Sample records for mother goddess liu

  1. Mother goddesses with boat motifs on stone sculptures from Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kerkar, R.; Gaur, A.S.

    and AS. Gaur2 'Ken, Sattari, Goa-403 505, 2National Institute of Oceanograpgy, Dona Paula, Goa References Costa, Fr. C.J. 2002. The Heritage of Govapuri. Goa: Pilar Publication. Gaur, A.S. 1992. Excavation at an Ancient Port in Gopakapattana... stream_size 10615 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_I.O_Archaeol_3_151.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_I.O_Archaeol_3_151.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Mother...

  2. Goddess Traditions in Tantric Hinduism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinduism cannot be understood without the Great Goddess and the goddess-orientated Śākta traditions. The Goddess pervades Hinduism at all levels, from aniconic village deities to high-caste pan-Hindu goddesses to esoteric, tantric goddesses. Nevertheless, the highly influential tantric forms...

  3. Liu Xiaopan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Liu Xiaopan. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 32 Issue 5 October 2009 pp 549-554 Composites. High-temperature oxidation behaviour of Ti3Si(1–)AlC2 in air · Liu Xiaopan Wan Long Bu Zhongheng Nie Daojun · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  4. Becoming Classical Artemis: A Glimpse at the Evolution of the Goddess as Traced in Ancient Arcadia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Albert Zolotnikova


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the evolution of the goddess Artemis in Ancient Greek religion from prehistoric till late historic times. In the related studies, still there is no certainty as to the beginning of worship of Artemis in Ancient Greece and her original concept. Moreover, Artemis’ appearance in the early historic period with the features of the prehistoric Mountain-Mother-Goddess, the Mistress of Animals, the goddess of lakes, the goddess of trees, the goddess of birth and child-care, on the one hand, and as a virgin-huntress who presented rudimentary traits of bear-goddess and deer-goddess, on the other, raises questions whether Artemis originally had all these hypostases or acquired them gradually through assimilation with different goddesses. This paper argues that the concept of Artemis as attested during the historic period was the result of its long development, which consisted of two major phases. Originally, Artemis was a goddess of wild animals and herself was imagined as a bear and a doe. Perhaps, from the beginning, she was regarded as a guardian of sacred rules and a punisher for inappropriate religious behavior. Gradually, Artemis was identified with the old universal goddess of nature and received from her connection with mountain-tops and lakes, responsibility for plant growth and fertility in general, obligation to protect childbirth, etc.. In this paper, the evolution of the concept of Artemis is traced on the basis of her cults practiced in Arcadia, one of a few areas of Ancient Greece where ethno-cultural continuity remained unbroken from prehistoric to late historic times.

  5. H B Liu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. H B Liu. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 34 Issue 4 August 2009 pp 599-606. Of light, of MEMS: Optical MEMS in telecommunications and beyond · F Chollet H B Liu M Ashraf B Thubthimthong X M Zhang G Hegde A Asundi V M Murukeshan A Q Liu · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. QING YING LIU. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 40 Issue 7 December 2017 pp 1329-1333. Synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of g-C 3 N 4 hybridized CdS nanoparticles · QING YING LIU YI LING QI YI FAN ZHENG XU CHUN SONG.


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. WAN-MING LIU. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 41 Issue 7 July 2016 pp 713-719. Integrated fleet assignment and aircraft routing based on delay propagation · WAN-MING LIU XING-HUI ZHU YAN-LONG QI · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Airlines' expensive resources, especially aircraft ...

  8. LIU 2011 event

    CERN Multimedia

    BE Department


    The LHC injectors upgrade (LIU) project was launched at the end of 2010 to coordinate the preparation of the CERN accelerator complex to meet the needs of the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) until at least 2030. It should be completed by the end of the second long LHC shutdown, presently scheduled for 2018.   The goal of the LIU-2011 event is to present the status and plans of the LIU project, describing the needs and the actions foreseen in the different accelerators, from Linac4 to the PSB, PS and SPS.  

  9. Liu Ying, Percussionist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    MUSICAL ability requires far more than raw energy. A good musician must possess a natural talent, desire and lifetime dedication to her instrument to achieve true beauty and grace. Meet Liu Ying, 27. Born in a musical family in Yuci, Shanxi Province, she, like many little girls, enjoyed playing a toy xylophone. But from her carefree playing

  10. The Royal pilgrimage of the Goddess Nanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. Sax


    Full Text Available Once every twelve years, when it is thought that some calamity has taken place because of the curse of the goddess Nanda Devi, a four-horned ram is born in the fields of the former king of Garhwal, an erstwhile Central Himalayan kingdom in north India (see map of Garhwal. This four-horned ram leads a procession of priests and pilgrims on the most dangerous and spectacular pilgrimage in all of India: a three-week, barefoot journey of one-hundred and sixty-four miles, during some of the worst weather of the year, at the end of the rainy season. The procession reaches Rupkund, a small pond located at an altitude of more than 5,000 metres, which is surrounded by human­ skeletons, and from there it goes yet further, to Homkund, the ‘Lake of the Fire Sacrifice’. According to the faithful, the four-horned ram leaves the procession at that point and finds its way, unaided, to the summit of Mount Trishul. As its name suggests, the Royal Procession is closely associated with the ruler of this erstwhile Himalayan kingdom: he attends its inaugural rituals, the bones that litter the shores of Rupkund are believed to be those of one of his ancestors, and the chief sponsor of the event is a local ‘Prince’ who is thought to be descended from the first kings of Garhwal. This Prince traverses the domain of his ancestors and thereby lays claim to it in the name of the goddess Nanda, who is not only his lineage goddess but was also the royal goddess of the neighbouring kingdom of Kumaon, in pre-colonial times. Although the Royal Procession ideally fosters social integration, it was disrupted in 1987 by a quarrel between two factions of priests. The goddess’s itinerary, the culminating date of the pilgrimage, the type of sacrifice to be performed, the order of procession, the participation of previously excluded persons, and the competency of certain ritual specialists—all were subjects of heated dispute between the rival groups. What was the reason for

  11. Carnaria: The Festival of the Goddess Carna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Šašel Kos


    (collegium fabrum comprising blacksmiths, workers in copper and bronze, builders, and masons, whose activities included firemen’s duties in the larger towns. Caesernius Primitivus and Ollia Primilla, who presumably owned an estate in the territory of today’s village of Spodnje Gameljne, bequeathed to the collegium 200 denarii (equalling 800 sestertii on condition that (part of the annual interest should be used to buy roses and decorate their grave. Inscriptions referring to similar bequests are mainly known from northern Italy but largely unknown in the western provinces: Noricum and Pannonia have yielded no finds, nor are expected to do so (yet another proof that Emona belonged under the Regio X, Tenth Italic Region. The testament writers usually desired to have their memory honoured on the Parentalia (a festival of the dead and/or the Rosalia and Violaria (festivals when graves were decorated with roses and violets respectively, or on their birthdays or death anniversaries. On occasion other festivals could be selected if they were important to their families or collegia. A Greek inscription from Cepigovo (Macedonia, for example, stipulates that the festival of Vettius Bolanus should be commemorated with a yearly banquet on 19 October: this date may have been his birthday or an important family festival. The same may be assumed about the Carnaria of the Caesarnii inscription, as the Roman custom was to cite the date by referring to the accompanying festival.   II. Carna and Her Festival According to Ovid’s Fasti, the Calends, i.e. the first day, of June were dedicated to the goddess Carna: ‘The first day is given to thee, Carna. She is the goddess of the hinge: by her divine power she opens what is closed, and closes what is open’ (6.101–102; trans. J. G. Frazer. The versification of her myth at Fasti 6.101–182 is our best extant source for the characteristics and province of this ancient Roman goddess. Ovid’s initial definition of her as the goddess of

  12. The Sumerian Goddess Inanna (3400-2200 BC

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    Paul Collins


    Full Text Available Of the myriad Sumerian deities that have emerged from the cuneiform records of ancient Mesopotamia perhaps the most famous - but least understood - is the goddess Inanna, the' lady of heaven'. As a patron of sexuality and aggression she appears in many ancient myths and legends and continues to exert a fascination over contemporary minds. Southern Mesopotamia, called Sumer, witnessed the development of the world's oldest writing system during the Late Uruk period. However, there are few references to Inanna in the extant cuneiform records before the Dynasty of Akkad. Any reconstruction of the cult of Inanna at the dawn of history must, therefore, rely initially on textual evidence of much later periods: the vast repertoire of myths, hymns and prayers to the goddess have been attributed to the 3rd Dynasty of Ur III and the Isin-Larsa Dynasties. Certain details in these stories may reflect beliefs and practices from earlier periods but, these elements are difficult to identify. However, the archaeological record of the late fourth and third millennia has revealed evidence for numerous temples dedicated to Inanna, testifyingto an important and widespread cult. This paper first discusses the archaeological record, before going on to attempt to define the role of Inanna and investigate a proposed syncretism of the goddess wi th the Semitic deity Ishtar.

  13. 78 FR 58519 - Denial of Export Privileges; Sixing Liu (United States)


    ... Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701, et seq. (2006 & Supp. IV 2010)). I have received notice of Liu's conviction... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Denial of Export Privileges; Sixing Liu In the Matter of: Sixing Liu, a/k/a Steve Liu, Inmate 43102-424, FCI Oxford, Federal Correctional...

  14. Chinese Prayer Chant to the Goddess of Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Zakharova


    Full Text Available The article examines the prayer chant to the Goddess of Fertility performed by a blind singer and accompanied by the stringed instrument banghu and foot castanets in the temple of the Spirit of the Tanshan Dong Yue mountain, in Puxian county Shangxi province of the Republic of China. The video of the chant was recorded in April 2011, during the days before the Temple festival in honor of Dong Yue, a tradition that has been revived in the modern China. We publish the text of the chant not only in the Russian translation but also in Chinese. There are three graphic variants of the Chinese text presented — in Chinese characters, in standardized Pinyin, and in transcribed Pinyin that gives an idea of the actual pronunciation and allows the reader to trace dialectical specificity of the song. The article includes the music of both the chant and the instrumental accompaniment together with their ethno-musicological characteristics. The musical structure of the instrument and the modal specificity attribute this piece to the musical style of Northern China. The Authors analyze the verse and the strafica of the chant. They argue that its metrical structure consists of couplets (except for the last three line stanza, with instrumental wagering played in between that is characteristic of the ancient Chinese lyrics. The analysis of the text’s contents and imagery reveals that it reflects popular notions of Songzi nannan, the Goddess of Fertility. It also shows that the chant dates back to the feudal China: it predicts the fate of the future son of the young couple that ordered the chant by describing his future life of the “official” and the “noble man,” the image that has been developed on the basis of Confucian canons within the two millennia of Chinese history.

  15. Recurrence quantification analysis in Liu's attractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balibrea, Francisco; Caballero, M. Victoria; Molera, Lourdes


    Recurrence Quantification Analysis is used to detect transitions chaos to periodical states or chaos to chaos in a new dynamical system proposed by Liu et al. This system contains a control parameter in the second equation and was originally introduced to investigate the forming mechanism of the compound structure of the chaotic attractor which exists when the control parameter is zero

  16. LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) Project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikova, Elena; Damerau, Heiko; Funken, Anne; Gilardoni, Simone; Goddard, Brennan; Hanke, Klaus; Kobzeva, Lelyzaveta; Lombardi, Alessandra; Manglunki, Django; Mataguez, Simon; Meddahi, Malika; Mikulec, Bettina; Rumolo, Giovanni; Scrivens, Richard; Vretenar, Maurizio


    A massive improvement program of the LHC injector chain is presently being conducted under the LIU project. For the proton chain, this includes the replacement of Linac2 with Linac4 as well as all necessary upgrades to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the Proton Synchrotron (PS) and Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), aimed at producing beams with the challenging High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) parameters. Regarding the heavy ions, plans to improve the performance of Linac3 and the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) are also pursued under the general LIU program. The full LHC injection chain returned to operation after Long Shutdown 1, with extended beam studies taking place in Run 2. A general project Cost and Schedule Review also took place in March 2015, and several dedicated LIU project reviews were held to address issues awaiting pending decisions. In view of these developments, 2014 and 2015 have been key years to define a number of important aspects of the final LIU path. This paper will describe the reviewed LI...

  17. A Goddess for semiotics of law and legal discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Broekman


    Full Text Available The work of the great American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914 becomes more and more appreciated beyond the boundaries of his pragmatism, a philosophical mainstream he founded in the early 20th century. This essay is inspired by five points of interest, all of which focus on law and legal discourse. Firstly, one should acknowledge that his proposal pertaining to a general theory of signs, which he called ‘semeiotics’ around 1860, leads to an untraditional and in-depth understanding of legal discourse: in essence, of law as a system of specific meanings and signs. Semiotics in general became a substantial part of his ‘evolutionary cosmology,’ an all-embracing approach to tackle classical and modern philosophical issues. Secondly, his anthropological intuition based on semiotics, (concentrated in the formula ‘man is a sign’ became important for our understanding of a human subject’s position in law, as author of a legal discourse as well as an individual subjected to law. Thirdly, the tensions between chance and continuity in legal discourse are of focal interest for the creation of legal meaning in law’s practices. Novelty, Peirce suggested in this context, occurs by the grace of chance rather than of continuity and fixed traditions. Fourthly, Roberta Kevelson (1931-1998 explored and expanded the field of legal semiotics on the basis of the works of Peirce. In doing so, she established an American tradition of legal semiotics distinct from a European tradition, which related more to linguists, psychologists and philosophers embracing structuralism. Fifthly, Tyche, the Ancient Goddess of fate and fortune, is because of Peirce’s references more at home in the US legal semiotic tradition. Her fame and influence reaches beyond law and became supported by recent archaeological discoveries, publications and exhibitions, which not only provide information about her background, but also underline her possible influence on

  18. Asteroids and Meteorites from Venus? Only the Earth Goddess Knows (United States)

    Dones, Henry; Zahnle, Kevin J.; Alvarellos, José L.


    No meteorites from Venus have been found; indeed, some find theirexistence unlikely because of the perceived difficulty of launchingrocks at speeds above 10 km/s and traversing the planet's 93 baratmosphere. [1] Nonetheless, we keep hope alive, since cosmochemistssay they can identify Cytherean meteorites, should candidates be found[2]. Gladman et al. [3] modeled the exchange of impact ejecta betweenthe terrestrial planets, but did not consider meteorites launched fromVenus in any detail. At the time of Gladman's work, no asteroids thatremained entirely within Earth's orbit were known. 14 suchEarth-interior objects with good orbits have now been discovered, andare known as Atiras, for the Pawnee goddess of the Earth. The largestknown member of the class is 163693 Atira, a binary whose componentshave diameters of approximately 4.8 and 1 km. Discovery of Atiras isvery incomplete because they can only be seen at small solarelongations [4]. Greenstreet et al. [5] modeled the orbitaldistribution of Atiras from main-belt asteroidal and cometary sourceregions, while Ribeiro et al. [6] mapped the stability region ofhypothetical Atiras and integrated the orbits of clones of 12 realAtiras for 1 million years. 97% of the clones survived for 1 Myrimpact with Venus was the most common fate of those that met theirends. We have performed orbital integrations of 1000 clones of each ofthe known Atiras, and of hypothetical ejecta that escape Venus afterasteroid impacts, for 10-100 Myr. The latter calculations usetechniques like those of Alvarellos et al. [7] and Zahnle et al. [8]for transfer amongst Jupiter's galilean satellites. Our goals are toestimate the fraction of Atiras that are ejecta launched from Venus,the time spent in space by hypothetical meteorites from Venus, and therate at which such meteorites strike the Earth.[1] Gilmore M., et al (2017). Space Sci. Rev. 212, 1511. [2] JourdanF., Eroglu E. (2017). MAPS 52, 884. [3] Gladman B.J., etal. (1996). Science 271, 1387. [4

  19. Inscribing the Female Body: Fuzzy Gender and Goddess in a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inscribing the Female Body: Fuzzy Gender and Goddess in a South Indian Saiva Marriage Myth. ... particular stream of Hinduism and the matrix of mythology within which she is installed, the paper unpacks how “female” has come ... well allow for an alternate, more plastic reading of marriage and motherhood, and of female.

  20. A Note on Liu-Iwamura's Dependent-Chance Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, R.; Tarim, S.A.; Hnich, B.; Prestwich, S.; Guren, C.


    Sometimes a complex stochastic decision system undertakes multiple tasks called events, and the decision-maker wishes to maximize the chance functions which are defined as the probabilities of satisfying these events. Originally introduced by Liu and Iwamura [B. Liu, K. Iwamura, Modelling stochastic

  1. a comparative study of some robust ridge and liu estimators

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    estimation techniques such as Ridge and Liu Estimators are preferable to Ordinary Least Square. On the other hand, when outliers exist in the data, robust estimators like M, MM, LTS and S. Estimators, are preferred. To handle these two problems jointly, the study combines the Ridge and Liu Estimators with Robust.

  2. Qi Liu - Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. QI LIU. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 34 Issue 2 April 2011 pp 183-189. Study of structural transformations and phases formation upon calcination of Zn–Ni–Al hydrotalcite nanosheets · Zhanshuang Li Yanchao Song Jun Wang Qi Liu Piaoping Yang ...

  3. The position of the individual gods and goddesses in various types of sources - with special reference to the female divinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else Mundal


    Full Text Available In the written sources the gods are arranged in a patriarchal family structure with Odin on the top. If we try to rank the gods in order of precedence on the basis of the number of instances in the toponymic material, Odin would be found a good way down the list. Generally, we should expect gods connected with the cult of fertility and the agricultural society to be overrepresented in the toponymic material in comparison with a god of war. If we consider our literary sources and ask which of the goddesses' names are most frequently used as basic words in kenningar for women, we see that many of the more "unknown" goddesses are very well represented in this material. In the toponymic material, it was the leading goddess who was considered to be the leading god's wife, but not necessarily. Both Frigg and Freyja belong to the type of fertility goddess.

  4. Liu Fang Yuan at The Huntington——An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (USA)Laurie Sowd


    Liu Fang Yuan is a classical Chinese Garden, the Garden of Flowing Fragrance, a most remarkable project in Huntington. This project was conceived by James Folsom. It is an international business venture, complex construction project, unique China-US collaboration, and center of cultural memory. Inspired by the centuries-old Chinese tradition of private gardens, Liu Fang Yuan combines the scenic beauty of nature with the expressiveness of literature to give deeper meaning to the landscape. True to the authentic nature of a Chinese garden, the design respects the site. It extends to adapting some of the traditional elements of Chinese garden design to meet local needs for seismic safety and wheelchair accessibility. Liu Fang Yuan is the only truly seasonal garden at the Huntington, emphasizing and symbolizing the progression of winter, spring, summer, and autumn. The visitor experiences more than the visual realm. The garden's name, Liu Fang Yuan, has bolh literal and symbolic meanings refer to the scent of flowers and trees, also echoes the name of famed Ming dynasty painter Li Liufang. Liu Fang Yuan is truly a microcosm of The Huntington, bringing together botany, art and literature in a garden that will serve as a place of cultural memory and center for education about one of the great humanities traditions of the world.

  5. A comparative study of some robust ridge and liu estimators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In multiple linear regression analysis, multicollinearity and outliers are two main problems. When multicollinearity exists, biased estimation techniques such as Ridge and Liu Estimators are preferable to Ordinary Least Square. On the other hand, when outliers exist in the data, robust estimators like M, MM, LTS and S ...

  6. The adaptive synchronization of fractional-order Liu chaotic system ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the chaos control and the synchronization of two fractional-order Liu chaotic systems with unknown parameters are studied. According to the Lyapunov stabilization theory and the adaptive control theorem, the adaptive control rule is obtained for the described error dynamic stabilization. Using the adaptive rule ...

  7. The adverse reaction of chitooligosaccharides in rats | Liu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adverse reaction of chitooligosaccharides in rats. A Liu, K Sun, C Si, Z Zhu, W Zhang. Abstract. In this study, hair removal effect after subcutaneous injection of chitooligosaccharides in mice was investigated. Different methods of observation of hair removal, tissue slices and detection of hematological parameters, like ...

  8. White goddess--the unspeakable name. An inquiry into Robert Graves' King Jesus. (United States)

    Nakano, N


    Robert Graves is a poet-mythographer, well-known in the U. K. and the U. S. A., but not in Japan despite his huge amount of poetic, mythographical, prose and critical works. Furthermore, even in the U. S. A. and the U. K., some people have been shunning him politely as a versatile iconoclast possessed of the White Goddess. In fact, it is not difficult to imagine that when King Jesus, a life story of Christ, was published, people were shocked at his extraordinary mythographical Christology derived from his enthusiasm towards the White Goddess Cult. In Christ he discovered the fragments of maternal doctrine as a new concept in opposition to the Apollonian theory of Judaism, but they seemed to be quite incomplete in the author's eyes lacking in something most essential in life, recognition of love and hatred discipline. This paper is an inquiry into how the author developed his own hermaneutics of Christ through his wide and thorough scholarship on mythology, history, the Bible and Celtic poetry.

  9. Electron beam dynamics in the LIU-30/250 accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakhrushin, Yu.P.; Kuznetsov, V.S.; Tikhomirov, A.S.


    Results of numerical simulation of coherent oscillations of electron beam in the LIU-30/250 accelerating system are presented. Transport systems both with continuous field and the discrete ones are considered. The following conclusions are made: amplitude of coherent oscillations inevitably grows in the real transport channel; the presence of correctors can lead to sufficient losses of beam pulse duration; discrete system is the optimal system for beam transport without sufficient losses. 7 refs.; 3 figs

  10. Feedback control strategies for the Liu chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Congxu; Chen Zhigang


    This Letter proposed three strategies of the dislocated feedback control, enhancing feedback control and speed feedback control of the Liu chaotic system to its unstable equilibrium points. It is found that the coefficients of enhancing feedback control and speed feedback control are smaller than those of ordinary feedback control, so, the complexity and cost of the system control are reduced. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are given, revealing the effectiveness of these strategies

  11. Retelling the Stories, Rewriting the Bildungsroman: Cecilia Manguerra Brainard's When the Rainbow Goddess Wept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Jane P. Abao


    Full Text Available The traditional Bildungsroman has been criticized for its androcentrism and its upholding of bourgeois values. This paper presents a reading of Cecilia Manguerra Brainard's novel When the Rainbow Goddess Wept as a reworking of the traditional (white European male Bildungsroman. The novel combines elements of both the female Bildungsroman and the ethnic American Bildungsroman to create a narrative of development that centers on its narrator Yvonne's "becoming Filipina." Intermingling talk stories, Filipino myths and legends, women's personal histories, and women's "alternative" narratives of war, the novel parallels Yvonne's personal development with the development of a collective Filipino "self." Yvonne's ongoing journey towards self-discovery through the recovery of both her personal and racial pasts thus functions as a metaphor for the Filipino nation's own process of rediscovery.

  12. Yhwh, the Goddess and Evil: Is 'monotheism' an adequate concept to describe the Hebrew Bible's discourses about the God of Israel?


    Römer, Thomas C.


    The concept of �monotheism� has become a matter of debate in Hebrew Bible scholarship. This article investigates whether the concept should still be used, starting with Second Isaiah, who in the early Persian period elaborated a discourse that presented Yhwh as the only god. Therefore he had to integrate into this deity functions traditionally attributed to goddesses and to demons or evil gods. However, this attempt did not succeed. The goddess, whose elimination is probably reflected in Zech...

  13. Motifs of Woman which Emphasise on the Fertility Goddesses in Elam Civilization (2700-640 BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyamak Alizadeh


    Full Text Available Woman, earth, moon, snake and cattle were considered as a symbol of fertility in ancient culture believes and each of these elements’ icons is found in the remaining texts from this period. Symbols of women are complex and have usually a twofold role. She is the virgin paradise queen and also rapacious and prostitutes. She has both the characteristics of pure spiritual guidance and also temptation. It is completely apparent that woman has a reproductive role. It is emphasized on reproductive organs of terra-cotta of goddesses that remains from the ancient times. Manufacturing practices, terra-cotta relevant to female and fertility and their comparison with civilization between two rivers were studied by some questions such as the circumstances of the process of evolution and development of terra-cotta in the respect of shape and concept. It is tried to consider the aspects and use the primary sources as far as possible. So, ritual applications, the method of Elamate thinking about woman and also social status of women in the foundations of Elamate thinking were determined.

  14. Necessary LIU studies in the injectors during 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumolo, G.; Bartosik, H.; Papaphilippou, Y.


    A significant fraction of the Machine Development (MD) time in the LHC injectors in 2011 was devoted to the study of the intensity limitations in the injectors (e.g. space charge effects in PS and SPS, electron cloud effects in the PS and SPS, single bunch and multi-bunch instabilities in PS and SPS, emittance preservation across the injector chain, etc.). The main results achieved in 2011 are presented as well as the questions that still remain unresolved and are of relevance for the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project. 2012 MD will also continue exploring the potential of scenarios that might become operational in the future, like the development of a low gamma transition optics in the SPS or alternative production schemes for the LHC beams in the PS. A tentative prioritized list of studies is provided. (authors)

  15. Necessary LIU studies in the injectors during 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G; Papaphilippou, Y


    A significant fraction of the Machine Development (MD) time in the LHC injectors in 2011 was devoted to the study of the intensity limitations in the injectors (e.g. space charge effects in PS and SPS, electron cloud effects in the PS and SPS, single bunch and multi-bunch instabilities in PS and SPS, emittance preservation across the injector chain, etc.). The main results achieved in 2011 will be presented as well as the questions that still remain unresolved and are of relevance for the LIU project. 2012 MDs will also continue exploring the potential of scenarios that might become operational in the future, like the development of a low gamma transition optics in the SPS or alternative production schemes for the LHC beams in the PS. A tentative prioritized list of studies is provided.

  16. Image and Role of the Queen Mother of the West in Han Grave Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present article is a detailed study of the image of an ancient Chinese goddess, The Queen Mother of the West, called Xiwangmu 西王母 in Chinese. In the mythological tradition, Xiwangmu is a goddess who possesses the elixir of immortality and dwells in the western paradise, on the magic mountain Kunlun 崑崙. While her image can be found in mural paintings, and on lacquered objects and bronze mirrors, it appears primarily in the form of relief images on the stones and bricks of grave chambers and temples in the Han (206 BCE–220 CE grave complexes. The literary tradition reveals a multifunctional role of the mother, with her many attributes developing in accordance with the changing values of social and mythological concepts. The article concludes with a detailed discussion of her image and role within the wider cosmological context of Han grave art.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Cruz-Castillo


    Full Text Available En un área tropical de altura se llevaron a cabo estudios sobre el alcatraz "Green Goddess". Las plantas, bajo un sombreado de 35 %, fueron colocadas en macetas con varios tipos de lombricomposta; pulpa de café + estiércol de bovino; pulpa de café + gallinaza + bagazo de caña. Otros tratamientos fueron pulpa de café + fertilizante químico (12-11-18-3 mg + Organozyma® (promotor natural de crecimiento. El área foliar, el número de tallos emergidos y la longitud del escapo floral fueron significativamente mayores en las plantas tratadas con lombricompostas en comparación con las manejadas con fertilizantes químicos y Organozyma®. Escapos florales expuestos a estos tratamientos fueron cosechados y colocados en recipientes con agua. Ningún tratamiento retardó significativamente el proceso de senescencia de los alcatraces. Utilizando un sensor de temperatura, fueron determinadas 1,717 horas calor a 7 oC, desde el establecimiento de plantas de 15 cm de longitud hasta la cosecha. Las temperaturas promedio mensuales máxima, mínima y media durante el crecimiento y desarrollo del cultivo fueron de 21.1 °C (octubre, 7.8 °C (diciembre y 16.6 °C (noviembre, respectivamente. También se estableció un índice de cosecha. Cuando la apertura de la espata del alcatraz "Green Goddess" fue suficiente para apreciar el espádice se tuvo una vida de poscosecha de 37 días sin detrimento de la calidad floral.

  18. The Meeting with Guanyin, the Goddess of Mercy: A Case Study of Syncretism in the Hmong System of Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao-Ly Yang


    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study is to shed light on the identity of the spirit of fertility called Lady Kaying –Niam Nkauj Kab Yeeb—, its religious origin and the general processes of borrowing her fromother cultures within the Hmong culture. Hmong popular beliefs pertaining to Kaying reveal that Kaying is in fact the Chinese Goddess of Mercy Guanyin. She was imported from MahayanaBuddhism by the Hmong people of China who had retained her roles of the “Bestower of Children", the “Guardian Angel” or the "Conductor of the Dead Children". An analysis of the process of borrowing of the Chinese deity into the Hmong pantheon shows that Lady Kaying overlaps with an ancient spirit, the “Ancestor Spirit of Fertility” or Niam Poj Dab Pog. This case study demonstrates that the processes of borrowing are selective, integrative and comprehensive: some traits or fragments were taken from Buddhism and incorporated into the Hmong beliefs through a superimposing of a Hmong pre-existing system of beliefs.

  19. Proof and Pedagogy in Ancient China: Examples from Liu Hui's Commentary on "JIU ZHANG SUAN SHU". (United States)

    Siu, Man-Keung


    Illustrates the pedagogical implications embodied in Liu Hui's discussion on the ancient Chinese mathematical classic "JIU ZHANG SUAN SHU" (Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art) with respect to aspects of proof and, more generally, the role of proof in mathematics. Provides examples involving area and volume. (Contains 25 references.)…

  20. Segmentation of Handwritten Chinese Character Strings Based on improved Algorithm Liu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Cai


    Full Text Available Algorithm Liu attracts high attention because of its high accuracy in segmentation of Japanese postal address. But the disadvantages, such as complexity and difficult implementation of algorithm, etc. have an adverse effect on its popularization and application. In this paper, the author applies the principles of algorithm Liu to handwritten Chinese character segmentation according to the characteristics of the handwritten Chinese characters, based on deeply study on algorithm Liu.In the same time, the author put forward the judgment criterion of Segmentation block classification and adhering mode of the handwritten Chinese characters.In the process of segmentation, text images are seen as the sequence made up of Connected Components (CCs, while the connected components are made up of several horizontal itinerary set of black pixels in image. The author determines whether these parts will be merged into segmentation through analyzing connected components. And then the author does image segmentation through adhering mode based on the analysis of outline edges. Finally cut the text images into character segmentation. Experimental results show that the improved Algorithm Liu obtains high segmentation accuracy and produces a satisfactory segmentation result.

  1. Chasing the Ghost of Melesina Trench: A film by Qina Liu in collaboration with Katharine Kittredge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Kittredge


    Full Text Available Filmmaker Qina Liu has created a short documentary about Katharine Kittredge's decade-long quest to learn about the life and work of Anglo-Irish diarist and poet Melesina Trench. The story tells of remarkable coincidences, documents lost and found, and the emergence of Trench's descendants in the project's final chapter.

  2. Beyond description. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu (United States)

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, R.


    In their historical overview, Cong & Liu highlight Sausurre as the father of modern linguistics [1]. They apparently miss G.K. Zipf as a pioneer of the view of language as a complex system. His idea of a balance between unification and diversification forces in the organization of natural systems, e.g., vocabularies [2], can be seen as a precursor of the view of complexity as a balance between order (unification) and disorder (diversification) near the edge of chaos [3]. Although not mentioned by Cong & Liu somewhere else, trade-offs between hearer and speaker needs are very important in Zipf's view, which has inspired research on the optimal networks mapping words into meanings [4-6]. Quantitative linguists regard G.K. Zipf as the funder of modern quantitative linguistics [7], a discipline where statistics plays a central role as in network science. Interestingly, that centrality of statistics is missing Saussure's work and that of many of his successors.

  3. Venus, the goddess of fertility, numerologically 15 in Babylon and the origin of the Chinese system of 8 designs, called Pa-Kua. (United States)

    Mahdihassan, S


    In Babylonia, numerology was invented and Venus, as the goddess of fertility, was first depicted as a 6-cornered star. But, numerologically she was designated 15. As a 6-cornered star, its make-up shows two opposite triangles interpenetrated. This was changed to two squares fused into one where geometrically the shape became a square. It created 9 cells which were so numbered that the numbers counted in any row gave the sum 15. Venus thus became a Magic Square of 15. Geometrically it was a Magic Square, but numerologically it was 15. In the make-up the squares were two and opposites. As goddess of fertility she especially helped the pregnant to an easy delivery. Some 8 variants of the Magic Square, with different arrangements of numbers, represented 4 cosmic elements and 4 cosmic qualities. The Magic Squares, which represented elements, had the numbers 1, 3, 5 and 8 near one another forming a miniature square by themselves. A Magic Square representing a quality did not have the numbers 1, 3, 5 and 8, as a consolidated unit. This explains the importance of the numbers 1, 3, 5 and 8, a mystery which had remained unsolved. Venus was also the star of copper. When copper technology migrated from Babylon to China, the occult science associated with Venus also reached China. Here the 8 Magic Squares were translated into a system of whole and broken lines, called Pa-Kua, meaning 8 designs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Yhwh, the Goddess and Evil: Is 'monotheism' an adequate concept to describe the Hebrew Bible's discourses about the God of Israel?

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    Thomas C. R�mer


    Full Text Available The concept of �monotheism� has become a matter of debate in Hebrew Bible scholarship. This article investigates whether the concept should still be used, starting with Second Isaiah, who in the early Persian period elaborated a discourse that presented Yhwh as the only god. Therefore he had to integrate into this deity functions traditionally attributed to goddesses and to demons or evil gods. However, this attempt did not succeed. The goddess, whose elimination is probably reflected in Zechariah 5, returned in a certain way through the personification of Wisdom in Proverbs 8, and the �dark sides� of the gods were materialised in the figure of Satan, who experienced an impressive career in the following centuries. The question of evil is not resolved in the Hebrew Bible. Some texts admit the autonomy of evil, whereas Isaiah 45 claims that Yhwh himself is at the origin of evil. This diversity makes it difficult to characterise the Hebrew Bible as the result of a straightforward evolution from polytheism to monotheism.

  5. Sea Goddesses of Orissa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Mar_Archaeol_1_55.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Mar_Archaeol_1_55.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. Ways for improvement of the LIU-5/5000 linear induction accelerator parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobylev, V.I.; Kapchinskij, I.M.; Lapitskij, Yu.Ya.; Plotnikov, V.K.; Chuvilo, I.V.


    The reasons of limitaions to increase the beam current and improve the quality of beam in the electron linear induction accelerator LIU-5/5000 are studied. The necessity to increase the voltage in the gaps of the electron gun, increase the diameter of the cathode and aperture of the drift tube, accuracy of axial symmetry electron gun current-carrying elements and accuracy of gun fabrication are shown. Stabilization of beam parameters require a new high voltage modulators. Different versions of the linac modernization with the use of transformers with cores of 430 and 600 mm are studied. Technical possibilities at several versions of high voltage modulators are discussed

  7. Verification of the IVA4 film boiling model with the data base of Liu and Theofanous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, N.I. [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany)


    Part 1 of this work presents a closed analytical solution for mixed-convection film boiling on vertical walls. Heat transfer coefficients predicted by the proposed model and experimental data obtained at the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden by Okkonen et al are compared. All data predicted are inside the {+-}10% error band, with mean averaged error being below 4% using the slightly modified analytical solution. The solution obtained is recommended for practical applications. The method presented here is used in Part 2 as a guideline for developing model for film boiling on spheres. The new semi-empirical film boiling model for spheres used in IVA4 computer code is compared with the experimental data base obtained by Liu and Theofanous. The data are predicted within {+-}30% error band. (author)

  8. Multichannel computerized control system of current pulses in LIU-30 electron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Gerasimov, A I; Kulgavchuk, V V; Pluzhnikov, A V


    In LIU-30 power linear pulsed induction electron accelerator (40 MeV, 10 kA, 25 ns) 288 radial lines with water insulation serve as energy accumulators and shapers of accelerating voltage pulses. The lines are charged simultaneously up to 500 kV using a system comprising 72 Arkadiev-Marx screened generators. To control parameter of synchronous pulses of charging current with up to 60 kA amplitude and 0.85 mu s duration in every of 72 charging circuits one applies a computer-aided system. Current pulse is recorded at output of every generator using the Rogowski coil signal from which via a cable line is transmitted to an analog-digital converter, is processed with 50 ns sampling and is recorded to a memory unit. Upon actuation of accelerator the signals are sequentially or selectively displayed and are compared with pulse typical shape

  9. Results of adjustment of electron source for the LIU-30 accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, A.V.; Kladnitskij, V.S.; Platonov, S.L.; Shvets, V.A.


    A new design of an electron source (electron gun) for the LIU-30 accelerator is described. Unlike the earlier used ones it has been made as a separate unit connected via a special adapter with increasing pulsed 300 kW transformer constructed on the base of an accelerating section. Ferromagnetic screen of a special shape and antisolenoid placed behind the cathode in a hollow of an oil-filled insulator and switched on antiparallely to the main focusing solenoid permit to diminish the gun emittance by 10-15%due to zero magnetic field in the cathode region. Various electron-optical systems were tested and that one based on the Pierse gun in which the anode orifice was covered with a wire gauze with 2.5 mm cell was chosen. 3 refs.; 1 fig

  10. Injection septa position and angle optimisation in view of the 2 GeV liu upgrade of the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Serluca, HM; Forte, V; Fraser, M; Sterbini, G


    In the framework of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU)project the CERN PS injection kinetic energy will be up-graded from 1.4 to 2 GeV. The injection equipment, whichis already operating close to its limit, is being redesigned tocope with 30% increase in the beam rigidity. In this paper wepresent the experimental results from Machine Development(MD) studies on the present septum to explore its operationalhardware limits with respect to aperture restrictions, beamlosses and kick strengths in view of the LIU upgrade

  11. An interview with Margaret A Liu: the future of gene-based vaccines and immunotherapies, and other musings. (United States)

    Liu, Margaret A; Rees, Jenaid


    Interview by Jenaid Rees, commissioning editor. Margaret A Liu is best known for her pioneering work in the area of DNA vaccines. A world renowned scientist, Liu was named one of 'The 50 Most Important Women Scientists' by Discover magazine in 2002. Liu obtained her M.D. from Harvard Medical School, and has held positions at numerous institutions including Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Pennsylvania, UCSF, and the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm. In her career she has served as Senior Advisor in Vaccinology at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Executive Vice-Chair of the International Vaccine Institute in Seoul, Korea and worked for companies including Merck, Transgène and Chiron Corporation. Her research achievements have led to her receipt of honorary lectureships, and she has held many board positions throughout her career. Liu currently consults in the fields of vaccines and immunotherapy for companies, universities, and non-governmental and governmental scientific organizations, and is a Foreign Adjunct Professor at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, and an Adjunct Professor at the University of California, San Francisco.

  12. In Pursuit of Professionalism in the Field of Chemistry Education in China: The Story of Zhixin Liu (United States)

    Wei, Bing


    In China, science educators as a professional group were originally referred to as academic staff responsible for teaching the subject-based science teaching methods course at the related science departments at teachers' universities. In this study, a biographic method was used to approach the professional life of Zhixin Liu, who was a senior…

  13. In Pursuit of Professionalism in the Field of Chemistry Education in China: The Story of Zhixin Liu (United States)

    Wei, Bing


    In China, science educators as a professional group were originally referred to as academic staff responsible for teaching the subject-based science teaching methods course at the related science departments at teachers' universities. In this study, a biographic method was used to approach the professional life of Zhixin Liu, who was a senior science educator at the Department of Chemistry at Beijing Normal University, to reveal how he has become a professional science educator and what influences he has brought about to the chemistry education community over the past half a century in China. The main findings of this study were the two roles played by Liu in the enterprise of chemistry education in China: as an agent to disseminate national curriculum policies and as a scholar to construct the Chinese theories of chemistry teaching. Results show that the two roles were intertwined during the whole professional life of Liu. The implications of Liu's life story for dealing with the relationships between policy and practice and between theory and practice in the field of science education are discussed.

  14. Dr Liu Yanhua, Deputy Minister of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, People's Republic of China

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez


    China and CERN renew co-operation agreement for a further five years. During a visit to CERN on 17 February, Liu Yanhua, the vice-minister of science and technology of the People's Republic of China, signed a new co-operation agreement with the laboratory.

  15. Geomagnetic displacement of the electron beam in the LIU-30 accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakityanskij, S.A.


    An influence of weak lateral magnetic field upon the motion of the intense electron beam inside a linear cylindrical vacuum channel is numerically explored. The problem is solved in the framework of a simple model with a thread-like beam. It also takes into account the charge and current of the image, induced in conducting surface of the vacuum tube. The dependence of the beam displacement from axis, caused by the lateral magnetic field, on the energy and on the degree of nonuniformity of the longitudinal focusing field is explored. A calculation of the beam displacement for the LIU-30 accelerating structure is performed. It is shown by this example that the earth magnetic field may cause a significant displacement. It is also shown that a smoothing away of the longitudinal field nonuniformities reduces the displacement by some times. A conclusion about advisability of orientation of the short accelerators along the geomagnetic lines and about indispensability of a removal of geomagnetic field in beginning parts of the long mashines is made

  16. The Living Goddess of Mercy at the Rape of Nanking: Minnie Vautrin and the Ginling Refugee Camp in World War II (1937–1938 †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ping Guo


    Full Text Available During the infamous Nanking Atrocity, some Western businesspersons and missionaries established the Nanking Safety Zone to protect about 250,000 refugees. When the Japanese army was pressing on Nanking, Minnie Vautrin, an educational missionary from the United Christian Missionary Society, took charge of the Ginling College campus. As one of the 25 refugee camps, Ginling provided shelter to about 10,000 women and children in late December 1937—the hardest time during World War II in China. With her neutral identity of American nationality, Vautrin seriously struggled with Japanese soldiers when they were seizing Chinese women for rape from the campus; thus, she helped many women avoid the possible fate of sexual violence and slaughter. The Chinese people promoted her as a “Goddess of Mercy”, in the Chinese language a “Living Buddha” (Huo pu sa or “Guanyin Buddha” (Guan Yin pu sa. The Chinese central government awarded her the Order of Jade (Cai Yu xun zhang. Drawing from Vautrin’s diaries and other original materials, this paper narrates this Christian female missionary’s moving story in humanism, evangelism, and internationalism. Her devotion to the Chinese refugee women and children made her an eyewitness to the Nanking Massacre, a rehabilitator of refugee sufferings, and a mental and bodily victim of disastrous war.

  17. The White goddess, Ariadne and myth of the poetic self: The role of myth in forming creative-destructive relation Ted Hughes - Sylvia Plath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mušović Azra A.


    Full Text Available Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath were husband and wife; they were also two of the most remarkable poets of the twentieth century. Both Hughes and Plath were fond of mythic language - their attempts to find meaning in painful events of life took the form of a journey through myth. Just as Song contains a founding image in the work of Ted Hughes, Ariadne can be identified as a founding image in the work of Sylvia Plath. Both of these poems employ mythic language to identify the emotional pattern of each poet's creative stance toward the distinctive subject matter his or her art will seize on. Since Plath was, indeed, the form taken by the White Goddess in Hughes's life, it had been her destiny to inflict devastation on Hughes, as well as release his creative energy. These were the two aspects of her gift, as Robert Graves defined it: creativity and destruction. This paper is concerned with presenting an up-close look at a couple who saw each other as the means to becoming who they wanted to be: writers and mythic figures representing their generation.

  18. On a model of mixtures with internal variables: Extended Liu procedure for the exploitation of the entropy principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Oliveri


    Full Text Available The exploitation of second law of thermodynamics for a mixture of two fluids with a scalar internal variable and a first order nonlocal state space is achieved by using the extended Liu approach. This method requires to insert as constraints in the entropy inequality either the field equations or their gradient extensions. Consequently, the thermodynamic restrictions imposed by the entropy principle are derived without introducing extra terms neither in the energy balance equation nor in the entropy inequality.

  19. Liu Tungsheng: A geologist from a traditional Chinese cultural background who became an international star of science (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhong; Guan, Li; Liu, Qiang


    Liu Tungsheng (1917-2008) resumed his scientific career and became actively involved on the international stage in the field of Quaternary Sciences after 1982, at the age of 65, following Deng Xiaoping's 'Reform and Open Up' policy, after his first international publication of China loess research published in 1950s. Though his best known contribution to Quaternary research is his pioneering study of the extensive loess deposits of China, several other important scientific contributions are less widely known, as they were published in Chinese. By studying about 400 well-preserved fieldwork notebooks left by Liu Tungsheng, as well as many biographical and personal photographic collections, we have mapped his remarkable life during his 91-year journey and the contributions to geoscience. From a historical point of view, Liu Tungsheng created a unique chapter in the history of modern geological science in China in his role as a geologist emerging from a traditional Chinese cultural background who became a star on the international scientific stage.

  20. Distributed approximating functional fit of the H3 ab initio potential-energy data of Liu and Siegbahn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishman, A.; Hoffman, D.K.; Kouri, D.J.


    We report a distributed approximating functional (DAF) fit of the ab initio potential-energy data of Liu [J. Chem. Phys. 58, 1925 (1973)] and Siegbahn and Liu [ibid. 68, 2457 (1978)]. The DAF-fit procedure is based on a variational principle, and is systematic and general. Only two adjustable parameters occur in the DAF leading to a fit which is both accurate (to the level inherent in the input data; RMS error of 0.2765 kcal/mol) and smooth (open-quotes well-tempered,close quotes in DAF terminology). In addition, the LSTH surface of Truhlar and Horowitz based on this same data [J. Chem. Phys. 68, 2466 (1978)] is itself approximated using only the values of the LSTH surface on the same grid coordinate points as the ab initio data, and the same DAF parameters. The purpose of this exercise is to demonstrate that the DAF delivers a well-tempered approximation to a known function that closely mimics the true potential-energy surface. As is to be expected, since there is only roundoff error present in the LSTH input data, even more significant figures of fitting accuracy are obtained. The RMS error of the DAF fit, of the LSTH surface at the input points, is 0.0274 kcal/mol, and a smooth fit, accurate to better than 1cm -1 , can be obtained using more than 287 input data points. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  1. Ajubaba: Shakespeare and Yoruba Goddess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekan Balogun


    Full Text Available Yoruba belief system has conceptualized the place and power of women, long before Feminist fervour swept through the European world and beyond. In his oeuvre, Shakespeare also inadvertently alluded to this “power” of the feminine by recognizing that the combination of womanhood, motherhood and the female principle can, and do have significant influence on the individual’s destiny. In conceptualizing this female power, descriptive phrases such as “aje”, “atunnida” “iyami osoronga”, “iyami ajubaba” are used by the Yoruba, who fear, respect and loathe these powers one and the same time. By creating unforgettable characters who are “not modified by the customs of particular places, or by the accidents of transient fashions or temporary opinions” (Johnson,1931, Shakespeare’s “women” are, through oral texts from Ifa, the Yoruba “system of divination, which also offers humans the possibility of knowing”(Fatunmbi,1994 examined, in order to show the relationship between literature and religion, how drama can effectively be utilized as a cultural material of universal appeal and how beliefs separated by time and clime interconnect, particularly in relation to the Yoruba world and Shakespeare’s Elizabethan/Jacobean society.

  2. Introduction to the special issue of "Loess and Climatic Record": Memory of Professor Liu Tungsheng for his scientific contributions and his centenary birthday (United States)

    Ding, Zhongli; Derbyshire, Edward; Sun, Jimin


    This special issue is to memory Professor Liu Tungsheng for his scientific contributions and his centenary birthday. Liu Tungsheng was the former President of the International Association for Quaternary Association (INQUA), and the Honorary President of the Chinese Association for Quaternary Research (CHIQUA). Liu's best known contribution to Quaternary research is his pioneering and systematic study of the extensive loess deposits of China, which has been regarded as the best terrestrial paleoclimatic archive on the Earth. He won many international awards including the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement in 2002 and the Alexander von Humboldt Medal in 2007. He was an inspiring leader, one of China's, and indeed one of the world's most outstanding Earth scientists. This introduction aims to explore the personal factors behind his great achievements and reviews the papers included in this special issue from his colleagues, friends, and students.

  3. Mother Trouble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Pollock


    Full Text Available In the late 1980s a practising painter who is also a practising psychoanalyst reflected upon the significance of events occurring in her painting and being reflected upon in her notebooks to evolve a major theoretical intervention in psychoanalytical thinking at the intersections of British Object Relations (Bion, Laing, Winnicott in which she was trained at the Tavistock and Parisian Lacanian and post Lacanian thinking (Laplanche, Guattari, Aulagnier, Dolto.  Supplementing the  then dominant understanding of Lacan's phallic Symbolic,  defined by the sovereignty of the phallus as the sole signifier, Bracha Ettinger proposed a further symbol, the Matrix and its non-phallic, non-Oedipal process, metramorphosis.  The matrixial enables us to catch up into theoretical knowledge another, shifting but not excluding dimension of  subjectivity that is the effect , on all subjects, irrespective of later, Oedipalised gender or sexuality, of the  feminine sexual specificity of human generation in the non-prohibited intimacy of the feminine-becoming-maternal-in co-emergence-with an-unknown-becoming-partial-other.  Moving beyond the theoretical engagements of object relations with early mother-child, hence post-natal relations between subjects, hence beyond intersubjectivity, Ettinger has been exploring, for almost two decades, the implications for theories of subjectivity and hence for ethics and even the politics of our multiple moments of transsubjective co-affections and co-effects, of the proposition that the feminine, understood as this sexual specificity of the severality of mutual co-effecting becoming of life, has something profound to offer our understanding of the human, its ethics, aesthetics and even politics.  Daring to theorize the gift to later subjectivities of the prolonged encounter-event between pre-natality and pre-maternity, Ettinger has contributed to debates about the maternal, the feminine and human subjectivity in general. In

  4. Lone mothers in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S


    To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....

  5. Mothers: The Unacknowledged Victims. (United States)

    Patterson, G.R.


    Used coercion theory to investigate aversive mother- child interactions. Literature indicated younger children produced higher rates of aversive interactions with their mothers. Mothers' role satisfaction varied as a function of such rates. Observation data showed mothers of aggressive children encountered higher rates of aversive interactions…

  6. Planned experiments and corpus based research play a complementary role. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al. (United States)

    Vasishth, Shravan


    This interesting and informative review by Liu and colleagues [17] in this issue covers the full spectrum of research on the idea that in natural language, dependency distance tends to be small. The authors discuss two distinct research threads: experimental work from psycholinguistics on online processes in comprehension and production, and text-corpus studies of dependency length distributions.

  7. [Mining analysis and experience summary for chronic atrophic gastritis cases treated by Professor LIU Feng-bin]. (United States)

    Hou, Zheng-kun; Liu, Feng-bin; Li, Pei-wu; Zhuang, Kun-hai


    To summarize Professor LIU Feng-bin's clinical experience and theoretical thoughts on chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), the study group designed a retrospective study on his case series and expert interview. First of all, the data of CAG patients treated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine between 2009 and 2013, e. g. herbs, diseases, syndrome type, prescription amount and number of herbs, was collected and processed. The statistical description and binary logistic regression were used to determined the syndrome type, initial basic remedy and modification. During the statistics, a complete and sub-group analysis was performed simultaneously. After the expert interview, the syndrome type and medication were finalized. As a result, a total of 228 CAG patients aged at (50.30 ± 10.18) were collected, including 151 males (66.23%). Of them, the TCM diagnosis and syndrome type were extracted from the information of 157 patients, including 115 cases with gastric stuffiness, 23 cases with gastric pain, 19 missing cases, 2 cases with spleen-stomach weakness syndrome, 57 cases with spleen deficiency and dampness-heat syndrome, 18 cases with spleen-stomach disharmony syndrome, 23 cases with syndrome of liver depression syndrome, 21 cases with liver qi invading stomach syndrome and 26 qi and yin deficiency syndrome, respectively. All of the 228 patients used totally 104 herbs, while the subgroups with 157 patients used 94 herbs. The most frequently used 15 herbs used in each groups were analyzed to determine the initial basic remedy and modification. Subsequently, based on the information of the sub-groups with 157 patients, with the syndrome type as the dependent variable, the logistic regression analysis was made on the most frequently used 32 herbs, in order to determined the modification in herbs for different syndrome types. After experts reviewed and modified, they believed the main causes of CAG were dietary irregularities

  8. Liu Jun Zi Tang—A Potential, Multi-Herbal Complementary Therapy for Chemotherapy-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Tang Chiou


    Full Text Available Liu Jun Zi Tang (LJZT has been used to treat functional dyspepsia and depression, suggesting its effects on gastrointestinal and neurological functions. LJZT is currently used as a complementary therapy to attenuate cisplatin-induced side effects, such as dyspepsia. However, its effect on chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain or neurotoxicity has rarely been studied. Thus, we explored potential mechanisms underlying LJZT protection against cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. We observed that LJZT attenuated cisplatin-induced thermal hyperalgesia in mice and apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, it also attenuated cisplatin-induced cytosolic and mitochondrial free radical formation, reversed the cisplatin-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased the release of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic factors. LJZT not only activated the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α promoter region, but also attenuated the cisplatin-induced reduction of PGC-1α expression. Silencing of the PGC-1α gene counteracted the protection of LJZT. Taken together, LJZT mediated, through anti-oxidative effect and mitochondrial function regulation, to prevent cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity.

  9. In Vivo Fast Induction of Homogeneous Autopolyploids via Callus in Sour Jujube (Ziziphus acidojujuba Cheng et Liu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Shi


    Full Text Available Polyploidization has been demonstrated as a very effective approach in fruit tree improvement. Sour jujube (Ziziphus acidojujuba Cheng et Liu is a promising diploid wild, traditional fruit species (2n = 2x = 24 that is rich in vitamin C, which is the main rootstock of Chinese jujube (Z. jujuba Mill.. The novel method we developed for rapid in vivo induction of homogeneous autopolyploids (IVIHA via callus in Chinese jujube was first applied and further optimized in sour jujube. Under optimized conditions, an average of one pure autotetraploid shoot could be regenerated from one treated branch, thereby indicating a relatively high efficiency rate. A total of 9 pure autotetraploid genotypes were created, and one of these was released as a new cultivar named ‘Zhuguang’ in 2015. Moreover, unexpected octoploids and hexaploids were also simultaneously created and detected. The leaves of tetraploids were thicker, broader, and darker in color than those of the original diploids, whereas the leaf sizes of octoploids were much smaller compared to that of diploids. However, stoma size increased with the occurrence of ploidy, mainly from diploid to octoploid. The well grown ploidies of jujube included diploids, triploids, and tetraploids. Anatomical observation indicated that adventitious buds/shoots emerged from the callus that formed on the cut, which was then followed by the development of connective vascular tissues between the adventitious bud and the stock plant tissue. This study demonstrates the universality of the IVIHA method that was initially developed in Chinese jujube, as well as provides a foundation for high-efficiency pure polyploid induction in sour jujube.

  10. Amygdala Response to Mother (United States)

    Tottenham, Nim; Shapiro, Mor; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.


    In altricial species, like the human, the caregiver, very often the mother, is one of the most potent stimuli during development. The distinction between mothers and other adults is learned early in life and results in numerous behaviors in the child, most notably mother-approach and stranger wariness. The current study examined the influence of…

  11. Data mining analysis of Professor Liu Shangyi’s prescription characteristics in clinical medicine for the treatment of cancer patients with stomachache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qi Huang


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze National Chinese Medicine Master Liu Shangyi’s prescription characteristics of clinical medicine for the treatment of cancer patients with stomachache. Methods: Data on prescriptions for cancer patients with stomachache between January 2014 and July 2016 were collected. The composing principles were analyzed by unsupervised data mining methods including Apriori algorithm in association rules and complex system entropy cluster. Results: Based on the analysis of 120 prescriptions, the frequency of each herb and association rules among the herbs were computed. Four core combinations and two new prescriptions were mined from the database. Compared to the before treatment, the clinical symptomatic grading of stomachache after treatment was lower (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Professor Liu has been successful in the treatment of cancer patients with stomachache by prescribing medication that aids in activating blood circulation, removing dampness, and alleviating pain.

  12. [Study on an outbreak of echovirus type 6 of meningitis in Liu'an city, Anhui province]. (United States)

    He, Shu-Chun; Xiong, Chuan-Long; Wu, Jia-Bing; Peng, Da-Yuan; Zhao, Yue-Ping


    To understand the epidemiological, clinical and etiological characteristics of an Echovirus type 6 meningitis outbreak in Jinzhai county, Liu'an city in Anhui, and to find out the proper way in controlling the aseptic meningitis outbreak. A surveillance system for aseptic meningitis was established in Jinzhai to confirm the case definition. Stool or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from some cases were collected for entero-viruses isolation and identification. Case-control study was conducted. The case group involved patients while the controls would include: patients' classmate with same gender and the age difference was not over one year. Neutralization antibody in serum specimens were collected and tested in cases and in healthy people. 105 cases were distributed in 17 of the 30 towns in Jinzhai county while 41.0% of the cases were in Banzhuyuan town with an incidence rate of 203/10(5). Cases were clustered by school and classroom with age ranging from 3 to 15 years old and the highest as 10.9/10(5) in the 6 to 10 group. The incidence in males was 24.2/10(5) compared to 8.4/10(5) in females. The main clinic characteristics of cases were: fever, headache and vomiting. Echovirus type 6 from 25 of the 72 CSF samples (35%) was isolated. When comparing the cases group with control group, the OR of drinking home-made beverages was 4.1 (95% CI: 1.4-12.0), especially the beverages sacked by plastic bag: 3.3 (95% CI: 1.3-8.8). 6 out of 7 workers engaging in producing home-made beverages were detected to have carried Echovirus type 6 from their stool specimens. The Echovirus type 6 neutralization antibody positive rate in cases (73.5%) was significantly higher than that in 100 healthy people (46.0%) (X2 = 12. 526, P = 0.000). This episode of meningitis outbreak was caused by Echovirus type 6. The proportion of drinking home-made beverages, especially the beverages sacked by plastic bag in cases group was higher than in control group.

  13. Children of imprisoned mothers. (United States)

    Senanayake, M P; Arachchi, J K; Wickremasinghe, V P


    To describe the problems faced by children during separation from their imprisoned mothers, and evaluate the health of children who accompanied their mothers into prison. A prospective observational study. Welikada Prison, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 200 randomly selected mothers who had left their children at home were interviewed using a questionnaire. During a period of 8 months 30 children living with their mothers in prison underwent physical and developmental examination and tuberculin testing. The living conditions within the prison were evaluated. During 18 months from January 1999, 4089 women were imprisoned. 88% were remanded, 20% awaited trial for more than one year in prison. 2416 were mothers. 1411 had at least one child under 12 years of age. The 200 mothers interviewed had 262 children under 12 years at home. Their care arrangements were: a relative (69%), father (16%), older sibling (4%), religious organisation (2.7%), neighbour (1.3%). None had received social services support. 70 children accompanied mothers into prison. In the 30 children followed up regularly 23% had scabies, 10% pediculosis, and 7% impetigo. No severe malnutrition was found and screening for tuberculosis was negative. 70% were breastfed. The child-friendly dormitory was inadequate to accommodate all children. Care arrangements and schooling were affected and no counselling services were provided during the imprisoned mothers' absence. The children within the prison enjoyed close bonds with the mothers and their physical needs were met. The child's best interest had not always been considered by court when deciding on custody during the mothers' imprisonment.

  14. 25 November 2008 - State Councilor in charge of Science, Technology and Education Y. Liu, People's Repblic of China, visiting AMS experiment with CERN Director-General R. Aymar and AMS Collaborator Y. Yang.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    25 November 2008 - State Councilor in charge of Science, Technology and Education Y. Liu, People's Repblic of China, visiting AMS experiment with CERN Director-General R. Aymar and AMS Collaborator Y. Yang.

  15. Temporal Courses in EEG Theta and Alpha Activity in the Dynamic Health Qigong Techniques Wu Qin Xi and Liu Zi Jue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Henz


    Full Text Available Health Qigong is a common technique of Traditional Chinese Medicine applied to strengthen mental and physical health. Several studies report increases in EEG theta and alpha activity after meditative Qigong techniques indicating a relaxed state of mind. To date, little is known on the effects of dynamic Health Qigong techniques that comprise bodily movements on brain activity. In the current study, we compared effects of two dynamic Health Qigong techniques on EEG brain activity. Subjects performed the techniques Wu Qin Xi (five animals play and Liu Zi Jue (six healing sounds in a within-subjects design. Eyes-open and eyes-closed resting EEG was recorded before and immediately after each 15-min practice block. Additionally, the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire was administered at pretest, and after each 15-min practice block. Results show a decrease in alpha activity after 15 min, followed by an increase after 30 min in the Health Qigong technique Liu Zi Jue. Theta activity was decreased after 15 min, followed by an increase after 30 min in the technique Wu Qin Xi. Results of the POMS indicated an increased vigor-activity level with decreased fatigue and tension-anxiety levels in both techniques after 30 min of practice. Our results demonstrate different temporal dynamics in EEG theta and alpha activity for the Health Qigong techniques Wu Qin Xi and Liu Zi Jue. We hypothesize that the found brain activation patterns result from different attentional focusing styles and breathing techniques performed during the investigated Health Qigong techniques.

  16. Dependency distance in language evolution. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al. (United States)

    Liu, Bingli; Chen, Xinying


    In the target article [1], Liu et al. provide an informative introduction to the dependency distance studies and proclaim that language syntactic patterns, that relate to the dependency distance, are associated with human cognitive mechanisms, such as limited working memory and syntax processing. Therefore, such syntactic patterns are probably 'human-driven' language universals. Sufficient evidence based on big data analysis is also given in the article for supporting this idea. The hypotheses generally seem very convincing yet still need further tests from various perspectives. Diachronic linguistic study based on authentic language data, on our opinion, can be one of those 'further tests'.

  17. On the relation between dependency distance, crossing dependencies, and parsing. Comment on "Dependency distance: a new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al. (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Carlos


    Liu et al. [1] provide a comprehensive account of research on dependency distance in human languages. While the article is a very rich and useful report on this complex subject, here I will expand on a few specific issues where research in computational linguistics (specifically natural language processing) can inform DDM research, and vice versa. These aspects have not been explored much in [1] or elsewhere, probably due to the little overlap between both research communities, but they may provide interesting insights for improving our understanding of the evolution of human languages, the mechanisms by which the brain processes and understands language, and the construction of effective computer systems to achieve this goal.

  18. Teen Mothers' Mental Health. (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia


    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  19. Feasibility Study of the PS Injection for 2 GeV LIU Beams with an Upgraded KFA-45 Injection Kicker System Operating in Short Circuit Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas; Borburgh, Jan; Ducimetière, Laurent; Feliciano, Luis; Ferrero Colomo, Alvaro; Goddard, Brennan; Sermeus, Luc


    Under the scope of the LIU project the CERN PS Booster to PS beam transfer will be modified to match the requirements for the future 2 GeV beams. This paper describes the evaluation of the proposed upgrade of the PS injection kicker. Different schemes of an injection for LIU beams into the PS have been outlined in the past already under the aspect of individual transfer kicker rise and fall time performances. Homogeneous rise and fall time requirements in the whole PSB to PS transfer chain have been established which allowed to consider an upgrade option of the present injection kicker system operated in short circuit mode. The challenging pulse quality constraints require an improvement of the flat top and post pulse ripples. Both operation modes, terminated and short circuit mode are analysed and analogue circuit simulations for the present and upgraded system are outlined. Recent measurements on the installed kickers are presented and analysed together with the simulation data. First measurements verifying...

  20. Welcome Address by H. Liu [4. International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Sustaining Improvements Globally, Vienna (Austria), 11-15 April 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.


    In his opening remarks, Mr. Liu Hua, the President of the conference, noted that the presence of so many attendees at the conference indicated a high level of interest in effective nuclear regulation. He added that effective regulatory systems are very important in maintaining and improving global nuclear safety, and that the first conference on this topic, held ten years ago, created a valuable platform for achieving that goal. In the intervening decade, through the conferences held in Moscow, Cape Town, Ottawa and Vienna, the importance of effective regulation has become more widely recognized and key elements, including independence, transparency, openness, competence and wider international cooperation, have been identified. Mr. Liu Hua pointed to specific actions proposed for governments, regulatory bodies and stakeholders, and highlighted that many of the actions had already achieved fruitful outcomes. He also noted that many lessons had been learned and many improvements had been made in the light of the Fukushima Daiichi accident: 1. To further improve government infrastructure; 2. To further improve nuclear safety standards; 3. To further develop regulation capacity building and human resource; 4. To further enhance knowledge and experience management and transition, 5. To further foster and strengthen nuclear safety culture; 6. To further improve and rebuild public confidence

  1. Reintegration of young mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Worthen


    Full Text Available Young mothers seeking reintegration after periods of time spent livingwith fighting forces and armed groups face exclusion and stigmarather than the support they and their children badly need.

  2. Teaching and Mother Love. (United States)

    Klein, J. Theodore


    The teaching context is analogous to the context of maternal practice, reflecting the nature of the relationship between adult and child; and as such, the appropriate practice of mother love is seen as an ideal for teaching. (IAH)

  3. Mothers with intellectual disabilities


    Kolarič, Sandra


    For the theoretical part of this master's thesis foreign literature and finished foreign researches were studied. In this part of the thesis the characteristics of mothers with intellectual disabilities; factors, which influence the success of carrying out their mother role; and the rights of people with intellectual disabilities as parents, all based on Slovene legislation are included. We listed reasons for limiting reproduction for women with intellectual disabilities and issues concerning...

  4. Dependency distance minimization in understanding of ambiguous structure. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al. (United States)

    Zhao, Yiyi


    Dependency Distance, proposed by Hudson [1], calculated by Liu [2,3], is an important concept in Dependency Theory. It can be used as a measure of the syntactic difficulty, and lots of research [2,4] have testified the universal of Dependency Distance in various languages. Human languages seem to present a preference for short dependency distance, which may be explained in terms of general cognitive constraint of limited working memory [5]. Psychological experiments in English, German, Russian and Chinese support the hypothesis that Dependency Distance minimization (DDM) make languages to evolve into some syntactic patterns to reduce memory burden [6-9]. The study of psychology focuses on the process and mechanism of syntactic structure selection in speech comprehension. In many speech comprehension experiments [10], ambiguous structure is an important experimental material.

  5. Extending network approach to language dynamics and human cognition. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng


    By analyzing complex networks constructed from authentic language data, Cong and Liu [1] advance linguistics research into the big data era. The network approach has revealed many intrinsic generalities and crucial differences at both the macro and micro scales between human languages. The axiom behind this research is that language is a complex adaptive system [2]. Although many lexical, semantic, or syntactic features have been discovered by means of analyzing the static and dynamic linguistic networks of world languages, available network-based language studies have not explicitly addressed the evolutionary dynamics of language systems and the correlations between language and human cognition. This commentary aims to provide some insights on how to use the network approach to study these issues.

  6. Computer simulation as an important approach to explore language universal. Comment on "Dependency distance: a new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al. (United States)

    Lu, Qian


    Exploring language universal is one of the major goals of linguistic researches, which are largely devoted to answering the ;Platonic questions; in linguistics, that is, what is the language knowledge, how to get and use this knowledge. However, if solely guided by linguistic intuition, it is very difficult for syntactic studies to answer these questions, or to achieve abstractions in the scientific sense. This suggests that linguistic analyses based on the probability theory may provide effective ways to investigate into language universals in terms of biological motivations or cognitive psychological mechanisms. With the view that ;Language is a human-driven system;, Liu, Xu & Liang's review [1] pointed out that dependency distance minimization (DDM), which has been corroborated by big data analysis of corpus, may be a language universal shaped in language evolution, a universal that has profound effect on syntactic patterns.

  7. The Chinese Tiger Mother


    Jacek Hołówka


    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  8. Once More the Celtic Horse-Goddess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warmind, Morten


    Et bidrag til diskussionen om sammenhængen mellem den gallo-romerske gudinde Epona og de ø-keltiske litterære skikkelser Macha og Rhiannon. Det fremhæves at gallo-romerske gudeskikkelser må forstås som keltiske og at de middelalderlige kilder faktisk rummer spor af gammelt keltisk materiale, såle...

  9. Our Mother Corn. (United States)

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  10. Mothers in Honors (United States)

    Killinger, Mimi; Binder-Hathaway, Rachel; Mitchell, Paige; Patrick, Emily


    This article describes the experiences of four honors mothers as they offer sage advice. They argue convincingly that they are motivated, focused students who bring rich diversity to college programs. They further report disturbing marginalization and isolation that could be ameliorated with support and increased sensitivity on the part of…

  11. Mothers, Learners and Countermemory (United States)

    Quinn, Jocey


    This article explores how issues of learning and mothering emerged in research with women students. First it develops the notion of 'a motherhood standpoint'. It then considers how Foucault's concept of 'counter-memory', and, in particular, its reworking in feminist cultural theory as 'countermemory', can be used to explain why students…

  12. Dependency distance: A new perspective on the syntactic development in second language acquisition. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural language" by Haitao Liu et al. (United States)

    Jiang, Jingyang; Ouyang, Jinghui


    Liu et al. [1] offers a clear and informative account of the use of dependency distance in studying natural languages, with a focus on the viewpoint that dependency distance minimization (DDM) can be regarded as a linguistic universal. We would like to add the perspective of employing dependency distance in the studies of second languages acquisition (SLA), particularly the studies of syntactic development.

  13. [Clinical experience and academic thoughts of Professor LIU Feng-bin on case series of gastroesophageal reflux disease based on data mining]. (United States)

    Hou, Zheng-Kun; Li, Ji-Ping; Chen, Zhuo-Qun; Liu, Feng-Bin


    To analyze and summarize Professor LIU Feng-bin's clinical experience and academic thoughts on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the study group adopted the retrospective study for case series and expert interview, extracted the retrospective data, including the herbs, diseases, syndrome type, medical expense and quantity of herbs of GERD patients attended the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine. Statistical description and binary Logistic regression were used for the identification and modification of syndrome type and initial core herbs. After expert interviews were performed for the syndrome type and herbs, the final scheme were formed. A total of 112 GERD patients ages(48.97±13.13)y; male: 35 (31.3%), female: 77(68.7%) were enrolled. The numbers of patients with liver and stomach incoordination syndrome, heat stagnation of liver and stomach syndrome, syndrome of dual deficiency of Qi and Yin, syndrome of spleen deficiency and dampness-heat, spleen-stomach disharmony syndrome were 40, 26, 19, 17 and 10, respectively. The patients used totally 80 herbs, and 26 of them had significant differences among different syndrome groups. According to the logistic regression analysis on the 23 herbs used by 112 patients, the herbs scheme was modified for the second time. After the expert interviews and modification, the final consensus was reached. The main causes for GERD were dietary irregularities, moodiness, and weak constitution. The basic mechanism of GERD was spleen deficiency with Qi adverseness. The spleen-stomach disharmony syndrome was deleted by expert interviews. The 10 core herbs for GERD treatment were Taizishen(Pseudostellariae Radix), Fuling(Poria), Baizhu(Atractylodismacrocephalae Rhizoma), Gancao(Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma), Zhebeimu(Fritillariae Thunbergii Bulbus), Haipiaoxiao(Sepiae Endoconcha), Zhiqiao(Aurantii Fructus), Chenxiang(Alosewood), Pugongying(Taraxaci Herba), Zhizitan(Cape Jasmine Fruit). The

  14. WHO ARE THE WORKING MOTHERS. (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.


  15. Analysis of Liu Zhiji Theory of Historians' and Zhang Xuecheng' s Cultivation Comparison%刘知几与章学诚的史家修养理论比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Liu Zhiji and Zhang Xuecheng are famous for their historical theory in ancient China. They all put forward the theory of historian historians' cultivation which has important sense to improve historian self-cultivation and historical development. Liu Zhiji argued that historians should have "ability, learning, knowledge", Zhang Xuecheng further put forward historian moral on the basis of the Liu Zhiji~s theory,enriched and developed the theory of the historians~ cultiva- tion. They all emphasize "ability,learning, knowledge", Liu Zhiji emphasize "knowledge" mostly, but Zhang Xuecheng relied heavily on "moral". Comparison and analysis on Liu Zhiji and Zhang Xuecheng's theory of self-cultivation,not only enable us to find their theories difference, under- standing the theory deeply, but also has certain enlightenment function on the contemporary historiography development.%我国古代史学理论大家刘知几、章学诚均提出了有关史家修养的理论,刘知几认为史家应具备"才、学、识",章学诚在继承刘知几史家修养理论的基础上,进一步提出"史德",丰富和发展了史家修养理论。刘知几、章学诚均重视"才、学、识",但刘知几最重"史识",章学诚尤重"史德"。比较和分析二者的史家修养理论,不仅能使我们发现他们理论的异同,深刻理解史家修养理论,而且对当今史学发展也具有一定的启示功用。

  16. Dependency distance distribution - from the perspective of genre variation. Comment on "Dependency distance: a new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al. (United States)

    Wang, Yaqin


    Language can be regarded as a system where different components fit together, according to Saussure [1]. Likewise, the central axiom of synergetic linguistic is that language is a self-organized and self-adapting system. One of its main concerns is to view language as ;a psycho-social phenomenon and a biological-cognitive one at the same time; [2, 760]. Based on this assumption, Liu, Xu and Liang propose a novel approach, i.e., dependency distance, to study the general tendency hidden beneath diverse human languages [3]. As the authors describe in sections 1-3, variations within and between human languages all show the similar tendency towards dependency distance minimization (DDM). In sections 4-5, they introduce certain syntactic patterns related to both short and long dependency distances. However, the effect of genre seems to be given less sufficient attention by the authors. A study suggests that different distributions of closeness and degree centralities across genres can broaden the understanding of dependency distance distribution [4]. Another one shows that different genres have different parameters in terms of modeling dependency distance distribution [5]. Further research on the genre variation, therefore, can provide additional support for this issue.

  17. Linguistic complex networks as a young field of quantitative linguistics. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by J. Cong and H. Liu (United States)

    Köhler, Reinhard


    We have long been used to the domination of qualitative methods in modern linguistics. Indeed, qualitative methods have advantages such as ease of use and wide applicability to many types of linguistic phenomena. However, this shall not overshadow the fact that a great part of human language is amenable to quantification. Moreover, qualitative methods may lead to over-simplification by employing the rigid yes/no scale. When variability and vagueness of human language must be taken into account, qualitative methods will prove inadequate and give way to quantitative methods [1, p. 11]. In addition to such advantages as exactness and precision, quantitative concepts and methods make it possible to find laws of human language which are just like those in natural sciences. These laws are fundamental elements of linguistic theories in the spirit of the philosophy of science [2,3]. Theorization effort of this type is what quantitative linguistics [1,4,5] is devoted to. The review of Cong and Liu [6] has provided an informative and insightful survey of linguistic complex networks as a young field of quantitative linguistics, including the basic concepts and measures, the major lines of research with linguistic motivation, and suggestions for future research.

  18. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hołówka


    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  19. Promoting Teen Mothers' Mental Health. (United States)

    Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee


    In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.

  20. Mother\\'s Experiences of Having Mental Retarded Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Mohammadkhan-Kermanshahi


    Full Text Available Objective: Giving birth and training to a child with Mental Retardation (MR can be stressful for mothers. Therefore mothers need role models and adequate preparation to effectively teach the child to function at optimum level within the environment. Nurses are in a strategic position to assume a vital role in a assisting these mothers. With observation, problem solving, and decision making. There is a lack of studies about mothers' experiences of having a child with MR. This study was preformed to investigate mother's experiences of having a child with MR and how explore and describe the experienced mothers with mental retarded child. Materials & Methods: A phenomenographic approach was used. The study was preformed at an exceptional school in Tehran. Twelve mothers were interviewed using guided interviews. Results: From 336 thematic sentences, Six categories emerged, the first having three subcategories and the second having twenty subcategories., the third having three, the fourth category having six, the fifth having two, and the sixth having two subcategories. Mother's experiences of having a child with MR, describes informants a variety of feelings, often ambivalent (acceptance and UN acceptance. In such a situation, attention to God and prayer are the most important coping strategies for positive adaptation in mothers' experiences of having a child with MR, but this perception can not effect to accept him alone. They emphasis on educational and psychological needs for better life. Conclusions: The findings of this study could be used in mothers education to promote understanding of mothers’ experiences and how best to help them. They could also be used in the general media to improve public understanding.

  1. School Trouble: A Mother's Burden. (United States)

    Dudley-Marling, Curt


    Used interviews with a diverse group of parents of children who struggled academically in school to examine the effects of school troubles on mothers. Overall, the material and emotional burden for children's schoolwork fell to the mothers, many of whom felt overwhelmed and believed that the demands of schooling had diminished their quality of…

  2. Mothers' Retrospections of Premature Childbirth. (United States)

    Kalmar, Magda; And Others

    This study examined Hungarian mothers' recollections, 8 years after the birth of their premature baby, of their stress at the time of the baby's birth. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers whose babies had been born between 30 and 37 weeks gestational age. At the time of the follow-up, all children had normal IQs and were attending normal…

  3. Literacy and the Mother Tongue (United States)

    Literacy Work, 1974


    Reviewing the situation of literacy in the mother tongue, the article reports on projects in: (1) Africa--Mali and Nigeria, (2) the Amazonian jungle of Peru in Latin America, and (3) Papua, New Guinea. Psychological, sociological, and educational advantages of the mother tongue are discussed. (MW)

  4. Where's the Feminism in Mothering? (United States)

    D'Arcy, Catherine; Turner, Colleen; Crockett, Belinda; Gridley, Heather


    This article is a reflective narrative bringing together personal, collective, and action learning reflections from three women: all mothers, feminists, and community psychology practitioners. Its focus on mothering highlights the interconnectedness and tensions across these roles, as well as the shared learnings arising from this collaboration.…

  5. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting. (United States)

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others


    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  6. Mothers' Mobility after Separation : Do Grandmothers Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Marjolijn; de Valk, Helga; Merz, Eva-Maria


    Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit

  7. Mothers' Mobility after Separation: Do Grandmothers Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Merz, E.-M.


    Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit

  8. Revisiting syntactic development in deaf and hearing children from a dependency approach. Comment on "Dependency distance: a new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al. (United States)

    Yan, Jingqi


    Linguists are always endeavoring to discover universal rules to explain the language phenomena and interrelations [1]. Through a handful of corpus-based studies and a vast body of supporting evidence from psychological experiments, Liu, Xu and Liang [2] arrive at a conclusion on a general tendency toward dependency distance minimization (DDM) and relate this linguistic universal to the constraints of memory. Dependency distance (DD) is hereby introduced as a linguistic property, with quantitative features of frequency, and profound cognitive grounding as well. However, since the authors do not include language development, in this comment, I would like to discuss some future prospects from this perspective.

  9. A short note on the paper of Liu et al. (2012). A relative Lempel-Ziv complexity: Application to comparing biological sequences. Chemical Physics Letters, volume 530, 19 March 2012, pages 107-112 (United States)

    Arit, Turkan; Keskin, Burak; Firuzan, Esin; Cavas, Cagin Kandemir; Liu, Liwei; Cavas, Levent


    The report entitled "L. Liu, D. Li, F. Bai, A relative Lempel-Ziv complexity: Application to comparing biological sequences, Chem. Phys. Lett. 530 (2012) 107-112" mentions on the powerful construction of phylogenetic trees based on Lempel-Ziv algorithm. On the other hand, the method explained in the paper does not give promising result on the data set on invasive Caulerpa taxifolia in the Mediterranean Sea. The phylogenetic trees are obtained by the proposed method of the aforementioned paper in this short note.

  10. "Good mothering" or "good citizenship"? (United States)

    Porter, Maree; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C


    Umbilical cord blood banking is one of many biomedical innovations that confront pregnant women with new choices about what they should do to secure their own and their child's best interests. Many mothers can now choose to donate their baby's umbilical cord blood (UCB) to a public cord blood bank or pay to store it in a private cord blood bank. Donation to a public bank is widely regarded as an altruistic act of civic responsibility. Paying to store UCB may be regarded as a "unique opportunity" to provide "insurance" for the child's future. This paper reports findings from a survey of Australian women that investigated the decision to either donate or store UCB. We conclude that mothers are faced with competing discourses that force them to choose between being a "good mother" and fulfilling their role as a "good citizen." We discuss this finding with reference to the concept of value pluralism.

  11. Medieval orality, mothers, and bonding. (United States)

    Schwartz, Scott C


    The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism.

  12. Parenthood motives in IVF-mothers. (United States)

    Colpin, H; De Munter, A; Vandemeulebroecke, L


    This is an exploratory study to answer two questions: (1) does in-vitro fertilization (IVF)-mothers' motivation for parenthood differ from the naturally conceiving mothers' motivation for parenthood? and (2) are IVF-mothers' parenthood motives correlated with their adjustment to parenthood (in the same way as they are for naturally conceiving mothers)? The study sample consisted of 31 mothers with a 24-30 month old, single-born child conceived by homologous IVF and a comparison group of 31 mothers with a naturally conceived child. Self-rating questionnaires were used. Overall, the parenthood motivation pattern was quite similar for IVF-mothers and mothers by natural conception. However, 'identity', 'motherhood' and 'social control' were significantly more important motives for IVF-mothers than for the naturally conceiving mothers. The two former motives remained more important for IVF-mothers when findings were adjusted for the influence of the mothers' age and educational level. Possible explanations for these findings refer to the infertility history. Overall, few correlations between parenthood motives and the adjustment to parenthood were significant, both for the IVF-mothers and for the mothers by natural conception. Further (hypothesis-testing) research is needed to support these findings.

  13. Faranak Parent-Child Mother Goose Program: Impact on Mother-Child Relationship for Mothers of Preschool Hearing Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogayeh Koohi


    Discussion: The Frank parent-child Mother Goose program could help families with hearing-impaired children in this 12-week community-based program, wherein parents learned skills that affect the relationship between mother and child.

  14. Neither father nor biological mother

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Bente; Malterud, Kirsti


    . Results: Analysis showed that ordinary tokens of recognition created feelings of being included, whilelesbian self-confidence played a major role in awkward encounters. Being neither father nor biologicalmother sometimes challenged parental identity. Being women helped co-mothers understand what...

  15. Cardiovascular malformations in infants of diabetic mothers


    Wren, C; Birrell, G; Hawthorne, G


    Objective: To compare the prevalence at live birth and the spectrum of cardiovascular malformations in infants born to diabetic mothers with pre-existing diabetes with that in infants of non-diabetic mothers.

  16. PAM: A Program for Adolescent Mothers. (United States)

    Robichaux, Faye B.; And Others


    Describes the Program for Adolescent Mothers (PAM) established to provide opportunities for teen mothers in Louisiana to increase their self-esteem, become productive citizens, and become aware of the physical and emotional development of children. (JOW)

  17. Fathers' and Mothers' Involvement with Their Adolescents (United States)

    Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Kamboukos, Dimitra


    We explored mothers' and fathers' time spent with their adolescents and found that mothers reported spending more time with their adolescents than did fathers. Developmental patterns were found for some aspects of time involvement, with both mothers and fathers reporting higher involvement with younger adolescents. Ratings of time-spent were not…

  18. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention (United States)

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka


    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  19. Exploring Behavioral Intentions among Young Mothers (United States)

    Turney, Howard M.; Conway, Pat; Plummer, Pam; Adkins, Samuel E.; Hudson, George Cliff; McLeod, David A.; Zafaroni, Aileen


    This study examined the relationship between young mothers' individual characteristics (demographics and self-efficacy), social support, and behavioral intentions regarding education and child bearing. Using a home visiting model, the program recruited 141 teen mothers to participate. Young mothers completed an initial assessment, measuring…

  20. College Students' Positivity toward Teen Mothers (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.


    Although teen pregnancy and parenthood are more visible in society than in the past, teen mothers are often stereotyped and stigmatized. The study examined positivity toward teen mothers among college students (N = 316) at a midwestern university. Although students responded positively to some items regarding teen mothers, other statements showed…

  1. Human milk composition differs in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares, M.; Albrecht, S.; Palma, de G.; Desamparados Ferrer, M.; Castillejo, G.; Schols, H.A.; Sanz, Y.


    Purpose To investigate whether breast-milk composition and microbiota differ in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease (CD) to ultimately contribute to identify additional factors determining CD risk. Methods Breast-milk samples from healthy mothers (n = 12) and mothers with CD (n = 12)

  2. South Korean Mothers' Parenting Experiences in Divorced Mother-Headed Families (United States)

    Jahng, Kyung Eun; Song, Seung Hee


    These multiple case studies show what in divorced mother-headed families of South Korea, mothers experience with regard to parenting their children aged 6 to 12 years. Data were collected from participant observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants, including mothers and their children in four divorced mother-headed families…

  3. Sole Mothers in Australia: Supporting Mothers to Seek Work


    Marilyn McHugh; Jane Millar


    The rapid increase in the numbers of sole parents in Australia - and their high risk of poverty - has meant that these families have become a focus of increasing concern. This paper explores the issue of sole motherhood and employment, with a particular emphasis on examining the relationship between social security policies and current discourses on the role of women in Australian society, including the perspectives of sole mothers themselves. The paper is part of an edited collection (Duncan...

  4. Surrogate mothering: exploitation or empowerment? (United States)

    Purdy, Laura M


    The morality of surrogate mothering is analyzed from a "consequentialist" framework which attempts to separate those consequences that invariably accompany a given act from those that accompany it only in particular circumstances. Critics of surrogacy argue that it transfers the burden and risk of pregnancy onto another woman, separates sex and reproduction, and separates reproduction and childrearing; none of these acts is necessarily wrong, either morally or for women's or society's basic interests. While surrogate mothering can be rendered immoral if women are coerced into the practice or become victims of subordinating or penalizing contracts, it has the potential to empower women and increase their status in society by providing a job that is less risky and more enjoyable than other jobs women are forced to take and by achieving greater social recognition for reproductive labor.

  5. Mothers' part-time employment: associations with mother and family well-being. (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; O'Brien, Marion


    The associations between mothers' part-time employment and mother well-being, parenting, and family functioning were examined using seven waves of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data (N = 1,364), infancy through middle childhood. Concurrent comparisons were made between families in which mothers were employed part time and both those in which mothers were not employed and those in which mothers were employed full time. Using multivariate analysis of covariance with extensive controls, results indicated that mothers employed part time had fewer depressive symptoms during the infancy and preschool years and better self-reported health at most time points than did nonemployed mothers. Across the time span studied, mothers working part time tended to report less conflict between work and family than those working full time. During their children's preschool years, mothers employed part time exhibited more sensitive parenting than did other mothers, and at school age were more involved in school and provided more learning opportunities than mothers employed full time. Mothers employed part time reported doing a higher proportion of child care and housework than mothers employed full time. Part-time employment appears to have some benefits for mothers and families throughout the child rearing years.

  6. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology. (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B


    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.

  7. [Food intakes in breast-feeding mothers]. (United States)

    Savino, F; Bermond, S; Bonfante, G; Gallo, E; Oggero, R


    The relation between mother's diet and breastmilk composition is still an open issue. Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason breast feeding women usually pay attention about their alimentary practices and about their style of life during breast-feeding period. This research was conducted to verify the adequacy of lactating mother's diet in comparison with the Italian recommended daily assumption levels of nutrients (LARN 1996) for this category. We have also compared food intake of not breast feeding mothers with the LARN, and analyzed the differences between these groups of mothers. Forty-eight healthy infants were selected, 23 bottle fed, 25 breast fed. Mothers's diet in the previous 48 hours was investigated using a structured questionnaire. The data collected were processed using software Dietosystem to obtain the daily nutrient intakes. The wetnurses's diet in comparison with the LARN 1996 resulted hypocaloric and hyperproteic, deficient in Calcium, Iron, folic acid and vitamin E. Surprisingly not breast feeding mothers's intake of nutrients is closer to LARN levels than that of breast feeding mothers. Mothers are not informed enough about their alimentation during lactating period. Pediatricians must improve their knowledge about this subject and give the mothers the information they need to achieve the recommended food requirements.

  8. Mother-Child Interactions of Preterm Toddlers. (United States)

    Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Akman, İpek; Kuşçu Orhan, Şebnem; Kuşçu, Kemal; Altuncu, Emel; Karabekiroğlu, Aytül; Yüce, Murat


    We aimed to investigate the mother-toddler relationship in preterm toddlers. The sample consisted of 18 mothers and their preterm toddlers (group 1) and 20 mothers and their fullterm toddlers (group 2). Anxiety and depressive symptom levels, attachment pattern, and parental attitudes of mothers and social-emotional problems and developmental level of the toddlers were explored to assess possible confounding factors in the mother-toddler relationship. Two researchers rated the Parent Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scales (PIRGAS). Both the mothers in group 1 and group 2 had similar Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores. However, the mothers who gave birth before 32 weeks of gestation had higher trait anxiety scores than others (46±2.4 vs. 42.3±5.4, p=0.01). The groups had similar Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Scale (BITSEA) problem and competency scores. The parenting style of group 1 revealed that they had higher scores on the Parenting Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) subscale 5 (excessive discipline) (39.6 vs. 32.1; p=0.02). Mother-toddler interaction and attachment security were found to be similar in fullterm and moderately preterm healthy toddlers. Our findings suggest that not the preterm birth itself but the medical, developmental, and/or neurological consequences of prematurity may affect the mother-toddler interaction. To explore the independent effect of prematurity in mother-toddler dyadic relationship, longitudinally designed studies are warranted.

  9. The offspring of epileptic mother. (United States)

    Tamer, S K; Misra, S; Jaiswal, S


    The offspring of an epileptic mother is an issue-currently getting attention because of its several implications. A complex interaction between epilepsy during pregnancy and its adverse impact on foetus, labor, neonate, congenital malformation, psychosocial and medico-social concern and treatment challenges of such cases is increasingly being realised. Some of the significant observations has been reviewed extensively in this article. Maternal epilepsy is likely to adversely affect the off-spring at its various stages of development amounting to increased morbidity and mortality. Increased seizure frequency during pregnancy with resultant increased risk is well documented but its mechanism is poorly understood. Low apgar score, increased still birth rates (1.3 to 14%) in offspring of epileptic mother (OEM) is reported. So also, the neonatal and perinatal deaths are twice more common in OEMS than normal control. Small for dates, and prematurity in OEM is reported to be 7 to 10% and 4-11% respectively. Adverse impact on labor and delivery like preclampsia, abruptio placentae, polyhydramnios, assisted delivery, cesarean section and IUGR poses particular challenges to the obstetrician. Pediatrician's alertness is needed to anticipate and deal with the bleeding manifestation due to deficiency of Vit-K dependent clotting factors and various anticonvulsant drug (AED) withdrawal symptoms. Significant risk of developing congenital malformation is the result of epilepsy perse and the AED used during pregnancy. AED exposure leads to other distinct clinical syndromes, the orofacial clefts and cardiac anomalies being the commonest manifestation. Epilepsy in mother but not in father has significant adverse impact. Management strategies in the context of available observation has been discussed.

  10. Signal Analysis by New Mother Wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Jinbo; Qi Kaiguo; Fan Hongyi


    Based on the general formula for finding qualified mother wavelets [Opt. Lett. 31 (2006) 407] we make wavelet transforms computed with the newly found mother wavelets (characteristic of the power 2n) for some optical Gaussian pulses, which exhibit the ability to measure frequency of the pulse more precisely and clearly. We also work with complex mother wavelets composed of new real mother wavelets, which offer the ability of obtaining phase information of the pulse as well as amplitude information. The analogy between the behavior of Hermite-Gauss beams and that of new wavelet transforms is noticed. (general)

  11. Mothers Reporting I: For Whom and Why is the Mother-Child Education Program Effective?


    Bekman, Prof. Dr. Sevda; Atmaca Koçak, Aylin


    This article presents the results of the qualitative research conducted with 100 mothers, all participants of Mother-Child Education Program, (from five different countries). The aim was to investigate the characteristics of the participant mothers, their reasons for participation, and why and how the program was effective. Data, collected through in-depth interviews, revealed that participant mothers were determined and open to change. Mothers’ experiences with the group process, the Cogniti...

  12. Postnatal Mother-to-Infant Attachment in Subclinically Depressed Mothers: Dyads at Risk? (United States)

    Behrendt, Hannah F; Konrad, Kerstin; Goecke, Tamme W; Fakhrabadi, Roya; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Firk, Christine

    Dyadic interactions between children and depressed mothers have been characterized as less synchronous and with lower maternal sensitivity, fostering an inharmonious, insecure attachment relationship between mother and child. Thus, these children may experience enhanced early life stress and are at higher risk of disturbed socioemotional development. Recently, this association has also been found in women with mild depressive symptoms. However, potential confounding effects of mother's history of own rearing experiences or infant temperament on the link between depressive symptoms and postnatal mother-to-infant attachment have not yet been investigated. Differences in mother-to-infant attachment (e.g. quality of attachment, absence of hostility, and pleasure in interaction) between mothers with and without symptoms of depression 6-8 months postpartum were analyzed in a low-risk community sample (n = 38, 19 per group). Depressive symptomatology was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Depressed mothers indicated mild-to-moderate depressive symptomatology (mean BDI-II 11.26 ± 3.86) but did not fulfill criteria for a major depressive episode and, thus, were referred to as 'subclinically' depressed. Potential confounders, namely maternal history of own rearing experiences and infant temperament, were explored by multivariate AN(C)OVA. Primiparous mothers with subclinical depression differed significantly from healthy control mothers, i.e. showed poorer mother-to-infant attachment and higher infant-related hostility 6-8 months postpartum. As expected, infant temperament and mother's history of own rearing experiences were both associated with mother-to-infant attachment but did not explain the negative effects of subclinical depression on the mother-infant relationship. Given the high prevalence of maternal depression, the current findings give reason for increased concern for the developing mother

  13. Sexual Health Discussions between African-American Mothers and Mothers of Latino Descent and Their Children (United States)

    Murray, Ashley; Ellis, Monica U.; Castellanos, Ted; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Sneed, Carl D.


    We examined approaches used by African-American mothers and mothers of Latino descent for informal sex-related discussions with their children to inform sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention development efforts. We recruited mothers (of children aged 12-15) from youth service agencies and a university in southern California.…

  14. Weaving dreamcatchers: mothering among American Indian women who were teen mothers. (United States)

    Palacios, Janelle F; Strickland, Carolyn J; Chesla, Catherine A; Kennedy, Holly P; Portillo, Carmen J


    The aim of this study was to explore the mothering experience and practice among reservation-based adult American Indian women who had been adolescent mothers. Adolescent American Indian women are at an elevated risk for teen pregnancy and poor maternal/child outcomes. Identifying mothering practices among this population may help guide intervention development that will improve health outcomes. A collaborative orientation to community-based participatory research approach. Employing interpretive phenomenology, 30 adult American Indian women who resided on a Northwestern reservation were recruited. In-depth, face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted between 2007-2008. Women shared their mothering experience and practice, which encompassed a lifespan perspective grounded in their American Indian cultural tradition. Four themes were identified as follows: mother hen, interrupted mothering and second chances, breaking cycles and mothering a community. Mothering originated in childhood, extended across their lifespan and moved beyond mothering their biological offspring. These findings challenge the Western construct of mothering and charge nurses to seek culturally sensitive interventions that reinforce positive mothering practices and identify when additional mothering support is needed across a woman's lifespan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Contributing Factors to Older Teen Mothers' Academic Success as Very Young Mothers (United States)

    Hernandez, Jennifer; Abu Rabia, Hazza M.


    This qualitative study explores the factors contributed to 13 older teen mothers' academic success as very young mothers. The participants were older teen mothers who were pregnant and gave birth at the age of 16 years old or younger, and who have achieved a college degree from an accredited college or university while they raised their…

  16. Mothers' Experiences with a Mother-Child Education Programme in Five Countries (United States)

    Bekman, Sevda; Koçak, Aylin Atmaca


    Although previous quantitative studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the mother-child education programme (MOCEP) that originated in Turkey in 1993, the study reported here uses a qualitative approach to gain an in-depth understanding of mothers' views of the outcomes of the programme. The study was conducted with 100 mothers from five…

  17. Mothers' knowledge of foetal movements monitoring during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge pregnant mothers have on the ... A quantitative research survey design was used to obtain information from pregnant mothers. Simple random probability sampling was used. ... Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  18. Adolescent mothers' knowledge and perceptions of contraceptives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This descriptive quantitative survey attempted to identify reasons why adolescent mothers (aged 19 or younger at the birth of their babies) failed to utilise contraceptive, emergency contraceptive and / or termination of pregnancy (TOP) services. The research population comprised all adolescent mothers in the region, the ...

  19. Postpartum Mental State of Mothers of Twins (United States)

    Brantmüller, Éva; Gyúró, Mónika; Galgán, Kitti; Pakai, Annamária


    Twin birth is a relevant risk factor for postnatal depression (PND). The primary objective of our study is to reveal the prevalence of suspected cases of depression and to identify some background factors among mothers of twins. We applied convenience sampling method within a retrospective, quantitative study among mothers given birth to twins for…

  20. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among mothers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study could help mothers, Ministry of Health and other nongovernmental organisations working with child health programmes, in likely interventions and supporting the ongoing child survival programmes, by taking appropriate steps in enhancing exclusive breastfeeding. As mothers attend antenatal and ...

  1. Life as a Mother-Scientist (United States)

    Louis, Lucille


    In this article, the author shares the difficulties she faced as she tried to reach a balance between her career as a scientist and her role as a mother. She speaks of how she often found problems in putting her children into day care centers. She also relates that the confidence mothers have in their academic careers is correlated to the quality…

  2. 75 FR 26875 - Mother's Day, 2010 (United States)


    ... their careers, or as single parents working to provide for their families. They have carried the torch... daughters and granddaughters. On Mother's Day, we pay tribute to these women who have given so much of.... Nurturing families come in many forms, and children may be raised by two parents, a single mother, two...

  3. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers (United States)

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.


    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  4. Academic Mothers Finding Rhyme and Reason (United States)

    Pillay, Venitha


    In this paper I argue that the "balancing two lives" approach to motherhood and work has particular limitations for academic mothers. I interrogate the perceived oppositionalities in being mother, traditionally associated with nurturing, love and emotion, and being academic, traditionally associated with reason and logic. My purpose is to show…

  5. 76 FR 27601 - Mother's Day, 2011 (United States)


    ... and elder care, and education. My budget strengthens the Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit to help..., so have the challenges facing women raising families. Many American women are raising children at... extraordinary importance of mothers in our lives. The bond of love and dedication a mother shares with her...

  6. Stigma in mothers of deaf children. (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Mohammadi, Eissa; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Pirzadeh, Akbar; Mahmoudi, Hamzeh; Ansari, Ismail


    A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child's treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabilities. The reliability and validity of the instrument were confirmed through content validity and Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α=86%), respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software. Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child's deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother's level of education and mean stigma scores (P<0.033). The stigma score was higher in mothers who were living independently of their relatives (P<0.029). The mean stigma score in mothers of children with a cochlear implant was lower than that of mothers of children with earphones (86.70 vs. 99.64), and this difference tended towards significance (P=0.057). This study showed that half of all mothers with deaf children were scorned and felt ashamed of having a deaf child in the family because of the stigma. The majority of mothers with deaf children felt stigmatized, and only their education and residency status affected this issue. The mothers of cochlear-implanted children perceived less stigma. Due to the various social and psychological problems caused by hearing impairment, it is necessary to consider the emotional health and psychological state of the mothers in addition to rehabilitation programs and standard services for the children themselves.

  7. Mortality in mothers after perinatal loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Wu, C; Schendel, D


    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether mothers who lost a child from stillbirth or in the first week of life have an increased overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. DESIGN: A population based follow-up study. SETTING: Data from Danish national registers. POPULATION: All mothers in Denmark were...... included in the cohort at time of their first delivery from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008 and followed until 31 December 2009 or death, whichever came first. METHODS: The association between perinatal loss and total and cause-specific mortality in mothers was estimated with hazard ratios (HR) and 95......% confidence intervals (95% CI) calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 838 331 mothers in the cohort gave birth to one or more children and 7690 mothers (0.92%) experienced...

  8. [Newborn children under phototherapy: the mother's perception]. (United States)

    Campos, Antonia do Carmo Soares; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão


    Since 1958, phototherapy has been used as a method to cure jaundice, which is still an important disease in newborn children. Supported by a phenomenological and qualitative approach, this study aims to investigate the mothers' perception of the phototherapy treatment their children are submitted to. Research subjects were ten mothers of newborns under phototherapy treatment at the Neonatological Hospitalization Unit of a public maternity in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Data were collected between May and July 2002. We used group meetings with the mothers as suggested by Carl Rogers. Discourse was organized into categories according to Bardin, which revealed themes that were analyzed in view of Paterson's and Zderad's humanistic nursing theory, as follows: mothers' knowledge on phototherapy and concerns about the treatment. We concluded that the analyzed mothers' major concern is related to the babies' vision.

  9. Mothers' perceptions of community health professional support. (United States)

    Maunders, Helena; Giles, David; Douglas, Hazel


    This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' experiences of the support they received from community health professionals. Every third mother was selected from an NHS Trust's database of women whose health visitors had used the Solihull Approach. Forty-two women were sent information packs and consent forms. Nine mothers who returned consent forms were interviewed. The interview transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The results expand on previous research and contribute additional ideas to the existing evidence base. The findings explore the concepts of trust, expertise and understanding within the working partnership. In addition, the results address mothers' need for reliability, and a preference for professionals who understood women's beliefs about what it means to be a 'good mother'. The results and recommendations are pertinent to those community health professionals who work in the area of early childhood intervention, including practitioners who use the Solihull Approach.

  10. Parenting from prison: helping children and mothers. (United States)

    Thompson, P J; Harm, N J


    Incarceration of a mother disrupts the mother-child relationship and the child's emotional development. The researchers evaluated a 15-week parenting program in a women's prison that was designed to enhance mother-child interactions during imprisonment. Pre- and postmeasures for the 104 women were Hudson's (1982) Index of Self-Esteem, Bavolek's (1984) Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory, and semistructured questionnaires. Self-esteem and attitudes about expectations of children, corporal punishment, and family roles improved significantly. Empathy and mother-child interactions through visits and letters improved. Participants identified the most helpful components of the program. Those who had been physically, sexually, and emotionally abused and those who had used drugs and alcohol had positive results. Findings support the value of parent education for self-development of incarcerated mothers and for the welfare of their children.

  11. Impact of Depressive Symptoms on Mother Infant Attachment among Mothers of Preterm Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu Margaret


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the level of depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment among mothers of preterms admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and find the relationship between of depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment. Materials and methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among 100 mothers whose preterm babies were admitted in NICU of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka using purposive sampling. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Mother Infant Attachment Scale were used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mother’s age ranged from 20 to 40 years. The mild depressive symptoms were experienced by 28 (28% mothers, moderate 25(25% and 17 (17% had severe level of depressive symptoms. Majority mothers 77(77% of preterms had good-attachment and 18% had moderate attachment. Mean depressive symptom score and mother-infant-attachment score was 14.36±7.47 and 58.00 ±12.95 respectively. Depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment showed moderate negative correlation, (ρ=--0.506, (p=0.001. Conclusion: Increased levels of depressive symptoms among the mothers of preterm neonates affects the mother–infant-interactions. Interventions to decrease the level of depressive symptoms need to be planned for promoting good mother infant interaction.

  12. My Mother and Me: Why Tiger Mothers Motivate Asian Americans But Not European Americans. (United States)

    Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose


    "Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  13. When The Hindu-Goddess Moves To Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fibiger, Marianne Qvortrup


    This article will focus primarily on how the adaption-process into a Danish environment has provided a local śākta-cult from Sri Lanka with a special narrative, and with symbols and text that it, most likely, would not have had if it were still in Sri Lanka. This is important with regards...

  14. Beauty and healing: examining sociocultural expectations of the embodied goddess. (United States)

    Yeh, Jin-Tsann; Lin, Chyong-Ling


    Studies indicate mental health improvement can occur via religious communities offering social support and other resources. Many people from many cultures regard medicine as a supernatural or magical treatment that can somehow lead to a better state of living. In medical advertising, female role portrayal involves the blending of beauty, ritual and attractiveness in combination with the best product image. A Chinese saying suggests that, "A girl will doll herself up for him who loves her." Female role attraction is a very important ethical subject in gender issues. Moving forward in time, female role visualization and consumption in medical advertising reveal depictions that encouraged women to do some self-searching and find, or develop, inner strength. This study is designed to examine female role portrayals in a restricted patriarchal society. The results indicate that the ideology of motherhood is an accepted social orientation that the public readily identifies with. Results further indicate that beautification through medical products incorporates an emotional element of religious healing and that the objectification of beauty in the media reveals a possible neglect of women's internal beauty.

  15. Goddess Science, Primates and Feminism. Primatology and Human Nature Seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Derra


    Full Text Available The Author introduces basic aims, notions, methodological tools and theories of primatology. Underlining crucial role this discipline has played in defining human nature, she points out how it has changed due to its social duties, close relations to popular culture and growing impact of female researchers with feminist sensitivity. She posits the question about female or feminist character of primatology, indicating that the answer depends on taking for granted certain disputable assumptions about femininity and female scientific methods. Subsequently she presents androcentric bias of primatology studies (concerning sexuality, reproduction, male domination, female roles, aggression, and its later critique. Finally she problematizes culture/nature division which is used both in scientific and everyday discourse.

  16. The Rhetorical Goddess: A Feminist Perspective on Women in Magic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruns, Laura C.


    Full Text Available Although female magicians have existed since the rise of entertainment magic, women have faced difficulty in entering the “fraternity” of the magic community. As an art form largely based around persuasion, it is useful to study the performance of magic as a text. It is additionally useful to study female magicians within this context of rhetoric. Not only will examining the rhetoric of female magicians provide insights on the rhetoric of women in this unique arena, but also of women in a historically gendered and underrepresented field. Research into this area may disclose other details regarding the communicative differences between women and men and how communication is adapted within a gendered communication paradigm.

  17. Young Mothers, First Time Parenthood and Exclusive Breastfeeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This paper specifically examines duration of exclusive breastfeeding among young mothers below ... Results show that Eldoret mothers are aware of benefits of breastfeeding; nevertheless, the ... More research on mothering should examine.

  18. Electrolyte profile of Malaysian mothers' milk. (United States)

    Alaudeen, S; Muslim, N; Faridah, K; Azman, A; Arshat, H


    The influence of socioeconomic status (ethnicity, income and parity) on electrolyte composition (sodium and potassium) in human milk is little known. We have thus quantitatively analyzed approximately 700 samples of milk (1-90 days postpartum) obtained from healthy Malaysian mothers' (Malay, Chinese and Indians) of full term infants. Results show that the mean concentration (mmol/l) of sodium is highest (48.2+or-1.7, Mean+or-SEM) in the Malaysian mothers' colostrum and this value decreased by 30% in their transitional milk and remained constant throughout subsequent days of lactation (mature milk). Ethnically, it is found that the level of sodium in colostrum of Malay and Chinese mothers were similar while the Indian mothers' colostrum showed apparently higher value (52.7+or-3.4 mmol/l) that is statistically insignificant. The transitional milk of all 3 ethnic groups studied exhibited similar levels of sodium. On subsequent days of lactation (mature milk) the Malay mothers exhibited lowest concentration (25.9+or-2.6 mmol/l) of sodium that is significantly (P0.05) different from that of Chinese and Indian mothers. Income and parity do not significantly affect the sodium level in Malaysian mothers' milk during all stages of lactation studied. The level of potassium, however did not change significantly with days of lactation. Like sodium, potassium too was not influenced by income and parity. (Author's).

  19. Mothers' night work and children's behavior problems. (United States)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle A; Su, Jessica Houston


    Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9-5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. In the present article, we used longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3-5 years) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children's behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers' night shift work. We employed 3 analytic strategies with various approaches to adjusting for observed and unobserved selection factors; these approaches provided an upper and lower bound on the true relationship between night shift work and children's behavior. Taken together, the results provide suggestive evidence for modest associations between exposure to maternal night shift work and higher levels of aggressive and anxious or depressed behavior in children compared with children whose mothers who are not working, those whose mothers work other types of nonstandard shifts, and, for aggressive behavior, those whose mothers work standard shifts.

  20. 刘沈林治疗晚期消化道肿瘤用药经验%Liu Shenlin′s Experiences in the Medication for Advanced Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢冬雪; 祁明浩; 薛恬; 刘沈林


    The patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer have lost their chance for radical surgery and cannot be improved with modern medicine,such as radiochemotherapy,targeted therapy and immunotherapy because those therapies may further damage the body immunity and accelerate the progression of disease.TCM thinks that advanced gastrointestinal cancer is differentiated as the deficiency of anti-pathogenic qi,combined with blood stagnation,toxification,phlegm accumulation and qi stagnation.The treatment emphasizes strengthening the spleen,benefiting qi and supporting the anti-pathogenic qi,assisted with resolving stasis,detoxification,resolving phlegm and masses.The correct case differentiation and herb composition improve body immunity and living quality so thatthe survival quality with cancer is obtained and the survival span is prolonged.Prof.Liu Shenlin believes,in his clinical experiences in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors for years,that advanced gastrointestinal cancer presents the extreme deficiency of anti-pathogenic qi,the simple elimination of pathogens is not applicable in treatment.The basic treating principle of the disease should be benefiting qi and strengthening the anti-pathogenic qi,assisted with resolving stasis.Prof.Liu is good at using herbsprecisely,prefers to the paired herbs in terms of pathogenesis and in combination of the disease with symptoms.Radix astragali and codonopsispilosula are used for strengthening the anti-pathogenic qi,angelica sinensis and radix paeoniae alba for nourishing blood and softening the liver,rhizome sparganii and curcuma zedoary for activating blood circulation and removing stasis.The medicines in the category of insects and worms are combined.The clinical therapeutic effects are very satisfactory.%晚期消化道肿瘤患者失去了根治性手术机会,现代医学治疗主要包括放化疗、靶向治疗、免疫治疗等,但并不能使患者从中获益,反而会进一步损伤机体免疫力,加快

  1. Mother/child bond in mothers of overweight and eutrophic children: depression and socioeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vieira Spada


    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the presence of depression, age, level of schooling, occupation, marital status, number of children and nutritional status (maternal and of the child in mothers of overweight and eutrophic children and relate the data to mother/child bonding. Methods: A total of 120 mothers of children aged up to 10 years participated; 30 of them were overweight and 30 were eutrophic (low-income bracket; 30 were overweight and 30 eutrophic (high-income bracket. The control group was composed of eutrophic children paired according to sex, age, level of schooling, and social condition. Data collection was made through interviews. The assessment instruments were: Mother/Child Bonding Assessment Protocol and Beck Depression Inventory. The nutritional classification was defined by calculation of the body mass index, as per the curves of the World Health Organization. For statistics, McNemar, χ2, and Fisher’s exact tests were used. A 5% level of rejection of the null hypothesis was set. Results: There was no significant result between mother/child bonding and the variables studied, or between the presence of depression and level of schooling, marital status, occupation, and maternal nutritional status. Nevertheless, mothers of eutrophic children (high-income bracket showed less depression than mothers of eutrophic children (low-income bracket. Mothers with three or more children displayed more depression than mothers with less than three children. Mothers under 30 years of age showed more depression than mothers aged 30 years or older. Conclusion: There was no significant result between mother/child bonding and the variables studied, but the bond was compromised in all mothers of the sample. There was a significant result regarding the presence of depression.

  2. The mood variation in mothers of preterm infants in Kangaroo mother care and conventional incubator care. (United States)

    de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Cruvinel, Fernando; Lukasova, Katerina; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá


    Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is the Kangaroo mother care (KMC) characterized by skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn. The objective of this study was to compare the mood variation of mothers enrolled in the KMC program to those in the conventional incubator care. In one general hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 90 mothers were evaluated before and after contact with the baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The participants were divided into three groups: 30 mothers of term newborns (TG), 30 mothers of preterm infants included in KMC program (PGK) and 30 preterms with incubator placement (PGI). The Brazilian version of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) was used for the assessment before and after the infant's visit. Results showed that TG mothers reported fewer occurrences of depressive states than PGK and PGI mothers. A significant mood variation was observed for PGK and PGI after the infant's visit. PGK mothers reported feeling calmer, stronger, well-coordinated, energetic, contented, tranquil, quick-witted, relaxed, proficient, happy, friendly and clear-headed. The only variation showed by PGI mothers was an increase in feeling clumsy. This study shows a positive effect of the KMC on the mood variation of preterm mothers and points to the need of a more humane experience during the incubator care.

  3. Lesbian mothers and their children: a comparison with solo parent heterosexual mothers and their children. (United States)

    Green, R; Mandel, J B; Hotvedt, M E; Gray, J; Smith, L


    Two types of single-parent households and their effects on children ages 3-11 years were compared. One type comprised 50 homosexual mothers and their 56 children, and the other was a group of 40 heterosexual mothers and their 48 children. There were 30 daughters and 26 sons of homosexual mothers and 28 daughters and 20 sons of heterosexual mothers. The sexual identity and social relationships of the children were assessed in relation to the sexual orientation of the mothers. The samples consisted of families from rural and urban areas in 10 American states. All have lived without adult males (18 years or older) in the household for a minimum of 2 years (average 4). Families with heterosexual mothers were matched to families with homosexual mothers on age and race of mother; length of mother and child separation from father; educational level and income of mother; and number, age, and sex of children. Data are reported from childrens' tests designed to provide information on general intelligence, core-morphologic sexual identity, gender-role preferences, family and peer group relationships, and adjustment to the single-parent family. No significant differences were found between the two types of households for boys and few significant differences for girls. Concerns that being raised by a homosexual mother might produce sexual identity conflict and peer group stigmatization were not supported by the research findings. Data also revealed more similarities than differences in parenting experiences, marital history, and present living situations of the two groups of mothers. The postulated compromised parental fitness of lesbian mothers, commonly asserted in child custody cases, is not supported by these data.

  4. The Plight of Transnational Latina Mothers: Mothering from a Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Sternberg


    Full Text Available Economic globalization, trade agreements, and revolutionary changes in transportation and communication have fueled a steady increase in international migration. Foreign-born Latinas, driven by a strong desire to escape poverty and to improve life for their children, face difficult decisions as transnational mothers. These women emigrate from their countries of origin, leaving their children behind with relatives. After overcoming the hardships and dangers involved in a clandestine crossing of the U.S.-Mexico border, they continue to suffer the pain of separation from their children and to hope for eventual family reunification. This study focuses on the experiences of eight Latina transnational mothers and calls for reflection and solidarity by nurses and other health care professionals in order to influence the dynamics of social, economic, and political actions to relieve social suffering.La mondialisation, les accords commerciaux et les évolutions révolutionnaires que connaissent les secteurs des transports et des communications ont favorisé l'augmentation régulière de l’immigration internationale. Motivées par la volonté d’échapper à la pauvreté et d’offrir une vie meilleure à leurs enfants, les mères latino-américaines sont confrontées à des décisions difficiles en tant que mères transnationales. Ces femmes émigrent de leur pays d’origine, laissant leurs enfants à leur famille. Après avoir surmonté les épreuves et les dangers inhérents au passage clandestin de la frontière américano-mexicaine, elles continuent à souffrir du fait de la séparation d’avec leurs enfants et vivent dans l’espoir de se retrouver à nouveau en famille. Cette étude s’intéresse à l’expérience de huit mères latino-américaines vivant aux Etats-Unis et appelle les infirmières et autres professionnels de la santé à réfléchir et à faire preuve de solidarité afin d’influencer une dynamique d’actions sociales,

  5. Comparison outcomes of sick babies born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers. (United States)

    Chotigeat, Uraiwan; Sawasdiworn, Siraporn


    Adolescent period is the transitional stage of physical and mental development from childhood to adulthood. Pregnancy in teenage girls is generally classified to have a higher risk than those in adults. In many previous studies reported only the outcome of teenage mothers but no comparative outcome between sick babies born to teen mothers and adult mothers, so the authors conducted the present study. To compare the outcomes of sick infants born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers (age > or = 20 years). This prospective study was carried out from October 1st, 2006 to September 30th, 2009. The study group consisted of sick babies born to teenage mothers and admitted at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH). These babies were compared to sick babies (control group) born to adult mothers during the same period. The demographic data of mothers and sick babies in both groups were recorded in the designed case record forms. Developmental assessment was done until two years of age. A total of 6,342 deliveries took place in Rajavithi Hospital during the study period of which 697 babies were born to teenage mothers. The incidence of teenage pregnancy was 10.99%. The number of sick babies from teenage mothers and adult mothers were 78 and 147 cases, respectively. There was a significantly higher mortality in the study group (7 cases, 9%) than the control group (4 cases, 2.7%). There was statistically significant difference in most of the demographic characteristics between the teenage and adult mothers except anemia, PROM and MSAF (meconium stain amniotic fluid). Although there was a trend of more cases of anemia and MSAF in teenage mothers than in adult mothers, there was no statistically significant difference. There was a shorter interval time from marriage to pregnancy in teen mothers than in adult mothers and a lower number of antenatal care visits with late antenatal care among the teenage mothers too. On comparing the data in infants

  6. [Being a mother: encounters between mothers of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and nurses in Taiwan]. (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Li; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chin, Chi-Chun


    The role of "mother" is understood and represented differently by people from different cultures. In traditional Taiwanese society, mothers demonstrate their existence value by giving birth to and raising sons able to continue her husband's familial line. Sons bear the patriarchal name and care for their parents in old age. However, a son stricken, paralyzed and eventually killed by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) can destroy a mother's perceived value in this traditional social context. Mothers are thus soundless sufferers. Nurses have a critical role to play in giving encouragement and hope to mothers of children with DMD. Through their own difficult situation, these mothers can also highlight the value and importance of Taiwan's nurses, who work in conditions marked by overloading, high stress, and under-appreciation. Caring for women in critical need of empathy and support help nurses realize their own positive capacity to empower sufferers.

  7. Mothering and acculturation: experiences during pregnancy and childrearing of Filipina mothers married to Japanese. (United States)

    Uayan, Maria Luisa Tumandao; Kobayashi, Sayuri; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Ota, Erika; Haruna, Megumi; Murashima, Sachiyo


    This study aims to describe the lived experiences of Filipina mothers married to Japanese during pregnancy and childrearing. Eight focus group interviews (FGI) were conducted among 39 Filipino mothers who are currently residing in Japan to obtain significant information with regard to their pregnancy and childrearing experiences. Content analysis was used to extract relevant themes that will describe the experiences of this group of migrant mothers. The findings revealed three major themes: 1) cultural barriers during pregnancy and childrearing; 2) mothering at the different stages of childrearing; and 3) positive adjustments to a new role in a new environment. The establishment of means of communication with migrant mothers effectively enabling them to understand important information for promoting healthy pregnancy and childrearing is strongly recommended. Provision of school information in the English language and enhancing the resilient character of the Filipina are important strategies in promoting positive pregnancy and childrearing experiences among Filipina migrant mothers.

  8. Radionuclide transfer from mother to embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.; Scridon, R.; Toader, M.L.


    The transfer of radionuclides from mother to embryo is still a matter of high interest. Therefore, the relation was investigated between the amount of radionuclides in the embryo and the dietary intake of the mother, this for two scenarios: a recurrent intake of variable amounts of radionuclides, and a long-term intake of a relatively constant amount of radionuclides, the radionuclide being 137 Cs. In the first case, the amount of radionuclides present in the embryo increases with the age of the embryo and with the intake of the mother. In the second case, no correlation could be found between the age of the embryo and its radioactive content; only the correlation between the intake of the mother and the radionuclide content of the embryo remained. (A.K.)

  9. Barriers to physical activity among working mothers. (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jill J


    Working mothers experience several barriers to physical activity. If these barriers can be identified by occupational health nurses and they can partner with working mothers to reduce these perceived barriers, the health of these workers can be improved and chronic disease risk prevented. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of self-regulatory efficacy on physical activity among working mothers and to describe specific barriers to physical activity. The Barriers Specific Self-Efficacy Scale (BARSE) and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) were used to measure the variables. Self-regulatory efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of physical activity in a diverse sample of working mothers who did not meet current recommendations for physical activity. Occupational health nurses can use these findings to design programs for groups and for counseling individuals. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Transfer of elements into mother's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wappelhorst, O.; Kuehn, I.; Heidenreich, H.; Markert, B.


    This research project aimed to determine the factors for the transfer of the elements silver (Ag), cerium (Ce), cobalt (Co), chrome (Cr), gallium (Ga), lanthanum (La), molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), radium (Ra), ruthenium (Ru), antimony (sb), thorium (Th), titanium (Ti) and uranium (U) from food into the mother's milk. This factors will be used as a basic to check and derive activity values for the contamination of food and for radiation protection at working places of suckling women. For this purpose 19 mothers collected samples daily (2-8 weeks), using the duplicate method, of all the food they consumed as well as of their milk. After microwave-assisted digestion the element contents were analysed by mass-spectroscopy with inductive coupled plasma (ICP-MS). The results of the mothers who participate for more than 5 weeks were used to make a time lapse between the intake and transfer of the elements in the mothers milk visible. (orig.) [de

  11. Travel Recommendations for the Nursing Mother (United States)

    ... mothers traveling to malarious areas should ensure the antimalarial included is compatible with breastfeeding before beginning travel. ... submit" value="Submit" /> Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & ...

  12. Clinics in Mother and Child Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinics in Mother and Child Health is a bilingual journal and publishes (in ... Health Care Facility in South-South Nigeria: The Need for Middle Level Health Manpower ... Le syndrome des ovaires micropolykystiques chez les femmes infertiles à ...

  13. factors influencing vitamin a supplementation among mothers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 4, 2012 ... and awareness among both health workers and mothers. ... remains the lack of recognition of the need for. VAS. ..... of India where only 12.5% had received VAS (11). .... weekly vitamin A supplementation among women.

  14. Mothers' beliefs about emotions, mother-child emotion discourse, and children's emotion understanding in Latino families


    Perez-Rivera, Marie Belle


    The purpose of this study was to better understand associations between acculturation, parental beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in Latino preschool-aged children. Research on Latino families may prove to be important given the little research that has focused on emotion understanding strictly in Latino cultures. Forty Latino mother-child dyads were observed throughout a series of naturalistic observations. Mothers self-reported their acculturation and their belie...

  15. The relationship between mother?s parenting style and social adaptability of adolescent girls in Isfahan


    Kazemi, Ashraf; Solokian, Soheila; Ashouri, Elaheh; Marofi, Maryam


    Background: Social adaptability is an important requirement of the social life of adolescents, which can be affected by their mother?s parenting style (PS). The purpose of this study is to compare the social adaptability in four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful) through which mothers interact with their adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This survey is a cross-sectional and analytical study on 737 adolescents that study in the all girls junior hi...

  16. Lower polyamine levels in breast milk of obese mothers compared to mothers with normal body weight. (United States)

    Ali, M Atiya; Strandvik, B; Palme-Kilander, C; Yngve, A


    Obesity is associated with risks for mother and infant, and the mothers' dietary habits influence breast milk composition. Polyamines are secreted in breast milk and are essential for the regulation of intestinal and immune function in newborns and infants. The present study aimed to investigate the level of polyamines in human milk obtained from obese and normal weight mothers at different times of lactation. Breast milk from 50 mothers was obtained at day 3, and at 1 and 2 months after delivery. The mothers had normal body weight [body mass index (BMI) obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2) ). A subgroup of obese mothers participated in a weight reduction programme during pregnancy. Polyamines were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total polyamine content was significantly lower at all times in breast milk from obese mothers compared to milk from controls. Spermine levels did not differ between groups at any time in contrast to the levels of putrescine and spermidine. Putrescine concentrations were highest on day 3 and spermidine and spermine were highest at 1 month of lactation. The obese mothers, who received dietary advice during pregnancy based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, had higher concentrations of putrescine and spermidine in their milk than the obese mothers without any intervention. Polyamine concentrations were lower in breast milk from obese mothers compared to mothers with a normal weight. General dietary intervention in obese mothers increased the polyamine levels, suggesting that the low levels in obesity were at least partly associated with food habits. However, the consistency of spermine suggests a special metabolic function of this polyamine. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Helping mothers survive bleeding after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelissen, Ellen; Ersdal, Hege; Ostergaard, Doris


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants, and ambul......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants...

  18. Pregnancy outcomes in mothers with advanced human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2%, p=0.308) and to have low Apgar scores (28% vs. 12%, Apgar score < 4 at 5 minutes p=0.02). Perinatal sepsis and perinatal deaths were more common in infants born to mothers with advanced HIV disease compared to infants born to HIV negative mothers (8 vs. 3, p=0.003 and 14 vs. 5, p=0.025 respectively). External ...

  19. Children of Working Mothers, March 1974. (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Almost 27 million children in the U.S.--or 42 percent of those under age 18--had mothers working or seeking work in March 1974. About one in four of these children (6.1 million) were below regular school age. Since 1970, the number of children whose mothers were in the labor force has risen sharply by 1.2 million, while the total number of…

  20. Attitudes toward working mothers: accommodating the needs of mothers in the work force. (United States)

    Albright, A


    More women, including mothers, are part of the work force than ever before. In the workplace, barriers often exist that restrict promotion and advancement of mothers. Mothers often are penalized in attempting to meet the demands of parent and worker roles. Parenting practices have been considered primarily the domain of mothers. However, nurturing may be done effectively by fathers or other motivated adults. Policies of employers must change to accommodate needs of families. Examples of supportive practices may include flexible working hours, parental leave, and on-site child care.

  1. Substance Use among Adolescent Mothers: A Review. (United States)

    Chapman, Shawna L Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy


    Maternal substance abuse is a critical problem, and adolescent mothers appear to be at high risk for such behaviors. We review studies on postpartum adolescent substance use to explore the extent of this problem and avenues for new research. Authors screened 1,300 studies, identifying 12 articles on substance use among postpartum adolescent mothers for this review. Adolescent mothers reported greater substance use before pregnancy compared to other adolescent females. Although some adolescents continued substance use during pregnancy, most stopped using only to resume within six months after birth. Comparisons of use to national samples of nulliparous adolescent females showed a higher prevalence of substance use in this population. Substances used often varied by race/ethnicity, with white mothers more likely to smoke cigarettes and use marijuana, and Black mothers more likely than whites to drink and use drugs. Of all identified studies, only one focused on Hispanics. Beliefs about drug use grew less negative as girls transitioned from pregnancy to parenthood. As they transitioned to adulthood, substance use remained prevalent and stable. Psychological distress and low self-esteem appeared to influence continued use. Friends' cigarette smoking predicted early initiation of and persistent smoking, while increased education predicted quitting. Early initiation of substances often predicted problem behaviors. Adolescent mothers are a vulnerable population, implicating use of problem behavior theory or the self-medication hypothesis in future research. Multiple avenues for new studies are needed to help identify effective treatment and intervention for this understudied population.

  2. Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ebrahimi


    Full Text Available Introduction: A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child’s treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children.  Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabilities. The reliability and validity of the instrument were confirmed through content validity and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α=86%, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software.   Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P

  3. Surrogacy: the experiences of surrogate mothers. (United States)

    Jadva, Vasanti; Murray, Clare; Lycett, Emma; MacCallum, Fiona; Golombok, Susan


    This study examined the motivations, experiences and psychological consequences of surrogacy for surrogate mothers. Thirty-four women who had given birth to a surrogate child approximately 1 year previously were interviewed by trained researchers, and the data rated using standardized coding criteria. Information was obtained on: (i) reasons for the woman's decision to become a surrogate mother; (ii) her retrospective view of the relationship with the commissioning couple before the pregnancy, during the pregnancy, and after the birth; (iii) her experiences during and after relinquishing the child; and (iv) how others reacted to her decision to become a surrogate mother. It was found that surrogate mothers do not generally experience major problems in their relationship with the commissioning couple, in handing over the baby, or from the reactions of those around them. The emotional problems experienced by some surrogate mothers in the weeks following the birth appeared to lessen over time. Surrogate mothers do not appear to experience psychological problems as a result of the surrogacy arrangement.

  4. Mother's perceptions of postpartum stress and satisfaction. (United States)

    Horowitz, J A; Damato, E G


    To examine mothers' postpartum perceptions of stress and satisfaction. Methodologic triangulation with quantitative and qualitative data in a nonexperimental design. A convenience sample of 95 women was obtained during normally scheduled postpartum appointments at a health maintenance organization. The self-administered questionnaire included the Mothers' Information Tool (MIT), What Being the Parent of a Baby Is Like (WPL-R), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Open-ended MIT items revealed mothers' perceptions of stress and satisfaction. The WPL-R provided maternal satisfaction scores, and the BSI yielded Global Stress Index scores. Content analysis identified the following categories: Roles, Tasks, Resources, and Relationships. Subcategories identified as areas of stress were Work/School, Sleep/Rest, Adjustment/Own Needs, Health/Body Image, Organization of Life, Child Care, Day Care, Housework, Future Challenges, Finances, Housing, Time, Partner, and Family. Subcategories identified as areas of satisfaction were Participating in Relationships, Sharing the Future, Being Proud to Be a Mother, Enjoying a Healthy Baby, and Caring for a Child. Levels of stress and satisfaction of mothers who scored high and low on quantitative measures were compared. The outcomes contribute to the knowledge concerning postpartum women's perceptions of the mothering experience and suggest approaches to nursing assessment and intervention to prevent postpartum adjustment difficulties.

  5. Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in Manyara and ... E.L Ndau, D. Walters, D. Wu, N. Saleh, T.C.E. Mosha, S. Horton, H.S. Laswai ... for young mothers, 84.6% for middle age mothers and 86.3% for elderly mothers.

  6. Personalization in Mother-Child Emotion Talk across Three Contexts (United States)

    Kucirkova, Natalia; Tompkins, Virginia


    An unexplored aspect of contextual variation in emotion talk is the extent to which the emotions mothers and children discuss relate to the child, mother, or another self. To establish the extent to which mothers and children personalize the emotions they discuss, we examined the emotion talk of 40 American mother-child dyads in three…

  7. Post partum emotional distress in mothers of preterm infants: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More mothers of preterm neonates(27.3%) had GHQ-30 scores which categorised them as having significant emotional distress than mothers of full term normal infants(3.7%). Similarly more mothers of preterm neonates(15.1%) were more depressed than mothers of full term normal infants(3.7%). These differences were ...

  8. Study of Mothers' Anxieties Related to Their Children's Future (United States)

    Ilgar, Sengul


    The purpose of this study is to study anxieties of mothers related to their children's future. Qualitative method was used in order to study anxieties of mothers from different socio-economic levels. Sample of the study participants are 129 mothers living in Istanbul. 32 of those mothers are from upper socio-economic level, 57, from middle…

  9. The Impact of Depression on Mothers and Children (United States)

    Beardslee, William R.; Gladstone, Tracy R. G.; Diehl, Anne


    Depression in pregnant women and mothers of very young children is a pressing public health issue. Maternal depression is linked to a number of serious difficulties for mothers, their young children, and mother-child relationships. Unrecognized and untreated, it can lead to long-lasting impairment for both mothers and their children. However,…

  10. Children with Autism: Sleep Problems and Mothers' Stress (United States)

    Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.; Lopez-Wagner, Muriel C.; Hodge, Danelle; Nam, Cindy Y.; Botts, Betsy H.


    Parenting a child with autism has been associated with maternal stress. The present investigation examined children's sleep difficulties and severity of autism along with mothers' sleep problems in relation to stress levels reported by mothers ( N = 72). Mothers' reports of their children's sleep problems were related to mothers' reports of their…

  11. Locating Mothers: How Cultural Debates about Stay-at-Home versus Working Mothers Define Women and Home (United States)

    Dillaway, Heather; Pare, Elizabeth


    Most women must decide whether to work for pay while mothering or make mothering their sole social role. Often this decision is portrayed in terms of whether they will be "stay-at-home" and presumably "full-time" mothers, or "working mothers" and therefore ones who prioritize paid work over caregiving. Inferred within this construction is women's…

  12. Are Mothers Really "Gatekeepers" of Children?: Rural Mothers' Perceptions of Nonresident Fathers' Involvement in Low-Income Families (United States)

    Sano, Yoshie; Richards, Leslie N.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.


    Guided by symbolic interactionism, this qualitative study based on interviews with 83 rural mothers investigated mothers' perceptions of nonresident fathers' involvement in low-income families. Contrary to some fathers' claims that mothers "gatekeep" their access to children, the majority of mothers in our study wanted increased father…

  13. Several Common Grounds of Liu Zhi-ji and Zhang Xue-cheng in Their Historical Criticism%刘知幾与章学诚史学批评理论中的几个共通面向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泓林; 毕兵


    Liu Zhiji’ s General History and Zhang Xuecheng ’ s General Principles of Literature and History born several common grounds in historical philosophy such as the relationship between history and literature , the principles and the methods of historical criticism and the self-cultivation of historians .They were particularly complementary and rever-berant in terms of recording the truth without fear or favor , viewing history dialectically and having an insight into the society and human being , thus pioneering a wide range of topics on the research of history and historical philosophy . Meanwhile , by putting forward concepts from the “three accomplishments of historians” to“historians ’ morality” and the “duty” of historians themselves , they not only provided the standard for the historians themselves , but also provid-ed a reference standard for later historians to continue to reflect and improve their self -cultivation .%章学诚的《文史通义》与刘知幾的《史通》在史文关系、史学批评原则与方法、史家自身修养上的总结达到了史学理论的共通面向,尤其是双方在秉笔直书、辨证史义、论世知人等方面的史学批评理论的互补与融合,为后世史学、史学理论的发展开辟了广阔的研究领域。同时,二人关于“史学三长”到“史德”概念的发展衍变及对史家自身“天职”问题的探讨,不仅为史家自身批评素养理论提供了准绳,更是为后世史家不断反思和提高自身修养提供了参考标准。

  14. "I Fell off [the Mothering] Track": Barriers to "Effective Mothering" among Prostituted Women (United States)

    Dalla, Rochelle


    Ecological theory and basic assumptions for the promotion of effective mothering among low-income and working-poor women are applied in relation to a particularly vulnerable population: street-level prostitution-involved women. Qualitative data from 38 street-level prostituted women shows barriers to effective mothering at the individual,…

  15. Mother-Child Interactions and Childhood OCD: Effects of CBT on Mother and Child Observed Behaviors (United States)

    Schlup, Barbara; Farrell, Lara; Barrett, Paula


    This waitlist-controlled study investigates the impact of a group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy with family involvement (CBT-F) on observed mother and child behaviors in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-four children and adolescents with OCD and their mothers were observed during family discussions before and after…

  16. The "Mother" of All Schemas: Creating Cognitive Dissonance in Children's Fantasy Literature Using the Mother Figure (United States)

    Palkovich, Einat Natalie


    Mothers are essential facilitators of early Theory of Mind development and intrinsic to the acquisition, as well as the content, of many basic schemas learnt in infancy. In this article it is argued that the "mother" schema in children's literature can ease a child's transition into literary discourse by exploiting the child's…

  17. Stress in Mothers of Hearing Impaired Children Compared to Mothers of Normal and Other Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is associated with life satisfaction and also development of some physical diseases. Birth of a disabled child with mental or physical disability (especially deaf or blind children, impose an enormous load of stress on their parents especially the mothers. This study compared stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of normal children or with other disabilities.Methods: In this study, cluster random sampling was performed in Karaj city. 120 mothers in four groups of having a child with mental retardation, low vision, hearing impairment and with normal children were included. Family inventory of life events (FILE of Mc Cubbin et al. was used to determine stress level in four groups of mothers.Results: The results of this research indicated a significant difference (p<0.05 between stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of other disabled and normal children in subscales of intra-family stress, finance and business strains, stress of job transitions, stress of illness and family care and family members "in and out''. There was no difference between compared groups in other subscales.Conclusion: Since deafness is a hidden inability, the child with hearing impairment has a set of social and educational problems causing great stress for parents, especially to mother. In order to decrease mother’s stress, it is suggested to provide more family consultation, adequate social support and to run educational classes for parents to practice stress coping strategies.

  18. Associations of Low-Income Working Mothers' Daily Interactions with Supervisors and Mother-Child Interactions (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna


    This study investigated associations of low-income working mothers' daily interactions with supervisors and their interactions with children. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children were asked to report on their interactions with their supervisors at work and their interactions with children for 2 weeks (N = 520 workdays). Results show…

  19. Mothering from Prison: Using Narratives in a Mother-Child Support Program (United States)

    Trost, Betty Chamness


    Incarcerated and formerly incarcerated women who participated in the Storybook Project of Iowa told passionate stories of how their understanding of mothering had changed. They spoke of how the Storybook Project strengthened their mothering practices and relationships with their children and families. This study was an opportunity for reflection…

  20. Mother-Child Interactional Patterns in High- and Low-Risk Mothers. (United States)

    Dolz, Laura; Cerezo, M. Angeles; Milner, Joel S.


    A study of 10 high-risk (of child physical abuse) and 10 demographically similar low-risk Spanish mother-child dyads investigated interactional patterns in the home. High-risk mothers made fewer neutral approaches to their children, displayed more negative behaviors toward their children, and made more indiscriminate responses to their children's…

  1. Attitudes toward teen mothers among nursing students and psychometric evaluation of Positivity Toward Teen Mothers scale. (United States)

    Kim, Son Chae; Burke, Leanne; Sloan, Chris; Barnett, Shannon


    To prepare future nurses who can deliver high quality nursing care to teen mothers, a better understanding of the nursing students' perception of teen mothers is needed. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 228 nursing students to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Positivity Toward Teen Mothers (PTTM) scale, to explore nursing students' general empathy and attitudes toward teen mothers, and to investigate the predictors of nursing students' attitudes toward teen mothers. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a 19-item PTTM-Revised scale with Non-judgmental and Supportive subscales. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales were 0.84 and 0.69, respectively, and 0.87 for the total scale. Simultaneous multiple regression models showed that general empathy and having a teen mother in the family or as an acquaintance were significant predictors of positive attitudes toward teen mothers, whereas age was a significant negative predictor. The PTTM-Revised scale is a promising instrument for assessing attitudes toward teen mothers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiorespiratory disorders of infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrabovski Ivan


    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the characteristics of modern era is the explosion of diabetes in the world. Today more than 400,000,000 people suffer from diabetes in the entire world. During the last decade the number of women with the disorder of glucose homeostasis is six to seven times greater than in the previous period. Therefore, the re-evaluation of the impact of glucose intolerance on the course and outcome of pregnancy is very current. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the data on the influence of mothers’ glucose homeostasis disturbances on the occurrence of cardiorespiratory disorders in newborns, as well as their influence on the perinatal outcome. Methods. Prospective examination included 102 newborns in total - 31 infants of mothers with glucose homeostasis disorder (Group I and 71 infants of healthy mothers (Group II. Average age, body height, body weight, body mass index, parity and illness duration of the pregnant women had been determined, as well as the delivery method. Every newborn was provided with physical examination, Apgar score was calculated, body weight and body length were measured. Also, electrocardiography and brain ultrasound, as well as the basic hematology biochemical and microbiological analysis, were performed within the examinations of the infants. Results. The average weight and obesity incidence with diabetic women was higher than in the control group and their infants were heavier and with lower gestational age. Heart failures were diagnosed in five (16.1% infants of diabetic mothers and in one (1.4% infant of a healthy woman (p<0.01. Respiratory disorders were diagnosed in 48.4% infants of diabetic mothers and in 12.6% of healthy mothers (p<0.01. Forty-two percent of infants of diabetic mothers and 19.7% infants of healthy mothers needed additional oxygen. Conclusion. Congenital anomalies of the cardiovascular system and respiratory disorders in the infants of diabetic mothers were six to eight

  3. Conduct of breastfeeding among young Tunisian Mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniaoui, Rim; Zediri, Manel; Mankai, Amani; Aouidet, Abdallah; Hamoudia, Faouzia


    Full text: Introduction: Breastfeeding is a natural phenomenon that reflects reality and occupies an important space in the life of all human beings. It is the reference for infant feeding since it is the food better tailored to his needs as its capabilities. The decision to make this practice is the responsibility of each parent. However, it is found that although mothers in particular young age properly begin the practice of breastfeeding, they end, for various reasons by early introduction of other foods or even stop breastfeeding few weeks after the delivery. Objectives: We aim from this study to examine the behavior of young mothers in breastfeeding, determine the impact of attitudes of mothers on the nutritional status of infants and encourage policymakers health to establish a line of action to initiate future and young mothers to breastfeed. Methods: This is a prospective study of 50 young mothers coming to consult or to vaccinate their children aged 2 to 23 months at the center of maternal and child of El Zouhour. Results: The analysis of our results showed that 76% of surveyed mothers have a high level of education, half primiparous and 64% are housewives. Concerning the practice of breastfeeding, we found that 42% of surveyed mothers have weaned their children and only 26% of them believe breastfeeding or breast-feed their infants exclusively for the first six months. Moreover, we noted That among children suffering from obesity 2nd degree be 16% of the total population , 87.5% of them were not (or are not) exclusively breastfed for the first six month of life. However, this relationship is not statistically significant. Conclusion: The evolution of knowledge of young mothers has not influenced their practices in breastfeeding. This requires the establishment of a line of action to promote breastfeeding based on the evaluation of implemented national programs in recent years, the update of their content and the improvement of training of personnel of

  4. [Care of mothers of newborns in intensive care units: experiences, feelings and expectations of the mothers]. (United States)

    Belli, M A


    The purpose of the study was to examine the experiences, feelings and expectation of mothers of high risk newborns. The population was a group of 20 mothers of high risk newborns of three hospitals in the City of São Paulo. Interview with the mothers was the method of data collection containing opened and structured questions. It was verified that most of the mothers had none or only a little interaction with the newborn after delivery; the eye contact was the most referred during the staying of the newborn in the Intensive Care Unity; all of them demonstrated interest in participating in the care of the newborn and expressed the need of information concerning to the health status of the newborn, the Intensive Care Unity environment and the hospital team. Several were the feelings expressed and the motives that indicated the needs of the mothers.

  5. Mothers understand and can do it (MUAC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackwell, Nikki; Myatt, Mark; Allafort-Duverger, Thierry


    BACKGROUND: Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was recently endorsed and recommended for screening for acute malnutrition in the community. The objective of this study was to determine whether a colour-banded MUAC strap would allow minimally trained mothers to screen their own children for malnut......BACKGROUND: Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was recently endorsed and recommended for screening for acute malnutrition in the community. The objective of this study was to determine whether a colour-banded MUAC strap would allow minimally trained mothers to screen their own children...... for malnutrition, without locating the mid-point of the left upper arm by measurement, as currently recommended. METHODS: A non-randomised non-blinded evaluation of mothers' performance when measuring MUAC after minimal training, compared with trained Community Health Workers (CHW) following current MUAC protocols....... The study was conducted in 2 villages in Mirriah, Zinder region, Niger where mothers classified one of their children (n = 103) aged 6-59 months (the current age range for admission into community malnutrition programs) using the MUAC tape. RESULTS: Mothers' had a sensitivity and specificity...

  6. New mothers' views of weight and exercise. (United States)

    Groth, Susan W; David, Tamala


    To describe the attitudes and preferences of ethnically diverse new mothers on weight and exercise. Exploratory, qualitative study. Forty-nine ethnically diverse women were interviewed during the first year following childbirth regarding beliefs about weight, choices of exercise, walking for exercise, perceived benefits, barriers, and facilitators of exercise. Content analysis techniques were used to analyze the data. Weight was a significant concern for women, although the importance varied by race. New mothers reported that they would like to weigh less, and they endorsed walking for exercise. Common barriers to exercise were children and time constraints; health problems were also seen as a barrier to walking as a form of exercise. Scheduling the walk and having a walking partner were factors that women said would facilitate walking for physical activity during the first year after childbirth. Because new mothers perceive walking as a good form of exercise, nurses can use this information to help them plan a daily walking schedule to aid in weight loss and control postpartum. Nurses should also encourage new mothers to look for a walking partner, especially another new mother or a friend, to help them continue their physical activity during the first year after childbirth.

  7. Parenting perceptions of low-income mothers. (United States)

    Webb, Jenny; Morris, Melanie Hall; Thomas, Sandra P; Combs-Orme, Terri


    The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to gain understanding of perceptions of low-income pregnant women and mothers about parenting. Participants were 65 low-income, primarily African American, women in their 20s and 30s who were recruited from a faith-based social service center in Memphis, Tennessee. Interviews were conducted by nursing, social work, and psychology students. The existential phenomenological method was used to analyze verbatim responses of participants to vignettes depicting parenting behaviors of hypothetical mothers. Five global themes were identified: (a) Focus on baby's development: "Because I'm the Mother, I'm the First Teacher"; (b) Focus on baby's safety/security: "The Baby Could Be Hurt"; (c) Focus on conveying love: "She Just Wants the Baby to Feel Her Love"; (d) Focus on learning the rules of good childcare: "It's Important to Know the Do's and Don'ts"; and (e) Focus on doing it differently (better) than parents did: "When You Know Better, You Do Better." Findings suggest that these mothers care deeply about providing a better life for their children than the life they have had. They desire to learn about being the best parents they can be. As nurses, we can help to provide educational opportunities for mothers through a variety of evidence-based interventions delivered across the childbearing years.

  8. Increasing Confidence and Ability in Implementing Kangaroo Mother Care Method Among Young Mothers. (United States)

    Kenanga Purbasary, Eleni; Rustina, Yeni; Budiarti, Tri

    Mothers giving birth to low birth weight babies (LBWBs) have low confidence in caring for their babies because they are often still young and may lack the knowledge, experience, and ability to care for the baby. This research aims to determine the effect of education about kangaroo mother care (KMC) on the confidence and ability of young mothers to implement KMC. The research methodology used was a controlled-random experimental approach with pre- and post-test equivalent groups of 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the intervention group and 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the control group. Data were collected via an instrument measuring young mothers' confidence, the validity and reliability of which have been tested with a resulting r value of .941, and an observation sheet on KMC implementation. After conducting the education, the confidence score of young mothers and their ability to perform KMC increased meaningfully. The score of confidence of young mothers before education was 37 (p = .1555: and the ability score for KMC Implementation before education was 9 (p = .1555). The median score of confidence of young mothers after education in the intervention group was 87 and in the control group was 50 (p = .001, 95% CI 60.36-75.56), and ability median score for KMC implementation after education in the intervention group was 16 and in the control group was 12 (p = .001, 95% CI 1.50-1.88). KMC education should be conducted gradually, and it is necessary to involve the family, in order for KMC implementation to continue at home. A family visit can be done for LBWBs to evaluate the ability of the young mothers to implement KMC.

  9. Unified communication to reach vulnerable mothers. (United States)

    Tezcan, B; Von Rege, I; Henkson, H; Oteng-Ntim, E


    The feasibility of using a mobile text to reach vulnerable patient groups was assessed in this study. A total of 121 pregnant or postnatal women were randomly asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire was given to them in the antenatal clinic, postnatal ward, antenatal ward or in the day assessment unit at St Thomas' Hospital, London. The forms were collected and analysed using an Excel database. The results of this survey show that mobile technology is readily available for 97% of the obstetric population. In mothers from vulnerable groups and in mothers from deprived areas, 61% possessed 3rd generation mobile technology. The majority of mothers surveyed wanted their care supplemented by the use of their mobile phones.

  10. Child overweight - mothers' competence to take action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Peitersen, Birgit


    Objective: We investigated mothers' possession and display of action competence to counteract or prevent overweight and eventual obesity in their children. Action competence is defined as a personal resource where the most important aspect is the individual's wish to take action and to believe...... in its benefit. It unfolds within the room for action as experienced by the individual due to action obstacles and action potentials. Methods: In a case-control study, mothers of 111 overweight children (MOC) were compared with mothers of 149 nonoverweight children (MNC). They underwent a semistructured...... interview about action competence, lifestyle, and their 7- to 9-year-old children. Results: Compared to MNC, MOC considered it more important to change habits, both for themselves (p = 0.003) and their children (p


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia F. Lakhvich


    Full Text Available To become a mother … To be a mother … What does it mean for a woman? And what else changes her life so irreversibly, allows to see the world in a different way and discovers new, earlier unknown features? Probably, nothing does. However, there is also a question how a woman bearing a child and carrying out motherhood responsibilities and a woman who has not given life to a child, but carrying out the same responsibilities, goes through the process of motherhood. It is one of the questions that was studied in a comparative research of the adaptation process in the Belarusian adoptive and biological families in case of a child appearing in the family. The study involved 64 adoptive and 62 biological mothers.

  12. Transport of compounds from mother to foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, B.M.; Garnett, E.S.; Perrier, D.G.; Prestwich, W.


    This study reviews the literature and investigates the transport of selected radiopharmaceuticals from the mother to the foetus and the distribution of these radiopharmaceuticals in both animals and man. This search emphasizes the placental transport of the drugs from the mother to the foetus and the development of pharmacokinetic models that could describe this transport. An outline of the distribution and/or transport of several radio-pharmaceuticals is presented followed by a description of the factors that regulate the transport of the radiopharmaceuticals from the mother to the foetus. Pharmacokinetic models were designed on the available information in the open literature. The limitation of the literature is discussed and suggestions for future experimental investigation are made

  13. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Driscoll


    Full Text Available Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG. Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, single motherhood, poverty, employment of teen, young adult, and older mothers was compared across cohorts and within cohorts. Results: Among teen mothers, the odds of fulltime employment improved across birth cohorts and the odds of educational attainment beyond high school did not vary. Their odds of single motherhood and living in poverty increased across cohorts. The odds of higher education and single motherhood increased across birth cohorts for young adult mothers as did the odds of living in poverty, even if working fulltime. Among older adult mothers, educational attainment and the odds of single motherhood rose for recent cohorts. Conclusions: Comparisons between teen mothers and both young adult and all adult mothers within cohorts suggest that gaps in single motherhood and poverty between teen and adult mothers have widened over time, to the detriment of teen mothers. Teen mothers have become more likely to be single and poor than in the past and compared to older mothers.

  14. Help for breastfeeding mothers. Support groups. (United States)


    Many people including some health workers and physicians believe bottle feeding is just as good as breast feeding, even though bottle feeding poses some dangers to infants. Further, health workers in hospital often are too busy to counsel new mothers in breast feeding or are simply not trained to do so. Moreover, young women often live in areas away from their family and friends thus not living close to women with whom they are familiar and who could guide them in mastering breast feeding skills. So new mothers who want to breast feed have no support, lack confidence, and/or feel they cannot do so because they work or have other responsibilities. Support groups for new breast feeding mothers can provide them with the needed confidence to breast feed by allowing them to discuss concerns with other new mothers and an experienced leader and to learn the advantages of breast feeding, e.g., a breast fed infant is never constipated. A confident experienced woman in breast feeding is best suited to start a support group in a community. She needs to promote the group by talking to health workers and physicians and advertising at maternity hospitals, women's organizations, and health centers. Once the support group has become successful, several mothers can undergo training to start and lead new support groups. If no national breast feeding promotion organization exists to offer advice on starting a support group, the article provides addresses of international organizations. At support group meetings, mothers learn how to breast feed, how to express and store breast milk, breast feed inconspicuously in public, how their bodies work, and about child growth and development. Support group members from the Philippines, Belize, Trinidad and Tobago, Australia, and singapore share their experiences.

  15. Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ebrahimi


     Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P



    Ana-Maria MANDIUC


    A large number of women who practice prostitution get pregnant and have the child. When a mother continues practicing prostitution, while at the same time trying to fulfill parental responsibilities, the child’s rights could end up being violated because of the characteristics of the two roles the woman adopts. The present paper presents the case study of a child of schooling age and whose mother practiced prostitution. The child was put in foster care after the mother’s death and the case st...

  17. Mothers as informal science class teachers (United States)

    Katz, Phyllis

    This study explores the participation of mothers as teachers (termed "Adult Leaders") in the Hands On Science Outreach (HOSO) informal science program for pre-kindergarten through sixth grade children. Since women continue to be underrepresented in the sciences (AAUW, 1992; AAUW 1998), there is a need to probe the nature of mothers' choices in science experiences, in the family context, and as role models. Mothers of school age children who choose to lead informal science activities are in a position to teach and learn not only within this alternative setting, but within their homes where values, attitudes, beliefs and motivations are continually cultivated by daily choices (Gordon, 1972; Tamir, 1990; Gerber, 1997). Policy makers recognize that schools are only one environment from many for learning science (National Science Board, 1983; National Research Council, 1996). Using complementary methodology, this study was conducted in two HOSO sessions that extended over six months. Twelve mothers who were HOSO teachers were case study participants. Primary data collection strategies were interviews, journals, and "draw-a-scientist." A larger sample of HOSO mother-teachers (N = 112) also contributed to a surrey, developed from an analysis of the case studies. Informal learning settings must, by their non-compulsory nature, focus on the affective component of learning as a necessity of participation. The framework for the qualitative analysis was from the affective characteristics described by Simpson et al. (1994). The interpretation is informed by sociobiology, science education and adult education theories. The study finds that the twelve mothers began their HOSO teaching believing in science as a way of knowing and valuing the processes and information from its practice. These women perceive their participation as a likely means to increase the success of their child(ren)'s education and are interested in the potential personal gains of leading an informal science

  18. Process of becoming a mother for Iranian surrogacy-commissioning mothers: A grounded theory study. (United States)

    Zandi, Mitra; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Mohammadi, Eesa


    Little knowledge is available about the experiences of the commissioning mothers during the process of surrogacy; thus, the present study was conducted in order to explore and analyze this process. This study was conducted in a referral institute in Tehran with a qualitative approach and using grounded theory methodology. The data were collected through 39 unstructured, in-depth interviews that were conducted with 15 gestational commissioning mothers, two of their husbands, four surrogates, and five of the personnel at centers for assisted reproduction (some participants were interviewed more than once). Sampling started purposively and then continued theoretically. The analysis revealed the main concern of these mothers to be the feeling of "insecurity about becoming a mother" and their predominant strategy for dealing with it to be "seeking security about becoming a mother," which emerged as a core concept. The consequences of the mothers' adopted strategies and the effects of the intervening factors included "reaching a state of relative peace," "a continuing threat to one's identity," and "mental and physical exhaustion." Identifying the demands of this group of mothers can help medical personnel, particularly nurses, adopt better plans for the future and to optimize the care they provide to these patients. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  19. Mothering and anxiety: Social support and competence as mitigating factors for first-time mothers. (United States)

    Chavis, Llena


    This study investigated anxiety as a phenomenon distinct from depression and evaluated several variables that influence anxiety in first-time mothers. This explored the relationship between maternal sense of competence (both of mothering and efficacy) and perceived social support (from family, friends, and significant others) and first-time mothers' postpartum anxiety, when depression, socioeconomic status (SES), and marital status were controlled for. The population studied were 86 first-time mothers made up of women with children 24 months or younger in two populations of Kentucky and Michigan. The constructs of maternal sense of competence and perceived social support were found to be significant in explaining first-time mothers' anxiety. The study concluded that a combined association of perceived social support and maternal sense of competence were associated with a 34% (change in R-squared = .339) decrease of a first-time mothers' anxiety. However, not all types of social support, or maternal competence appeared to be equally important with regards to maternal anxiety: social support from friends and family and maternal sense of competence in regard to productivity appeared to be most significant. Lastly, some recommendations for health practitioners who work with mothers are provided.

  20. Gender bias in mothers' expectations about infant crawling. (United States)

    Mondschein, E R; Adolph, K E; Tamis-LeMonda, C S


    Although boys outshine girls in a range of motor skills, there are no reported gender differences in motor performance during infancy. This study examined gender bias in mothers' expectations about their infants' motor development. Mothers of 11-month-old infants estimated their babies' crawling ability, crawling attempts, and motor decisions in a novel locomotor task-crawling down steep and shallow slopes. Mothers of girls underestimated their performance and mothers of boys overestimated their performance. Mothers' gender bias had no basis in fact. When we tested the infants in the same slope task moments after mothers' provided their ratings, girls and boys showed identical levels of motor performance. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  1. Mother-child language style matching predicts children's and mothers' emotion reactivity. (United States)

    Rasmussen, Hannah F; Borelli, Jessica L; Smiley, Patricia A; Cohen, Chloe; Cheung, Ryan Cheuk Ming; Fox, Schuyler; Marvin, Matthew; Blackard, Betsy


    Co-regulation of behavior occurring within parent-child attachment relationships is thought to be the primary means through which children develop the capacity to regulate emotion, an ability that is protective across development. Existing research on parent-child co-regulation focuses predominantly on parent-infant dyads, and operationalizes co-regulation as the matching of facial expressions; however, matching can occur on other behaviors, including vocal tone, body movement, and language. Studies with young children find that greater matching is associated with children's lower emotion reactivity, but with unknown impacts on parents. In this study we examine a recently-developed metric of behavioral matching, language style matching (LSM), a composite measure of the similarity of function word use in spoken or written language between two or more people. We test whether LSM between mothers and their school-aged children is associated with children's and mothers' physiological and subjective emotion reactivity. Children completed a standardized stressor task while their mothers observed; children's and mother's cortisol and cardiovascular reactivity were assessed, as were their subjective reports of emotion reactivity. Following the stressor, children and mothers completed independent interviews about the experience, later assessed for LSM. Higher mother-child LSM was associated with lower emotion reactivity (lower cortisol reactivity, lower reports of negative emotion) for children, and with higher maternal cardiovascular but not cortisol or subjective reactivity. Further, higher LSM was more strongly associated with lower child cortisol reactivity when mothers were more reactive themselves. We conclude that mother-child LSM, thought to reflect a history of co-regulated interaction, confers protective benefits for children, but heightened reactivity for mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Motherhood in adolescent mothers: maternal attachment, mother-infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months. (United States)

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro


    Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Association between mothers' quality of life and infants' nutritional status]. (United States)

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Carraro, Deborah Filippini; Cuervo, Maria Rita Macedo; Hagen, Martine Elisabeth Kienzle; Spiandorello, Wilson Paloschi; Pizzato, Alessandra Campani


    Determine associations between the quality of life of mothers and the nutritional status of children. case-control study involving 152 mothers of children aged zero to five years, living in the coverage area of a basic health unit in the city of Porto Alegre. The calculation of sample size was estimated as 152 mothers - 76 mothers with children at nutritional risk/malnutrition (cases) and 76 mothers with eutrophic children (controls). Information was collected regarding the quality of life of mothers, measured by the instrument of the World Health Organization, and the association between maternal quality of life and nutritional status of children was examined. In relation to the psychiatric realm, for each eutrophic child whose mother has lower quality of life there is a chance of 5.4 children at nutritional risk/malnutrition with mothers in the same condition. In the environmental field, for each eutrophic child whose mother has lower quality of life there is a chance of 2.9 children at nutritional risk/malnutrition with mothers in the same condition. Regarding educational level, for each eutrophic child whose mother has lower quality of life there is a chance of 4.2 children at nutritional risk/malnutrition with mothers in the same condition. Mothers' low quality of life was associated with an infant in nutritional risk/malnutrition and may be a risk factor for the nutritional status of children.

  4. Ten Years of Monitoring 3C 273 with XMM–Newton Liu Liu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present ten years optical/UV/X-ray observations of 3C. 273 performed using XMM–Newton between 2000 and 2009. The short- time scale variability behaviour of the soft and hard X-ray light curves may suggest different origins of the soft/hard X-ray emissions. We fit well the 0.2–10 keV X-ray spectrum with a ...

  5. Radio Observations of the S5 Sample Jun Liu & Xiang Liu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    density in flux monitoring, standard deviation, the modulation index, the variabil- ity amplitude and the reduced χ2. The last three columns (m, Y, χ2 red. ) are used to judge the degree of variability, and the definition of these parameters are described in Kraus et al. (2003). We studied the statistics of the variability and ...

  6. Mothers after Gestational Diabetes in Australia (MAGDA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O’Reilly, Sharleen L.; Dunbar, James A.; Versace, Vincent


    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an increasingly prevalent risk factor for type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the effectiveness of a group-based lifestyle modification program in mothers with prior GDM within their first postnatal year. Methods and Findings: In this study, 573 women...

  7. The Digital Biliteracies of Arab Immigrant Mothers (United States)

    Al-Salmi, Laila Z.; Smith, Patrick H.


    Few studies have explored how the literacies of immigrant parents are influenced by participation in their children's emerging biliteracy. This study addressed this lacuna using a qualitative case study design to investigate the biliteracy development of Arab immigrant mothers in the U.S. Southwest. We used the framework of digital biliteracy to…

  8. The Reparative Motive in Surrogate Mothers. (United States)

    Kanefield, Linda


    Explores the motivations of surrogate mothers, focusing on underlying reparative motive--to compensate for or repair an earlier loss or sense of damage. Provides an overview of the typical surrogate's characteristics and personality, discusses the theoretical underpinnings of the reparative motive, and considers the tension between reparation and…

  9. When Mothers Are No Longer Respected. (United States)

    Jones, Carole


    A former childcare worker addresses the connection between social problems plaguing modern life and society's attitudes toward the role of women and mothering. She describes the detrimental effects on children who are placed in day care at an early age and urges that families abandon materialism and work toward improving the quality of their own…

  10. Are the Mothers of Hospitalized Socially Disadvantaged

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and number of doses of scheduled immunizations received by 207 socially disadvantaged ... poor socio-economic status, poor housing, one parent ... percent of the total children surveyed. ... female ratio of 1.421. ... This information was not available in respect of 30 fathers and 1 1 mothers. ... S percent) out of 228 fathers of.

  11. Lacanian Reading of Marsha Norman's Night, Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Taherifard


    Full Text Available This paper offers a Lacanian/feminist reading of Night, Mother by the American playwright Marsha Norman. The play Night, Mother will be read according to Lacan’s point of view and the concepts of identity and identity formation are studied in this paper. The play will be analyzed based on the Lacanian concepts of the contrast between the Imaginary Order and the Symbolic Order, and the notion of Death Drive, suggesting that in the play Jessie represents the Symbolic Order and her mother, Thelma, represents the Imaginary Order. The notion of Death Drive and its omnipresence in Jessie’s psyche is discussed and emphasized. Thelma functions as the Other for Jessie, while her father functions as the Mother, a reversal of gender roles in the Lacanian reading. Moreover, the relationship between some of the concepts are explained. It will be explicated how the play can be brought in line with a feminist reading of Lacan by reversing the stereotypical gender roles and subsequently getting close to post-feminist authors.

  12. Mother Goose in the ESL Classroom. (United States)

    Galeano, Karen

    Mother Goose is well suited to use in the elementary ESL classroom for several reasons. The stories appeal to children's imagination, adhering to the principle that a good story should have surprise value, interesting characters, meaningful conflict, action, and realism. The natural rhythms help develop English intonation, and the stories…

  13. Mothers' knowledge, perception and practice of childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efforts have focused on the health worker, health system and logistics with little attention being paid to maternal factors like knowledge, perception, beliefs and practice. Objectives: To assess mothers' knowledge, perception and practice of routine and campaign immunization in Enugu. Methods: A structured questionnaire ...

  14. Health and Social Needs of Young Mothers. (United States)

    Dumas, S Amanda; Terrell, Ivy W; Gustafson, Maggie

    Teen parenting rates are disproportionately high among minority youth in the Southern United States. We explored barriers and unmet needs relating to medical and social support as perceived by these teen mothers, and elicited suggestions for improving their healthcare through the medical home. We conducted four focus groups of 18- to 24-year-old mothers in New Orleans with questions designed to prompt discussions on young motherhood and healthcare. All 18 participants identified as African American, became mothers when <20, and their children were <5 at the time of the study. Two researchers independently analyzed focus group transcripts and coded them thematically, revealing various unmet social and health needs. Seven main themes emerged, which revealed a concerning lack of mental healthcare, few with consistent medical homes, inadequate contraceptive knowledge and access, and a desire for parenting education and support groups. Suggestions for improving care largely centered around logistical and material support, such as extended clinic hours, transportation, and baby supplies. Findings suggest a need for improved medical knowledge, healthcare access, and social support for teen mothers. This may be provided through a multidisciplinary medical home model, such as a Teen-Tot clinic, where the unique challenges of adolescent parenting are continuously considered.

  15. Choice within Constraints: Mothers and Schooling. (United States)

    David, Miriam; Davies, Jackie; Edwards, Rosalind; Reay, Diane; Standing, Kay


    Explores, from a feminist perspective, the discourses of choice regarding how women make their choices as consumers in the education marketplace. It argues that mothers as parents are not free to choose but act within a range of constraints, i.e., their choices are limited by structural and moral possibilities in a patriarchal and racist society.…

  16. Dyslexia: A Mother's Role (United States)

    Washburn, Erin K.


    Children and adolescents with dyslexia are at greater risk for academic failure and socioemotional problems than their non-dyslexic peers. However, researchers have suggested that individuals with dyslexia can benefit from a strong support system. Further, researchers have noted that mothers are integral to their child's support system. However,…

  17. Respiratory function in children of asthmatic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Valadares


    Conclusions: The frequency of spirometry alterations in children of asthmatic mothers was high; the restrictive pattern was more often observed that the obstructive. There was a higher incidence of obstructive test results in those who presented clinical symptoms of asthma, with a higher frequency of clinical diagnosis of asthma than that found in the literature.

  18. Knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to determine maternal characteristics and the determinants of full immunization ... posters and symposia, while community leaders and doctors were found to be a ... 10,5% and 5.5%) respectively Only 10% of the mothers failed to report a ...

  19. White piedra in a mother and daughter. (United States)

    Roshan, Anupama S; Janaki, C; Parveen, B


    White Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair caused by Trichosporon asahii. It is also known as trichomycosis nodosa or trichomycosis nodularis. We report two cases of White Piedra in a mother and her daughter for the rarity of such occurrence.

  20. Mothering: The View from Psychological Research. (United States)

    Gerson, Mary-Joan; And Others


    Summarizes research on various aspects of mothering, including the decision to have children, child rearing in the early years and maternal employment, and late parenting with adult children. Urges an ecological perspective toward parenting and various publicly and privately-supported child care facilities and arrangements. (CJM)

  1. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers (United States)

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay


    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  2. Mothers' Perception of Fever Management in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    range 19 years to 54 years with mean of 31.4±5.7SD. .... unemployed, 41 (27.2%) were traders, 7 (4.6%) were fashion designers and 7 (4.6%) were undergraduates. Fifty eight. (38.4%) mothers had one child each, 38 (25.2%) had two children ...

  3. Mother Love: Diabetes is Not Your Destiny

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast featuring Mother Love, co-host of dLifeTV, motivational speaker, and humorist, promotes healthy ways to control diabetes.  Created: 11/8/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 3/11/2008.

  4. Mothers and the process of social stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korupp, S.E.


    The question posed is how the mother's education and occupation influence children's educational and occupational status. The chapter follows the chronological sequence of the classical model of status attainment (Blau & Duncan 1967). The specific questions are: (a) how large is the influence

  5. How Much Do Mothers Love Their Children? (United States)

    Cameron, Paul

    A total of 225 mothers, ages 19 to 64, were asked how they felt about their children (N=309): (1) upon knowledge of pregnancy, (2) at the quickening, (3) at birth, and (4) at the time of the interview. Results contradict some of the rationale behind the current liberalized abortion arguments by showing that initially unwanted children are loved as…

  6. Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation. (United States)

    Silva Garcia, Karina; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O


    Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children-a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4-5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days. On the first day, mothers and children chose foods for a meal from a buffet and were audio/videotaped so that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices could be later coded. On the second day, children completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) task to measure child appetite regulation. Mothers also completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to measure other aspects of child appetite regulation (food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, and emotional overeating). Maternal autonomy promotion during serving was assessed using seven separate measures of child and maternal behavior. Principal components analyses of these serving measures yielded three components: allows child choice, child serves food, and mother does not restrict. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal autonomy promoting serving practices (i.e., allows child choice and does not restrict) were negatively associated with maternal reports of child food responsiveness and emotional overeating (CEBQ). The results for the EAH task were more complex-mothers who were autonomy promoting in their serving practices had children who ate the most in the absence of hunger, but this linear effect was moderated somewhat by a quadratic effect, with moderate levels of autonomy promotion during serving associated with the greatest child EAH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Attachment behaviors in mothers of premature infants: a descriptive study in Thai mothers. (United States)

    Tilokskulchai, Fongcum; Phatthanasiriwethin, Sopida; Vichitsukon, Kannikar; Serisathien, Yaowalak


    Prematurity and the associated maternal-infant separation after birth can affect the attachment process. The role of nurses in facilitating the process of attachment should be based on an understanding of these behaviors. This descriptive study explored the attachment behaviors demonstrated by mothers during their first visit with their premature infant in the neonatal care unit. The results revealed that all mothers demonstrated most attachment behaviors (ie, inspection, facial expression, touching, verbal expression, and eye-to-eye contact) except holding during their first visit. However, some mothers spent little time with their infant. The findings suggest that nurses should encourage mothers to interact with their infants in order to enhance maternal-infant attachment.

  8. Postpartum depression and infant-mother attachment at one year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Tharner, Anne; Steele, Howard

    Findings on effects of Postpartum depression (PPD) on infant-mother attachment have been contradictory. This may be due to not considering maternal interpersonal difficulties, for example co-morbid personality disorder (PD). We examined the role of PD in the association between postpartum...... depression and infant-mother attachment. Mothers were recruited either during pregnancy (non-clinical group, n=56) or eight weeks postpartum (PPD-group, n=29). Infants of mothers with PPD only or in combination with PD were compared with infants of mothers with no psychopathology. Depression and PD were...... assessed with questionnaires and clinical interviews. Infant-mother attachment was assessed when infants were 13 months using Strange Situation Procedure. Mothers with PPD were more likely to have co-morbid PD compared with non-clinical mothers. PPD was associated with attachment insecurity only...

  9. Wee Care: Reaching Teenage Mothers and Changing Their Lives. (United States)

    Rosenwald, Priscilla R.; Porter, Gwen


    Describes an intervention program for pregnant teenagers and teen mothers. Topics include program development and implementation, staffing, and content. Also discussed are adjustments that a mother must make in order to break the chain of poverty and welfare. (RJC)

  10. Labor and Population Program. Job Continuity Among New Mothers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... By protecting the right of new mothers to return to their previous jobs, maternity-leave statutes seek to help women benefit more from on-the-job training and to reduce the wage gap between mothers...

  11. Knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in a rural population in south eastern Nigeria. ... Tropical Journal of Medical Research ... Despite its numerous advantages, most lactating mothers are not practicing it.

  12. Determinants of breastfeeding patterns among mothers in Anambra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life is still rare among nursing mothers. ... A prospective cohort study was conducted in three comprehensive health centres ... valuable benefits to the infants as well as to mothers and the nation.

  13. The mother-daughter love affair across the generations. (United States)

    Klockars, L; Sirola, R


    The relationship between mother and daughter is the basis for all love relationships throughout life. Through the eyes and hands of the mother, the intimate and caring nature of love is transmitted from generation to generation. Mother-daughter love is also the beginning of heterosexual love and of sensual pleasure. However, sexuality separates and alienates mother and daughter. As a consequence, the daughter's identification with the mother becomes the most important transmitter of love. We review psychoanalytic studies of the development and fate of the mother-daughter love relationship, with particular attention to the change of the daughter's early love for the mother to identification with the mother and falling in love with a man, and to the significance of sexuality in this developmental process.

  14. The mother-daughter relationship in eating disorders: the psychotherapy group of mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Weisz Cobelo


    Full Text Available Psychotherapeutic interventions that bring about differentiation, separation, individuation and autonomy in the mother-daughter relationship are recommended as treatment for eating disorders. With this goal in mind, a psychotherapy group for mothers was organized in an outpatient program for adolescents with eating disorders at a public institution, as one of the psychotherapeutic approaches in the multidisciplinary treatment of adolescent patients. Evidence suggests that this approach can be relevant and effective in the treatment of eating disorders.

  15. Analysis of Motherly Love in Edgar Allan Poe's “to My Mother


    Rusdi, Putra


    Project analisisMotherly Love in Edgar Allan Poe's “To My Mother” mengkaji unsur intrinsik dan konsep motherly love dalam puisi To My Motherkarya Edgar Allan Poe. Penulis menggunakan studi pustaka sebagai metode pengumpulan data dan informasi tentang objek penelitian melalui buku dan internet. Penulis menggunakan pendekatan psikologi sastra dengan teori cinta karya Erich Fromm untuk mengetahui cinta yang diberikan ibu kepada anak. Dari hasil analisis, penulis menemukan konsep cinta yang dibe...

  16. An early contact with the baby: Benefit for the mother


    Đorđević Gordana; Jovanović Božidar; Đorđević Momčilo


    Introduction Numerous studies on the early contact between mother and the baby and the time they spend together-common stay stress the fact that these are invaluable for the mothers, infants, family and society in general. The objective of the research. The objective of the research was to establish whether mother benefits from the early contact with her baby and the importance of the time period they spend and share together. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 216 mothers tha...

  17. a Comparison Between Chemically Dependent Mothers and Drug-Free Mothers: Lifestyle during the Perinatal Period (United States)

    Uskokovic, Lila Milica

    This study compared maternal lifestyle variables pertinent to the perinatal period in groups of chemically dependent mothers and drug-free mothers. Twenty-nine cocaine -abusing mothers were compared to 29 drug-free mothers carefully matched on age, race, education, and primipara versus multipara status. The drug history of each chemically dependent woman was explicitly documented. The chemically dependent group was subdivided into two groups, mothers who abused cocaine and those who abused cocaine with concomitant opiate use. Each of these two subgroups was compared to its respective matched drug-free control group. Finally, a comparison was made between the two drug subgroups. All subjects were interviewed within 48 hours after delivery using the following measures: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (A-State), Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale, The Self-Esteem Scale, Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitude Questionnaire, The Neonatal Perception Inventory, The Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview Life Events Scale, Maternal Social Support Index, and Short Marital Adjustment Test. A t-test analysis revealed significant differences (p abused opiates with cocaine did not differ from their controls on depression and maternal adjustment and attitudes. No significant differences were obtained in the drug subgroup comparisons. These results identify increased life events and specific negative affect states that clinical intervention programs should address to assure the best possible outcome for chemically dependent mothers and their infants.

  18. Longitudinal effects of contextual and proximal factors on mother-infant interactions among Brazilian adolescent mothers. (United States)

    Diniz, Eva; DeSousa, Diogo; Koller, Silvia H; Volling, Brenda L


    Adolescent mothers often come from vulnerable backgrounds which might impact the quality of both maternal and infant behavior. Despite the negative impact of adolescent motherhood for maternal and infant behavior, social support may decrease the risks and promote maternal behavior toward the infant. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the effects of proximal (maternal behavior) and distal (mother's perceived social support) variables on infant development in a sample of Brazilian adolescent mothers and their infants. Thirty-nine adolescent mothers (Mage=17.26years; SD=1.71) were observed interacting with their infants at 3 and 6 months postpartum and reported on social support. Results revealed that maternal and infant behavior were associated within and across times. Mothers' perceived social support at 3 months had an indirect effect on infant behavior at 6 months, totally mediated by maternal behavior at 6 months. Our findings revealed the mutual influence between maternal and infant behavior, revealing a proximal process. The results also underscored the importance of the passage of time in the interplay between mother-infant interactions and their developmental context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mother-grandmother coparenting relationships in families with incarcerated mothers: a pilot investigation. (United States)

    Baker, Jason; McHale, James; Strozier, Anne; Cecil, Dawn


    Using new methods designed to assess coparenting between incarcerated mothers of preschool-aged children and the maternal grandmothers caring for the children during their absence, we examined relationships between coparenting quality during the mother's jail stay and both concurrent child behavior problems and later coparenting interactions following mothers' release and community reentry. Forty mother-grandmother dyads participated in joint coparenting discussions during the incarceration, with a smaller subset completing a parallel activity at home 1 month postrelease. Both women also participated in individual coparenting interviews during the incarceration, and reported on child behavior problems. Mother-grandmother coparenting interactions exhibited an overall structure similar to that documented in nuclear families, with population-specific dynamics also evident. The observational system demonstrated good interrater and internal reliability, and showed associations with maternal (but not grandmother) reports and descriptions of the coparenting relationship via interview. Greater coparenting relationship quality during incarceration was associated with fewer concurrent child externalizing behavior problems, and predicted more positive coparenting interactions postrelease. Findings suggest that the coparenting assessments were useful for understanding mother-grandmother coparenting relationships in these families and that importantly, these relationships were tied to children's functioning. Avenues for future research and considerations for intervention efforts are discussed.


    Chapman, Jennifer K; Hart, Sybil L


    This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' perceptions of the transition to second-time motherhood, and advance methodology for supporting mothers during this transition. Fifty-seven pregnant mothers and their firstborn children (M age = 30.3 months) participated in a laboratory procedure in which the mother exposed her child to a brief episode of differential treatment. The episode was designed to simulate an expected experience of caregiving that would occur after the birth of a second child. During a postnatal visit (M=5.72 weeks following childbirth), mothers provided written feedback on their perceptions of the transition and the contribution of the laboratory experience to that transition. Qualitative content analysis revealed that mothers approached the birth of a second child with apprehension. Intrapersonal themes revealed that participation in the procedure shaped mothers' understanding of their expanded maternal roles by enhancing their sense of preparedness and confidence in their abilities to support their children. Interpersonal themes revealed that participation helped mothers appreciate the magnitude of the challenge that their children would face and gave mothers reason to believe that their children would adjust successfully. Findings are discussed in terms of their potential contribution toward developing methodology for helping mothers prepare for the addition of a second child. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. Infant-Mother Attachment among the Dogon of Mali. (United States)

    True, Mary McMahan; Pisani, Lelia; Oumar, Fadimata


    Examined infant-mother attachment in Mali's Dogon ethnic group. Found that distribution of Strange Situation classifications was 67 percent secure, 0 percent avoidant, 8 percent resistant, and 25 percent disorganized. Infant attachment security related to quality of mother-infant communication. Mothers of disorganized infants had significantly…

  2. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa


    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  3. Implementation of the Mother-Tongue/Language Component of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of the Mother-Tongue/Language Component of the National Policy on Education In Nigeria. ... Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research ... the implementation of the mother-tongue/language policy; curriculum materials were not supplied in schools for mother-tongue instruction; specialized teachers were ...

  4. Factors influencing a mother's choice of feeding after discharge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess feeding methods chosen by mothers of babies who spent time in a neonatal unit. Factors influencing this decision were investigated. Design. Descriptive study. Methods. Mothers were interviewed on the day they took their babies home. Basic demographic data on mother and baby were collected from ...

  5. The Parenting Experiences of Mothers with Dissociative Disorders. (United States)

    Benjamin, Lynn R.; Benjamin, Robert; Rind, Bruce


    Presents a qualitative analysis of the experience of parenting of mothers with dissociative disorders. Using the mothers' words, describes how the five symptom areas of dissociation impeded their parenting efforts. Discusses the necessity of addressing parenting in the treatment of client-mothers with dissociative disorders. (Author/MKA)

  6. Do Mothers Accept Grandmothers' Advice When Disciplining Their Children? (United States)

    Passman, Richard H.; Tomlin, Angela M.

    Research has not investigated ways in which grandparents indirectly influence grandchildren through interactions with the parents. This study was conducted to investigate factors affecting mothers' willingness to accept suggestions from their own mothers about disciplining their child. The study also examined whether mothers' disciplinary actions…

  7. Single Mothers' Religious Participation and Early Childhood Behavior (United States)

    Petts, Richard J.


    Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…

  8. Interactions between Turkish Mothers and Preschool Children with Autism (United States)

    Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald


    This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the Maternal…

  9. Natural Mentoring Relationships among Adolescent Mothers: A Study of Resilience (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.


    This study focused on natural mentoring relationships between nonparental adults and African American adolescent mothers. Data were collected from 93 adolescent mothers over 5 time points, starting in the adolescent mothers' senior year of high school and ending 5 years after high school. We found that having a natural mentor was related to fewer…

  10. The Maternal Gift: Mothers' Investment in Their Daughters' Higher Education (United States)

    Cooper, Linda


    This article explores the degree to which mothers participate in decisions surrounding their daughters' university choices in the English higher education sector, based on a gendered PhD study involving mother and adult daughter pairings in southern England. Examples are given of how extended middle-class mothering practices are enabling their…

  11. Mother, Father, and Infant as an Interactive System. (United States)

    Pedersen, Frank A.

    This study investigates three types of reciprocal interactions among members of the family unit (father, mother and infant): father-infant interaction affecting child's development, father-infant interaction affecting mother's behavior, and husband-wife interaction affecting mother's behavior. Data from a sample of 39 healthy first-born infants…

  12. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Challenges, Strategies, and Resources in Toddlerhood (United States)

    Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Han, Suejung; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Bingham, Gary E.


    This study examined mothers' and fathers' parenting challenges and strategies/resources used when parenting toddlers. Through a qualitative interview protocol, implemented with mothers and fathers separately at a university laboratory, this study found that both fathers and mothers appeared to be transitioning from traditional gender roles towards…

  13. Feeding infants whose mothers are HIV-positive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The way a HIV+ mother feeds her baby affects the child's risk of: • Becoming ... mothers with HIV is exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. .... Thaczuk D. & Safreed-Harmon K. ART use in mothers with low CD4 cell counts reduces breastfeeding transmission ... This article is based on information in chapters. 6 and 7 of ...

  14. Qualitative evaluation of the Teenage Mothers Project in Uganda: a community-based empowerment intervention for unmarried teenage mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerlooijer, J.N.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Reeuwijk, van M.A.J.; Rijsdijk, E.; Nshakira, N.; Kok, G.


    Background A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda

  15. Affect recognition and the quality of mother-infant interaction: understanding parenting difficulties in mothers with schizophrenia. (United States)

    Healy, Sarah J; Lewin, Jona; Butler, Stephen; Vaillancourt, Kyla; Seth-Smith, Fiona


    This study investigated the quality of mother-infant interaction and maternal ability to recognise adult affect in three study groups consisting of mothers with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, mothers with depression and healthy controls. Sixty-four mothers were recruited from a Mother and Baby Unit and local children's centres. A 5-min mother-infant interaction was coded on a number of caregiving variables. Affect recognition and discrimination abilities were tested via a series of computerised tasks. Group differences were found both in measures of affect recognition and in the mother-infant interaction. Mothers with schizophrenia showed consistent impairments across most of the parenting measures and all measures of affect recognition and discrimination. Mothers with depression fell between the mothers with schizophrenia and healthy controls on most measures. However, depressed women's parenting was not significantly poorer than controls on any of the measures, and only showed trends for differences with mothers with schizophrenia on a few measures. Regression analyses found impairments in affect recognition and a diagnosis of schizophrenia to predict the occurrence of odd or unusual speech in the mother-infant interaction. Results add to the growing body of knowledge on the mother-infant interaction in mothers with schizophrenia and mothers with depression compared to healthy controls, suggesting a need for parenting interventions aimed at mothers with these conditions. While affect recognition impairments were not found to fully explain differences in parenting among women with schizophrenia, further research is needed to understand the psychopathology of parenting disturbances within this clinical group.

  16. Low-Income Mothers' Nighttime and Weekend Work: Daily Associations with Child Behavior, Mother-Child Interactions, and Mood (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna


    This study investigated low-income mothers' daily nighttime and weekend work and family outcomes. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children reported daily on work hours, mood, mother-child interaction, and child behavior for two weeks (N = 724 person-days). Although nighttime and weekend work are both nonstandard schedules, results showed…

  17. Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families (United States)

    Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.


    Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria MANDIUC


    Full Text Available A large number of women who practice prostitution get pregnant and have the child. When a mother continues practicing prostitution, while at the same time trying to fulfill parental responsibilities, the child’s rights could end up being violated because of the characteristics of the two roles the woman adopts. The present paper presents the case study of a child of schooling age and whose mother practiced prostitution. The child was put in foster care after the mother’s death and the case study follows his evolution from birth until the research started, the focus of the study revolving around the four fundamental rights of the child: the right to be raised by the parents, the right to education, the right to health and the right to protection against abuses.

  19. nternational protection of mother and child rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CREANGĂ


    Full Text Available Towards the end of the 20th century, the protection of mother and child’s rights has evolved from some national regulations to international regulations – a delayed remedy for flagrant and persistent abuse on the child and woman. In this sense, international law starts from recognizing the child and the woman as subjects of law, and as such, their ability to enjoy all civil, political, cultural, economic, social rights, etc. At the same time, the particularities of child – becoming a person (i.e. the lack of discernment and intellectual maturity, which limits his / her legal competence, – and women-mothers (with specific psycho-physiological are underlined. This requires the establishment and regulation of certain assistance, protection and care measures, as well as of some institutions through which they would be able to harness their rights without being in any way harmed or injured.

  20. Exclusive Breastfeeding Determinants in Breastfeeding Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Mustika


    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 month is very important for baby. The proportion of mothers who exclusively breastfeed their babies up to 6 months remains low. Factors influencing the exclusive breastfeeding namely sociodemograph factors , factors pre / post delivery , and psychosocial factors. This aims of this study to identify determinant factors of exclusive breastfeeding on mother. This research method is a systematic review , by analyzing the various studies on exclusive breastfeeding. There are 17 studies. The results obtained occupational factors most studied with significant results ( median OR = 1.265 . Psychosocial factors that have significant relationship is support of her husband (average OR = 4.716 and family support ( average OR = 1.770 . Conclusions : factors influencing the exclusive breastfeeding is occupational factor. Socialization and support from people nearby, health workers, and all parties is needed for exclusive breastfeeding for six months can be achieved.

  1. Pictorial Essay: Infants of diabetic mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alorainy, Ibrahim A; Barlas, Nauman B; Al-Boukai, Amer A


    About 3 to 10% of pregnancies are complicated by glycemic control abnormalities. Maternal diabetes results in significantly greater risk for antenatal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as congenital malformations. The number of diabetic mothers is expected to rise, as more and more of the obese pediatric female population in developed and some developing countries progresses to childbearing age. Radiologists, being part of the teams managing such pregnancies, should be well aware of the findings that may be encountered in infants of diabetic mothers. Timely, accurate, and proper radiological evaluation can reduce morbidity and mortality in these infants. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the imaging findings in the various pathological conditions involving the major body systems in the offspring of women with diabetes

  2. Pictorial Essay: Infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alorainy Ibrahim


    Full Text Available About 3 to 10% of pregnancies are complicated by glycemic control abnormalities. Maternal diabetes results in significantly greater risk for antenatal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as congenital malformations. The number of diabetic mothers is expected to rise, as more and more of the obese pediatric female population in developed and some developing countries progresses to childbearing age. Radiologists, being part of the teams managing such pregnancies, should be well aware of the findings that may be encountered in infants of diabetic mothers. Timely, accurate, and proper radiological evaluation can reduce morbidity and mortality in these infants. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the imaging findings in the various pathological conditions involving the major body systems in the offspring of women with diabetes

  3. Cocaine use and the breastfeeding mother. (United States)

    Jones, Wendy


    Cocaine is the second most commonly used illicit drug. Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding may have severe consequences for the baby due to its pharmacokinetic properties. Midwives need to be aware of the prolonged action of cocaine and be alert to the possibility of cocaine toxicity if a baby is excessively irritable and tachycardic. Euphoric highs are brief but breast milk and urine remain positive for long periods. Infant urine following exposure to cocaine via breast milk may remain positive for up to 60 hours. Mothers who snort cocaine should pump and dump breast milk for 24-48 hours. Passive inhalation of crack cocaine smoke may also result in infants with positive toxicology screens. Cocaine powder should never be applied to the nipples of breastfeeding mothers.

  4. [Anaerobic hydrolysis of terramycin crystallizing mother solution]. (United States)

    Ma, W; Wang, J; Liang, C; Qi, R; Yang, M


    The terramycin crystallizing mother solution contained high organics and high nitrogen. There were many kinds of bioinhibition in it but not enough electronic donor. Anaerobic hydrolysis of terramycin crystallizing mother solution was completed with up anarobic sludge bed in order to improve the biodegradability of wastewater and electronic donor in it. The variations of pH, COD, NH4+, and SO4(2-) were monitored. The COD removal was in a narrow range between 10% and 16.4% even when the HRT of the reactor was changed from 1.5 h to 6 h. pH increased because of formation of NH3 and reduction of SO4(2-). Most of SO4(2-) was reduced to S2- when the HRT was longer than 2 h. Batch experiments on hydrolyzed wastewater demonstrated that reaction rates of nitrification and denitrification increased by 90.9% and 45.2%, respectively.

  5. Safeguarding nutritional status of adolescent mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon de la Barca, A.M.; Bolanos, A.V.; Caire Juvera, G.; Roman Perez, R.; Regil, L.M. de; Valencia, M.E.; Casanueva, E.; Sanesteban, V.


    Milk intake of breast-fed infants and body composition of 47 lactating mothers from Northwest and Central Mexico were monitored at 1 and 3 mo postpartum by the deuterium dilution technique and infrared detection. Milk quality was evaluated directly as milk composition and indirectly by infant growth. Maternal body fat tended to be lower in Central than in Northwest Mexico and was significant at 1 mo postpartum (p 0.05) in Z score values for weight/length for infants in the two regions at 3 mo. Neither adolescent or adult mothers from Northwest or Central Mexican regions were undernourished and they produced adequate milk volume and composition to feed their infants and maintain their growth pattern until 3 months postpartum. (author)

  6. Reframing the risks and losses of teen mothering. (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee


    Teen mothers often face a stigmatizing gaze based on the belief that early childbearing jeopardizes their life chances and the health and development of their children. Growing evidence suggests that the poor maternal-child outcomes associated with early childbearing have been overstated and may be explained by teen mothers' childhood disadvantage and adversities. After reviewing what is currently known about the relationships between early childbearing and maternal-child outcomes, as well as teen mothers' perspectives on mothering, clinical practices are suggested that address teen mothers' concerns, strengths, aspirations, and the long-term inequities that contribute to poor outcomes.

  7. Childhood overweight dependence on mother-child relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Poulsen, Ingrid


    -child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships – characterized and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child’s weight status according...... to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves...

  8. Safeguarding nutritional status of adolescent mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon de la Barca, A.M.; Casanueva, E.; Bolanos, A.V.; Caire Juvera, G.; Valencia, M.E.; Roman Perez, R.


    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) has been introduced in Mexico in order to increase breast feeding. The Mexican health care system may be contributing negatively to the nutritional status of adolescent mothers and their infants due to the reduction of baby formulas which were previously supplied as a benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate breast-milk production, the quantity and quality of protein and changes in body composition in adolescent and adult mothers in order to design the right ways to help mother and infants fulfill their requirements or obtain support to apply to the BFHI program. We propose to measure breast-milk intake and total body water by deuterium kinetics using infrared spectroscopy. Protein concentration and composition will be measured by electrophoresis. Adolescent and adult mothers who are breast-feeding exclusively and living in two different urban regions, northwest and central Mexico, will be dosed with deuterium oxide; saliva and breast milk samples will be taken. Currently, both of the working groups are standardized. A sublimation system for separation of water and D 2 O of the saliva samples under reduced pressure was designed and it has a 100% of D 2 O recovery. The setting up of conditions for D 2 O determination using infrared spectroscopy was achieved and calibration curves of absorbance of sequentially diluted D 2 O were obtained with an r=0.9948. Total body water was measured in 12 women after 1, 3, 6, 9 and 14 days of the D 2 O dose. Zero-time values obtained by extrapolation were similar to those directly obtained after 4 h equilibrium. In addition, 50 women (under inclusion criteria) have signed consent letters to participate and part of the study is currently underway. For 1998, we intend to have 40 women and their infants with both dosing periods analyzed, as well as the analysis of breast milk composition. (author)

  9. Difficulties facing physician mothers in Japan. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Kozono, Yuki; Mori, Ryo; Marui, Eiji


    Despite recent increases in the number of female physicians graduating in Japan, their premature resignations after childbirth are contributing to the acute shortage of physicians. Previous Japanese studies have explored supportive measures in the workplace, but have rarely focused on the specific problems or concerns of physician-mothers. Therefore, this study explored the challenges facing Japanese physician-mothers in efforts to identify solutions for their retention. Open-ended questionnaires were mailed to 646 alumnae of Juntendo University School of Medicine. We asked subjects to describe their opinions about 'The challenges related to female physicians' resignations'. Comments gathered from alumnae who graduated between 6 and 30 years ago and have children were analyzed qualitatively. Overall, 249 physicians returned the questionnaire (response rate 38.5%), and 73 alumnae with children who graduated in the stated time period provided comments. The challenges facing physician-mothers mainly consisted of factors associated with Japanese society, family responsibilities, and work environment. Japanese society epitomized by traditional gender roles heightened stress related to family responsibilities and promoted gender discrimination at work environment. Additionally, changing Japanese society positively influenced working atmosphere and husband's support. Moreover, the introduction of educational curriculums that alleviated traditional gender role was proposed for pre- and post- medical students. Traditional gender roles encourage discrimination by male physicians or work-family conflicts. The problems facing female physicians involve more than just family responsibilities: diminishing the notion of gender role is key to helping retain them in the workforce. © 2011 Tohoku University Medical Press

  10. Promoting Multivitamins to Hispanic Adolescents and Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mackert


    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs can be reduced by 50% to 70% with sufficient periconceptional intake of folic acid. Hispanic women are up to 3 times more likely than non-Hispanics to have a child affected by NTDs. This disparity is complicated by health literacy, as women impacted by this disparity are also at-risk for low health literacy. The purpose of this project was to pilot advertisements to promote multivitamins, increasing folic acid consumption, among Hispanic adolescents. The advertisements for Hispanic adolescents and their mothers focused on broad benefits of a multivitamin, downplaying folic acid’s role in prenatal health. Participants were Hispanic mothers (n = 25 and adolescents (n = 25 at a clinic in the Southwestern United States. Likert-type survey items and an open-ended question were used to assess attitudes toward multivitamins and advertisements. The Newest Vital Sign (NVS was used to assess participants’ health literacy. Participants’ impressions of the ads were positive. Both groups expressed the intent to start taking a daily multivitamin after viewing the ads—adolescents for themselves and mothers to start their daughters on a daily multivitamin. There was no relationship between participants’ health literacy and perceptions of the advertisements or intentions to begin a multivitamin habit. This research illustrates the potential of messages that rely on peripheral health benefits to overcome communication barriers posed by health literacy and address serious health problems such as NTDs.

  11. Postpartum Depression Among Asian Indian Mothers. (United States)

    Goyal, Deepika; Park, Van Ta; McNiesh, Susan


    To explore Asian Indian mothers' perspectives of postpartum depression (PPD) and mental health help-seeking behavior. Qualitative exploratory design. Using convenience sampling, postpartum mothers were recruited through flyers posted in public places and on social media sites. Postpartum depression risk was assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) prior to qualitative interviews. Content analysis methods were used to extract themes from participant narratives. Twelve self-identified, married, Asian Indian mothers, aged between 29 and 40 years, living in Northern California, who gave birth to a healthy infant within the last 12 months, took part in this study. Scores on the EPDS indicated two participants were at an increased risk for developing PPD. Content analysis revealed two emerging themes: (1) Culture-specific postpartum practices and ceremonies and their role in maternal-infant postpartum recovery; and (2) Maternal mental health help-seeking behavior. Nurses taking care of women during the extended prenatal and postpartum period have the unique opportunity to build rapport with their patients which can offer a window of opportunity to educate and help dispel myths about PPD symptoms and treatment. To promote successful maternal-infant outcomes, PPD education should be initiated at the first prenatal appointment, continue during the pregnancy, and be incorporated into well-baby visits through the first postpartum year. Education should include signs and symptoms of PPD as well as importance of timely mental-health help-seeking.

  12. Glucose kinetics in infants of diabetic mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowett, R.M.; Susa, J.B.; Giletti, B.; Oh, W.; Schwartz, R.


    Glucose kinetic studies were performed to define the glucose turnover rate with 78% enriched D-[U-13C] glucose by the prime constant infusion technique at less than or equal to 6 hours of age in nine infants of diabetic mothers (four insulin-dependent and five chemical diabetic patients) at term. Five normal infants were studied as control subjects. All infants received 0.9% saline intravenously during the study with the tracer. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glucose13/12C ratios were measured during the steady state, and the glucose turnover rate was derived. The average plasma glucose concentration was similar during the steady state in the infants of the diabetic mothers and in the control infants, and the glucose turnover rate was not significantly different among the groups: 2.3 +/- 0.6 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic patients; 2.4 +/- 0.4 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of chemical diabetic patients; and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mg . kg-1 min-1 in the control subjects. Good control of maternal diabetes evidenced by the normal maternal hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose concentration at delivery and cord plasma glucose concentration resulted in glucose kinetic values in the infants of diabetic mothers that were indistinguishable from those of control subjects. The data further support the importance of good control of the diabetic state in the pregnant woman to minimize or prevent neonatal hypoglycemia

  13. Mothers' pupillary responses to infant facial expressions. (United States)

    Yrttiaho, Santeri; Niehaus, Dana; Thomas, Eileen; Leppänen, Jukka M


    Human parental care relies heavily on the ability to monitor and respond to a child's affective states. The current study examined pupil diameter as a potential physiological index of mothers' affective response to infant facial expressions. Pupillary time-series were measured from 86 mothers of young infants in response to an array of photographic infant faces falling into four emotive categories based on valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (mild vs. strong). Pupil dilation was highly sensitive to the valence of facial expressions, being larger for negative vs. positive facial expressions. A separate control experiment with luminance-matched non-face stimuli indicated that the valence effect was specific to facial expressions and cannot be explained by luminance confounds. Pupil response was not sensitive to the arousal level of facial expressions. The results show the feasibility of using pupil diameter as a marker of mothers' affective responses to ecologically valid infant stimuli and point to a particularly prompt maternal response to infant distress cues.

  14. Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children. (United States)

    Oates, R K; Tebbutt, J; Swanston, H; Lynch, D L; O'Toole, B I


    To see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities. Sixty-seven mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers were asked about sexual abuse in their own childhood. The sexually abused children of mothers who had been sexually abused in their own childhood were compared with the sexually abused children of mothers who had not suffered child sexual abuse as children. Comparisons were made on self-esteem, depression and behavior in the children. Thirty-four percent of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods, compared with 12% of control mothers. Assessment of the sexually abused children for self-esteem, depression and behavior at the time of diagnosis, after 18 months and after 5 years showed no difference in any of these measures at any of the three time intervals between those whose mothers had suffered child sexual abuse and those whose mothers had not been abused. In this study, sexual abuse in a mother's own childhood was related to an increased risk of sexual abuse occurring in the next generation, although prior maternal sexual abuse did not effect outcome in children who were sexually abused.

  15. German and Korean mothers' sensitivity and related parenting beliefs (United States)

    Ziehm, Jeanette; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Heikamp, Tobias; Park, Seong-Yeon


    This study contributes to a differentiated understanding of maternal sensitivity in cultural and situational context. We investigated differences and similarities in German and Korean mothers' maternal sensitivity. We interviewed 92 German and 100 Korean mothers of first graders about their preference for proactive (anticipating children's needs) or reactive sensitivity (responding to children's direct cues) in different scenarios. Related parenting beliefs were assessed by asking the mothers to explain the reasons why they would prefer specific parenting behaviors. Results revealed significant cultural differences in reactive vs. proactive sensitivity preferences. Overall, German mothers were more likely to indicate that a mother should respond reactively and less likely to report that a mother should act proactively than were Korean mothers. Korean mothers gave preference to both reactive and proactive sensitivity depending on the scenario. With regard to parenting beliefs, analyses revealed that German and Korean mothers who preferred reactive sensitivity mainly explained their choices as attempts to encourage children's development of independence. In contrast, Korean and German mothers with a preference for proactive sensitivity were more likely to report that mothers would assist their children due to their immaturity in dealing with emotional distress. Results are discussed in the framework of the different meanings and functions of maternal sensitivity for socialization in different cultural contexts. PMID:23986740

  16. Childhood Overweight Dependence on Mother-Child Relationship. (United States)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Poulsen, Ingrid


    The causes of childhood overweight are numerous and inter-related. The mother-child relationship is of great significance for the child's health. Previous studies have found patterns of dysfunctional interaction in families with obese children. Therefore, development of childhood overweight could be due to the mother-child relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate how, and to what degree, the mother-child relationship, assessed by the mothers, was related to overweight among children aged seven to nine years. The study was a cross sectional case-controlled one. It included 111 overweight and 149 non-overweight seven to nine year old children and their mothers. Weight status was determined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference for children Body Mass Index, age and gender adjusted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to categorize the mother-child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships - characterized by the prototypes - between the overweight and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child's weight status according to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves and their children.

  17. Comparison of Irrational Believes between Mothers of Severe or Profound Mentally Handicapped Children with Healthy Children Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Hivadi


    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of present research was the comparison of mothers irrational believes with severe or profound mentally handicapped child and mothers with normal child from 6 to14 years old in Tehran city. Materials & Methods: This study was an analytical, cross – sectional and comparative (case – control research. From mothers with severe or profound mentally handicapped child who had refered to Tehran welfare services centers, 80 mothers were selected by regular randomized sampling from two rehabilitation centers and 80 mothers with normal child were selected for peering with the group of testimonial from schools areas of east, west, south, north and center of Tehran, through multi - stage cluster sampling in for variables of: age of mothers, educational levels, the location of living and the number of children. They answered to questionnaire of irrational believes of jons (IBT. Analysis of data was done by descriptive and infringing statistics methods (Independent T test, U Mann Whitney, Chi-square and fisher. Results: The findings showed that: there are significantly differences in total irrational believes and irrational believes of blame proneness, frustration reactive, anxious over concern, problem avoiding and dependency, perfectionism between two groups of mothers (P<0/05. There was no significant difference in irrational believes between mothers who had mental handicap daughter and mothers who had mental handicap son (P=0/314. There was no significantly difference between two groups of mothers in four believes of demand for approval (P=0/737, high-self expectation (P=0/126, emotional irresponsibility (P=0/727, helplessness for change (p=0/283. Conclusion: Irrational believes and many its sub scales. In mothers of severe or profound mental handicap children were more than mothers with normal child. But believes of demand for approval, high self expectation, emotional irresponsibility, helplessness for change in mothers with

  18. [Burden of mothers and fathers of persons with schizophrenia]. (United States)

    Friedrich, Fabian; Gross, Rainer; Wrobel, Margit; Klug, Günter; Unger, Annemarie; Fellinger, Matthäus; Süßenbacher, Stefanie; Freidl, Marion; Saumer, Gertraud; Wancata, Johannes


    Most studies about the burden of schizophrenia carers included only one care-giving relative, usually the patients' mothers. The present study intended to analyse differences of the level of burden between mothers and fathers of the same patients. 101 mothers and 101 fathers of the same patients suffering from schizophrenia were included into this study. They were assessed by means of the "Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire" and the "Carers' Needs Assessment for Schizophrenia". Mothers showed significantly higher scores than fathers regarding the subscores "Tensions" and "Urging". Multiple linear regression analyses showed positive associations between the frequency of mothers' as well as fathers' unmet needs and dimensions of caregiver involvement. Unmet needs among mothers and fathers have negative effects on their burden. The differences between mothers and fathers indicate the importance of considering the carer's gender in clinical work. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Benefits to Down's syndrome children through training their mothers. (United States)

    Bidder, R T; Bryant, G; Gray, O P


    This study investigated the hypothesis that training of mothers with Down's syndrome children would be beneficial both to the child and parents. The mothers were taught behaviour modification techniques based on learning theory and were given group discussions on dealing with their family or personal problems. The subjects were 16 mothers with a Down's syndrome child, divided into two groups on the basis of their child's sex and chronological and mental ages. The Griffiths Scale was used for assessment. The mothers in the treatment group received 12 sessions of training and group counseling over a 6-month period, whereas the control mothers received no additional attention except the usual routine from the general practitioner and health visitor. The result show clear gains to both the child and mother in the treatment group. The child improved, especially in language development as well as in the other areas, and the mother-gained more confidence and competence in her daily management of the child.

  20. Mothers' physical abusiveness in a context of violence: effects on the mother-child relationship. (United States)

    Timmer, Susan G; Thompson, Dianne; Culver, Michelle A; Urquiza, Anthony J; Altenhofen, Shannon


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mothers' physical abusiveness on the quality of the mother-child relationship, and note how it further varied by their exposure to interparental violence (IPV). The sample consisted of 232 clinic-referred children, aged 2 to 7 years, and their biological mothers. Slightly more than a quarter of the children (N = 63, 27.2%) had been physically abused by their mothers; approximately half of these children also had a history of exposure to IPV (N = 34, 54%). Investigating effects of physical abuse in the context of IPV history on mothers' and children's emotional availability, we found that physically abused children with no IPV exposure appeared less optimally emotionally available than physically abused children with an IPV exposure. However, subsequent analyses showed that although dyads with dual-violence exposure showed emotional availability levels similar those of nonabusive dyads, they were more overresponsive and overinvolving, a kind of caregiving controllingness charasteric of children with disorganized attachment styles. These findings lend some support to the notion that the effects of abuse on the parent-child relationship are influenced by the context of family violence, although the effects appear to be complex.

  1. Mothering disrupted by illness: a narrative synthesis of qualitative research. (United States)

    Vallido, Tamara; Wilkes, Lesley; Carter, Bernie; Jackson, Debra


    This paper is a report of a literature review of qualitative empirical research investigating women's experiences of mothering disrupted by illness. As a primary identity, motherhood is endangered by illness. Illness can interfere with a woman's ability to mother her child/children. Healthcare professionals regularly fail to acknowledge a woman's dual identities of mother and patient. CINAHL, Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus and Sociological abstracts were searched 1980-2009. A narrative synthesis was used, with quality appraisal guided by the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme method. Concepts were analysed thematically, explicating common experiences of women disrupted in their mothering by illness. This allowed for both descriptive and narrative synthesis to occur. Thirteen papers were included in the final review. Themes identified were: mechanism of disruption; reframing the mother role; protecting the children; experiencing guilt or shame; problems with healthcare professionals; and living to mother, mothering to live. Women disrupted in their mothering by illness view themselves as a mother first and a patient second. Women found themselves unsupported in their mothering role by healthcare professionals, and this may have left them reluctant to broach difficulties they had relinquishing mothering duties when ill. Nurses are well-positioned to support women in illness by acknowledging the importance of their identity as mothers, offering them opportunities to discuss how illness is disrupting their ability to mother, providing support to help them negotiate the social/emotional distress experienced when mothering is disrupted and, where necessary, referring them to other members of the healthcare team, such as social workers.

  2. Relations between mothers' daily work, home, and relationship stress with characteristics of mother-child conflict interactions. (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; Boyer, Brittany P; Villarreal, Deyaun L; Smith, Olivia A


    This study examined whether daily variations in levels of mothers' work, home, and relationship stress were related to collaborative and oppositional qualities of mother-child conflict interactions across 1 week. Mothers reported on 1 specific conflict interaction with their 5- to 8-year-old child and their work, home, and relationship stress through online surveys each day for 7 consecutive days. Diary data from 142 mothers were analyzed in 6 multilevel models, each including within- and between-family levels of a stressor predicting collaborative or oppositional conflict qualities. Results suggested that families in the sample differed from each other, and also varied during the week, in collaborative and oppositional conflict qualities as well as stress in all 3 domains. Mothers reported a greater degree of oppositional conflict qualities on days characterized by higher perceptions of home chaos. Additionally, mothers who reported higher average levels of negativity in romantic relationships endorsed oppositional conflict qualities to a greater extent than mothers with lower relationship negativity. Two multilevel models including all 3 stressors in relation to collaborative and oppositional conflict revealed that for mothers managing multiple roles, average romantic relationship stress was the most important unique contributor to mother-child conflict qualities and daily relationship stress was particularly influential among mothers with sons compared to those with daughters. Results support the spillover hypothesis of stress within the family system and are discussed in terms of mothers' coping mechanisms and emotional engagement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The Effectiveness of Life Skills Training on the MotherـChild Relationship in Mothers of Children with Hearing Problems

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    خلیل کاکاوندی


    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of life skills training on the mother-child relationship in mothers of children with hearing problems. The study’s procedure was experimental with pretest-posttest design employing a control group. The participants include 36 mothers of children with hearing problems in Shiraz who were selected by an available sampling method and assigned into experimental and control group, randomly; hence, each group included 18 mothers. Both groups had undergone a pre-test. The experimental group received life skills training in 12 sessions while the control group did not. After the intervention period the post-test was administered for both groups. The Roth mother-child relationship strategies scale (1961 was employed to assess the mother-child relationship strategies. The data analyses by ANCOVA showed that there was a significant effect in the mean score of mother-child relationship in mothers of children with hearing problems in the experimental group (p<0/0001 and increased the acceptance of child and reduced the overprotection, the overindulgence and the child rejection among the mothers of experimental group. Therefore, life skills training program construction and employment are highly recommendable to improve mother-child relationship strategies among mothers of children with hearing problems.

  4. Mothers' alexithymia, depression and anxiety levels and their association with the quality of mother-infant relationship: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Yürümez, Esra; Akça, Ömer Faruk; Uğur, Çağatay; Uslu, Runa Idil; Kılıç, Birim Günay


    To evaluate the relationship between mothers and their developmentally normal infants in terms of maternal alexithymia, depression and anxiety, and marital satisfaction. Fifty children between 18 and 48 months of age, and their mothers, were referred consecutively to the Infant Mental Health Unit of Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The sociodemographic features of the families and the depressive symptoms, anxiety, marital satisfaction and alexithymia levels of the mothers were assessed. The relationships between children in normal developmental stages and their mothers were evaluated and rated using a structured clinical procedure. There was a negative correlation between the mothers' alexithymia scores and the quality of the mother-infant relationship (p Mothers with high alexithymia showed higher depression and lower relationship qualities than mothers with low alexithymia, according to the correlation analysis. When depression and anxiety were controlled, high alexithymia levels were predictive of a low, impaired mother-infant relationship. Since alexithymia is a trait-like variable which has a negative correlation with impairment in a mother-infant relationship, it must be investigated in the assessment of mothers' interactions with their babies.

  5. Work/non-workday differences in mother, child, and mother-child morning cortisol in a sample of working mothers and their children. (United States)

    Hibel, Leah C; Trumbell, Jill M; Mercado, Evelyn


    Mothers have been shown to have higher morning cortisol on days they go to work compared to non-workdays; however, it is unknown how maternal workday associates with child morning cortisol or the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol. This study examined the presence and stability of morning cortisol levels and slopes (i.e., cortisol awakening response or CAR) in a sample of 2-4year old children in out-of-home child care with working mothers. In addition, we examined the differential contributions of maternal workday on mother-child attunement in morning cortisol. Mother and child morning cortisol was sampled twice a day (awakening and 30min later) across four consecutive days (2 non-workdays; 2 workdays) among 47 working mothers and their young children. Mothers also reported on compliance with sampling procedures and provided demographic information. While children exhibited stability in cortisol levels, children's CARs were variable, with children's non-work CARs not predictive of work CARs. Similarly, a significant morning rise in cortisol was only found on workdays, not non-workdays. Overall, mothers had higher cortisol levels and steeper CARs than their children. Further, maternal workday moderated the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol, such that mothers and children had concordant cortisol levels on non-workdays, but discordant cortisol levels on workdays. Morning cortisol may be more variable in pre-school aged children than adults but may be similarly responsive to the social environment. Further, workday mornings may be a time of reduced mother-child cortisol attunement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Care demands on mothers caring for a child with Down syndrome: Malaysian (Sarawak) mothers' perspectives. (United States)

    Chan, Kim Geok; Lim, Khatijah Abdullah; Ling, How Kee


    This paper examines the experiences of mothers caring for a child with Down syndrome in the Malaysian (Sarawak) context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 26 biological mothers of children with Down syndrome aged 18 years and below. They were accessed through selected child health clinics, community-based rehabilitation centres and schools using purposive sampling within two regions in Sarawak, one of the two Borneo States of Malaysia. Major themes emerging within the context of care demands were children's health, developmental delays, daily needs and behaviour issues. The insights obtained into the care demands experienced by mothers of children with Down syndrome have several implications for practice by care professionals. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Mothering at a Distance: what incarcerated mothers value about a parenting programme. (United States)

    Rossiter, Chris; Power, Tamara; Fowler, Cathrine; Jackson, Debra; Hyslop, Deirdre; Dawson, Angela


    Children with incarcerated mothers experience adverse health, social and emotional circumstances, and are a particularly vulnerable group. Mothers in custody face significant challenges in parenting their children. The study aimed to identify participants' views on impact of a parenting support programme for incarcerated mothers in NSW Australia. The mixed-methods study examined 134 responses to open and closed questions on a questionnaire for programme participants. Participants found the programme worthwhile, engaging and relevant. It enhanced their parenting knowledge and confidence. Open-ended responses highlighted program elements which participants valued, specifically support for their parenting role in complicated circumstances, greater understanding of child development and perspectives, and practical strategies for facilitating connections with their children during their incarceration. The study informs nurses working with women who have experienced incarceration and their children, both in custodial and community settings.

  8. English- and Spanish-speaking Latina mothers' beliefs about food, health, and mothering. (United States)

    Gomel, Jessica N; Zamora, Angela


    Parent beliefs regarding food, health, and child feeding behaviors among Latinos have not been well-documented. A series of eight focus groups were conducted with English-speaking and Spanish-speaking low-income Latina mothers of preschoolers to investigate their beliefs regarding how food and food preparation are related to their children's health and to their own roles as mothers. Systematic content analysis using NUDIST 6 revealed seven themes discussed by the focus groups. Integration of these themes revealed three major areas of consideration: (1) a lack of connection between the domains of eating, overweight, and health outcomes; (2) the role of parent modeling of eating behaviors; and (3) the use of feeding strategies that may not be conducive to the development of healthy eating behaviors. Furthermore, the data suggest that there are important distinctions among Latinos based on language preference, and that a "one-size-fits-all" approach to modeling Latino mothers' feeding beliefs may not be appropriate.

  9. Understanding how education/support groups help lone mothers

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    Cameron Ruth


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lone-mother led families are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage, social isolation and mental health morbidity. Community-based programs are more accessible for families seeking assistance. We examine the experiences of eight lone mothers participating in a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT of a community-based education/support group program using mixed methods. Methods A purposeful sample of eight mothers participating in the intervention arm of an RCT of community-based support/education groups was selected for the qualitative study. Individual interviews asked mothers about themselves and their relationships with their children before and after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Quantitative data collected in the RCT were used to describe these mothers. Results Mothers participating in the RCT and qualitative study experienced multiple difficulties, including financial and mood problems. These mothers reported that before participating in the group, they had shared experiences of social isolation, stigma, a sense of failure, poor relationships with their children and difficulties with financial management. After the group, mothers identified improved self-esteem, support from other mothers, improved parenting skills and improved communication with their children as outcomes of group participation. Conclusions The qualitative data revealed mothers' perceptions of specific areas that improved by participating in the group. The utility of complementary information provided by qualitative and quantitative methods in understanding program impact, as well as the need for broader assistance is noted.

  10. Understanding how education/support groups help lone mothers. (United States)

    Lipman, Ellen L; Kenny, Meghan; Jack, Susan; Cameron, Ruth; Secord, Margaret; Byrne, Carolyn


    Lone-mother led families are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage, social isolation and mental health morbidity. Community-based programs are more accessible for families seeking assistance. We examine the experiences of eight lone mothers participating in a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a community-based education/support group program using mixed methods. A purposeful sample of eight mothers participating in the intervention arm of an RCT of community-based support/education groups was selected for the qualitative study. Individual interviews asked mothers about themselves and their relationships with their children before and after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Quantitative data collected in the RCT were used to describe these mothers. Mothers participating in the RCT and qualitative study experienced multiple difficulties, including financial and mood problems. These mothers reported that before participating in the group, they had shared experiences of social isolation, stigma, a sense of failure, poor relationships with their children and difficulties with financial management. After the group, mothers identified improved self-esteem, support from other mothers, improved parenting skills and improved communication with their children as outcomes of group participation. The qualitative data revealed mothers' perceptions of specific areas that improved by participating in the group. The utility of complementary information provided by qualitative and quantitative methods in understanding program impact, as well as the need for broader assistance is noted.

  11. Mother-to-infant emotional involvement at birth. (United States)

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Costa, Raquel; Pacheco, Alexandra; Pais, Alvaro


    To study mother-to-infant emotional involvement at birth, namely factors (socio-demographics, previous life events, type of delivery, pain at childbirth, support from partner, infant characteristics, early experiences with the newborn, and mother's mood) that interfere with the mother's positive, negative and not clear emotions toward the newborn. The Bonding Scale (an extended Portuguese version of the 'New Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale') and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were administrated during the first after delivery days to 315 mothers recruited at Júlio Dinis Maternity Hospital (MJD, Porto, Portugal). A worse emotional involvement with the newborn was observed when the mother was unemployed, unmarried, had less than grade 9, previous obstetrical/psychological problems or was depressed, as well as when the infant was female, had neonatal problems or was admitted in the intensive care unit. Lower total bonding results were significantly predicted when the mother was depressed and had a lower educational level; being depressed, unemployed and single predicted more negative emotions toward the infant as well. No significant differences in the mother-to-infant emotional involvement were obtained for events related to childbirth, such as type of delivery, pain and partner support, or early experiences with the newborn; these events do not predict mother's bonding results either. The study results support the need for screening and supporting depressed, unemployed and single mothers, in order to prevent bonding difficulties with the newborn at birth.

  12. Overweight and obese children: mothers' strategies. (United States)

    Jackson, Debra; Mannix, Judy; Faga, Pat; McDonald, Glenda


    This paper reports a study exploring the strategies a group of mothers of overweight and obese children were using and planned to use in the future to assist their children to achieve a healthy weight. Over the past two decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has grown exponentially to become a major public health concern. Extant literature suggests that childhood obesity is associated with a range of physical, social and psychological effects, including poor self-esteem, depression, social isolation, and cardio-vascular and other morbidity. Parents are known to be important in determining early eating and exercise habits, and their involvement is crucial to achieving positive child health outcomes. An exploratory-descriptive design informed by feminist research principles shaped the study, which was carried out in 2003-2004. Eleven mothers meeting the inclusion criteria took part in in-depth interviews. These were transcribed, and qualitatively analysed. Participants revealed sound understandings of the concept and ramifications of obesity. They had initiated a range of strategies including role modelling, developing opportunities for increased physical activity, reducing the use of junk food, and heightened awareness of how they used food. Participants viewed the problem as a family rather than an individual problem, and aimed many of the interventions at the entire family to avoid targeting the focus child. Further research into how childhood obesity is managed within the context of family life is needed. Specifically, additional perspectives on how mothers from various socio-cultural groups address childhood obesity within family life, and longitudinal studies to explore the efficacy and sustainability of family-based lifestyle changes that are made in response to concerns about child weight issues. Additional research to explore the type and nature of family support that can best assist families to achieve sustainable lifestyle improvements is needed.

  13. Importance of Education for Expectant Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ma’ruf Ch


    Full Text Available Not many people talk about the role of a mother. But they acknowledgethat we are in world to the mother because. Actually, children are a source ofgreat joy and delight, they make life sweet, bring more rizq into a family’s lifeand give hope. A father sees his children as a future source of help and support,as well as representing an increase in numbers and perpetuation of the family.A mother sees her children as a source of hope, consolation and joy in life, andas hope for the future. All of these hopes rest on the good upbringing of thechildren and giving them a sound preparation for life, so that they will becomeactive and constructive elements in society, a source of goodness for their parents,community and society as a whole. Then they will be as Allah Subhanahu wata’ala described them: “ Wealth and sons are allurements of the life of thisworld . . .” (Qur’an 18:46.If their education and upbringing are neglected, they will become badcharacters, a burden on their family, community and society as a whole. Onlywaiting the Muslim woman’s sincerity, how to manage the great responsibilityfor forming their resource, especially in character building1. And how is theMuslim women have understanding the great responsibility and use the bestmethods in bringing them up, and do they able to demonstrate their love andaffection, also treat their sons and daughters equally, even they do not discriminatebetween sons and daughters of their affection, in other time the Muslim womenalert to everything, that may have an influence on their children they instill goodbehavior and attitudes in them.

  14. Mothers perception of sexuality education for children. (United States)

    Opara, P I; Eke, G K; Akani, N A


    Sexuality education is the process of acquiring information and forming attitudes and beliefs about sex, sexual identity, relationships and intimacy. It develops young people's skills so that they make informed choices about their behaviour, and feel confident and competent about acting on these choices. It also equips children to face developmental challenges and empowers them against the ills of abuse, exploitation, unwanted pregnancies amongst others. Mothers who are the primary caregivers should be well informed about sexuality issues. The objective of the study is to determine mothers' perception of sexuality education in children, in Port Harcourt. A structured, anonymous and self-administered questionnaire, used as instrument for data collection, was distributed amongst a convenient sample of women attending a Christian women's convention in Port Harcourt. One hundred and fifty eight women participated in the study. Most of them were married (80.4%), and belonged to the 30-49 years age bracket. Seventy one (44.9%) of the respondents had tertiary education. Over 80% agreed that children needed sexuality education but only 15 women (9.5%) had a good knowledge of the concept of sexuality education. One hundred and eleven (70.2%) believed it was the responsibility of both parents to educate their children and over 70% acknowledged that the home was the best place for such education. 64 (40.5%) believed that 6-10 years was the ideal age for starting sex education while 49% thought that the ideal age was 11-15 years. 65% of respondents discussed sexuality issues with their children at least occasionally, the content mostly involved description of body parts and reproductive organs. The average age of menarche amongst respondents was 14.0. One hundred (63%) of the women had prior knowledge of menstruation before menarche. About half of them had received information from their mothers. The study highlights the need for enlightenment of women on sexuality education

  15. Perception of Mothers on Adequate Nutrition

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    Darshini Valoo


    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition in children less than 5 years old persists around the world. In West Java and one of the districts of West Java (Sumedang, the prevalence of malnutrition is about 18.5% and 15.8% respectively. Numerous factors can lead to child malnutrition. Difficulties in availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of food can be contributing factors. A good perception of mother on adequate nutrition can improve children’s nutritional status. This study was conducted to study the perception of mothers with children 2 to 5 years old on adequate nutrition. Methods: Most of the respondents had good perception on the aspect of adequate nutrition. Results showed perception on availability was 83.8%, physical accessibility was 97.1%, economical accessibility was 98.6%, information accessibility was 84.8% and acceptability was 81.0%. However, perception of respondents on good quality nutrition for the main meal and additional food was still poor. Moreover, there are taboos for eating shrimp and watermelon. Additionally, children were given snacks in large amount. Results: There was a strong correlation between mid-upper arm muscle area/size and muscular strength (correlation cooefficient 0.746. Moreover, the higher the Body Mass Index, the stronger the muscle strength was to some point. If the BMI was more than 25 kg/m2, this findings did not occurred. Conclusions: This study reveals that the perception of mothers on good quality food is poor regardless the good results on availibility, accesibility and acceptability.

  16. Emmy Noether the mother of modern algebra

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    Tent, M B W


    This book, written primarily for the young adult reader, tells the life story of Emmy Noether, the most important female mathematician of our time. Because no one expected her to grow into an important scientist, the records of her early life are sketchy. After all, it was assumed that she would grow up to be a wife and mother. Instead, she was a genius who chose a distinctive path. The author has woven this charming story of Emmy Noether's life around the events that appear in the oral and written records, fleshing out the story with details about life in Germany at the time and what we know

  17. Class, Mothering and the Values of Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamann, Iben Charlotte


    The data analysed in this empirical paper stems from ethnographic fieldwork among new school parents at three Danish primary schools. I draw on empirically grounded theories on the cultural and subjective dimensions of class, inspired by the “English School” of poststructuralist informed, feminist...... scholars, to explore how class matters. Using the values ascribed to food at social arrangements as a lens, I explore different ways of doing class and mothering: through the exchange value of the food, through its use value and through its healthiness. I conclude by arguing that food studies hold a huge...

  18. Safeguarding nutritional status of adolescent mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon de la Barca, A.M.; Casanueva, E; Bolanos, A V [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, Sonora (Mexico); Caire Juvera, G; Valencia, M E; Roman Perez, R [Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia, Mexico (Mexico)


    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) has been introduced in Mexico in order to increase breast feeding. The Mexican health care system may be contributing negatively to the nutritional status of adolescent mothers and their infants due to the reduction of baby formulas which were previously supplied as a benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate breast-milk production, the quantity and quality of protein and changes in body composition in adolescent and adult mothers in order to design the right ways to help mother and infants fulfill their requirements or obtain support to apply to the BFHI program. We propose to measure breast-milk intake and total body water by deuterium kinetics using infrared spectroscopy. Protein concentration and composition will be measured by electrophoresis. Adolescent and adult mothers who are breast-feeding exclusively and living in two different urban regions, northwest and central Mexico, will be dosed with deuterium oxide; saliva and breast milk samples will be taken. Currently, both of the working groups are standardized. A sublimation system for separation of water and D{sub 2}O of the saliva samples under reduced pressure was designed and it has a 100% of D{sub 2}O recovery. The setting up of conditions for D{sub 2}O determination using infrared spectroscopy was achieved and calibration curves of absorbance of sequentially diluted D{sub 2}O were obtained with an r=0.9948. Total body water was measured in 12 women after 1, 3, 6, 9 and 14 days of the D{sub 2}O dose. Zero-time values obtained by extrapolation were similar to those directly obtained after 4 h equilibrium. In addition, 50 women (under inclusion criteria) have signed consent letters to participate and part of the study is currently underway. For 1998, we intend to have 40 women and their infants with both dosing periods analyzed, as well as the analysis of breast milk composition. (author) 10 refs, 2 figs

  19. Why do mothers of young infants choose to formula feed in China? Perceptions of mothers and hospital staff. (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Tang, Li; Wang, Hong; Qiu, Liqian; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H


    In China the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and infant formula is widely used. This study aimed to elicit and compare mothers' and hospital staff perceptions of the reasons that shaped mothers' decision to formula feed. In-depth interviews with 50 mothers, and four focus group discussions with 33 hospital staff, were conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen in November 2014. Responses given by the mothers and hospital staff showed a number of commonalities. The perception of "insufficient breast milk" was cited by the majority of women (n = 37, 74%) as the reason for formula feeding. Mothers' confidence in breastfeeding appears to be further reduced by maternal mothers or mothers-in-law's and "confinement ladies" misconceptions about infant feeding. Inadequate breastfeeding facilities and limited flexibility at their workplace was another common reason given for switching to formula feeding. A substantial proportion of mothers (n = 27, 54%) lacked an understanding of the health benefits of breastfeeding. Antenatal education on breastfeeding benefits for expectant mothers and their families is recommended. Moreover, mothers should be provided with breastfeeding support while in hospital and be encouraged to seek professional assistance to deal with breastfeeding problems after discharge. Employers should also make work environments more breastfeeding-friendly.

  20. Child involvement and stress in Greek mothers of deaf children. (United States)

    Lampropoulou, V; Konstantareas, M M


    Forty-two mothers of Greek deaf children reported their level of stress, availability of support, duration and frequency of involvement with their children, and affective tone of involvement, using an adaptation of Hill's ABCX model of stress and support (1949). Data on the interaction among six caregiving categories were collected over a 2-day period. Mothers of younger children and of boys, as well as mothers reporting greater stress, had longer and more frequent involvement. Mothers with greater stress were also more likely to rate the affective tone of their involvement as more neutral or as chorelike. Support availability was unrelated to involvement, with the exception of supporting neighbors. Compared to Canadian mothers of children both with and without disabilities, exposed to the same study protocol, the mothers in the present study were not more stressed. However, they were more likely to report a negative affective tone in their caregiving.

  1. Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in the Philippines. (United States)

    Alampay, Liane Peña; Jocson, Rosanne M


    OBJECTIVE.: This paper investigates the mean level and within-family similarities and differences in Filipino mothers' and fathers' attributions about success and failure in caregiving situations, and their progressive and authoritarian parenting attitudes. DESIGN.: Both mothers and fathers in 95 families in metropolitan Manila completed interviews. RESULTS.: Controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias, there was a significant gender difference in modernity of attitudes, with mothers exhibiting higher levels of modernity than fathers. There was a strong correlation in mothers' and fathers' authoritarian attitudes and moderate correlations in modernity of attitudes. There were neither parent gender effects nor concordance in the attributions of mothers and fathers. CONCLUSIONS.: Cultural explanations are presented to account for the findings, specifically the sociocultural values that foster traditional attitudes favoring parental authority and child obedience, and the differences in gender and family roles of Filipino mothers and fathers.

  2. Aging mothers' and their adult daughters' perceptions of conflict behaviors. (United States)

    Fingerman, K L


    Aging parents tend to perceive greater compatibility between themselves and offspring than do off-spring, but there is little research examining differences in perceptions of conflicts. Ninety-six older mothers (M age = 76) and their daughters (M age = 44) together selected a conflictual incident, then individually rated the degree to which they and the other person had engaged in destructive, constructive, or avoidant conflict behaviors. Mothers and daughters reported using constructive approaches more than other approaches. Mothers claimed to engage in constructive behaviors more than daughters recognized. Daughters reported engaging in destructive and avoidant behaviors more than mothers realized. Mothers also thought daughters felt better about the incident than daughters reported feeling about it. Findings suggest older mothers' underestimate daughters' negative behaviors and feelings in conflict situations.

  3. Discipline behaviors of Chinese American and European American mothers. (United States)

    Hulei, Elaine; Zevenbergen, Andrea A; Jacobs, Sue C


    In any society, parenting beliefs are a reflection of that society's cultural values and traditions (J. U. Ogbu, 1981). Verbosity, a parenting behavior considered dysfunctional in European American culture, may not be problematic in Chinese culture. The authors recruited 31 Chinese American and 30 European American mothers and used questionnaires to measure parenting behaviors and child behavior problems. The Chinese American mothers also completed a questionnaire assessing their acculturation level. The Chinese American mothers had higher levels of verbosity than did the European American mothers; however, there were no differences between the groups in child behavior problems. The results also revealed higher levels of laxness in the Chinese American mothers compared to the European American mothers. Acculturation level did not predict verbosity or laxness levels. Results suggest that the effectiveness of a parenting style should be defined relative to cultural context.

  4. Why Are Chinese Mothers More Controlling than American Mothers? "My Child Is My Report Card" (United States)

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping


    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (M[subscript age] = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African…

  5. Mothers as Educational Workers: Mothers' Emotional Work at Their Children's Transfer to Second-Level Education (United States)

    O'Brien, Maeve


    This paper investigates the phenomenon of mothers' emotional labour in relation to children's transfer from first- to second-level schooling: a time that has been shown to pose significant challenges for students and their families. It seeks to break the silence that surrounds the recognition and production of emotional labour in general, and…

  6. Educational Leaders Who Are Mothers: The Negotiation of Their Roles as School Leader and Mother (United States)

    Boldur, Stephanie E.


    Women who work outside the home have two jobs: their workplace responsibilities and their home duties. Like working mothers in other fields, school administrators have the challenge of negotiating their rigorous jobs, often while running a household. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of female school administrators who are…

  7. Effects of Mothers' Perceptions of Children's Competence: The Moderating Role of Mothers' Theories of Competence (United States)

    Pomerantz, Eva M.; Dong, Wei


    There is much evidence that parents' perceptions of children's competence affect the development of children's academic functioning. In the current research, the possibility that this is moderated by parents' theories about the stability of competence was examined. In a 2-wave, 1-year study of 126 children (9 to 12 years old) and their mothers,…

  8. Political Mothering: Latina and African American Mothers in the Struggle for Educational Justice (United States)

    Fuentes, Emma


    This article explores the process and impact of women organizing for educational justice in Northern California by documenting the efforts of a committed group of mothers who sought to address the disproportionate underachievement of Latino and African American students within their city's high school. Using a combined methodology of ethnography…

  9. Parenting style of mothers and fathers of adolescent eyes


    KŘÍŽOVÁ, Hana


    The thesis titled "Parenting style of mothers and fathers eyes adolescents' explores the differences of perception and evaluation of educational access of mothers and fathers to daughters and sons. The theoretical part contains basic information about the family, types of families, developmental characteristics during adolescence, types of educational styles. Part of this work is to present the research results of the educational style of mothers and fathers in terms of girls and boys. Data w...

  10. Authoritative Parenting Among Immigrant Chinese Mothers of Preschoolers


    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Leung, Christy Y. Y.; Tahseen, Madiha; Schultz, David


    The goals of this study were: (a) to examine authoritative parenting style among Chinese immigrant mothers of young children, (b) to test the mediational mechanism between authoritative parenting style and children’s outcomes; and (c) to evaluate 3 predictors of authoritative parenting style (psychological well-being, perceived support in the parenting role, parenting stress). Participants included 85 Chinese immigrant mothers and their preschool children. Mothers reported on their parenting ...

  11. Anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children. (United States)

    Lau, Gar-Yen; Patel, Nisha; Umasunthar, Thisanayagam; Gore, Claudia; Warner, John O; Hanna, Heather; Phillips, Katherine; Zaki, Amirah Mohd; Hodes, Matthew; Boyle, Robert J


    Previous reports suggest that parents especially mothers of food-allergic children may have increased anxiety. Studies with an appropriate control group have not been undertaken, and the determinants of such anxiety are not known. We compared measures of anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children and atopic non-food-allergic children, with anxiety and stress in mothers of children with no chronic illness. Cross-sectional study of mothers attending a hospital appointment for their 8- to 16-year-old child. Mothers of children with food allergy, asthma but no food allergy or no chronic illness completed questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and measures of anxiety and psychologic adjustment in their child. Forty mothers of food-allergic children, 18 mothers of asthmatic children without food allergy and 38 mothers of children with no chronic illness (controls) were recruited. Mothers of food-allergic children showed increased state anxiety – median anxiety score 38.0 (IQR 30.0, 44.0) food allergy, 27.0 (22.0, 40.0) control p = 0.012; and increased stress – median stress score 18.5 (12.0, 22.0) food allergy, 14.0 (7.5, 19.5)control p = 0.035. No significant differences were seen between mothers in the asthmatic group and controls. In multivariate analysis, previous food anaphylaxis(p = 0.008) and poorly controlled asthma (p = 0.004) were associated with increased maternal anxiety. Child anxiety and adjustment did not differ between food-allergic and control groups. Mothers of food-allergic children have increased anxiety and stress compared with mothers of children with no chronic illness. Anaphylaxis and poorly controlled asthma are associated with maternal anxiety.

  12. Communication between mother and her visually imapired child


    Kolarič, Mojca


    Communication between mother and child has a significant impact on the development of children's language skills. Blindness or visual impairment limits access to information from the environment, which may have a negative impact on the development of communication between mother and child. In my master's thesis I focused on how the communication between mother and child alters due to visual impairment. In the theoretical part I introduced the importance of visual input in communication and...

  13. Brief Psychotherapy for Maternal Depression: Impact on Mothers and Children. (United States)

    Swartz, Holly A; Cyranowski, Jill M; Cheng, Yu; Zuckoff, Allan; Brent, David A; Markowitz, John C; Martin, Stacy; Amole, Marlissa C; Ritchey, Fiona; Frank, Ellen


    Two-generation studies demonstrate that treating maternal depression benefits school-age children. Although mothers prefer psychotherapy to medication, little is known about how psychotherapy for maternal depression affects offspring, especially in very high-risk families in which both mothers and children concurrently meet syndromal criteria for psychiatric disorders. This trial evaluated the effects of 2 brief psychotherapies for maternal depression on very high-risk families. Mothers with major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to 9 sessions of either brief interpersonal psychotherapy for mothers (IPT-MOMS; n = 85) or brief supportive psychotherapy (BSP; n = 83). Independent assessors evaluated mothers and their children, ages 7 to 18 years, diagnosed with at least 1 internalizing disorder, every 3 months over the course of 1 year. Symptoms and functioning of mothers and children improved significantly over time, with no between-group differences. However, children of mothers assigned to BSP had more outpatient mental health visits and were more likely to receive antidepressant medication. Mothers reported greater satisfaction with IPT-MOMS than BSP. Improvement in mothers' depressive symptoms was associated with improvement in child functioning in time-lagged fashion, with children improving 3 to 6 months after mothers improved. Antidepressant medication use and number of mental health visits received by children did not affect outcomes. IPT-MOMS and BSP demonstrated comparable beneficial effects on maternal depression. Children's functioning improved following maternal improvement, independent of youths' treatment. Children of mothers randomized to IPT-MOMS, compared with BSP, achieved comparable outcomes despite less follow-up treatment. Observation of lagged association between maternal improvement and change in child functioning should influence treatment planning for families. Clinical trial registration information-Psychotherapy for Depressed

  14. Anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children. (United States)

    Lau, Gar-Yen; Patel, Nisha; Umasunthar, Thisanayagam; Gore, Claudia; Warner, John O; Hanna, Heather; Phillips, Katherine; Mohd Zaki, Amirah; Hodes, Matthew; Boyle, Robert J


    Previous reports suggest that parents especially mothers of food-allergic children may have increased anxiety. Studies with an appropriate control group have not been undertaken, and the determinants of such anxiety are not known. We compared measures of anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children and atopic non-food-allergic children, with anxiety and stress in mothers of children with no chronic illness. Cross-sectional study of mothers attending a hospital appointment for their 8- to 16-year-old child. Mothers of children with food allergy, asthma but no food allergy or no chronic illness completed questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and measures of anxiety and psychologic adjustment in their child. Forty mothers of food-allergic children, 18 mothers of asthmatic children without food allergy and 38 mothers of children with no chronic illness (controls) were recruited. Mothers of food-allergic children showed increased state anxiety - median anxiety score 38.0 (IQR 30.0, 44.0) food allergy, 27.0 (22.0, 40.0) control p = 0.012; and increased stress - median stress score 18.5 (12.0, 22.0) food allergy, 14.0 (7.5, 19.5) control p = 0.035. No significant differences were seen between mothers in the asthmatic group and controls. In multivariate analysis, previous food anaphylaxis (p = 0.008) and poorly controlled asthma (p = 0.004) were associated with increased maternal anxiety. Child anxiety and adjustment did not differ between food-allergic and control groups. Mothers of food-allergic children have increased anxiety and stress compared with mothers of children with no chronic illness. Anaphylaxis and poorly controlled asthma are associated with maternal anxiety. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Mother Love and Mental Illness: An Emotional History


    Harrington, Anne


    This essay aims to illuminate the historical origins of psychiatric concern with mother love – and especially mother love gone wrong. It looks particularly at ways in which a combination of wartime research, postwar social concerns and new tensions between psychoanalysis and hospital psychiatry worked together to create a range of theories and practices predicated on the idea that specific forms of pathological mother love could lead to specific forms of mental disorder, including (and perhap...

  16. The Effects of Massage by Mothers on Mother-Infant Attachment. (United States)

    Shoghi, Mahnaz; Sohrabi, Soroor; Rasouli, Mahboobe


    Context • Transferring a newborn to the intensive care unit due to a premature birth is a major obstacle in the establishment of emotional attachment between a mother and her child. Researchers believe that the formation and continuation of such an attachment have a profound effect on the child's mental development and behavior in the coming years of life. Not all studies have agreed, however, that skin contact alone, such as massage provides, can improve attachment. Objective • The aim of this study was to determine the effects on maternal attachment behaviors of infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of massage provided by mothers for their premature neonates. Design • The research team designed a randomized, controlled trial. Setting • The study took place at the Hazrat Ali Asghar Hospital of the Iran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran). Participants • Participants were 40 mothers and 40 newborns admitted to the NICU at the hospital. Intervention • The study divided participants randomly into a massage (intervention) group and a control group receiving no massages. Mothers in the intervention group trained by watching educational videos and practicing the massage on infant manikins. Subsequently, the intervention group massaged its infants according to a 5-d program, in which each neonate received a 15-min massage session per day. Outcome Measures • Mother-infant attachment behaviors were assessed in both groups 4 times. The maternal attachment scale was used for data collection. Results • According to the statistical analyses, the between-groups difference was not significant at baseline (P > .05). The study showed a statistically significant difference between baseline and postintervention in the mean frequencies of maternal attachment behaviors for both groups (P attachment between the intervention and control groups (P = .000). Conclusion • Massage given to premature neonates by their mothers on a daily

  17. Fetal MRI: incidental findings in the mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Selwan B.; Dietz, Kelly R.; Holm, Tara L.


    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a routinely used tool in prenatal diagnosis; however, there is a lack of studies evaluating incidental findings observed in the mother. This study describes and quantifies incidental findings observed in the mother during fetal MRI. We reviewed all fetal MRI studies at the University of Minnesota Medical Center from February 2008 to September 2014. Two pediatric radiologists retrospectively conducted a consensus evaluation. The maternal findings were categorized into neurologic, gynecologic, urinary, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal. Hydronephrosis consistent with the stage of pregnancy was recorded but was not included as an abnormal finding. Abnormal findings were classified into three groups, depending on their clinical significance: level I (low), level II (medium) and level III (high). We evaluated 332 pregnant patients with a mean age of 29.3 years and a mean gestational age of 29 weeks. Of these, 55.4% had at least 1 incidental finding, for a total of 262 incidental maternal findings. Of the 262 abnormalities, 113 (43.1%) were neurologic, 69 were gynecologic (26.3%), 36 (13.7%) urinary, 24 (9.2%) gastrointestinal and 20 (7.6%) musculoskeletal. Of the 262 incidental findings, 237 (90.5%) were level I, 24 (9.2%) were level II and 1 (0.4%) was level III. Our results suggest that although the vast majority of incidental maternal findings are benign, more significant findings are still encountered and should be expected. (orig.)

  18. Fetal MRI: incidental findings in the mother

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    Abdullah, Selwan B. [University of Maryland Medical Center, Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); University of Minnesota, Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Dietz, Kelly R.; Holm, Tara L. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a routinely used tool in prenatal diagnosis; however, there is a lack of studies evaluating incidental findings observed in the mother. This study describes and quantifies incidental findings observed in the mother during fetal MRI. We reviewed all fetal MRI studies at the University of Minnesota Medical Center from February 2008 to September 2014. Two pediatric radiologists retrospectively conducted a consensus evaluation. The maternal findings were categorized into neurologic, gynecologic, urinary, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal. Hydronephrosis consistent with the stage of pregnancy was recorded but was not included as an abnormal finding. Abnormal findings were classified into three groups, depending on their clinical significance: level I (low), level II (medium) and level III (high). We evaluated 332 pregnant patients with a mean age of 29.3 years and a mean gestational age of 29 weeks. Of these, 55.4% had at least 1 incidental finding, for a total of 262 incidental maternal findings. Of the 262 abnormalities, 113 (43.1%) were neurologic, 69 were gynecologic (26.3%), 36 (13.7%) urinary, 24 (9.2%) gastrointestinal and 20 (7.6%) musculoskeletal. Of the 262 incidental findings, 237 (90.5%) were level I, 24 (9.2%) were level II and 1 (0.4%) was level III. Our results suggest that although the vast majority of incidental maternal findings are benign, more significant findings are still encountered and should be expected. (orig.)

  19. Mother-teen communication about weight management. (United States)

    Dailey, René M; Thompson, Charee M; Romo, Lynsey Kluever


    Although research shows family members can influence each other's diet and exercise behaviors, the specific strategies that most effectively motivate individuals to enact healthy behaviors have not been revealed. Toward this goal, this study employed confirmation theory to assess how the quality of weight management (WM) communication between 107 mother-teen dyads was related to their diet and exercise behaviors as well as their subjective perceptions of the productivity of WM conversations. Confirmation theory proposes two components of confirmation: acceptance and challenge. Analyses revealed that accepting and challenging communication were both positively related to the perceived productivity of WM conversations. However, more complex associations emerged for diet and exercise. Acceptance was more helpful in motivating better eating habits for mothers with low health motivation and teens with high health motivation. For exercise, challenge was helpful in motivating teens with higher sensitivity about communicating about weight issues; however, counter to predictions, challenge was negatively related to exercise for teens with low health motivation and low sensitivity. These interactions, however, explained less variance than analyses for perceived effectiveness and satisfaction.

  20. So not mothers: responsibility for surrogate orphans. (United States)

    Parks, Jennifer A; Murphy, Timothy F


    The law ordinarily recognises the woman who gives birth as the mother of a child, but in certain jurisdictions, it will recognise the commissioning couple as the legal parents of a child born to a commercial surrogate. Some commissioning parents have, however, effectively abandoned the children they commission, and in such cases, commercial surrogates may find themselves facing unexpected maternal responsibility for children they had fully intended to give up. Any assumption that commercial surrogates ought to assume maternal responsibility for abandoned children runs contrary to the moral suppositions that typically govern contract surrogacy, in particular, assumptions that gestational carriers are not 'mothers' in any morally significant sense. In general, commercial gestational surrogates are almost entirely conceptualised as 'vessels'. In a moral sense, it is deeply inconsistent to expect commercial surrogates to assume maternal responsibility simply because commissioning parents abandon children for one reason or another. We identify several instances of child abandonment and discuss their implications with regard to the moral conceptualisation of commercial gestational surrogates. We conclude that if gestational surrogates are to remain conceptualised as mere vessels, they should not be expected to assume responsibility for children abandoned by commissioning parents, not even the limited responsibility of giving them up for adoption or surrendering them to the state. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Perceived support among Iranian mothers of children with learning disability. (United States)

    Kermanshahi, Sima Mohammad Khan; Vanaki, Zohreh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Azadfalah, Parviz


    This qualitative phenomenological study explores the lived experiences of perceived support by Iranian mothers who have children with learning disability. Twelve open interviews with six mothers of learning-disabled children (7-12 years of age) were audiotape-recorded with participants' consent. The interviews were transcribed and data were analyzed using Van Manen methodology. Two major themes emerged from 138 thematic sentences. The mothers'experiences could be interpreted as a sense of being in the light or being in the shade of support, with variations for different participants. The results indicate a need for more specialized and individually adjusted support for mothers in Iran.

  2. Determinants of Authoritative Parenting Style in Iranian Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Bahrami


    Discussion: This study enhances our understanding of the primary determinants of authoritative parenting style in Iranian mothers. The authoritative parenting style is a function of interactional mother and child characteristic and contextual components. These parents had a low score on neuroticism. Therefore, they had emotional stability and could manage their impulse and negative emotions about child maltreatment. Also, their children had low scores in excitability and a high score in sociability. Additionally, the authoritative mothers had weak social support. One explanation for this result is that  mothers are the autonomy people and stand on their own rules and had little need to others.

  3. Women's experiences of becoming a mother after prolonged labour. (United States)

    Nystedt, Astrid; Högberg, Ulf; Lundman, Berit


    This paper is a report of a study to explore women's experiences of becoming a mother after prolonged labour. The negativity associated with a complicated labour such as prolonged labour can lead to a struggle to become a healthy mother and could restrict the process of becoming a mother. Interviews were conducted in 2004 with 10 mothers who had been through a prolonged labour with assisted vaginal or caesarean delivery 1-3 months previously. Thematic content analysis was used. Three themes were formulated, describing women's experiences as fumbling in the dark, struggling for motherhood and achieving confidence in being a mother. The difficulties and suffering involved in becoming a mother after a prolonged labour were interpreted to be like 'fumbling in the dark'. Women experienced bodily fatigue, accompanied by feelings of illness and detachment from the child. Having the child when in this condition entailed a struggle to become a mother. In spite of these experiences and the desire to achieve confidence in being a mother, the reassurance of these women regarding their capacity for motherhood was crucial: it was central to their happiness as mothers, encouraged interaction and relationship with the child, and contributed to their adaptation to motherhood. Women experiencing prolonged labour may be comparable with the experience of and recovery from illness, which could contribute to difficulties transitioning to motherhood and limit a woman's ability to be emotionally available for the child.

  4. Preparing meals under time stress. The experience of working mothers. (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene


    The present study quantitatively explored the effects of mothers' perceived time pressure, as well as meal-related variables including mothers' convenience orientation and meal preparation confidence, on the healthiness of evening meals served to school-aged children (5-18 years old) over a 7-day period. A sample of 120 employed mothers, who identified themselves as the chief meal-preparers in their households, completed a brief, self-report, meal-related questionnaire. Results revealed that mothers' perceived time pressure did not significantly predict meal healthiness. Mothers' confidence in their ability to prepare a healthy meal was the only unique, significant predictor of a healthy evening meal. Mothers who were more confident in their ability to prepare a healthy meal served healthier evening meals than those who were less confident. In addition, mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation were negatively related to healthy meal preparation confidence. Results suggest that mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation, may indirectly compromise meal healthiness, by decreasing mothers' meal preparation confidence. Practical and theoretical implications of the study's findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Risk factors associated with mother negligence in child care]. (United States)

    Vargas-Porras, Carolina; Villamizar-Carvajal, Beatriz; Ardila-Suárez, Edinson Fabian


    To determine the factors associated with the risk of negligence in child care during the first year of rearing in adolescent and adult mothers. This was cross-sectional correlation study with a non-probabilistic sample composed of 250 mothers during their first year of child rearing. The information was collected through the Parenting Inventory for Teenagers and Adults. 88 teenager mothers and 162 adult mothers participated in this study. In general low scores were found in all dimensions in both adolescent mothers group and adult mother group, which indicate the existence of deficiencies in the adequate maternal behavior and risk of negligent care to their children. In the group of teenage mothers there was an evident and significant correlation between the factors: maternal age and occupation dimension belief in punishment and occupation with inappropriate expectations dimension. The group of adult mothers showed significant correlation between: educational level with the dimensions of role reversal, belief in punishment and lack of empathy; socioeconomic dimension with the belief in punishment and age of the child with the lack of empathy dimension. Child rearing expectations of mothers show a high risk of negligence in child care. Therefore, nurses should promote the strengthening of the maternal role. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  6. Early father's and mother's involvement and child's later educational outcomes. (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann


    Few studies have investigated the individual long-term contributions that mothers and fathers make to their children's schooling. (1) To explore the role of early father involvement in children's later educational attainment independently of the role of early mother involvement and other confounds, (2) to investigate whether gender and family structure moderate the relationship between father's and mother's involvement and child's educational attainment, and (3) to explore whether the impact of father's involvement depends on the level of mother's involvement. The study used longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study. The initial sample were those 7,259 cohort members with valid data on mother involvement at age 7, father involvement at age 7, and school-leaving qualification by age 20. Of those, 3,303 were included in the final analysis. The measures were control variables, structural factors (family structure, sibship size and residential mobility), child factors (emotional/behavioural problems, cognitive ability and academic motivation), and father's and mother's involvement. Father involvement and mother involvement at age 7 independently predicted educational attainment by age 20. The association between parents' involvement and educational attainment was not stronger for sons than for daughters. Father involvement was not more important for educational attainment when mother involvement was low rather than high. Not growing up in intact two-parent family did not weaken the association between father's or mother's involvement and educational outcomes. Early father involvement can be another protective factor in counteracting risk conditions that might lead to later low attainment levels.

  7. [The mother's role in breasfeeding her primiparous daughter: "the togetherness"]. (United States)

    Machado, Ana Rita Marinho; Nakano, Ana Márcia Spanó; de Almeida, Ana Maria; Mamede, Marli Villela


    The authors' disquietudes are related to the structure for supporting women to breastfeed within their family environment. It is a qualitative study aiming at understanding the significance of breastfeeding among mothers and primiparous daughters, as well as identifying how the mother perceive herself as a means of support for her primiparous daughter and vice versa. The historic social construction of women for maternity has been used as a theoretical referential. The sample was made up of 10 women--five primiparous daughters and their mothers. The participation of the mother in her daughter's maternity was "to be along with her", sharing knowledge and life experiences.

  8. Why are Chinese Mothers More Controlling than American Mothers? “My Child is My Report Card” (United States)

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping


    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (mean age = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African Americans) reported on psychologically controlling parenting. Mothers also indicated the extent to which their worth is contingent on children's performance. Psychologically controlling parenting was higher among Chinese than American mothers, particularly European (vs. African) American mothers. Chinese (vs. American) mothers' feelings of worth were more contingent on children's performance, with this contributing to their heightened psychological control relative to American mothers. PMID:23581633

  9. The Mother's Perspective: Factors Considered When Choosing to Enter a Stay-at-Home Father and Working Mother Relationship. (United States)

    Rushing, Cassie; Sparks, Misti


    A qualitative study was conducted to examine the decision-making factors of entering a stay-at-home father and working mother relationship based on the mother's perspective. A total of 20 married, heterosexual, working mothers with biological children aged 1 to 4 years were asked questions regarding how they decided to enter a stay-at-home father and working mother relationship as well as contributing factors to this decision. The findings presented in this article were part of a larger study that examined mothers' overall perspectives of the working mother stay-at-home father dynamics. The themes that emerged regarding how the decision was made to enter this kind of relationship were creating a work-family life balance, utilizing the cost-benefit ratio, and applying personality/trait strengths.

  10. Qualitative evaluation of the Teenage Mothers Project in Uganda: a community-based empowerment intervention for unmarried teenage mothers. (United States)

    Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Bos, Arjan E R; Ruiter, Robert A C; van Reeuwijk, Miranda A J; Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E; Nshakira, Nathan; Kok, Gerjo


    A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda empowers unmarried teenage mothers to cope with the consequences of early pregnancy and motherhood. Since 2000, 1036 unmarried teenage mothers, their parents, and community leaders participated in economic and social empowerment interventions. The present study explored the changes resulting from the TMP as well as factors that either enabled or inhibited these changes. Semi-structured interviews (N = 23) were conducted with former teenage mothers , community leaders, and project implementers, and lifeline histories were obtained from former teenage mothers (N = 9). Quantitative monitoring data regarding demographic and social characteristics of teenage mother participants (N = 1036) were analysed. The findings suggest that, overall, the TMP seems to have contributed to the well-being of unmarried teenage mothers and to a supportive social environment. It appears that the project contributed to supportive community norms towards teenage mothers' position and future opportunities, increased agency, improved coping with early motherhood and stigma, continued education, and increased income generation by teenage mothers. The study findings also suggest limited change in disapproving community norms regarding out-of-wedlock sex and pregnancy, late active enrolment of teenage mothers in the project (i.e., ten months after delivery of the child), and differences in the extent to which parents provided support. It is concluded that strengths of the community-based TMP seem to be its socio-ecological approach, the participatory planning with community leaders and other stakeholders, counselling of parents and unmarried teenage mothers, and the emphasis on education and income

  11. [Perception manner of mother of obese persons in adolescence]. (United States)

    Radoszewska, Joanna


    There are specific relation properties of mother to the obese child. The mother representation in child is understand as a experience manner of herself. Representation (mental image) include perceptions, knowledge about characteristics and behaviors of a person and evaluation and experiences that provoke in others. The aim of this article is a trial of an answer what is a mental representation of mother experienced by obese girls and boys in adolescence. 21 obese persons (12 girls and 9 boys) and 23 persons of normal body mass (15 girls and 8 boys) have been investigated. The mean age of the investigated obese persons were 14.53, and for a person of normal body mass was 15.31. All persons were investigated by a clinical interview with 6 questions concerning mental mother representation. The obtained results were analyzed in relation to mental mother representation contents: cognitive, emotional, social, sexual, certificate, behavioral and somatic. Obese persons more often than the person of the normal body mass identify to mental mother representation somatic contents, more rarely social, sexual and behavioral contents. Obese girls more rarely than girls of the normal body mass identify to social contents, more often to somatic. Obese girls more rarely than obese boys identify to mental mother representation emotional contents, more often to somatic contents. The specific relation properties of mother to obese person in adolescence could be manifested in difficulties in turn on contents of mental mother representation, in external, somatic point of concern for mental mother representation, difficulties in contact with mental contents of mother representation.

  12. Childhood overweight dependence on mother-child relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Brødsgaard


    Full Text Available The causes of childhood overweight are numerous and inter-related. The mother-child relationship is of great significance for the child’s health. Previous studies have found patterns of dysfunctional interaction in families with obese children. Therefore, development of childhood overweight could be due to the mother-child relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate how, and to what degree, the mother-child relationship, assessed by the mothers, was related to overweight among children aged seven to nine years. The study was a cross sectional case-controlled one. It included 111 overweight and 149 non-overweight seven to nine year old children and their mothers. Weight status was determined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference for children Body Mass Index, age and gender adjusted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to categorize the mother-child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships – characterized by the prototypes – between the overweight and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child’s weight status according to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves and their children.

  13. The Experience of Young Children and Their Incarcerated Mothers: A Call for Humanly-Responsive Policy. (United States)

    Farrell, Ann


    Describes the IMCIPE Project (Incarcerated Mothers and Children: Impact of Prison Environments) which investigates the experiences of incarcerated mothers whose children live with them in Mother and Baby Units and incarcerated mothers who are separated from their children; the impact of the prison environment on mother-child relationships; and…

  14. Parental Nurturance and the Mental Health and Parenting of Urban African American Adolescent Mothers (United States)

    Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Burrell, Lori; Beers, Lee S. A.; Duggan, Anne K.


    This study examined the relationship between a teen mother's perceptions of nurturance from her mother and father and her mental health and parenting attitudes. One-hundred and thirty-eight urban, primarily African American adolescent mothers were interviewed. Multivariate results indicate that teen mothers who felt nurtured by their mothers had…

  15. Socialization of Emotion and Offspring Internalizing Symptoms in Mothers with Childhood-Onset Depression (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Prout, Joanna T.; O'Rourke, Flannery; Lane, Tonya J.; Kovacs, Maria


    This study examines how mothers with and without a history of childhood-onset depression respond to their 3-9 year-old children's emotions. Mother-child dyads included 55 offspring of mothers with a history of childhood-onset depressive disorders and 57 offspring of never-depressed mothers. Mothers with a history of childhood depression were less…

  16. Breastfeeding and the Mother-Infant Relationship--A Review (United States)

    Jansen, Jarno; de Weerth, Carolina; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne


    A positive effect of breastfeeding on the mother-infant relationship is often assumed in the scientific literature, but this has not been systematically reviewed. This review aims to clarify the role of breastfeeding in the mother-infant relationship, which is conceptualized as the maternal bond toward the infant and infant attachment toward the…

  17. Gender Differences in Mother-Neonate Twin Interaction. (United States)

    Riese, Marilyn L.

    To investigate differences in mothers' interaction patterns with their neonate twins based on birth order, relative size at birth, or gender, 37 neonate twins and their mothers were observed during the first 10 minutes of a feeding in a hospital nursery. Time-sampling recordings were made of maternal behaviors related to proximal stimulation,…

  18. Breastfeeding, Bonding, and the Mother-Infant Relationship. (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Clark, Roseanne


    Analyzed data from a longitudinal study of 570 mother-infant pairs to test the bonding hypothesis and the good-enough caregiver hypothesis as they relate to breastfeeding with maternal bonding and the mother-infant relationship. Found that breastfeeding dyads tended to show higher-quality relationships at 12 months than did bottle-feeding dyads.…

  19. Verbal Modeling Behavior in Mother-Child Interaction (United States)

    Longhurst, Thomas M.; And Others


    Discusses an alternate method of examining the verbal interaction of mothers and their children in dyadic communication. The behavior of both mothers and children differed significantly according to the ages of the children involved. Acta Symbolica, 807 Jefferson Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee 38105. Subscription Rates: annually, $12.00 individuals,…

  20. Lesbian Mothers' Bids for Normalcy in Their Children's Schools (United States)

    Bower, Laura A.; Klecka, Cari L.


    Albeit growing in number, lesbian mothers and their children remain a statistical minority in schools. Lesbian mothers in this study described their families as "normal" or "just like any other family." From the perspective of queer theory, normal is a socially constructed and insidious concept. This study analyzes both the strategies participants…

  1. Energy Consumption of Lactating Mothers: Current Situation and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati


    Full Text Available Recommendations on the adequacy of nutrient intake indicate that lactating mothers have higher nutritional needs than do pregnant mothers. High nutrient intake is necessary to help mothers recover after childbirth, produce milk, and maintain the quantity and quality of breast milk. It also prevents maternal malnutrition. Research has shown, however, that the dietary energy consumption of mothers during lactation was significantly lower than that during pregnancy. The current study explored the factors associated with decreased nutritional intake during maternal lactation. The study was conducted in March–April 2013, and the subjects were mothers with infants aged >6 months. Results revealed that the factors causing low dietary energy consumption among breastfeeding mothers were poor nutritional knowledge and attitude toward high energy intake requirements during lactation, lack of time to cook and eat because of infant care, reduced consumption of milk and supplements, dietary restrictions and prohibitions, and suboptimal advice from midwives/health personnel. Beginning from the antenatal care visit, health personnel should conduct effective counseling on the importance of nutrient intake during lactation. Advice should be provided not only to mothers, but also to their families to enable them to thoroughly support the mothers as they breastfeed their infants.

  2. Effect of Mother's Characteristics and Infant Feeding Practices on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Height-for-age (stunting), weight-for-height (wasting) and weightfor-age ... Up to 74.4% of mothers with children 0-6 months of age exclusively breastfed their infants. Few mothers (7.5%) gave breast milk to their babies immediately after birth, ...

  3. Do Mothers Want Professional Carers to Love Their Babies? (United States)

    Page, Jools


    This article reports an aspect of a life historical study which investigated the part that "love" played in mothers' decision-making about returning to work and placing their babies in day care. The article begins with a brief discussion of the context, including 21st-century policies in England to encourage mothers to return to the…

  4. Pedagogical Competencies for Mother-Tongue Teacher Education (United States)

    Mata, Liliana


    This study aims to elaborate a framework for both the foundation and application of professional standards for mother-tongue teachers. The main issue with which this study is concerned constitutes the lack of a set of clear standards for the initial training of mother-tongue teachers. In terms of theory, that which has currently been analyzed in…

  5. Early Father's and Mother's Involvement and Child's Later Educational Outcomes (United States)

    Flouri, E.; Buchanan, A.


    Background: Few studies have investigated the individual long-term contributions that mothers and fathers make to their children's schooling. Aims: (1) To explore the role of early father involvement in children's later educational attainment independently of the role of early mother involvement and other confounds, (2) to investigate whether…

  6. Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and services (United States)



    The aim of this study was to explore Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and their understanding of their causes; to determine Palestinian mothers' awareness of existing services and sources of help and support; to identify professionals in the community whom Palestinian mothers would consult if their child had mental health problems; and to establish their views on ways of increasing awareness of child mental health issues and services. Checklists exploring the above issues were completed by 249 Palestinian mothers living in refugee camps in the Gaza Strip. Palestinian mothers equally perceived emotional, behavioural and psychotic symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, parental psychiatric illness and social adversity. A substantial proportion (42.6%) had knowledge of local child mental health care services. Overall, mothers preferred Western over traditional types of treatment, and were keen to increase mental health awareness within their society. Despite a different cultural tradition, Palestinian mothers appear open to a range of services and interventions for child mental health problems. As in other non-Western societies, child mental health service provision should be integrated with existing primary health care, schools, and community structures. PMID:16946953

  7. Breastfeeding and emotions of infants of working mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined breast feeding and emotions of infants of working mothers in Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba Akoko in Ondo State. A total number of 150 mothers randomly selected from different unit of the University were used as research subjects. The subjects were exposed to Maternal Employment ...

  8. Health Care Factors Influencing Teen Mothers' Use Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study seeks to examine factors associated with teen mothers' use of modern contraceptives after giving birth. Methods: The 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey data was used to test the study objective. A sample of 12, 911 teen mothers aged between 10 and 18 years were extracted from 23, 020 ...


    Sedykh, S V


    Early breast-feeding is a standard of perinatal care currently. After cesarean section it can be possible in case of early mother activation (verticalization). Assessment of perioperative analgesia influence on activation timing was the aim of our research. We included 120 parturient women. It was proved, that local analgesia using in postoperative period promotes early mother verticaliration, and optimal breast-feeding starting.

  10. Complex Pathways for Young Mothers outside Employment, Education and Training (United States)

    Russell, Lisa


    This article explores young mothers' experiences of turbulent pathways in and out of education and work in Northern England. Data are drawn from an ethnography conducted between 2010 and 2013 that incorporated participant observation, life-story maps, photographs and interviews carried out in young mothers' homes, parenting classes and…

  11. Mother-infant attachment styles as a predictor of aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Amani


    Full Text Available Background & aim: Aggression is a phenomenon that causes irreversible damage to a community. Psychodynamic theory suggests that aggression is rooted in early relationships with family members, especially mother. According to this theory, infant-mother relationship is a major predictor of an individual’s behavior from childhood to adulthood. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between mother-infant attachment styles and aggression. Methods:This study was conducted on 150 university students (75 female, 75 male randomly selected from Bu-Ali Sina University in Hamadan, Iran. Data were collected via demographic questionnaires, Persian version of Adult Attachment Inventory (AAS (Hazen and Shaver and Ahvaz Aggression Inventory (AAI. Data analysis was performed using Pearson correlation and regression analysis. Results: According to our findings, secure mother-infantattachment had a significant negative correlation with aggression. In addition, ambivalent mother-infantattachment had a significant positive correlation with aggression, while avoidant attachment style had no significant correlation with aggression. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, secure attachment of mother with infant could reduce aggression during adulthood. On the other hand, ambivalent attachment between mother and infant could clearly increase the risk of aggression. Therefore, it is recommended to train different attachment styles to pregnant women  through related workshops during pregnancy in order to prevent ambivalent mother-infant attachment.

  12. Heritability of menopausal age in mothers and daughters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, Kristel M.; Kok, Helen S.; Pearson, Peter L.; Dubas, Judith S.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; te Velde, Egbert R.; van Noord, Paulus A. H.


    Objective: To determine the heritability of age at natural menopause from mother-daughter pairs. Design: Two-generation families were selected to study heritability of menopausal age. Setting: Subjects were drawn from a population-based study. Patient(s): One hundred sixty-four mother-daughter pairs

  13. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam Hoseini V


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.486.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.893.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  14. Learners' Motivation for Literacy in the Mother Tongue 1: Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the desirability of and motivational needs for basic literacy in the mother tongue and library use in lbadan metropolis. Data were collected through indepth interviews with 25 adult basic learners. The study reveals a strong desire for literacy in the mother tongue by the respondents. The learners' ...

  15. Knowledge and belief of nursing mothers on nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing mothers with respect to food restriction during acute diarrhoea in Ibadan, South West Nigeria. This single round cross-sectional study adopted a purposive sampling procedure to select 250 nursing mothers aged between 17 and 45 ...

  16. Emotion Socialization in Adolescence: The Roles of Mothers and Fathers (United States)

    Brand, Ann E.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie


    This chapter provides a review of the literature that examines the role of mothers and fathers in socializing emotion in their sons and daughters during adolescence. Within the context of this chapter, we focus on mother-father similarities, differences, and coordinated efforts in socializing the emotion of their adolescent children. Empirical…

  17. Kangaroo Mother Care Management of a 750 Ggrammes Baby: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the successful management of 750 grammes low birth weight baby using kangaroo mother care in the hospital and at home. The baby had suffered a variety of morbidities associated with prematurity in the early neonatal period. Key words: Kangaroo mother care, low birth weight babies ...

  18. Adolescent girls' communication with "mothers" about topical microbicides. (United States)

    Sunder, Punita K; Ramos, Stephanie; Short, Mary B; Rosenthal, Susan L


    Topical microbicides, a female-initiated method to protect against sexually transmitted infections (STI) and pregnancy, will only be effective if found acceptable. Mothers may have an influence on acceptability and use among adolescent girls. The current study examined the communication between girls and mothers to understand the potential predictors and nature of conversations regarding surrogate microbicide products. Sexually experienced girls, 14 to 21 years, were recruited for a 6-month study examining microbicide acceptability. During face-to-face interviews, qualitative data were collected regarding communication between girls and mothers. Two independent raters coded the responses, which were organized into themes. Themes were interpreted according to the conceptual understanding of mother-daughter communication. Fifty percent of the 171 girls with codable responses had a conversation with their mother. Higher levels of indirect parental monitoring were related to being more likely to have a conversation. Concrete events related to the study (i.e. receiving phone call from the researcher, having an appointment, or seeing the product) or inquiries by mothers appeared to promote conversation. Barriers to conversation included the private nature of the information and relationship issues between the mother and daughter. Conversations often addressed issues related to girls' participation in the study, although some conversations included global issues related to sexuality. Girls may talk to their mothers about new products for STI prevention, and such conversations may provide opportunities to promote use.

  19. Breastfeeding knowledge and practice of mothers with infants less ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding is the ideal for infants in the first six months, however the practice is low. The role of mothers' knowledge of breastfeeding on practise is not clear.This study was designed to assess knowledge and practice of nursing mothers concerning breastfeeding in the selected Local Government ...

  20. Awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding among mothers and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breastfeeding is an effective intervention to reduce child morbidity and mortality. The third of ten steps to successful breastfeeding is to inform all pregnant mothers about the benefits of breastfeeding. This awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding bybreastfeeding/Nursing mothers may serve as a motivation for ...

  1. Single Mothers in Russia : Household Strategies for Coping with Poverty


    Lokshin, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Popkin, Barry


    The authors describe trends in single parenthood in Russia, examining factors that affect living arrangements in single-mother families. Before economic reform, single mothers and their children were somewhat protected form poverty by government assistance (income support, subsidized child care, and full employment guarantees). Economic reform in Russia has reduced government transfers, el...

  2. Attitude of Nursing Mothers In Edo State Towards Exclusive | Alutu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondly, practice of exclusive breast-feeding adversely affected by the nursing mothers\\' nature of work. The nurses and teachers were more favourably disposed to exclusive breast-feeding than the bankers. There is therefore need to provide an enabling environment for working mothers to cope with infant feeding and ...

  3. Attitudes of mothers and staff towards treatment and possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects. Mothers of very low-birth-weight (VLBW) babies and children with multiple disabilities; paediatricians (including registrars) and nurses working in these units. Outcome measures. The preferences for developmental outcomes were compared between four groups: nurses, paediatricians, mothers of VLBW infants, ...

  4. Midlife mothers favor `being with' children over work and careers. (United States)

    Morgan, Patricia Ann; Merrell, Joy A; Rentschler, Dorothy


    The majority of American women juggle careers and the demands of mothering. The experiences of midlife mothers on the issues of work and motherhood are important to explore because birth rates for older women continue to rise in the United States and in other countries including the U.K. and Canada. To present a unique viewpoint on work and mothering from the perspectives and experiences of older first-time mothers. A purposive sample of thirteen women aged 45-56 years old participated in two in-depth interviews. Findings emerged in the context of a larger hermeneutic phenomenological study that aimed to understand older first-time mothers' perceptions of health and mothering during the transition to menopause. A paradox emerged in which the realities of motherhood did not meet the women's expectations. They were surprised by the centrality of commitment they felt towards the child and voiced strong ideals about how to do mothering right that included making changes to work schedules to be more available to their children. Health care professionals should be aware of specific issues that exist for older first-time mothers including adjustments to work. This knowledge will inform the support, education and care provided for these women.

  5. Underemployment among Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Kröger, Teppo; Pu, Cheng-yun


    Background: Mothers with lifelong care responsibilities might involuntarily be non-employed or work part-time, both of which are defined as "underemployment." This study aimed to investigate who these underemployed mothers are and what are the factors associated with such employment hardship when having a child with intellectual…

  6. Mothers' Emotional Care Work in Education and Its Moral Imperative (United States)

    O'Brien, Maeve


    This paper seeks to build on feminist and egalitarian critiques of the traditional allocation of care work to mothers, particularly in relation to understandings of educational care work. It seeks to locate the emotional support work carried out by mothers in the educational field within their daily routines of care, and to make visible the…

  7. The orchestration of occupation: the dance of mothers. (United States)

    Larson, E A


    This article describes the relationship of mothers' orchestration of daily occupations, the specialized maternal work of parenting a child with a disability, and the mother's subjective well-being. Mothers' daily occupations and subjective well-being were studied using multiple in-depth interviews, participant observation of a day's round of occupations, and scales of well-being. Data were treated to a recursive analysis, which included theoretical notes generated during transcriptions that identified important themes and additional points of inquiry, line-by-line coding of transcripts, and theoretical sorting of codes and regrouping, recoding. To account for patterns in the data, a relational analysis was conducted that included the generation of metaphors. Emergent findings of this analysis identified the mothers' guiding occupational motif and eight processes of orchestration in their daily routines. The occupational motif, the embrace of paradox, directed the mother's orchestration of daily occupations. The orchestration processes included planning, organizing, balancing, anticipating, interpreting, forecasting, perspective shifting, and meaning making. Examples illustrate the maternally driven and child-sensitive nature of these processes. In their daily rounds, the mothers studied were attentive to the manner and method with which they interacted with their children to produce child-contingent occupations commensurate with their values of being a good mother. Using these orchestration processes, mothers made sense of their past, designed their present, and planned for their future within their daily occupational rounds for themselves and family members.

  8. Children with Incarcerated Mothers: Developmental Outcomes, Special Challenges and Recommendations (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.


    Incarcerated mothers represent a rapidly growing sector of the prison population. This review of the literature presents research examining the psychological and socio-emotional well-being of children with an incarcerated mother, highlighting risk and protective factors at different stages of children's development. Child outcomes are reviewed…

  9. Representations of Attachment Relationships in Children of Incarcerated Mothers (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie


    Representations of attachment relationships were assessed in 54 children ages 2.5 to 7.5 years whose mothers were currently incarcerated. Consistent with their high-risk status, most (63%) children were classified as having insecure relationships with mothers and caregivers. Secure relationships were more likely when children lived in a stable…

  10. Determinants of cord care practices among mothers in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 4, 2011 ... Background: Mothers care for their infants' umbilical cord stump in various ways. Different cord care practices have been documented; some are beneficial while others are harmful. Who and what influence the cord care practiced by mothers have, however, not been fully explored particularly in the study ...


    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.


  12. Children of Working Mothers. Special Labor Force Report. Bulletin 2158. (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Part of a Special Labor Force Report series, this bulletin on children of working mothers discusses the increase in the number of children with working mothers as of March 1981, and describes major reasons for this growth. The bulletin consists of an article first published February 1982 in the "Monthly Labor Review," additional tables providing…

  13. how acceptable are the prevention of mother to child transmission

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or mother continue to use ARV.9 The baby's chance of survival is increased ... and acceptability of the infant feeding options for HIV positive mothers. Pretesting of the questionnaire was conducted among pregnant women attending ANC at the University College ... when any cell had a value less than five. Student's t test.

  14. Young Children of Schizophrenic Mothers: Difficulties of Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte; Gammeltoft, Marie


    Casework by Danish local social agencies on behalf of 11 children og chronically ill schizophrenic mothers is retrospectively analyzed, along with documentation from psychiatric hospitals, consulting child specialists, and other health professionals. Findings point to a need for earlier and more...... precise assessment of the mother's parenting abilities as measured against the severity of her illness and the vulnerability of the child...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    exclusive breastfeeding, HIV-positive mothers, aged 21-41 years, married and unemployed, participated during two visits to the study site. Responses to semi- ... Five major themes emerged: (i) benefits of breast milk to the mother and the baby ...

  16. Breastfeeding practices of mothers of young children in Lagos, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 23, 2013 ... Breastfeeding has many benefits both to mother and the child. It confers ... ies have shown that infants who are exclusively breast- fed for 6 months ... This study therefore, examines breast-feeding practices among mothers in ...

  17. Knowledge, Perception and Practice of Mothers/Caretakers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, perception and ... about 84.2% of mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 4-6 months, ... proportions of mothers have good knowledge on the benefits that breast milk ...

  18. Mother/Daughter Relationship: Psychological Implication of Love in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper re-examines Toni Morrison's Beloved to identify an example of the types of mother/daughter relationship that existed between black mothers and their daughters and the implications of such relationship on the Black American society. The paper is a psychoanalytic reading, utilizing Melanie Klein's Object ...

  19. "Nearly Everybody Gets Twitterpated": The Disney Version of Mothering (United States)

    Fraustino, Lisa Rowe


    This essay makes the case that during the American cold-war era, Disney's animated film classics worked in tandem with their True-Life Adventure series of nature documentaries to reproduce traditional mothering ideology under patriarchy. The animated films do this not by animating the realities of marriage, childbirth, and mothering work for girls…

  20. Nigerian mothers opinion of reminder/recall for immunization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 23, 2013 ... Abstract Introduction: Reminder/recall interventions have been shown to improve im- munization coverage. The percep- tion of mothers/caregivers may influence the outcome of such interventions. The attitude of. Nigerian mothers to reminders/ recalls using cell phones was evaluated. Methods: This was a ...

  1. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Health, HPV and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Parent-child communication about sexual health is considered an effective ... This study used a brief survey to examine mother-child communication ... percent of mothers who reported being comfortable discussing HIV/sexual ... media should be considered as methods to reduce .... Examining attitudes and knowledge.

  2. Mother tongue education: a panacea to effective teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The controversy as to whether the English Language or the child's mother tongue facilitates teaching and learning at primary school level has not been resolved. The advocates of mother-tongue medium claim that it makes for meaningful teaching and learning and better pupils' participation in the learning process while ...

  3. Mothers' Self- Evaluation, Attribution in Parenting and Coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of mother's self- evaluation, attribution in parenting and coping strategies on children's (age 2-6 years) externalizing behaviour. Two hundred (200) nursing mothers with a mean age of 30.25, (SD 10.67) years were randomly selected for the study. Data was collected using ...

  4. Understanding How Participation in Education Changes Mothers' Parenting Practices (United States)

    Harding, Jessica F.; Morris, Pamela A.


    This research explores whether low-income mothers' participation in education influences a constellation of different parenting practices that are related to young children's academic outcomes. Importantly, understanding whether maternal participation in education influences mothers' parenting practices can illuminate a pathway by which increases…

  5. Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior (United States)

    Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.


    Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

  6. Mothers' perinatal and infant mental health knowledge in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This paper examines maternal knowledge regarding perinatal and infant mental health amongst mothers in Alexandra township, Johannesburg. ... the denial of negative maternal affect post-birth to elevated levels of post-natal depression found amongst South African mothers parenting in adverse circumstances.

  7. Do Mothers' Opinions Matter in Teens' Sexual Activity? (United States)

    Fingerson, Laura


    Using the Add Health data (N = 9,530 dyads), this study explores sexual socialization in the family using the theory of reasoned action by assessing how mothers' opinions are associated with their childrens' sexual behavior. Findings suggest that the more sexually liberal teens think their mothers are, the more likely the teens are to have higher…

  8. 76 FR 60355 - Gold Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2011 (United States)


    ... Gold Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... grief their families carry we can never fully know. Gold Star mothers and families know the immeasurable... inspired by their strength and determination. Through heartbreaking loss, our Gold Star families continue...

  9. Sexuality-Related Outcomes of Adolescent Children of Teen Mothers (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.


    The relationship between being an adolescent child of a teen mother and sexuality-related outcomes was investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents whose mothers were teenagers at first birth were more likely to have had sex by age 16 than other adolescents. Gender moderated this effect, as this relationship…

  10. Mothers' perception of excessive crying in infancy in south eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We undertook this study to determine the prevalence of excessive crying in our area of practice and also determine associated factors. Method: This was a cross sectional, questionnaire based descriptive study on mothers' perception of their infants' crying. Subjects were mother/ infant pairs attending the well baby clinics at ...

  11. Mothers of Pre-Term Infants in Neonate Intensive Care (United States)

    MacDonald, Margaret


    In this study, eight mothers of pre-term infants under the care of nursing staff and neonatologists in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Children's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, were observed and interviewed about their birth experience and their images of themselves as mothers during their stay. Patterns and themes in the…

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers and knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Subjects: Mothers with infants less than three months of age attending well child clinics and health workers (HW) in the clinics, ...

  13. Kathy Attends a Mother-to-Mother Support Group Meeting. Mother-to-Mother Support = Josefa Asiste a una Reunion de Grupo de Apoyo de Madre a Madre. Apoyo Madre a Madre. (United States)

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimerez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in cartoon format and designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. This booklet explains what a mothers' support group is, and that mothers share experiences and information about breastfeeding, invite friends and relatives to attend, and is…

  14. Cortisol, hedonics, and maternal responsiveness in human mothers. (United States)

    Fleming, A S; Steiner, M; Corter, C


    New mothers are more attracted to the body odor of newborn infants than are nonmothers. In this study we investigated the relation of postpartum hormones and of prior experience with infants to this enhanced maternal attraction to infant odors. New mothers were asked to complete a hedonics task, using a pleasantness scale to provide an attraction score to different odorants presented on a cotton substrate in a 1-pt Baskin-Robbins container. Mothers were "blind" to the contents of the container. Participants also completed an extensive set of 100-item likert scales concerning their attitudes toward infants, care taking, own maternal adequacy, and other interpersonal relations. Mothers were videotaped interacting with their infants and provided salivary samples prior to the interaction. Salivary samples were assayed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) for salivary concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone. Results show that first-time mothers with higher cortisol concentrations were more attracted to their own infant's body odor. Mothers with higher cortisol levels were also better able to recognize their own infants' odors. While cortisol was not related to attitudinal measures of maternal responsiveness, mothers with more prior experience interacting with infants exhibited both more attraction to infant odors and more positive maternal attitudes. Together, prior maternal experience and postpartum cortisol explain a significant proportion of the variance in mothers' attraction to newborn infant odors. These relations are discussed in terms of the variety of "meanings" cortisol could have during the postpartum period. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  15. Post partum emotional distress in mothers of preterm infants: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate whether mothers of preterm infants experience more psychological distress than mothers of normal full term infants in the immediate postpartum period. Design: Cross sectional prospective study of postpartal women using the Beck Depression Inventory(BDI) and the GHQ-30. Setting: Neonatal ...

  16. 38 CFR 10.31 - Dependency of mother or father. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency of mother or... ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.31 Dependency of mother or father. Claims of a... Compensation Act, as amended, shall be supported by a statement of fact of dependency made under oath by the...

  17. Determinants of breastfeeding patterns among mothers in Anambra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life is still rare among nursing mothers. ... valuable benefits to the infants as well as to mothers and the nation as a whole.2,3 It has also resulted in an overall decrease in infant morbidity and ...

  18. 75 FR 60283 - Gold Star Mother's and Families' Day, 2010 (United States)


    ... Gold Star Mother's and Families' Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... Star Mothers and Families. For those in our Armed Forces who gave their last full measure of devotion..., it echoes in the enduring love of their spouses-- the backbone of our military families--who...

  19. 78 FR 60179 - Gold Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2013 (United States)


    ... Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In... is home to an unbroken line of patriots willing to lay down their lives for the land they love. As we... behind. Most of us can only imagine the pain of a mother who loses a daughter, the husband who loses his...

  20. Labor of Love: Foster Mothers, Caregiving, and Welfare Reform (United States)

    Critelli, Filomena M.


    Using a telephone survey, this study examined the experiences of 100 foster mothers who receive aid through Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Foster mothers reported numerous difficulties with TANF, including frequent sanctions and case closings, limited work and training opportunities, and pervasive material hardships. Foster…

  1. Intensive mothering ideology in France: A pilot study. (United States)

    Loyal, D; Sutter Dallay, A-L; Rascle, N


    The aim of this pilot study was to adapt the intensive mothering ideology concept in a French sample and to get an assessment tool. First, the Intensive Parenting Attitudes Questionnaire (IPAQ), a U.S. scale comprising 25 items, was translated and submitted online to French mothers and mothers-to-be (n=250). Structural validity was tested through confirmatory factor analysis with poor results. Secondly, to increase the cultural validity of a new tool, new items were derived from French women speech. French mothers and mothers-to-be (n=22) were asked about their views regarding motherhood and childcare (semi-structured interviews). A thematic content analysis was performed with good inter-judge agreement (0.53-0.86) and 27 items were created. Finally, the total set of 52 items was submitted online to French mothers and mothers-to-be (n=474). The structure was tested through exploratory factor analysis. A new tool called the Measure of Intensive Mothering Ideology (MIMI) was obtained. This 21 items scale with 6 dimensions (Essentialism, Consuming Fulfillment, Child-centrism, Challenge, Sacrifice and Stimulation) explains 59.75% of variance. Internal consistencies were satisfactory (0.61-0.83) and most dimensions were positively and moderately correlated (0.17-0.38). The MIMI is the first French-language scale assessing IMI and offers interesting research avenues notably regarding perinatal parental adaptation. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Barriers to Exclusive Breastfeeding among Urban Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazina Sharmin


    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is the unique source of nutrition and it plays an important role in the growth, development and survival of the infants. The initiation of breastfeeding within one hour and continuation of only breast milk up to six months ensure maximum benefits. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh is 56% which is low. We designed this study to find out the factors influencing the duration of breastfeeding in Bangladeshi population. Objective: To study the factors influencing noncompliance to exclusive breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Dhaka Shishu Hospital during the period January to June 2011. It includes 125 infant (1–12 months-mother pairs randomly selected from the inpatient and outpatient departments of Dhaka Shishu Hospital. Mother-infant pairs were divided into two groups based on continuation of only breastfeeding up to six months. Outcomes were compared between two groups. Results: In this study exclusive breastfeeding was found in 27.2% and nonexclusive breastfeeding was in 72.8% cases. It was found that in most cases (40% termination of breastfeeding was at 3--4 months. The study revealed that insufficient milk production due to poor position and attachment, social factors such as influence of husband and other family members, joining to service etc act as barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Mass media and advice from health professionals had a higher influence on lower rate of exclusive breastfeeding. Women who were multiparous, housewives were more likely to maintain optimal breastfeeding. Conclusion: The present study reveals some important factors contributing to low rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh.

  3. [Breastfeeding: health benefits for child and mother]. (United States)

    Turck, D; Vidailhet, M; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Hankard, R; Rieu, D; Simeoni, U


    The prevalence of breastfeeding in France is one of the lowest in Europe: 65% of infants born in France in 2010 were breastfed when leaving the maternity ward. Exclusive breastfeeding allows normal growth until at least 6 months of age, and can be prolonged until the age of 2 years or more, provided that complementary feeding is started after 6 months. Breast milk contains hormones, growth factors, cytokines, immunocompetent cells, etc., and has many biological properties. The composition of breast milk is influenced by gestational and postnatal age, as well as by the moment of the feed. Breastfeeding is associated with slightly enhanced performance on tests of cognitive development. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 3 months is associated with a lower incidence and severity of diarrhoea, otitis media and respiratory infection. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months is associated with a lower incidence of allergic disease (asthma, atopic dermatitis) during the first 2 to 3 years of life in at-risk infants (infants with at least one first-degree relative presenting with allergy). Breastfeeding is also associated with a lower incidence of obesity during childhood and adolescence, as well as with a lower blood pressure and cholesterolemia in adulthood. However, no beneficial effect of breastfeeding on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been shown. Maternal infection with hepatitis B and C virus is not a contraindication to breastfeeding, as opposed to HIV infection and galactosemia. A supplementation with vitamin D and K is necessary in the breastfed infant. Very few medications contraindicate breastfeeding. Premature babies can be breastfed and/or receive mother's milk and/or bank milk, provided they receive energy, protein and mineral supplements. Return to prepregnancy weight is earlier in breastfeeding mothers during the 6 months following delivery. Breastfeeding is also associated with a decreased risk of breast and ovarian cancer in the

  4. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Volodymyr


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  5. Children born to SLE and APS mothers. (United States)

    Nalli, C; Iodice, A; Andreoli, L; Lojacono, A; Motta, M; Fazzi, E; Tincani, A


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) are autoimmune diseases that affect women of childbearing age. Pregnancies in these patients carry several complications such as prematurity. Maternal IgG antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) can cross the placenta but they don't generally cause any neonatal thrombotic event. Because of the incompleteness of the fetal blood-brain barrier, aPL could theoretically reach the fetal brain. Whether this can have an effect on brain development is still under investigation. Some studies performed in children of patients with SLE and/or APS showed an increased number of learning disabilities without impairment in intelligence level. The objectives of this article are to evaluate the neurodevelopment outcome in 30 children (median age 9 years) born to mothers with SLE and/or APS with IgG anti-beta2-glycoprotein I during the third trimester of pregnancy and found positive for the same antibodies at birth. A neurological physical exam was performed in all children. We submitted some questionnaires to the mothers: the Child Behavior CheckList (CBCL) and a homemade set of questions obtained by a team composed of rheumatologists and pediatric neurologists. Intellectual functioning was determined by the Wechsler scale for corrected age. In all children neurological physical exam and intelligence levels were found to be normal but mild behavior disorders and history of neurological manifestations were shown in three children. Offspring of patients with SLE and/or APS are generally healthy. We and others observed the occurrence of minor neurological disorders that might be related to maternal disease or to prematurity. The limited number of the available data on this sensitive issue supports the need for further studies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:

  6. Safeguarding nutritional status of adolescent mothers

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    Calderon de la Barca, A.M.; Bolanos, A V; Caire Juvera, G; Roman Perez, R; Regil, L.M. de; Valencia, M E [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Casanueva, E; Sanesteban, V [Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia, Mexico, DF (Mexico)


    Milk intake of breast-fed infants and body composition of 47 lactating mothers from Northwest and Central Mexico were monitored at 1 and 3 mo postpartum by the deuterium dilution technique and infrared detection. Milk quality was evaluated directly as milk composition and indirectly by infant growth. Maternal body fat tended to be lower in Central than in Northwest Mexico and was significant at 1 mo postpartum (p<0.001). BMI correlated positively with percentage body fat at 1 mo (r = 0.79, p<0.0001) and 3 mo (r = 0.76, p<0.0001). In Central Mexico, mean maternal energy intake was 19.4 and 23% below the RDA at 1 and 3 mo postpartum respectively. There were no differences in TBW, percentage body fat, BMI energy intake and estimated energy expenditure by activity diary between adolescent and adult women. Milk production rates averaged 573 vs 865 g/d at 1 and 3 mo postpartum in Northwest Mexico and 680 vs 857 g/d in Central Mexico and were not different between areas. Infants' energy intakes in Northwest Mexico at 1 and 3 mo postpartum were not significantly different. Fat intake at 3 mo was significantly lower in Central than in Northwest Mexico (p<0.05). Weight for age and weight for length Z scores were above +0.5 for infants from Northwest region, while for those in Central Area was between 0 and + 0. 5 at 2 and 3 mo. There were no differences (p>0.05) in Z score values for weight/length for infants in the two regions at 3 mo. Neither adolescent or adult mothers from Northwest or Central Mexican regions were undernourished and they produced adequate milk volume and composition to feed their infants and maintain their growth pattern until 3 months postpartum. (author)

  7. Attachment, Mothering and Mental Illness: Mother-Infant Therapy in an Institutional Context. (United States)

    Masciantonio, Sonia; Hemer, Susan R; Chur-Hansen, Anna


    This paper is an ethnographic exploration of how attachment theory underpins therapeutic practices in an Australian institutional context where mothers of infants have been diagnosed and are undergoing treatment for mental illness. We argue that attachment theory in this particular context rests on a series of principles or assumptions: that attachment theory is universally applicable; that attachment is dyadic and gendered; that there is an attachment template formed which can be transferred across generations and shapes future social interactions; that there is understood to be a mental health risk to the infant when attachment is characterised as problematic; and that this risk can be mitigated through the therapeutic practices advocated by the institution. Through an in-depth case study, this paper demonstrates how these assumptions cohere in practice and are used to assess mothering as deficient, to choose therapeutic options, to shape women's behaviour, and to formulate decisions about child placement.

  8. Annual Research Review: All Mothers Are Not Created Equal--Neural and Psychobiological Perspectives on Mothering and the Importance of Individual Differences (United States)

    Barrett, Jennifer; Fleming, Alison S.


    Quality of mothering relies on the integrity of multiple physiological and behavioral systems and on two maternal factors, one proximal and one distal, that have a great impact on how a mother mothers: postpartum depression and early experiences. To mother appropriately requires the action of systems that regulate sensation, perception, affect,…

  9. Linguistic adaptation between mothers and children in ASD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Weed, Ethan; Fein, Deborah

    We investigate mother-child linguistic adaptation in 33 ASD and 33 matched TD children at two time-scales: conversational match and longitudinal development. We employ a longitudinal corpus (6 visits over 2 years) consisting of controlled playful activities between mothers and their children...... (Goodwin et al. 2012). We quantified amount (number of words and utterances) and complexity (lexical repertoire and utterance length) of linguistic behavior in both mother and child. We used mixed-effects growth curve models to quantify i)match within-conversation and ii)longitudinal impact between visits....... Child and mother are strongly correlated in their linguistic behaviors (R2 between .07 and .62, pMother-child pairs in the ASD group, however, show a shallower increase in match. Amount and complexity...

  10. Maternal responsivity in mothers of young children with Down syndrome. (United States)

    Sterling, Audra; Warren, Steven F


    The purpose of this study was to examine maternal responsivity and directive behaviors in mothers of children with Down syndrome (DS). Participants included 22 mothers with a young child with DS compared to 22 mothers of chronologically age-matched typically developing (TD) children using a cross-sectional design. The dyads participated in videotaped structured activities that were coded for responsive and directive behaviors. RESULTS indicated that the mothers of children with DS used a more facilitative style with the older children while these behaviors decreased with older children with TD; one directive behavior, request for behavioral comply, increased with the older children with DS. The mothers of children with DS adapted their parenting style to be facilitative of their children's linguistic development.

  11. Breastfeeding policies and breastfeeding support programs in the mother's workplace. (United States)

    Bettinelli, Maria Enrica


    Women should never be forced to make a choice between mother-work and other work. Many women mistakenly think they cannot breastfeed if they plan to return to work, and thus they may not talk with their employers about their intention to breastfeed or how breastfeeding might be supported at their workplace. All breastfeeding policies and strategies underline the importance of providing support for lactating mothers and highlight the need to promote specific interventions in the workplace. Possible strategies for working mothers include having the mother keep the baby with her while she works, allowing the mother to go to the baby to breastfeed during the workday, telecommuting, offering flexible work schedules, maintaining part-time work schedules, and using on-site or nearby child care centres.

  12. Ascribing Meaning to Occupation: An Example From Healthy, Working Mothers. (United States)

    Avrech Bar, Michal; Forwell, Susan; Backman, Catherine L


    Ascribing meaning to occupation is a multifaceted process. Understanding this process is illusive, yet fundamental to theory and practice. The objective is to describe the meaning that mothers ascribe to their occupations. A secondary analysis was conducted with data from a convenience sample of 35 Israeli mothers, ages 25 to 45 years. Data were collected using the Occupational Performance History Interview as part of a larger study. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analysis applied. Two main categories emerged: the meaning of "giving" (investing values) and the meaning of "receiving" (ensuring needs are met). Values such as responsibility require mothers to do occupations they find less desirable than others associated with the mothering role. The study illustrates how values and needs are intertwined to contribute to the meaning of occupation. Moreover, meaningful occupations can be undesirable but doing them arises from the values that drive mothers to fulfill this role. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Meaning of becoming mother and son/daughter through massage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Márquez Doren


    Full Text Available Objective: Revealing the experience of mothers when massaging their children to know the phenomenon in the context of a mother-child healthy development. Method: This is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach carried out with 11 women who massaged their children and answered the guiding question: What did the experience of massaging your child mean to you? Results: The experience of massaging their children meant the development of their being a mother and of being a son/daughter, in addition to developing the attachment relationship between them. The massage can operationalize this integrality, become a tool of communication, stimulation and promotion of secure attachment, by promoting the loving interaction between mother and child. Conclusion: This practice should be considered as an option in the programs that promote the comprehensive health of the mother and child.

  14. Breastfeeding considerations of opioid dependent mothers and infants. (United States)

    Hilton, Tara C


    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has a long-standing recommendation against breastfeeding if the maternal methadone dose is above 20 mg/day. In 2001, the AAP lifted the dose restriction of maternal methadone allowing methadone-maintained mothers to breastfeed. The allowance of breastfeeding among mothers taking methadone has been met with opposition due to the uncertainty that exists related to methadone exposure of the suckling infant. Methadone-maintained mothers are at higher risk for abuse, concomitant psychiatric disorders, limited access to healthcare, and financial hardship. Breastfeeding rates among methadone-maintained women tend to be low compared to the national average. This manuscript will discuss the implications for healthcare practitioners caring for methadone-maintained mothers and infants and associated risks and benefits of breastfeeding. This population of mothers and infants stands to obtain particular benefits from the various well-known advantages of breastfeeding.

  15. Mothers recovering from cocaine addiction: factors affecting parenting skills. (United States)

    Coyer, S M


    To identify factors that may influence parenting by mothers who are recovering from cocaine addiction. Exploratory descriptive, with in-depth unstructured interviews. Interviews were conducted in the woman's home or in a treatment center. A convenience sample of 11 women recovering from cocaine addiction who were mothers of children 3 years of age and younger. A content analysis was used to analyze the interview data. Two themes, personal/psychologic factors and environmental/contextual factors, and four subthemes emerged. They identify issues that may affect parenting by mothers being treated for cocaine addiction. Subthemes included low self-esteem, difficulty developing a maternal identity, isolation from friends and family, and chronic life stress. This study provides a better understanding of the sources contributing to vulnerability in the parenting role for mothers recovering from cocaine addiction and will assist nurses in providing care for these mothers and their children.

  16. First time mothers' experiences of breastfeeding their newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Harder, Ingegerd; Hall, Elisabeth


    Objective Despite efforts to improve continued breastfeeding, the percentages of exclusively breastfeeding remain low. To help the breastfeeding mother and reshape professional practice, we need more knowledge of maternal experiences of breastfeeding in the first months. The objective...... was to explore mothers' early breastfeeding experiences. Method Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse data from 108 Danish first time mothers who had answered an open-ended question 6 months after birth. Results All the mothers started breastfeeding. We identified three overlapping phases presented...... as dominant themes: (1) on shaky ground, characterised by breastfeeding interwoven with mothering, painful breastfeeding, and conflicting advice, (2) searching for a foothold, characterised by reading the baby's cues, concerns about milk production, for or against breastfeeding, and looking for professional...

  17. [Mothers of children with autistic disorder: perceptions and trajectories]. (United States)

    Ebert, Michele; Lorenzini, Elisiane; da Silva, Eveline Franco


    Childhood autism is characterized by severe and global impairment in several areas of human development and demands extensive care and dependence on the parents. The objective of this study was to understand the perceptions of mothers of children with autism regarding changes suffered by the child and their trajectories in search of an autism diagnosis. This is an exploratory descriptive study with a qualitative approach conducted with ten participant mothers. Data were collected in 2013 by means of semi-structured interviews. Thematic content analysis produced the following categories: perceptions of mothers as to changes in behaviour and/or development of their children; and trajectories of mothers in search of a diagnosis for their children. After the perception of changes in behaviour/development, mothers face an arduous trajectory of healthcare service utilization.

  18. Examination on Validity of Mothers' Parenting Skills Scale: The Relationship among Scale for Mother's Cognitive and Affective Attitudes on Adolescent and Mother's parenting Attitude toward Adolescent Child


    渡邉, 賢二; 平石, 賢二; WATANABE, Kenji; HIRAISHI, Kenji


    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of parenting skills scale, and the relationship among the parenting skills scale and scale for mother's cognitive and affective attitudes on adolescent and mother's parenting attitude toward adolescent child. 3 subscales of the parenting skills were positively related to "positive cognition and affection" and negatively related to "negative cognition and affection." They were negatively related to "sense of uncertainly" and positively rela...

  19. Mother's marital satisfaction associated with the quality of mother-father-child triadic interaction. (United States)

    Korja, Riikka; Piha, Jorma; Otava, Riia; Lavanchy-Scaiola, Chloe; Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Aromaa, Minna; Räihä, Hannele


    Low marital satisfaction has been shown to be a risk factor for early parenthood and parent-child relationship problems (Erel & Burman, ; McHale, ). The aim of this study was to assess how parental reports of marital satisfaction related to family alliance and coordination in the observed triadic interaction. The study group included 120 families. Marital satisfaction was evaluated during pregnancy, at 4 months, and at 18 months using the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS; Busby, Christensen, Crane & Larsson, ) for both parents. Mother-father-child interaction was analyzed in the Lausanne Triadic Play setting and coded using the Family Alliance Assessment Scale (Favez, Lavanchy Scaiola, Tissot, Darwiche & Frascarolo, ) when the child reached 18 months of age. The mother's higher marital satisfaction at every measuring point was associated with a cooperative family alliance and/or higher family coordination at 18 months. The father's experience of marital satisfaction was not related to family interaction at any assessment point. Our study suggests that a mother's experience of lower marital satisfaction during pregnancy may be an early sign of later problems in family relationships. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A single mothers' group for mothers of children attending an outpatient psychiatric clinic: preliminary results. (United States)

    McNamee, J E; Lipman, E L; Hicks, F


    To provide a preliminary report of data from 2 support groups for single mothers, all of whom were mothers of children attending a child outpatient psychiatric clinic. The groups' 2 purposes were: 1. to assess the feasibility of adding structured evaluation to a common clinical intervention; 2. to improve single mothers' parenting skills through raised levels of self-esteem, increased capacity for family functioning and reduced levels of depression. Three structured evaluation instruments were used to measure the domains of self-esteem, family functioning and depression. These instruments were given to both groups of women on 3 occasions: 1. before the group; 2. after the group; 3. at a follow-up session 4 months after group termination. Open-ended questions were also asked at group termination. The questionnaire response rate was 100%; overall response rate for the 3 open-ended questions was 89%. Comparisons of pre-group and post-group scores showed that there was a significant increase in self-esteem (p parenting skills. Methodologic concerns and future directions are discussed.

  1. Stress Level and Adversity Quotient among Single Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Bautista Solis


    Full Text Available The study identified the profile of the single working mothers in terms of number of children, number of years as a single parent and reason for being a single parent; assessed the single mothers’ stress level and adversity quotient; determined the significant difference of stress level and adversity quotient of single mothers when grouped according to profile variables; determined the best predictor of stress level and adversity quotient. Moreover this research endeavoured to test significant relationship between the adversity quotient and stress level of single working mothers. Lastly, it proposed a stress management program for single working mothers for them to cope with their stress and adversities in life. The researcher employed quantitative method using standardized questionnaires namely Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS and Adversity Response Profile (ARP. The respondents were twenty five (25 single working mothers of the students of Batangas State University. From the results, majority of the respondents have 3 children, widow and in early years as single parent; with a normal level of stress and an average adversity quotient.. There are no significant differences on the stress level and adversity quotient of the respondents when grouped according to profile variables. Finally, stress level has no significant effect on adversity quotient of single working mothers. From the findings, the researcher further recommends that the Office of Guidance and Counseling should update the student information database to determine students with a single working mother. The Parent-Teacher Association may form a single-parent subgroup for the single working mothers to be able to identify to other mothers with same situation. Moreover, the proposed stress management program may be reviewed and implemented by the Office of Guidance and Counseling in coordination with the Parent-Teacher Association of Batangas State University. Future researchers

  2. Depressive symptoms in mothers of prematurely born infants. (United States)

    Miles, Margaret Shandor; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Schwartz, Todd A; Scher, Mark


    This longitudinal, descriptive study described the level of depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants from birth through 27 months corrected age and examined factors associated with depressive symptoms. The framework for the study was guided by an ecological developmental systems perspective and an adaptation of the Preterm Parental Distress Model. In this model, we hypothesize that a mother's emotional distress to the birth and parenting of a prematurely born child is influenced by personal and family factors, severity of the infant's health status, and illness-related stress and worry. Participants were 102 mothers of preterm infants who were off the ventilator and not otherwise dependent on major technology at enrollment. Mean depressive symptoms scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during hospitalization were high and more than half the mothers (63%) had scores of > or =16 indicating risk of depression. Depressive scores declined over time until 6 months and then were fairly stable. Unmarried mothers, mothers of infants who were rehospitalized, and mothers who reported more maternal role alteration stress during hospitalization and worry about the child's health had more depressive symptoms through the first year. Mothers who reported more parental role alteration stress during hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] = 1.570, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.171-2.104) and more worry about the child's health (OR = 2.350, 95% CI: 1.842-2.998) were more likely to experience elevated CES-D scores that put them at risk of depression. Also, mothers of rehospitalized infants had decreasing odds of elevated CES-D scores over time (OR = 0.982 per week, 95% CI: 0.968-0.996). Findings have implications for the support of mothers during hospitalization and in the early years of parenting a preterm infant.

  3. Emotional characteristics of mothers bringing up children with arthrogryposis

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    Galina V Pyatakova


    Full Text Available Introduction. Arthrogryposis is a congenital disease that can cause feelings of deprivation in parents of affected children. Mothers of children with the disease may experience emotional trauma, manifested as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD (a term coined by N.V. Tarabrina, anxiety and depressive manifestations. Mothers with such emotional problems may hinder the effective rehabilitation treatment of their children. Aims. To examine the emotional characteristics of mothers of children with arthrogryposis. Material and methods. In this study, the following methods were used: a scale that assesses the level of reactive and personal anxiety (C.D. Spielberg and J.L. Hanina; the Beck Depression Inventory; and the Gorovits Impact of Event Scale-R (N.V. Tarabrina. Case histories were also examined. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test. The study involved 58 mothers with children aged from 1 to 8 years old. Among these, 28 mothers had children suffering from arthrogryposis; the children of the remaining 30 mothers were apparently healthy. Results. There was no difference in level of personal anxiety between the mothers of children with arthrogryposis and those with healthy children. The mothers of children with arthrogryposis suffered from severe situational anxiety and PTSD (including symptoms of intrusive invasion, avoidance, and hyper-arousal; the mothers of healthy children did not experience such emotional trauma. Mothers with negative emotional states of this kind may hinder the effective rehabilitation of their children with arthrogryposis. In such situations, the participation of a clinical psychologist who can provide the necessary psychological assistance on the basis of individual psychological diagnosis is required.

  4. Associations among Adult Attachment Presentations, Maternal Sensitivity, and Infant-Mother Attachment in a Sample of Adolescent Mothers. (United States)

    Ward, Mary J.; Carlson, Elizabeth A.


    Associations among adolescent attachment organization, maternal sensitivity, and infant attachment organization were examined prospectively in 72 teenaged mother-infant dyads. Pregnant teenagers' attachment organizations predicted both sensitivity and infant-mother attachments. Associations between maternal sensitivity and infant attachment were…

  5. Mother-child discrepancy in perceived parental control and adolescent filial piety in poor single-mother families. (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Lin, Li


    Based on a sample of 432 poor Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years; 51.2% girls; mean age of mothers = 43.5 years) in Hong Kong, the interaction effect of mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control on filial piety of Chinese adolescents was examined. Results of polynomial multiple regression analyses showed that the interaction between mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control predicted perceived filial piety in adolescents. At high levels of mother-reported maternal control, high adolescent-perceived parental control was associated with higher filial piety. At low levels of mother-reported maternal control, filial piety increased initially and then decreased when adolescents reported higher levels of maternal control. Using multiple group analyses, these associations were found to be stable across gender and age. The present findings provide insights on how congruencies and discrepancies between mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control predict filial piety of Chinese adolescents growing up in poor single-mother families. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mothers' Beliefs about Children's Learning in Hong Kong and the United States: Implications for Mothers' Child-Based Worth (United States)

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Lam, Shui-fong


    Chinese and American mothers' beliefs about children's learning and parents' role in it were examined using notions salient in Chinese culture. Mothers from Hong Kong ("n" = 66) and the United States ("n" = 69) indicated their endorsement of the ideas that children's learning reflects children's morality, and parents' support…

  7. Predictive factors of mother-child communication patterns in the mothers referred to Khorramabad Shahid Madani hospital in 2012

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    khatereh Anbari


    Full Text Available Background : The quality of mother-child relationship play an important role in personality shaping, social functioning and mental health of children in the future . This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic factors of mother - child relationship patterns.   Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study 110 mothers admitted to children's hospital of Khorramabad selected by consecutive sampling method. Data gathering tool was Mother - Child Relationship Evaluation (MCRE questionnaire. At first the view points of the mothers about four communication patterns including: over protection, child rejection, overneglignce and child acceptance were examined, then according to each pattern cut off, the type of communication pattern was determined. Fisher's exact test and linear regression were used for data analysis.   Results: The mean age of participants was 28.6±6.46. Communication pattern in 66.4% of the mothers was over protection and 19.1% of them had overneglence pattern. Also communication pattern in 12.8% of the participants was child acceptance and 1.8% followed from child rejectoin communication pattern. A significant statistical relation was seen between age, education level, marital status, mothers residence and pregnancy status with the pattern of their relationship (P <0.05. In linear regression analysis, most important factors in predicting the communication pattern were single parent and unplanned pregnancy.   Conclusion: Raising awareness of mothers through workshops can increase proper child skills and led to the development of social skills and reducing child behavior problems in the future.

  8. Knowledge, Practice and Acceptability of HPV Vaccine by Mothers of Adolescent Girls in Ilorin, Nigeria

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    Kikelomo T. Adesina


    Conclusion: There is poor knowledge of HPV and practice of vaccination among mothers in llorin. Willingness of mothers to vaccinate their daughters is suboptimal. Mother's knowledge is an important determinant of HPV vaccination of adolescents.

  9. Personality of mothers of substance-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baron


    Full Text Available David Baron1, Samir AbolMagd2, Salwa Erfan2, Mona El Rakhawy21Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2University of Cairo School of Medicine, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: Drug addicts often come from dysfunctional families. The prevailing view in the literature is that mothers of drug-dependent patients can be characterized by strong emotional bonds and overprotection. Studies suggest that maternal rejection could be a major risk factor of developing drug addiction. This work is a continuation of our previous study of childhood parenting experiences of substance-dependent patients. The aims were to compare the personality profile of mothers of substance-dependent patients and that of mothers of matched control subjects; and to examine the relation between the personality of mothers of addicts, and severity of their offspring’s addiction. The study group consisted of 20 mothers of substance-dependent patients and a control group of 35 mothers of non-dependent subjects; mothers of both groups were age matched. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM IV criteria. Personalities of mothers of both groups were assessed using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI. Substance-dependent patients (sons were administered the Addiction Severity Index (ASI. The mean scores of the MMPI Scales were higher for mothers of dependent patients compared to mothers of non-dependent subjects. Scores on the depression, hysteria and paranoia scales were significantly higher for mothers of patients (P = 0.03, 0.02, and 0.03, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between scores of hysteria, and psychopathic deviance and the ASI (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively. There were significant negative correlations between scores of social introversion and the ASI drug/alcohol use status (P = 0.007, and family history dimensions (P = 0.003. Mothers of substance-dependent patients showed disturbances in aspects of personalities

  10. Informant Discrepancies in Assessing Child Dysfunction Relate to Dysfunction Within Mother-Child Interactions


    De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.


    Examined whether mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems relate to dysfunctional interactions between mother and child and stress in the mother. Participants included 239 children (6–16 years old; 58 girls, 181 boys) referred for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior, and their mothers. Mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems were related to mother-child conflict. Moreover, maternal stress mediated this relationship. The findings sug...

  11. Emotional reactions of mothers facing premature births: study of 100 mother-infant dyads 32 gestational weeks. (United States)

    Eutrope, Julien; Thierry, Aurore; Lempp, Franziska; Aupetit, Laurence; Saad, Stéphanie; Dodane, Catherine; Bednarek, Nathalie; De Mare, Laurence; Sibertin-Blanc, Daniel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Rolland, Anne-Catherine


    This current study has been conducted to clarify the relationship between the mother's post-traumatic reaction triggered by premature birth and the mother-infant interactions. In this article, the precocious maternal feelings are described. A multicenter prospective study was performed in three French hospitals. 100 dyads with 100 very premature infants and their mothers were recruited. Mothers completed, at two different times self-questionnaires of depression/anxiety, trauma and social support. The quality of interactions in the dyads was evaluated. Thirty-nine percent of the mothers obtained a score at HADS suggesting a high risk of depression at the first visit and approximately one-third at visit two. Seventy-five percent of the mothers were at risk of suffering from an anxiety disorder at visit one and half remained so at visit two. A "depressed" score at visits one and two correlated with a hospitalization for a threatened premature labor. We noted a high risk of trauma for 35% of the mothers and high interactional synchrony was observed for approximately two-thirds of the dyads. The mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety or postnatal depression correlate strongly with the presence of an initial trauma. At visit one and visit two, a high score of satisfaction concerning social support correlates negatively with presence of a trauma. A maternal risk of trauma is more frequent with a C-section delivery. Mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety correlate greatly with the presence of an initial trauma. The maternal traumatic reaction linked to premature birth does not correlate with the term at birth, but rather with the weight of the baby. Social support perceived by the mother is correlated with the absence of maternal trauma before returning home, and also seems to inhibit from depressive symptoms from the time of the infant's premature birth.

  12. Mind-mindedness and maternal responsiveness in infant-mother interactions in mothers with severe mental illness. (United States)

    Pawlby, S; Fernyhough, C; Meins, E; Pariante, C M; Seneviratne, G; Bentall, R P


    Previous cross-diagnosis studies of interaction between mothers with severe mental illness and their babies have concluded that mothers with schizophrenia have deficits in interaction, but these studies have not included healthy controls. In-patients on a mother and baby unit, with diagnoses of schizophrenia (n=15), depressive mood disorders with or without psychosis (n=23), or mood disorders where mania was the predominant feature, with or without psychosis (n=12), were observed interacting with their infants on admission and discharge. Mothers' mind-mindedness and other measures of the quality of maternal and infant behaviour were coded. Findings from this sample were compared with those from healthy mothers and their infants (n=49). Compared with healthy controls, on admission depressed mothers were marginally less likely to comment appropriately on their infants' mental states. Both the depressed and mania groups were more likely to touch their babies and engage in attention-seeking behaviours. Interactional behaviours of mothers in the schizophrenia group were not markedly different from healthy controls. On discharge there were fewer differences between the clinical and healthy groups, although the depressed group continued to engage in more attention-seeking and touching behaviour and the mania group continued to touch their infants more. Only mothers in the schizophrenia group showed changes in interactional behaviours between admission and discharge, talking more to their infants. The findings challenge previous conclusions that mothers with schizophrenia have deficits in their interactions with their babies, and demonstrate that mothers with severe mental illness are able to respond appropriately to their infants' cues.

  13. Emotional reactions of mothers facing premature births: study of 100 mother-infant dyads 32 gestational weeks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Eutrope

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This current study has been conducted to clarify the relationship between the mother's post-traumatic reaction triggered by premature birth and the mother-infant interactions. In this article, the precocious maternal feelings are described. METHODS: A multicenter prospective study was performed in three French hospitals. 100 dyads with 100 very premature infants and their mothers were recruited. Mothers completed, at two different times self-questionnaires of depression/anxiety, trauma and social support. The quality of interactions in the dyads was evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-nine percent of the mothers obtained a score at HADS suggesting a high risk of depression at the first visit and approximately one-third at visit two. Seventy-five percent of the mothers were at risk of suffering from an anxiety disorder at visit one and half remained so at visit two. A "depressed" score at visits one and two correlated with a hospitalization for a threatened premature labor. We noted a high risk of trauma for 35% of the mothers and high interactional synchrony was observed for approximately two-thirds of the dyads. The mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety or postnatal depression correlate strongly with the presence of an initial trauma. At visit one and visit two, a high score of satisfaction concerning social support correlates negatively with presence of a trauma. A maternal risk of trauma is more frequent with a C-section delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety correlate greatly with the presence of an initial trauma. The maternal traumatic reaction linked to premature birth does not correlate with the term at birth, but rather with the weight of the baby. Social support perceived by the mother is correlated with the absence of maternal trauma before returning home, and also seems to inhibit from depressive symptoms from the time of the infant's premature birth.

  14. Sleep education during pregnancy for new mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempler Liora


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high association between disturbed (poor quality sleep and depression, which has lead to a consensus that there is a bidirectional relationship between sleep and mood. One time in a woman’s life when sleep is commonly disturbed is during pregnancy and following childbirth. It has been suggested that sleep disturbance is another factor that may contribute to the propensity for women to become depressed in the postpartum period compared to other periods in their life. Post Natal Depression (PND is common (15.5% and associated with sleep disturbance, however, no studies have attempted to provide a sleep-focused intervention to pregnant women and assess whether this can improve sleep, and consequently maternal mood post-partum. The primary aim of this research is to determine the efficacy of a brief psychoeducational sleep intervention compared with a control group to improve sleep management, with a view to reduce depressive symptoms in first time mothers. Method This randomised controlled trial will recruit 214 first time mothers during the last trimester of their pregnancy. Participants will be randomised to receive either a set of booklets (control group or a 3hour psychoeducational intervention that focuses on sleep. The primary outcomes of this study are sleep-related, that is sleep quality and sleepiness for ten months following the birth of the baby. The secondary outcome is depressive symptoms. It is hypothesised that participants in the intervention group will have better sleep quality and sleepiness in the postpartum period than women in the control condition. Further, we predict that women who receive the sleep intervention will have lower depression scores postpartum compared with the control group. Discussion This study aims to provide an intervention that will improve maternal sleep in the postpartum period. If sleep can be effectively improved through a brief psychoeducational program, then it may

  15. Maternal Perceptions and Views About Breastfeeding Practices Among Emirati Mothers. (United States)

    Radwan, Hadia; Sapsford, Roger


    Understanding women's breastfeeding perceptions and experiences is increasingly recognized as a vital tool to provide effective support that would encourage the extension of the breastfeeding period. To identify and explore the perceptions and views that influence the feeding and weaning decisions of Emirati mother. A qualitative study using indepth interviews was undertaken with a convenience sample of 45 Emirati mothers who had infants aged between 6 months and 2 years. Participants were interviewed in the health centers in 3 cities in United Arab Emirates. Data were recorded through field notes and analyzed thematically using grounded theory analysis. The following themes emerged: influences of others on the decisions to breastfeed, sources of information, infants' behavior and participants' views and decisions about when to introduce supplementary feeding, knowledge of and attitudes toward current World Health Organization recommendations, and mothers' perception of the benefits of breastfeeding. Grandmothers in this study played an important role in the breastfeeding practices of Emirati mothers. They supported breastfeeding, however, some encouraged giving the infants prelacteal feeds for a variety of reasons: colic, hunger, promoting growth, and hydration. Fathers, according to the mothers, either supported or ignored breastfeeding practices. Health promotions and health care facilities failed to deliver the message of exclusive breastfeeding. Mothers in our study were resorting to the expertise of the grandmothers and receiving information and advice about child feeding from them. The findings highlight the need for successful intervention programs to be implemented for mothers and grandmothers through health care providers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Children's emotional and behavioral problems and their mothers' labor supply. (United States)

    Richard, Patrick; Gaskin, Darrell J; Alexandre, Pierre K; Burke, Laura S; Younis, Mustafa


    It has been documented that about 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a diagnosable mental or addictive disorder in the United States. The high prevalence of children's emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) might have a negative effect on their mothers' labor market outcomes because children with EBP require additional time for treatment. However, these children may require additional financial resources, which might promote mothers' labor supply. Previous studies have only considered chronic conditions in analyzing the impact of children's health on parental work activities. Moreover, most of these studies have not accounted for endogeneity in children's health. This article estimates the effects of children's EBP on their mothers' labor supply by family structure while accounting for endogeneity in children's health. We used the 1997 and 2002 Child Development Supplements (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). We used probit and bivariate probit models to estimate mothers' probability of employment, and tobit and instrumental variable tobit models to estimate the effects of children's EBP on their mothers' work hours. Findings show negative effects of children's EBP on their married mothers' employment and on their single mothers' work hours. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Mothers' support for voluntary provision of HPV vaccine in schools. (United States)

    Kadis, Jessica A; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gottlieb, Sami L; Lee, Morgan R; Reiter, Paul L; Dittus, Patricia J; Brewer, Noel T


    HPV vaccination rates among adolescents in the United States lag behind some other developed countries, many of which routinely offer the vaccine in schools. We sought to assess mothers' willingness to have their adolescent daughters receive HPV vaccine at school. A national sample of mothers of adolescent females ages 11-14 completed our internet survey (response rate=66%). The final sample (n=496) excluded mothers who did not intend to have their daughters receive HPV vaccine in the next year. Overall, 67% of mothers who intended to vaccinate their daughters or had vaccinated their daughters reported being willing to have their daughters receive HPV vaccine at school. Mothers were more willing to allow their daughters to receive HPV vaccine in schools if they had not yet initiated the vaccine series for their daughters or resided in the Midwest or West (all pconcerns about voluntary school-based provision of HPV vaccine that mothers most frequently cited were that their daughters' doctors should keep track of her shots (64%) and that they wished to be present when their daughters were vaccinated (40%). Our study suggests that most mothers who support adolescent vaccination for HPV find school-based HPV vaccination an acceptable option. Ensuring communication of immunization records with doctors and allowing parents to be present during immunization may increase parental support. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nine centuries waiting: The experiences of Iranians surrogacy commissioning mothers. (United States)

    Zandi, Mitra; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Mohammadi, Eesa


    There are a few studies about commissioning mothers' understanding from the surrogacy during 9 months of waiting for delivery in Iran and other countries. This study was conducted with an aim to explore and explain the nature of concerns (experiences) of commissioning mothers. A qualitative design with a conventional content analysis approach was used to gather and analyze the experiences of commissioning mothers. They were selected from Royan Research Centre and other infertility centers in Iran. After purposive sampling for the selection of the participants, unstructured interviews were held for data collection. Twenty-four unstructured interviews were conducted with 12 commissioning mothers, 2 surrogate mothers, and 2 infertility center social workers who directly and continuously dealt with these mothers. TWO MAIN THEMES EMERGED FROM THE DATA ANALYSIS: 1. cultural dilemma (consisting of three subthemes: Social taboo, concerns about disclosure to others and the child, concerns about altering maternal and child's identity, and 2. uncertain waiting (consisting of three subthemes: Concerns about health of fetus and surrogate, concerns about an unfamiliar surrogate, and concerns about lack of preparation for maternal role). The study reveals the importance of maternal emotional care in this group and introduces a new arena for nurses' activity. These findings help the mothers by nurses' activities in health care clinics and anywhere they deliver nursing care.

  19. The mothers' experiences in the pediatrics hemodialysis unit. (United States)

    Mieto, Fernanda Stella Risseto; Bousso, Regina Szylit


    The need for hemodialysis exerts a deep impact on the lives of children and adolescents with end-stage kidney chronic failure and their mothers, who predominantly assume the care related to treatment. The hemodialysis requires that the mother accompanies the child during sessions at least three times a week and, since it is not a healing practice, they also experience the waiting for a kidney transplant, attributing different meanings to this experience. To understand what it means for the mothers to accompany the child in a Pediatric Hemodialysis Unit and to construct a theoretical model representing this experience. The Symbolic Interactionism was adopted as a theoretical model and the Grounded Theory as a methodological framework. Data were collected through interviews with 11 mothers. The comparative analysis of the data enabled the identification of two phenomena that compose the experience: "Seeing the child´s life being sucked by the hemodialysis machine" expresses the experiences of the mothers that generates new demands to comprehend the new health conditions of their children and "Giving new meaning to the dependence of the hemodialysis machine" that represents the strategies employed to endure the experience. The relationship of these phenomena allowed the identification of the main category: "Having the mother's life imprisoned by the hemodialysis machine", from which we propose a new theoretical model. The results of the study allow us to provide a theoretical ground for planning an assistance that meets the real needs of the mothers, identifying aspects that require intervention.

  20. Depression during gestation in adolescent mothers interferes with neonatal neurobehavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carvalho de Moraes Barros


    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the neurobehavior of neonates born to adolescent mothers with and without depression during gestation. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included healthy term neonates born to adolescent mothers with untreated depression during gestation, without exposure to legal or illicit drugs, and compared them with infants born to adolescent mothers without psychiatric disorders. Maternal psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 and neonatal neurobehavior by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS at 24 to 72 hours of life. Neurobehavioral outcomes were analyzed by ANOVA adjusted for confounders. Results: 37 infants born to mothers with depression during gestation were compared to 332 infants born to mothers without psychiatric disorders. Infants of mothers with depression had smaller head circumferences. Significant interactions of maternal depression and male gender, gestational age > 40 weeks, regional anesthesia during delivery, vaginal delivery, and infant head circumference ≥ 34 cm were found. Worse performance was noted in the following neonatal neurobehavioral parameters: arousal, excitability, lethargy, hypotonicity, and signs of stress and abstinence. Conclusion: Infants born to adolescent mothers with depression exhibit some behavioral changes in the first days of life. These changes are associated with infant sex, gestational age, type of anesthesia, mode of delivery, and head circumference.

  1. Fostering supportive community connections through mothers' groups and playgroups. (United States)

    Strange, Cecily; Fisher, Colleen; Howat, Peter; Wood, Lisa


    The aim of this study was to explore the ways that mothers' groups and playgroups support families with children aged 0-5 years and foster community connectedness in newer residential communities in Perth, Western Australia. The transition to parenthood is a time of increased support need. Changing community demography has resulted in a loss of traditional support structures and an increased need for local community initiatives to support families with young children. A qualitative descriptive design was used for this initial phase of a mixed methods sequential exploratory study. Data were collected between December 2011-August 2012. Interviews and focus groups conducted with 39 mothers provided insights from 16 mothers' groups and 13 playgroups. In addition, interviews were undertaken with three child health nurses and four local government early childhood staff. For the participants in this study, mothers' groups and playgroups provided opportunities to learn about parenting, to build a supportive network, to forge friendships and a connectedness to the local community. The families who relocated often experienced isolation until new groups and social networks were found. In general, where participation in mothers' groups and playgroups facilitated relationships with others from the local community, connectedness to that community was reported by participants to be enhanced. Mothers' groups and playgroups provide important community development opportunities and appear to help reduce potential isolation for mothers with young children. The findings are of interest to nurses and other health professionals working with families with young children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Chronic and Episodic Stress in Children of Depressed Mothers. (United States)

    Feurer, Cope; Hammen, Constance L; Gibb, Brandon E


    The goal of this study was to examine chronic and episodic stress in children of mothers with and without a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) during the children's lives. Participants were 255 mothers selected according to their history of MDD (present vs. absent during child's life) and their children (age 8-14; 53% girls, 81% Caucasian). Mothers' and children's histories of MDD were assessed using diagnostic interviews, and their depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report measures. Children's levels of chronic and episodic stress were assessed using a semistructured contextual threat interview. Children of mothers with a history of recurrent MDD, compared to single MDD or no depression, experienced more chronic stress within several domains including peers, mother-child relations, and other family member relations as well as greater episodic dependent interpersonal stress. Each of these group differences was maintained after excluding children with a history of MDD themselves and controlling for their current depressive symptoms. However, only the group difference in chronic peer stress was maintained when controlling for mothers' current depression. The results suggest that children exposed to recurrent maternal MDD experience higher levels of both chronic and episodic stress, at least some of which they contribute to themselves (dependent interpersonal stress) and which is at least partially independent of the effects of children's depression. In addition, much of this stress is associated primarily with current depression in the mother, though it appears that chronic peer stress may remain elevated even after the remission of maternal depression.

  3. An Exploration of Parenting Stress in Immigrant and Taiwanese Mothers. (United States)

    Tsao, Ying; Creedy, Debra K; Gamble, Jenny


    To assess parenting stress and major difficulties experienced in early motherhood among immigrant and Taiwanese women in Pingtung, southern Taiwan. A comparative, descriptive, cohort study of parenting stress and maternal psychological health, using the Child Care Stress Checklist and Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale. A purposive sample of 26 foreign-born Vietnamese and 162 Taiwanese mothers were surveyed at 6 weeks' postpartum. Both groups of mothers experienced similar parenting difficulties including the establishment of a regular sleeping schedule for the infant, consoling a crying infant, awareness of infant's needs, conflict with family members, and difficulties managing household chores. Curtailment of social activities was reported more often by Taiwanese mothers, whereas inaccessibility to other experienced mothers and poor maternal-infant bonding were experienced more by immigrant mothers. There were significant differences between groups, with high levels of child care stress and postpartum depression symptoms reported more often by immigrant mothers. Nurses-midwives and community child health nurses need to be sensitive to the particular difficulties and stresses of parenting in mothers from different backgrounds and provide effective interventions and support activities.

  4. Continuity and change in mothers' narratives of perinatal hospice. (United States)

    Lathrop, Anthony; VandeVusse, Leona


    (1) To broadly explore the experiences of women who chose to continue pregnancies affected by lethal fetal diagnoses and (2) to develop knowledge useful to nurses and other healthcare professionals who provide perinatal hospice (PH) care. Qualitative descriptive study using narrative analysis. Fifteen women who learned during their pregnancies of a lethal fetal diagnosis and chose to continue the affected pregnancies. Participants' stories of their PH experiences were recorded in face-to-face interviews. A qualitative approach using narrative analysis was used to identify themes and develop suggestions for care. The element of time was prevalent in mothers' stories. Some aspects of mothers' experiences continued, particularly feelings of love and connection to their babies. Mothers also reported evolving changes in their thoughts and feelings. Personal changes such as increased compassion, faith, and strength were frequently mentioned. Mothers described transient phases of highs and lows. Drawing personal meanings or life lessons was the main way mothers connected their experiences to their present lives. Mothers' descriptions of their experiences can enhance nurses' understanding of perinatal loss. Established care practices, such as birth planning and creating mementoes, were supported. Nurses can help mothers experiencing loss by elucidating and reflecting their personal meanings.

  5. The relationship between mother narrative style and child memory. (United States)

    Kayıran, Sinan Mahir; Cure, Sena


    The question of whether children and infants have memory capabilities similar to adults has long been of interest. Until recently, it was thought that compared to adults, infants have very limited memory processing abilities. Knowledge about factors affecting a child's memory abilities can help families (specifically mothers) behave in a manner that best benefits their children in language and memory skills. The present study examines one factor that may underlie a child's memory capabilities; namely the mother's narrative style. Convenience sampling was used to select participants. Forty healthy children (mean age of 31.55 months, range 25-37 months) and their mothers were entered into the study. All participants were native Turkish speakers, from similar socioeconomic status backgrounds. Memory was assessed by a modified version of the Magic Shrinking Machine. Narrative style was assessed by the mother "reading" a Frog Story; a picture book with no words in it. Children were then grouped according to their mother's level of narrative style. Children's language skills were measured via the Turkish form of the CDI (Communicative Development Inventory) which was translated to Turkish as TIGE. To explore the relationships between mothers' narrative styles and children's memory and language skills and between children's language skills and memory capabilities, linear regressions were run. There were no significant correlations among any comparisons (P > 0.05). Children's language skills do not improve according to their mothers' narrative styles, and children do not show better memory abilities when mothers use more words and longer sentences. In order to have a better understanding of these relationships, future research that includes several more variables is needed. Child; Mother; Memory; Narrative style.

  6. Intercultural caring from the perspectives of immigrant new mothers. (United States)

    Wikberg, Anita; Eriksson, Katie; Bondas, Terese


    To describe and interpret the perceptions and experiences of caring of immigrant new mothers from an intercultural perspective in maternity care in Finland. Descriptive interpretive ethnography using Eriksson's theory of caritative caring. A maternity ward in a medium-sized hospital in western Finland. Seventeen mothers from 12 countries took part in the study. Interviews, observations, and field notes were analyzed and interpreted. Most mothers were satisfied with the equal access to high-quality maternity care in Finland, although the stereotypes and the ethnocentric views of some nurses negatively influenced the experiences of maternity care for some mothers. The cultural background of the mother, as well as the Finnish maternity care culture, influenced the caring. Four patterns were found. There were differences between the expectations of the mothers and their Finnish maternity care experience of caring. Caring was related to the changing culture. Finnish maternity care traditions were sometimes imposed on the immigrant new mothers, which likewise influenced caring. However, the female nurse was seen as a professional friend, and the conflicts encountered were resolved, which in turn promoted caring. The influence of Finnish maternity care culture on caring is highlighted from the perspective of the mothers. Intercultural caring was described as universal, cultural, contextual, and unique. Women were not familiar with the Finnish health care system, and many immigrant mothers lacked support networks. The nurse/patient relationship could partly replace their support if the relationship was perceived as caring. The women had multiple vulnerabilities and were prone to isolation and discrimination if they experienced communication problems. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  7. Leukocytes in expressed breast milk of asthmatic mothers. (United States)

    Dixon, D-L; Forsyth, K D

    Infants are born immunologically immature. However, breastfeeding mothers retain an immunological link to their infants. While it is generally accepted that infants are at an immunological advantage when compared with formula-fed infants, the benefit of long-term exclusive breastfeeding by atopic mothers remains controversial. Inconsistency in the conferral of benefit may be due to differences in the immunological constituents passed to the recipient infant. The aim of this investigation was to examine the profile of human milk cells and cytokines from asthmatic compared to non-asthmatic mothers. Twenty-five exclusively breastfeeding mothers with a clinical diagnosis of asthma were postpartum age matched in a double-control 2:1 design with 50 non-asthmatic controls. Each mother provided a single milk sample which was assayed for cell differential by flow cytometry, for ex vivo cytokine production in culture and for aqueous phase cytokines. Milks from asthmatic mothers differed from non-asthmatics in that they contained a higher proportion of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells and lower proportion of lymphocytes, predominantly CD3 + /CD4 + T helper cells, reflected by a decrease in the chemokine CCL5 in the milk aqueous phase. More PMN and lymphocytes from asthmatic mothers expressed the adhesion molecule CD11b and lymphocytes the IgE receptor CD23, than those from non-asthmatic mothers. Changes to human milk leucocyte prevalence, activation state and cytokines due to maternal asthma may result in changes to immunological priming in the infant. Consequently, the protective effect of long-term breastfeeding may be altered in these mother-infant pairs. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. The mother's card: a simplified aid for primary health workers. (United States)

    Shah, K P; Shah, P M


    The Mother's Card and its use are described. The card is filled out by the health worker and provides data on the mother concerning family planning, menstrual cycles, pregnancy period (including whether at risk, state of nutrition, immunization against tetanus, and expected date of birth), and breastfeeding. The card is kept by the mother, and the health worker keeps a copy. Each card has space for 10 years and up to 4 pregnancies. The cards have been used successfully in India since 1976 and in Somalia since early 1980, and were useful in strengthening family planning programs as well as identifying pregnancies at risk for special attention.

  9. Mother-daughter in vitro fertilization triplet surrogate pregnancy. (United States)

    Michelow, M C; Bernstein, J; Jacobson, M J; McLoughlin, J L; Rubenstein, D; Hacking, A I; Preddy, S; Van der Wat, I J


    A successful triplet pregnancy has been established in a surrogate gestational mother following the transfer of five embryos fertilized in vitro. The oocytes were donated by her biological daughter, and the sperm obtained from the daughter's husband. The daughter's infertility followed a total abdominal hysterectomy performed for a postpartum hemorrhage as a result of a placenta accreta. Synchronization of both their menstrual cycles was obtained using oral contraceptive suppression for 2 months, followed by stimulation of both the surrogate gestational mother and her daughter such that embryo transfer would occur at least 48 hr after the surrogate gestational mother's own ovulation. This case raises a number of medical, social, psychological, and ethical issues.

  10. Royal Ageing: The Queen Mother and Queen Victoria


    Mike Hepworth


    This paper is a reflection on the contribution of the image of the Queen Mother to the cultural construction of role models of positive ageing. The interest lies in the Queen Mother's performance in public of her roles as woman and royal personage particularly as she grew older. It is suggested that cultural analysis of the icon of the Queen Mother as a blend of gender and power suggests certain significant parallels with the imagery cultivated around the career of Queen Victoria in the later...

  11. The use of a mistress and the internalized sexual mother. (United States)

    Layland, W R


    Using clinical material and the transference manifestations from two married male patients who had mistresses and a female patient whose husband had a mistress, it is suggested that the mistresses are used to deal with the man's internalized sexual mother, thus allowing the wives to become the good-enough mothers that the men had never experienced. It would seem that the father unconsciously colludes with this incestuous relationship between the sexual mother and the son by not being an adequate husband. It is further suggested that one of the qualities of a good-enough father is the capacity to be a good-enough husband.

  12. Mothers' use of and attitudes to BabyCheck.


    Thomson, Hilary; Ross, Sue; Wilson, Philip; McConnachie, Alex; Watson, Richard


    A copy of BabyCheck was sent to 497 mothers shortly after the birth of their baby. Six months later they were sent a questionnaire asking about their use of and attitudes to, BabyCheck. Questionnaires were returned by 323 (65%) mothers; 215 (67%) of them reported reading BabyCheck, the majority found it easy to understand (74%) and agreed with the advice (67%). Eighty-four (26%) of the mothers who returned the questionnaires reported using BabyCheck when their baby was ill; of these, 71% agre...

  13. Does Mother Tongue Interfere in Second Language Learning?


    Denizer, Elif Nur


    Mother tongue largely refers to not only the language one learns from one’s mother but also the speaker’s dominant and home language. It’s also called native language. This study was conducted to find whether mother tongue interferences in second-language learning, and if so; whether it affects the learners’ performance in four language skills, and also in which skill(s) it has the biggest effect. Data collection tool included a questionnaire by which participants were asked to rate the quest...

  14. Energy Drinks: Implications for the Breastfeeding Mother. (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Ahmed, Azza; Colby, David A


    Breastfeeding women may experience disrupted sleep schedules and be tempted to turn to popular energy drinks to reduce fatigue and enhance alertness, prompting the question: What are the maternal and child health implications for breastfeeding mothers consuming energy drinks? Caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks contain a variety of herbal ingredients and vitamins; however, ingredient amounts may not be clearly disclosed on product labels. Interactions between herbal ingredients and caffeine are understudied and not well defined in the literature. Some infants can be sensitive to caffeine and display increased irritability and sleep disturbances when exposed to caffeine from breastmilk. Breastfeeding women who consume energy drinks may be ingesting herbal ingredients that have not undergone scientific evaluation, and if taking prenatal vitamins, may unknowingly exceed the recommended daily intake. Caffeinated products are marketed in newer ways, fueling concerns about health consequences of caffeine exposure. We present implications associated with consumption of caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks among breastfeeding women. Product safety, labeling, common ingredients, potential interactions, and clinical implications are discussed. Healthcare providers should encourage breastfeeding women to read product labels for ingredients, carbohydrate content, serving size, and to discourage consumption of energy drinks when breastfeeding and/or taking prenatal vitamins, to avoid potential vitamin toxicity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Muntaha


    Full Text Available The development of science and technology, in particular in the field of health, has already recently brought a huge advantage and problem in human life. An example of technological marvel that not only requires deep legal thoughts but also at the same time solution is the bio-medical technology advancement of surrogacy. Surrogacy deals with human’s inclination towards reproductive activity. However, it opens up legal complication, in particular with regards to the potential commission of a criminal action as well as to the notion of doctor’s liability. Perkembangan ilmu dan teknologi di bidang kesehatan yang semakin maju dan pesat telah membawa berbagai manfaat dan masalah dalam kehidupan manusia dewasa ini. Salah satu perkembangan yang tidak hanya membutuhkan pemikiran di bidang hukum, tetapi juga sekaligus solusinya adalah mengenai kecanggihan teknologi bio-medis surrogate mother. Surrogacy menyentuh sisi kemanusiaan seorang insan terhadap reproduksi. Akan tetapi, lembaga surrogacy juga membawa komplikasi hukum terutama terkait dengan potensi tindak pidana dan dengan persoalan tanggung jawab dokter.

  16. The Mother Tongue of Leila Sebbar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Marx-Scouras


    Full Text Available Leila Sebbar grew up in French colonial Algeria where her parents taught French to the indigenous children. The daughter of a metropolitan French woman and an Algerian, Sebbar is a croisée . At the height of the Algerian War, Sebbar left her homeland to pursue her university studies in France. She became a French teacher and made France her home. Sebbar writes in her mother tongue, but she treats it like a foreign language. Although she never learned Arabic and left Algeria, her paternal identity haunts all of her writings. Anchored by the notion of exile, Sebbar drifts between two shores as she seeks to personally come to terms with both a pied-noir and Algerian identity bequeathed by her parents. This dual and contradictory identity allows Sebbar to explore the colonial legacy inherent to immigration in France. Continually on the move or on the run, Sebbar's eccentric protagonists follow a geographical itinerary which acknowledges the common history and cultural heritage of Europe and the Arab world. In forging a new identity for the France of tomorrow, this génération métisse attempts to work through the torturous relationship between France and its former colonies that continues to mark cultural manifestations and political events in France.

  17. Susan Sontag — A Forgotten Mother?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kludia Ziewiec


    Full Text Available The article discusses new and republished translations of Susan Sontag’s work, recently launched by the Karakter publishing house: Regarding the Pan of Others, On Photography, and Against Interpretation and Other Essays. The article focuses on the elements of Sontag’s thought that make her a forgotten mother of feminist and gender theoreticians, as well as such influential critics as Michel Foucault and Roland Barthes. The article points out to continuations of Sontag’s thought in contemporary theoretical and social projects, and to the pertinence of her critical observations on theories based on metaphysics of presence: psychoanalysis, Marxism, or hermeneutics. The article also touches upon history of war photography and related war journalism, and upon the ambivalent quality of imaging of the misery of war. It also present historical and cultural circumstances of the development of Sontag’s thought in the intellectual milieu of New York in the 1960s. The discussion recapitulates the main statements of Sontag’s essays, relating them to a wider theoretical context, which is aimed at a reappraisal of the forgotten intelectual in the history of literature.

  18. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care Immediately after Delivery on Mother-infant Attachment 3 Months after Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zahra Karimi


    Full Text Available Background  The aim of this study was determine the effect of kangaroo mother care (KMC immediately after delivery on mother-infant attachment 3-month after delivery. Materials and Methods: In this RCT study, 72 mother-infant pairs were randomly divided in to kangaroo mother care and routine care groups.The intervention group received kangaroo mother care (KMC in the first two hours post birth. The control group just received routine hospital care. Mothers in the intervention group were encouraged to keep the baby in KMC as much as possible during the day and night throughout the neonatal period. Participants were followed up for three months after birth. The Main outcome measure was mother-infant attachment at 3 months postpartum and maternal anxiety about the baby at the same time. The data was collected by questionnaire (demographic information of parents and neonates and maternal attachment scale. Analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 14. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding their baseline data. Mean maternal attachment score in the KMC group and in the routine care group at three months after delivery was 52.40±3.30 and 49.86±4.18 respectively, which was significantly higher in the KMC group (P

  19. An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. (United States)

    Wolchik, S A; West, S G; Sandler, I N; Tein, J Y; Coatsworth, D; Lengua, L; Weiss, L; Anderson, E R; Greene, S M; Griffin, W A


    This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 theory-based preventive interventions for divorced families: a program for mothers and a dual component mother-child program. The mother program targeted mother-child relationship quality, discipline, interparental conflict, and the father-child relationship. The child program targeted active coping, avoidant coping, appraisals of divorce stressors, and mother-child relationship quality. Families with a 9- to 12-year-old child (N = 240) were randomly assigned to the mother, dual-component, or self-study program. Postintervention comparisons showed significant positive program effects of the mother program versus self-study condition on relationship quality, discipline, attitude toward father-child contact, and adjustment problems. For several outcomes, more positive effects occurred in families with poorer initial functioning. Program effects on externalizing problems were maintained at 6-month follow-up. A few additive effects of the dual-component program occurred for the putative mediators; none occurred for adjustment problems.

  20. Improving uptake and engagement with child body image interventions delivered to mothers: Understanding mother and daughter preferences for intervention content. (United States)

    Garbett, Kirsty M; Diedrichs, Phillippa C


    Mothers are a key influence on adolescent girls' body image. This study aimed to improve understanding of mothers' and daughters' preferences for content in body image interventions designed to assist mothers to promote positive body image among their daughters. British mother-daughter dyads (N=190) viewed descriptions of five evidence-based influences on body image (family, friends, and relationships; appearance-based teasing; media and celebrities; appearance conversations; body acceptance and care). Mothers and daughters each selected the two most important influences to learn about in these interventions. Overall, both mothers and daughters most frequently opted for family, friends, and relationships and body acceptance and care, whereas media and celebrities was their least preferred topic. While the overall sample of mothers and daughters agreed on preferences, Fisher's exact tests showed that within-dyad agreement was low. Recommendations for improving parent and child engagement with, and effectiveness of, child body image interventions delivered to parents are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Why Do Mothers of Young Infants Choose to Formula Feed in China? Perceptions of Mothers and Hospital Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang


    Full Text Available In China the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and infant formula is widely used. This study aimed to elicit and compare mothers’ and hospital staff perceptions of the reasons that shaped mothers’ decision to formula feed. In-depth interviews with 50 mothers, and four focus group discussions with 33 hospital staff, were conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen in November 2014. Responses given by the mothers and hospital staff showed a number of commonalities. The perception of “insufficient breast milk” was cited by the majority of women (n = 37, 74% as the reason for formula feeding. Mothers’ confidence in breastfeeding appears to be further reduced by maternal mothers or mothers-in-law’s and “confinement ladies” misconceptions about infant feeding. Inadequate breastfeeding facilities and limited flexibility at their workplace was another common reason given for switching to formula feeding. A substantial proportion of mothers (n = 27, 54% lacked an understanding of the health benefits of breastfeeding. Antenatal education on breastfeeding benefits for expectant mothers and their families is recommended. Moreover, mothers should be provided with breastfeeding support while in hospital and be encouraged to seek professional assistance to deal with breastfeeding problems after discharge. Employers should also make work environments more breastfeeding-friendly.

  2. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans count in Mother-child Pair of Working and Nonworking Mothers: A Cross-sectional Study. (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Goswami, Mousumi; Singh, Darrel; Massod, Shahid S; Nganba, Khundrakpam


    To determine the prevalence of Streptococcus mutans (MS) in mother-child pairs and to evaluate the correlation in the levels of salivary MS of working and nonworking mothers with that of their children and their associations with other related factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 100 mother-child pairs residing in New Multan Nagar Colony, New Delhi, India. A total of 50 children with their mothers were included in the working group and another 50 were included in the nonworking group. A questionnaire regarding the feeding habits, oral hygiene habits, daily intake of sugars of the children along with their weaning time was carried out. All mothers and children were clinically examined for recording decayed, extracted, and filled teeth (deft)/decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), and whole unstimulated saliva was collected and cultured for MS in the laboratory. The data were collected and subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square, Spearman's correlation, and logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of salivary MS in the children was 69%. A statistically significant correlation was found between the oral levels of MS in nonworking and working mother-child pairs. Regression analysis showed that those children who feed by bottle for more than 12 months, have daily sweet intake, have sugars in feeding bottle and have higher defts were more likely to have mutans score of 1 or 2. The mother, working or nonworking, being the primary care provider is the major source of transmission of MS to their child irrespective of the amount of time spent with them. Sharma P, Goswami M, Singh D, Massod SS, Nganba K. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans count in Mother-child Pair of Working and Nonworking Mothers: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):342-348.

  3. Do mothers affect daughter's behaviors? Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors in Kuwaiti mother-daughter dyads. (United States)

    Shaban, Lemia H; Vaccaro, Joan A; Sukhram, Shiryn D; Huffman, Fatma G


    The objective of the study was to evaluate 169 Kuwaiti mother-daughter dyads and their associations with health behaviors for eating healthy, engaging in physical activity, daughters perceived body weight, time spent with computer/video, and time viewing television. Female students aged 10-14 years were selected from private and public schools in the State of Kuwait. Results demonstrated that daughters exhibited similar behaviors to their mothers in their perceived eating behavior, physical activity, computer/video game use, and TV screen time. Future research is essential to determine the role of mothers in effective health behavior intervention strategies for female Kuwaiti adolescents.

  4. Effects of Latino children on their mothers' dietary intake and dietary behaviors: The role of children's acculturation and the mother-child acculturation gap. (United States)

    Soto, Sandra H; Arredondo, Elva M; Marcus, Bess; Shakya, Holly B; Roesch, Scott; Ayala, Guadalupe X


    Research shows that acculturation is important to Latinas' dietary intake and related behaviors. Although evidence suggests children may also play a role, it remains unclear whether children's acculturation is related to mothers' dietary intake/behaviors. We examined the relationship between Latino children's acculturation and mothers' dietary intake/behaviors. We also examined the mother-child acculturation gap to identify dyad characteristics associated with mothers' diet. Baseline surveys were collected in 2010 from 314 Latino mother-child (7-13 years old) dyads of Mexican-origin enrolled in a family-based dietary intervention in Southern California, USA. Mother's daily intake of fruits, vegetables, and sugary beverages, percent of calories from fat, weekly away-from-home eating, and percent of weekly grocery dollars spent on fruits and vegetables were assessed via self-report. Mothers' and children's bidimensional acculturation were examined using acculturation groups (e.g., assimilated, bicultural) derived from Hispanic and non-Hispanic dimensions of language. We also assessed the acculturation gap between mothers and children with the a) difference in acculturation between mothers' and children's continuous acculturation scores and b) mother-child acculturation gap typologies (e.g., traditional mothers of assimilated children). Findings show that having an assimilated versus a bicultural child was negatively associated with mothers' vegetable intake and positively associated with mothers' sugary beverage intake, percent of calories from fat, and frequency of away-from-home eating, regardless of mothers' acculturation. Traditional mothers of assimilated children reported more sugary beverage intake, calories from fat, and more frequent away-from-home eating than traditional mothers of bicultural children. Results suggest that children's acculturation is associated with their mothers' dietary intake/behaviors and traditional mothers of assimilated children

  5. Urinary phthalate concentrations in mothers and their children in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Griffin, Chris


    . This study aimed to determine the extent of phthalate exposure among mothers and their children in both rural and urban areas in Ireland, and to identify factors associated with elevated concentrations. It formed part of the ‘Demonstration of a study to Co-ordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring...... on a European Scale’ (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. Methods: the concentration of phthalate metabolites were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. The median age of the children was 8 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information regarding lifestyle and environmental...... conditions of the children and mothers. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. Results: Phthalate metabolites were detected in all of the samples from both children and mothers. Concentrations were significantly higher in respondents...

  6. Mother-Infant Interaction: a Process of Discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Mônica Arpini


    Full Text Available Considering the importance of the first experiences to the psychological constitution and that such constitution is based on parental relationships, this study aimed to comprehend the aspects that indicate health and well-being in the mother-baby relationship, focusing on the moments of breastfeeding, cry, communication and interaction of the dyad. The study was grounded on observation and an interview with the mothers. Results emerged from content analysis and highlight the presence of indicators of the Child Development Risks Index (IRDIs in the relationship of the dyad, evidencing mothers hold knowledge about their babies. Final considerations emphasize the importance of the mother-baby relationship and suggest the inclusion of Clinical Indicators of Risk regarding Child Development in services of primary health care.

  7. Teenage Childbearing and its Health Consequences on the Mother ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    childbearing raise fundamental concerns about the ... on the mother and child in Eritrea, and the social and demographic context in which it occurs. ... A descriptive bivariate analysis is used to estimate the proportion of teenage women ...

  8. Mothers' knowledge about birth asphyxia: The need to do more!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 19, 2012 ... antenatal care during their last pregnancy, about birth asphyxia and relate their knowledge to their places of ..... Table 1: Distribution of mothers who were counseled ... higher rates of unsatisfactory knowledge compared to the.

  9. a descriptive study of outcomes of interventions to prevent mother

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of the ... of 372(67.7%) of 534 mother-infant pairs took single ... education attained, employment status, PMTCT regimen and duration ... feeding and duration, sex and final HIV status.

  10. Factors affecting HIV-infected mothers' ability to adhere to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The postnatal feeding practices of 222 HIV-infected mothers were compared with their prenatal intentions and ... categorical data and Student's t-test for continuous data. Factors ... give an excuse, such as ill health (including breast cancer,.

  11. Food Insecurity and Depression among Single Mothers in Kolokuma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key words: Food insecurity, Single Mothers, Depression, Family Stress theory, .... half the population, depression among women leads to increased family ... Safety Needs: This includes health, freedom from war and financial security. When an ...

  12. Family violence among mothers seen at the University of Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    76 articles. Family violence (FV) is a term used to describe any form of .... causes, among which adverse life events are prominent;21,22 .... work (71% of mothers v. 58% of .... The balance of these symptoms suggests depression, meaning.

  13. A Phenomenological Study of Mormon Mothers Who are Career

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Living the Divine Divide: A Phenomenological Study of Mormon Mothers ... work outside of the home, they are counselled by ... conflict that results when different facets of one's life ...... find a balance between their Church, motherhood, and.

  14. Substance use and birth weight among mothers attending public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    recommend health professionals working in antenatal care service, be aware, on counseling of mothers for banning ... and recorded in a log book prepared for it. ... sample size assigned to the hospitals was distributed, .... refusal to participate.

  15. Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to address the vitamin A deficiency problem, nutrition and healthy planners should put more efforts on food fortification ... women and children under the age of five years. Methodology ..... mothers in rural than urban areas (Table 3). These.

  16. [Psychomotor development in offspring of mothers with post partum depression]. (United States)

    Podestá L, Loreto; Alarcón, Ana María; Muñoz, Sergio; Legüe C, Marcela; Bustos, Luis; Barría P, Mauricio


    Postpartum depression (PPD) has adverse effects on psychomotor development of the offspring. To evaluate the relationship between PPD and psychomotor development in children aged 18 months, consulting in primary care. Cross-sectional study with 360 infants and their mothers. Children had their psychomotor evaluation at l8 months and mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum. The prevalence of both PPD and psychomotor alteration was estimated. The association between PPD and psychomotor alteration, including confounding variables, was estimated through logistic multiple regression analysis. The prevalence of PPD and psychomotor alteration was 29 and 16%, respectively Mothers with PPD had twice the probability of having an offspring with psychomotor alteration (Odds ratio = 2.0, confidence intervals = 1.07-3.68). This probability was significantly higher among single mothers or those with an unstable partner. PPD has a detrimental impact on psychomotor development of children.

  17. Knowledge and perception of mothers and caregivers on childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    malaria, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tuberculosis (TB) combined ... mothers/caregivers on childhood diarrhoea focusing on three main aspects viz. .... no formal education while 37 (53%) and 11 (15.7%) had primary and ...

  18. Integrated nutritional intervention among mothers of under-five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated nutritional intervention among mothers of under-five children in rural communities of a developing country: its effects on maternal practice of complementary feeding and child's nutritional status.

  19. Determinants of disciplinary practices in low-income black mothers. (United States)

    Kelly, M L; Power, T G; Wimbush, D D


    Disciplinary attitudes and practices of low-income black mothers were examined. Mothers were interviewed about their parenting attitudes and control practices, and their responses were coded in terms of the degree to which they took a parent-versus a child-oriented approach to discipline. Mothers in the sample varied widely in their attitudes toward physical punishment, and mothers who used power-assertive techniques were as likely to take the child's perspective and give input into the socialization process as those who did not. Factors associated with maternal disciplinary styles included: maternal education, father absence, maternal age, and self-reported religious beliefs. Findings are discussed in terms of the variability in disciplinary practices in this population, as well as the factors contributing to these individual differences.

  20. [Mothers and food advertising directed at children: perceptions and experiences]. (United States)

    Castronuovo, Luciana; Gutkowski, Patricia; Tiscornia, Victoria; Allemandi, Lorena


    The objective of this study is to analyze how food advertising is perceived by mothers from different socioeconomic sectors of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Between May and November 2015, eight focus groups were conducted with the participation of 49 mothers of different education levels living in the study area. The results show how the purchasing decisions of mothers are influenced by the requests of their children, which are in turn prompted by food advertising and promotion. The study also shows how food advertising and promotion are combined with other environmental factors (greater supply of food products, "more demanding" children) that affect the decision-making process of mothers regarding their children's nutrition and foster the consumption of certain unhealthy products. This situation was observed in all the focus groups, without differences among education levels.