing for a highly detailed characterization of mother-child interactions. We also assessed resting state psychophysiological regulation, as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). RESULTS Global coding revealed that maternal invalidation was associated with adolescent anger. Furthermore, maternal invalidation and coerciveness were both related to adolescent opposition/defiance. Results from the microanalytic system indicated that self-injuring dyads were more likely to escalate conflict, suggesting a potential mechanism through which emotion dysregulation is shaped and maintained over time. Finally, mother and teen aversiveness interacted to predict adolescent resting RSA. Low-aversive teens with highly aversive mothers had the highest RSA, whereas teens in high-high dyads showed the lowest RSA. CONCLUSIONS These findings are consistent with theories that emotion invalidation and conflict escalation are possible contextual risk factors for self-injury. PMID:23581508

  6. Mother-child memory conversations and self-construal in Eastern Turkey, Western Turkey and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin-Acar, Basak; Leichtman, Michelle D

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven mothers and their four-year-old children from Eastern Turkey (N = 32 pairs), Western Turkey (N = 30 pairs) and the USA (N = 25 pairs) participated in a study of mother-child memory talk as a reflection of mothers' self construal, in view of differences in the function of memory talk across cultures. Mother-child pairs were audio-recorded while talking about shared past and anticipated future events. Mothers completed the Balanced Integration-Differentiation questionnaire measure of self-construal and were scored as high or low on individuation and relatedness orientations. Mothers' memory and future talk showed similar patterns of cultural differences: American mothers provided the most voluminous, descriptive and elaborative talk, while Eastern Turkish mothers showed the highest level of repetitiveness, and Western Turkish mothers' talk fell in between. Children's memory talk was similar across cultures. In all cultures, mothers who scored high on both individuation and relatedness (balanced self-construal subtype) engaged in more voluminous and contexted memory talk, and individuation was associated with more elaborative talk about future events. Results are discussed in light of literature on cultural differences in self-construal and memory function.

  7. Post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress and mother-child relationships following childbirth and at 2 years postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sarah; Slade, Pauline; Spiby, Helen; Iles, Jane

    2011-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of childbirth-related post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms at 2 years postpartum and the relationship between such symptoms and both self-reported parenting stress and perceptions of the mother-child relationship. 81 women completed measures of childbirth-related PTS symptoms at 6 weeks and 3 months postpartum; these results were used in an exploration of their predictive links with mother-child relationship and parenting measures at 2 years. 17.3% of respondents reported some PTS symptoms at a clinically significant level at 2 years postpartum. However, these symptoms were only weakly linked to parenting stress and were not related to mothers' perceptions of their children. However earlier PTS symptoms within 3 months of childbirth did show limited associations with parenting stress at 2 years but no association with child relationship outcomes once current depression was taken into account. Implications for clinical practice and the concept of childbirth-related post-traumatic stress disorder are discussed.

  8. Alojamiento conjunto madre-hijo y lactancia humana exclusiva Joined mother-child hospital lodging and exclusive human lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMUEL FLORES-HUERTA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Conocer la influencia del alojamiento conjunto (AC madre-hijo, en la frecuencia de lactancia humana exclusiva (LHE, desde el nacimiento hasta los cuatro meses de vida. Material y métodos. Estudio de cohortes no aleatorizado realizado en la clínica de lactancia del Hospital "Luis Castelazo Ayala", del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, de enero de 1993 a octubre de 1994, en el que participaron 178 binomios madre-hijo (BMH sanos con gestación de término. El grupo con alojamiento conjunto (AC se integró con 90 BMH, y la madre recibió asesoría para lactar; 88 se atendieron en forma separada, sin asesoría para lactar. Se realizó análisis estadístico de los datos para apreciar frecuencia y asociaciones de las variables. Resultados. La alimentación se registró como LHE, fórmula o ambas. Los grupos con y sin AC se estratificaron por la forma de nacimiento, parto o cesárea. Con X² de Mantel-Haenszel y de rango logarítmico se aceptaron diferencias con pObjective. To determine the influence of joined mother-child hospital lodging (JL on the frequency of exclusive human lactation (EHL from birth to four months of age. Material and methods. Non-randomized cohort study performed at the lactation clinic of the "Luis Castelazo Ayala" Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute from January 1993 to October 1994 which included 178 healthy mother-child pairs (MCP with term pregnancy. The jointly lodged group (JL consisted of 90 MCP in which mothers received assessment for lactation; 88 MCP were lodged separately and no assessment was provided. Results were statistically analyzed to determine frequency and variable associations. Results. Feeding was recorded as either EHL, powdered milk or both. Groups with or without JL were stratified by form of birth, either labor or Cesarean section. With the Mantel-Haenszel X² and logarithmic range, differences were significant with p<0.05. During the study, global lactation was similar

  9. Amplifier Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeports, David

    2006-12-01

    By definition, a high fidelity amplifier's instantaneous output voltage is directly proportional to its instantaneous input voltage. While high fidelity is generally valued in the amplification of recorded music, nonlinearity, also known as distortion, is desirable in the amplification of some musical instruments. In particular, guitar amplifiers exploit nonlinearity to increase both the harmonic content and sustain of a guitar's sound. I will discuss how both modifications in sound result from saturation of triode tubes and transistors. Additionally, I will describe the difference in the symmetry of saturation curves for transistors and tubes and the reason why tube guitar amplifiers are generally considered to be superior to solid-state amplifiers. Finally, I will discuss attempts to use solid-state electronics to replicate the sound of tube amplifiers.

  10. Effect of Emotional Closeness in Mother-Child Relationship on the Child’s Relationships with Peers at Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulygina M.V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of an empirical study that aimed to explore the correlation between mother-child relationships and the child’s relationships with peers at preschool age. The hypothesis was that the character and degree of emotional closeness between the mother and the child affects the quality of the child’s interactions with peers. The study involved 166 subjects: 83 children aged 4—5 years from Moscow kindergartens and their mothers. As it was found, different types of emotional relationships between the mother and the child (distant, emotionally close, normal are associated with certain features of peer interactions. Interacting with peers was most problematic in the children whose mothers are emotionally distant from them. Those children who were in very close emotional relationships with their mothers had much more conflicts with peers as well. The mothers in this group were also less adequate and more permissive when evaluating their child’s proneness to conflict.

  11. Multi-method assessment of mother-child attachment: links to parenting and child depressive symptoms in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Kathryn A; Brumariu, Laura E; Seibert, Ashley

    2011-07-01

    This study included two different methods to assess mother-child attachment, questionnaires, and a doll play story stem interview, so their overlap could be evaluated. In addition, we investigated how attachment is related to parenting and child depression. The sample was comprised of 10- to 12-year-olds (N = 87) and their mothers. Children completed questionnaires (assessing security, avoidance, and ambivalence), and were administered a doll play interview to assess attachment patterns (security, avoidance, ambivalence, and disorganization). Two aspects of parenting (warmth/ engagement and psychological control) were assessed with child reports and observer ratings of maternal behavior. We also obtained child reports of depressive symptoms. Questionnaire and interview measures of attachment security were related to one another, and each showed predictable associations with parenting and child depression. By contrast, results were less consistent for the ambivalent and avoidant insecure attachment patterns, although disorganized attachment showed some associations with parenting and child adjustment.

  12. Moving beyond the mother-child dyad: exploring the link between maternal sensitivity and siblings' attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mark; Betts, Lucy R; Underwood, Jean D M

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory asserts that secure attachment representations are developed through sensitive and consistent caregiving. If sensitive caregiving is a constant characteristic of the parent, then siblings should have concordant attachment classifications. The authors explored maternal attachment quality assessed by the Attachment Q-Set, maternal sensitivity, and specific mother-child interactions between siblings. Hour-long observations took place in the homes of 9 preschool sibling pairs and their immediate caregivers. The interactions were analyzed using a modified version of Bales' Small Group Analysis. The results reveal attachment discordance in a third of sibling pairs. While maternal sensitivity was higher with older siblings and mothers displayed more positive emotions when interacting with their younger siblings, attachment quality was not associated with birth order. Therefore, a shift toward a more contextual, family-based perspective of attachment is recommended to further understand how attachment strategies are created and maintained within the child's everyday context.

  13. Better quality of mother-child interaction at 4 years of age decreases emotional overeating in IUGR girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, R S; O'Donnell, K A; Colalillo, S; Pawlby, S; Steiner, M; Meaney, M J; Levitan, R D; Silveira, P P

    2014-10-01

    While most "fetal programming" area focused on metabolic disease, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is also associated with a preference for less healthy food. Post-natal factors such as strained maternal-child interactions are equally related to obesogenic eating behaviors. We investigated if IUGR and the quality of the mother/child relationship affect emotional overeating in children. Participants were 196 children from a prospective birth cohort (the MAVAN project). As part of the protocol at 4 years of age, mothers completed the Children Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and mother-child interactions were scored during a structured task. A GLM adjusted for BMI examined the interaction between the "Atmosphere" score (ATM) task, sex and IUGR on the emotional over-eating domain of the CEBQ. There was a significant interaction of BWR vs. sex vs. ATM (P = .02), with no effects of IUGR, sex or ATM. The model was significant for girls with low ATM scores (B = -2.035, P = .014), but not for girls with high (P = 0.94) or boys with high (P = .27) or low (P = .19) ATM scores. Only in IUGR girls, 48 months emotional over-eating correlated with BMI at that age (r = 0.560, P = 0.013) and predicted BMI in the subsequent years (r = 0.654, P = 0.006 at 60 months and r = 0.750, P = 0.005 at 72 months). IUGR and exposure to a negative emotional atmosphere during maternal-child interactions predicted emotional overeating in girls but not in boys. The quality of mother-infant interaction may be an important target for interventions to prevent emotional overeating and overweight in early development, particularly in girls with a history of IUGR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY IN MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTION: THE EFFECTS OF MATERNAL DEPRESSION IN REMISSION AND ADDITIONAL HISTORY OF CHILDHOOD ABUSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczniok, Dorothea; Boedeker, Katja; Fuchs, Anna; Hindi Attar, Catherine; Fydrich, Thomas; Fuehrer, Daniel; Dittrich, Katja; Reck, Corinna; Winter, Sibylle; Heinz, Andreas; Herpertz, Sabine C; Brunner, Romuald; Bermpohl, Felix

    2016-07-01

    The association between maternal depression and adverse outcomes in children is well established. Similar links have been found for maternal childhood abuse. One proposed pathway of risk transmission is reduced maternal emotional availability. Our aim was to investigate whether sensitive parenting is impaired in mothers with depression in remission, and whether among these mothers childhood abuse has an additional impact. The mother-child interaction of 188 dyads was assessed during a play situation using the Emotional Availability Scales, which measure the overall affective quality of the interaction: maternal sensitivity, structuring, nonhostility, and nonintrusiveness. Mothers with depression in remission were compared to healthy mothers. Children were between 5 and 12 years old. Group differences and impact of additional childhood abuse were analyzed by one-factorial analyses of covariance and planned contrasts. Mothers with depression in remission showed less emotional availability during mother-child interaction compared to healthy control mothers. Specifically, they were less sensitive and, at trend-level, less structuring and more hostile. Among these mothers, we found an additional effect of severe maternal childhood abuse on maternal sensitivity: Mothers with depression in remission and a history of severe childhood abuse were less sensitive than remitted mothers without childhood abuse. Our data suggest that depression impacts on maternal emotional availability during remission, which might represent a trait characteristic of depression. Mothers with depression in remission and additional severe childhood abuse were particularly affected. These findings may contribute to the understanding of children's vulnerability to develop a depressive disorder themselves. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Temperament in infancy and behavioral and emotional problems at age 5.5: The EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Abulizi

    Full Text Available Early temperamental characteristics may influence children's developmental pathways and predict future psychopathology. However, the environmental context may also shape or interact with infant temperament and indirectly contribute to increased vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study is to explore the long-term contribution of temperamental traits at twelve months of age to the presence of emotional and behavioral problems later in childhood, and whether this association varies with the child's sex, parental separation, family socioeconomic status and maternal depression.1184 mother-child pairs from the EDEN mother-child birth cohort study based in France (2003-2011, were followed from 24-28 weeks of pregnancy to the child's fifth birthday. Infant temperament at 12 months was assessed with the Emotionality Activity and Sociability (EAS questionnaire and behavior at 5.5 years was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ.Emotional temperament in infancy predicts children's overall behavioral scores (β = 1.16, p<0.001, emotional difficulties (β = 0.30, p<0.001, conduct problems (β = 0.51, p<0.001 and symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention (β = 0.31, p = 0.01 at 5.5 years. Infants' active temperament predicts later conduct problems (β = 0.30, p = 0.02, while shyness predicts later emotional problems (β = 0.22, p = 0.04. The association between the child's temperament in infancy and later behavior did not vary with children's own or family characteristics.An emotional temperament in infancy is associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties at the age of 5.5 years. Children who show high emotionality early on may require early prevention and intervention efforts to divert possible adverse developmental pathways.

  16. Effects of Maternal Parenting and Mother-Child Relationship Quality on Short-Term Longitudinal Change in Self-Regulation in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the degree to which short-term longitudinal change in adolescent self-regulation was attributable to maternal parenting and mother-child relationship quality. A total of 821 mother-adolescent dyads provided data in the 1992 and 1994 waves of the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of…

  17. It takes two to talk: longitudinal associations among infant-mother attachment, maternal attachment representations, and mother-child emotion dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Celia; Koren-Karie, Nina; Bailey, Heidi; Moran, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Research on the attachment-dialogue link has largely focused on infant-mother attachment. This study investigated longitudinal associations between infant-mother attachment and maternal attachment representations and subsequent mother-child emotion dialogues (N = 50). Maternal attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview when children were 3 months, infant-mother attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation Procedure at 13 months, and mother-child emotion dialogues were assessed using the Autobiographical Emotional Events Dialogue at 3.5 years. Consistent with past research, the three organized categories of infant-mother attachment relationships were associated with later mother-child emotion dialogues. Disorganized attachment relationships were associated with a lack of consistent and coherent strategy during emotion dialogues. Autonomous mothers co-constructed coherent narratives with their children; Dismissing and Preoccupied mothers created stories that were less narratively organized. Although the Unresolved category was unrelated to classifications of types of mother-child discourse, mothers' quality of contribution to the dialogues was marginally lower compared to the quality of their children's contributions to the emotion discussion. Secure children showed highest levels of child cooperation and exploration. Autonomous mothers displayed highest levels of maternal sensitive guidance during emotion dialogues. We provide preliminary evidence for role reversal in dialogues between Preoccupied and Unresolved mothers and their children.

  18. Mother-Child Interaction as a Window to a Unique Social Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Omri; Feldman, Ruth; Burg-Malki, Merav; Keren, Miri; Geva, Ronny; Diesendruck, Gil; Gothelf, Doron

    2015-01-01

    Mother-child interactions in 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and Williams syndrome (WS) were coded for maternal sensitivity/intrusiveness, child's expression of affect, levels of engagement, and dyadic reciprocity. WS children were found to express more positive emotions towards their mothers compared to 22q11.2DS children and those with…

  19. Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Effective Discipline as Mediators of the 6-Year Effects of the New Beginnings Program for Children from Divorced Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Sandler, Irwin N.; Millsap, Roger E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Dawson-McClure, Spring R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether program effects on mother-child relationship quality and effective discipline mediated the 6-year longitudinal effects of the New Beginnings Program (NBP) to improve mental health and competence outcomes in 218 adolescents from divorced families in a randomized experimental trial. The NBP is a theory-based and…

  20. Mother-Child Dyadic Synchrony in European American and African American Families during Early Adolescence: Relations with Self-Esteem and Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Colwell, Malinda J.; Frabutt, James M.; Chambers, Jessica Campbell; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Mother-child relationships characterized by dyadic synchrony, a mutually responsive and interconnected interaction style, have been consistently linked to children's psychosocial adjustment in early childhood, but it is unclear whether such interaction patterns remain conducive to positive outcomes in early adolescence. The aim of the present…

  1. A Comparison of Equine-Assisted Intervention and Conventional Play-Based Early Intervention for Mother-Child Dyads with Insecure Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, Andrea; Winkler, Nora; Julius, Henri; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Early interventions aim at promoting a good mother-child relationship as basis for a good socio-emotional development, especially in high-risk populations, and at correcting already unfavorable patterns of interaction and are common today. Insecure attachment, both of the child and of the mother, has been identified as a risk factor for early…

  2. [Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) of insulin in a mother-child university-affiliated health center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berruyer, M; Atkinson, S; Lebel, D; Bussières, J-F

    2016-01-01

    Insulin is a high-alert drug. The main objective of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to evaluate the risks associated with insulin use in healthcare centers. The secondary objective was to propose corrective measures to reduce the main risks associated with the most critical failure modes in the analysis. We conducted a failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) in obstetrics-gynecology, neonatology and pediatrics. Five multidisciplinary meetings occurred in August 2013. A total of 44 out of 49 failure modes were analyzed. Nine out of 44 (20%) failure modes were deemed critical, with a criticality score ranging from 540 to 720. Following the multidisciplinary meetings, everybody agreed that an FMEA was a useful tool to identify failure modes and their relative importance. This approach identified many corrective measures. This shared experience increased awareness of safety issues with insulin in our mother-child center. This study identified the main failure modes and associated corrective measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. An Exploration of Jamaican Mothers' Perceptions of Closeness and Intimacy in the Mother-Child Relationship during Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Taniesha; Kuczynski, Leon; Perren, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Research on Jamaican mother-child relationships has had a limited focus on authoritarian parenting styles and selected discipline practices such as corporal punishment. This study examined Jamaican mothers' experiences of closeness and connectedness with their children to provide a holistic perspective on Jamaican-parent-child relationships. Thirty mothers (17 middle class and 13 lower class) living in Kingston and St. Andrew, Jamaica, participated in a 1-h to 1.5-h semi-structured, open-ended interview regarding their 8- to 12-year-old children. Thematic analyses indicated that mothers experienced closeness through intimate interactions (e.g., shared projects, shared physical affection, mutuality, and child self-disclosure) and parent-child nurturance. Both mothers and children were active in creating contexts for closeness. Mothers also reported experiences that temporarily damaged their connection with their children. The findings suggest that the construct of parent-child intimacy may be useful in teasing out the psychological meanings and interpersonal processes of parent-child relatedness in cultural research.

  4. Mother-child relationships, family context, and child characteristics as predictors of anxiety symptoms in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Kathryn A; Siener, Shannon; Brumariu, Laura E

    2011-05-01

    The goal of the study was to examine several factors that may explain the development of anxiety symptoms in middle childhood. Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (n = 1,364 families), we examined mother-child relationships, other aspects of family context, and child characteristics as predictors of anxiety in preadolescence. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that children who were more anxious at the beginning of middle childhood had been more behaviorally inhibited as preschoolers, and in middle childhood lived in families who experienced more negative life events and had mothers who were more anxious. Children who became more anxious across middle childhood were less behaviorally inhibited as preschoolers and in middle childhood perceived less security in their attachments to their mothers, experienced more negative life events, and had mothers who were more anxious. The findings illustrate the need to include a broad set of risk factors in etiological models of anxiety. In addition, the evidence for cumulative effects suggests several possible points of intervention with anxious children and their parents.

  5. A call for research exploring social media influences on mothers' child feeding practices and childhood obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg; Birch, Leann L

    2016-04-01

    There is increasing interest in leveraging social media to prevent childhood obesity, however, the evidence base for how social media currently influences related behaviors and how interventions could be developed for these platforms is lacking. This commentary calls for research on the extent to which mothers use social media to learn about child feeding practices and the mechanisms through which social media influences their child feeding practices. Such formative research could be applied to the development and dissemination of evidence-based childhood obesity prevention programs that utilize social media. Mothers are identified as a uniquely important target audience for social media-based interventions because of their proximal influence on children's eating behavior and their high engagement with social media platforms. Understanding mothers' current behaviors, interests, and needs as they relate to their social media use and child feeding practices is an integral first step in the development of interventions that aim to engage mothers for obesity prevention. This commentary highlights the importance of mothers for childhood obesity prevention; discusses theoretical and analytic frameworks that can inform research on social media and mothers' child feeding practices; provides evidence that social media is an emerging context for social influences on mothers' attitudes and behaviors in which food is a salient topic; and suggests directions for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Mother-child agreement regarding the depressive symptoms and the quality of life of the child and its influencing factors in children with and without depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Eniko

    2010-01-03

    Mother-child agreement and influencing factors were studied in depressed and non-depressed children. We hypothesized that age and gender of the child and maternal depression influenced mother-child agreement; parents of depressed children underestimated the quality of life of their children; agreement was better in older and non-depressed children. We studied depressed children with Major Depressive Disorder (n = 354, mean age = 11.69 +/- 2.05 years), and non-depressed school-age children (n = 1695, mean age = 10.34 +/- 2.19 years). Psychiatric diagnosis was obtained by a semi-structured interview; depressive symptoms and quality of life were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Mother-child agreement about depressive symptoms increased as children got older. Mother-son reports showed significant difference, mother-daughter reports were similar. Depressed mothers reported more serious symptoms for their children. Depressed children's parent rated lower quality of life than children for themselves. Agreement was influenced by depression of the child and only marginally by age. Age and psychiatric illness of the examined person influences agreement, which finding may well be important in practice.

  7. The effects of parental education and family income on mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and family environments in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao

    2012-12-01

    Using a cross-sectional design with 407 Chinese children aged 3-5 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socioeconomic status, specifically parents' education and family income, on the children's mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and the social environment in their families. The results indicated that income negatively predicted conflict in father-child relationships and positively predicted family active-recreational environments. Income also positively predicted family cohesion among girls but not boys. Maternal education negatively predicted conflict in mother-child relationships and positively predicted closeness in mother-child and father-child relationships, family cohesion, and the intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments in the family. Paternal education positively predicted family cohesion and intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments. Income was found to partially mediate the effects of both maternal and paternal education on family active-recreational environments. Findings are discussed in the frameworks of the family stress model and the family investment model. © FPI, Inc.

  8. Surface Segregation in YSZ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben

    1998-01-01

    The space charge layer formed due to segregation of yttria and oxygen ion vacancies in YSZ is described by a simple model. Effects of impurities segregation are omitted.......The space charge layer formed due to segregation of yttria and oxygen ion vacancies in YSZ is described by a simple model. Effects of impurities segregation are omitted....

  9. Environmental determinants of the urinary concentrations of herbicides during pregnancy: the PELAGIE mother-child cohort (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrier, Cécile; Serrano, Tania; Lecerf, Rémi; Limon, Gwendolina; Petit, Claire; Monfort, Christine; Hubert-Moy, Laurence; Durand, Gaël; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2014-02-01

    Herbicides are generally the most extensively used of the pesticides applied to agricultural crops. However, the literature contains little evidence useful in assessing the potential sources of the general population's exposure to herbicides, including by residential proximity to crops. The objective of this study was to take advantage of data from the PELAGIE mother-child cohort to identify the main determinants of the body burden of exposure to the chloroacetanilide and triazine herbicides commonly used on corn crops in Brittany, France, before 2006. Urine samples from a randomly selected subcohort of women in the first trimester of pregnancy (n=579) were assayed for herbicide metabolites. The residential exposure resulting from proximity to corn crops was assessed with satellite-image-based scores combined with meteorological data. Data on diet, drinking tap water (from the public water supply), occupations, and household herbicide use were collected by questionnaires. Herbicides were quantified in 5.3% to 39.7% of urine samples. Alachlor and acetochlor were found most frequently in the urine of women living in rural areas. The presence of dealkylated triazine metabolites in urine samples was positively associated with residential proximity to corn crops (OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.05-1.80). Urinary metabolites of both atrazine and dealkylated triazine were correlated with tap water consumption (OR=2.94, 1.09-7.90, and OR=1.82, 1.10-3.03, respectively); hydroxylated triazine metabolites were correlated with fish intake (OR=1.48, 1.09-1.99). This study reinforces previous results that suggest that environmental contamination resulting from agricultural activities may contribute to the general population's exposure to herbicides. © 2013.

  10. Mother-Child Interaction and Early Language Skills in Children Born to Mothers with Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Haabrekke, Kristin; Siqveland, Torill; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Walhovd, Kristine B; Moe, Vibeke

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study with data collected at four time points investigated how maternal psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse and maternal intrusiveness in interaction were related to early child language skills. Three groups of mothers were recruited during pregnancy: One from residential treatment institutions for substance abuse (n = 18), one from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n = 22) and one from well-baby clinics (n = 30). Maternal substance abuse and anti-social and borderline personality traits were assessed during pregnancy, postpartum depression at 3 months, maternal intrusiveness in interaction at 12 months, and child language skills at 2 years. Results showed that the mothers in the substance abuse group had the lowest level of education, they were younger and they were more likely to be single mothers than the mothers in the two other groups. There was a significant difference in expressive language between children born to mothers with substance abuse problems and those born to comparison mothers, however not when controlling for maternal age, education and single parenthood. No group differences in receptive language skills were detected. Results further showed that maternal intrusiveness observed in mother-child interaction at 12 months was significantly related to child expressive language at 2 years, also when controlling for socio-demographic risk factors. This suggests that in addition to addressing substance abuse and psychiatric problems, there is a need for applying treatment models promoting sensitive caregiving, in order to enhance child expressive language skills.

  11. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...

  12. The mother-child nexus. Knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in Wayanad, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz García, Gisella Susana

    2006-09-12

    This study focuses on the mother-child nexus (or process of enculturation) with respect to knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in a context where accelerated processes of modernization and acculturation are leading to the erosion of knowledge and cultural values associated with wild food plant use, in Wayanad, Western Ghats, India. Wild food plants in this biodiversity hotspot form an important part of local diets and are used as famine foods and medicines. In general, the collection and consumption of these foods are increasingly stigmatized as symbols of poverty and 'tribalness' (equivalent to 'backwardness'). The study, which falls within the discipline of ethnobotany, involves three socio-cultural groups--the Paniya and Kuruma tribes and non-tribals. Further, it examines the impact in the enculturation process of an unusual educational programme sponsored by the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation that is oriented towards creating awareness among children of cultural identity and local biological resources--the study compares children having participated in the programme with those who have not, with their mothers. The process of enculturation is assessed by comparing wild food plant knowledge and values between mothers and their children, and by examining events where knowledge transmission occurs, including collection and consumption. For that, quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis tools were used, and methods included semi-structured interviews, photo identification and informal interviews of key informants. Results ratify that women are the knowledge holders and are the primary means of knowledge transmission to their children. Nevertheless, fewer children are collecting wild food plants with mothers and learning about them, apparently because of children's lack of time. On the other hand, older people acknowledge that a "change in taste" is occurring among younger generations. In general, there is a simultaneous transmission from

  13. The development and implementation of a theory-informed, integrated mother-child intervention in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Daisy R; Kumbakumba, Elias

    2015-12-01

    theory were reported as facilitators to intervention delivery. Only program attendance, but not barriers, facilitators or message recall, was significantly positively related to message enactment. Monitoring of group sessions and home visits showed that the program was largely implemented as intended. This implementation assessment revealed a number of important barriers and facilitators from the perspectives of delivery agents, supervisors and program participants. The methods and results are useful to examining and informing the content, delivery, and scaling up of the current program as well as future mother-child interventions in LMIC settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Latino children on their mothers' dietary intake and dietary behaviors: The role of children's acculturation and the mother-child acculturation gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sandra H; Arredondo, Elva M; Marcus, Bess; Shakya, Holly B; Roesch, Scott; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2017-10-01

    Research shows that acculturation is important to Latinas' dietary intake and related behaviors. Although evidence suggests children may also play a role, it remains unclear whether children's acculturation is related to mothers' dietary intake/behaviors. We examined the relationship between Latino children's acculturation and mothers' dietary intake/behaviors. We also examined the mother-child acculturation gap to identify dyad characteristics associated with mothers' diet. Baseline surveys were collected in 2010 from 314 Latino mother-child (7-13 years old) dyads of Mexican-origin enrolled in a family-based dietary intervention in Southern California, USA. Mother's daily intake of fruits, vegetables, and sugary beverages, percent of calories from fat, weekly away-from-home eating, and percent of weekly grocery dollars spent on fruits and vegetables were assessed via self-report. Mothers' and children's bidimensional acculturation were examined using acculturation groups (e.g., assimilated, bicultural) derived from Hispanic and non-Hispanic dimensions of language. We also assessed the acculturation gap between mothers and children with the a) difference in acculturation between mothers' and children's continuous acculturation scores and b) mother-child acculturation gap typologies (e.g., traditional mothers of assimilated children). Findings show that having an assimilated versus a bicultural child was negatively associated with mothers' vegetable intake and positively associated with mothers' sugary beverage intake, percent of calories from fat, and frequency of away-from-home eating, regardless of mothers' acculturation. Traditional mothers of assimilated children reported more sugary beverage intake, calories from fat, and more frequent away-from-home eating than traditional mothers of bicultural children. Results suggest that children's acculturation is associated with their mothers' dietary intake/behaviors and traditional mothers of assimilated children

  15. Early mother-child interaction and later quality of attachment in infants with an orofacial cleft compared to infants without cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habersaat, Stephanie; Monnier, Maryline; Peter, Camille; Bolomey, Luce; Borghini, Ayala; Despars, Josée; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Müller-Nix, Carole; Ansermet, François; Hohlfeld, Judith

    2013-11-01

    Objective : The main objective of this study was to assess mother-child patterns of interaction in relation to later quality of attachment in a group of children with an orofacial cleft compared with children without cleft. Design : Families were contacted when the child was 2 months old for a direct assessment of mother-child interaction and then at 12 months for a direct assessment of the child's attachment. Data concerning socioeconomical information and posttraumatic stress symptoms in mothers were collected at the first appointment. Participants : Forty families of children with a cleft and 45 families of children without cleft were included in the study. Families were recruited at birth in the University Hospital of Lausanne. Results : Results showed that children with a cleft were more difficult and less cooperative during interaction at 2 months of age with their mother compared with children without a cleft. No significant differences were found in mothers or in dyadic interactive styles. Concerning the child's attachment at 12 months old, no differences were found in attachment security. However, secure children with a cleft were significantly more avoidant with their mother during the reunion episodes than secure children without cleft. Conclusion : Despite the facial disfigurement and the stress engendered by treatment during the first months of the infant's life, children with cleft and their mothers are doing as well as families without cleft with regard to the mothers' mental health, mother-child relationships, and later quality of attachment. A potential contribution for this absence of difference may be the pluridisciplinary support that families of children with cleft benefit from in Lausanne.

  16. Mother-child and father-child interaction with their 24-month-old children during feeding, considering paternal involvement and the child's temperament in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to study mother-child and father-child interactions with 24-month-old children during feeding, considering the possible influence of time spent by the parent with the child, the infantile temperament, and the parental psychological profile. The families were recruited from 12 preschools in Italy (N = 77 families). Through an observation of the feeding [Scala di Valutazione dell'Interazione Alimentare (SVIA - Feeding Scale; I. Chatoor et al., ; L. Lucarelli et al., )], self-reporting [Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R; L.R. Derogatis, ), and report-form questionnaires [Italian Questionnaires on Temperament (QUIT; G. Axia, )], and information provided by the parents about the amount of time spent with their children, results showed that the overall quality of father-child interactions during feeding is lower than that of mother-child interactions. Fathers showed higher psychological symptoms than did mothers. No associations were found between the fathers' psychopathological risk and the quality of interactions with their children during feeding. Mothers' psychopathological risks predicted less contingent exchanges interactions with their children during feeding. Children's temperaments significantly influence mother-child interactions, but no association exists between maternal involvement and the quality of interactions with their children. Paternal involvement predicts a better quality of father-infant interactions when associated with a child's higher scores on Social Orientation. The quality of parents' interactions with their children during feeding are impacted by different issues originating from the parent's psychological profile, the degree of involvement, and from the child's temperament. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  17. Segregation distortion in F2 and doubled haploid populations of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504, Japan. 3Institute of the Society .... population of 212 DH lines was developed through anther culture of the F1 ... 2001), and 10-base random primers (Operon Technolo- ... tific researches (public data in the Rice Genome Project,.

  18. [The role of playful interactions in the development of the early mother-child relationship--factors of risk and protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigner, Bernadett

    2015-01-01

    The early mother-child relationship is taking shape and evolving during the series of their everyday interactions. The main aim of the research that focus on the risks at the beginning, and the future mother infant interactions are factors that have influence on the quality of the early mother-child relationship, and the exploration of the jeopardy and vulnerability of the early relationship disorders. I examined fifty mothers who have their first child. I researched the motherly, child- and interactional factors in the days right after the birth and then when the kids were one month old, and again at the age of four and a half month. I assessed the parental stress by the longer version of the PSI (Parenting Stress Index), and the mother anxiety with the help of the STAI-Y (State and feature anxiety value Index), and the features of the depression were tested by the EPDS scale, the Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale. PBQ, the Postpartum Bonding Questionnare--reveals the quality of the motherly emotions and behaviour focusing on the kid. The observation of interactions when the child was four and a half month old happened while a 'face-to-face' free play, and the analyses of that were assessed by an own code system. We found correlations between input risk factors and features of motherly interactional styles. The indexes of the after birth depression (depression right after the birth), and the anxiety also showed correlation to the indexes of the attachment of the mother to her child and the parental stress. The correlations among the playfulness, the risk kotodefactors and the quality of the interactions are obvious, that we found. The interactional style of the mother and the interactional strategies of the baby showed correlated patterns too as we examined those. We found that pre-history of pregnancy and perinatal events have predictive value on the relationship of the four and a half month old baby and his/her mother. These can add important facts to the

  19. Genes that bias Mendelian segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grognet, Pierre; Lalucque, Hervé; Malagnac, Fabienne; Silar, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Mendel laws of inheritance can be cheated by Meiotic Drive Elements (MDs), complex nuclear genetic loci found in various eukaryotic genomes and distorting segregation in their favor. Here, we identify and characterize in the model fungus Podospora anserina Spok1 and Spok2, two MDs known as Spore Killers. We show that they are related genes with both spore-killing distorter and spore-protecting responder activities carried out by the same allele. These alleles act as autonomous elements, exert their effects independently of their location in the genome and can act as MDs in other fungi. Additionally, Spok1 acts as a resistance factor to Spok2 killing. Genetical data and cytological analysis of Spok1 and Spok2 localization during the killing process suggest a complex mode of action for Spok proteins. Spok1 and Spok2 belong to a multigene family prevalent in the genomes of many ascomycetes. As they have no obvious cellular role, Spok1 and Spok2 Spore Killer genes represent a novel kind of selfish genetic elements prevalent in fungal genome that proliferate through meiotic distortion.

  20. Genes that bias Mendelian segregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Grognet

    Full Text Available Mendel laws of inheritance can be cheated by Meiotic Drive Elements (MDs, complex nuclear genetic loci found in various eukaryotic genomes and distorting segregation in their favor. Here, we identify and characterize in the model fungus Podospora anserina Spok1 and Spok2, two MDs known as Spore Killers. We show that they are related genes with both spore-killing distorter and spore-protecting responder activities carried out by the same allele. These alleles act as autonomous elements, exert their effects independently of their location in the genome and can act as MDs in other fungi. Additionally, Spok1 acts as a resistance factor to Spok2 killing. Genetical data and cytological analysis of Spok1 and Spok2 localization during the killing process suggest a complex mode of action for Spok proteins. Spok1 and Spok2 belong to a multigene family prevalent in the genomes of many ascomycetes. As they have no obvious cellular role, Spok1 and Spok2 Spore Killer genes represent a novel kind of selfish genetic elements prevalent in fungal genome that proliferate through meiotic distortion.

  1. Gender Segregation Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth R Troske; William J Carrington

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies interfirm gender segregation in a unique sample of small employers. We focus on small firms because previous research on interfirm segregation has studied only large firms and because it is easier to link the demographic characteristics of employers and employees in small firms. This latter feature permits an assessment of the role of employer discrimination in creating gender segregation. Our first finding is that interfirm segregation is prevalent among small employers. I...

  2. Patterns of change in early childhood aggressive-disruptive behavior: gender differences in predictions from early coercive and affectionate mother-child interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen-Ketchum, S A; Bates, J E; Dodge, K A; Pettit, G S

    1996-10-01

    The present study focused on mother-child interaction predictors of initial levels and change in child aggressive and disruptive behavior at school from kindergarten to third grade. Aggression-disruption was measured via annual reports from teachers and peers. Ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify 8 separate child aggression trajectories, 4 for each gender: high initial levels with increases in aggression, high initial levels with decrease in aggression, low initial levels with increases in aggression, and low initial levels with decreases in aggression. Mother-child interaction measures of coercion and nonaffection collected prior to kindergarten were predictive of initial levels of aggression-disruption in kindergarten in both boys and girls. However, boys and girls differed in how coercion and nonaffection predicted change in aggression-disruption across elementary school years. For boys, high coercion and nonaffection were particularly associated with the high-increasing-aggression trajectory, but for girls, high levels of coercion and nonaffection were associated with the high-decreasing-aggression trajectory. This difference is discussed in the context of Patterson et al.'s coercion training theory, and the need for gender-specific theories of aggressive development is noted.

  3. MOTHER-CHILD AND FATHER-CHILD PLAY INTERACTION: THE IMPORTANCE OF PARENTAL PLAYFULNESS AS A MODERATOR OF THE LINKS BETWEEN PARENTAL BEHAVIOR AND CHILD NEGATIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashe-Grinberg, Atara; Atzaba-Poria, Naama

    2017-11-01

    Based on the premise that father-child play is an important context for children's development and that fathers "specialize" in play, similarities and differences in the role of playfulness in the father-child and mother-child relationship were examined. Participants in this study included 111 families (children's age: 1-3 years). Father-child and mother-child play interactions were videotaped and coded for parental playfulness, sensitivity, structuring, and nonintrusiveness as well as child negativity. Results indicated that mothers and fathers did not differ in playfulness and that mothers and fathers who were higher in playfulness had children with lower levels of negativity. However, playfulness differently moderated the links between parents' and children's behaviors for mothers and fathers. A double-risk pattern was found for mothers, such that the links between child negativity and maternal sensitivity, structuring, and nonintrusiveness were significant only for the subgroup of mothers with low levels of playfulness. When mothers had high levels of playfulness, these effects were negligible. For fathers, a double-buffer pattern was revealed, indicating that the links between child negativity and paternal sensitivity and structuring were significant only for fathers with high levels of playfulness. When fathers had low levels of playfulness, these effects were negligible. These findings demonstrate the important role that parental playfulness has on parent-child interaction as well as the need to examine moderation patterns separately for fathers and mothers. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Distortion Control during Welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbari Pazooki, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The local material expansion and contraction involved in welding result in permanent deformations or instability i.e., welding distortion. Considerable efforts have been made in controlling welding distortion prior to, during or after welding. Thermal Tensioning (TT) describes a group of in-situ

  5. Rationale and methods for a randomized controlled trial of a movement-to-music video program for decreasing sedentary time among mother-child pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Pipsa P A; Husu, Pauliina; Raitanen, Jani; Luoto, Riitta M

    2015-10-05

    Measured objectively, under a quarter of adults and fewer than half of preschool children meet the criteria set in the aerobic physical activity recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Moreover, adults reportedly are sedentary (seated or lying down) for most of their waking hours. Importantly, greater amounts of sedentary time on parents' part are associated with an increased risk of more sedentary time among their children. A randomized controlled trial targeting mother-child pairs has been designed, to examine whether a movement-to-music video program may be effective in reducing sedentary time and increasing physical activity in the home environment. Mother-child pairs (child age of 4-7 years) will be recruited from among NELLI lifestyle-modification study five-year follow-up cohort participants, encompassing 14 municipalities in Pirkanmaa region, Finland. Accelerometer and exercise diary data are to be collected for intervention and control groups at the first, second and eighth week after the baseline measurements. Background factors, physical activity, screen time, motivation to exercise, and self-reported height and weight, along with quality of life, will be assessed via questionnaires. After the baseline and first week measurements, the participants of the intervention group will receive a movement-to-music video program designed to reduce sedentary time and increase physical activity. Intervention group mother-child pairs will be instructed to exercise every other day while watching the video program over the next seven weeks. Information on experiences of the use of the movement-to-music video program will be collected 8 weeks after baseline. Effects of the intervention will be analyzed in line with the intention-to-treat principle through comparison of the changes in the main outcomes between intervention and control group participants. The study has received ethics approval from the Pirkanmaa Ethics Committee in Human

  6. Psychological outcomes in midadulthood associated with mother's child-rearing attitudes in early childhood--evidence from the 1970 British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2004-02-01

    This study used longitudinal data from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) to examine the role of mother's child-rearing attitudes assessed when cohort members were aged 5 in children's psychological well-being (psychological functioning, psychological distress, life satisfaction and self-efficacy) at age 30. Although at the multivariate level mother's childrearing attitudes were not related to sons' psychological well-being in adult life, in daughters self-efficacy and life satisfaction at age 30 were related to mother's anti-child autonomy attitudes and mother's non-authoritarian child-rearing attitudes, respectively. In addition, mother's non-authoritarian childrearing attitudes had a protective effect against later psychological distress and low self-efficacy in daughters who had experienced significant material disadvantage in early childhood.

  7. The health education of folk midwives: the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública and mother-child assistance (1940-1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia Maria de Almeida; Ferreira, Luiz Otávio

    2011-12-01

    The article addresses an endeavor by Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (Sesp) to train folk midwives who worked in rural communities and to exercise control over these women's activities. The task was entrusted to the agency's prenatal and child hygiene programs, established between the 1940s and 1960s. The agency believed this training and control initiative would be of major importance in helping ensure the success of its project to establish local sanitary services offering mother-child assistance. The goal of working directly with the folk midwives was not only to force them to employ strict hygiene standards when delivering and caring for newborns but especially to use their influence and prestige within these communities to convince the general population to adopt good health practices.

  8. Bulky DNA Adducts in Cord Blood, Maternal Fruit-and-Vegetable Consumption, and Birth Weight in a European Mother-Child Study (NewGeneris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Schoket, Bernadette; Godschalk, Roger W

    2013-01-01

    , Greece, Norway, and Spain were recruited in 2006-2010. Adduct levels were measured by the 32P-postlabeling technique in white blood cells from 229 mothers and 612 newborns. Maternal diet was examined through questionnaires.Results: Adduct levels in maternal and cord blood samples were similar...... versus lowest tertile of adducts. The negative association with birth weight was limited to births in Norway, Denmark, and England, the countries with the lowest adduct levels, and was more pronounced in births to mothers with low intake of fruits and vegetables (-248 g; 95% CI: -405, -92 g) compared......, Kleinjans JC, Segerbäck D, Kogevinas M. 2013. Bulky DNA adducts in cord blood, maternal fruit-and-vegetable consumption, and birth weight in a European mother-child study (NewGeneris). Environ Health Perspect 121:1200-1206; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206333....

  9. Interaction between the Opioid Receptor OPRM1 Gene and Mother-Child Language Style Matching Prospectively Predicts Children's Separation Anxiety Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boparai, Sameen; Borelli, Jessica L; Partington, Lindsey; Smiley, Patricia; Jarvik, Ella; Rasmussen, Hannah F; Seaman, Lauren C; Nurmi, Erika L

    2018-03-22

    Recent research suggests that lower mother-child language style matching (LSM) is associated with greater physiological reactivity and insecure attachment in school-aged children, but to date no studies have explored this measure of parent-child behavioral matching for its association with children's anxiety symptoms, a well-known correlate of attachment insecurity and heightened physiological reactivity. There is also considerable evidence of genetic risk for anxiety, including possession of the OPRM1 minor allele, 118G. In the current study (N = 44), we expand upon what is known about children's genetic and environmental risk for anxiety by examining the unique and interactive effects of mother-child LSM and the OPRM1 polymorphism A118G on school-aged children's separation anxiety disorder (SAD) symptoms. SAD symptoms were measured both concurrently with LSM and OPRM1 genotype and two years later through self-report. No significant associations emerged between LSM or OPRM1 and concurrent Time 1 SAD symptoms. However, lower LSM and 118G minor allele possession were both associated with greater SAD symptoms at Time 2; further, the interaction between LSM and OPRM1 genotype significantly predicted SAD symptoms beyond the main effects of the two variables. Possession of the minor allele was only associated with greater SAD symptoms among children in low LSM dyads, whereas children with the minor allele in high LSM dyads showed non-significantly lower SAD symptoms. These findings and a proportion affected analysis provide support for a differential susceptibility model of gene by environment interactions for the OPRM1 gene. We discuss the implications for predicting children's separation anxiety across development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of the mother-child relationship for anxiety disorders and depression: results from a prospective-longitudinal study in adolescents and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselmann, Eva; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to examine whether (a) low child valence (emotional connectedness) within the mother-child relationship increases the risk for offspring depression, (b) low child potency (individual autonomy) increases the risk for offspring anxiety, and (c) maternal psychopathology pronounces these associations. We used data from a prospective-longitudinal study of adolescents (aged 14-17 at baseline) and their mothers (N = 1,015 mother-child dyads). Anxiety disorders and depression were assessed repeatedly over 10 years in adolescents (T0, T1, T2, T3) and their mothers (T1, T3) using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Valence and potency were assessed in mothers (T1) with the Subjective Family Image Questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression were used to estimate associations between low child valence/potency and offspring psychopathology (cumulated lifetime incidences; adjusted for sex and age). In separate models (low valence or low potency as predictor), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.26 per SD), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety (OR = 1.24) and depression (OR = 1.24). In multiple models (low valence and low potency as predictors), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.19), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety only (OR = 1.22). Low child potency interacted with maternal anxiety on predicting offspring depression (OR = 1.49), i.e. low child potency predicted offspring depression only in the presence of maternal anxiety (OR = 1.33). These findings suggest that low child valence increases the risk for offspring depression, while low child potency increases the risk for offspring anxiety and depression and interacts with maternal psychopathology on predicting offspring depression.

  11. Segregation and civic virtue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Michael Merry defends the following prima facie argument: that civic virtue is not dependent on integration and in fact may be best fostered under conditions of segregation. He demonstrates that civic virtue can and does take place under conditions of involuntary segregation, but that

  12. Segregation in cast products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The agreement with experimental data is mostly qualitative. The paper also ... For example, a high degree of positive segregation in the central region .... solute in a cast product, important ones being: size of casting, rate of solidification, mode.

  13. Plasmid segregation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, G.; Gerdes, Kenn

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial plasmids encode partitioning (par) loci that ensure ordered plasmid segregation prior to cell division. par loci come in two types: those that encode actin-like ATPases and those that encode deviant Walker-type ATPases. ParM, the actin-like ATPase of plasmid R1, forms dynamic filaments...... that segregate plasmids paired at mid-cell to daughter cells. Like microtubules, ParM filaments exhibit dynamic instability (i.e., catastrophic decay) whose regulation is an important component of the DNA segregation process. The Walker box ParA ATPases are related to MinD and form highly dynamic, oscillating...... filaments that are required for the subcellular movement and positioning of plasmids. The role of the observed ATPase oscillation is not yet understood. However, we propose a simple model that couples plasmid segregation to ParA oscillation. The model is consistent with the observed movement...

  14. Segregation and Hispanic Homicide

    OpenAIRE

    Michael G. Bisciglia

    2014-01-01

    As the overall population of Hispanics within the United States has eclipsed that of African Americans, a mounting concern has developed regarding the rise in Hispanic lethal violence as a result of social and economic inequality. One means to measure this inequality is in the form of segregation. Research indicates that in many Hispanic communities, their levels of segregation from the White non-Hispanic population ar...

  15. Source Segregation and Collection of Source-Segregated Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    of optimal handling of the waste. But in a few cases, the waste must also be separated at source, for example removing the protective plastic cover from a commercial advertisement received by mail, prior to putting the advertisement into the waste collection bin for recyclable paper. These issues are often...... in wastes segregation addressing: - Purpose of source segregation. - Segregation criteria and guidance. - Segregation potentials and efficiencies. - Systems for collecting segregated fraction....

  16. Breastfeeding duration and cognitive, language and motor development at 18 months of age: Rhea mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Koutra, Katerina; Vassilaki, Maria; Mantzouranis, Evangelia; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2015-03-01

    Breast feeding duration has been associated with improved cognitive development in children. However, few population-based prospective studies have evaluated dose-response relationships of breastfeeding duration with language and motor development at early ages, and results are discrepant. The study uses data from the prospective mother-child cohort ('Rhea' study) in Crete, Greece. 540 mother-child pairs were included in the present analysis. Information about parental and child characteristics and breastfeeding practices was obtained by interview-administered questionnaires. Trained psychologists assessed cognitive, language and motor development by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Toddler Development (3rd edition) at the age of 18 months. Duration of breast feeding was linearly positively associated with all the Bayley scales, except of gross motor. The association persisted after adjustment for potential confounders with an increase of 0.28 points in the scale of cognitive development (β=0.28; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.55), 0.29 points in the scale of receptive communication (β=0.29; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.54), 0.30 points in the scale of expressive communication (β=0.30; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.57) and 0.29 points in the scale of fine motor development (β=0.29; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.56) per accumulated month of breast feeding. Children who were breast fed longer than 6 months had a 4.44-point increase in the scale of fine motor development (β=4.44; 95% CI 0.06 to 8.82) compared with those never breast fed. Longer duration of breast feeding was associated with increased scores in cognitive, language and motor development at 18 months of age, independently from a wide range of parental and infant characteristics. Additional longitudinal studies and trials are needed to confirm these results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Segregation and Hispanic Homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Bisciglia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the overall population of Hispanics within the United States has eclipsed that of African Americans, a mounting concern has developed regarding the rise in Hispanic lethal violence as a result of social and economic inequality. One means to measure this inequality is in the form of segregation. Research indicates that in many Hispanic communities, their levels of segregation from the White non-Hispanic population are similar to that of African Americans. Although a multitude of previous studies have looked at the impact of segregation among African Americans, the literature remains under-represented in terms of multi-city macro-level analyses among Hispanics. This current study extends the analysis of segregation’s effects on lethal violence to this population. To this end, two measures of segregation were used, the index of dissimilarity and exposure. Using data from the census and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC mortality files, negative binominal regression models were created using a sample of 236 U.S. cities. The results indicated that both measures of segregation show a strong positive influence on rates of Hispanic homicides.

  18. Understanding Segregation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Elizabeth

    There is growing consensus that living in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty increases the likelihood of social problems such as teenage parenthood, drug and alcohol use, crime victimization, and chronic unemployment. Neighborhood inequality is also implicated in studies of enduring race/ethnic health disparities, and there are recent moves to broaden the definition of health care policy to policies targeting social inequality (Mechanic 2007). Residential segregation affects health outcomes in several different ways. First, income, education, and occupation are all strongly related to health (Adler and Newman 2002). Segregation is a key mechanism through which socioeconomic inequality is perpetuated and reinforced, as it hinders the upward mobility of disadvantaged groups by limiting their educational and employment opportunities. Second, segregation increases minority exposure to unhealthy neighborhood environments. Residential segregation creates areas with concentrated poverty and unemployment, both of which are key factors that predict violence and create racial differences in homicide (Samson and Wilson 1995). Neighborhood characteristics, such as exposure to environmental hazards, fear of violence, and access to grocery stores, affect health risks and health behaviors (Cheadle et al. 1991). Tobacco and alcohol industries also advertise their products disproportionately in poor, minority areas (Moore, Williams, and Qualls 1996). Finally, residential segregation leads to inequalitie in health care resources, which contributes to disparities in quality of treatment (Smedley, Stith, and Nelson 2002).

  19. Maternal weight prior and during pregnancy and offspring's BMI and adiposity at 5-6 years in the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacota, M; Forhan, A; Saldanha-Gomes, C; Charles, M A; Heude, B

    2017-08-01

    Beyond pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal weight change before and during pregnancy may also affect offspring adiposity. To investigate the relationship between maternal weight history before and during pregnancy with children's adiposity at 5-6 years. In 1069 mother-child dyads from the EDEN Cohort, we examined by linear regression the associations of children's BMI, fat mass and abdominal adiposity at 5-6 years with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, pre-pregnancy average yearly weight change from age 20 and gestational weight gain. The shapes of relationships were investigated using splines and polynomial functions were tested. Children's BMI and adiposity parameters were positively associated with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, but these relationships were mainly seen in thin mothers, with no substantial variation for maternal BMI ranging from 22 to 35 kg/m 2 . Gestational weight gain was positively associated with children's BMI Z-score, but again more so in thin mothers. We found no association with pre-pregnancy weight change. Before the adiposity rebound, maternal pre-pregnancy thinness explains most of the relationship with children's BMI. The relationship may emerge at older ages in children of overweight and obese mothers, and this latency may be an obstacle to early prevention. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  20. Social withdrawal at 1 year is associated with emotional and behavioural problems at 3 and 5 years: the Eden mother-child cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Thorr, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to examine how social withdrawal in infants aged 12 months predicted emotional and behavioural problems at ages 3 and 5 years. The sample included 1,586 infants from the French Eden Mother-Child Cohort Study who had a measure of social withdrawal with the Alarm Distress BaBy scale at age 1 year; among these children, emotional and behavioural difficulties were rated by mothers using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ) at 3 years for 1,257 (79 %) children and at 5 years for 1,123 (72 %) children. Social withdrawal behaviour at age 1 year was significantly associated with the SDQ behavioural disorder scale at 3 years, independently of a host of familial and child temperament confounders. The association with the relational disorder, prosocial and total difficulty scales was close to significance at 3 years after taking into account familial and temperament confounders. Social withdrawal significantly predicted the three aforementioned scales when measured at 5 years. No significant predictivity of the emotional scale and hyperactivity scale was detected at any age. This study made with a large longitudinal sample confirms the negative effects on development of social withdrawal behaviour, shedding light on the unfolding of behavioural disorders and relational difficulties in children; this calls for early detection of sustained social withdrawal behaviour, as it seems to hamper emotional development.

  1. Relationship between early language skills and the development of inattention/hyperactivity symptoms during the preschool period: Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Hugo; Galera, Cedric; van der Waerden, Judith; Hoertel, Nicolas; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Melchior, Maria; Ramus, Franck

    2016-11-08

    This study aims to examine bidirectional relationships between children's language skills and Inattention/Hyperactivity (IH) symptoms during preschool. Children (N = 1459) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed at ages 3 and 5.5 years. Language skills were evaluated using the WPPSI-III, NEPSY and ELOLA batteries. Children's behavior, including IH symptoms, was assessed using the parent-rated Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach, we examined the relationship between language skills and IH symptoms, as well as potential mediating processes. SEM analyses indicated a small negative effect of language skills at 3 years on ADHD symptoms at 5.5 years after adjusting for IH symptoms at 3 years (β =-0.12, SE = 0.04, p-value = 0.002). Interpersonal difficulties did not mediate the relationship between early language skills and later IH symptoms, nor was this association reduced after adjusting for a broad range of pre- and postnatal environmental factors and performance IQ. Among different language skills, receptive syntax at 3 years was most strongly related to IH symptoms at 5.5 years. Poor language skills at age 3 may predict IH symptoms when a child enters primary school. Implications for the understanding and the prevention of the co-occurrence of language disorders and ADHD are discussed.

  2. Veil: A Wall of Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Nowrouzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Moving behind the confines of the race has been the continuous efforts of African-Americans so as to reveal and confirm their true humanity and abilities to white race as well as their own race. African-Americans, Dubois posited, are shut out of the white America, inhabiting behind a vast veil which creates a deep division between the races. Veil is made of the fabric of racism interwoven thread by thread and imposed by white world. It is thrown discourteously and forcibly to the African-Americans whom their distorted images are imposed on them and their true humanity and identity are hidden behind the veil. This study overtakes to present how Loraine Hansberry, in her first and the most outstanding drama, A Raisin in the Sun examines the world within the veil. She demonstrated that Duboisian metaphoric veil is operating in the racist American society so that not only African-Americans are segregated physically and psychologically from the rest of the world but also are inflicted with obscurity of vision that are neither able to see themselves clearly nor be seen truly. On the other hand, it presents how the veil provides blacks with the second sight to observe and comprehend the racist nature of whites which is hidden and incomprehensible for them.

  3. Distortion dependent intersystem crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Anne Boutrup; Sølling, Theis Ivan

    2017-01-01

    . The effect is observed to increase in the presence of methyl-groups on the pinnacle carbon-atoms, where largest extents of r and p orbital-mixing are observed. This is fully consistent with the time-resolved spectroscopy data: Toluene and p-xylene show evidence for ultrafast triplet formation competing......The competition between ultrafast intersystem crossing and internal conversion in benzene, toluene, and p-xylene is investigated with time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. By exciting to S2 out-of-plane symmetry breaking, distortions are activated at early...... times whereupon spin-forbidden intersystem crossing becomes (partly) allowed. Natural bond orbital analysis suggests that the pinnacle carbon atoms distorting from the aromatic plane change hybridization between the planar Franck-Condon geometry and the deformed (boat-shaped) S2 equilibrium geometry...

  4. O impacto da depressão pós-parto para a interação mãe-bebê The impact of postpartum depression to mother-child interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Delias de Sousa Schwengber

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo examina algumas questões teóricas e estudos empíricos a respeito do impacto da depressão pós-parto para a interação mãe-bebê. Analisam-se as características da depressão pós-parto e fatores de risco associados à sua ocorrência. Discutem-se, em particular, as repercussões do estado depressivo da mãe para a qualidade da interação com o bebê e, conseqüentemente, para o desenvolvimento posterior da criança. Os estudos revisados sugerem que a depressão pós-parto afeta a qualidade da interação mãe-bebê, especialmente no que se refere ao prejuízo na responsividade materna. Por outro lado, apontam que os efeitos da depressão da mãe na interação com o bebê dependem de uma série de fatores, o que não permite a realização de um prognóstico baseado em fatores isolados.The present article examines some theoretical aspects and empirical studies related to the impact of postpartum depression to mother-child interaction. The characteristics of postpartum depression and the risk factors related to its occurrence are also examined. Furthermore, it discusses the consequences of maternal depressed state to mother-child interaction and to child development. The revised studies suggest that postpartum depression negatively affects the mother-child interaction quality, particularly maternal responsivity. On the other hand, studies show that postpartum depression effects on mother-child interaction depend on various factors, which makes it impossible for us to make predictions based on any isolated factor.

  5. Maternal post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and alcohol dependence and child behaviour outcomes in mother-child dyads infected with HIV: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthling, Jani; Martin, Cherie L; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark F; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-12-10

    HIV and psychiatric disorders are prevalent and often concurrent. Childbearing women are at an increased risk for both HIV and psychiatric disorders, specifically depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Poor mental health in the peripartum period has adverse effects on infant development and behaviour. Few studies have investigated the relationship between maternal PTSD and child behaviour outcomes in an HIV vertically infected sample. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal postpartum trauma exposure and PTSD were risk factors for child behaviour problems. In addition, maternal depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability were explored as cofactors. The study was conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. 70 mother-child dyads infected with HIV were selected from a group of participants recruited from community health centres. The study followed a longitudinal design. Five measures were used to assess maternal trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability at 12 months postpartum: Life Events Checklist (LEC), Harvard Trauma Scale (HTS), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) Scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Child behaviour was assessed at 42 months with the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). The rate of maternal disorder was high with 50% scoring above the cut-off for depression, 22.9% for PTSD and 7% for alcohol abuse. Half of the children scored within the clinical range for problematic behaviour. Children of mothers with depression were significantly more likely to display total behaviour problems than children of mothers without depression. Maternal PTSD had the greatest explanatory power for child behaviour problems, although it did not significantly predict child outcomes. This study highlights the importance of identifying and managing maternal PTSD and depression in mothers of children infected with HIV. The

  6. Mediterranean diet adherence during pregnancy and risk of wheeze and eczema in the first year of life: INMA (Spain) and RHEA (Greece) mother-child cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzi, Leda; Garcia, Raquel; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Basterrechea, Mikel; Begiristain, Haizea; Iñiguez, Carmen; Vioque, Jesus; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-12-14

    Maternal diet during pregnancy might influence the development of childhood allergic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence during pregnancy on wheeze and eczema in the first year of life in two population-based mother-child cohorts in Spain and Greece. We studied 1771 mother-newborn pairs from the Spanish multi-centre 'INMA' (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) study (Gipuzkoa, Sabadell and Valencia) and 745 pairs from the 'RHEA' study in Crete, Greece. The symptoms of wheeze and eczema were based on the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed by FFQ and MD adherence was evaluated through an a priori score. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to adjust for several confounders in each cohort and summary estimates were obtained by a meta-analysis. MD adherence was not associated with the risk of wheeze and eczema in any cohort, and similar results were identified in the meta-analysis approach. High meat intake (relative risk (RR) 1·22, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·49) and 'processed' meat intake (RR 1·18, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·37) during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products was significantly associated with a decreased risk of infantile wheeze (RR 0·83, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·96). The results of the present study show that high meat intake during pregnancy may increase the risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products may decrease it.

  7. Curling up with a good e-book: Mother-child shared story reading on screen or paper affects embodied interaction and warmth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Yuill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared changes in cognitive, affective and postural aspects of interaction during shared mother and child book reading on screen and on paper. Readers commonly express strong preferences for reading on paper, but several studies have shown marginal, if any, effects of text medium on cognitive outcomes such as recall. Shared reading with a parent is an engaging, affective and embodied experience across time, as well as a cognitive task, so it is important to understand how paper vs. screen affects broader aspects of these shared experiences. Mid-childhood sees a steep rise in screen use alongside a shift from shared to independent reading. We assessed how the medium of paper or screen might alter children’s shared reading experiences at this transitional age. Twenty-four 7- to 9-year-old children and their mothers were videotaped sharing a story book for 8 minutes in each of 4 conditions: mother or child as reader, paper or tablet screen as medium. We rated videotapes for interaction warmth and child engagement by minute and analysed dyadic postural synchrony, mothers’ commentaries and quality of children’s recall, also interviewing participants about their experiences of reading and technology. We found no differences in recall quality but interaction warmth was lower for screen than for paper, and dropped over time, notably when children read on screen. Interactions also differed between mother-led and child-led reading. We propose that mother - child posture for paper reading supported more shared activity and argue that cultural affordances of screens, together with physical differences between devices, support different behaviours that affect shared engagement, with implications for the design and use of digital technology at home and at school. We advocate studying embodied and affective aspects of shared reading to understand the overall implications of screens in children’s transition to independent reading.

  8. Double Burden of Malnutrition in Rural West Java: Household-Level Analysis for Father-Child and Mother-Child Pairs and the Association with Dietary Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Jiang, Hong Wei; Gunawan, Budhi; Dewanti, Linda; Honda, Ryo; Shimizu-Furusawa, Hana; Abdoellah, Oekan S; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-10-02

    Indonesia is facing household-level double burden malnutrition. This study aimed at examining (1) household-level double burden for the mother-child and father-child pairs; (2) risk of adiposity of double burden households; and (3) associated dietary factors. Subjects were 5th and 6th grade elementary school children (n = 242), their mothers (n = 242), and their fathers (n = 225) in five communities (1 = urban, 4 = rural) in the Bandung District. Questionnaires on socioeconomic factors, blood hemoglobin measurements, and anthropometric measurements were administered. For adults, body fat percentage (BF%) was estimated by bioelectrical impedance (BF%-BI) and by converting skinfold thickness (ST) data using Durnin and Womersley's (1974) formula (BF%-ST). Food frequency questionnaires were also completed. Double burden was defined as coexistence of maternal or paternal overweight (Body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23) and child stunting (height-for-age z-score child double burden occurred in 30.6% of total households, whereas paternal-child double burden was only in 8.4%. Mothers from double burden households showed high adiposity; 87.3% with BF%-BI and 66.2% with BF%-ST had BF% >35%, and 60.6% had waists >80 cm. The major dietary patterns identified were "Modern" and "High-animal products". After controlling for confounding factors, children in the highest quartile of the "High-animal products" dietary pattern had a lower risk of maternal-child double burden (Adjusted OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21-1.04) than those in the lowest quartile. Given that the "High-animal products" dietary pattern was associated with the decreased risk of maternal-child double burden through a strong negative correlation with child stunting, improving child stunting through adequate intake of animal products is critical to solve the problem of maternal-child double burden in Indonesia.

  9. Curling Up With a Good E-Book: Mother-Child Shared Story Reading on Screen or Paper Affects Embodied Interaction and Warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Nicola; Martin, Alex F

    2016-01-01

    This study compared changes in cognitive, affective, and postural aspects of interaction during shared mother and child book reading on screen and on paper. Readers commonly express strong preferences for reading on paper, but several studies have shown marginal, if any, effects of text medium on cognitive outcomes such as recall. Shared reading with a parent is an engaging, affective and embodied experience across time, as well as a cognitive task, so it is important to understand how paper vs. screen affects broader aspects of these shared experiences. Mid-childhood sees a steep rise in screen use alongside a shift from shared to independent reading. We assessed how the medium of paper or screen might alter children's shared reading experiences at this transitional age. Twenty-four 7- to 9-year-old children and their mothers were videotaped sharing a story book for 8 min in each of four conditions: mother or child as reader, paper, or tablet screen as medium. We rated videotapes for interaction warmth and child engagement by minute and analyzed dyadic postural synchrony, mothers' commentaries and quality of children's recall, also interviewing participants about their experiences of reading and technology. We found no differences in recall quality but interaction warmth was lower for screen than for paper, and dropped over time, notably when children read on screen. Interactions also differed between mother-led and child-led reading. We propose that mother - child posture for paper reading supported more shared activity and argue that cultural affordances of screens, together with physical differences between devices, support different behaviors that affect shared engagement, with implications for the design and use of digital technology at home and at school. We advocate studying embodied and affective aspects of shared reading to understand the overall implications of screens in children's transition to independent reading.

  10. Intimate Partner Violence and Animal Abuse in an Immigrant-Rich Sample of Mother-Child Dyads Recruited From Domestic Violence Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christie A; Hageman, Tina; Williams, James Herbert; Ascione, Frank R

    2018-03-01

    We examined rates of animal abuse in pet-owning families experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). We also examined whether higher levels of IPV (as measured by subscales from the Conflict Tactics Scales) predicted increased risk for partner-perpetrated animal abuse. Our sample included 291 mother-child dyads, where the mothers sought services from domestic violence agencies. Nearly half the sample is comprised of Mexican immigrants. Mothers reported that 11.7% of partners threatened to harm a pet and 26.1% actually harmed a pet, the latter of which represents a lower rate than in similar studies. When examining animal abuse by "Hispanic status," follow-up analyses revealed significant omnibus differences between groups, in that non-Hispanic U.S.-born partners (mostly White) displayed higher rates of harming pets (41%) than either U.S.-born or Mexican-born Hispanic groups (27% and 12.5%, respectively). Differences in rates for only threatening (but not harming) pets were not significant, possibly due to a small number of partners ( n = 32) in this group. When examining whether partners' IPV predicted only threatening to harm pets, no IPV subscale variables (Physical Assault, Psychological Aggression, Injury, or Sexual Coercion) were significant after controlling for income, education, and Hispanic status. When examining actual harm to pets, more Psychological Aggression and less Physical Assault significantly predicted slightly higher risk of harm. However, Mexican-born partners had nearly 4 times lower risk of harming a pet. Overall, these results suggest that Hispanic men who are perpetrators of IPV are less likely to harm pets than non-Hispanic perpetrators of IPV, particularly if Mexican-born. Considering that the United States has a significant proportion of Mexican immigrants, it may be worthwhile to explore the topics of IPV and animal abuse within this group.

  11. Curling Up With a Good E-Book: Mother-Child Shared Story Reading on Screen or Paper Affects Embodied Interaction and Warmth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Nicola; Martin, Alex F.

    2016-01-01

    This study compared changes in cognitive, affective, and postural aspects of interaction during shared mother and child book reading on screen and on paper. Readers commonly express strong preferences for reading on paper, but several studies have shown marginal, if any, effects of text medium on cognitive outcomes such as recall. Shared reading with a parent is an engaging, affective and embodied experience across time, as well as a cognitive task, so it is important to understand how paper vs. screen affects broader aspects of these shared experiences. Mid-childhood sees a steep rise in screen use alongside a shift from shared to independent reading. We assessed how the medium of paper or screen might alter children’s shared reading experiences at this transitional age. Twenty-four 7- to 9-year-old children and their mothers were videotaped sharing a story book for 8 min in each of four conditions: mother or child as reader, paper, or tablet screen as medium. We rated videotapes for interaction warmth and child engagement by minute and analyzed dyadic postural synchrony, mothers’ commentaries and quality of children’s recall, also interviewing participants about their experiences of reading and technology. We found no differences in recall quality but interaction warmth was lower for screen than for paper, and dropped over time, notably when children read on screen. Interactions also differed between mother-led and child-led reading. We propose that mother - child posture for paper reading supported more shared activity and argue that cultural affordances of screens, together with physical differences between devices, support different behaviors that affect shared engagement, with implications for the design and use of digital technology at home and at school. We advocate studying embodied and affective aspects of shared reading to understand the overall implications of screens in children’s transition to independent reading. PMID:28018283

  12. Prevalence and Associated Factors for Dual Form of Malnutrition in Mother-Child Pairs at the Same Household in the Gaza Strip-Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kishawi, Rima Rafiq; Soo, Kah Leng; Abed, Yehia Awad; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan

    2016-01-01

    In many developing countries nutritional, and epidemiological transitions are emerging into continuing undernutrition and escalating overnutrition, giving rise to the double burden of the malnutrition phenomenon. This study aims to determine the prevalence of the dual form of malnutrition (overweight mother/underweight child) in the same household and its associated factors in the Gaza Strip. A total of 357 mother-child pairs from the same households were surveyed from three different geographical locations in the Gaza Strip, namely, El Remal urban area, Jabalia refugee camp, and Al Qarara rural area. The height and weight of mothers aged 18-50 years were measured, and their body mass index (BMI) was computed. The mothers were categorized according to the criterion of the World Health Organization (WHO) for BMI as overweight if they have a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Anthropometric indices were measured for children aged two to five years to classify the underweight children Z-score child's birth order (ORadj, 1.50, 95% CL, 1.22, 1.82; p = <0.001), father's educational (low or medium) levels (ORadj, 3.19, 95% CL, 1.07, 9.5; p = 0. 036), or (ORadj, 3.4, 95% CL, 1.12, 10.37; p = 0. 031), high scores of mothers' nutrition knowledge (ORadj, 1.23, 95% CL, 1.01, 1.52; p = 0. 048), and low monthly income (ORadj, 0.28, 95% CL, 0.09, 0.88; p = 0. 030). The results from this study showed the dual form of malnutrition in the same household was prevalent in the Gaza Strip. This is a public health issue that must be understood and addressed and policy makers must implement an appropriate nutrition action plan to control dual form of malnutrition based on the underlying specific risk factors in the study population. In addition, interventions are needed to help individuals to translate their nutrition knowledge into healthy dietary behaviors.

  13. Maternal depression and personality traits in association with child neuropsychological and behavioral development in preschool years: Mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutra, Katerina; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Kampouri, Mariza; Sarri, Katerina; Vassilaki, Maria; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2017-08-01

    Poor perinatal maternal mental health has been linked with negative outcomes on early child development; however, the importance of maternal personality has been neglected thus far. We aimed to examine the effects of antenatal and postnatal maternal mental health, including assessment of maternal personality characteristics, on child neuropsychological and behavioral development at preschool years in a population based mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece. Self-reported measures of maternal depression (EPDS), trait anxiety (STAI-Trait) and personality traits (EPQ-R) were assessed in a sample of 288 women at 28-32 weeks of gestation. A larger sample of 642 mothers completed the EPDS scale at 8 weeks postpartum. Children's neuropsychological (MSCA) and behavioral (ADHDT and SDQ) development were assessed at 4 years of age. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between the exposures and outcomes of interest after adjustment for potential confounders. Regarding child neuropsychological development, increased postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with child's perceptual performance, whereas increased maternal psychoticism was linked with child's motor ability at 4 years of age. Furthermore, elevated levels of maternal depression during pregnancy and postpartum, and the predisposing personality characteristics of trait anxiety and neuroticism, were associated with children's behavioral difficulties. A clinical diagnostic instrument for maternal mental health was not used and assessment of children's behavior was based on maternal report. These findings suggest that poor perinatal maternal mental health and an adverse personality profile may be associated with impaired child neuropsychological and behavioral development at preschool years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Multidimensionality of the relationship between social status and dietary patterns in early childhood: longitudinal results from the French EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Soumaïla; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline; Botton, Jérémie; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Forhan, Anne; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Dargent-Molina, Patricia; Lioret, Sandrine

    2015-09-24

    The association between socioeconomic position and diet in early childhood has mainly been addressed based on maternal education and household income. We aimed to assess the influence of a variety of social factors from different socio-ecological levels (parents, household and child-care) on multi-time point dietary patterns identified from 2 to 5 y. This study included 974 children from the French EDEN mother-child cohort. Two multi-time point dietary patterns were derived in a previous study: they correspond to consistent exposures to either core- or non-core foods across 2, 3 and 5 y and were labelled "Guidelines" and "Processed, fast-foods". The associations of various social factors collected during pregnancy (age, education level) or at 2-y follow-up (mother's single status, occupation, work commitments, household financial disadvantage, presence of older siblings and child-care arrangements) with each of the two dietary patterns, were assessed by multivariable linear regression analysis. The adherence to a diet close to "Guidelines" was positively and independently associated with both maternal and paternal education levels. The adherence to a diet consistently composed of processed and fast-foods was essentially linked with maternal variables (younger age and lower education level), household financial disadvantage, the presence of older sibling (s) and being cared for at home by someone other than the mother. Multiple social factors operating at different levels (parents, household, and child-care) were found to be associated with the diet of young children. Different independent predictors were found for each of the two longitudinal dietary patterns, suggesting distinct pathways of influence. Our findings further suggest that interventions promoting healthier dietary choices for young children should involve both parents and take into account not only household financial disadvantage but also maternal age, family size and options for child-care.

  15. Prenatal diet and children's trajectories of hyperactivity-inattention and conduct problems from 3 to 8 years: the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galera, Cédric; Heude, Barbara; Forhan, Anne; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Peyre, Hugo; Van der Waerden, Judith; Pryor, Laura; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Melchior, Maria; Lioret, Sandrine; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine

    2018-03-24

    Evidence shows that diet contributes substantially to lifelong physical and mental health. Although dietary exposure during gestation and early postnatal life is critical, human epidemiological data are limited regarding its link with children's subsequent externalizing issues. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of maternal diet during pregnancy in offspring's symptoms of hyperactivity-inattention and conduct problems from ages 3 to 8 years. We used data of 1,242 mother-child pairs from a French cohort followed up from pregnancy until the children were 8 years of age. Dietary patterns (DP) of the mother during pregnancy were assessed with food frequency questionnaires. Children's externalizing behavior was assessed with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 3, 5, and 8 years, from which trajectories of hyperactivity-inattention symptoms and conduct problems were derived. We conducted multivariable logistic models to study associations adjusted for a range of potential confounders. Results showed significant relationships between maternal 'low Healthy diet' (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 1.61; IC 95%: 1.09-2.37) and 'high Western diet' (aOR = 1.67; IC 95%: 1.13-2.47) during pregnancy and children's trajectories of high symptoms of hyperactivity-inattention. The associations took into account relevant confounders such as DP of the children at age 2 years, maternal stress and depression, gestational diabetes, and socioeconomic variables. Maternal diet during pregnancy was independently associated with children's hyperactivity-inattention symptoms but not with conduct problems. Early prevention addressing lifestyle should specifically target diet in pregnant women. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Solute segregation during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedersich, H.; Okamoto, P.R.; Lam, N.Q.

    1977-01-01

    Irradiation at elevated temperature induces redistribution of the elements in alloys on a microstructural level. This phenomenon is caused by differences in the coupling of the various alloy constituents to the radiation-induced defect fluxes. A simple model of the segregation process based on coupled reaction-rate and diffusion equations is discussed. The model gives a good description of the experimentally observed consequences of radiation-induced segregation, including enrichment or depletion of solute elements near defect sinks such as surfaces, voids and dislocations; precipitation of second phases in solid solutions; precipitate redistribution in two-phase alloys; and effects of defect-production rates on void-swelling rates in alloys with minor solute additions

  17. Applied Thermodynamics: Grain Boundary Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Lejček

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of interfaces—free surfaces and grain boundaries—is generally described by the Langmuir–McLean segregation isotherm controlled by Gibbs energy of segregation. Various components of the Gibbs energy of segregation, the standard and the excess ones as well as other thermodynamic state functions—enthalpy, entropy and volume—of interfacial segregation are derived and their physical meaning is elucidated. The importance of the thermodynamic state functions of grain boundary segregation, their dependence on volume solid solubility, mutual solute–solute interaction and pressure effect in ferrous alloys is demonstrated.

  18. Segregation in Religion Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jiantao; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhou, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Religious beliefs could facilitate human cooperation [1-6], promote civic engagement [7-10], improve life satisfaction [11-13] and even boom economic development [14-16]. On the other side, some aspects of religion may lead to regional violence, intergroup conflict and moral prejudice against atheists [17-23]. Analogous to the separation of races [24], the religious segregation is a major ingredient resulting in increasing alienation, misunderstanding, cultural conflict and even violence amon...

  19. Distorted Fingerprint Verification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya KARTHIKAESHWARAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. Fingerprint matching is affected by non-linear distortion introduced in fingerprint impression during the image acquisition process. This non-linear deformation changes both the position and orientation of minutiae. The proposed system operates in three stages: alignment based fingerprint matching, fuzzy clustering and classifier framework. First, an enhanced input fingerprint image has been aligned with the template fingerprint image and matching score is computed. To improve the performance of the system, a fuzzy clustering based on distance and density has been used to cluster the feature set obtained from the fingerprint matcher. Finally a classifier framework has been developed and found that cost sensitive classifier produces better results. The system has been evaluated on fingerprint database and the experimental result shows that system produces a verification rate of 96%. This system plays an important role in forensic and civilian applications.

  20. Segregation by onset asynchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P J B; Walton, L; Mitchell, G; Plenderleith, Y; Phillips, W A

    2008-08-05

    We describe a simple psychophysical paradigm for studying figure-ground segregation by onset asynchrony. Two pseudorandom arrays of Gabor patches are displayed, to left and right of fixation. Within one array, a subset of elements form a figure, such as a randomly curving path, that can only be reliably detected when their onset is not synchronized with that of the background elements. Several findings are reported. First, for most participants, segregation required an onset asynchrony of 20-40 ms. Second, detection was no better when the figure was presented first, and thus by itself, than when the background elements were presented first, even though in the latter case the figure could not be detected in either of the two successive displays alone. Third, asynchrony segregated subsets of randomly oriented elements equally well. Fourth, asynchronous onsets aligned with the path could be discriminated from those lying on the path but not aligned with it. Fifth, both transient and sustained neural activity contribute to detection. We argue that these findings are compatible with neural signaling by synchronized rate codes. Finally, schizophrenic disorganization is associated with reduced sensitivity. Thus, in addition to bearing upon basic theoretical issues, this paradigm may have clinical utility.

  1. Limited distortion in LSB steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younhee; Duric, Zoran; Richards, Dana

    2006-02-01

    It is well known that all information hiding methods that modify the least significant bits introduce distortions into the cover objects. Those distortions have been utilized by steganalysis algorithms to detect that the objects had been modified. It has been proposed that only coefficients whose modification does not introduce large distortions should be used for embedding. In this paper we propose an effcient algorithm for information hiding in the LSBs of JPEG coefficients. Our algorithm uses parity coding to choose the coefficients whose modifications introduce minimal additional distortion. We derive the expected value of the additional distortion as a function of the message length and the probability distribution of the JPEG quantization errors of cover images. Our experiments show close agreement between the theoretical prediction and the actual additional distortion.

  2. The Relation between Maternal Work Hours and Primary School Students' Affect in China: The Role of the Frequency of Mother-Child Communication (FMCC) and Maternal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Lv, Bo; Guo, Xiaolin; Liu, Chunhui; Qi, Bing; Hu, Weiping; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although substantial evidence suggests that maternal work hours may have a negative effect on children's cognitive development, the link between maternal work hours and children's affect remains unclear. Some studies have observed that non-daytime maternal work hours are associated with more emotional problems among children. However, few studies have focused on the effects of maternal work hours on workdays and non-workdays. Therefore, this study separately investigated the relation between maternal work hours on workdays and on non-workdays and explored the mediating role of the frequency of mother-child communication (FMCC) and the moderating role of maternal education. Method: Using cluster sampling, this study selected 879 students in grades 4-6 at two primary schools in the Hebei and Shandong provinces in China and their mothers as the study subjects. A multi-group structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the relations between maternal work hours, FMCC and children's affect and the moderating effect of maternal education. Results: (1) Non-college-educated mothers' work hours on workdays negatively predicted FMCC, but there was no such effect for college-educated mothers; (2) non-workday work hours of all employed mothers negatively predicted FMCC; (3) the FMCC of all employed mothers positively predicted children's positive affect; (4) the FMCC of college-educated mothers negatively predicted children's negative affect although there was no such relation for non-college-educated mothers; (5) there was a significant mediating effect of FMCC on the relation between maternal work hours and children's affect only for non-college-educated mothers; and (6) the workday work hours of non-college-educated mothers positively predicted children's negative affect, but this correlation was negative for college-educated mothers. Conclusion: Maternal work hours have a marginally significant negative effect on children's affect through FMCC only for non

  3. Prevalence and Associated Factors for Dual Form of Malnutrition in Mother-Child Pairs at the Same Household in the Gaza Strip-Palestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Rafiq El Kishawi

    Full Text Available In many developing countries nutritional, and epidemiological transitions are emerging into continuing undernutrition and escalating overnutrition, giving rise to the double burden of the malnutrition phenomenon.This study aims to determine the prevalence of the dual form of malnutrition (overweight mother/underweight child in the same household and its associated factors in the Gaza Strip.A total of 357 mother-child pairs from the same households were surveyed from three different geographical locations in the Gaza Strip, namely, El Remal urban area, Jabalia refugee camp, and Al Qarara rural area. The height and weight of mothers aged 18-50 years were measured, and their body mass index (BMI was computed. The mothers were categorized according to the criterion of the World Health Organization (WHO for BMI as overweight if they have a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Anthropometric indices were measured for children aged two to five years to classify the underweight children Z-score <-1.The results showed the prevalence of the dual form of malnutrition in the Gaza Strip was 15.7%, and its associated factors were child's birth order (ORadj, 1.50, 95% CL, 1.22, 1.82; p = <0.001, father's educational (low or medium levels (ORadj, 3.19, 95% CL, 1.07, 9.5; p = 0. 036, or (ORadj, 3.4, 95% CL, 1.12, 10.37; p = 0. 031, high scores of mothers' nutrition knowledge (ORadj, 1.23, 95% CL, 1.01, 1.52; p = 0. 048, and low monthly income (ORadj, 0.28, 95% CL, 0.09, 0.88; p = 0. 030.The results from this study showed the dual form of malnutrition in the same household was prevalent in the Gaza Strip. This is a public health issue that must be understood and addressed and policy makers must implement an appropriate nutrition action plan to control dual form of malnutrition based on the underlying specific risk factors in the study population. In addition, interventions are needed to help individuals to translate their nutrition knowledge into healthy dietary behaviors.

  4. Double Burden of Malnutrition in Rural West Java: Household-Level Analysis for Father-Child and Mother-Child Pairs and the Association with Dietary Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Sekiyama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is facing household-level double burden malnutrition. This study aimed at examining (1 household-level double burden for the mother-child and father-child pairs; (2 risk of adiposity of double burden households; and (3 associated dietary factors. Subjects were 5th and 6th grade elementary school children (n = 242, their mothers (n = 242, and their fathers (n = 225 in five communities (1 = urban, 4 = rural in the Bandung District. Questionnaires on socioeconomic factors, blood hemoglobin measurements, and anthropometric measurements were administered. For adults, body fat percentage (BF% was estimated by bioelectrical impedance (BF%-BI and by converting skinfold thickness (ST data using Durnin and Womersley’s (1974 formula (BF%-ST. Food frequency questionnaires were also completed. Double burden was defined as coexistence of maternal or paternal overweight (Body mass index (BMI ≥ 23 and child stunting (height-for-age z-score <−2 within households. Maternal-child double burden occurred in 30.6% of total households, whereas paternal-child double burden was only in 8.4%. Mothers from double burden households showed high adiposity; 87.3% with BF%-BI and 66.2% with BF%-ST had BF% >35%, and 60.6% had waists >80 cm. The major dietary patterns identified were “Modern” and “High-animal products”. After controlling for confounding factors, children in the highest quartile of the “High-animal products” dietary pattern had a lower risk of maternal-child double burden (Adjusted OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21–1.04 than those in the lowest quartile. Given that the “High-animal products” dietary pattern was associated with the decreased risk of maternal-child double burden through a strong negative correlation with child stunting, improving child stunting through adequate intake of animal products is critical to solve the problem of maternal-child double burden in Indonesia.

  5. Patterns of Residential Segregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Louf

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of income shapes the structure and organisation of cities and its understanding has broad societal implications. Despite an abundant literature, many issues remain unclear. In particular, all definitions of segregation are implicitely tied to a single indicator, usually rely on an ambiguous definition of income classes, without any consensus on how to define neighbourhoods and to deal with the polycentric organization of large cities. In this paper, we address all these questions within a unique conceptual framework. We avoid the challenge of providing a direct definition of segregation and instead start from a definition of what segregation is not. This naturally leads to the measure of representation that is able to identify locations where categories are over- or underrepresented. From there, we provide a new measure of exposure that discriminates between situations where categories co-locate or repel one another. We then use this feature to provide an unambiguous, parameter-free method to find meaningful breaks in the income distribution, thus defining classes. Applied to the 2014 American Community Survey, we find 3 emerging classes-low, middle and higher income-out of the original 16 income categories. The higher-income households are proportionally more present in larger cities, while lower-income households are not, invalidating the idea of an increased social polarisation. Finally, using the density-and not the distance to a center which is meaningless in polycentric cities-we find that the richer class is overrepresented in high density zones, especially for larger cities. This suggests that density is a relevant factor for understanding the income structure of cities and might explain some of the differences observed between US and European cities.

  6. Distortions in Judged Spatial Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Albert

    1978-01-01

    Distortions in judgments of relative geographical relations were observed, particularly when the locations were in different geographical or political units. Subjects distorted the judged relation to conform with the relation of the superordinate political unit. A model for the hierachical storage of spatial information is presented. (Author/RD)

  7. Waste segregation procedures and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, J.D.; Massey, C.D.; Ward, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Segregation is a critical first step in handling hazardous and radioactive materials to minimize the generation of regulated wastes. In addition, segregation can significantly reduce the complexity and the total cost of managing waste. Procedures at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque require that wastes be segregated, first, by waste type (acids, solvents, low level radioactive, mixed, classified, etc.). Higher level segregation requirements, currently under development, are aimed at enhancing the possibilities for recovery, recycle and reapplication; reducing waste volumes; reducing waste disposal costs, and facilitating packaging storage, shipping and disposal. 2 tabs

  8. Conditions for spatial segregation: some European perspectives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; de Winter, M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates some theses on the theme of spatial segregation in Europe. Spatial segregation as an important issue on the political agendas of European nations; Two views of segregation in Europe; Strategies of European nations to deal with segregation; Segregation in European cities

  9. Volterra Series Based Distortion Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2010-01-01

    A large part of the characteristic sound of the electric guitar comes from nonlinearities in the signal path. Such nonlinearities may come from the input- or output-stage of the amplier, which is often equipped with vacuum tubes or a dedicated distortion pedal. In this paper the Volterra series...... expansion for non linear systems is investigated with respect to generating good distortion. The Volterra series allows for unlimited adjustment of the level and frequency dependency of each distortion component. Subjectively relevant ways of linking the dierent orders are discussed....

  10. Distortions in memory for visual displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Systematic errors in perception and memory present a challenge to theories of perception and memory and to applied psychologists interested in overcoming them as well. A number of systematic errors in memory for maps and graphs are reviewed, and they are accounted for by an analysis of the perceptual processing presumed to occur in comprehension of maps and graphs. Visual stimuli, like verbal stimuli, are organized in comprehension and memory. For visual stimuli, the organization is a consequence of perceptual processing, which is bottom-up or data-driven in its earlier stages, but top-down and affected by conceptual knowledge later on. Segregation of figure from ground is an early process, and figure recognition later; for both, symmetry is a rapidly detected and ecologically valid cue. Once isolated, figures are organized relative to one another and relative to a frame of reference. Both perceptual (e.g., salience) and conceptual factors (e.g., significance) seem likely to affect selection of a reference frame. Consistent with the analysis, subjects perceived and remembered curves in graphs and rivers in maps as more symmetric than they actually were. Symmetry, useful for detecting and recognizing figures, distorts map and graph figures alike. Top-down processes also seem to operate in that calling attention to the symmetry vs. asymmetry of a slightly asymmetric curve yielded memory errors in the direction of the description. Conceptual frame of reference effects were demonstrated in memory for lines embedded in graphs. In earlier work, the orientation of map figures was distorted in memory toward horizontal or vertical. In recent work, graph lines, but not map lines, were remembered as closer to an imaginary 45 deg line than they had been. Reference frames are determined by both perceptual and conceptual factors, leading to selection of the canonical axes as a reference frame in maps, but selection of the imaginary 45 deg as a reference frame in graphs.

  11. Shaping Segregation: Convexity vs. concavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Briones, Sebastián; Windows-Yule, Kit; Luding, Stefan; Parker, D.J.; Thornton, Anthony Richard

    2014-01-01

    Controlling segregation is both a practical and a theoretical challenge. In this Letter we demonstrate a manner in which rotation-induced segregation may be controlled by altering the geometry of the rotating containers in which granular systems are housed. Using a novel drum design comprising

  12. Chromosome segregation in plant meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda eZamariola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Faithful chromosome segregation in meiosis is essential for ploidy stability over sexual life cycles. In plants, defective chromosome segregation caused by gene mutations or other factors leads to the formation of unbalanced or unreduced gametes creating aneuploid or polyploid progeny, respectively. Accurate segregation requires the coordinated execution of conserved processes occurring throughout the two meiotic cell divisions. Synapsis and recombination ensure the establishment of chiasmata that hold homologous chromosomes together allowing their correct segregation in the first meiotic division, which is also tightly regulated by cell-cycle dependent release of cohesin and monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores to microtubules. In meiosis II, bi-orientation of sister kinetochores and proper spindle orientation correctly segregate chromosomes in four haploid cells. Checkpoint mechanisms acting at kinetochores control the accuracy of kinetochore-microtubule attachment, thus ensuring the completion of segregation. Here we review the current knowledge on the processes taking place during chromosome segregation in plant meiosis, focusing on the characterization of the molecular factors involved.

  13. Surface segregation during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, L.E.; Lam, N.Q.

    1985-10-01

    Gibbsian adsorption is known to alter the surface composition of many alloys. During irradiation, four additional processes that affect the near-surface alloy composition become operative: preferential sputtering, displacement mixing, radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation. Because of the mutual competition of these five processes, near-surface compositional changes in an irradiation environment can be extremely complex. Although ion-beam induced surface compositional changes were noted as long as fifty years ago, it is only during the past several years that individual mechanisms have been clearly identified. In this paper, a simple physical description of each of the processes is given, and selected examples of recent important progress are discussed. With the notable exception of preferential sputtering, it is shown that a reasonable qualitative understanding of the relative contributions from the individual processes under various irradiation conditions has been attained. However, considerably more effort will be required before a quantitative, predictive capability can be achieved. 29 refs., 8 figs

  14. An Improved Distortion Operator for Insurance Risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian-wei; QIU Wan-hua

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the distortion function approach developed in the actuarial literature for insurance risks. The main aim of this paper is to derive an extensive distortion operator, and to propose a new premium principle based on this extensive distortion operator. Furthermore, the non-robustness of general distortion operator is also discussed. Examples are provided using Bernoulli, Pareto, Lognormal and Gamma distribution assumptions.

  15. Applied thermodynamics: Grain boundary segregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Pavel; Zheng, L.; Hofmann, S.; Šob, Mojmír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2014), s. 1462-1484 ISSN 1099-4300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0311; GA ČR GAP108/12/0144; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68081723 Keywords : interfacial segregation * Gibbs energy of segregation * enthalpy * entropy * volume * grain boundaries * iron Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.502, year: 2014

  16. PICH promotes mitotic chromosome segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Thomas Friberg; Hickson, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    PICH is an SNF2-family DNA translocase that appears to play a role specifically in mitosis. Characterization of PICH in human cells led to the initial discovery of "ultra-fine DNA bridges" (UFBs) that connect the 2 segregating DNA masses in the anaphase of mitosis. These bridge structures, which...... further the role of PICH in the timely segregation of the rDNA locus....

  17. Habitat segregation in fish assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Ibbotson, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    The segregation of habitats of fish assemblages found in the chalk streams and rivers within the Wessex, South West and Southern Water Authority boundaries in southern England have been examined. Habitat segregation is the most frequent type of resource partitioning in natural communities. The habitat of individual fish species will be defined in order to determine the following: (1) the requirements of each species in terms of depth, current velocity, substrate, cover etc.; (2) identify the ...

  18. Income Segregation between Schools and School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ann; Reardon, Sean F.; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although trends in the racial segregation of schools are well documented, less is known about trends in income segregation. We use multiple data sources to document trends in income segregation between schools and school districts. Between-district income segregation of families with children enrolled in public school increased by over 15% from…

  19. Possible distortion of autoradiographic results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A.A.; Tumanushvili, G.D. (AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Tbilisi. Inst. Ehksperimental' noj Morfologii)

    1980-01-01

    The effect of radioactive labelling (H/sup 3/-thymidine) on the infusorian division is studied. The presented results show that introduction of labelled compounds results in accelerating infusorian cell division v. Thorough investigation of labelled compound effect with low activity on the parameters of cell division and the search of methods to eliminate distortions able to appear in autoradiographic experiments is expedient.

  20. TPC track distortions IV: post tenebras lux

    CERN Document Server

    Ammosov, V; Boyko, I; Chelkov, G; Dedovitch, D; Dydak, F; Elagin, A; Gostkin, M; Guskov, A; Koreshev, V; Krumshtein, Z; Nefedov, Y; Nikolaev, K; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A

    2007-01-01

    We present a comprehensive discussion and summary of static and dynamic track distortions in the HARP TPC in terms of physical origin, mathematical modelling and correction algorithms. `Static' distortions are constant with time, while `dynamic' distortions are distortions that occur only during the 400 ms long accelerator spill. The measurement of dynamic distortions, their mathematical modelling and the correction algorithms build on our understanding of static distortions. In the course of corroborating the validity of our static distortion corrections, their reliability and precision was further improved. Dynamic TPC distortions originate dominantly from the `stalactite' effect: a column of positive-ion charge starts growing at the begin of the accelerator spill, and continues growing with nearly constant velocity out from the sense-wire plane into the active TPC volume. However, the `stalactite' effect is not able to describe the distortions that are present already at the start of the spill and which ha...

  1. Image segregation in strabismic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Dennis M

    2007-06-01

    Humans with naturally occurring amblyopia show deficits thought to involve mechanisms downstream of V1. These include excessive crowding, abnormal global image processing, spatial sampling and symmetry detection and undercounting. Several recent studies suggest that humans with naturally occurring amblyopia show deficits in global image segregation. The current experiments were designed to study figure-ground segregation in amblyopic observers with documented deficits in crowding, symmetry detection, spatial sampling and counting, using similar stimuli. Observers had to discriminate the orientation of a figure (an "E"-like pattern made up of 17 horizontal Gabor patches), embedded in a 7x7 array of Gabor patches. When the 32 "background" patches are vertical, the "E" pops-out, due to segregation by orientation and performance is perfect; however, if the background patches are all, or mostly horizontal, the "E" is camouflaged, and performance is random. Using a method of constant stimuli, we varied the number of "background" patches that were vertical and measured the probability of correct discrimination of the global orientation of the E (up/down/left/right). Surprisingly, amblyopes who showed strong crowding and deficits in symmetry detection and counting, perform normally or very nearly so in this segregation task. I therefore conclude that these deficits are not a consequence of abnormal segregation of figure from background.

  2. Segregation in a Galton Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benito, J G; Vidales, A M; Ippolito, I

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with a numerical study of the problem of separation of particles with different elastic properties. The separation procedure uses a Galton Board which consist in a bidimensional system of obstacles arranged in a triangular lattice. Disks of equal diameters but different elastic properties are launched from the top of the device. The Galton Board is commonly used for mixing particles, but here, we intend to find special conditions under which one can use it as a segregating device. We introduce a mixture of particles and generate, through simulations, different conditions to favor the segregation process based on the different elastic coefficients of the particles. We inspect which is the best configuration of size, density of obstacles and wall separation to favor the separations of particles. Our results prove that the Galton Board can be used as a segregation device under certain conditions.

  3. Mobile Watermarking against Geometrical Distortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile watermarking robust to geometrical distortions is still a great challenge. In mobile watermarking, efficient computation is necessary because mobile devices have very limited resources due to power consumption. In this paper, we propose a low-complexity geometrically resilient watermarking approach based on the optimal tradeoff circular harmonic function (OTCHF correlation filter and the minimum average correlation energy Mellin radial harmonic (MACE-MRH correlation filter. By the rotation, translation and scale tolerance properties of the two kinds of filter, the proposed watermark detector can be robust to geometrical attacks. The embedded watermark is weighted by a perceptual mask which matches very well with the properties of the human visual system. Before correlation, a whitening process is utilized to improve watermark detection reliability. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed watermarking approach is computationally efficient and robust to geometrical distortions.

  4. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  5. Gender Segregation: Separate but Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthouse, David

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, only 11 public schools in the United States had gender-segregated classrooms. As of December 2009, there were more than 550. The movement is based on the hypothesis that hard-wired differences in the ways that male and female brains develop and function in childhood through adolescence require classrooms in which boys and girls are not…

  6. Sexual orientation, prejudice and segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, E.; Webbink, D.; Martin, N.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether gay and lesbian workers sort into tolerant occupations. With information on sexual orientation, prejudice, and occupational choice taken from Australian Twin Registers, we find that gays and lesbians shy away from prejudiced occupations. We show that our segregation

  7. Guessing and compression subject to distortion

    OpenAIRE

    Hanawal, Manjesh Kumar; Sundaresan, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    The problem of guessing a random string is revisited. The relation-ship between guessing without distortion and compression is extended to the case when source alphabet size is countably in¯nite. Further, similar relationship is established for the case when distortion allowed by establishing a tight relationship between rate distortion codes and guessing strategies.

  8. A experiência da maternidade e a dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem Maternal experience and language impairment mother-child dialogics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Henrich Crestani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: a experiência da maternidade e dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem. PROCEDIMENTOS: o objetivo de investigar as possíveis relações entre a constituição da experiência da maternidade e a dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem. A amostra desta pesquisa foi constituída por 4 crianças, entre 2 e 4 anos, com distúrbio de linguagem, e suas mães. As mães foram submetidas a uma entrevista semi-estruturada acerca da experiência materna e a possibilidade de a mesma ter passado por alterações emocionais tais como a depressão e/ou ansiedade. Coletou-se uma interação mãe-filho, e em um caso avó-neta, através da filmagem da díade em atividade lúdica para analisar o modo como a dialogia e a interação aconteciam na díade. RESULTADOS: demonstraram que as quatro crianças estiveram sujeitas a interações com mães e avó com índices de ansiedade (dois casos e depressão (dois casos. Apenas uma mãe não possuía tais índices e esta possuía dialogia adequada com a filha. CONCLUSÃO: os dados demonstraram relações entre a dialogia mãe-filho e a experiência materna. Houve distinções na dialogia e no brincar relacionados aos estados emocionais das mães e, em um caso, da avó.BACKGROUND: the maternal experience and language impairment mother-child dialogics. PROCEDURES: the aim was to research the possible relations between maternal experience and mother-child dialogics, in language impairment children cases. The sample was made up with four children, between two and four year old with language impairment and their mothers.The mothers answered a semi-structured interview about the maternal experience and possible mothers' emotional signs like anxiety and depression. The pairs engaged in interaction were videotaped in order to interpret the mother's speech, in one case grand-mother, and the interaction process. RESULTS: the results showed that the children were in interactions with mothers and a grandmother

  9. Meiotic drive on aberrant chromosome 1 in the mouse is determined by a linked distorter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulnik, S I; Sabantsev, I D; Orlova, G V; Ruvinsky, A O

    1993-04-01

    An aberrant chromosome 1 carrying an inverted fragment with two amplified DNA regions was isolated from wild populations of Mus musculus. Meiotic drive favouring the aberrant chromosome was demonstrated for heterozygous females. Its cause was preferential passage of aberrant chromosome 1 to the oocyte. Genetic analysis allowed us to identify a two-component system conditioning deviation from equal segregation of the homologues. The system consists of a postulated distorter and responder. The distorter is located on chromosome 1 distally to the responder, between the ln and Pep-3 genes, and it acts on the responder when in trans position. Polymorphism of the distorters was manifested as variation in their effect on meiotic drive level in the laboratory strain and mice from wild populations.

  10. Analysis of Brown camera distortion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Artur; Skarbek, Władysław

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary image acquisition devices introduce optical distortion into image. It results in pixel displacement and therefore needs to be compensated for many computer vision applications. The distortion is usually modeled by the Brown distortion model, which parameters can be included in camera calibration task. In this paper we describe original model, its dependencies and analyze orthogonality with regard to radius for its decentering distortion component. We also report experiments with camera calibration algorithm included in OpenCV library, especially a stability of distortion parameters estimation is evaluated.

  11. Space mappings with bounded distortion

    CERN Document Server

    Reshetnyak, Yu G

    1989-01-01

    This book is intended for researchers and students concerned with questions in analysis and function theory. The author provides an exposition of the main results obtained in recent years by Soviet and other mathematicians in the theory of mappings with bounded distortion, an active direction in contemporary mathematics. The mathematical tools presented can be applied to a broad spectrum of problems that go beyond the context of the main topic of investigation. For a number of questions in the theory of partial differential equations and the theory of functions with generalized derivatives, this is the first time they have appeared in an internationally distributed monograph.

  12. 36 CFR 254.6 - Segregative effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Segregative effect. 254.6... ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.6 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange Federal lands... segregative effect terminates as follows: (1) Automatically, upon issuance of a patent or other document of...

  13. A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Stimulant Therapy (Ritalin Neurofeedback, and Parental Management Training and Interaction of the Three Approaches on Improving ADHD and Quality of Mother -Child Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Basteh Hoseini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: This research was designed to investigate and compare the effective-ness of stimulant therapy (Ritalin, neurofeedback, parental management training and interac-tion of the treatments on the improvement of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, and quality of mother-child communication. Materials & Methods: This is a pseudo-experimental research with pretest-posttest de-sign including ADHD children living in Tehran; 40 subjects were randomly selected from clients of child psychiatric/psychological clinic, and then placed in 4 intervention groups based on objectives of the research. The subjects were measured by Conner's Parenting Scale-48 and Parental Stress Index before and after the interventions. Recruited data were analyzed by ANCOVA. Results: The findings of the research reveals that there is a significant difference among the treatments on improving conduct and attention/concentrationproblems; in other words, interaction of the treatments caused more therapeutic effect than other treatments. Also, there was no significant difference among the treatments on improving psychosomatic problems, impulsivity, anxiety, parent reinforcement, parental attachment, and parental competency. Conclusion: Finally, interaction of treatments and then ritalin had the most therapeutic effect compared to other treatments. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (2:133-143

  14. Nonequilibrium Segregation in Petroleum Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1999-01-01

    We analyse adsorption of a multicomponent mixture at high pressure on the basis of the potential theory of adsorption. The adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external field produced by a solid adsorbent. we derive an analytical equation for the thickness of a multicomponent fi...... close to a dew point. This equation (asymptotic adsorption equation, AAE) is a first order approximation with regard to the distance from a phase envelope....

  15. Frequency modulation television analysis: Distortion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, W. H.; Wong, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    Computer simulation is used to calculate the time-domain waveform of standard T-pulse-and-bar test signal distorted in passing through an FM television system. The simulator includes flat or preemphasized systems and requires specification of the RF predetection filter characteristics. The predetection filters are modeled with frequency-symmetric Chebyshev (0.1-db ripple) and Butterworth filters. The computer was used to calculate distorted output signals for sixty-four different specified systems, and the output waveforms are plotted for all sixty-four. Comparison of the plotted graphs indicates that a Chebyshev predetection filter of four poles causes slightly more signal distortion than a corresponding Butterworth filter and the signal distortion increases as the number of poles increases. An increase in the peak deviation also increases signal distortion. Distortion also increases with the addition of preemphasis.

  16. Structural Change Accounting with Labor Market Distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbiao Cai

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies the relative importance of sectoral productivity and labor market distortions for structural change. I use a model in which labor productivity is the product of TFP and human capital in each sector, but distortions generate wedges in wage per efficiency worker across sectors. I calculate human capital by sector using micro census data, and use the model to infer TFP and distortions such that it replicates structural change in the US, India, Mexico and Brazil between 1960...

  17. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  18. Progressive segregation of the Escherichia coli chromosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck; Youngren, Brenda; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2006-01-01

    We have followed the fate of 14 different loci around the Escherichia coli chromosome in living cells at slow growth rate using a highly efficient labelling system and automated measurements. Loci are segregated as they are replicated, but with a marked delay. Most markers segregate in a smooth...... temporal progression from origin to terminus. Thus, the overall pattern is one of continuous segregation during replication and is not consistent with recently published models invoking extensive sister chromosome cohesion followed by simultaneous segregation of the bulk of the chromosome. The terminus......, and a region immediately clockwise from the origin, are exceptions to the overall pattern and are subjected to a more extensive delay prior to segregation. The origin region and nearby loci are replicated and segregated from the cell centre, later markers from the various positions where they lie...

  19. To which extent social withdrawal at the age of 1 year is associated with IQ at 5-6 years old? Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Doukhan, Sarah; Forhan, Anne; Heude, Barbara; Peyre, Hugo

    2017-11-01

    The present study aims to determine to which extent social withdrawal at 1 year is associated with the child's IQ at the end of the preschool period. Children (N = 1045) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed for social withdrawal behaviours at 1 year by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB) scale. Midwives also examined infants' language and motor development at 1 year. At the age 5-6 years, IQ scores were based on the WPPSI-III. Linear regression models were used to determine the association between IQ and ADBB, adjusted for a broad range of pre- and postnatal environmental factors and for language and motor skills scores at 1 year. After adjusting for environmental factors, children with social withdrawal at 1 years (ADBB ≥5; N = 195) had significantly lower IQ scores at 5-6 years (-2.81 IQ points; p value 0.007) compared to children without social withdrawal (ADBB social withdrawal and IQ at 5-6 years was found. Being socially withdrawn at 1 year is associated with lower IQ scores at 5-6 years. The potential influence of these developmental aspects on each other (withdrawal behaviour and language/motor skills) may occur early in development. Our results improve our understanding of the outcomes of early social withdrawal behaviour and call for early detection of delay in acquisition of language/motor skills among socially withdrawn young children.

  20. Could we use parent report as a valid proxy of child report on anxiety, depression, and distress? A systematic investigation of father-mother-child triads in children successfully treated for leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Cybelle; Lippé, Sarah; Bertout, Laurence; Drouin, Simon; Krajinovic, Maja; Rondeau, Émélie; Sinnett, Daniel; Laverdière, Caroline; Sultan, Serge

    2018-02-01

    Systematic assessment of emotional distress is recommended in after care. Yet, it is unclear if parent report may be used as a proxy of child report. The aim of this study was to assess agreements and differences and explore possible moderators of disagreement between child and parent ratings. Sixty-two young survivors treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (9-18 years) and both parents responded to the Beck Youth Inventory (anxiety and depression) and the distress rating scale on the child's status. Parents completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 on their own psychological status. Systematic analyses of agreement and differences were performed. Mother-child and father-child agreements were fair on anxiety, depression, and distress (median intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.37). Differences between parents and children were medium sized (median d = 0.55) with parents giving higher scores than their children on anxiety, depression, and distress. Mothers reported distress more frequently than fathers (39 vs. 17%) when children reported none. The child being female and lower parental income were associated with lower agreement in fathers when rating child distress. Higher levels of parental psychological symptoms were consistently associated with lower agreement. Parent-child differences when rating adolescent survivors' difficulties may be more important than previously thought. Parent report probably cannot be considered as a valid proxy of older child report on such internalized domains as anxiety, depression, or distress in the after-care clinic. Parents' report is also likely to be influenced by their own mood, a factor that should be corrected for when using their report. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Are segregated sports classes scientifically justified?

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Sian; Hall, Edward

    2014-01-01

    School sports classes are a key part of physical and mental development, yet in many countries these classes are gender segregated. Before institutionalised segregation can be condoned it is important to tackle assumptions and check for an evidence-based rationale. This presentation aims to analyse the key arguments for segregation given in comment-form response to a recent media article discussing mixed school sports (Lawson, 2013).\\ud \\ud The primary argument given was division for strength...

  2. Modelling the Perceptual Components of Loudspeaker Distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sune L.; Agerkvist, Finn T.; MacDonald, Ewen

    2016-01-01

    While non-linear distortion in loudspeakers decreases audio quality, the perceptual consequences can vary substantially. This paper investigates the metric Rnonlin [1] which was developed to predict subjective measurements of sound quality in nonlinear systems. The generalisability of the metric...... the perceptual consequences of non-linear distortion....

  3. Advanced Machining Toolpath for Low Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Advanced Machining Toolpath for Low Distortion FINAL STATUS REPORT Prepared by Brian Becker R&D Technology Manager Third Wave Systems, Inc... Machining Toolpath for Low Distortion December 2016 Contract No.: W911W6-16-P-0044 2 Table of Contents 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...2 2.1 Task 1: Collect Details of Machining Lab to Support

  4. Digital morphogenesis via Schelling segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpalias, George; Elwes, Richard; Lewis-Pye, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Schelling’s model of segregation looks to explain the way in which particles or agents of two types may come to arrange themselves spatially into configurations consisting of large homogeneous clusters, i.e. connected regions consisting of only one type. As one of the earliest agent based models studied by economists and perhaps the most famous model of self-organising behaviour, it also has direct links to areas at the interface between computer science and statistical mechanics, such as the Ising model and the study of contagion and cascading phenomena in networks. While the model has been extensively studied it has largely resisted rigorous analysis, prior results from the literature generally pertaining to variants of the model which are tweaked so as to be amenable to standard techniques from statistical mechanics or stochastic evolutionary game theory. In Brandt et al (2012 Proc. 44th Annual ACM Symp. on Theory of Computing) provided the first rigorous analysis of the unperturbed model, for a specific set of input parameters. Here we provide a rigorous analysis of the model’s behaviour much more generally and establish some surprising forms of threshold behaviour, notably the existence of situations where an increased level of intolerance for neighbouring agents of opposite type leads almost certainly to decreased segregation.

  5. From particle segregation to the granular clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambiotte, R.; Salazar, J.M.; Brenig, L.

    2005-01-01

    Recently several authors studied the segregation of particles for a system composed of mono-dispersed inelastic spheres contained in a box divided by a wall in the middle. The system exhibited a symmetry breaking leading to an overpopulation of particles in one side of the box. Here we study the segregation of a mixture of particles composed of inelastic hard spheres and fluidized by a vibrating wall. Our numerical simulations show a rich phenomenology: horizontal segregation and periodic behavior. We also propose an empirical system of ODEs representing the proportion of each type of particles and the segregation flux of particles. These equations reproduce the major features observed by the simulations

  6. From particle segregation to the granular clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambiotte, R. [Physique Statistique, Plasmas et Optique Non-lineaire, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Boulevard du Triomphe, Code Postal 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: rlambiot@ulb.ac.be; Salazar, J.M. [Universite De Bougogne-LRRS UMR-5613 CNRS, Faculte des Sciences Mirande, 9 Av. Alain Savary, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)]. E-mail: jmarcos@u-bourgogne.fr; Brenig, L. [Physique Statistique, Plasmas et Optique Non-lineaire, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Boulevard du Triomphe, Code Postal 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: lbrenig@ulb.ac.be

    2005-08-01

    Recently several authors studied the segregation of particles for a system composed of mono-dispersed inelastic spheres contained in a box divided by a wall in the middle. The system exhibited a symmetry breaking leading to an overpopulation of particles in one side of the box. Here we study the segregation of a mixture of particles composed of inelastic hard spheres and fluidized by a vibrating wall. Our numerical simulations show a rich phenomenology: horizontal segregation and periodic behavior. We also propose an empirical system of ODEs representing the proportion of each type of particles and the segregation flux of particles. These equations reproduce the major features observed by the simulations.

  7. TPC track distortions III: fiat lux

    CERN Document Server

    Boyko, I; Dydak, F; Elagin, A; Gostkin, M; Guskov, A; Koreshev, V; Nefedov, Y; Nikolaev, K; Veenhof, R; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A

    2005-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview and final summary of all four types of static track distortions seen in the HARP TPC, in terms of physical origins, mathematical modelling, and correction algorithms. 'Static'™ distortions are defined as not depending on the event time within the 400 ms long accelerator spill. Calculated static distortions are compared with measurements from cosmic-muon tracks. We characterize track distortions by the r phi residuals of cluster positions with respect to the transverse projection of a helical trajectory constrained by hits in the RPC overlap regions. This method provides a fixed TPC-external reference system (by contrast to the co-moving coordinate system associated with a fit) which solely permits to identify individually, and measure quantitatively, the static TPC track distortions arising from (i) the inhomogeneity of the solenoidal magnetic field, (ii) the inhomogeneity of the electric field from the high-voltage mismatch between the inner and outer TPC field cages, (...

  8. Sonographic ally Detected Architectural Distortion: Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Kee; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Baek Hyun; Cho, Kyu Ran; Kim, Young Sik; Son, Gil Soo; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Young [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Architectural distortion is a suspicious abnormality for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of sonographic ally detected architectural distortion. From January 2006 to June 2008, 20 patients were identified who had sonographic ally detected architectural distortions without a history of trauma or surgery and abnormal mammographic findings related to an architectural distortion. All of the lesions were pathologically verified. We evaluated the clinical and pathological findings and then assessed the clinical significance of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions. Based on the clinical findings, one (5%) of the 20 patients had a palpable lump and the remaining 19 patients had no symptoms. No patient had a family history of breast cancer. Based on the pathological findings, three (15%) patients had malignancies. The malignant lesions included invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 2) and ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 1). Four (20%) patients had high-risk lesions: atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 3) and lobular carcinoma in situ (n = 1). The remaining 13 (65%) patients had benign lesions, however, seven (35%) out of 13 patients had mild-risk lesions (three intraductal papillomas, three moderate or florid epithelial hyperplasia and one sclerosing adenosis). Of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions, 35% were breast cancers or high-risk lesions and 35% were mild-risk lesions. Thus, a biopsy might be needed for an architectural distortion without an associated mass as depicted on breast ultrasound, even though the mammographic findings are normal

  9. Sonographic ally Detected Architectural Distortion: Clinical Significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shin Kee; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Baek Hyun; Cho, Kyu Ran; Kim, Young Sik; Son, Gil Soo; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Young

    2008-01-01

    Architectural distortion is a suspicious abnormality for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of sonographic ally detected architectural distortion. From January 2006 to June 2008, 20 patients were identified who had sonographic ally detected architectural distortions without a history of trauma or surgery and abnormal mammographic findings related to an architectural distortion. All of the lesions were pathologically verified. We evaluated the clinical and pathological findings and then assessed the clinical significance of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions. Based on the clinical findings, one (5%) of the 20 patients had a palpable lump and the remaining 19 patients had no symptoms. No patient had a family history of breast cancer. Based on the pathological findings, three (15%) patients had malignancies. The malignant lesions included invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 2) and ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 1). Four (20%) patients had high-risk lesions: atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 3) and lobular carcinoma in situ (n = 1). The remaining 13 (65%) patients had benign lesions, however, seven (35%) out of 13 patients had mild-risk lesions (three intraductal papillomas, three moderate or florid epithelial hyperplasia and one sclerosing adenosis). Of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions, 35% were breast cancers or high-risk lesions and 35% were mild-risk lesions. Thus, a biopsy might be needed for an architectural distortion without an associated mass as depicted on breast ultrasound, even though the mammographic findings are normal

  10. Residential Segregation in Texas in 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sean-Shong; Murdock, Steve H.

    1982-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1980 racial and ethnic segregation for major Texas cities declined for all groups, but declines were small between Anglo and Spanish groups. Segregation is unaffected by variation in size of city, percent of population that is Spanish or Black, or central city status. (Author/AM)

  11. Housing Systems and Ethnic Spatial Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    Residential spatial segregation is related to housing markets and housing policies. In this paper, ethnic segregation is compared across four Nordic capitals and explanations for the differences are examined by comparing the housing markets and housing policies of the countries. The housing markets...

  12. Losing Ground: School Segregation in Massachuestts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayscue, Jennifer B.; Greenberg, Alyssa

    2013-01-01

    Though once a leader in school integration, Massachusetts has regressed over the last two decades as its students of color have experienced intensifying school segregation. This report investigates trends in school segregation in Massachusetts by examining concentration, exposure, and evenness measures by both race and class. First, the report…

  13. Occupational Segregation by Sex: Determinants and Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Andrea H.

    1982-01-01

    This study found that occupational sex segregation began to diminish during the 1970s, in conjunction with enforcement of the equal employment opportunity laws against sex discrimination in employment. The success of these laws suggests that discrimination was originally a determinant of occupational segregation. (Author/SK)

  14. Sex Segregation in Undergraduate Engineering Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzler, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Gender inequality in engineering persists in spite of women reaching parity in college enrollments and degrees granted. To date, no analyses of educational sex segregation have comprehensively examined segregation within one discipline. To move beyond traditional methods of studying the long-standing stratification by field of study in higher…

  15. Administrative Segregation for Mentally Ill Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Maureen L.

    2007-01-01

    Largely the result of prison officials needing to safely and efficiently manage a volatile inmate population, administrative segregation or supermax facilities are criticized as violating basic human needs, particularly for mentally ill inmates. The present study compared Colorado offenders with mental illness (OMIs) to nonOMIs in segregated and…

  16. Class, Kinship Density, and Conjugal Role Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Malcolm D.

    1988-01-01

    Studied conjugal role segregation in 150 married women from intact families in working-class community. Found that, although involvement in dense kinship networks was associated with conjugal role segregation, respondents' attitudes toward marital roles and phase of family cycle when young children were present were more powerful predictors of…

  17. A sexy spin on nonrandom chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charville, Gregory W; Rando, Thomas A

    2013-06-06

    Nonrandom chromosome segregation is an intriguing phenomenon linked to certain asymmetric stem cell divisions. In a recent report in Nature, Yadlapalli and Yamashita (2013) observe nonrandom segregation of X and Y chromosomes in Drosophila germline stem cells and shed light on the complex mechanisms of this fascinating process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Grain boundary segregation and intergranular failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    Trace elements and impurities often segregate strongly to grain boundaries in metals and alloys. Concentrations of these elements at grain boundaries are often 10 3 to 10 5 times as great as their overall concentration in the alloy. Because of such segregation, certain trace elements can exert a disproportionate influence on material properties. One frequently observed consequence of trace element segregation to grain boundaries is the occurrence of grain boundary failure and low ductility. Less well known are incidences of improved ductility and inhibition of grain boundary fracture resulting from trace element segregation to grain boundaries in certain systems. An overview of trace element segregation and intergranular failure in a variety of alloy systems as well as preliminary results from studies on Al 3% Li will be presented

  19. Vitamin A and mother child health Review

    OpenAIRE

    Günlemez, Ayla; Atasay, Begüm; Arsan, Saadet

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin A has a critical role in normal vision cell differantiation proliferation and maintanence of epithelial cell integrity Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent and important deficiencies and is of public health significance in developing countries This article reviews vitamin A deficiency in the world and Turkey and it’s effect on maternal and child health Key words: vitamin A maternal health child health

  20. Expanding beyond "mother-child" services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, S

    1998-01-01

    Several reproductive health programs in Bolivia have attempted to reduce institutionalized gender inequalities through efforts ranging from consciousness-raising courses to national legislation against domestic violence. It has been found that a maternal-child health-oriented approach to reproductive health eliminates many of those who require services, including childless women, women who have completed childbearing, and men. Moreover, the traditional exclusion of men from family planning decision-making often exacerbates women's vulnerability to abuse. La Casa de la Mujer in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, conducts family planning workshops for couples, works with young men and women, and seeks to involve male partners of its clients in center activities. Gender awareness not only helps couples to improve their relationships, but also improves the quality of interactions between family planning clients and providers. The widespread tendency of clinic doctors and staff to dismiss women's questions and concerns about contraceptive methods undermines providers' ability to counter misinformation and urge user compliance. The Center for Research and Development of Women in El Alto, Bolivia, has developed an approach to communication in which providers and clients discuss options in a collaborative manner. This approach has led to improved provider-client cooperation, more accurate diagnoses, and improved client health.

  1. Mother-Child Interactions of Preterm Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Akman, İpek; Kuşçu Orhan, Şebnem; Kuşçu, Kemal; Altuncu, Emel; Karabekiroğlu, Aytül; Yüce, Murat

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the mother-toddler relationship in preterm toddlers. The sample consisted of 18 mothers and their preterm toddlers (group 1) and 20 mothers and their fullterm toddlers (group 2). Anxiety and depressive symptom levels, attachment pattern, and parental attitudes of mothers and social-emotional problems and developmental level of the toddlers were explored to assess possible confounding factors in the mother-toddler relationship. Two researchers rated the Parent Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scales (PIRGAS). Both the mothers in group 1 and group 2 had similar Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores. However, the mothers who gave birth before 32 weeks of gestation had higher trait anxiety scores than others (46±2.4 vs. 42.3±5.4, p=0.01). The groups had similar Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Scale (BITSEA) problem and competency scores. The parenting style of group 1 revealed that they had higher scores on the Parenting Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) subscale 5 (excessive discipline) (39.6 vs. 32.1; p=0.02). Mother-toddler interaction and attachment security were found to be similar in fullterm and moderately preterm healthy toddlers. Our findings suggest that not the preterm birth itself but the medical, developmental, and/or neurological consequences of prematurity may affect the mother-toddler interaction. To explore the independent effect of prematurity in mother-toddler dyadic relationship, longitudinally designed studies are warranted.

  2. Distortional Modes of Thin-Walled Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Andreassen, Michael Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The classic thin-walled beam theory for open and closed cross-sections can be generalized by including distortional displacement modes. The introduction of additional displacement modes leads to coupled differential equations, which seems to have prohibited the use of exact shape functions...... in the modelling of coupled torsion and distortion. However, if the distortional displacement modes are chosen as those which decouple the differential equations as in non proportionally damped modal dynamic analysis then it may be possible to use exact shape functions and perform analysis on a reduced problem....... In the recently developed generalized beam theory (GBT) the natural distortional displacement modes are determined on the basis of a quadratic eigenvalue problem. However, as in linear modal dynamic analysis of proportionally damped structures this problem has been solved approximately using linear eigenvalue...

  3. Coulomb Distortion in the Inelastic Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Solvignon, Dave Gaskell, John Arrington

    2009-09-01

    The Coulomb distortion effects have been for a long time neglected in deep inelastic scattering for the good reason that the incident energies were very high. But for energies in the range of earlier data from SLAC or at JLab, the Coulomb distortion could have the potential consequence of affecting the A-dependence of the EMC effect and of the longitudinal to transverse virtual photon absorption cross section ratio $R(x,Q^2)$.

  4. Harmonic distortion in microwave photonic filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Manuel; Mora, José; Bolea, Mario; Capmany, José

    2012-04-09

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of nonlinear microwave photonic filters. Far from the conventional condition of low modulation index commonly used to neglect high-order terms, we have analyzed the harmonic distortion involved in microwave photonic structures with periodic and non-periodic frequency responses. We show that it is possible to design microwave photonic filters with reduced harmonic distortion and high linearity even under large signal operation.

  5. Structures and properties of spatially distorted porphyrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubchikov, Oleg A; Kuvshinova, Elizaveta M; Pukhovskaya, Svetlana G

    2005-01-01

    The published data on the structures and properties of porphyrins with distorted aromatic macrocycles are generalised and analysed. Data on the crystal structures, spectra and kinetics of formation and dissociation of their coordination derivatives are summarised. It is demonstrated that the distortion of the planar structure of the tetrapyrrole core is one of the most efficient means of controlling spectral, physicochemical and coordination properties of these compounds.

  6. Rapid mass segregation in small stellar clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Mario; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we focus our attention on small-to-intermediate N-body systems that are, initially, distributed uniformly in space and dynamically `cool' (virial ratios Q=2T/|Ω| below ˜0.3). In this work, we study the mass segregation that emerges after the initial violent dynamical evolution. At this scope, we ran a set of high precision N-body simulations of isolated clusters by means of HiGPUs, our direct summation N-body code. After the collapse, the system shows a clear mass segregation. This (quick) mass segregation occurs in two phases: the first shows up in clumps originated by sub-fragmentation before the deep overall collapse; this segregation is partly erased during the deep collapse to re-emerge, abruptly, during the second phase, that follows the first bounce of the system. In this second stage, the proper clock to measure the rate of segregation is the dynamical time after virialization, which (for cold and cool systems) may be significantly different from the crossing time evaluated from initial conditions. This result is obtained for isolated clusters composed of stars of two different masses (in the ratio mh/ml=2), at varying their number ratio, and is confirmed also in presence of a massive central object (simulating a black hole of stellar size). Actually, in stellar systems starting their dynamical evolution from cool conditions, the fast mass segregation adds to the following, slow, secular segregation which is collisionally induced. The violent mass segregation is an effect persistent over the whole range of N (128 ≤ N ≤1,024) investigated, and is an interesting feature on the astronomical-observational side, too. The semi-steady state reached after virialization corresponds to a mass segregated distribution function rather than that of equipartition of kinetic energy per unit mass as it should result from violent relaxation.

  7. Prematuridade e interação mãe-criança: revisão sistemática da literatura Prematuridad e interacción madre-niño: revisión sistemática de la literatura Prematurity and mother-child interaction: a systematic bibliographycal review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Caroline Klein

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a produção científica do período de 1998 a 2004, relacionada à interação entre mães e crianças nascidas pré-termo e seu desenvolvimento nas fases pré-escolar e escolar. Como método, foi realizado um levantamento bibliográfico sistematizado de estudos empíricos indexados nas bases de dados MEDLINE, PsycINFO e LILACS, utilizando as seguintes palavras-chave: preterm (very low birth weight, prematurity, premature birth AND mother child interaction (mother child dyads, mother child relationship, mother child relations, maternal mediation. Foram identificados 33 artigos, dos quais foram selecionados 26 e foram localizados 22. A maioria dos estudos avaliou a interação mãe-criança nos primeiros quatro anos de idade, bem como seu impacto no desenvolvimento posterior da criança. Os estudos identificaram diferenças na interação entre díades mãe-criança ex-prematura e a termo nas fases pré-escolar, escolar e adolescente. Comportamentos interativos maternos exerceram efeito moderador diferencial no desenvolvimento de crianças vulneráveis com antecedentes de risco biológico.El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la producción científica desde 1998 hasta 2004 sobre la interacción entre las madres y sus niños nacidos prematuramente y su desarrollo en las fases parvulario y escolar. Como método se hizo una revisión de la bibliografía sistemática sobre estudios empíricos puestos en un índice en las bases de datos MEDLINE, PsycINFO y LILACS, utilizando las palabras-clave: pre-término (peso de nacimiento muy bajo, precocidad, nacimiento prematuro e interacción madre-niño (dualidad madre-niño, relaciones madre-niño, mediación maternal. Fueron identificados 33 artículos, de los cuales se seleccionaron 26 y localizaron 22. La mayoría de los estudios evaluó la interacción madre-niño en los primeros cuatro años de vida, así como su impacto en el desarrollo posterior del

  8. Ultrasonographic Findings of Mammographic Architectural Distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jeong Hyun; Kang, Bong Joo; Cha, Eun Suk; Hwangbo, Seol; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Park, Chang Suk; Kim, Sung Hun; Choi, Jae Jeong; Chung, Yong An

    2008-01-01

    To review the sonographic findings of various diseases showing architectural distortion depicted under mammography. We collected and reviewed architectural distortions observed under mammography at our health institution between 1 March 2004, and 28 February 2007. We collected 23 cases of sonographically-detected mammographic architectural distortions that confirmed lesions after surgical resection. The sonographic findings of mammographic architectural distortion were analyzed by use of the BI-RADS lexicon for shape, margin, lesion boundary, echo pattern, posterior acoustic feature and orientation. There were variable diseases that showed architectural distortion depicted under mammography. Fibrocystic disease was the most common presentation (n = 6), followed by adenosis (n = 2), stromal fibrosis (n = 2), radial scar (n = 3), usual ductal hyperplasia (n = 1), atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 1) and mild fibrosis with microcalcification (n = 1). Malignant lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (n = 2), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) (n = 2), invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 2) and invasive lobular carcinoma (n = 1) were observed. As observed by sonography, shape was divided as irregular (n = 22) and round (n = 1). Margin was divided as circumscribed (n = 1), indistinct (n = 7), angular (n = 1), microlobulated (n = 1) and sipculated (n = 13). Lesion boundary was divided as abrupt interface (n = 11) and echogenic halo (n = 12). Echo pattern was divided as hypoechoic (n = 20), anechoic (n = 1), hyperechoic (n = 1) and isoechoic (n = 1). Posterior acoustic feature was divided as posterior acoustic feature (n = 7), posterior acoustic shadow (n = 15) and complex posterior acoustic feature (n = 1). Orientation was divided as parallel (n = 12) and not parallel (n = 11). There were no differential sonographic findings between benign and malignant lesions. This study presented various sonographic findings of mammographic architectural distortion and that it is

  9. Generic distortion model for metrology under optical microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingjian; Li, Zhongwei; Zhong, Kai; Chao, YuhJin; Miraldo, Pedro; Shi, Yusheng

    2018-04-01

    For metrology under optical microscopes, lens distortion is the dominant source of error. Previous distortion models and correction methods mostly rely on the assumption that parametric distortion models require a priori knowledge of the microscopes' lens systems. However, because of the numerous optical elements in a microscope, distortions can be hardly represented by a simple parametric model. In this paper, a generic distortion model considering both symmetric and asymmetric distortions is developed. Such a model is obtained by using radial basis functions (RBFs) to interpolate the radius and distortion values of symmetric distortions (image coordinates and distortion rays for asymmetric distortions). An accurate and easy to implement distortion correction method is presented. With the proposed approach, quantitative measurement with better accuracy can be achieved, such as in Digital Image Correlation for deformation measurement when used with an optical microscope. The proposed technique is verified by both synthetic and real data experiments.

  10. Granular Segregation by an Oscillating Ratchet Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, A.; Horiuchi, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a method to segregate granular mixtures which consist of two kinds of particles by an oscillating ''ratchet'' mechanism. The segregation system has an asymmetrical sawtooth-shaped base which is vertically oscillating. Such a ratchet base produces a directional current of particles owing to its transport property. It is a counterintuitive and interesting phenomenon that a vertically vibrated base transports particles horizontally. This system is studied with numerical simulations, and it is found that we can apply such a system to segregation of mixtures of particles with different properties (radius or mass). Furthermore, we find out that an appropriate inclination of the ratchet-base makes the quality of segregation high. (author)

  11. Gender Differences in the Effect of Residential Segregation on Workplace Segregation among Newly Arrived Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Tammaru, Tiit; Strömgren, Magnus; van Ham, Maarten; Danzer, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary cities are becoming more and more diverse in population as a result of immigration. Research also shows that within cities residential neighborhoods are becoming ethnically more diverse, but that residential segregation has remained persistently high. High levels of segregation are often seen as negative, preventing integration of immigrants in their host society and having a negative impact on people's lives. Segregation research often focuses on residential neighborhoods, but i...

  12. Gender Segregation in the Retail Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Samantha

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of occupational gender segregation in the retail industry, with a particular focus on part time working. The empirical data was gathered through a series of 59 interviews, and a small survey of employees, with store level managers in three UK retail organisations. The paper illustrates the extent of occupational gender segregation and considers the impact of such stereotyping on the gender pay gap, training and career development.\\ud \\ud Occupational gender ...

  13. Racial segregation patterns in selective universities

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Arcidiacono; Esteban M. Aucejo; Andrew Hussey; Kenneth Spenner

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines sorting into interracial friendships at selective universities. We show significant friendship segregation, particularly for blacks. Indeed, blacks' friendships are no more diverse in college than in high school, despite the fact that the colleges that blacks attend have substantially smaller black populations. We demonstrate that the segregation patterns occur in part because affirmative action results in large differences in the academic backgrounds of students of differ...

  14. Expertise and processing distorted structure in chess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, James C; Boggan, Amy L; Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    A classic finding in research on human expertise and knowledge is that of enhanced memory for stimuli in a domain of expertise as compared to either stimuli outside that domain, or within-domain stimuli that have been degraded or distorted in some way. However, we do not understand how experts process degradation or distortion of stimuli within the expert domain (e.g., a face with the eyes, nose, and mouth in the wrong positions, or a chessboard with pieces placed randomly). Focusing on the domain of chess, we present new fMRI evidence that when experts view such distorted/within-domain stimuli, they engage an active search for structure-a kind of exploratory chunking-that involves a component of a prefrontal-parietal network linked to consciousness, attention and working memory.

  15. Lattice shear distortions in fluorite structure oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, J. Jr.; Mueller, M.H.; Hitterman, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Crystallographic shear distortions have been observed in fluorite structure, single crystals of UO 2 and Zr(Ca)O 2 /sub-x/ by neutron-diffraction techniques. These distortions localize on the oxygen sublattice and do not require the presence of an external strain. The internal rearrangement mode in UO 2 is a transverse, zone boundary q vector = 2π/a (0.5, 0.0) deformation with amplitude 0.014 A. In Zr(Ca)O/sub 2-x/, the mode is a longitudinal, q vector = 2-/a (0,0,0.5) deformation with amplitude 0.23 A. Cation-anion elastic interactions dominate in selecting the nature of the internal distortion

  16. Density distortion within a rotating body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzano, P.

    1975-01-01

    This paper ascertains the distortion of the density distribution within a self-gravitating body in hydrostatic equilibrium under the influence of rotation. For this purpose, the Poisson equation has been solved by using the undistorted density profile within the Laplacian to obtain the distorted density. The Laplacian has been expressed in terms of a system of curvilinear coordinates for which the equipotential surfaces constitute a family of fundamental surfaces. In performing the requisite algebraic manipulations, the Clairaut and Radau equations developed in a previous paper (Lanzano,1974) were utilized to eliminate the derivatives of the elements pertaining to the equipotential surfaces. The density distortion has been obtained up to third-order terms in a small rotational parameter. (Auth.)

  17. 'Distorted structure modelling' - a more physical approach to Rapid Distortion Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savill, A.M.

    1979-11-01

    Rapid Distortion Theory is reviewed in the light of the modern mechanistic approach to turbulent motion. The apparent failure of current models, based on this theory, to predict stress intensity ratios accurately in distorted shear flows is attributed to their oversimplistic assumptions concerning the inherent turbulence structure of such flows. A more realistic picture of this structure and the manner in which it responds to distortion is presented in terms of interactions between the mean flow and three principal types of eddies. If Rapid Distortion Theory is modified to account for this it is shown that the stress intensity ratios can be accurately predicted in three test flows. It is concluded that a computational scheme based on Rapid Distortion Theory might ultimately be capable of predicting turbulence parameters in the highly complex geometries of reactor cooling systems. (author)

  18. Holographic measurement of distortion during laser melting: Additive distortion from overlapping pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Peter; Frostevarg, Jan; Powell, John; Eriksson, Ingemar; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.

    2018-03-01

    Laser - material interactions such as welding, heat treatment and thermal bending generate thermal gradients which give rise to thermal stresses and strains which often result in a permanent distortion of the heated object. This paper investigates the thermal distortion response which results from pulsed laser surface melting of a stainless steel sheet. Pulsed holography has been used to accurately monitor, in real time, the out-of-plane distortion of stainless steel samples melted on one face by with both single and multiple laser pulses. It has been shown that surface melting by additional laser pulses increases the out of plane distortion of the sample without significantly increasing the melt depth. The distortion differences between the primary pulse and subsequent pulses has also been analysed for fully and partially overlapping laser pulses.

  19. Gender Segregation in the Spanish Labor Market: An Alternative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rio, Coral; Alonso-Villar, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study occupational segregation by gender in Spain, which is a country where occupational segregation explains a large part of the gender wage gap. As opposed to previous studies, this paper measures not only overall segregation, but also the segregation of several population subgroups. For this purpose, this paper uses…

  20. A investigação da cegueira noturna no grupo materno-infantil: uma revisão histórica The investigation of night blindness in the mother-child group: a historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Saunders

    2007-02-01

    of the functional indicator of vitamin A deficiency has been consecrated in 1996 by the World Health Organization through the recommendation of a standardized interview to investigate cases of night blindness. The method is characterized by methodological easiness, low cost and it allows the monitoring of the nutritional status of people and communities, and evaluation of the efficacy of interventions. Recent studies suggest that this indicator is also useful for diagnosing subclinical vitamin A deficiency among pregnant women and postpartum women, since the agreement with biochemical indicators is expressive. Along the years, this indicator has also been recognized as an important instrument to predict the risk of morbidity and mortality in the mother-child dyad.

  1. Intersubjetividade mãe-filho na experiência com comunicação ampliada e alternativa Mother-child intersubjectivity in alternative and augmentative communication experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ciceri Cesa

    2010-02-01

    types of resource usage in the mother-child dyad, which are related to the quality of the maternal role and to the form of presenting the resource to users and their family. When the conception of language with which the resource is implemented does not include the family or consider the exercise of maternal role, the results in its generalization and maintenance are precarious. In cases where there was a debate on family use of the communication board, favoring the process of intersubjectivity between subjects without orality and their family, use and generalization were increased. CONCLUSIONS: it may be concluded that Bakhtin conception on dialogic language crossed by psychoanalysis allows for a more efficacious approach as for the probed communicative device.

  2. Distorted representation in visual tourism research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    how photographic materialities, performativities and sensations contribute to new tourism knowledges. While highlighting the potential of distorted representation, the paper posits a cautionary note in regards to the influential role of academic journals in determining the qualities of visual data....... The paper exemplifies distorted representation through three impressionistic tales derived from ethnographic research on the European rail travel phenomenon: interrail.......Tourism research has recently been informed by non-representational theories to highlight the socio-material, embodied and heterogeneous composition of tourist experiences. These advances have contributed to further reflexivity and called for novel ways to animate representations...

  3. Testing for Distortions in Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    Distorted performance measures in compensation contracts elicit suboptimal behavioral responses that may even prove to be dysfunctional (gaming). This paper applies the empirical test developed by Courty and Marschke (Review of Economics and Statistics, 90, 428-441) to detect whether the widely...

  4. Synchronization of cubic distortion spontaneous otoacoustic emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, P; Wit, HP

    A spontaneous otoacoustic emission spectrum may contain equally spaced emission peaks. Then, two peaks, at frequencies, f(1) and f(2), respectively, apparently generate a distortion product at f(d)=2f(1)-f(2) [or 2f(2)-f(1)]. For the three emission peaks of nine of such triplets tin six emission

  5. The possible distortion of autoradiographic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A.A.; Tumanushvili, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of radioactive labelling (H 3 -thymidine) on the infusorian division is studied. The presented results show that introduction of labelled compounds results in accelerating infusorian cell division v. Thorough inestigation of labelled compound effect with low activity on the parameters of cell division and the search of methods to eliminate distortions able to appear in autoradiographic experiments is expedient [ru

  6. Testing for Distortions in Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Distorted performance measures in compensation contracts elicit suboptimal behavioral responses that may even prove to be dysfunctional (gaming). This paper applies the empirical test developed by Courty and Marschke (2008) to detect whether the widely used class of Residual Income based performa...

  7. Electromagnetic pulse distortion in living tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepelaars, E.S.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Insight into the distortion of electromagnetic (EM) signals in living tissue is important for optimising medical applications. To obtain this insight, field calculations have been carried out for a plane-stratified configuration of air, skin, fat, muscle and bone tissue. In this configuration, an EM

  8. DISTORTION ANALYSIS OF TILL -WALLED BOX GIRDERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    bridges, buildings, motor vehicles, ships and aircrafts. Due to thinness of the box walls, generalized loads applied to this structure give rise to warping and distortion of ..... Recommendation for Design of. Intermediate Diaphragms in Box. Girders, Transactions of Japanese. Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 14,1984, pp 121-126.

  9. Audible Aliasing Distortion in Digital Audio Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schimmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today's computers have enough computing power to use these methods. However, we have to realize that today’s computer-aided music production requires tens of multi-timbre voices generated simultaneously by software synthesizers and the most of the computing power must be reserved for hard-disc recording subsystem and real-time audio processing of many audio channels with a lot of audio effects. Trivially generated classic analog synthesizer waveforms are therefore still effective for sound synthesis. We cannot avoid the aliasing distortion but spectral components produced by the aliasing can be masked with harmonic components and thus made inaudible if sufficient oversampling ratio is used. This paper deals with the assessment of audible aliasing distortion with the help of a psychoacoustic model of simultaneous masking and compares the computing demands of trivial generation using oversampling with those of other methods.

  10. Rate-distortion theory and human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Chris R

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental goal of perception is to aid in the achievement of behavioral objectives. This requires extracting and communicating useful information from noisy and uncertain sensory signals. At the same time, given the complexity of sensory information and the limitations of biological information processing, it is necessary that some information must be lost or discarded in the act of perception. Under these circumstances, what constitutes an 'optimal' perceptual system? This paper describes the mathematical framework of rate-distortion theory as the optimal solution to the problem of minimizing the costs of perceptual error subject to strong constraints on the ability to communicate or transmit information. Rate-distortion theory offers a general and principled theoretical framework for developing computational-level models of human perception (Marr, 1982). Models developed in this framework are capable of producing quantitatively precise explanations for human perceptual performance, while yielding new insights regarding the nature and goals of perception. This paper demonstrates the application of rate-distortion theory to two benchmark domains where capacity limits are especially salient in human perception: discrete categorization of stimuli (also known as absolute identification) and visual working memory. A software package written for the R statistical programming language is described that aids in the development of models based on rate-distortion theory. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reverberation impairs brainstem temporal representations of voiced vowel sounds: challenging periodicity-tagged segregation of competing speech in rooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eSayles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The auditory system typically processes information from concurrently active sound sources (e.g., two voices speaking at once, in the presence of multiple delayed, attenuated and distorted sound-wave reflections (reverberation. Brainstem circuits help segregate these complex acoustic mixtures into auditory objects. Psychophysical studies demonstrate a strong interaction between reverberation and fundamental-frequency (F0 modulation, leading to impaired segregation of competing vowels when segregation is on the basis of F0 differences. Neurophysiological studies of complex-sound segregation have concentrated on sounds with steady F0s, in anechoic environments. However, F0 modulation and reverberation are quasi-ubiquitous.We examine the ability of 129 single units in the ventral cochlear nucleus of the anesthetized guinea pig to segregate the concurrent synthetic vowel sounds /a/ and /i/, based on temporal discharge patterns under closed-field conditions. We address the effects of added real-room reverberation, F0 modulation, and the interaction of these two factors, on brainstem neural segregation of voiced speech sounds. A firing-rate representation of single-vowels’ spectral envelopes is robust to the combination of F0 modulation and reverberation: local firing-rate maxima and minima across the tonotopic array code vowel-formant structure. However, single-vowel F0-related periodicity information in shuffled inter-spike interval distributions is significantly degraded in the combined presence of reverberation and F0 modulation. Hence, segregation of double-vowels’ spectral energy into two streams (corresponding to the two vowels, on the basis of temporal discharge patterns, is impaired by reverberation; specifically when F0 is modulated. All unit types (primary-like, chopper, onset are similarly affected. These results offer neurophysiological insights to perceptual organization of complex acoustic scenes under realistically challenging

  12. Racial Segregation and the American Foreclosure Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugh, Jacob S; Massey, Douglas S

    2010-10-01

    Although the rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, in the United States it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of poor minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. In order to isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism whereby segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. In the United States segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble.

  13. Racial Segregation and the American Foreclosure Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugh, Jacob S.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    Although the rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, in the United States it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of poor minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. In order to isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism whereby segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. In the United States segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble. PMID:25308973

  14. Convergence of the Distorted Wave Born series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMillan, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to begin to understand the idea of reaction mechanisms in nonrelativistic scattering systems. If we have a complete reaction theory of a particular scattering system, then we claim that the theory itself must contain information about important reaction mechanisms in the system. This information can be used to decide what reaction mechanisms should be included in an approximate calculation. To investigate this claim, we studied several solvable models. The primary concept employed in studying our models is the convergence of the multistep series generated by iterating the corresponding scattering integral equation. We known that the eigenvalues of the kernel of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for potential scattering determine the rate of convergence of the Born series. The Born series will converge only if these eigenvalues all life within the unit circle. We extend these results to a study of the distorted wave Born series for inelastic scattering. The convergence criterion tells us when approximations are valid. We learn how the convergence of the distorted wave series depends upon energy, coupling constants, angular momentum, and angular momentum transfer. In one of our models, we look at several possible distorting potentials to see which one gives the best convergence. We have also applied our results to several actual DWBA or coupled channel calculations in the literature. In addition to the study of models of two-body scattering systems, we have considered the case of rearrangement scattering. We have discussed the formulation of (N greater than or equal to 3)-body distorted wave equations in which the interior dynamics have been redistributed by introducing compact N-body distortion potentials

  15. Forensic image analysis - CCTV distortion and artefacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckiner, Dilan; Mallett, Xanthé; Roux, Claude; Meuwly, Didier; Maynard, Philip

    2018-04-01

    As a result of the worldwide deployment of surveillance cameras, authorities have gained a powerful tool that captures footage of activities of people in public areas. Surveillance cameras allow continuous monitoring of the area and allow footage to be obtained for later use, if a criminal or other act of interest occurs. Following this, a forensic practitioner, or expert witness can be required to analyse the footage of the Person of Interest. The examination ultimately aims at evaluating the strength of evidence at source and activity levels. In this paper, both source and activity levels are inferred from the trace, obtained in the form of CCTV footage. The source level alludes to features observed within the anatomy and gait of an individual, whilst the activity level relates to activity undertaken by the individual within the footage. The strength of evidence depends on the value of the information recorded, where the activity level is robust, yet source level requires further development. It is therefore suggested that the camera and the associated distortions should be assessed first and foremost and, where possible, quantified, to determine the level of each type of distortion present within the footage. A review of the 'forensic image analysis' review is presented here. It will outline the image distortion types and detail the limitations of differing surveillance camera systems. The aim is to highlight various types of distortion present particularly from surveillance footage, as well as address gaps in current literature in relation to assessment of CCTV distortions in tandem with gait analysis. Future work will consider the anatomical assessment from surveillance footage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards deep learning with segregated dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerguiev, Jordan; Lillicrap, Timothy P; Richards, Blake A

    2017-12-05

    Deep learning has led to significant advances in artificial intelligence, in part, by adopting strategies motivated by neurophysiology. However, it is unclear whether deep learning could occur in the real brain. Here, we show that a deep learning algorithm that utilizes multi-compartment neurons might help us to understand how the neocortex optimizes cost functions. Like neocortical pyramidal neurons, neurons in our model receive sensory information and higher-order feedback in electrotonically segregated compartments. Thanks to this segregation, neurons in different layers of the network can coordinate synaptic weight updates. As a result, the network learns to categorize images better than a single layer network. Furthermore, we show that our algorithm takes advantage of multilayer architectures to identify useful higher-order representations-the hallmark of deep learning. This work demonstrates that deep learning can be achieved using segregated dendritic compartments, which may help to explain the morphology of neocortical pyramidal neurons.

  17. School Segregation and Racial Academic Achievement Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean F. Reardon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is clear that racial segregation is linked to academic achievement gaps, the mechanisms underlying this link have been debated since James Coleman published his eponymous 1966 report. In this paper, I examine sixteen distinct measures of segregation to determine which is most strongly associated with academic achievement gaps. I find clear evidence that one aspect of segregation in particular—the disparity in average school poverty rates between white and black students’ schools—is consistently the single most powerful correlate of achievement gaps, a pattern that holds in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. This implies that high-poverty schools are, on average, much less effective than lower-poverty schools and suggests that strategies that reduce the differential exposure of black, Hispanic, and white students to poor schoolmates may lead to meaningful reductions in academic achievement gaps.

  18. Quality Evaluation and Nonuniform Compression of Geometrically Distorted Images Using the Quadtree Distortion Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Costa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the effects of lossy compression algorithms applied to images affected by geometrical distortion. It will be shown that the encoding-decoding process results in a nonhomogeneous image degradation in the geometrically corrected image, due to the different amount of information associated to each pixel. A distortion measure named quadtree distortion map (QDM able to quantify this aspect is proposed. Furthermore, QDM is exploited to achieve adaptive compression of geometrically distorted pictures, in order to ensure a uniform quality on the final image. Tests are performed using JPEG and JPEG2000 coding standards in order to quantitatively and qualitatively assess the performance of the proposed method.

  19. Chemical segregation and self polarisation in ferroelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard E. Watts

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical partitioning or segregation is commonly encountered in solid-state syntheses. It is driven by compositional, thermal and electric field gradients. These phenomena can be quite extreme in thin films and lead to notable effects on the electrical properties of ferroelectrics. The segregation in ferroelectric thin films will be illustrated and the mechanisms explained in terms of diffusion processes driven by a potential gradient of the oxygen. The hypothesis can also explain self polarisation and imprint in ferroelectric hysteresis.

  20. Particle segregation in pneumatic conveying lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlinchey, D.; Marjanovic, P.; Cook, S.; Jones, M.G. [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Centre for Industrial Bulk Solids Handling

    2000-07-01

    This investigation studied segregation of particles during pneumatic transport from a theoretical and experimental perspective. Dilute phase or suspension flow and dense phase (non-suspension flow) were both considered. A computer model was generated based on the conservation equations to investigate dilute phase conditions; an initial qualitative investigation of material behaviour being conveyed in dense phase was made with plastic pellets and salt as a segregating mixture in a small test rig and the results from a full scale test rig conveying two grades of coal of different size distributions are discussed. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Insegurança alimentar, vínculo mãe-filho e desnutrição infantil em área de alta vulnerabilidade social Food insecurity, mother-child bonding and child malnutrition in a high social vulnerability area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Laudelino Vieira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar a insegurança alimentar e o vínculo inadequado mãe-filho como dois potenciais determinantes da desnutrição em crianças de quatro a seis anos de idade. MÉTODOS: estudo de caso-controle desenvolvido em Escolas Municipais de Educação Infantil (EMEIs no Jardim Jaqueline, área de alta vulnerabilidade social do município de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram aplicados a Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar e o Protocolo de Avaliação do Vínculo Mãe-filho, além de coletadas informações biológicas e socio-econômicas. Para verificação dos efeitos de cada variável independente e controle dos efeitos das demais variáveis incluídas no modelo, foi utilizado o modelo de regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: verificou-se que tanto a insegurança alimentar familiar (OR=3,6 como o vínculo inadequado mãe-filho (OR=9,4 estiveram associados com a desnutrição infantil (pOBJECTIVES: to investigate food insecurity and inadequate bonding between mother and child as two potential factors determining malnutrition among children aged between four and six years. METHODS: a case-control study was conducted in Municipal Primary Schools in Jardim Jaqueline, a highly underprivileged neighborhood of the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil. The Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and the Mother-Child Bonding Evaluation Protocol were applied and biological and socio-economic data collected. The multiple logistic regression model was used to confirm the effect of each independent variable and to control for other variables included in the model. RESULTS: both family food insecurity (OR=3.6 and inadequate mother-child bonding (OR=9.4 were confirmed to be associated with child malnutrition (p<0.05, even when controlled for weight at birth, age, and marital and employment status of mother. CONCLUSIONS: both family food insecurity (OR=3.6 and inadequate mother-child bonding (OR=9.4 were shown to be factors determining the occurrence of

  2. Evaluation of core distortion in FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikarimoto, I.; Tanaka, M.; Okubo, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The analyses of FBR's core distortion are mainly performed in order to evaluate the following items: 1) Change of reactivity; 2) Force at pads on core assemblies; 3) Withdrawal force at refueling; 4) Loading, refueling and residual deviations of wrapper tubes (core assemblies) at the top; 5) Bowing modes of guide tubes for control rods. The analysis of core distortion are performed by using computer program for two-dimensional row deformation analysis or three-dimensional core deformation if necessary, considering these evaluated items which become design conditions. This report shows the relationship between core deformation analysis and component design, a point of view of choosing an analysis program for design considering core characteristics, and computing examples of core deformation of prototype class reactor by the above code. (author)

  3. Lawful Distortion of Consumers’ Economic Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzaskowski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ‘collateral damage’. In that vein this article discusses situations where consumers may have their economic behaviour distorted by commercial practices that are not unfair under the Directive. It is expected that many consumers will make relatively good decisions most of the time...... Visitors’). The article suggests how behavioural sciences may be applied to understand these situations in order to protect more consumers from having their economic behaviour distorted by commercial practices. It is suggested that per se prohibitions may be advantageous in some instances as long......The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive prohibits unfair business-to-consumer commercial practices with a view to protect consumers’ economic interests. In a market economy such regulation cannot protect the economic interests of all consumers in all situations – there must inevitably be some...

  4. Numerical simulation of distorted crystal Darwin width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Li; Xu Zhongmin; Wang Naxiu

    2012-01-01

    A new numerical simulation method according to distorted crystal optical theory was used to predict the direct-cooling crystal monochromator optical properties(crystal Darwin width) in this study. The finite element analysis software was used to calculate the deformed displacements of DCM crystal and to get the local reciprocal lattice vector of distorted crystal. The broadening of direct-cooling crystal Darwin width in meridional direction was estimated at 4.12 μrad. The result agrees well with the experimental data of 5 μrad, while it was 3.89 μrad by traditional calculation method of root mean square (RMS) of the slope error in the center line of footprint. The new method provides important theoretical support for designing and processing of monochromator crystal for synchrotron radiation beamline. (authors)

  5. Redshift-space distortions from vector perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Camille; Durrer, Ruth; Khosravi, Nima; Kunz, Martin; Sawicki, Ignacy

    2018-02-01

    We compute a general expression for the contribution of vector perturbations to the redshift space distortion of galaxy surveys. We show that they contribute to the same multipoles of the correlation function as scalar perturbations and should thus in principle be taken into account in data analysis. We derive constraints for next-generation surveys on the amplitude of two sources of vector perturbations, namely non-linear clustering and topological defects. While topological defects leave a very small imprint on redshift space distortions, we show that the multipoles of the correlation function are sensitive to vorticity induced by non-linear clustering. Therefore future redshift surveys such as DESI or the SKA should be capable of measuring such vector modes, especially with the hexadecapole which appears to be the most sensitive to the presence of vorticity.

  6. Time-Varying Distortions of Binaural Information by Bilateral Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Francisco A.; Portnuff, Cory D. F.; Goupell, Matthew J.; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    In patients with bilateral hearing loss, the use of two hearing aids (HAs) offers the potential to restore the benefits of binaural hearing, including sound source localization and segregation. However, existing evidence suggests that bilateral HA users’ access to binaural information, namely interaural time and level differences (ITDs and ILDs), can be compromised by device processing. Our objective was to characterize the nature and magnitude of binaural distortions caused by modern digital behind-the-ear HAs using a variety of stimuli and HA program settings. Of particular interest was a common frequency-lowering algorithm known as nonlinear frequency compression, which has not previously been assessed for its effects on binaural information. A binaural beamforming algorithm was also assessed. Wide dynamic range compression was enabled in all programs. HAs were placed on a binaural manikin, and stimuli were presented from an arc of loudspeakers inside an anechoic chamber. Stimuli were broadband noise bursts, 10-Hz sinusoidally amplitude-modulated noise bursts, or consonant–vowel–consonant speech tokens. Binaural information was analyzed in terms of ITDs, ILDs, and interaural coherence, both for whole stimuli and in a time-varying sense (i.e., within a running temporal window) across four different frequency bands (1, 2, 4, and 6 kHz). Key findings were: (a) Nonlinear frequency compression caused distortions of high-frequency envelope ITDs and significantly reduced interaural coherence. (b) For modulated stimuli, all programs caused time-varying distortion of ILDs. (c) HAs altered the relationship between ITDs and ILDs, introducing large ITD–ILD conflicts in some cases. Potential perceptual consequences of measured distortions are discussed. PMID:27698258

  7. Distorted wave calculations for double electron transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.E.; Rivarola, R.D.; Gayet, R.; Hanssen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The resonant double electron capture by alpha particles in helium targets is studied, at intermediate and high collision energies, using the Continuum Distorted Wave - Eikonal Initial State (CDW-EIS) model. Differential and total cross sections for capture into the He (1 s 2 ) final state are calculated in the framework of an Independent Electron Approximation (IEA). Theoretical results are compared with the experimental data available at present for capture into any final state of helium. (author)

  8. Lattice distortion in hcp rare gas solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnev, A.; Tretyak, S. M.; Freiman, Yu. A.

    2010-04-01

    The lattice distortion parameter δ ≡c/a-√8/3 has been calculated as a function of molar volume for the hcp phases of He, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Results from both semi-empirical potentials and density functional theory are presented. Our study shows that δ is negative for helium in the entire pressure range. For Ar, Kr, and Xe δ changes sign from negative to positive as the pressure increases, growing rapidly in magnitude at higher pressures.

  9. Distortion of the microwave background by dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1981-01-01

    The Woody and Richards distortion of the microwave background has a natural explanation within the framework of the isothermal density fluctuation picture. A pregalactic generation of ''stars'' makes light and metals. The latter are able to condense into dust grains at a redshift approximately 150-225, which then absorb the starlight and reradiate it in the infrared. At the present epoch we see this emission redshifted into the millimetre range of the spectrum

  10. A review of PFR core distortion experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron induced voidage (NIV) swelling and irradiation creep, acting together or individually, produce deformation in core components exposed to a fast neutron flux and can lead to mechanical interaction between them. Today the nature of these processes is reasonably well understood, and reactor designers have two options in attempting to accomodate them: either by employing a flexible free standing design in which contact loadings are low but in which distortion may be high, or more commonly, by some type of restrained core in which inter-component loadings are high, but where distortion is relatively small. The aims of this paper are: a. to describe briefly the various operational limits of core and core component distortion and how they arise, for which a brief description of reactor construction is necessary; b. to outline how the problems of inter-component contact loadings are overcome for the interactive core; c. to describe some other potential problems which arise either from absolute swelling, or from differential swelling between components; of particular relevance here is the problem of contact loadings between absorber rods and their guide tubes; d. to comment on the degree of agreement with, and the feedback provided by, PIE findings; e. to show how the results of the work influence reactor operators and the reload program

  11. CMB spectral distortion constraints on thermal inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kihyun; Stewart, Ewan D. [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sungwook E. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Zoe, Heeseung, E-mail: cho_physics@kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: heezoe@dgist.ac.kr, E-mail: jcap@profstewart.org, E-mail: heezoe@dgist.ac.kr [School of Undergraduate Studies, College of Transdisciplinary Studies, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 42988 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    Thermal inflation is a second epoch of exponential expansion at typical energy scales V {sup 1/4} ∼ 10{sup 6} {sup ∼} {sup 8} GeV. If the usual primordial inflation is followed by thermal inflation, the primordial power spectrum is only modestly redshifted on large scales, but strongly suppressed on scales smaller than the horizon size at the beginning of thermal inflation, k > k {sub b} = a {sub b} H {sub b}. We calculate the spectral distortion of the cosmic microwave background generated by the dissipation of acoustic waves in this context. For k {sub b} || 10{sup 3} Mpc{sup −1}, thermal inflation results in a large suppression of the μ-distortion amplitude, predicting that it falls well below the standard value of μ ≅ 2× 10{sup −8}. Thus, future spectral distortion experiments, similar to PIXIE, can place new limits on the thermal inflation scenario, constraining k {sub b} ∼> 10{sup 3} Mpc{sup −1} if μ ≅ 2× 10{sup −8} were found.

  12. Engineering economic evaluations of trash segregation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Health physicists are becoming increasingly involved in the selection of equipment to segregate a contaminated trash from clean trash in the effort to reduce low level waste disposal costs. Although well qualified to evaluate the technical merits of different equipment, health physicists also need to be aware of the elements of economic comparisons of different alternatives that meet all technical requirements

  13. Koedukation oder Geschlechtertrennung = Coeducation or Gender Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, Jurgen

    1992-01-01

    Presents study results examining recruitment practice differences between coeducational and gender segregated secondary schools in Germany. Discusses the impact of organizational form on teacher judgments, achievement in specific subjects, school subject-related interests, and school commitment. Reports that under conditions of free school choice,…

  14. Segregation reinforced by urban planning | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... ... What is driving urban violence? Segregated urban planning can leave a legacy of community tension and insecurity. Potential solutions? Include vulnerable communities in city planning decisions; invest in transport infrastructure; and regularly update city development plans to reflect population growth.

  15. 49 CFR 176.83 - Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... presence of one or more steel bulkheads or decks between them or a combination thereof. Intervening spaces... substance but vary only in their water content (for example, sodium sulfide in Division 4.2 or Class 8) or... applied. (11) Certain exceptions from segregation for waste cyanides or waste cyanide mixtures or...

  16. Plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus; Gerdes, Kenn

    2000-01-01

    Recent major advances in the understanding of prokaryotic DNA segregation have been achieved by using fluorescence microscopy to visualize the localization of cellular components. Plasmids and bacterial chromosomes are partitioned in a highly dynamic fashion, suggesting the presence of a mitotic...

  17. Educational Justice, Segregated Schooling and Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The philosophical debate on educational justice currently focusses on the Anglo-American situation. This essay brings in an additional perspective. It provides a justice-oriented critique of the segregated education systems in German-speaking countries. First, arguments that are commonly put forward in favour of these systems are rejected. Second,…

  18. A Social Network Analysis of Occupational Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhai, Ioan Sebastian; van der Leij, Marco

    We develop a social network model of occupational segregation between different social groups, generated by the existence of positive inbreeding bias among individuals from the same group. If network referrals are important for job search, then expected homophily in the contact network structure...

  19. Sex segregation in undergraduate engineering majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzler, Elizabeth

    Gender inequality in engineering persists in spite of women reaching parity in college enrollments and degrees granted. To date, no analyses of educational sex segregation have comprehensively examined segregation within one discipline. To move beyond traditional methods of studying the long-standing stratification by field of study in higher education, I explore gender stratification within one field: engineering. This dissertation investigates why some engineering disciplines have a greater representation of women than other engineering disciplines. I assess the individual and institutional factors and conditions associated with women's representation in certain engineering departments and compare the mechanisms affecting women's and men's choice of majors. I use national data from the Engineering Workforce Commission, survey data from 21 schools in the Project to Assess Climate in Engineering study, and Carnegie Foundation classification information to study sex segregation in engineering majors from multiple perspectives: the individual, major, institution, and country. I utilize correlations, t-tests, cross-tabulations, log-linear modeling, multilevel logistic regression and weighted least squares regression to test the relative utility of alternative explanations for women's disproportionate representation across engineering majors. As a whole, the analyses illustrate the importance of context and environment for women's representation in engineering majors. Hypotheses regarding hostile climate and discrimination find wide support across different analyses, suggesting that women's under-representation in certain engineering majors is not a question of choice or ability. However, individual level factors such as having engineering coursework prior to college show an especially strong association with student choice of major. Overall, the analyses indicate that institutions matter, albeit less for women, and women's under-representation in engineering is not

  20. Consulta de enfermagem - um diálogo entre os saberes técnicos e populares em saúde Consulta de enfermería - un diálogo cultural entre los saberes técnicos y populares en salud Dialogue between nurses and mothers during the mother-child binomial consultantion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Rodrigues da Silva Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste relato de experiência evidenciamos algumas estratégias que fizeram da consulta de enfermagem ao binômio mãe-filho um espaço privilegiado para o diálogo com a cultura e os saberes da população assistida. A técnica da coleta de dados foi o registro, durante seis meses, em diários de campo, das impressões verbalizadas pelas mulheres sobre o atendimento recebido. Demos o mesmo tratamento às nossas percepções e impressões. Escolhemos 30 registros de mulheres que freqüentaram o serviço regularmente e, a partir desses depoimentos, fomos introduzindo alterações no modelo de consulta. Pudemos compreender, a partir da experiência, que é fundamental o estabelecimento de uma relação dialógica entre os saberes populares e acadêmicos para o cuidado humanizado e eficiente em saúde.En este relato de experiencia evidenciamos algunas estrategias que hicieron de la Consulta de Enfermería, con el binomio madre-niño, un espacio privilegiado para el diálogo con la cultura y los saberes de la población asistida. La técnica de recolección de datos fue el registro, durante seis meses, en diarios de campo, de las impresiones verbalizadas por las mujeres sobre la atención recibida. Dimos el mismo trato a nuestras percepciones e impresiones. Escogimos 30 registros de mujeres que frecuentaron el servicio regularmente y, a partir de esos testimonios, fuimos introduciendo alteraciones en el modelo de consulta. Pudimos comprender, a partir de esa experiencia, que es fundamental el establecimiento de una relación dialógica entre los saberes populares y académicos para el cuidado humanizado y eficiente en salud.To describe strategies that might promote technical and cultural and common knowledge dialogue between nurses and mothers during the mother-child binomial nursing consultation. A purposive sample of 30 women who had regular nursing consultation appointment was used. Data were collected throughout a period of 6 months and consisted

  1. Cognitive Distortions in Depressed Women: Trait, or State Dependent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat BATMAZ

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The results have revealed that self-criticism, helplessness, hopelessness and preoccupation with danger related distortions had trait-like features, whereas self-blame related distortions were state dependent. This has clinical implications for the psychotherapeutic treatment of cognitive distortions in depression. Specifically, self-criticism related distortions should be managed during cognitive therapy for depression since the other subscales seem rather problematic. [JCBPR 2015; 4(3.000: 147-152

  2. Ab-initio study of surface segregation in aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Yifa, E-mail: yfqin10s@imr.ac.cn; Wang, Shaoqing

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • A thorough study of surface segregation energies of 41 elements in Al is performed. • Segregation energies vary periodically with the atomic numbers of impurities. • 41 elements are classified into 3 groups according to the signs of segregation energies. • The results are validated by the surface/total concentration ratio in Al alloys. - Abstract: We have calculated surface segregation energies of 41 impurities by means of density functional theory calculations. An interesting periodical variation tendency was found for surface segregation energies derived. For the majority of main group elements, segregation energies are negative which means solute elements enrichment at Al surface is energetically more favorable than uniformly dissolution. Half of transition elements possess positive segregation energies and the energies are sensitive to surface crystallographic orientations. A strong correlation is found between the segregation energies at the Al surface and the surface energ of solute elements.

  3. Charles J. McMahon Interfacial Segregation and Embrittlement Symposium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vitek, Vaclav

    2003-01-01

    .... McMahon Interfacial Segregation and Embrittlement Symposium: Grain Boundary Segregation and Fracture in Steels was sponsored by ASM International, Materials Science Critical Technology Sector, Structural Materials Division, Materials Processing...

  4. Density Functional Theory plus Hubbard U Study of the Segregation of Pt to the CeO2- x Grain Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoli; Li, Pan; Ma, Qingmin; Tian, Zhixue; Liu, Ying

    2018-03-14

    Grain boundaries (GBs) can be used as traps for solute atoms and defects, and the interaction between segregants and GBs is crucial for understanding the properties of nanocrystalline materials. In this study, we have systematically investigated the Pt segregation and Pt-oxygen vacancies interaction at the ∑3 (111) GB in ceria (CeO 2 ). The Pt atom has a stronger tendency to segregate to the ∑3 (111) GB than to the (111) and (110) free surfaces, but the tendency is weaker than to (112) and (100). Lattice distortion plays a dominant role in Pt segregation. At the Pt-segregated-GB (Pt@GB), oxygen vacancies prefer to form spontaneously near Pt in the GB region. However, at the pristine GB, oxygen vacancies can only form under O-poor conditions. Thus, Pt segregation to the GB promotes the formation of oxygen vacancies, and their strong interactions enhance the interfacial cohesion. We propose that GBs fabricated close to the surfaces of nanocrystalline ceria can trap Pt from inside the grains or other types of surface, resulting in the suppression of the accumulation of Pt on the surface under redox reactions, especially under O-poor conditions.

  5. Detection of chromatic and luminance distortions in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Ben J; Wang, Karen; Menzies, Samantha; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2015-09-01

    A number of studies have measured visual thresholds for detecting spatial distortions applied to images of natural scenes. In one study, Bex [J. Vis.10(2), 1 (2010)10.1167/10.2.231534-7362] measured sensitivity to sinusoidal spatial modulations of image scale. Here, we measure sensitivity to sinusoidal scale distortions applied to the chromatic, luminance, or both layers of natural scene images. We first established that sensitivity does not depend on whether the undistorted comparison image was of the same or of a different scene. Next, we found that, when the luminance but not chromatic layer was distorted, performance was the same regardless of whether the chromatic layer was present, absent, or phase-scrambled; in other words, the chromatic layer, in whatever form, did not affect sensitivity to the luminance layer distortion. However, when the chromatic layer was distorted, sensitivity was higher when the luminance layer was intact compared to when absent or phase-scrambled. These detection threshold results complement the appearance of periodic distortions of the image scale: when the luminance layer is distorted visibly, the scene appears distorted, but when the chromatic layer is distorted visibly, there is little apparent scene distortion. We conclude that (a) observers have a built-in sense of how a normal image of a natural scene should appear, and (b) the detection of distortion in, as well as the apparent distortion of, natural scene images is mediated predominantly by the luminance layer and not chromatic layer.

  6. Centi-pixel accurate real-time inverse distortion correction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, Johan P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Inverse distortion is used to create an undistorted image from a distorted image. For each pixel in the undistorted image it is required to determine which pixel in the distorted image should be used. However the process of characterizing a lens...

  7. Appraisal Distortions and Intimate Partner Violence: Gender, Power, and Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Jason B.; Oka, Megan; Fife, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    In relationships characterized by control, abuse, or violence, many appraisal distortions occur including denial and minimization. However, the nature of the distortion varies depending on the individual's role in the relationship (i.e., abuser or victim). Reducing these distortions is an important component in treatment success and involves…

  8. 41 CFR 60-1.8 - Segregated facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Segregated facilities. 60...; Compliance Reports § 60-1.8 Segregated facilities. To comply with its obligations under the Order, a contractor must ensure that facilities provided for employees are provided in such a manner that segregation...

  9. Gender Segregation in Nursery School: Predictors and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccoby, Eleanor E.; Jacklin, Carol Nagy

    Sex segregation is a powerful phenomenon in childhood. It occurs universally whenever children have a choice of playmates and is found in sub-human primates too. Adults are not directly responsible for sex segregation. Data do not support the hypothesis that the most ladylike girls and the most rough and active boys first form the segregated play…

  10. "E Pluribus"... Separation: Deepening Double Segregation for More Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Gary; Kucsera, John; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    This report shows segregation has increased dramatically across the country for Latino students, who are attending more intensely segregated and impoverished schools than they have for generations. The segregation increases have been the most dramatic in the West. The typical Latino student in the region attends a school where less than a quarter…

  11. Segregation effects and phase developments during solidification of alloy 625

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, Christian; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hald, John

    2006-01-01

    contained gamma-phase, Laves phase and, if carbon was dissolved in the liquid, niobium rich carbides formed. Molybdenum and niobium showed strong tendencies to segregate. Their segregation was balanced by inverse segregation of nickel and iron. The chromium concentration remained almost constant in gamma...

  12. Requirements for the evaluation of computational speech segregation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Dau, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on computational speech segregation reported improved speech intelligibility in noise when estimating and applying an ideal binary mask with supervised learning algorithms. However, an important requirement for such systems in technical applications is their robustness to acoustic...... associated with perceptual attributes in speech segregation. The results could help establish a framework for a systematic evaluation of future segregation systems....

  13. Residential segregation of socioeconomic variables and health indices in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Correlation of segregation of determinants of socioeconomic status with segregation of health indices is an indicator of existence of hot zones of health problems across some provinces. Further studies using multilevel modeling and individual data in health outcomes at individual level and segregation measures at appropriate geographic levels are required to confirm these relations.

  14. Analysis of recombination QTLs, segregation distortion, and epistasis for fitness in maize multiple populations using ultra-high-density markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the maize genomic features would be useful for the study of genetic diversity and evolution and for maize breeding. Here, we used two maize nested association mapping (NAM) populations separately derived in China (CN-NAM) and the US (US-NAM) to explore the maize genomic features. The t...

  15. Neural Segregation of Concurrent Speech: Effects of Background Noise and Reverberation on Auditory Scene Analysis in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayles, Mark; Stasiak, Arkadiusz; Winter, Ian M

    2016-01-01

    Concurrent complex sounds (e.g., two voices speaking at once) are perceptually disentangled into separate "auditory objects". This neural processing often occurs in the presence of acoustic-signal distortions from noise and reverberation (e.g., in a busy restaurant). A difference in periodicity between sounds is a strong segregation cue under quiet, anechoic conditions. However, noise and reverberation exert differential effects on speech intelligibility under "cocktail-party" listening conditions. Previous neurophysiological studies have concentrated on understanding auditory scene analysis under ideal listening conditions. Here, we examine the effects of noise and reverberation on periodicity-based neural segregation of concurrent vowels /a/ and /i/, in the responses of single units in the guinea-pig ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN): the first processing station of the auditory brain stem. In line with human psychoacoustic data, we find reverberation significantly impairs segregation when vowels have an intonated pitch contour, but not when they are spoken on a monotone. In contrast, noise impairs segregation independent of intonation pattern. These results are informative for models of speech processing under ecologically valid listening conditions, where noise and reverberation abound.

  16. Stripe segregation and magnetic coupling in the nickelate La 5/3Sr1/3NiO4

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2009-03-02

    We investigate the consequences of the stripe formation in the nickelate La5/3Sr1/3NiO4 for the details of its crystal structure and electronic states. Our data are based on numerical simulations within density functional theory (DFT) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The on-site Coulomb interaction is included in terms of the LDA+U scheme. Structure optimization of preliminary experimental data indicates a strong interaction between the structural and electronic degrees of freedom. In particular, we find a segregation of the diagonal filled stripes induced by a delicate interplay with the magnetic coupling. Beyond the cooperative effect of stripe segregation and spin order, distinct octahedral distortions are essential for the formation of an insulating state. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Towards distortion-free robust image authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltuc, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates a general framework for distortion-free robust image authentication by multiple marking. First, by robust watermarking a subsampled version of image edges is embedded. Then, by reversible watermarking the information needed to recover the original image is inserted, too. The hiding capacity of the reversible watermarking is the essential requirement for this approach. Thus in case of no attacks not only image is authenticated but also the original is exactly recovered. In case of attacks, reversibility is lost, but image can still be authenticated. Preliminary results providing very good robustness against JPEG compression are presented

  18. Rate dependent image distortions in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trow, M.W.; Bento, A.C.; Smith, A.

    1994-01-01

    The positional linearity of imaging proportional counters is affected by the intensity distribution of the incident radiation. A mechanism for this effect is described, in which drifting positive ions in the gas produce a distorting electric field which perturbs the trajectories of the primary electrons. In certain cases, the phenomenon causes an apparent improvement of the position resolution. We demonstrate the effect in a detector filled with a xenon-argon-CO 2 mixture. The images obtained are compared with the results of a simulation. If quantitative predictions for a particular detector are required, accurate values of the absolute detector gain, ion mobility and electron drift velocity are needed. ((orig.))

  19. Multiple shadows from distorted static black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Jai; Kunz, Jutta; Nedkova, Petya; Wittig, Alexander; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2018-04-01

    We study the local shadow of the Schwarzschild black hole with a quadrupole distortion and the influence of the external gravitational field on the photon dynamics. The external matter sources modify the light ring structure and lead to the appearance of multiple shadow images. In the case of negative quadrupole moments we identify the most prominent mechanism causing multiple shadow formation. Furthermore, we obtain a condition under which this mechanism can be realized. This condition depends on the quadrupole moment, but also on the position of the observer and the celestial sphere.

  20. Renormalization of a distorted gauge: invariant theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, J.P.; Underwood, J.A.

    1976-02-01

    A new type of renormalizable theory involving massive Yang-Mills fields whose mass is generated by an intrinsic breakdown of the usual local gauge symmetry is considered. However, the Lagrangian has a distorted gauge symmetry which leads to the Ward-Takahashi (W-T) identities. Also, the theory is independent of the gauge parameter xi. An explicit renormalization at the oneloop level is completely carried out by exhibiting counter terms, defining the physical parameters and computing all renormalization constants to check the W-T identities

  1. Flow distortion on boom mounted cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gottschall, Julia

    In this report we investigate on wind direction dependent errors in the measurement of the horizontal wind speed by boom mounted cup anemometers. The boom mounting on the studied lattice tower is performed according to IEC standard design rules, yet, larger deviations than predicted by flow models...... are observed. The errors on the measurements are likely caused by an underestimation of the flow distortions around the tower. In this paper an experimental method for deriving a correction formula and an in-field calibration is suggested. The method is based on measurements with two cup anemometers mounted...

  2. Redshift distortions of galaxy correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, J.N.; Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL; Gaztanaga, E.; Oxford Univ.

    1993-01-01

    To examine how peculiar velocities can affect the 2-, 3-, and 4-point correlation functions, we evaluate volume-average correlations for configurations that emphasize and minimize distortions for four different volume-limited samples from each of the CfA, SSRS, and IRAS redshift catalogs. We present the results as the correlation length r 0 and power index γ of the 2-point correlation, anti Ξ 2 = (r 0 /r) γ , and as the hierarchical amplitudes of the 3- and 4-point functions, S 3 = anti Ξ 3 /anti Ξ 2 2 and S 4 = anti Ξ/anti Ξ 2 3 . We find a characteristic distortion for anti Ξ 2 : The slope γ is flatter and the correlation length is larger in redshift space than in real space; that is, redshift distortions ''move'' correlations from small to large scales. At the largest scales, extra power in the redshift distribution is compatible with Ω 4/7 /b ∼ 1; we find 0.53 ± 0.15, 1.10 ± 0.16 and 0.84 ± 0.45 for the CfA, SSRS and IRAS catalogs. Higher order correlations anti Ξ 3 and anti Ξ 4 suffer similar redshift distortions, but in such a way that, within the accuracy of our analysis, the normalized amplitudes S 3 and S 4 are insensitive to this effect. The hierarchical amplitudes S 3 and S 4 are constant as a function of scale between 1-12 h -1 Mpc and have similar values in all samples and catalogues, S 3 ∼ 2 and S 4 ∼ 6, despite the fact that anti Ξ 2 , anti Ξ 3 , and anti Ξ 4 differ from one sample to another by large factors. The agreement between the independent estimations of S 3 and S 4 is remarkable given the different criteria in the selection of galaxies and also the difference in the resulting range of densities, luminosities and locations between samples

  3. Sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Meiotic divisions (meiosis I and II) are specialized cell divisions to generate haploid gametes. The first meiotic division with the separation of chromosomes is named reductional division. The second division, which takes place immediately after meiosis I without intervening S-phase, is equational, with the separation of sister chromatids, similar to mitosis. This meiotic segregation pattern requires the two-step removal of the cohesin complex holding sister chromatids together: cohesin is removed from chromosome arms that have been subjected to homologous recombination in meiosis I and from the centromere region in meiosis II. Cohesin in the centromere region is protected from removal in meiosis I, but this protection has to be removed—deprotected”—for sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II. Whereas the mechanisms of cohesin protection are quite well understood, the mechanisms of deprotection have been largely unknown until recently. In this review I summarize our current knowledge on cohesin deprotection. PMID:23574717

  4. Segregation effects in welded stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, J.I.; Shoaid, K.A.; Ahmed, M.; Malik, A.Q.

    1987-01-01

    Welding of steels causes changes in the microstructure and chemical composition which could adversely affect the mechanical and corrosion properties. The report describes the experimental results of an investigation of segregation effects in welded austenitic stainless steels of AISI type 304, 304L, 316 and 316L using the techniques of scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. Considerable enhancement of chromium and carbon has been observed in certain well-defined zones on the parent metal and on composition, particularly in the parent metal, in attributed to the formation of (M 23 C 6 ) precipitates. The formation of geometrically well-defined segregation zones is explained on the basis of the time-temperature-precipitation curve of (M 23 C 6 ). (author)

  5. Phase Segregation in Polystyrene?Polylactide Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Bonnie; Hitchcock, Adam; Brash, John; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew

    2010-06-09

    Spun-cast films of polystyrene (PS) blended with polylactide (PLA) were visualized and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM). The composition of the two polymers in these systems was determined by quantitative chemical analysis of near-edge X-ray absorption signals recorded with X-PEEM. The surface morphology depends on the ratio of the two components, the total polymer concentration, and the temperature of vacuum annealing. For most of the blends examined, PS is the continuous phase with PLA existing in discrete domains or segregated to the air?polymer interface. Phase segregation was improved with further annealing. A phase inversion occurred when films of a 40:60 PS:PLA blend (0.7 wt percent loading) were annealed above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLA.

  6. Segregation in welded nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, J.I.; Shoaib, K.A.; Ahmad, M.; Shaikh, M.A.

    1990-05-01

    Segregation effects have been investigated in nickel-base alloys monel 400, inconel 625, hastelloy C-276 and incoloy 825, test welded under controlled conditions. Deviations from the normal composition have been observed to varying extents in the welded zone of these alloys. Least effect of this type occurred in Monel 400 where the content of Cu increased in some of the areas. Enhancement of Al and Ti has been found over large areas in the other alloys which has been attributed to the formation of low melting slag. Another common feature is the segregation of Cr, Fe or Ti, most likely in the form of carbides. Enrichment of Al, Ti, Nb, Mb, Mo, etc., to different amounts in some of the areas of these materials is in- terpretted in terms of the formation of gamma prime precipitates or of Laves phases. (author)

  7. Underemployment in a gender segregated labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Kjeldstad, Randi; Nymoen, Erik H.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses factors behind underemployment in Norway and has a focus on gender. The analysis, based on Labour Force Survey data, shows that economic fluctuations during the latest one and a half decade bring about changing underemployment levels of both women and men. The Norwegian labour market is strongly gender segregated and the processes and characteristics of underemployment differ between male and female dominated labour market sectors. The former sectors are generally more e...

  8. Blood Cell Interactions and Segregation in Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Munn, Lance L.; Dupin, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    For more than a century, pioneering researchers have been using novel experimental and computational approaches to probe the mysteries of blood flow. Thanks to their efforts, we know that blood cells generally prefer to migrate to the axis of flow, that red and white cells segregate in flow, and that cell deformability and their tendency to reversibly aggregate contribute to the non-Newtonian nature of this unique fluid. All of these properties have beneficial physiological consequences, allo...

  9. Chromosomal organization and segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Vallet-Gely

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of chromosomal organization and segregation in a handful of bacteria has revealed surprising variety in the mechanisms mediating such fundamental processes. In this study, we further emphasized this diversity by revealing an original organization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosome. We analyzed the localization of 20 chromosomal markers and several components of the replication machinery in this important opportunistic γ-proteobacteria pathogen. This technique allowed us to show that the 6.3 Mb unique circular chromosome of P. aeruginosa is globally oriented from the old pole of the cell to the division plane/new pole along the oriC-dif axis. The replication machinery is positioned at mid-cell, and the chromosomal loci from oriC to dif are moved sequentially to mid-cell prior to replication. The two chromosomal copies are subsequently segregated at their final subcellular destination in the two halves of the cell. We identified two regions in which markers localize at similar positions, suggesting a bias in the distribution of chromosomal regions in the cell. The first region encompasses 1.4 Mb surrounding oriC, where loci are positioned around the 0.2/0.8 relative cell length upon segregation. The second region contains at least 800 kb surrounding dif, where loci show an extensive colocalization step following replication. We also showed that disrupting the ParABS system is very detrimental in P. aeruginosa. Possible mechanisms responsible for the coordinated chromosomal segregation process and for the presence of large distinctive regions are discussed.

  10. Wages, Promotions, and Gender Workplace Segregation (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    HASHIMOTO Yuki; SATO Kaori

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how job assignments affect gender pay gap and the promotion rate of female workers using personnel records from a large Japanese manufacturing firm, where newly-hired male and female workers are systematically assigned to different workplaces ("gender job segregation"). According to our gender pay gap analysis, we find that controlling for workplace heterogeneity leads to a larger, rather than smaller, gender pay gap, implying that female workers are sorted into work...

  11. Wages, Promotions, and Gender Workplace Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    橋本, 由紀; 佐藤, 香織

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how job assignments affect gender pay gap and the promotion rate of female workers using personnel records from a large Japanese manufacturing firm, where newly-hired male and female workers are systematically assigned to different workplaces ("gender job segregation"). According to our gender pay gap analysis, we find that controlling for workplace heterogeneity leads to a larger, rather than smaller, gender pay gap, implying that female workers are sorted into work...

  12. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  13. Self-organized Segregation on the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Hamed; Franceschetti, Massimo

    2018-02-01

    We consider an agent-based model with exponentially distributed waiting times in which two types of agents interact locally over a graph, and based on this interaction and on the value of a common intolerance threshold τ , decide whether to change their types. This is equivalent to a zero-temperature ising model with Glauber dynamics, an asynchronous cellular automaton with extended Moore neighborhoods, or a Schelling model of self-organized segregation in an open system, and has applications in the analysis of social and biological networks, and spin glasses systems. Some rigorous results were recently obtained in the theoretical computer science literature, and this work provides several extensions. We enlarge the intolerance interval leading to the expected formation of large segregated regions of agents of a single type from the known size ɛ >0 to size ≈ 0.134. Namely, we show that for 0.433sites can be observed within any sufficiently large region of the occupied percolation cluster. The exponential bounds that we provide also imply that complete segregation, where agents of a single type cover the whole grid, does not occur with high probability for p=1/2 and the range of intolerance considered.

  14. Integration and segregation in auditory scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse S.

    2005-03-01

    Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech..

  15. Audiovisual segregation in cochlear implant users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Landry

    Full Text Available It has traditionally been assumed that cochlear implant users de facto perform atypically in audiovisual tasks. However, a recent study that combined an auditory task with visual distractors suggests that only those cochlear implant users that are not proficient at recognizing speech sounds might show abnormal audiovisual interactions. The present study aims at reinforcing this notion by investigating the audiovisual segregation abilities of cochlear implant users in a visual task with auditory distractors. Speechreading was assessed in two groups of cochlear implant users (proficient and non-proficient at sound recognition, as well as in normal controls. A visual speech recognition task (i.e. speechreading was administered either in silence or in combination with three types of auditory distractors: i noise ii reverse speech sound and iii non-altered speech sound. Cochlear implant users proficient at speech recognition performed like normal controls in all conditions, whereas non-proficient users showed significantly different audiovisual segregation patterns in both speech conditions. These results confirm that normal-like audiovisual segregation is possible in highly skilled cochlear implant users and, consequently, that proficient and non-proficient CI users cannot be lumped into a single group. This important feature must be taken into account in further studies of audiovisual interactions in cochlear implant users.

  16. Purely temporal figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, F I; Fahle, M

    2001-05-01

    Visual figure-ground segregation is achieved by exploiting differences in features such as luminance, colour, motion or presentation time between a figure and its surround. Here we determine the shortest delay times required for figure-ground segregation based on purely temporal features. Previous studies usually employed stimulus onset asynchronies between figure- and ground-containing possible artefacts based on apparent motion cues or on luminance differences. Our stimuli systematically avoid these artefacts by constantly showing 20 x 20 'colons' that flip by 90 degrees around their midpoints at constant time intervals. Colons constituting the background flip in-phase whereas those constituting the target flip with a phase delay. We tested the impact of frequency modulation and phase reduction on target detection. Younger subjects performed well above chance even at temporal delays as short as 13 ms, whilst older subjects required up to three times longer delays in some conditions. Figure-ground segregation can rely on purely temporal delays down to around 10 ms even in the absence of luminance and motion artefacts, indicating a temporal precision of cortical information processing almost an order of magnitude lower than the one required for some models of feature binding in the visual cortex [e.g. Singer, W. (1999), Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 9, 189-194]. Hence, in our experiment, observers are unable to use temporal stimulus features with the precision required for these models.

  17. Minimization and segregation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The report will serve as one of a series of technical manuals providing reference material and direct know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in Member States without nuclear power and the associated range of complex waste management operations. Considerations are limited to the minimization and segregation of wastes, these being initial steps on which the efficiency of the whole waste management system depends. The minimization and segregation operations are examined in the context of the restricted quantities and predominantly shorter lived activities of wastes from nuclear research, production and usage of radioisotopes. Liquid and solid wastes only are considered in the report. Gaseous waste minimization and treatment are specialized subjects and are not examined in this document. Gaseous effluent treatment in facilities handling low and intermediate level radioactive materials has been already the subject of a detailed IAEA report. Management of spent sealed sources has specifically been covered in a previous manual. Conditioned sealed sources must be taken into account in segregation arrangements for interim storage and disposal where there are exceptional long lived highly radiotoxic isotopes, particularly radium or americium. These are unlikely ever to be suitable for shallow land burial along with the remaining wastes. 30 refs, 5 figs, 8 tabs

  18. Implementing spatial segregation measures in R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Yun Hong

    Full Text Available Reliable and accurate estimation of residential segregation between population groups is important for understanding the extent of social cohesion and integration in our society. Although there have been considerable methodological advances in the measurement of segregation over the last several decades, the recently developed measures have not been widely used in the literature, in part due to their complex calculation. To address this problem, we have implemented several newly proposed segregation indices in R, an open source software environment for statistical computing and graphics, as a package called seg. Although there are already a few standalone applications and add-on packages that provide access to similar methods, our implementation has a number of advantages over the existing tools. First, our implementation is flexible in the sense that it provides detailed control over the calculation process with a wide range of input parameters. Most of the parameters have carefully chosen defaults, which perform acceptably in many situations, so less experienced users can also use the implemented functions without too much difficulty. Second, there is no need to export results to other software programs for further analysis. We provide coercion methods that enable the transformation of our output classes into general R classes, so the user can use thousands of standard and modern statistical techniques, which are already available in R, for the post-processing of the results. Third, our implementation does not require commercial software to operate, so it is accessible to a wider group of people.

  19. Segregation in handling processes of blended industrial coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.G.; Marjanovic, P.; McGlinchy, D.; McLaren, R. [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Department of Physical Sciences, Centre for Industrial Bulk Solids Handling

    1998-09-01

    A comparison was made between two belt blending methods; using either a compartment hopper or feeder belts. The results indicated that in this case the system with feeder belts gave a more consistent proportioning of materials. Coal when formed into a heap was shown to segregate dependent on size fraction. The level of segregation for each size fraction was quantified using ANOVA statistics. Any measure taken to mitigate this segregation could then be properly assessed. Some aspects of the segregation evident in the heap arose in previous handling steps showing that such effects are transmittable along a process stream. Singles coal when pneumatically conveyed in dilute phase will segregate in the conveying pipeline. Segregation in the direction of travel was minimal in dense phase conveying although the materials tested separated through the depth of the pipe. A full scale experimental programme investigating segregation in both dense and dilute phase is currently underway. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Analysis of Minor Component Segregation in Ternary Powder Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asachi Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many powder handling operations, inhomogeneity in powder mixtures caused by segregation could have significant adverse impact on the quality as well as economics of the production. Segregation of a minor component of a highly active substance could have serious deleterious effects, an example is the segregation of enzyme granules in detergent powders. In this study, the effects of particle properties and bulk cohesion on the segregation tendency of minor component are analysed. The minor component is made sticky while not adversely affecting the flowability of samples. The segregation extent is evaluated using image processing of the photographic records taken from the front face of the heap after the pouring process. The optimum average sieve cut size of components for which segregation could be reduced is reported. It is also shown that the extent of segregation is significantly reduced by applying a thin layer of liquid to the surfaces of minor component, promoting an ordered mixture.

  1. Racial Residential Segregation: Measuring Location Choice Attributes of Environmental Quality and Self-Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohua Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Both sorting on public goods and tastes for segregation contribute to the persistence of segregation in America. Incorporating Schelling’s (1969, 1971 concept of “neighborhood tipping” into a two-stage equilibrium sorting model, in which both neighborhood demographic composition and public goods (e.g., environmental quality affect households’ residential location choice, this study investigates how preferences for neighborhood demographic composition could obscure the role of exogenous public goods on segregation. The results reveal that non-white households face higher level of exposure to air pollution, suggesting the presence of environmental injustice in Franklin County, OH. Using a counterfactual scenario of switching off heterogeneous taste for environmental quality, this study identifies that sorting on Toxic Release Inventory (TRI emissions drives little correlations between emissions and demographics. However, when taste parameters of the interactions between neighborhood demographic composition and household race are eliminated, segregation (as measured by over-exposure to households of the same race of black and white households decreases by 7.63% and 16.36%, respectively, and own-race neighbor preferences contribute to segregation differently according to household income. These results may help explain some recent puzzles in the relationship between environmental quality and demographics.

  2. JET ENGINE INLET DISTORTION SCREEN AND DESCRIPTOR EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Pečinka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Total pressure distortion is one of the three basic flow distortions (total pressure, total temperature and swirl distortion that might appear at the inlet of a gas turbine engine (GTE during operation. Different numerical parameters are used for assessing the total pressure distortion intensity and extent. These summary descriptors are based on the distribution of total pressure in the aerodynamic interface plane. There are two descriptors largely spread around the world, however, three or four others are still in use and can be found in current references. The staff at the University of Defence decided to compare the most common descriptors using basic flow distortion patterns in order to select the most appropriate descriptor for future department research. The most common descriptors were identified based on their prevalence in widely accessible publications. The construction and use of these descriptors are reviewed in the paper. Subsequently, they are applied to radial, angular, and combined distortion patterns of different intensities and with varied mass flow rates. The tests were performed on a specially designed test bench using an electrically driven standalone industrial centrifugal compressor, sucking air through the inlet of a TJ100 small turbojet engine. Distortion screens were placed into the inlet channel to create the desired total pressure distortions. Of the three basic distortions, only the total pressure distortion descriptors were evaluated. However, both total and static pressures were collected using a multi probe rotational measurement system.

  3. Prediction of transmission distortion for wireless video communication: analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifeng; Wu, Dapeng

    2012-03-01

    Transmitting video over wireless is a challenging problem since video may be seriously distorted due to packet errors caused by wireless channels. The capability of predicting transmission distortion (i.e., video distortion caused by packet errors) can assist in designing video encoding and transmission schemes that achieve maximum video quality or minimum end-to-end video distortion. This paper is aimed at deriving formulas for predicting transmission distortion. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, we identify the governing law that describes how the transmission distortion process evolves over time and analytically derive the transmission distortion formula as a closed-form function of video frame statistics, channel error statistics, and system parameters. Second, we identify, for the first time, two important properties of transmission distortion. The first property is that the clipping noise, which is produced by nonlinear clipping, causes decay of propagated error. The second property is that the correlation between motion-vector concealment error and propagated error is negative and has dominant impact on transmission distortion, compared with other correlations. Due to these two properties and elegant error/distortion decomposition, our formula provides not only more accurate prediction but also lower complexity than the existing methods.

  4. Globalization, tax distortions and public sector retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    is strengthened by globalization, it is inferred that the marginal costs of public funds increase and a retrenchment of the public sector follows. We challenge whether these conclusions have support in a general equilibrium model featuring standard effects from open macroeconomics and trade theory. Even though...... income taxation unambiguously worsens wage competitiveness, it does not follow that marginal costs of public funds increase with product market integration due to gains from trade. Moreover, non-cooperative fiscal policies do not have a race-to-the-bottom bias despite that taxes harm competitiveness......It is widely perceived that globalization is a threat to tax financed public sector activities. The argument is that public activities (public consumption and transfers) financed by income taxes distort labour markets and cause higher wages and thus a loss of competitiveness. Since this link...

  5. Distortion compensation in interferometric testing of mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Brian M.; Reardon, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to compensate for the imaging distortion encountered in interferometric testing of mirrors, which is introduced by interferometer optics as well as from geometric projection errors. Our method involves placing a mask, imprinted with a regular square grid, over the mirror and finding a transformation that relates the grid coordinates to coordinates in the base plane of the parent surface. This method can be used on finished mirrors since no fiducials have to be applied to the surfaces. A critical step in the process requires that the grid coordinates be projected onto the mirror base plane before the regression is performed. We apply the method successfully during a center-of-curvature null test of an F/2 off-axis paraboloid

  6. Cosmic microwave background distortions at high frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, W.; Peratt, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The authors analyze the deviation of the cosmic background radiation spectrum from the 2.76+-0.02 0 Κ blackbody curve. If the cosmic background radiation is due to absorption and re-emission of synchrotron radiation from galactic-width current filaments, higher-order synchrotron modes are less thermalized than lower-order modes, causing a distortion of the blackbody curve at higher frequencies. New observations of the microwave background spectrum at short wavelengths should provide an indication of the number of synchrotron modes thermalized in this process. The deviation of the spectrum from that of a perfect blackbody can thus be correlated with astronomical observations such as filament temperatures and electron energies. The results are discussed and compared with the theoretical predictions of other models which assume the presence of intergalactic superconducting cosmic strings

  7. A scale distortion theory of anchoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Shane W; Mochon, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    We propose that anchoring is often best interpreted as a scaling effect--that the anchor changes how the response scale is used, not how the focal stimulus is perceived. Of importance, we maintain that this holds true even for so-called objective scales (e.g., pounds, calories, meters, etc.). In support of this theory of scale distortion, we show that prior exposure to a numeric standard changes respondents' use of that specific response scale but does not generalize to conceptually affiliated judgments rendered on similar scales. Our findings highlight the necessity of distinguishing response language effects from representational effects in places where the need for that distinction has often been assumed away.

  8. Moebius inverse problem for distorted black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, H.

    1993-01-01

    Hawking ''thermal'' radiation could be a means to detect black holes of micron sizes, which may be hovering through the universe. We consider these micro-black holes to be distorted by the presence of some distribution of matter representing a convolution factor for their Hawking radiation. One may hope to determine from their Hawking signals the temperature distribution of their material shells by the inverse black body problem. In 1990, Nan-xian Chen has used a so-called modified Moebius transform to solve the inverse black body problem. We discuss and apply this technique to Hawking radiation. Some comments on supersymmetric applications of Moebius function and transform are also added. (author). 22 refs

  9. Correction of distortions in a discontinuous image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geagan, M.J.; Chase, B.B.; Muehllehner, G.

    1994-01-01

    Large area position-sensitive NaI detectors have been successfully applied to positron emission tomography (PET). Typical PET studies involve detector singles rates in excess of 500 kcps, which can lead to pile-up and image degradation as a function of countrate. Better high countrate performance can be achieved with a local centroid algorithm, in which the position of each event is calculated from a small group of photomultipliers (PMTs) immediately surrounding the PMT with the highest signal (the peak PMT). The local centroid contains most of the light from the scintillation. If a local centroid of only seven PMTs is used, the position resolution becomes quite stable at high countrates, however, discontinuities appear in the detector flood image as events cluster around each PMT. We therefore developed a method for distortion correction of a discontinuous flood image. For each PMT on the detector, a peak PMT domain is defined. The peak PMT domain is the area on the detector where that PMT could have the highest signal. The peak PMT domains overlap slightly, so that all combinations of peak PMT and position are represented. A collimated source is moved through a regular grid of points - a template - over each peak PMT region. A short collection is performed at each point, and the real and measured position data are recorded. For each point in the spatial range of a given PMT, distortion correction offsets are computed by interpolating between the data points which correspond to that PMT. This new method has been implemented and evaluated. System resolution has been measured at low and high countrates. The high countrate resolution is better with the new method, with no degradation in low countrate resolution. The axial sensitivity profile is also more stable at high countrates, compared to the previously developed method. 3-D brain phantom images show a clear improvement in image quality at high countrates. ((orig.))

  10. Sound segregation via embedded repetition is robust to inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutomi, Keiko; Barascud, Nicolas; Kashino, Makio; McDermott, Josh H; Chait, Maria

    2016-03-01

    The segregation of sound sources from the mixture of sounds that enters the ear is a core capacity of human hearing, but the extent to which this process is dependent on attention remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of attention on the ability to segregate sounds via repetition. We utilized a dual task design in which stimuli to be segregated were presented along with stimuli for a "decoy" task that required continuous monitoring. The task to assess segregation presented a target sound 10 times in a row, each time concurrent with a different distractor sound. McDermott, Wrobleski, and Oxenham (2011) demonstrated that repetition causes the target sound to be segregated from the distractors. Segregation was queried by asking listeners whether a subsequent probe sound was identical to the target. A control task presented similar stimuli but probed discrimination without engaging segregation processes. We present results from 3 different decoy tasks: a visual multiple object tracking task, a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) digit encoding task, and a demanding auditory monitoring task. Load was manipulated by using high- and low-demand versions of each decoy task. The data provide converging evidence of a small effect of attention that is nonspecific, in that it affected the segregation and control tasks to a similar extent. In all cases, segregation performance remained high despite the presence of a concurrent, objectively demanding decoy task. The results suggest that repetition-based segregation is robust to inattention. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Continuum modelling of segregating tridisperse granular chute flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhekai; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2018-03-01

    Segregation and mixing of size multidisperse granular materials remain challenging problems in many industrial applications. In this paper, we apply a continuum-based model that captures the effects of segregation, diffusion and advection for size tridisperse granular flow in quasi-two-dimensional chute flow. The model uses the kinematics of the flow and other physical parameters such as the diffusion coefficient and the percolation length scale, quantities that can be determined directly from experiment, simulation or theory and that are not arbitrarily adjustable. The predictions from the model are consistent with experimentally validated discrete element method (DEM) simulations over a wide range of flow conditions and particle sizes. The degree of segregation depends on the Péclet number, Pe, defined as the ratio of the segregation rate to the diffusion rate, the relative segregation strength κij between particle species i and j, and a characteristic length L, which is determined by the strength of segregation between smallest and largest particles. A parametric study of particle size, κij, Pe and L demonstrates how particle segregation patterns depend on the interplay of advection, segregation and diffusion. Finally, the segregation pattern is also affected by the velocity profile and the degree of basal slip at the chute surface. The model is applicable to different flow geometries, and should be easily adapted to segregation driven by other particle properties such as density and shape.

  12. Impact of loudspeaker nonlinear distortion on personal sound zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xiaohui; J. Hegarty, Patrick; Abildgaard Pedersen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Personal sound zone systems aim at creating multiple listening zones within a shared space with minimum interference between zones, but the performance is often poorer than simulations predict and effects of nonlinear distortion are sometimes audible. This paper assesses the impact of nonlinear...... distortion on sound zones through simulations and measurements performed under anechoic conditions. Two sound zones, one bright and one dark, are created with acoustic contrast control using two loudspeaker arrays driven at 250 Hz. Nonlinear distortion is modelled using second or third order nonlinearities....... Simulations show that nonlinear distortion degrades the acoustic contrast, which is confirmed by experimental measurements. The harmonic distortion is audible in the dark zone. Frequency resolved measurements reveal that harmonic distortion contributes to contrast loss, but nonlinear effects...

  13. A Cognitive Distortions and Deficits Model of Suicide Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Fazakas-DeHoog

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although cognitive distortions and deficits are known risk factors for the development and escalation of suicide ideation and behaviour, no empirical work has examined how these variables interact to predict suicide ideation. The current study proposes an integrative model of cognitive distortions (hopelessness and negative evaluations of self and future and deficits (problem solving deficits, problem solving avoidance, and cognitive rigidity. To test the integrity of this model, a sample of 397 undergraduate students completed measures of deficits, distortions, and current suicide ideation. A structural equation model demonstrated excellent fit, and findings indicated that only distortions have a direct effect on suicidal thinking, whereas cognitive deficits may exert their effects on suicide ideation via their reciprocal relation with distortions. Findings underscore the importance of both cognitive distortions and deficits for understanding suicidality, which may have implications for preventative efforts and treatment.

  14. Influence of initial state distortion in ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciappina, M F [CONICET and Departamento de FIsica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 BahIa Blanca (Argentina); Cravero, W R [CONICET and Departamento de FIsica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 BahIa Blanca (Argentina); Garibotti, C R [CONICET and Division Colisiones Atomicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2004-05-28

    We have studied the influence of initial state distortion in a single ionization by ion impact. We have taken a continuum distorted wave type distortion and by taking up to the first order in its asymptotic series expansion we build an eikonal-spherical distortion. In this way the influence of each term in the transition amplitude can be stated. This approximation can be considered an intermediate one between the eikonal initial state and the continuum distorted wave approaches for initial state distortion. We have computed doubly differential cross sections for helium ionization by protons and highly charged ions at high and intermediate impact energy. We have also discussed the contribution of the different terms in electron energy spectra, specially in the vicinity of ECC peak. Very good agreement is found with the available experimental data.

  15. Influence of initial state distortion in ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciappina, M F; Cravero, W R; Garibotti, C R

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the influence of initial state distortion in a single ionization by ion impact. We have taken a continuum distorted wave type distortion and by taking up to the first order in its asymptotic series expansion we build an eikonal-spherical distortion. In this way the influence of each term in the transition amplitude can be stated. This approximation can be considered an intermediate one between the eikonal initial state and the continuum distorted wave approaches for initial state distortion. We have computed doubly differential cross sections for helium ionization by protons and highly charged ions at high and intermediate impact energy. We have also discussed the contribution of the different terms in electron energy spectra, specially in the vicinity of ECC peak. Very good agreement is found with the available experimental data

  16. Helical Peierls distortion: Formation of helices of polyketone and polyisocyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chang-Xing; Kertesz, Miklos

    1990-06-01

    A new type of Peierls-like distortion, the formation of a helix due to the existence of partially filled crossing bands, is reported for polyketone and polyisocyanide. The torsional potential curves, optimized geometries, band structures and phonon dispersion curves are derived. A comparison with the well-known Peierls-distorted all-trans polyacetylene indicates close similarity between the two types of Peierls distortions.

  17. Distortions in the output signals of conventional spectrum analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-08-01

    We show that the output signals of conventional spectrum analysers contain distortions which basically originate from the signal processing performed inside the analysers' frequency convertors. Total elimination of these distortions through normal filtering techniques is difficult owing to the closeness of some of their frequencies to the corresponding frequencies of the required signals. Simple design adjustments that can minimize these distortions are suggested. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs

  18. Could unstable relic particles distort the microwave background radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, A.; Loeb, A.; Nussinov, S.

    1989-01-01

    Three general classes of possible scenarios for the recently reported distortion of the microwave background radiation (MBR) via decaying relic weakly interacting particles are analyzed. The analysis shows that such particles could not reheat the universe and cause the spectral distortion of the MBR. Gravitational processes such as the early formation of massive black holes may still be plausible energy sources for producing the reported spectral distortion of the MBR at an early cosmological epoch. 24 references

  19. Correlation between brain circuit segregation and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Seh-Huang; Liao, Yin-To; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Li, Cheng-Jui; McIntyre, Roger S; Lee, Yena; Weng, Jun-Cheng

    2018-01-30

    Obesity is a major public health problem. Herein, we aim to identify the correlation between brain circuit segregation and obesity using multimodal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques and analysis. Twenty obese patients (BMI=37.66±5.07) and 30 healthy controls (BMI=22.64±3.45) were compared using neuroimaging and assessed for symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). All participants underwent resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and T1-weighted imaging using a 1.5T MRI. Multimodal MRI techniques and analyses were used to assess obese patients, including the functional connectivity (FC), amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), graph theoretical analysis (GTA), and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Correlations between brain circuit segregation and obesity were also calculated. In the VBM, obese patients showed altered gray matter volumes in the amygdala, thalamus and putamen. In the FC, the obesity group showed increased functional connectivity in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex and decreased functional connectivity in the frontal gyrus of default mode network. The obesity group also exhibited altered ALFF and ReHo in the prefrontal cortex and precuneus. In the GTA, the obese patients showed a significant decrease in local segregation and a significant increase in global integration, suggesting a shift toward randomization in their functional networks. Our results may provide additional evidence for potential structural and functional imaging markers for clinical diagnosis and future research, and they may improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Systems and methods for mirror mounting with minimized distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonille, Scott R. (Inventor); Wallace, Thomas E. (Inventor); Content, David A. (Inventor); Wake, Shane W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for mounting a mirror for use in a telescope includes attaching the mirror to a plurality of adjustable mounts; determining a distortion in the mirror caused by the plurality adjustable mounts, and, if the distortion is determined to be above a predetermined level: adjusting one or more of the adjustable mounts; and determining the distortion in the mirror caused by the adjustable mounts; and in the event the determined distortion is determined to be at or below the predetermined level, rigidizing the adjustable mounts.

  1. Modeling Kinetics of Distortion in Porous Bi-layered Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Bjørk, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    because of different sintering rates of the materials resulting in undesired distortions of the component. An analytical model based on the continuum theory of sintering has been developed to describe the kinetics of densification and distortion in the sintering processes. A new approach is used...... to extract the material parameters controlling shape distortion through optimizing the model to experimental data of free shrinkage strains. The significant influence of weight of the sample (gravity) on the kinetics of distortion is taken in to consideration. The modeling predictions indicate good agreement...

  2. Spectral Distortion in Lossy Compression of Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aiazzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortion allocation varying with wavelength in lossy compression of hyperspectral imagery is investigated, with the aim of minimizing the spectral distortion between original and decompressed data. The absolute angular error, or spectral angle mapper (SAM, is used to quantify spectral distortion, while radiometric distortions are measured by maximum absolute deviation (MAD for near-lossless methods, for example, differential pulse code modulation (DPCM, or mean-squared error (MSE for lossy methods, for example, spectral decorrelation followed by JPEG 2000. Two strategies of interband distortion allocation are compared: given a target average bit rate, distortion may be set to be constant with wavelength. Otherwise, it may be allocated proportionally to the noise level of each band, according to the virtually lossless protocol. Comparisons with the uncompressed originals show that the average SAM of radiance spectra is minimized by constant distortion allocation to radiance data. However, variable distortion allocation according to the virtually lossless protocol yields significantly lower SAM in case of reflectance spectra obtained from compressed radiance data, if compared with the constant distortion allocation at the same compression ratio.

  3. Dynamics of chromosome segregation in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1960’es the conformation and segregation of the chromosome in Escherichia coli has been a subject of interest for many scientists. However, after 40 years of research, we still know incredibly little about how the chromosome is organized inside the cell, how it manages to duplicate...... this incredibly big molecule and separate the two daughter chromosomes and how it makes sure that the daughter cells receives one copy each. The fully extended chromosome is two orders of magnitude larger than the cell in which it is contained. Hence the chromosome is heavily compacted in the cell...

  4. Grain size segregation in debris discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebault, P.; Kral, Q.; Augereau, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    Context. In most debris discs, dust grain dynamics is strongly affected by stellar radiation pressure. Because this mechanism is size-dependent, we expect dust grains to be spatially segregated according to their sizes. However, because of the complex interplay between radiation pressure, grain processing by collisions, and dynamical perturbations, this spatial segregation of the particle size distribution (PSD) has proven difficult to investigate and quantify with numerical models. Aims: We propose to thoroughly investigate this problem by using a new-generation code that can handle some of the complex coupling between dynamical and collisional effects. We intend to explore how PSDs behave in both unperturbed discs at rest and in discs pertubed by planetary objects. Methods: We used the DyCoSS code to investigate the coupled effect of collisions, radiation pressure, and dynamical perturbations in systems that have reached a steady-state. We considered two setups: a narrow ring perturbed by an exterior planet, and an extended disc into which a planet is embedded. For both setups we considered an additional unperturbed case without a planet. We also investigated the effect of possible spatial size segregation on disc images at different wavelengths. Results: We find that PSDs are always spatially segregated. The only case for which the PSD follows a standard dn ∝ s-3.5ds law is for an unperturbed narrow ring, but only within the parent-body ring itself. For all other configurations, the size distributions can strongly depart from such power laws and have steep spatial gradients. As an example, the geometrical cross-section of the disc is very rarely dominated by the smallest grains on bound orbits, as it is expected to be in standard PSDs in sq with q ≤ -3. Although the exact profiles and spatial variations of PSDs are a complex function of the set-up that is considered, we are still able to derive some reliable results that will be useful for image or SED

  5. Cost segregation of assets offers tax benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, D A

    2001-04-01

    A cost-segregation study is an asset-reclassification strategy that accelerates tax-depreciation deductions. By using this strategy, healthcare facility owners can lower their current income-tax liability and increase current cash flow. Simply put, certain real estate is reclassified from long-lived real property to shorter-lived personal property for depreciation purposes. Depreciation deductions for the personal property then can be greatly accelerated, thereby producing greater present-value tax savings. An analysis of costs can be conducted from either detailed construction records, when such records are available, or by using qualified appraisers, architects, or engineers to perform the allocation analysis.

  6. Radiation induced phosphorus segregation in austenitic and ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brimhall, J.L.; Baer, D.R.; Jones, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation induced surface segregation (RIS) of phosphorus in stainless steel attained a maximum at a dose of 0.8 dpa then decreased continually with dose. This decrease in the surface segregation of phosphorus at high dose levels has been attributed to removal of the phosphorus layer by ion sputtering. Phosphorus is not replenished since essentially all of the phosphorus within the irradiation zone has been segregated to the surface. Sputter removal can explain the previously reported absence of phosphorus segregation in ferritic alloys irradiated at high dosessup(1,2) (>1 dpa) since irradiation of ferritic alloys to low doses has shown measurable RIS. This sputtering phenomenon places an inherent limitation to the heavy ion irradiation technique for the study of surface segregation of impurity elements. The magnitude of the segregation in ferritics is still much less than in stainless steel which can be related to the low damage accumulation in these alloys. (orig.)

  7. Segregation 2.0: The New Generation of School Segregation in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson Dorsey, Dana N.

    2013-01-01

    Students are more racially segregated in schools today than they were in the late 1960s and prior to the enforcement of court-ordered desegregation in school districts across the country. This special issue addresses the overarching theme of policies, practices, or roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders that may directly or indirectly…

  8. Growth Conditions Regulate the Requirements for Caulobacter Chromosome Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shebelut, Conrad W.; Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Gitai, Zemer

    2009-01-01

    Growth environments are important metabolic and developmental regulators. Here we demonstrate a growth environment-dependent effect on Caulobacter chromosome segregation of a small-molecule inhibitor of the MreB bacterial actin cytoskeleton. Our results also implicate ParAB as important segregation...... determinants, suggesting that multiple distinct mechanisms can mediate Caulobacter chromosome segregation and that their relative contributions can be environmentally regulated....

  9. Segregation-mobility feedback for bidisperse shallow granular flows: Towards understanding segregation in geophysical flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, A.; Denissen, I.; Weinhart, T.; Van der Vaart, K.

    2017-12-01

    The flow behaviour of shallow granular chute flows for uniform particles is well-described by the hstop-rheology [1]. Geophysical flows, however, are often composed of highly non-uniform particles that differ in particle (size, shape, composition) or contact (friction, dissipation, cohesion) properties. The flow behaviour of such mixtures can be strongly influenced by particle segregation effects. Here, we study the influence of particle size-segregation on the flow behaviour of bidisperse flows using experiments and the discrete particle method. We use periodic DPM to derive hstop-rheology for the bi-dispersed granular shallow layer equations, and study their dependence on the segregation profile. In the periodic box simulations, size-segregation results in an upward coarsening of the size distribution with the largest grains collecting at the top of the flow. In geophysical flows, the fact the flow velocity is greatest at the top couples with the vertical segregation to preferentially transported large particles to the front. The large grains may be overrun, resegregated towards the surface and recirculated before being shouldered aside into lateral levees. Theoretically it has been suggested this process should lead to a breaking size-segregation (BSS) wave located between a large-particle-rich front and a small-particle-rich tail [2,3]. In the BSS wave large particles that have been overrun rise up again to the free-surface while small particles sink to the bed. We present evidence for the existences of the BSS wave. This is achieved through the study of three-dimensional bidisperse granular flows in a moving-bed channel. Our analysis demonstrates a relation between the concentration of small particles in the flow and the amount of basal slip, in which the structure of the BSS wave plays a key role. This leads to a feedback between the mean bulk flow velocity and the process of size-segregation. Ultimately, these findings shed new light on the recirculation of

  10. Decentralization as a Cause of Spatial Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasarovic Ema Alihodzic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available City represents an incomplete dynamic process prone to the expansion with a causal link between urban expansion and socio-spatial segregation. The socio-spatial distribution in the city is mostly related to the increased social polarization and inequality. There is a clear connection between divided society and divided city: if society is divided, urban space must be divided. It is the question of the relations between the social inequalities on one hand, and spatial segregation on the other. In the last 10 years, Podgorica is the city that shows alarming statistic values when it comes to demographic trends and the influx of the residents from the northern municipalities, which necessarily causes the city sprawl. Past experiences show that city is unevenly expanding, creating new functions and zones expressed by socio-spatial differences. The beginning of this process lies in modernist conception of the city, by which city was mostly developed, while the current functional organization is based on the same concept. With the first urban plans, which carried similarproblems mentioned in previous section, Podgorica was divided into three clearly differentiated zones: Stara Varoš, Nova Varoš and Novi grad, which became a platform for hierarchical divisions within the space, reflecting them in the society.

  11. Binaural segregation in multisource reverberant environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Nicoleta; Srinivasan, Soundararajan; Wang, DeLiang

    2006-12-01

    In a natural environment, speech signals are degraded by both reverberation and concurrent noise sources. While human listening is robust under these conditions using only two ears, current two-microphone algorithms perform poorly. The psychological process of figure-ground segregation suggests that the target signal is perceived as a foreground while the remaining stimuli are perceived as a background. Accordingly, the goal is to estimate an ideal time-frequency (T-F) binary mask, which selects the target if it is stronger than the interference in a local T-F unit. In this paper, a binaural segregation system that extracts the reverberant target signal from multisource reverberant mixtures by utilizing only the location information of target source is proposed. The proposed system combines target cancellation through adaptive filtering and a binary decision rule to estimate the ideal T-F binary mask. The main observation in this work is that the target attenuation in a T-F unit resulting from adaptive filtering is correlated with the relative strength of target to mixture. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the proposed system results in large SNR gains. In addition, comparisons using SNR as well as automatic speech recognition measures show that this system outperforms standard two-microphone beamforming approaches and a recent binaural processor.

  12. Anomalous Centrifugal Distortion in NH_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Pirali, Olivier; Coudert, L. H.

    2017-06-01

    The NH2 radical spectrum, first observed by Herzberg and Ramsay, is dominated by a strong Renner-Teller effect giving rise to two electronic states: the bent X ^{2}B_1 ground state and the quasi-linear A ^{2}A_1 excited state. The NH2 radical has been the subject of numerous high-resolution investigations and its electronic and ro-vibrational transitions have been measured. Using synchrotron radiation, new rotational transitions have been recently recorded and a value of the rotational quantum number N as large as 26 could be reached. In the X ^{2}B_1 ground state, the NH2 radical behaves like a triatomic molecule displaying spin-rotation splittings. Due to the lightness of the molecule, a strong coupling between the overall rotation and the bending mode arises whose effects increase with N and lead to the anomalous centrifugal distortion evidenced in the new measurements.^d In this talk the Bending-Rotation approach developed to account for the anomalous centrifugal distortion of the water molecule is modified to include spin-rotation coupling and applied to the fitting of high-resolution data pertaining to the ground electronic state of NH2. A preliminary line position analysis of the available data^{c,d} allowed us to account for 1681 transitions with a unitless standard deviation of 1.2. New transitions could also be assigned in the spectrum recorded by Martin-Drumel et al.^d In the talk, the results obtained with the new theoretical approach will be compared to those retrieved with a Watson-type Hamiltonian and the effects of the vibronic coupling between the ground X ^{2}B_1 and the excited A ^{2}A_1 electronic state will be discussed. Herzberg and Ramsay, J. Chem. Phys. 20 (1952) 347 Dressler and Ramsay, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 25 (1959) 553 Hadj Bachir, Huet, Destombes, and Vervloet, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 193 (1999) 326 McKellar, Vervloet, Burkholder, and Howard, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 142 (1990) 319 Morino and Kawaguchi, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 182 (1997) 428

  13. Sound source localization and segregation with internally coupled ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bee, Mark A; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    to their correct sources (sound source segregation). Here, we review anatomical, biophysical, neurophysiological, and behavioral studies aimed at identifying how the internally coupled ears of frogs contribute to sound source localization and segregation. Our review focuses on treefrogs in the genus Hyla......, as they are the most thoroughly studied frogs in terms of sound source localization and segregation. They also represent promising model systems for future work aimed at understanding better how internally coupled ears contribute to sound source localization and segregation. We conclude our review by enumerating...

  14. Dysfunctional MreB inhibits chromosome segregation in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Thomas; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism of prokaryotic chromosome segregation is not known. MreB, an actin homolog, is a shape-determining factor in rod-shaped prokaryotic cells. Using immunofluorescence microscopy we found that MreB of Escherichia coli formed helical filaments located beneath the cell surface. Flow...... cytometric and cytological analyses indicated that MreB-depleted cells segregated their chromosomes in pairs, consistent with chromosome cohesion. Overexpression of wild-type MreB inhibited cell division but did not perturb chromosome segregation. Overexpression of mutant forms of MreB inhibited cell...... that MreB filaments participate in directional chromosome movement and segregation....

  15. Chromosome and cell wall segregation in Streptococcus faecium ATCC 9790

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, M.L.; Glaser, D.; Dicker, D.T.; Zito, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    Segregation was studied by measuring the positions of autoradiographic grain clusters in chains formed from single cells containing on average less than one radiolabeled chromosome strand. The degree to which chromosomal and cell wall material cosegregated was quantified by using the methods of S. Cooper and M. Weinberger, dividing the number of chains labeled at the middle. This analysis indicated that in contrast to chromosomal segregation in Escherichia coli and, in some studies, to that in gram-positive rods, chromosomal segregation in Streptococcus faecium was slightly nonrandom and did not vary with growth rate. Results were not significantly affected by strand exchange. In contrast, labeled cell wall segregated predominantly nonrandomly

  16. About the factors distorting biological dosimetry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosseh, I.B.

    1999-01-01

    The row of chemical substances that have not mutagenic effect can strengthen ionising radiation induced cytogenetic effects. For example nitrite sodium and nitrate sodium reinforce mutagenic action of radiation and cause sensitized effect although they aren't mutagens. Presence of residual amount of herbicides in food products can have influence at level of aberration in human cells. It was investigated the influence of herbicide zencor at mutagenic action of radiation. This substance has weak mutagenic activity. In the case of combined action of zencor with irradiation antagonistic effect was observed. Mutation rate turns out to be lower than expected summary value. At the same time many foods products (tea, coffee, cacao, chocolate etc., which contain melanin) are antimutagens and can also change the frequency of radiation induced mutations. Taking of medicine distort the results of dose estimation. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in blood lymphocytes after acute irradiation is considered to be adequate method of biological dosimetry. In the case of chronic irradiation this analysis becomes complicated with such processes as adaptation (selection and proliferation of cells with more radioresistant genotype) and the origin of genetic un stability which leads to higher radiosensitivity. The estimation of the level of point mutations is the most precise method of biological dosimetry because their existence is less exposed to modifications

  17. TWO NEW TIDALLY DISTORTED WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Brown, Warren R., E-mail: jjhermes@astro.as.utexas.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    We identify two new tidally distorted white dwarfs (WDs), SDSS J174140.49+652638.7 and J211921.96-001825.8 (hereafter J1741 and J2119). Both stars are extremely low mass (ELM, {<=} 0.2 M{sub Sun }) WDs in short-period, detached binary systems. High-speed photometric observations obtained at the McDonald Observatory reveal ellipsoidal variations and Doppler beaming in both systems; J1741, with a minimum companion mass of 1.1 M{sub Sun }, has one of the strongest Doppler beaming signals ever observed in a binary system (0.59% {+-} 0.06% amplitude). We use the observed ellipsoidal variations to constrain the radius of each WD. For J1741, the star's radius must exceed 0.074 R{sub Sun }. For J2119, the radius exceeds 0.10 R{sub Sun }. These indirect radius measurements are comparable to the radius measurements for the bloated WD companions to A-stars found by the Kepler spacecraft, and they constitute some of the largest radii inferred for any WD. Surprisingly, J1741 also appears to show a 0.23% {+-} 0.06% reflection effect, and we discuss possible sources for this excess heating. Both J1741 and J2119 are strong gravitational wave sources, and the time-of-minimum of the ellipsoidal variations can be used to detect the orbital period decay. This may be possible on a timescale of a decade or less.

  18. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyadath, Vani; Eagleman, David M

    2012-01-01

    Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression. Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli) followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus). We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials. Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  19. Distortion Effects on Trojan Horse Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Bertulani, C. A.; Irgaziev, B. F.

    2011-01-01

    The widths of the spectator momentum distributions in several nuclei, which have been used as Trojan Horses, have been obtained as a function of the transferred momentum. Applications of Trojan Horse method will also be discussed. The study of processes relevant for astrophysics involving light nuclei has increased in the last decades due to the development of indirect methods. The present paper will also help to point out the distortion effects which arise at low energies in the study of three-body processes and will suggest some way to by-pass them in Trojan Horse Method (THM) applications. The goal of this paper is to compare the experimental momentum distribution of the spectator in the bound state a = (sx) extracted from the 2 → 3 particles (breakup, or breakup with rearrangement) reactions with the theoretical one. The theoretical momentum distribution has been calculated for the target a = (sx) using the Hulthen potential for a = d and Woods-Saxon one with the standard geometrical parameters, radius r 0 = 1.25 fm and diffuseness a = 0.65 fm, for other nuclei. (author)

  20. Rate-distortion analysis of directional wavelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Arian; Rajaei, Boshra; Pourreza, Hamid Reza

    2012-02-01

    The inefficiency of separable wavelets in representing smooth edges has led to a great interest in the study of new 2-D transformations. The most popular criterion for analyzing these transformations is the approximation power. Transformations with near-optimal approximation power are useful in many applications such as denoising and enhancement. However, they are not necessarily good for compression. Therefore, most of the nearly optimal transformations such as curvelets and contourlets have not found any application in image compression yet. One of the most promising schemes for image compression is the elegant idea of directional wavelets (DIWs). While these algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art image coders in practice, our theoretical understanding of them is very limited. In this paper, we adopt the notion of rate-distortion and calculate the performance of the DIW on a class of edge-like images. Our theoretical analysis shows that if the edges are not "sharp," the DIW will compress them more efficiently than the separable wavelets. It also demonstrates the inefficiency of the quadtree partitioning that is often used with the DIW. To solve this issue, we propose a new partitioning scheme called megaquad partitioning. Our simulation results on real-world images confirm the benefits of the proposed partitioning algorithm, promised by our theoretical analysis. © 2011 IEEE

  1. Motivational Distortion on 16 PF Primaries by Male Felons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallbrown, Fred H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated motivational distortion using the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) for male (n=331) criminal offenders. Results indicated that ego-strength, free-floating anxiety, ability to bind anxiety, boldness, dominance, emotional sensitivity and suspiciousness contributed most to the motivational distortion scale predictions.…

  2. FSD: Frequency Space Differential measurement of CMB spectral distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Suvodip; Silk, Joseph; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    Although the Cosmic Microwave Background agrees with a perfect blackbody spectrum within the current experimental limits, it is expected to exhibit certain spectral distortions with known spectral properties. We propose a new method, Frequency Space Differential (FSD) to measure the spectral distortions in the CMB spectrum by using the inter-frequency differences of the brightness temperature. The difference between the observed CMB temperature at different frequencies must agree with the frequency derivative of the blackbody spectrum, in the absence of any distortion. However, in the presence of spectral distortions, the measured inter-frequency differences would also exhibit deviations from blackbody which can be modeled for known sources of spectral distortions like y & μ. Our technique uses FSD information for the CMB blackbody, y, μ or any other sources of spectral distortions to model the observed signal. Successful application of this method in future CMB missions can provide an alternative method to extract spectral distortion signals and can potentially make it feasible to measure spectral distortions without an internal blackbody calibrator.

  3. Audiovisual Cues and Perceptual Learning of Spectrally Distorted Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Michael; Thomas, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) speech cues (cues derived from both seeing and hearing a talker speak) in facilitating perceptual learning of spectrally distorted speech. Speech was distorted through an eight channel noise-vocoder which shifted the spectral envelope of the speech signal to simulate the properties…

  4. Distortion of Probability and Outcome Information in Risky Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKay, Michael L.; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Fischbeck, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that information is distorted during decision making, but very few studies have assessed the distortion of probability and outcome information in risky decisions. In two studies involving six binary decisions (e.g., banning blood donations from people who have visited England, because of "mad cow disease"),…

  5. Method and device for monitoring distortion in an optical network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A method and a device for monitoring of distortion in an optical network are provided, wherein at least one reference signal and at least one data signal are conveyed via an optical link and wherein a distortion of the at least one data signal is determined based on the at least one reference

  6. How Distorted Thinking Influence Arab Children Academic Achievement in Israel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gith, Emad

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relation between the parents Cognitive Distortion and Arab children academic achievements in Israel. 52 fifth grade Arab Children and their parents from Israel were participated. The results indicated that parent's cognitive distortion related negatively to children academic achievements; there…

  7. Distortions caused by the signal processing in analog AM modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-08-01

    Complete analytical expressions for distortions caused by signal processing in analog AM modulators are developed. The salient features in these expressions are shown to be consistent with displays of actual spectra of AM signals. Finally suggestions are given on how the distortions may be practically minimized. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  8. Distorted Risk Measures with Application to Military Capability Shortfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-15

    effects of different distortions and to make basic recommendations regarding the appropriateness of certain distortion functions and parameters using...and increased limits ratemaking by proportional hazards transforms. Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, 17: 43-54. [9] Wang, S. (1996a). Premium

  9. Fisheye image rectification using spherical and digital distortion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Pi, Yingdong; Jia, Yanling; Yang, Yuhui; Chen, Zhiyong; Hou, Wenguang

    2018-02-01

    Fisheye cameras have been widely used in many applications including close range visual navigation and observation and cyber city reconstruction because its field of view is much larger than that of a common pinhole camera. This means that a fisheye camera can capture more information than a pinhole camera in the same scenario. However, the fisheye image contains serious distortion, which may cause trouble for human observers in recognizing the objects within. Therefore, in most practical applications, the fisheye image should be rectified to a pinhole perspective projection image to conform to human cognitive habits. The traditional mathematical model-based methods cannot effectively remove the distortion, but the digital distortion model can reduce the image resolution to some extent. Considering these defects, this paper proposes a new method that combines the physical spherical model and the digital distortion model. The distortion of fisheye images can be effectively removed according to the proposed approach. Many experiments validate its feasibility and effectiveness.

  10. Deep subcritical levels measurements dependents upon kinetic distortion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Shibiao; Li Xiang; Fu Guo'en; Huang Liyuan; Mu Keliang

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of deep subcritical levels, with the increase of subcriticality, showed that the results impact on the kinetic distortion effect, along with neutron flux strongly deteriorated. Using the diffusion theory, calculations have been carried out to quantify the kinetic distortion correction factors in subcritical systems, and these indicate that epithermal neutron distributions are strongly affected by kinetic distortion. Subcriticality measurements in four different rod-state combination at the zero power device was carried out. The test data analysis shows that, with increasing subcriticality, kinetic distortion effect correction factor gradually increases from 1.052 to 1.065, corresponding reactive correction amount of 0.78β eff ∼ 3.01β eff . Thus, it is necessary to consider the kinetic distortion effect in the deep subcritical reactivity measurements. (authors)

  11. Effects of image distortion correction on voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Masami; Abe, Osamu; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to show that correcting image distortion significantly affects brain volumetry using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and to assess whether the processing of distortion correction reduces system dependency. We obtained contiguous sagittal T 1 -weighted images of the brain from 22 healthy participants using 1.5- and 3-tesla magnetic resonance (MR) scanners, preprocessed images using Statistical Parametric Mapping 5, and tested the relation between distortion correction and brain volume using VBM. Local brain volume significantly increased or decreased on corrected images compared with uncorrected images. In addition, the method used to correct image distortion for gradient nonlinearity produced fewer volumetric errors from MR system variation. This is the first VBM study to show more precise volumetry using VBM with corrected images. These results indicate that multi-scanner or multi-site imaging trials require correction for distortion induced by gradient nonlinearity. (author)

  12. Micro and Macro Segregation in Alloys Solidifying with Equiaxed Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Leon-Torres, Jose; Sen, Subhayu

    1996-01-01

    To understand macro segregation formation in Al-Cu alloys, experiments were run under terrestrial gravity (1g) and under low gravity during parabolic flights (10(exp -2) g). Alloys of two different compositions (2% and 5% Cu) were solidified at two different cooling rates. Systematic microscopic and SEM observations produced microstructural and segregation maps for all samples. These maps may be used as benchmark experiments for validation of microstructure evolution and segregation models. As expected, the macro segregation maps are very complex. When segregation was measured along the central axis of the sample, the highest macro segregation for samples solidified at 1g was obtained for the lowest cooling rate. This behavior is attributed to the longer time available for natural convection and shrinkage flow to affect solute redistribution. In samples solidified under low-g, the highest macro-segregation was obtained at the highest cooling rate. In general, low-gravity solidification resulted in less segregation. To explain the experimental findings, an analytical (Flemings-Nereo) and a numerical model were used. For the numerical model, the continuum formulation was employed to describe the macroscopic transports of mass, energy, and momentum, associated with the microscopic transport phenomena, for a two-phase system. The model proposed considers that liquid flow is driven by thermal and solutal buoyancy, and by solidification shrinkage. The Flemings-Nereo model explains well macro segregation in the initial stages of low-gravity segregation. The numerical model can describe the complex macro segregation pattern and the differences between low- and high-gravity solidification.

  13. Auditory stream segregation using amplitude modulated bandpass noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjiu eNie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of spectral overlap and amplitude modulation (AM rate for stream segregation for noise signals, as well as to test the build-up effect based on these two cues. Segregation ability was evaluated using an objective paradigm with listeners’ attention focused on stream segregation. Stimulus sequences consisted of two interleaved sets of bandpass noise bursts (A and B bursts. The A and B bursts differed in spectrum, AM-rate, or both. The amount of the difference between the two sets of noise bursts was varied. Long and short sequences were studied to investigate the build-up effect for segregation based on spectral and AM-rate differences. Results showed the following: 1. Stream segregation ability increased with greater spectral separation. 2. Larger AM-rate separations were associated with stronger segregation abilities. 3. Spectral separation was found to elicit the build-up effect for the range of spectral differences assessed in the current study. 4. AM-rate separation interacted with spectral separation suggesting an additive effect of spectral separation and AM-rate separation on segregation build-up. The findings suggest that, when normal-hearing listeners direct their attention toward segregation, they are able to segregate auditory streams based on reduced spectral contrast cues that vary by the amount of spectral overlap. Further, regardless of the spectral separation they were able to use AM-rate difference as a secondary/weaker cue. Based on the spectral differences, listeners can segregate auditory streams better as the listening duration is prolonged—i.e. sparse spectral cues elicit build-up segregation; however, AM-rate differences only appear to elicit build-up when in combination with spectral difference cues.

  14. Segregation and differential settling in flocculated tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinato, R.S.; Mahmoudkhani, A.; Fenderson, T.; Watson, P. [Kemira, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Untreated oil sands tailings have a high solids content, have poor dewaterability, and contain no aggregates. This PowerPoint presentation investigated segregation and differential settling in flocculated tailings. Tailings were treated with gypsum and various polymers. Cylinder settling, dynamic rheometry, particle size analysis, and microscopy techniques were used to characterize the composite tailings. The particles sizes of the samples were evaluated in relation to shear rate, bed depth, and treatment. The study showed that the gypsum-treated tailings had small aggregates, size stratification, a high solids content, and poor dewaterability. The polymer N-treated tailings had the lowest solids content, good dewaterability, and weak aggregates. The polymer A-treated tailings had a low solids content, very good dewaterability, and strong aggregates. The addition of a coagulant to the polymer-A treated tailings provided weaker aggregates and a higher solids content. tabs., figs.

  15. Blood cell interactions and segregation in flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Lance L; Dupin, Michael M

    2008-04-01

    For more than a century, pioneering researchers have been using novel experimental and computational approaches to probe the mysteries of blood flow. Thanks to their efforts, we know that blood cells generally prefer to migrate to the axis of flow, that red and white cells segregate in flow, and that cell deformability and their tendency to reversibly aggregate contribute to the non-Newtonian nature of this unique fluid. All of these properties have beneficial physiological consequences, allowing blood to perform a variety of critical functions. Our current understanding of these unusual flow properties of blood have been made possible by the ingenuity and diligence of a number of researchers, including Harry Goldsmith, who developed novel technologies to visualize and quantify the flow of blood at the level of individual cells. Here we summarize efforts in our lab to continue this tradition and to further our understanding of how blood cells interact with each other and with the blood vessel wall.

  16. Heider balance, asymmetric ties, and gender segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Małgorzata J.; del Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo; Hernández-Ramírez, Eric; Naumis, Gerardo G.; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    To remove a cognitive dissonance in interpersonal relations, people tend to divide their acquaintances into friendly and hostile parts, both groups internally friendly and mutually hostile. This process is modeled as an evolution toward the Heider balance. A set of differential equations have been proposed and validated (Kułakowski et al., 2005) to model the Heider dynamics of this social and psychological process. Here we generalize the model by including the initial asymmetry of the interpersonal relations and the direct reciprocity effect which removes this asymmetry. Our model is applied to the data on enmity and friendship in 37 school classes and 4 groups of teachers in México. For each class, a stable balanced partition is obtained into two groups. The gender structure of the groups reveals stronger gender segregation in younger classes, i.e. of age below 12 years, a fact consistent with other general empirical results.

  17. Centromeric heterochromatin: the primordial segregation machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Kerry S

    2014-01-01

    Centromeres are specialized domains of heterochromatin that provide the foundation for the kinetochore. Centromeric heterochromatin is characterized by specific histone modifications, a centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CENP-A), and the enrichment of cohesin, condensin, and topoisomerase II. Centromere DNA varies orders of magnitude in size from 125 bp (budding yeast) to several megabases (human). In metaphase, sister kinetochores on the surface of replicated chromosomes face away from each other, where they establish microtubule attachment and bi-orientation. Despite the disparity in centromere size, the distance between separated sister kinetochores is remarkably conserved (approximately 1 μm) throughout phylogeny. The centromere functions as a molecular spring that resists microtubule-based extensional forces in mitosis. This review explores the physical properties of DNA in order to understand how the molecular spring is built and how it contributes to the fidelity of chromosome segregation.

  18. Radiation-induced segregation in model alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezawa, T.; Wakai, E.; Oshima, R.

    2000-12-01

    The dependence of the size factor of solutes on radiation-induced segregation (RIS) was studied. Ni-Si, Ni-Co, Ni-Cu, Ni-Mn, Ni-Pd, and Ni-Nb binary solid solution alloys were irradiated with electrons in a high voltage electron microscope at the same irradiation conditions. A focused beam and a grain boundary were utilized to generate a flow of point defects to cause RIS. From the concentration profile obtained by an energy dispersive X-ray analysis, the amount of RIS was calculated. The amount of RIS decreased as the size of the solute increased up to about 10%. However, as the size increased further, the amount of RIS increased. This result shows that RIS is not simply determined by the size effect rule.

  19. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    Full Text Available Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression.Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus. We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials.Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  20. Prussian phenomenon and its historical distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Y. Plenkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of Prussia. Once, Prussia had been the largest continental Protestant state in Europe. The main issue of this phenomenon is that upon the tragic events of the World War II Prussian history and heritage had been considerably distorted, in order to compensate somehow for the dreadful casualties suffered by the victorious powers. The common European misconception implied that Prussia had been the bulwark of militarism, and therefore had to bear all the responsibility for the atrocities of war. Unfortunately, the majority of modern German historians share such misinterpretation of Prussian heritage in order to please false political correctness, perhaps, as an act of contrition for National Socialism and its crimes. However, the Prussian tradition and history go far beyond this militarism, and this article explains what ways. The authors believe that there should not be any prejudices and biases, that any subject should be examined sine ira et studio. Moreover, given that it is possible to characterize the Great French Revolution as a juristic one, and the Great October revolution – as a social one, the Prussian revolution “from above”, led by the first representatives of the Hohenzollern family, may be well considered as a pedagogical revolution. This revolution did bring definitely positive changes; they are surveyed in the article. The French Revolution has not eliminated the covetousness of the bourgeoisie after 1789; despotism of the authorities and people’s passiveness similarly have remained unaltered in Russia after 1917. On the contrary, Federal Republic of Germany of nowadays, distinctive for its law, order and effective responsible government is unthinkable without Prussian heritage.

  1. Figure-ground segregation in a recurrent network architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, V.A.F.; Roelfsema, P.R.; Spekreijse, H.; Bosch, H.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a model of how the visual brain segregate textured scenes into figures and background. During texture segregation, locations where the properties of texture elements change abruptly are assigned to boundaries, whereas image regions that are relatively homogeneous are grouped together

  2. Figure-ground segregation in a recurrent network architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Pieter R.; Lamme, Victor A. F.; Spekreijse, Henk; Bosch, Holger

    2002-01-01

    Here we propose a model of how the visual brain segregates textured scenes into figures and background. During texture segregation, locations where the properties of texture elements change abruptly are assigned to boundaries, whereas image regions that are relatively homogeneous are grouped

  3. Seeing Race: Teaching Residential Segregation with the Racial Dot Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Charles; Nierobisz, Annette; Kozlowski, Karen Phelan

    2017-01-01

    Students commonly hold erroneous notions of a "post-racial" world and individualistic worldviews that discount the role of structure in social outcomes. Jointly, these two preconceived beliefs can be powerful barriers to effective teaching of racial segregation: Students may be skeptical that racial segregation continues to exist, and…

  4. "Brown" at 62: School Segregation by Race, Poverty and State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Gary; Ee, Jongyeon; Frankenberg, Erica; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    As the anniversary of "Brown v. Board of Education" decision arrives again without any major initiatives to mitigate spreading and deepening segregation in the nation's schools, the Civil Rights Project adds to a growing national discussion with a research brief drawn from a much broader study of school segregation to be published in…

  5. A new principle of figure-ground segregation : The accentuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam; Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Deiana, Katia

    2018-01-01

    The problem of perceptual organization was studied by Gestalt psychologists in terms of figure-ground segregation. In this paper we explore a new principle of figure-ground segregation: accentuation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of accentuation relative to other Gestalt principles, and also

  6. The Emergence of Gender Segregation in Toddler Playgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, Lisa A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A naturalistic study of toddler playgroups examined factors that might encourage gender segregation. Results revealed that play in same-sex contexts facilitates social interaction, whereas in mixed-sex contexts, play leads to passive social relations. Toddlers who segregated were more behaviorally sex-typed. Preferences for sex-typed toys did not…

  7. Monte Carlo simulations of adsorption-induced segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Ebbe; Stoltze, Per; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2002-01-01

    Through the use of Monte Carlo simulations we study the effect of adsorption-induced segregation. From the bulk composition, degree of dispersion and the partial pressure of the gas phase species we calculate the surface composition of bimetallic alloys. We show that both segregation and adsorption...

  8. Asymmetric strand segregation: epigenetic costs of genetic fidelity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane P Genereux

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric strand segregation has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize effective mutation rates in epithelial tissues. Under asymmetric strand segregation, the double-stranded molecule that contains the oldest DNA strand is preferentially targeted to the somatic stem cell after each round of DNA replication. This oldest DNA strand is expected to have fewer errors than younger strands because some of the errors that arise on daughter strands during their synthesis fail to be repaired. Empirical findings suggest the possibility of asymmetric strand segregation in a subset of mammalian cell lineages, indicating that it may indeed function to increase genetic fidelity. However, the implications of asymmetric strand segregation for the fidelity of epigenetic information remain unexplored. Here, I explore the impact of strand-segregation dynamics on epigenetic fidelity using a mathematical-modelling approach that draws on the known molecular mechanisms of DNA methylation and existing rate estimates from empirical methylation data. I find that, for a wide range of starting methylation densities, asymmetric -- but not symmetric -- strand segregation leads to systematic increases in methylation levels if parent strands are subject to de novo methylation events. I found that epigenetic fidelity can be compromised when enhanced genetic fidelity is achieved through asymmetric strand segregation. Strand segregation dynamics could thus explain the increased DNA methylation densities that are observed in structured cellular populations during aging and in disease.

  9. Standardized Testing and School Segregation: Like Tinder for Fire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoester, Matthew; Au, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that high-stakes standardized testing has played a negative role in the segregation of children by race and class in schools. In this article we review research on the overall effects of segregation, the positive and negative aspects of how desegregation plans were carried out following the 1954 Supreme Court decision…

  10. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Segregation of raw material. 58.332 Section 58.332... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall meet...

  11. Improvement in dry active waste segregation and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillmer, T.P.; Anderson, K.D.; Dahlen, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    At the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS) the majority of dry active waste (DAW) volume reduction activities are performed in the site's new DAW processing and storage facility. This facility houses an interim storage area for a five year volume of compacted DAW, a shredder/compactor, and a DAW segregation area. The DAW segregation program locates and separates non-radioactive and reusable materials from DAW generated at the three unit PVNGS site. This program has saved more than 24,000 cubic feet of burial space and has reclaimed more than $1,000,000 worth of materials. Palo Verde has made numerous changes to the DAW segregation program since its inception. To ensure that the DAW segregation program remained cost effective and in compliance with applicable regulatory guidance, segregation techniques were revised and new equipment was evaluated and procured. This paper details that effort and summarizes the operational data that has been collected

  12. Segregation and Socialization: Academic Segregation and Citizenship Attitudes of Adolescents in Comparative Perspective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimokritos Kavadias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is a tendency to assess educational systems in terms of their efficiency in gaining high scores on cognitive skills. Schools perform, however, also a socializing function. The whole policy debate tends to ignore the impact of educational systems on attitudes or democratic values. This contribution focuses on the impact of the organization of education in European societies on the civic attitudes of adolescents. Design/methodology/approach: We explore the impact of academic segregation – the practice of segregating children on the basis of their scholastic achievement – on attitudes of adolescents living in different educational systems. We use the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (2009 relying on multilevel models. Findings: Pupils differ in their outlook on fellow citizens, according to the ways in which educational systems select and differentiate throughout school careers. More specifically, there is a negative impact of academic segregation on the attitudes towards immigrants and ethnic minorities. Research limitations/implications: The experience of adolescents based on their educational achievement seems to affect how they perceive other people. We have not answered the question why this is the case. We hope to have provided a minimal indication of the impact of inequality on social outcomes.

  13. Improvement of vector compensation method for vehicle magnetic distortion field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Hongfeng, E-mail: panghongfeng@126.com; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2014-03-15

    Magnetic distortions such as eddy-current field and low frequency magnetic field have not been considered in vector compensation methods. A new compensation method is proposed to suppress these magnetic distortions and improve compensation performance, in which the magnetic distortions related to measurement vectors and time are considered. The experimental system mainly consists of a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (DM-050), an underwater vehicle and a proton magnetometer, in which the scalar value of magnetic field is obtained with the proton magnetometer and considered to be the true value. Comparing with traditional compensation methods, experimental results show that the magnetic distortions can be further reduced by two times. After compensation, error intensity and RMS error are reduced from 11684.013 nT and 7794.604 nT to 16.219 nT and 5.907 nT respectively. It suggests an effective way to improve the compensation performance of magnetic distortions. - Highlights: • A new vector compensation method is proposed for vehicle magnetic distortion. • The proposed model not only includes magnetometer error but also considers magnetic distortion. • Compensation parameters are computed directly by solving nonlinear equations. • Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method is not related with rotation angle rate. • Error intensity and RMS error can be reduced to 1/2 of the error with traditional methods.

  14. Improvement of vector compensation method for vehicle magnetic distortion field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic distortions such as eddy-current field and low frequency magnetic field have not been considered in vector compensation methods. A new compensation method is proposed to suppress these magnetic distortions and improve compensation performance, in which the magnetic distortions related to measurement vectors and time are considered. The experimental system mainly consists of a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (DM-050), an underwater vehicle and a proton magnetometer, in which the scalar value of magnetic field is obtained with the proton magnetometer and considered to be the true value. Comparing with traditional compensation methods, experimental results show that the magnetic distortions can be further reduced by two times. After compensation, error intensity and RMS error are reduced from 11684.013 nT and 7794.604 nT to 16.219 nT and 5.907 nT respectively. It suggests an effective way to improve the compensation performance of magnetic distortions. - Highlights: • A new vector compensation method is proposed for vehicle magnetic distortion. • The proposed model not only includes magnetometer error but also considers magnetic distortion. • Compensation parameters are computed directly by solving nonlinear equations. • Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method is not related with rotation angle rate. • Error intensity and RMS error can be reduced to 1/2 of the error with traditional methods

  15. Bilateral Symmetry of Distortions of Tactile Size Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R; Ghosh, Arko; Yahya, Tasneem

    2015-01-01

    The perceived distance between touches on the limbs is generally bigger for distances oriented across the width of the limb than for distances oriented along the length of the limb. The present study aimed to investigate the coherence of such distortions of tactile size perception across different skin surfaces. We investigated distortions of tactile size perception on the dorsal and palmar surfaces of both the left and right hands as well as the forehead. Participants judged which of two tactile distances felt larger. One distance was aligned with the proximodistal axis (along the body), the other with the mediolateral axis (across the body). Clear distortions were found on all five skin surfaces, with stimuli oriented across the width of the body being perceived as farther apart than those oriented along the length of the body. Consistent with previous results, distortions were smaller on the palmar than on the dorsal hand surface. Distortion on the forehead was intermediate between the dorsal and palmar surfaces. There were clear correlations between distortion on the left and right hands, for both the dorsal and palmar skin surfaces. In contrast, within each hand, there was no significant correlation between the two skin surfaces. Distortion on the forehead was not significantly correlated with that on any of the other skin surfaces. These results provide evidence for bilaterally symmetric representations underlying tactile size perception. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. CMB spectral distortions as solutions to the Boltzmann equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Atsuhisa, E-mail: a.ota@th.phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2017-01-01

    We propose to re-interpret the cosmic microwave background spectral distortions as solutions to the Boltzmann equation. This approach makes it possible to solve the second order Boltzmann equation explicitly, with the spectral y distortion and the momentum independent second order temperature perturbation, while generation of μ distortion cannot be explained even at second order in this framework. We also extend our method to higher order Boltzmann equations systematically and find new type spectral distortions, assuming that the collision term is linear in the photon distribution functions, namely, in the Thomson scattering limit. As an example, we concretely construct solutions to the cubic order Boltzmann equation and show that the equations are closed with additional three parameters composed of a cubic order temperature perturbation and two cubic order spectral distortions. The linear Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect whose momentum dependence is different from the usual y distortion is also discussed in the presence of the next leading order Kompaneets terms, and we show that higher order spectral distortions are also generated as a result of the diffusion process in a framework of higher order Boltzmann equations. The method may be applicable to a wider class of problems and has potential to give a general prescription to non-equilibrium physics.

  17. Spatial distortion in MRI with application to stereotactic neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, P.S.

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this work was to implement a thorough method for quantifying the errors introduced to frame-based neurosurgical stereotactic procedures by the use of MRI. Chang and Fitzpatrick's reversed gradient distortion correction method was used, in combination with a phantom, to measure these errors. Spatial distortion in MR images of between 1 mm and 2 mm was measured. Further analysis showed that this typically introduced an additional error in the coordinate of the actual treatment point of 0.7 mm. The implications of this are discussed. The main source of distortion in the MR images used for stereotaxis was found to be the head ring. A comparison between imaging sequences and MR scanners revealed that the spatial distortion depends mainly on the bandwidth per pixel of the sequence rather than other differences in the imaging sequences. By comparison with a phase map distortion correction technique, the imaging parameters required to allow successful distortion correction with the reversed gradient method were identified. The most important was the use of full Fourier spin echo acquisitions. The reversed gradient correction method was applied to two contemporary EPI techniques. Considerable improvement was seen in the production of ADC maps after the images had been corrected for distortion. The method also was shown to be valid in application to BOLD fMRl data. (author)

  18. Market distortions and aggregate productivity: Evidence from Chinese energy enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Xiaoyong; Cheng, Liwei

    2016-01-01

    Market distortions can generate resource misallocations across heterogeneous firms and reduce aggregate productivity. This paper measures market distortions and aggregate productivity growth in China's energy sector. We use the wedge between output elasticities and factor shares in revenues to recover a measure of firm-level market distortions. Using data on a large sample of Chinese energy enterprises from 1999 to 2007, our estimations provide strong evidence of the existence of both factor and product market distortions within and across China's various energy industries. The productivity aggregation and decomposition results demonstrate that the estimated aggregate productivity growth (APG) is, on average, 2.595% points per year, of which technological change, resource reallocation, and firm entries and exits account for 1.981, 0.068, and 0.546% points, respectively. The weak contributions of resource reallocation and firm turnover to APG are also found in energy sub-industries, except in the coal industry. Our research suggests that China's energy sector has major potential for productivity gains from resource reallocation through the reduction of market distortions. - Highlights: •We estimate market distortions and productivity growth of China's energy sector. •We use a large sample of Chinese energy enterprises. •There are evidences of the existence of factor and product market distortions. •Aggregate productivity growth is largely driven by firm-level technological change. •China's energy sector can realize productivity gains from resource reallocations.

  19. Word Recognition for Temporally and Spectrally Distorted Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Sherri L.; Pichora-Fuller, Margaret Kathleen; Wilson, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    listeners with near-normal hearing and hearing loss performed best in the unaltered condition, followed by the jitter and smear conditions, with the poorest performance in the combined jitter-smear condition in both quiet and noise. Overall, listeners with near-normal hearing performed better than listeners...... to predict group differences, but not the effects of distortion. Individual differences in performance were similar across all distortion conditions with both age and hearing loss being implicated. The speech materials needed to be both spectrally and temporally distorted to mimic the effects of age...

  20. Perceptual distortion analysis of color image VQ-based coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Christophe; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Cherifi, Hocine

    1997-04-01

    It is generally accepted that a RGB color image can be easily encoded by using a gray-scale compression technique on each of the three color planes. Such an approach, however, fails to take into account correlations existing between color planes and perceptual factors. We evaluated several linear and non-linear color spaces, some introduced by the CIE, compressed with the vector quantization technique for minimum perceptual distortion. To study these distortions, we measured contrast and luminance of the video framebuffer, to precisely control color. We then obtained psychophysical judgements to measure how well these methods work to minimize perceptual distortion in a variety of color space.

  1. Operation of static series compensator under distorted utility conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, H.; Nelsen, H.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    in the case of distorted grid voltage. Furthermore, a selective harmonic compensation strategy is applied to filter out the grid harmonics. The operation of the SSC under distorted utility conditions and voltage dips is discussed. The validity of the proposed controller is verified by experiments, carried out...... on a 10-kV SSC laboratory setup. Experimental results have shown the ability of the SSC to mitigate voltage dips and harmonics. It is also shown that the proposed controller has improved the transient performance of the SSC even under distorted utility conditions....

  2. Selective mobility, segregation and neighbourhood effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Boschman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The residential neighbourhood is thought to affect residents because of presumed neighbourhood effects; the independent effects of a neighbourhood’s characteristics on the life chances of its residents. An enormous body of research has tried to measure neighbourhood effects, however, there are no clear conclusions on how much, if any, effect the neighbourhood has on its residents. There is non-random selection of people into neighbourhoods which causes a bias in the modelling of neighbourhood effects. Any correlation found between neighbourhood characteristics and individual outcomes might be explained by selection bias and can therefore not prove the existence of a causal neighbourhood effect. The question is; do poor neighbourhoods make people poor, or do poor people live in unattractive neighbourhoods because they cannot afford to live elsewhere (Cheshire, 2007. Therefore, insight in selection is important to gain more insight in neighbourhood effects (Van Ham and Manley, 2012. For neighbourhood effects research it is important to study selective mobility and neighbourhood choice and to combine neighbourhood effects research with neighbourhood selection research (Doff, 2010a; Van Ham and Manley, 2012; Van Ham et al., 2012; Galster, 2003; Hedman, 2011. The aim of this thesis therefore is to gain more insight in both the causes and the consequences of segregation and thus to study both individual residential mobility and neighbourhood selection and neighbourhood effects. Besides the neighbourhood effects literature, also the segregation literature will benefit from better insights in selective residential mobility because selective residential mobility is one of the main driving forces of segregation.  There are two main research questions for this thesis. Firstly, I try to give insight in selective mobility and neighbourhood choice and thus to study where, when and why which people move. What is the effect of personal

  3. Taylor revisited: Gender segregation and division of labour in the ICT - sector (information and communication technology)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Else

    2001-01-01

    Information and communication technology, division of labour, gender segregation, working conditions......Information and communication technology, division of labour, gender segregation, working conditions...

  4. Texture segregation, surface representation and figure-ground separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, S; Pessoa, L

    1998-09-01

    A widespread view is that most texture segregation can be accounted for by differences in the spatial frequency content of texture regions. Evidence from both psychophysical and physiological studies indicate, however, that beyond these early filtering stages, there are stages of 3-D boundary segmentation and surface representation that are used to segregate textures. Chromatic segregation of element-arrangement patterns--as studied by Beck and colleagues--cannot be completely explained by the filtering mechanisms previously employed to account for achromatic segregation. An element arrangement pattern is composed of two types of elements that are arranged differently in different image regions (e.g. vertically on top and diagonally on the bottom). FACADE theory mechanisms that have previously been used to explain data about 3-D vision and figure-ground separation are here used to simulate chromatic texture segregation data, including data with equiluminant elements on dark or light homogeneous backgrounds, or backgrounds composed of vertical and horizontal dark or light stripes, or horizontal notched stripes. These data include the fact that segregation of patterns composed of red and blue squares decreases with increasing luminance of the interspaces. Asymmetric segregation properties under 3-D viewing conditions with the equiluminant elements close or far are also simulated. Two key model properties are a spatial impenetrability property that inhibits boundary grouping across regions with non-collinear texture elements and a boundary-surface consistency property that uses feedback between boundary and surface representations to eliminate spurious boundary groupings and separate figures from their backgrounds.

  5. Segregation in ternary alloys: an interplay of driving forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyten, J.; Helfensteyn, S.; Creemers, C.

    2003-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations combined with the constant bond energy (CBE) model are set up to explore and understand the general segregation behaviour in ternary alloys as a function of composition and more in particular the segregation to Cu-Ni-Al (1 0 0) surfaces. Besides its simplicity, allowing swift simulations, which are necessary for a first general survey over all possible compositions, one of the advantages of the CBE model lies in the possibility to clearly identify the different driving forces for segregation. All simulations are performed in the Grand Canonical Ensemble, using a new algorithm to determine the chemical potential of the components. Notwithstanding the simplicity of the CBE model, one extra feature is evidenced: depending on the values of the interatomic interaction parameters, in some regions of the ternary diagram, a single solid solution becomes thermodynamically unstable, leading to demixing into two conjugate phases. The simulations are first done for three hypothetical systems that are however representative for real alloy systems. The three systems are characterised by different sets of interatomic interaction parameters. These extensive simulations over the entire composition range of the ternary alloy yield a 'topographical' segregation map, showing distinct regions where different species segregate. These distinct domains originate from a variable interplay between the driving forces for segregation and attractive/repulsive interactions in the bulk of the alloy. The results on these hypothetical systems are very helpful for a better understanding of the segregation behaviour in Cu-Ni-Al and other ternary alloys

  6. Journal Afrika Statistika ISSN 0852-0305 Distortion risk measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    la somme et sur la structure de dépendance des risques, représentée par une copule. ... Key words: Coherence; Dependence structure; Distortion function; Risk measure; Risk theory; insurance; Wang ..... Weighted risk capital allocations.

  7. A method to correct coordinate distortion in EBSD maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.B.; Elbrønd, A.; Lin, F.X.

    2014-01-01

    Drift during electron backscatter diffraction mapping leads to coordinate distortions in resulting orientation maps, which affects, in some cases significantly, the accuracy of analysis. A method, thin plate spline, is introduced and tested to correct such coordinate distortions in the maps after the electron backscatter diffraction measurements. The accuracy of the correction as well as theoretical and practical aspects of using the thin plate spline method is discussed in detail. By comparing with other correction methods, it is shown that the thin plate spline method is most efficient to correct different local distortions in the electron backscatter diffraction maps. - Highlights: • A new method is suggested to correct nonlinear spatial distortion in EBSD maps. • The method corrects EBSD maps more precisely than presently available methods. • Errors less than 1–2 pixels are typically obtained. • Direct quantitative analysis of dynamic data are available after this correction

  8. Off-shell distortions of multichannel atomic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrachina, R. O.; Clauser, C. F.

    2017-10-01

    Any multichannel problem can be reduced to a succession of two-body events. However, these basic building blocks of many-body theories do not correspond to elastic processes but are off-the-energy-shell. In view of this difficulty, the great majority of the Distorted-Wave models includes a subsidiary approximation where these off-shell terms are arbitrarily forced to lie on the energy shell. At a first glance, since the energy deficiency is negligible for high enough velocities, the on-shell assumption seems to be completely justified. However, for the case of Coulomb interactions, the two-body off-shell distortions have branch-point singularities on the on-shell limit. In this article we demonstrate that these singularities might produce sizeable distortions of multiple scattering amplitudes, mainly when dealing with ion-ion collisions. Finally, we propose a method of including these distortions that might lead to better results that removing them completely.

  9. FPGA Based Compensation Method for Correcting Distortion in Voltage Inverters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williamson, Kenya D

    2007-01-01

    ...) voltage source inverters. Blanking time distortion is caused by the delay inserted to prevent the short circuit that would occur if the two transistors in the same inverter leg are both on at the same time...

  10. Correcting the Chromatic Aberration in Barrel Distortion of Endoscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Harry Ng

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern endoscopes offer physicians a wide-angle field of view (FOV for minimally invasive therapies. However, the high level of barrel distortion may prevent accurate perception of image. Fortunately, this kind of distortion may be corrected by digital image processing. In this paper we investigate the chromatic aberrations in the barrel distortion of endoscopic images. In the past, chromatic aberration in endoscopes is corrected by achromatic lenses or active lens control. In contrast, we take a computational approach by modifying the concept of image warping and the existing barrel distortion correction algorithm to tackle the chromatic aberration problem. In addition, an error function for the determination of the level of centroid coincidence is proposed. Simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of our method.

  11. A search for transmission ratio distortions in offspring from crosses ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    differential embryonic mortality, nondisjunction and gene conversion that are rather irregular forms of ... Keywords. transmission ratio distortion; meiotic drive; inbred mice. ..... Sapienza 2000 Heritability of the maternal meiotic drive system.

  12. Estimates of Atmospheric Distortion Number for Nonlinear Refraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roadcap, J. R; McNicholl, P. J; Beland, R. R; Jumper, G. Y

    2007-01-01

    A characteristic nondimensional distortion number Nd was derived in the 1970s that allows inference of the degree of nonlinear refraction or thermal blooming associated with an atmospheric laser path...

  13. Mechanisms of time-based figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Farid I; Fahle, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Figure-ground segregation can rely on purely temporal information, that is, on short temporal delays between positional changes of elements in figure and ground (Kandil, F.I. & Fahle, M. (2001) Eur. J. Neurosci., 13, 2004-2008). Here, we investigate the underlying mechanisms by measuring temporal segregation thresholds for various kinds of motion cues. Segregation can rely on monocular first-order motion (based on luminance modulation) and second-order motion cues (contrast modulation) with a high temporal resolution of approximately 20 ms. The mechanism can also use isoluminant motion with a reduced temporal resolution of 60 ms. Figure-ground segregation can be achieved even at presentation frequencies too high for human subjects to inspect successive frames individually. In contrast, when stimuli are presented dichoptically, i.e. separately to both eyes, subjects are unable to perceive any segregation, irrespective of temporal frequency. We propose that segregation in these displays is detected by a mechanism consisting of at least two stages. On the first level, standard motion or flicker detectors signal local positional changes (flips). On the second level, a segregation mechanism combines the local activities of the low-level detectors with high temporal precision. Our findings suggest that the segregation mechanism can rely on monocular detectors but not on binocular mechanisms. Moreover, the results oppose the idea that segregation in these displays is achieved by motion detectors of a higher order (motion-from-motion), but favour mechanisms sensitive to short temporal delays even without activation of higher-order motion detectors.

  14. SBS [stimulated Brillouin scattering] pulse distortion in multimode optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Hawkins, R.J.; Laumann, C.W.; Hatch, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have observed sever temporal-pulse-shape distortion due to stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in multimode optical fibers used to diagnose 351 m laser pulses on the Nova laser system. Our measurements can be fit by a basic model of SBS and provide a clear indication of the intensity and temporal regimes where significant SBS-induced temporal-pulse-shape distortion can be avoided. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Reactivity analysis of core distortion effects in the FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    An improved technique for evaluating core distortion reactivity effects was developed using reactivity analyses of two core geometry models (R-Z and HEX). This technique is incorporated into a new processor code called CORDIS. The advantages of this technique over existing reactivity models are that is preserves core heterogeneity, provides a control rod insertion effect model, uses row-dependent axial shape functions, and provides a flexible and cost efficient core distortion reactivity analysis method

  16. Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation.......Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation....

  17. Distorted eikonal cross sections: A time-dependent view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    For Hamiltonians with two potentials, differential cross sections are written as time-correlation functions of reference and distorted transition operators. Distorted eikonal differential cross sections are defined in terms of straight-line and reference classical trajectories. Both elastic and inelastic results are obtained. Expressions for the inelastic cross sections are presented in terms of time-ordered cosine and sine memory functions through the use of the Zwanzig-Feshbach projection-operator method

  18. Correlation of lattice distortion with photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xia; Shui Miao; Li Rongsheng; Song Yue

    2008-01-01

    The photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide dispersions on X-3B pigment degradation has been investigated. A variety of factors that would influence the photocatalytic activity such as crystallite size, lattice distortion, and anatase content are discussed in detail. It is found that lattice distortion is the most important one among these factors and is expected to inhibit the hole and electron pair recombination. It determines, to some extent, the photocatalytic efficiency of titanium dioxide dispersions

  19. Nonlinear distortion in wireless systems modeling and simulation with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gharaibeh, Khaled M

    2011-01-01

    This book covers the principles of modeling and simulation of nonlinear distortion in wireless communication systems with MATLAB simulations and techniques In this book, the author describes the principles of modeling and simulation of nonlinear distortion in single and multichannel wireless communication systems using both deterministic and stochastic signals. Models and simulation methods of nonlinear amplifiers explain in detail how to analyze and evaluate the performance of data communication links under nonlinear amplification. The book addresses the analysis of nonlinear systems

  20. Elliptical Galaxies: Rotationally Distorted, After All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2009-12-01

    .15$, and low rotationparameters $(0lechi_v^2<0.15$, while fastrotators show large ellipticities $(0.2lehat{e}<0.65$, large anisotropy parameters$(0.15ledelta<0.35$, and large rotationparameters $(0.15lechi_v^2<0.5$. Analternative kinematic classification withrespect to earlier attempts (Emsellem etal. 2007 requires larger samples for providingadditional support to the above mentionedresults. A possible interpretation of slowrotators as nonrotating at all and elongated due to negative anisotropy parameters,instead of flattened due to positiveanisotropy parameters, is exploited.Finally, the elliptical side of the Hubblemorphological sequence is interpreted as asequence of equilibrium (adjoint configurations where the ellipticity is an increasing functionof the rotation parameter, slow rotators correspond to early classes (E0-E2 in the oblate limit and E2-E0 in the prolate limitand fast rotators to late classes (E3-E6.In this view, boundaries are rotationally distorted regardless of angular momentumand stress tensor, where rotation has tobe intended as due to additional kinetic energy of tangential equatorial velocity components,with respect to spherical configurations with isotropic stress tensor.

  1. Segregation of granular binary mixtures by a ratchet mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Zénó; Szalai, Ferenc; Wolf, Dietrich E; Vicsek, Tamás

    2002-02-01

    We report on a segregation scheme for granular binary mixtures, where the segregation is performed by a ratchet mechanism realized by a vertically shaken asymmetric sawtooth-shaped base in a quasi-two-dimensional box. We have studied this system by computer simulations and found that most binary mixtures can be segregated using an appropriately chosen ratchet, even when the particles in the two components have the same size and differ only in their normal restitution coefficient or friction coefficient. These results suggest that the components of otherwise nonsegregating granular mixtures may be separated using our method.

  2. Segregation effect of radiation induced crosslinking of HDPE: morphology change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Pengyang; Zhong Xiaoguang

    2000-01-01

    Scanning Electronic Microscopy has been used to study morphology of pure gel; sol-gel blend and sol-gel segregation samples of radiation induced crosslinking of HDPE. The results show that the morphology of segregation sample is the same as that of pure gel and different from that of sol-gel blend. This kind of morphology change proves that the sol-gel blend have occurred a liquid---solid phase segregation in the melting state. The liquid phase (sol) will naturally immersed in the network of the gel. (author)

  3. Correlates of figure-ground segregation in fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiera, G; Petersen, D; Skalej, M; Fahle, M

    2000-01-01

    We investigated which correlates of figure-ground-segregation can be detected by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Five subjects were scanned with a Siemens Vision 1.5 T system. Motion, colour, and luminance-defined checkerboards were presented with alternating control conditions containing one of the two features of the checkerboard. We find a segregation-specific activation in V1 for all subjects and all stimuli and conclude that neural mechanisms exist as early as in the primary visual cortex that are sensitive to figure-ground segregation.

  4. Flow Induced segregation in full scale castings with SCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Stang, Henrik; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2007-01-01

    induced segregation is a major risk during casting and it is not yet clear how this phenomenon should be modelled. In this paper testing and numerical simulations of full-scale wall castings are compared. Two different SCCs and three different filling methods were applied resulting in different flow...... patterns during form filling. Results show that the flow patterns have a major influence on the risk of flow induced segregation and the surface finish of the hardened concrete. A hypothesis for the mechanism of flow induced segregation is put forth....

  5. Surface, segregation profile for Ni50Pd50(100)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    A recent dynamical LEED study [G.N. Derry, C.B. McVey, P.J. Rous, Surf. Sci. 326 (1995) 59] reported an oscillatory surface segregation profile in the Ni50Pd50(100) system with the surface layer enriched by Pd. We have performed ab-initio total-energy calculations for the surface of this alloy...... system using the coherent potential approximation and obtain an oscillatory segregation profile, in agreement with experiments. We discuss the energetic origin of the oscillatory segregation profile in terms of effective cluster interactions. We include relaxation effects by means of the semi...

  6. Bayesian linkage and segregation analysis: factoring the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthysse, S

    2000-01-01

    Complex segregation analysis and linkage methods are mathematical techniques for the genetic dissection of complex diseases. They are used to delineate complex modes of familial transmission and to localize putative disease susceptibility loci to specific chromosomal locations. The computational problem of Bayesian linkage and segregation analysis is one of integration in high-dimensional spaces. In this paper, three available techniques for Bayesian linkage and segregation analysis are discussed: Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), importance sampling, and exact calculation. The contribution of each to the overall integration will be explicitly discussed.

  7. Two dimensional spatial distortion correction algorithm for scintillation GAMMA cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaney, R.; Gray, E.; Jih, F.; King, S.E.; Lim, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Spatial distortion in an Anger gamma camera originates fundamentally from the discrete nature of scintillation light sampling with an array of PMT's. Historically digital distortion correction started with the method based on the distortion measurement by using 1-D slit pattern and the subsequent on-line bi-linear approximation with 64 x 64 look-up tables for X and Y. However, the X, Y distortions are inherently two-dimensional in nature, and thus the validity of this 1-D calibration method becomes questionable with the increasing distortion amplitude in association with the effort to get better spatial and energy resolutions. The authors have developed a new accurate 2-D correction algorithm. This method involves the steps of; data collection from 2-D orthogonal hole pattern, 2-D distortion vector measurement, 2-D Lagrangian polynomial interpolation, and transformation to X, Y ADC frame. The impact of numerical precision used in correction and the accuracy of bilinear approximation with varying look-up table size have been carefully examined through computer simulation by using measured single PMT light response function together with Anger positioning logic. Also the accuracy level of different order Lagrangian polynomial interpolations for correction table expansion from hole centroids were investigated. Detailed algorithm and computer simulation are presented along with camera test results

  8. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. Copyright © 2015 Stauffer et al.

  9. Non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV in an experimental environment Comunicación no verbal madre/hijo em la existencia del HIV materna en ambiente experimental Comunicação não-verbal mãe/filho na vigência do HIV materno em ambiente experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Sousa Paiva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-verbal communication is predominant in the mother-child relation. This study aimed to analyze non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV. In an experimental environment, five HIV-positive mothers were evaluated during care delivery to their babies of up to six months old. Recordings of the care were analyzed by experts, observing aspects of non-verbal communication, such as: paralanguage, kinesics, distance, visual contact, tone of voice, maternal and infant tactile behavior. In total, 344 scenes were obtained. After statistical analysis, these permitted inferring that mothers use non-verbal communication to demonstrate their close attachment to their children and to perceive possible abnormalities. It is suggested that the mother’s infection can be a determining factor for the formation of mothers’ strong attachment to their children after birth.La comunicación no verbal es predominante en la relación entre madre/hijo. Se tuvo por objetivo verificar la comunicación no verbal madre/hijo en la existencia del HIV materno. En ambiente experimental, fueron evaluadas cinco madres HIV+, que cuidaban de sus hijos de hasta seis meses de vida. Las filmaciones de los cuidados fueron analizadas por peritos, siendo observados los aspectos de la comunicación no verbal, como: paralenguaje, cinestésica, proximidad, contacto visual, tono de voz y comportamiento táctil materno e infantil. Se obtuvo 344 escenas que, después de un análisis estadístico, posibilitó inferir que la comunicación no verbal es utilizada por la madre para demonstrar su apego íntimo a los hijos y para percibir posibles anormalidades. Se sugiere que la infección materna puede ser un factor determinante para la formación del fuerte apego de la madre por su bebé después el nacimiento.A comunicação não-verbal é predominante na relação entre mãe/filho. Objetivou-se verificar a comunicação não-verbal mãe/filho na vigência do HIV

  10. MINORITY LANGUAGES IN ESTONIAN SEGREGATIVE LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Küün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project in Estonia was to determine what languages are spoken by students from the 2nd to the 5th year of basic school at their homes in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. At the same time, this problem was also studied in other segregated regions of Estonia: Kohtla-Järve and Maardu. According to the database of the population census from the year 2000 (Estonian Statistics Executive Office's census 2000, there are representatives of 142 ethnic groups living in Estonia, speaking a total of 109 native languages. At the same time, the database doesn’t state which languages are spoken at homes. The material presented in this article belongs to the research topic “Home Language of Basic School Students in Tallinn” from years 2007–2008, specifically financed and ordered by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (grant No. ETF 7065 in the framework of an international study called “Multilingual Project”. It was determined what language is dominating in everyday use, what are the factors for choosing the language for communication, what are the preferred languages and language skills. This study reflects the actual trends of the language situation in these cities.

  11. New segregation analysis of panic disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieland, V.J.; Fyer, A.J.; Chapman, T. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-09

    We performed simple segregation analyses of panic disorder using 126 families of probands with DSM-III-R panic disorder who were ascertained for a family study of anxiety disorders at an anxiety disorders research clinic. We present parameter estimates for dominant, recessive, and arbitrary single major locus models without sex effects, as well as for a nongenetic transmission model, and compare these models to each other and to models obtained by other investigators. We rejected the nongenetic transmission model when comparing it to the recessive model. Consistent with some previous reports, we find comparable support for dominant and recessive models, and in both cases estimate nonzero phenocopy rates. The effect of restricting the analysis to families of probands without any lifetime history of comorbid major depression (MDD) was also examined. No notable differences in parameter estimates were found in that subsample, although the power of that analysis was low. Consistency between the findings in our sample and in another independently collected sample suggests the possibility of pooling such samples in the future in order to achieve the necessary power for more complex analyses. 32 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. A higienização das parteiras curiosas: o Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública e a assistência materno-infantil (1940-1960 The health education of folk midwives: the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública and mother-child assistance (1940-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria de Almeida Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Discute as ações de treinamento e controle das parteiras curiosas promovidas pelo Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública, confiadas aos programas de higiene pré-natal e da criança, implantados entre as décadas de 1940 e 1960. Para os sanitaristas, o treinamento e controle das parteiras curiosas atuantes nas comunidades rurais brasileiras eram importantes para o sucesso do projeto de implantação de serviços sanitários locais de assistência materno-infantil. Ao atuar diretamente junto às parteiras curiosas, pretendia-se não somente lhes impor rigorosos padrões higiênicos na realização de partos e nos cuidados com os recém-nascidos, mas, sobretudo, recorrer a sua influência e seu prestígio naquelas comunidades para popularizar ações de saneamento.The article addresses an endeavor by Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (Sesp to train folk midwives who worked in rural communities and to exercise control over these women's activities. The task was entrusted to the agency's prenatal and child hygiene programs, established between the 1940s and 1960s. The agency believed this training and control initiative would be of major importance in helping ensure the success of its project to establish local sanitary services offering mother-child assistance. The goal of working directly with the folk midwives was not only to force them to employ strict hygiene standards when delivering and caring for newborns but especially to use their influence and prestige within these communities to convince the general population to adopt good health practices.

  13. Numerical correction of distorted images in full-field optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Gihyeon; Kim, Ju Wan; Choi, Woo June; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2012-03-01

    We propose a numerical method which can numerically correct the distorted en face images obtained with a full field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) system. It is shown that the FF-OCT image of the deep region of a biological sample is easily blurred or degraded because the sample has a refractive index (RI) much higher than its surrounding medium in general. It is analyzed that the focal plane of the imaging system is segregated from the imaging plane of the coherence-gated system due to the RI mismatch. This image-blurring phenomenon is experimentally confirmed by imaging the chrome pattern of a resolution test target through its glass substrate in water. Moreover, we demonstrate that the blurred image can be appreciably corrected by using the numerical correction process based on the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory. The proposed correction method is applied to enhance the image of a human hair, which permits the distinct identification of the melanin granules inside the cortex layer of the hair shaft.

  14. Use of segregation techniques to reduce stored low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Viana, R.; Vianna Mariano, N.; Antonio do Amaral, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the use of segregation techniques in reducing the stored Low Level Waste on Intermediate Waste Repository 1, at Angra Nuclear Power Plant Site, from 1701 to 425 drums of compacted waste. (author)

  15. Variability and Character Association in F2 Segregating Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 1Department of Horticulture. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University. Gazipur 1706, Bangladesh. ABSTRACT: The F2 segregating generations of exotic tomato hybrids were studied to measure variability, character association and path coefficient analysis.

  16. Mapping QTL for fatty acid composition that segregates between the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping QTL for fatty acid composition that segregates between the Japanese Black and Limousin cattle breeds (Short communication). NOM Tshipuliso, LJ Alexander, TW Geary, VM Snelling, DC Rule, JE Koltes, BE Mote, MD MacNeil ...

  17. Performance monitoring pavements with thermal segregation in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This project conducted work to investigate the performance of asphalt surface mixtures that exhibited : thermal segregation during construction. From 2004 to 2009, a total of 14 construction projects were : identified for monitoring. Five of these pr...

  18. Stochastic correlative firing for figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe

    2005-03-01

    Segregation of sensory inputs into separate objects is a central aspect of perception and arises in all sensory modalities. The figure-ground segregation problem requires identifying an object of interest in a complex scene, in many cases given binaural auditory or binocular visual observations. The computations required for visual and auditory figure-ground segregation share many common features and can be cast within a unified framework. Sensory perception can be viewed as a problem of optimizing information transmission. Here we suggest a stochastic correlative firing mechanism and an associative learning rule for figure-ground segregation in several classic sensory perception tasks, including the cocktail party problem in binaural hearing, binocular fusion of stereo images, and Gestalt grouping in motion perception.

  19. Somatically segregating clone of apomictic maize-tripsacum hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudin, B.F.; Lukina, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of further study on clone AM-5, isolated in the progeny of γ-irradiated plants of the apomictic hybrid of maize with tripsacum (2n = 38) are reported. The variegated-leaf seedlings of the clone segregate somatically and produce variegated, mottled, green (phenotypically normal) plants in different ratios in the apomictic progenies. The variegated, and to a lesser degree, green segregants segregate further. The mottled apomictics as well as mottled branches of variegated seedlings maintain their phenotype on transplantation, however, these is a progressive enhancement of the characters of vegetative lethality. Lethals of two extra maize genomes to the AM-5 nucleus does not affect significantly the scope and nature of segregation. At the same time, the loss of tripsacum genome restores normal phenotype. Clone AM-5 is an example of hybrid apomictic form causing significant morphological variability, which is, nevertheless, not related with apomictic and reversion to the sexual process

  20. The role of temporal coherence in auditory stream segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Simon Krogholt

    The ability to perceptually segregate concurrent sound sources and focus one’s attention on a single source at a time is essential for the ability to use acoustic information. While perceptual experiments have determined a range of acoustic cues that help facilitate auditory stream segregation......, it is not clear how the auditory system realizes the task. This thesis presents a study of the mechanisms involved in auditory stream segregation. Through a combination of psychoacoustic experiments, designed to characterize the influence of acoustic cues on auditory stream formation, and computational models...... of auditory processing, the role of auditory preprocessing and temporal coherence in auditory stream formation was evaluated. The computational model presented in this study assumes that auditory stream segregation occurs when sounds stimulate non-overlapping neural populations in a temporally incoherent...

  1. Phase-oriented surface segregation in an aluminium casting alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Chuong L.; Atanacio, Armand; Zhang, Wei; Prince, Kathryn E.; Hyland, Margaret M.; Metson, James B.

    2009-01-01

    There have been many reports of the surface segregation of minor elements, especially Mg, into surface layers and oxide films on the surface of Al alloys. LM6 casting alloy (Al-12%Si) represents a challenging system to examine such segregation as the alloy features a particularly inhomogeneous phase structure. The very low but mobile Mg content (approximately 0.001 wt.%), and the surface segregation of modifiers such as Na, mean the surface composition responds in a complex manner to thermal treatment conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to determine the distribution of these elements within the oxide film. Further investigation by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (DSIMS) confirmed a strong alignment of segregated Na and Mg into distinct phases of the structure.

  2. Prokaryotic DNA segregation by an actin-like filament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus; Löwe, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for prokaryotic DNA segregation are largely unknown. The partitioning locus (par) encoded by the Escherichia coli plasmid R1 actively segregates its replicon to daughter cells. We show here that the ParM ATPase encoded by par forms dynamic actin-like filaments with prop...... point for ParM polymerization. Hence, we provide evidence for a simple prokaryotic analogue of the eukaryotic mitotic spindle apparatus.......The mechanisms responsible for prokaryotic DNA segregation are largely unknown. The partitioning locus (par) encoded by the Escherichia coli plasmid R1 actively segregates its replicon to daughter cells. We show here that the ParM ATPase encoded by par forms dynamic actin-like filaments...

  3. Bulk ordering and surface segregation in Ni50Pt50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pourovskii, L.P.; Ruban, Andrei; Abrikosov, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    in the bulk compare well with experimental data. The surface-alloy compositions for the (111) and (110) facets above the ordering transition temperature are also found to be in a good agreement with experiments. It is demonstrated that the segregation profile at the (110) surface of NiPt is mainly caused...... by the unusually strong segregation of Pt into the second layer and the interlayer ordering due to large chemical nearest-neighbor interactions....

  4. Dislocation and void segregation in copper during neutron irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Leffers, Torben; Horsewell, Andy

    1986-01-01

    ); the irradiation experiments were carried out at 250 degree C. The irradiated specimens were examined by transmission electron microscopy. At both doses, the irradiation-induced structure was found to be highly segregated; the dislocation loops and segments were present in the form of irregular walls and the voids...... density, the void swelling rate was very high (approximately 2. 5% per dpa). The implications of the segregated distribution of sinks for void formation and growth are briefly discussed....

  5. Study of solute segregation at interfaces using Auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Interfacial segregation, often confined to within a few atomic distances of the interface, can strongly influence the processing and properties of metals and ceramics. The thinness of such solute-enriched regions can cause them to be particularly suitable for study using surface sensitive microanalytical techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The application of AES to studies of interfacial segregation in metals and ceramics is briefly reviewed, and several examples are presented. 43 references, 14 figures

  6. Segregation analysis of microsatellite (SSR) markers in sugarcane polyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X; Zhou, H; Pan, Y-B; Chen, C Y; Zhu, J R; Chen, P H; Li, Y-R; Cai, Q; Chen, R K

    2015-12-28

    No information is available on segregation analysis of DNA markers involving both pollen and self-progeny. Therefore, we used capillary electrophoresis- and fluorescence-based DNA fingerprinting together with single pollen collection and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to investigate simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker segregation among 964 single pollens and 288 self-progenies (S1) of sugarcane cultivar LCP 85-384. Twenty SSR DNA fragments (alleles) were amplified by five polymorphic SSR markers. Only one non-parental SSR allele was observed in 2392 PCRs. SSR allele inheritance was in accordance with Mendelian laws of segregation and independent assortment. Highly significant correlation coefficients were found between frequencies of observed and expected genotypes in pollen and S1 populations. Within the S1 population, the most frequent genotype of each SSR marker was the parental genotype of the same marker. The number of genotypes was higher in pollen than S1 population. PIC values of the five SSR markers were greater in pollen than S1 populations. Eleven of 20 SSR alleles (55%) were segregated in accordance with Mendelian segregation ratios expected from pollen and S1 populations of a 2n = 10x polyploid. Six of 20 SSR alleles were segregated in a 3:1 (presence:absence) ratio and were simplex markers. Four and one alleles were segregated in 77:4 and 143:1 ratios and considered duplex and triplex markers, respectively. Segregation ratios of remaining alleles were unexplainable. The results provide information about selection of crossing parents, estimation of seedling population optimal size, and promotion of efficient selection, which may be valuable for sugarcane breeders.

  7. Cognitive distortions among older adult gamblers in an Asian context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythily Subramaniam

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe the construct of cognitive distortions based on the narratives of older adult gamblers (aged 60 years and above in Singapore.Singapore residents (citizens or permanent residents aged 60 years and above, who were current or past regular gamblers were included in the study. Participants were recruited using a combination of venue based approach, referrals from service providers as well as by snowball sampling. In all, 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with older adult gamblers. The six-step thematic network analysis methodology was adopted for data analysis.The mean age of the participants was 66.2 years. The majority were male (n = 18, of Chinese ethnicity (n = 16, with a mean age of gambling initiation at 24.5 years. Among older adult gamblers, cognitive distortions emerged as a significant global theme comprising three organizing themes-illusion of control, probability control and interpretive control. The organizing themes comprised nine basic themes: perception of gambling as a skill, near miss, concept of luck, superstitious beliefs, entrapment, gambler's fallacy, chasing wins, chasing losses, and beliefs that wins are more than losses.Cognitive distortions were endorsed by all gamblers in the current study and were shown to play a role in both maintaining and escalating the gambling behaviour. While the surface characteristics of the distortions had a culture-specific appearance, the deeper characteristics of the distortions may in fact be more universal than previously thought. Future research must include longitudinal studies to understand causal relationships between cognitive distortions and gambling as well as the role of culture-specific distortions both in the maintenance and treatment of the disorder.

  8. Elasmobranch spatial segregation in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gouraguine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic information on the distribution and habitat preferences of ecologically important species is essential for their management and protection. This study focuses on the depth related trends and the geographic patterns that shape the community of the elasmobranch species in the Balearic Islands (Mediterranean Sea using data collected from 2001 to 2009. Non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS ordination was used to detect zonation patterns in the community. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs were applied to analyse spatial and temporal variation in elasmobranch community descriptors (abundance, biomass, mean fish weight, number of species and diversity, as well as the abundance and mean length of the four individual species (S. canicula, G. melastomus, R. clavata, R. miraletus. Depth was the main factor determining the assemblage composition, and the MDS analysis identified four main groups with 60% of the similarity found to correspond to the continental shelf, shelf break, upper slope and middle slope of the surveyed area. GAM analysis identified spatial patterns that were independent of the bathymetric distribution preference. Although depth was a strong predictor for all the analyses performed, the geographic variation in the elasmobranch abundance was also important. The results also show a reduction in the mean length of the elasmobranch species in the areas with high fishing intensity. Our study evidences a clear spatial segregation of the main species throughout the ontogeny because the geographic and bathymetric effects were highly size dependent, with clear differences between the bathymetric distributions of juveniles and adults but no clear spatial overlapping. This study sheds new light on the spatial distribution of the elasmobranch species off the Balearic Islands, which is essential information for protecting marine organisms along with their habitats and promoting ecosystem based management.

  9. Radiation-induced segregation in Cu-Au alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Rehn, L.E.; Okamoto, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation-induced segregation in a Cu-lat.% Au alloy was investigated using in-situ Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Irradiation with 1.8-MeV helium produced nonequilibrium gold atom depletion in the near surface region. The amount of segregation was measured as a function of dose, dose rate, and temperature. Segregation was observed in the temperature range between about 300 and 500 0 C. For a calculated dose rate of 3.9 x 10/sup -5/ dpa/s, the radiation-induced segregation rate peaked near 400 0 C. Theoretical analysis based on the Johnson-Lam model predicted that the amount of segregation would be directly proportional to dose at the early stage of irradiation, would deviate from linearity with a continuously decreasing slope of intermediate doses, and finally approach a constant value after high doses. The analysis also predicted that the segregation rate would vary as the - 1/4th power of the dose rate at constant dose in the low temperature region. These predictions were all verified experimentally. A procedure for extracting relative defect production efficiencies from similar measurements is discussed

  10. Dynamics of Escherichia coli Chromosome Segregation during Multifork Replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck; Youngren, Brenda; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2007-01-01

    Slowly growing Escherichia coli cells have a simple cell cycle, with replication and progressive segregation of the chromosome completed before cell division. In rapidly growing cells, initiation of replication occurs before the previous replication rounds are complete. At cell division, the chro......Slowly growing Escherichia coli cells have a simple cell cycle, with replication and progressive segregation of the chromosome completed before cell division. In rapidly growing cells, initiation of replication occurs before the previous replication rounds are complete. At cell division......, the chromosomes contain multiple replication forks and must be segregated while this complex pattern of replication is still ongoing. Here, we show that replication and segregation continue in step, starting at the origin and progressing to the replication terminus. Thus, early-replicated markers on the multiple......-branched chromosomes continue to separate soon after replication to form separate protonucleoids, even though they are not segregated into different daughter cells until later generations. The segregation pattern follows the pattern of chromosome replication and does not follow the cell division cycle. No extensive...

  11. Income Segregation between Schools and School Districts. CEPA Working Paper No. 16-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ann; Reardon, Sean F.; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although trends in the racial segregation of schools are well documented, less is known about trends in "income" segregation. We use multiple data sources to document trends in income segregation between schools and school districts. Between-district income segregation of families with children enrolled in public school increased by over…

  12. Distortion definition and correction in off-axis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Simioni, Emanuele; Naletto, Giampiero; Cremonese, Gabriele

    2015-09-01

    Off-axis optical configurations are becoming more and more used in a variety of applications, in particular they are the most preferred solution for cameras devoted to Solar System planets and small bodies (i.e. asteroids and comets) study. Off-axis designs, being devoid of central obstruction, are able to guarantee better PSF and MTF performance, and thus higher contrast imaging capabilities with respect to classical on-axis designs. In particular they are suitable for observing extended targets with intrinsic low contrast features, or scenes where a high dynamical signal range is present. Classical distortion theory is able to well describe the performance of the on-axis systems, but it has to be adapted for the off-axis case. A proper way to deal with off-axis distortion definition is thus needed together with dedicated techniques to accurately measure and hence remove the distortion effects present in the acquired images. In this paper, a review of the distortion definition for off-axis systems will be given. In particular the method adopted by the authors to deal with the distortion related issues (definition, measure, removal) in some off-axis instruments will be described in detail.

  13. Distortion-Based Link Adaptation for Wireless Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nix

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless local area networks (WLANs such as IEEE 802.11a/g utilise numerous transmission modes, each providing different throughputs and reliability levels. Most link adaptation algorithms proposed in the literature (i maximise the error-free data throughput, (ii do not take into account the content of the data stream, and (iii rely strongly on the use of ARQ. Low-latency applications, such as real-time video transmission, do not permit large numbers of retransmission. In this paper, a novel link adaptation scheme is presented that improves the quality of service (QoS for video transmission. Rather than maximising the error-free throughput, our scheme minimises the video distortion of the received sequence. With the use of simple and local rate distortion measures and end-to-end distortion models at the video encoder, the proposed scheme estimates the received video distortion at the current transmission rate, as well as on the adjacent lower and higher rates. This allows the system to select the link-speed which offers the lowest distortion and to adapt to the channel conditions. Simulation results are presented using the MPEG-4/AVC H.264 video compression standard over IEEE 802.11g. The results show that the proposed system closely follows the optimum theoretic solution.

  14. Distortion of digital panoramic radiographs used for implant site assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayyan Abdulhamid Kayal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study is conducted to determine the amount of distortion of digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of all patients who received dental implants in the years 2012 and 2013 were selected from the records at the faculty of dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Radiographs were analyzed using the R4 Kodak Software for linear measurements of implants length and width. The measurements were compared to the actual size of the implant, and the amount of distortion was calculated. Results: A total of 169 implants were analyzed. Horizontally, there was a statistically significant increase of 0.4 mm in width in the radiographic measurement compared to the actual size in the incisor region. Vertically, the sample overall exhibited a decrease by 0.4 mm compared to the actual size. Incisors had the highest difference with a decrease of 1.7 mm in the radiographic measurements compared to actual size. The highest distortion was found in the incisor region for both diameter and length (1.1 and 0.86, respectively. Conclusion: Digital panoramic radiographs show minimal to no distortion. The highest distortion is found in the anterior area.

  15. Accuracy evaluation of optical distortion calibration by digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zeren; Zhang, Qingchuan; Su, Yong; Wu, Shangquan

    2017-11-01

    Due to its convenience of operation, the camera calibration algorithm, which is based on the plane template, is widely used in image measurement, computer vision and other fields. How to select a suitable distortion model is always a problem to be solved. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an experimental evaluation of the accuracy of camera distortion calibrations. This paper presents an experimental method for evaluating camera distortion calibration accuracy, which is easy to implement, has high precision, and is suitable for a variety of commonly used lens. First, we use the digital image correlation method to calculate the in-plane rigid body displacement field of an image displayed on a liquid crystal display before and after translation, as captured with a camera. Next, we use a calibration board to calibrate the camera to obtain calibration parameters which are used to correct calculation points of the image before and after deformation. The displacement field before and after correction is compared to analyze the distortion calibration results. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of two commonly used industrial camera lenses for four commonly used distortion models.

  16. Study on segregation of aluminium-uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Rui Marques de

    1979-01-01

    The relations between alloy solidification and solute segregation were considered. The solidification structure and the solute redistribution during the solidification of alloys with dendritic micro morphology were studied. The macro and micro segregation theories were reviewed. The mechanisms that could change the solidification structure were taken into account in the context of more homogeneous alloy production. Aluminum alloys solidification structures and segregation were studied experimentally in the 13 to 45% uranium range, usually considering solidification in static molds. The uranium alloys with up to 20% uranium were studied both for solidification in ingot molds and for controlled directional solidification. It was verified that these alloy compositions had structures similar to those of hipoeutectic alloys, showing an a phase with dendritic morphology and inter dendritic eutectic. For the alloys with more than 25% uranium, it was observed the formation of UAl 3 and UAl 4 phases with dendritic morphology. The dendritic UAl 3 , phase morphology was affected both by the solute concentration in the alloy and by the growth rate. The dendritic UAl 3 phase non-singular aspect could be destroyed with decrease of the alloy solute concentration. In the alloys obtained with higher cooling rates it was found a tendency for the formation of substantial quantities of equi axial crystals of the solute enriched phases in the central regions of the ingot upper half. In the more external regions it was observed dendritic growth of these phases, for alloy compositions with over 25% uranium. An adequate reduction in the cooling rate changed the solidification structure form and distribution, as well as the segregation type and intensity. The uranium content in the solidified macro structures is presented as a function of: cooling rate, superheating, mold size, mold form and its temperature, number of remelting and time for the melt homogenization and agitation. It was

  17. An Exact Formula for Calculating Inverse Radial Lens Distortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Drap

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new approach to calculating the inverse of radial distortions. The method presented here provides a model of reverse radial distortion, currently modeled by a polynomial expression, that proposes another polynomial expression where the new coefficients are a function of the original ones. After describing the state of the art, the proposed method is developed. It is based on a formal calculus involving a power series used to deduce a recursive formula for the new coefficients. We present several implementations of this method and describe the experiments conducted to assess the validity of the new approach. Such an approach, non-iterative, using another polynomial expression, able to be deduced from the first one, can actually be interesting in terms of performance, reuse of existing software, or bridging between different existing software tools that do not consider distortion from the same point of view.

  18. Multiview Trajectory Mapping Using Homography with Lens Distortion Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cavallaro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a trajectory mapping algorithm for a distributed camera setting that is based on statistical homography estimation accounting for the distortion introduced by camera lenses. Unlike traditional approaches based on the direct linear transformation (DLT algorithm and singular value decomposition (SVD, the planar homography estimation is derived from renormalization. In addition to this, the algorithm explicitly introduces a correction parameter to account for the nonlinear radial lens distortion, thus improving the accuracy of the transformation. We demonstrate the proposed algorithm by generating mosaics of the observed scenes and by registering the spatial locations of moving objects (trajectories from multiple cameras on the mosaics. Moreover, we objectively compare the transformed trajectories with those obtained by SVD and least mean square (LMS methods on standard datasets and demonstrate the advantages of the renormalization and the lens distortion correction.

  19. Multiview Trajectory Mapping Using Homography with Lens Distortion Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayumbi Gabin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a trajectory mapping algorithm for a distributed camera setting that is based on statistical homography estimation accounting for the distortion introduced by camera lenses. Unlike traditional approaches based on the direct linear transformation (DLT algorithm and singular value decomposition (SVD, the planar homography estimation is derived from renormalization. In addition to this, the algorithm explicitly introduces a correction parameter to account for the nonlinear radial lens distortion, thus improving the accuracy of the transformation. We demonstrate the proposed algorithm by generating mosaics of the observed scenes and by registering the spatial locations of moving objects (trajectories from multiple cameras on the mosaics. Moreover, we objectively compare the transformed trajectories with those obtained by SVD and least mean square (LMS methods on standard datasets and demonstrate the advantages of the renormalization and the lens distortion correction.

  20. Metering error quantification under voltage and current waveform distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Jia; Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Ran

    2017-09-01

    With integration of more and more renewable energies and distortion loads into power grid, the voltage and current waveform distortion results in metering error in the smart meters. Because of the negative effects on the metering accuracy and fairness, it is an important subject to study energy metering combined error. In this paper, after the comparing between metering theoretical value and real recorded value under different meter modes for linear and nonlinear loads, a quantification method of metering mode error is proposed under waveform distortion. Based on the metering and time-division multiplier principles, a quantification method of metering accuracy error is proposed also. Analyzing the mode error and accuracy error, a comprehensive error analysis method is presented which is suitable for new energy and nonlinear loads. The proposed method has been proved by simulation.