Sample records for mother goddess liu

  1. Hongshan Goddess


    The Hongshan cultural relics at Niuheliang, Liaoning Province is a large scale ruin where sacrifices used to be offered to the goddess and ancestors. It is composed of a goddess temple, a sacrificial altar and many stone graves. From the ruins of the goddess temple, a clay sculpture of a goddess head has been unearthed.

  2. Goddess Traditions in Tantric Hinduism

    Hinduism cannot be understood without the Great Goddess and the goddess-orientated Śākta traditions. The Goddess pervades Hinduism at all levels, from aniconic village deities to high-caste pan-Hindu goddesses to esoteric, tantric goddesses. Nevertheless, the highly influential tantric forms...

  3. The first measurements using GODDESS

    Pain, S. D.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Baugher, T.; Febbraro, M.; Cizewski, J. A.; Goddess Collaboration


    Direct reaction measurements, such as transfer, inelastic scattering, and charge-exchange reactions, are well-established probes of nuclear structure. Measurements are often made in inverse-kinematics, a technique applicable to both stable and radioactive beams, using large-area charged-particle detectors. There are trade-offs between optimizing for charged-particle or gamma-ray detection - especially gamma-ray efficiency and charged-particle angular resolution. GODDESS (Gammasphere ORRUBA: Dual Detectors for Experimental Structure Studies) is a coupling of a 700-channel highly-segmented silicon detector array (based on ORRUBA) with the Gammasphere HPGe array. Gammasphere, has an unusually large internal geometry (14'' cavity), allowing a full implementation of a large well-optimized charged-particle array. GODDESS provides charged-particle detection with 1° resolution in polar angle, between 15° and 165° ( 80 % azimuthal coverage), with a few tens of keV energy resolution. A compact fast ionization chamber is incorporated for measurement of beam-like species at zero degrees. The first campaign of in-beam measurements with GODDESS was conducted July-September 2015. Details of GODDESS and the commissioning experiment will be presented. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

  4. Tlazolteotl, the Aztec goddess of epilepsy.

    Ladino, Lady Diana; Téllez-Zenteno, José Francisco


    Epilepsy has afflicted humanity during most of the extent of documented history. The Aztecs believed that illnesses were punishments that were sent from a furious goddess. In particular, epilepsy was considered in Aztec culture as a "sacred disease", and convulsions were traditionally associated with a deified woman who had died at childbirth. As the goddess Shiva and Apasmâra in ancient India and Saint Valentine in Germany, Tlazolteotl was considered able to bring about and send away epilepsy. We performed a comprehensive review to identify Tlazolteotl depictions and its historical context related with epilepsy. Tlazolteotl is one of the most endearing and complex goddesses of the Mesoamericans. She was the deity of the black fertile and fecund earth that gains its energy from death and in turn feeds life. Associated with purification, expiation, and regeneration, she embodied fertility and turned all garbage, physical and metaphysical, into rich life. This article reviews the most relevant artistic works related with Tlazolteotl. We also present a modern depiction of the Aztec goddess of epilepsy from the Mexican artist Eduardo Urbano Merino, displaying the supernatural view of epilepsy in America. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Calling for Goddesses in Winesburg Ohio



    Winesburg Ohio, by Sherwood Anderson, depicts a group of people living in a transitional period where the human soci⁃ety was undergoing a sudden change from an agrarian society into a modern industrial one. This article will interpret Anderson’s call from the aspect of“Goddess Revival”.

  6. LIU 2011 event

    BE Department


    The LHC injectors upgrade (LIU) project was launched at the end of 2010 to coordinate the preparation of the CERN accelerator complex to meet the needs of the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) until at least 2030. It should be completed by the end of the second long LHC shutdown, presently scheduled for 2018.   The goal of the LIU-2011 event is to present the status and plans of the LIU project, describing the needs and the actions foreseen in the different accelerators, from Linac4 to the PSB, PS and SPS.  

  7. A Fast Ionization Chamber for GODDESS

    Lumb, R. T.; Lipman, A. S.; Baugher, T.; Cizewski, J. A.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Pain, S. D.; Kozub, R. L.


    Transfer reactions are among the main methods used in nuclear physics to probe the structure of nuclei. Such information is needed to constrain nuclear models and to understand various nucleosynthesis processes. In many cases, the nuclear level densities are too high to be resolved in transfer reactions via charged particle detection alone. This problem and issues arising from contaminants in radioactive beams can be addressed by using particle- γ coincidence techniques along with heavy recoil identification in inverse kinematics. A device to accomplish these tasks is Gammasphere ORRUBA: Dual Detectors for Experimental Structure Studies (GODDESS), currently being commissioned for the ATLAS facility at ANL. We are currently building a compact, tilted grid ionization chamber for GODDESS to detect and identify beam-like recoils near zero degrees in the lab. The tilt (30 degrees off normal to the beam) helps the ion pairs to be detected quickly, after drifting only a short distance away from the beam axis. This reduces the response time, allowing counting rates of ~500,000/s. The design and current status of the project will be presented. Research supported by the U. S. DOE.

  8. Scroll of "On Goddess of the Luo River"


    Scroll of "On Goddess of the Luo River" was painted by Gu Kaizhi, a master during the Eastern Jin Dynasty. He took the poem "On Goddess of the Luo River" by Cao Zhi, a great literary work from the Three Kingdoms period (220-265), as its chief subject. This poem illustrates the theme that true love between men and women is repressed and destroyed by the feudal ethical code and the feudal forces in feudal society. It depicts the poet’s love for a goddess of the Luo River, Mi Fei, who is actually the reincarnation of the poet’s favorite concubine, Zhen Fei, who had passed away.

  9. The Royal pilgrimage of the Goddess Nanda

    William S. Sax


    Full Text Available Once every twelve years, when it is thought that some calamity has taken place because of the curse of the goddess Nanda Devi, a four-horned ram is born in the fields of the former king of Garhwal, an erstwhile Central Himalayan kingdom in north India (see map of Garhwal. This four-horned ram leads a procession of priests and pilgrims on the most dangerous and spectacular pilgrimage in all of India: a three-week, barefoot journey of one-hundred and sixty-four miles, during some of the worst weather of the year, at the end of the rainy season. The procession reaches Rupkund, a small pond located at an altitude of more than 5,000 metres, which is surrounded by human­ skeletons, and from there it goes yet further, to Homkund, the ‘Lake of the Fire Sacrifice’. According to the faithful, the four-horned ram leaves the procession at that point and finds its way, unaided, to the summit of Mount Trishul. As its name suggests, the Royal Procession is closely associated with the ruler of this erstwhile Himalayan kingdom: he attends its inaugural rituals, the bones that litter the shores of Rupkund are believed to be those of one of his ancestors, and the chief sponsor of the event is a local ‘Prince’ who is thought to be descended from the first kings of Garhwal. This Prince traverses the domain of his ancestors and thereby lays claim to it in the name of the goddess Nanda, who is not only his lineage goddess but was also the royal goddess of the neighbouring kingdom of Kumaon, in pre-colonial times. Although the Royal Procession ideally fosters social integration, it was disrupted in 1987 by a quarrel between two factions of priests. The goddess’s itinerary, the culminating date of the pilgrimage, the type of sacrifice to be performed, the order of procession, the participation of previously excluded persons, and the competency of certain ritual specialists—all were subjects of heated dispute between the rival groups. What was the reason for

  10. Painter Liu Mi


    LIU Mi graduated from the Department of Oil Painting at the Sichuan Academy of Fine Arts. In following years, she worked in stage and wardrobe design for the military song and dance ensemble. She later worked for the Chongqing Foreign Trade Company where her packaging design achievements won

  11. Liu Ying, Percussionist


    MUSICAL ability requires far more than raw energy. A good musician must possess a natural talent, desire and lifetime dedication to her instrument to achieve true beauty and grace. Meet Liu Ying, 27. Born in a musical family in Yuci, Shanxi Province, she, like many little girls, enjoyed playing a toy xylophone. But from her carefree playing

  12. Carnaria: The Festival of the Goddess Carna

    Marjeta Šašel Kos


    (collegium fabrum comprising blacksmiths, workers in copper and bronze, builders, and masons, whose activities included firemen’s duties in the larger towns. Caesernius Primitivus and Ollia Primilla, who presumably owned an estate in the territory of today’s village of Spodnje Gameljne, bequeathed to the collegium 200 denarii (equalling 800 sestertii on condition that (part of the annual interest should be used to buy roses and decorate their grave. Inscriptions referring to similar bequests are mainly known from northern Italy but largely unknown in the western provinces: Noricum and Pannonia have yielded no finds, nor are expected to do so (yet another proof that Emona belonged under the Regio X, Tenth Italic Region. The testament writers usually desired to have their memory honoured on the Parentalia (a festival of the dead and/or the Rosalia and Violaria (festivals when graves were decorated with roses and violets respectively, or on their birthdays or death anniversaries. On occasion other festivals could be selected if they were important to their families or collegia. A Greek inscription from Cepigovo (Macedonia, for example, stipulates that the festival of Vettius Bolanus should be commemorated with a yearly banquet on 19 October: this date may have been his birthday or an important family festival. The same may be assumed about the Carnaria of the Caesarnii inscription, as the Roman custom was to cite the date by referring to the accompanying festival.   II. Carna and Her Festival According to Ovid’s Fasti, the Calends, i.e. the first day, of June were dedicated to the goddess Carna: ‘The first day is given to thee, Carna. She is the goddess of the hinge: by her divine power she opens what is closed, and closes what is open’ (6.101–102; trans. J. G. Frazer. The versification of her myth at Fasti 6.101–182 is our best extant source for the characteristics and province of this ancient Roman goddess. Ovid’s initial definition of her as the goddess of

  13. The GODDESS ionization chamber: developing robust windows

    Blanchard, Rose; Baugher, Travis; Cizewski, Jolie; Pain, Steven; Ratkiewicz, Andrew; Goddess Collaboration


    Reaction studies of nuclei far from stability require high-efficiency arrays of detectors and the ability to identify beam-like particles, especially when the beam is a cocktail beam. The Gammasphere ORRUBA Dual Detectors for Experimental Structure Studies (GODDESS) is made up of the Oak Ridge-Rutgers University Barrel Array (ORRUBA) of silicon detectors for charged particles inside of the gamma-ray detector array Gammasphere. A high-rate ionization chamber is being developed to identify beam-like particles. Consisting of twenty-one alternating anode and cathode grids, the ionization chamber sits downstream of the target chamber and is used to measure the energy loss of recoiling ions. A critical component of the system is a thin and robust mylar window which serves to separate the gas-filled ionization chamber from the vacuum of the target chamber with minimal energy loss. After construction, windows were tested to assure that they would not break below the required pressure, causing harm to the wire grids. This presentation will summarize the status of the ionization chamber and the results of the first tests with beams. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation.

  14. Mother goddesses with boat motifs on stone sculptures from Goa

    Kerkar, R.; Gaur, A.S.

    in temples made of laterite dressed stone blocks, which might have been a tradition of the post-Kadamba period. At Savarde, a few architectural members lying Fig.4. Fragmented sculpture with boat motif from Guleli in the vicinity suggest that a temple...

  15. The goddess and healing. Nursing's heritage from antiquity.

    Abrahamsen, V


    In prehistoric and ancient historical times, it was the Goddess who oversaw the health and well-being of human beings and women who controlled many healing processes, rituals, and practices. The professions of nursing and other health care fields owe much to this history yet have moved away from it in significant ways. Drawing on literary and archaeological sources, this study traces the history of healing in Graeco-Roman antiquity, describes the role of the Goddess and women in the healing function, discusses the communal aspects of healing both in the ancient world and in the modern West, and provides connections between the past and present that may empower today's nursing professionals.

  16. The Sumerian Goddess Inanna (3400-2200 BC

    Paul Collins


    Full Text Available Of the myriad Sumerian deities that have emerged from the cuneiform records of ancient Mesopotamia perhaps the most famous - but least understood - is the goddess Inanna, the' lady of heaven'. As a patron of sexuality and aggression she appears in many ancient myths and legends and continues to exert a fascination over contemporary minds. Southern Mesopotamia, called Sumer, witnessed the development of the world's oldest writing system during the Late Uruk period. However, there are few references to Inanna in the extant cuneiform records before the Dynasty of Akkad. Any reconstruction of the cult of Inanna at the dawn of history must, therefore, rely initially on textual evidence of much later periods: the vast repertoire of myths, hymns and prayers to the goddess have been attributed to the 3rd Dynasty of Ur III and the Isin-Larsa Dynasties. Certain details in these stories may reflect beliefs and practices from earlier periods but, these elements are difficult to identify. However, the archaeological record of the late fourth and third millennia has revealed evidence for numerous temples dedicated to Inanna, testifyingto an important and widespread cult. This paper first discusses the archaeological record, before going on to attempt to define the role of Inanna and investigate a proposed syncretism of the goddess wi th the Semitic deity Ishtar.

  17. Is it goddess or bear? The role of Catalhöyük animal seals in Neolithic symbolism

    Ali Umut Türkcan


    Full Text Available Two examples of stamp seals discovered in the 2003 and 2005 seasons, one depicting a leopard, the other, a bear (both unusual with respect to their uncommon amulet forms reminiscent of figurines, and their recurrence in wall reliefs provide a key role in understanding the symbolism of Çatalhöyük, along with the complex relations between some distinctive animal groups and their ritual role in the settlement. They demonstrate that the depiction of animals seems not to be confined only to the walls at Catalhöyük, but also appear as sacred symbols of the community on seals. The stamp in the form of a bear is another unique form that is also echoed in the large wall reliefs uncovered by Mellaart, which compels us to change some preconceptions about the ritual role of these wall reliefs, which have been interpreted as mother goddess images.

  18. Mother



    @@ 1.You You quarreled with her mother.She was very angry and ran out of home.优优跟妈妈吵了一架,赌气跑了出去. 2.She walked to a noodle shop.And she felt a little hungry.她来到一个拉面铺前,才感到自己有些饿了.

  19. Contrast of Eastern and Western Goddess of War—Athena and Empyrean Fairy



    Athena, she is also called she Pallas Athena, the daughter of Zeus and Metis, and one of the Dodekatheon. She is in charge of intelligence, war, agriculture, the dark clouds,the power of thunder and lightning, horticulture, graziery, and law. Empyrean Fairy,she is a blue bird of Xiwangmu,and she is the teacher of Huangdi. Athena is the western goddess of war and Empyrean Fairy is the Orient's. This paper contracts these two goddesses.

  20. Liu Hong: no trivial on exhibitions


    To Work for Tomorrow Liu Hong, General Manager of TUTTI Exhibition Service (Xiamen) Co., Ltd, has set up TUTTI Exhibition Service (Xiamen) Co., Ltd in 2001, when exhibition industry firstly appear in Xiamen. Furthermore, the company has developed rapidly in recent years. As Liu Hong regards, exhibition industry, as well as advertisement industry, is an industry filled with challenges and followed

  1. A Goddess for semiotics of law and legal discourse

    Jan M. Broekman


    Full Text Available The work of the great American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914 becomes more and more appreciated beyond the boundaries of his pragmatism, a philosophical mainstream he founded in the early 20th century. This essay is inspired by five points of interest, all of which focus on law and legal discourse. Firstly, one should acknowledge that his proposal pertaining to a general theory of signs, which he called ‘semeiotics’ around 1860, leads to an untraditional and in-depth understanding of legal discourse: in essence, of law as a system of specific meanings and signs. Semiotics in general became a substantial part of his ‘evolutionary cosmology,’ an all-embracing approach to tackle classical and modern philosophical issues. Secondly, his anthropological intuition based on semiotics, (concentrated in the formula ‘man is a sign’ became important for our understanding of a human subject’s position in law, as author of a legal discourse as well as an individual subjected to law. Thirdly, the tensions between chance and continuity in legal discourse are of focal interest for the creation of legal meaning in law’s practices. Novelty, Peirce suggested in this context, occurs by the grace of chance rather than of continuity and fixed traditions. Fourthly, Roberta Kevelson (1931-1998 explored and expanded the field of legal semiotics on the basis of the works of Peirce. In doing so, she established an American tradition of legal semiotics distinct from a European tradition, which related more to linguists, psychologists and philosophers embracing structuralism. Fifthly, Tyche, the Ancient Goddess of fate and fortune, is because of Peirce’s references more at home in the US legal semiotic tradition. Her fame and influence reaches beyond law and became supported by recent archaeological discoveries, publications and exhibitions, which not only provide information about her background, but also underline her possible influence on

  2. Liu Estimator Based on An M Estimator

    Hatice ŞAMKAR


    Full Text Available Objective: In multiple linear regression analysis, multicollinearity and outliers are two main problems. In the presence of multicollinearity, biased estimation methods like ridge regression, Stein estimator, principal component regression and Liu estimator are used. On the other hand, when outliers exist in the data, the use of robust estimators reducing the effect of outliers is prefered. Material and Methods: In this study, to cope with this combined problem of multicollinearity and outliers, it is studied Liu estimator based on M estimator (Liu M estimator. In addition, mean square error (MSE criterion has been used to compare Liu M estimator with Liu estimator based on ordinary least squares (OLS estimator. Results: OLS, Huber M, Liu and Liu M estimates and MSEs of these estimates have been calculated for a data set which has been taken form a study of determinants of physical fitness. Liu M estimator has given the best performance in the data set. It is found as both MSE (?LM = 0.0078< MSE (?M = 0.0508 and MSE (?LM = 0.0078< MSE (?L= 0.0085. Conclusion: When there is both outliers and multicollinearity in a dataset, while using of robust estimators reduces the effect of outliers, it could not solve problem of multicollinearity. On the other hand, using of biased methods could solve the problem of multicollinearity, but there is still the effect of outliers on the estimates. In the occurence of both multicollinearity and outliers in a dataset, it has been shown that combining of the methods designed to deal with this problems is better than using them individually.

  3. Stone sculptures of goddesses on the boats from Goa, west coast of India

    Gaur, A; Kerkar, R.

    goddess panels. A few sculptures reflect influence of folk art traditions in Goa. On the basis of lion figures in a few sculptured panels indicate that these boat motifs must have been engraved during the Kadamba period (10 th - 13 th) when Goa witnessed...

  4. Summary of the LIU Beam Studies Review

    Rumolo, G; Bartmann, W; Bartosik, H; Huschauer, A; Raginel, V; Timko, H


    A review of the status of the LHC injector beam studies related to the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) project took place on the 28 August 2012 at CERN. The main goal of the review was to define work priorities for the rest of the run before the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) and be able to: • specify the equipment to be built for the LIU project; • estimate achievable beam characteristics in the various accelerators. A team of external reviewers was also asked to participate in the event and comment on the status of the presently ongoing activities as well as give recommendations for future work.


    Nurettin GÜLAÇTI


    Full Text Available It is known that obsidian glass has existed for 4,5 billion years since the Big Bang. Glass, in the form of inorganic melting product solidifying without crystallized, exists as mostly in the form of obsidian in the nature and it is one of the first tools (such as flint and pebble that human beings used.It was scientifically determined that glass was first used by Egyptians in the Nile delta around Alexandria. Glass jewelleries known as “Egyptian Beads” and used as jewellery were later turned into both daily goods and sculpture.Human beings have been in the search of ways of manufacturing glass in historical process and have used and developed many techniques such as mosaic technique invented due to glass furnace in the Antique Age, glassblowing technique, gathering technique, internal mould technique, amalgamation technique and frit (Pate De Verre technique. It is possible to add “The Chamotte Mud Mould Technique” to these techniques.In this study, glass statues and other different forms sized 50, 60, 70 cm. and bigger, which are almost impossible to shape with the Pate De Verre technique applied in plaster mould, were more easily shaped with the shaping technique in chamotte mud mould. It was determined that it was easier to apply this method in desired sized when achieving glass works. This technique shows originality since it has first been used in glass statues.One of the most important features of this study is that the waste glass and bottles that were collected from the environment like picnic sites were converted into ornamental or artistic statues and statuettes and forming new styles / formations by shaping them in in chamotte mud mould.

  6. When a Language Becomes a Mother / Goddess: An Image Essay on Tamil

    Ramaswamy, Sumathi


    This essay has an unusual protagonist: a language that comes to be transformed into an object of love and devotion, producing in the process an unusual visual presence for a spoken tongue. I write of Tamil, a language that currently counts more than 70 million speakers in India and Sri Lanka, and in Singapore, Malaysia, and other parts of the global South Asian diaspora. With a deep and complex history on the subcontinent rivaled only by Sanskrit, Tamil inspired the praise and adoration of ma...

  7. LIU Chuang receives 2008 CODATA Prize


    @@ To acknowledge her outstanding achievements in the world of scientific and technical data,Prof. LIU Chuang with the CAS Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research has been elected by the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) to win the 2008 CODATA Prize.

  8. LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) Project at CERN

    Shaposhnikova, Elena; Damerau, Heiko; Funken, Anne; Gilardoni, Simone; Goddard, Brennan; Hanke, Klaus; Kobzeva, Lelyzaveta; Lombardi, Alessandra; Manglunki, Django; Mataguez, Simon; Meddahi, Malika; Mikulec, Bettina; Rumolo, Giovanni; Scrivens, Richard; Vretenar, Maurizio


    A massive improvement program of the LHC injector chain is presently being conducted under the LIU project. For the proton chain, this includes the replacement of Linac2 with Linac4 as well as all necessary upgrades to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the Proton Synchrotron (PS) and Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), aimed at producing beams with the challenging High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) parameters. Regarding the heavy ions, plans to improve the performance of Linac3 and the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) are also pursued under the general LIU program. The full LHC injection chain returned to operation after Long Shutdown 1, with extended beam studies taking place in Run 2. A general project Cost and Schedule Review also took place in March 2015, and several dedicated LIU project reviews were held to address issues awaiting pending decisions. In view of these developments, 2014 and 2015 have been key years to define a number of important aspects of the final LIU path. This paper will describe the reviewed LI...

  9. "Angel's Love" Chinese Goddess Nuwa Culture Large-scale Activities for Public Interests


    @@ Initiated by Chinese Red Cross Foundation and sponsored by American General Business Association, Chinese Nuwa (a goddess-creator of the Chinese nation) Culture Large-scale Activities for Public Interests undertaken by Beijing Absolute Challenge International Advertising Co., Ltd. has recently commenced in an all-round way. A grand ceremony will be held at Nuwa Plaza in Shexian County, Hebei Province on Septemper 24, 2007.

  10. At Home with Durga: The Goddess in a Palace and Corporeal Identity in Rituparno Ghosh’s Utsab

    Romita Ray


    Full Text Available In this article, I examine the representational strategies used to visualize the pratima (deity of the Hindu goddess, Durga, as a paradigm of time, memory, and corporeal identity, in Rituparno Ghosh’s 2000 Bengali film Utsab. I analyze the body as a dynamic site of memory-formation that shapes new histories in the sprawling colonial palace in which the film’s narrative unfolds with an ancestral Durga festival as its focal point. To this end, I look at how the body of the goddess produces and defines the transience of human experience, the fragility of material history, and the desire for historic relevance.

  11. Realization of fractional-order Liu chaotic system by circuit

    Lu Jun-Jie; Liu Chong-Xin


    In this paper, chaotic behaviours in the fractional-order Liu system are studied. Based on the approximation theory of fractional-order operator, circuits are designed to simulate the fractional- order Liu system with q = 0.1 - 0.9 in a step of 0.1, and an experiment has demonstrated the 2.7-order Liu system. The simulation results prove that the chaos exists indeed in the fractional-order Liu system with an order as low as 0.3. The experimental results prove that the fractional-order chaotic system can be realized by using hardware devices, which lays the foundation for its practical applications.

  12. Portrait historié: Ladies as goddesses in the 18th century European art

    Sibel Almelek İşman


    Full Text Available Portrait historié is a term that describes portrayals of known individuals in different roles such as characters taken from the bible, mythology or literature. These portraits were especially widespread in the 18th century French and English art. In the hierarchy of genres established by the Academy, history painting was at the top and portraiture came next. Artists aspired to elevate the importance of portraits by combining it with history. This article will focus on goddesses selected by history portrait artists. Ladies of the nobility and female members of the royal families have been depicted as goddesses in many paintings. French artists Nicolas de Largillière, Jean Marc Nattier and Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun; English artists George Romney and Sir Joshua Reynolds can be counted among the artists working in this genre. Mythological figures such as Diana, Minerva, Venus, Hebe, Iris, Ariadne, Circe, Medea, Cassandra, Muses, Graces, Nymphs and Bacchantes inspired the artists and their sitters. Ladies were picturised with the attributes of these divine beings.

  13. a comparative study of some robust ridge and liu estimators

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    Science World Journal Vol 11 (No 4) 2016 ... proposed estimators to three (3) real life data set with multicollinearity and outliers problems reveals that the M-Liu and. LTS-Liu Estimator are generally most efficient.

  14. Liu et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2015) 12(2):12-16 ...


    Ying Liu, Qingnan He*, Donghai Liu, Wuqing Wan, Xiaoyan Liu, Chuan Wen, Wenjing Fang, ... Wang et al., 2004; Zhao et al., 1991; Yang et al., 2009). ... effects on leukemia cancer cell proliferation (Wang et al., 2009; MATSUDA et al., 2005).

  15. Mother of the Gods

    Bøgh, Birgitte


    point an analysis of a selected number of archaeological Meter objects from the Black Sea region, it will be argued that Meter in this area throughout the centuries functioned as, primarily, a goddess of power, a protector of cities, and a goddess of the elite — the very traits that also characterised...

  16. The Ecological Roots of Contemporary Goddess Movement%当代女神运动的生态寻根



    20世纪当代女神运动是在基督教传统之外发现妇女灵性传统并加以当代诠释的精神运动。它不仅表达了女性主义对妇女赋权的关怀,而且也传达了她们在现代性困境中探寻出路的思考和行动。在此过程中,她们的文化寻根有着深厚的生态寻根意蕴。这一点从女神运动的思想来源、荣耀女神的新异教实践和女神学宇宙论等方面都有充分体现。文章通过析取当代女神运动的生态内涵,以表达这场运动所反映的生态女性主义的核心观点,这就是,在西方近代以来的文化传统中,贬低女性和贬低自然是联系在一起的,因此,妇女的解放与自然的解放也相互依赖。%s: The Goddess Movement in the 20th century, is a feminist spirituality movement to find an ancient goddess tradition outside the Christian tradition, and to seek a feminist interpretation for it. It not only expresses the women ’s concern of empower to the female, but also shows the thinking and action in search of the way out of the modern dilemma. In searching for the cultural roots of woman spirituality, the movement appeared a strong ecological concern. We may identify it in threes fields:sources of the Goddess movement, rituals practices of neo-pagan to honor Goddess, and theology. In this paper, we will analyze the various eco-logical meanings of the Goddess movement pointing out that it is the core value of ecofeminism that the Goddess movement makes significance. That is, in the culture tradition since the modernization in the west, to degrade the female is relate with the degrad-ing of the nature. As a result, the liberation of women is closely related with the liberation of the nature.

  17. Fantasy, Somnambulism and Games in Liu Ye's Paintings



    LIU Ye's paintings are a surrealistic blend of fantasy and reality. His canvases are a conglomeration of images of happy childhood and of catastrophic events unrelated to daily life. They combine to express a dread of reality. Liu beckons his viewers to join in the games of this visionary world,playing whatever roles they see fit. A girl and boy dressed in sailor suits look bemused, and two youths that magnetize the viewer's attention are in an obscure relationship. Spears, pistols, telescopes, pictures and books are all life's toys to Liu, the kind of life envisioned by postmodern artists and espoused by French philosopher Derrida.

  18. Image and Role of the Queen Mother of the West in Han Grave Art



    Full Text Available The present article is a detailed study of the image of an ancient Chinese goddess, The Queen Mother of the West, called Xiwangmu 西王母 in Chinese. In the mythological tradition, Xiwangmu is a goddess who possesses the elixir of immortality and dwells in the western paradise, on the magic mountain Kunlun 崑崙. While her image can be found in mural paintings, and on lacquered objects and bronze mirrors, it appears primarily in the form of relief images on the stones and bricks of grave chambers and temples in the Han (206 BCE–220 CE grave complexes. The literary tradition reveals a multifunctional role of the mother, with her many attributes developing in accordance with the changing values of social and mythological concepts. The article concludes with a detailed discussion of her image and role within the wider cosmological context of Han grave art.

  19. A comparative study of some robust ridge and liu estimators ...

    Science World Journal ... To handle these two problems jointly, the study combines the Ridge and Liu Estimators ... Application to the proposed estimators to three (3) real life data set with multicollinearity and outliers problems reveals that the ...

  20. Adaptive synchronization of uncertain Liu system via nonlinear input

    Hu Jia; Zhang Qun-Jiao


    This paper addresses the adaptive synchronization for uncertain Liu system via a nonlinear input.By using a single nonlinear controller,the approach is utilized to implement the synchronization of Liu system with total parameters unknown.This method is simple and can be easily designed.What is more,it improves the existing conclusions in Ref [12].Simulation results prove that the controller is effective and feasible in the end.

  1. On the Liu and almost unbiased Liu estimators in the presence of multicollinearity with heteroscedastic or correlated errors

    Mustafa I. Alheety


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new biased estimator, namely, almost unbiased Liu estimator (AULE of β for the multiple linear regression model with heteroscedastics and/or correlated errors and suffers from the problem of multicollinearity. The properties of the proposed estimator is discussed and the performance over the generalized least squares (GLS estimator, ordinary ridge regression (ORR estimator (Trenkler, 1984, and Liu estimator (LE (Kaçiranlnar, 2003 in terms of matrix mean square error criterion are investigated. The optimal values of d for Liu and almost unbiased Liu estimators have been obtained. Finally, a simulation study has been conducted which indicated that under certain conditions on d, the proposed estimator performed well compared to GLS, ORR and LE estimators.

  2. Liu Fang Yuan at The Huntington——An Overview

    (USA)Laurie Sowd


    Liu Fang Yuan is a classical Chinese Garden, the Garden of Flowing Fragrance, a most remarkable project in Huntington. This project was conceived by James Folsom. It is an international business venture, complex construction project, unique China-US collaboration, and center of cultural memory. Inspired by the centuries-old Chinese tradition of private gardens, Liu Fang Yuan combines the scenic beauty of nature with the expressiveness of literature to give deeper meaning to the landscape. True to the authentic nature of a Chinese garden, the design respects the site. It extends to adapting some of the traditional elements of Chinese garden design to meet local needs for seismic safety and wheelchair accessibility. Liu Fang Yuan is the only truly seasonal garden at the Huntington, emphasizing and symbolizing the progression of winter, spring, summer, and autumn. The visitor experiences more than the visual realm. The garden's name, Liu Fang Yuan, has bolh literal and symbolic meanings refer to the scent of flowers and trees, also echoes the name of famed Ming dynasty painter Li Liufang. Liu Fang Yuan is truly a microcosm of The Huntington, bringing together botany, art and literature in a garden that will serve as a place of cultural memory and center for education about one of the great humanities traditions of the world.

  3. Dynamical behaviour of Liu system with time delayed feedback

    Qian Qin; Wang Lin; Ni Qiao


    This paper investigates the dynamical behaviour of the Liu system with time delayed feedback.Two typical situations are considered and the effect of time-delay parameter on the dynamics of the system is discussed.It is shown that the Liu system with time delayed feedback may exhibit interesting and extremely rich dynamical behaviour.The evolution of the dynamics is shown to be complex with varying time-delay parameter.Moreover,the strange attractor like 'wormhole' is detected via numerical simulations.

  4. Existence and stability of fractional complex Liu system

    Rabha W. Ibrahim


    Full Text Available In this work, we consider the stability and stabilization of complex fractional Liu system. We assume the fractional calculus in sense of the Caputo derivatives (real and complex. The method based on stability theory of fractional-order systems. Numerical solutions are imposed. Moreover, conditions of unique solution are established.

  5. Anti-synchronization Between Lorenz and Liu Hyperchaotic Systems

    ZHENG Qiang; ZHANG Xiao-Ping; REN Zhong-Zhou


    Anti-synchronization between different hyperchaotic systems is presented using Lorenz and Liu systems.When the parameters of two systems are known,one can use active synchronization.When the parameters are unknown or uncertain,the adaptive synchronization is applied.The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed two schemes for anti-synchronization between different hyperehaotic systems.

  6. Recurrence quantification analysis in Liu's attractor

    Balibrea, Francisco [Universidad de Murcia, Departamento de Matematicas, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain)], E-mail:; Caballero, M. Victoria [Universidad de Murcia, Departamento de Metodos Cuantitativos para la Economia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain)], E-mail:; Molera, Lourdes [Universidad de Murcia, Departamento de Metodos Cuantitativos para la Economia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain)


    Recurrence Quantification Analysis is used to detect transitions chaos to periodical states or chaos to chaos in a new dynamical system proposed by Liu et al. This system contains a control parameter in the second equation and was originally introduced to investigate the forming mechanism of the compound structure of the chaotic attractor which exists when the control parameter is zero.

  7. Motif Comparison between"Love"of Greek Goddess and Chinese Goddess of the Sea%妈祖与古希腊海洋女神“爱”的母题比较


    妈祖是中国的海洋女神,阿芙洛狄特是古希腊神话中的海洋女神。两位女神故事都言说了“爱”的母题。妈祖之“爱”主要表现的是对父母的孝道、对兄妹的亲情,乃至于对国家的忠义,具有浓厚的人伦价值意蕴;而阿芙洛狄特之“爱”主要表现的是男女情爱、婚外恋事,乃至于乱伦之爱,带有明显的个体本位价值取向。在中国传统文化中,男女情爱让位于家国亲情,而西方传统文化中的人本意识强调个人情感重于集体责任,从一个侧面反映了中西文化的重大差异。%M azu is the C hinese goddess of the sea. A phrodite is the ancient G reek goddess of the sea. T w o goddesses' stories are about m otif of "love". T he m ain m anifestation of M azu is filial piety to parents, fam ily love of brother and sister, as w ell as national loyalty, w ith a strong im plication of the value of hum an relations.A phrodite "Love" is m ainly m en and w om en's love,extram arital affair,and even incest love.G oddess w as secularization, w ith a clear value orientation individual standard. In traditional C hinese culture, m en and w om en's love is less im portant than hom e, country or fam ily.T he traditional culture of W estern C onsciousness em phasizes on personal feelings m ore im portant than collective responsibility.

  8. Mourning for renowned pharmacologist Professor Geng-Tao Liu

    Lian-Sheng Ma


    At 22:08 h on February 27, 2010, Professor Geng-Tao Liu, a renowned pharmacologist affiliated with the Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, a doctoral tutor, and a member of World Journal of Gastroenterology (WJG) Editorial Board, passed away at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, at the age of 77 years (Figure 1).

  9. 高收入家庭的理财规划方案%The Financial Planning of High Income Mr.Liu Family



    刘先生家庭年度结余77万余元,为典型的421型高收入家庭.刘先生是做磷矿生意的,收入高风险也大,刘太太是农行柜员,收入较稳定,家有女儿读幼儿园,还有四老需要赡养.本理财规划方案在介绍刘先生家庭成员及资产情况基础上,编制家庭资产负债表和收入支出表,分析各项资产比率,指出刘先生家庭现阶段资产配置的不合理之处,旨在对该家庭进行现金规划、教育规划、住房规划、保险规划和投资规划.通过规划,该家庭的理财目标得以实现.%For Mr. Liu family is a typical 421 type of high income family. Its annual balance is more than 770000 yuan. Mr. Liu is doing phosphate rock business, and his income is high with high risk; his wife is an agriculture bank clerk, and her income is stable. His family members are a daughter who is in kindergarten, mother and father, mother in law and father in law. Based on introduction of Mr. Liu' s family and his asset, the paper works out the family balance sheet and income expenditure table, analyzes the assets ratio, and points out the unreasonable place in asset allocation of Mr. Liu's family, aiming to make cash planning, education planning, housing planning, insurance planning and investment planning for the family. Through the planning, the family's financial management target can be realized.

  10. Segmentation of Handwritten Chinese Character Strings Based on improved Algorithm Liu

    Zhihua Cai; Jiangqing Wang; Yangguang Sun


    Algorithm Liu attracts high attention because of its high accuracy in segmentation of Japanese postal address. But the disadvantages, such as complexity and difficult implementation of algorithm, etc. have an adverse effect on its popularization and application. In this paper, the author applies the principles of algorithm Liu to handwritten Chinese character segmentation according to the characteristics of the handwritten Chinese characters, based on deeply study on algorithm Liu.In the same...

  11. Human Jealousy Represented In Greek Goddesses%希腊神话中女神身上所体现的人类妒忌心态



    Because those goddesses were created by human being ,they have some characteristics such as jealousy .In this essay goddesses' jealousy has been discussed with the example of Hera and Athena.%本文通过对希腊神话中宙斯劫持欧罗巴,赫拉虐待伊娥,雅典娜和赫拉因为没有得到金苹果而报复帕里斯王子,积极促成特洛伊城的覆灭等希腊神话故事的分析,论证了神的妒忌心理的存在进而说明神具有人性这一特征.

  12. On the Performance of Principal Component Liu-Type Estimator under the Mean Square Error Criterion

    Jibo Wu


    Full Text Available Wu (2013 proposed an estimator, principal component Liu-type estimator, to overcome multicollinearity. This estimator is a general estimator which includes ordinary least squares estimator, principal component regression estimator, ridge estimator, Liu estimator, Liu-type estimator, r-k class estimator, and r-d class estimator. In this paper, firstly we use a new method to propose the principal component Liu-type estimator; then we study the superior of the new estimator by using the scalar mean squares error criterion. Finally, we give a numerical example to show the theoretical results.

  13. The Manipulation of Translator's Ideology in Translating In Liu Village

    何霞; 李莎莎


    Traditional studies on translation have generally been source-oriented. Since 1980s, translation theorists shifted their eyes on new areas, such as culture, history, and ideology. Andre Lefevere puts forward the theory of rewriting, including such three important factors as ideology, poetics and patronage. This paper focuses on the study of manipulation of ideology over trans-lation of In Liu Village by a famous writer-cum-translator Yu Lihua. Based on the data collected, the present paper argues that during the process of translation, ideology exerts constraints on the translator and influences her in such aspects as the choice of texts, the process of decoding and the choice of translation strategy.

  14. Complete solution to a conjecture of Zhang-Liu-Zhou

    Mostafa Tavakoli


    Full Text Available Let dn;m = 2n+1 and En;m be the graph obtained from a path Pdn;m+1 = v0v1:::vdn;m by joining each vertex of Kn by joining each vertex of Kn. Zhang, Liu and Zhou [On the maximal eccentric connectivity indices of graphs, Appl. Math. J. Chinese Univ., in press] conjectured that if dn;m > 3, then En;m is the graph with maximal eccentric connectivity ndex among all connected graph with n vertices and m edges. In this note, we prove this conjecture. Moreover, we present the graph with maximal eccentric connectivity index among the connected graphs with n vertices. Finally, the minimum of this graph invariant n the classes of tricyclic and tetracyclic graphs are computed.

  15. The Meeting with Guanyin, the Goddess of Mercy: A Case Study of Syncretism in the Hmong System of Beliefs

    Kao-Ly Yang


    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study is to shed light on the identity of the spirit of fertility called Lady Kaying –Niam Nkauj Kab Yeeb—, its religious origin and the general processes of borrowing her fromother cultures within the Hmong culture. Hmong popular beliefs pertaining to Kaying reveal that Kaying is in fact the Chinese Goddess of Mercy Guanyin. She was imported from MahayanaBuddhism by the Hmong people of China who had retained her roles of the “Bestower of Children", the “Guardian Angel” or the "Conductor of the Dead Children". An analysis of the process of borrowing of the Chinese deity into the Hmong pantheon shows that Lady Kaying overlaps with an ancient spirit, the “Ancestor Spirit of Fertility” or Niam Poj Dab Pog. This case study demonstrates that the processes of borrowing are selective, integrative and comprehensive: some traits or fragments were taken from Buddhism and incorporated into the Hmong beliefs through a superimposing of a Hmong pre-existing system of beliefs.

  16. On chaos control and synchronization of the commensurate fractional order Liu system

    Hegazi, A. S.; Ahmed, E.; Matouk, A. E.


    In this work, we study chaos control and synchronization of the commensurate fractional order Liu system. Based on the stability theory of fractional order systems, the conditions of local stability of nonlinear three-dimensional commensurate fractional order systems are discussed. The existence and uniqueness of solutions for a class of commensurate fractional order Liu systems are investigated. We also obtain the necessary condition for the existence of chaotic attractors in the commensurate fractional order Liu system. The effect of fractional order on chaos control of this system is revealed by showing that the commensurate fractional order Liu system is controllable just in the fractional order case when using a specific choice of controllers. Moreover, we achieve chaos synchronization between the commensurate fractional order Liu system and its integer order counterpart via function projective synchronization. Numerical simulations are used to verify the analytical results.

  17. Underage Mothers

    Nurşen Turan


    Full Text Available Every person between 0-18 years old is respected as child according to Children Wellness Protocol. To be pregnant and to give birth are not less among children at these age group in the world. Children of underage mother are less healthy and with more risk of abuse and nourishment problem than other children. They live in low socioeconomical level and most of them may have criminal behaviour in future. In Turkey, data and statistical knowledge about teenage mother is not adequate. This artical gives attention to importance of legal arrangement which affects health of underage mother and her child. New legal arrangements about underage mother must be put into practice in order to protect underage mother and her child urgently and more studies are needed to determine situation of underage mothers in Turkey. Key words: Child, underage mothers, pregnancy

  18. Realization of fractional-order Liu chaotic system by a new circuit unit

    Xu Zhe; Liu Chong-Xin


    A new circuit unit for the analysis and the synthesis of the chaotic behaviours in a fractional-order Liu system is proposed in this paper.Based on the approximation theory of fractional-order operator,an electronic circuit is designed to describe the dynamic behaviours of the fractional-order Liu system with a=0.9.The results between simulation and experiment are in good agreement with each other,thereby proving that the chaos exists indeed in the fractional-order Liu system.

  19. Chaos control and global synchronization of Liu chaotic systems using linear balanced feedback control

    Chen, H.-H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, HsiuPing Institute of Technology, Taichung 412, Taiwan (China)], E-mail:


    Liu chaotic systems exhibit two- or four-scroll attractors and are observed in a variety of engineering phenomena, including rigid body motion, brushless DC motor system and so forth. This study applies the Lyapunov stability theorem to identify the sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stability of the equilibrium points of Liu chaotic systems. A linear balanced feedback gain control method is then employed to design a controller to achieve the global synchronization of two identical four-scroll Liu chaotic systems. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed chaos stability and synchronization schemes are verified via numerical simulations.

  20. The view from linguistics. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu

    Hudson, Richard


    The study of language as a complex network (as described by Cong and Liu [3]) comes at a good time for a theoretical linguist such as me, because it coincides with a number of other developments which it complements well. On the other hand, it also presents important new challenges for our research, not least Cong and Liu's challenge of providing the 'much deeper explanation' for the network properties that this new research reveals.

  1. My Mother


    MOTHER had finely-chiseled features. She liked to read and loved flowers, trees and insects. She had wide interests and knowledge and could recite many ancient poems. Mother was never dressed gorgeously or adorned with jewelry like earrings and finger rings. Especially during her middle age, our big family was poverty

  2. Yhwh, the Goddess and Evil: Is 'monotheism' an adequate concept to describe the Hebrew Bible's discourses about the God of Israel?

    Thomas C. R�mer


    Full Text Available The concept of �monotheism� has become a matter of debate in Hebrew Bible scholarship. This article investigates whether the concept should still be used, starting with Second Isaiah, who in the early Persian period elaborated a discourse that presented Yhwh as the only god. Therefore he had to integrate into this deity functions traditionally attributed to goddesses and to demons or evil gods. However, this attempt did not succeed. The goddess, whose elimination is probably reflected in Zechariah 5, returned in a certain way through the personification of Wisdom in Proverbs 8, and the �dark sides� of the gods were materialised in the figure of Satan, who experienced an impressive career in the following centuries. The question of evil is not resolved in the Hebrew Bible. Some texts admit the autonomy of evil, whereas Isaiah 45 claims that Yhwh himself is at the origin of evil. This diversity makes it difficult to characterise the Hebrew Bible as the result of a straightforward evolution from polytheism to monotheism.

  3. My mother



    @@ My mother is a farmer. She is thirty-five years old. She is verytall. She has big eyes and long hair.She is very hard-working and kind.As my father works a place far away from us, she does all the housework every day. She loves me and loves my grandparents. My grandparents are both over seventy years old. She always looks after them very carefully. My grandmother is often ill, so my mother always buys some meat, fish and eggs for her. My mother gets on well with them. She makes our family become very harmonious.My grandmother often says my mother is better than her own daughter.

  4. My Mother



    My mother is beautiful.She is about forty years old.She is a nurse.She loves her job and works hard.My family all like her.I love my mother,because she does most of the housework at home and she does everything for me.Every day she spends some time with me on my study.Sometimes she helps me with Maths and Chinese.She is

  5. Sea Goddesses of Orissa

    Tripati, S.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Mar_Archaeol_1_55.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Mar_Archaeol_1_55.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. Mythology of Xi Wang Mu. The Heritage of Goddess Civilization%西王母神话:女神文明的中国遗产



    以多重证据法发掘神话背后的历史信息,探考西王母神话中两大要素与华夏史前文化大传统的渊源关系,即女神崇拜和美玉崇拜(拜物教),还原欧亚大陆史前“女神文明”大背景,解析夏商周三代以来地域文化兴衰更替的线索,说明玉山与玉胜形象发生的考古实物原型,揭示后起的儒家河图洛书新神话系统如何继承和改造美玉崇拜、排斥和遮蔽女神崇拜,使西王母形象被道教接纳和再造,削弱其独立女神的地位,匹配男性神祗东王公或玉皇大帝。%This paper,with multiple evidence law,explores the historical information behind the myth,does the research about the relationship between the two primary elements of Xi Wang Mu Mythology and China prehistoric cultural traditions,namely goddess worship and jade worship(fetishism),restores the background about the prehistoric"goddess worship"of Eurasia, analyzes the cultural prosperity and fading of three dynasties(Xia dynasties,Shang dynasties, Zhou dynasties) , and accounts for the archaeological physical prototype originating from the im- age of Yushan mountain Yusheng(a kind of headwear made of Jade). This paper also reveals the inheritance and transformation of the Meiyu worship by the Confucian mythology system which discriminates against and shadowing the goddess worship ; the image of Xi Wang Mu is accepted but transformed by Taoism which weakens the independence of Xi Wang Mu and makes her mate of male deity Dong Wang Gong or Jade Emperor.


    汤获; 邓冠铁; 李书海


    本文研究了单位圆盘内关于Liu-Owa积分算子的多叶解析函数类的从属和超从属保持问题。利用微分从属的方法,获得了该类函数的中间型结果,推广和改进了一些已知结果。%In the paper, we investigate subordination and superordination preserving prob-lems for analytic and multivalent functions in the open unit disk, which are associated with the Liu-Owa integral operator. By using the method of differential subordination, we derive sandwich-type results of functions belonging to these classes, which generalize and improve some previous known results.

  8. Modified Liu-Carter Compression Model for Natural Clays with Various Initial Water Contents

    Sen Qian


    Full Text Available The initial water content has a significant effect on the compression behaviour of reconstituted clays. This effect has to be considered in the Liu-Carter model to ensure the addition voids ratio only related to soil structure. A modified Liu-Carter compression model is proposed by introducing the empirical equations for reconstituted clays at different initial water contents into the Liu-Carter model. The proposed model is verified against the experimental results from the literature. The simulations by the proposed method are also compared with that by old method where the influence of initial water content is not considered. The results show that the predicted virgin compression curves of natural clays are similar, but the values of b and Δey may be very different.

  9. Anti-Control of Hopf Bifurcation in the Chaotic Liu System with Symbolic Computation

    LV Zhuo-Sheng; DUAN Li-Xia


    The anti-control of bifurcation refers to the task of creating a certain bifurcation with particular desired properties and location by appropriate controls. We consider, via feedback control and symbolic computation, the problem of anti-control of Hopf bifurcation in the chaotic Liu system. We propose an anti-control scheme and show that compared with the uncontrolled system, the anti-controlled Liu system can exhibit Hopf bifurcation in a much larger parameter region. The anti-control strategy used keeps the equilibrium structure of the Liu system and can be applied to generate Hopf bifurcation at the desired location with preferred stability. We illustrate the efficiency of the anti-control approach under different operating conditions.

  10. State Estimator Design of Generalized Liu Systems with Application to Secure Communication and Its Circuit Realization

    Yeong-Jeu Sun


    Full Text Available The generalized Liu system is firstly introduced and the state observation problem of such a system is explored. A simple state estimator for the generalized Liu system is developed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Applications of proposed state estimator strategy to chaotic secure communication, circuit implementation, and numerical simulations are provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the obtained results. Besides, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate of the proposed state estimator and that of the proposed chaotic secure communication can be precisely calculated.

  11. An Amphibious Goddess of Both Buddhism and Taoism A Research of the Legend of Cihang Goddess%仙释圆融佛道双栖——慈航真人观世音仙话传说的文化观照



    道教神仙谱系中的慈航真人是一位深受民间崇奉的女仙。慈航真人信仰的形成与佛教的观音菩萨信仰有非常密切的联系。慈航真人观世音这种佛道双栖的现象是中国古代三教合一特别是仙释圆融宗教文化的产物。慈航真人仙话传说中的性别困惑既体现了古代社会性别意识的特殊取向,也反映出观音形象不断演变的历史信息。%As a famous goddess of Taoism, Cihang is astonishingly similar to the Guanyin Bodhisattva. The religion of Cihang has dccp contact with the Guanyin Bodhisattva of Buddhism. This phenomenon is a result of the fusing of the Three Religions in ancient China. There is a special sex puzzlement in those legends about Cihang goddess. It embodies the message of the evolution of Cihang's image in Chinese ancient religious culture.

  12. My Mother

    于艺海; 胡宝兰


    My mother is a teacher She works in a middle school.She teaches music.She can sing very well She teaches four classes every day.She works very hard.She likes her work very much and she loves to work for children.too.

  13. Proof and Pedagogy in Ancient China: Examples from Liu Hui's Commentary on "JIU ZHANG SUAN SHU".

    Siu, Man-Keung


    Illustrates the pedagogical implications embodied in Liu Hui's discussion on the ancient Chinese mathematical classic "JIU ZHANG SUAN SHU" (Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art) with respect to aspects of proof and, more generally, the role of proof in mathematics. Provides examples involving area and volume. (Contains 25 references.) (MDH)

  14. Segmentation of Handwritten Chinese Character Strings Based on improved Algorithm Liu

    Zhihua Cai


    Full Text Available Algorithm Liu attracts high attention because of its high accuracy in segmentation of Japanese postal address. But the disadvantages, such as complexity and difficult implementation of algorithm, etc. have an adverse effect on its popularization and application. In this paper, the author applies the principles of algorithm Liu to handwritten Chinese character segmentation according to the characteristics of the handwritten Chinese characters, based on deeply study on algorithm Liu.In the same time, the author put forward the judgment criterion of Segmentation block classification and adhering mode of the handwritten Chinese characters.In the process of segmentation, text images are seen as the sequence made up of Connected Components (CCs, while the connected components are made up of several horizontal itinerary set of black pixels in image. The author determines whether these parts will be merged into segmentation through analyzing connected components. And then the author does image segmentation through adhering mode based on the analysis of outline edges. Finally cut the text images into character segmentation. Experimental results show that the improved Algorithm Liu obtains high segmentation accuracy and produces a satisfactory segmentation result.


    Nak Eun Cho


    The purpose of this article is to obtain some subordination and superordination preserving properties of meromorphic multivalent functions in the punctured open unit disk associated with the Liu-Srivastava operator.The sandwich-type results for these meromorphic multivalent functions are also considered.

  16. When Liu Hui Meets Archimedes: Students' Epistemological and Cultural Interpretations of Mathematics

    Liu, Po-Hung


    The present study aimed to investigate in what way and to what extent Taiwanese college students' epistemological views of mathematics had evolved during a history-based liberal arts mathematics course titled: "When Liu Hui Meets Archimedes--Development of Eastern and Western Mathematics." The course was designed to help college students…

  17. Liu Xiang Chinese Hurdler and Athens Olympic Champion 雅典奥运冠军——刘翔



    Liu Xiang was born on 13th July, 1983 in Shanghai. He is 1.88 meters high and 74 kilograms. He is now 21 years old and Liu made the history (创造历史) by winning the first gold medal(金牌) in the men's 110m hurdtes(男子110米栏) for Asia(亚洲) on Friday. Liu Xiang set a world record (创造世界纪录)-time of 12.91 seconds for his first Olympic title.

  18. Beyond description. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, R.


    In their historical overview, Cong & Liu highlight Sausurre as the father of modern linguistics [1]. They apparently miss G.K. Zipf as a pioneer of the view of language as a complex system. His idea of a balance between unification and diversification forces in the organization of natural systems, e.g., vocabularies [2], can be seen as a precursor of the view of complexity as a balance between order (unification) and disorder (diversification) near the edge of chaos [3]. Although not mentioned by Cong & Liu somewhere else, trade-offs between hearer and speaker needs are very important in Zipf's view, which has inspired research on the optimal networks mapping words into meanings [4-6]. Quantitative linguists regard G.K. Zipf as the funder of modern quantitative linguistics [7], a discipline where statistics plays a central role as in network science. Interestingly, that centrality of statistics is missing Saussure's work and that of many of his successors.

  19. A Generalization of the Chow-Liu Algorithm and its Application to Statistical Learning

    Suzuki, Joe


    We extend the Chow-Liu algorithm for general random variables while the previous versions only considered finite cases. In particular, this paper applies the generalization to Suzuki's learning algorithm that generates from data forests rather than trees based on the minimum description length by balancing the fitness of the data to the forest and the simplicity of the forest. As a result, we successfully obtain an algorithm when both of the Gaussian and finite random variables are present.

  20. 谈谈LIU98rc VHF遥控设备的改进



    本文介绍了VHF地-空通信的发展趋势和现状,并结合这些情况,提出对现有liu98rc VHF地-空遥控通信设备的一些改进设想及实现这些功能需考虑的技术问题。

  1. Stories Behind High IELTS Scores(Ⅰ)——Liu Yuhan's Moderate Mentality


    @@ Before having any contact with LIU Yuhan,we were totally surprised by her IELTS score-8.5in Listening,8.5 in Reading.7.5 in Speaking,and 7 in Writing.This excellent score,a total of 8,was achieved by a Grade Two senior middle school student.Interests in hearing her story and her learning methods were highly boosted.

  2. The Living Goddess of Mercy at the Rape of Nanking: Minnie Vautrin and the Ginling Refugee Camp in World War II (1937–1938 †

    Sheng-Ping Guo


    Full Text Available During the infamous Nanking Atrocity, some Western businesspersons and missionaries established the Nanking Safety Zone to protect about 250,000 refugees. When the Japanese army was pressing on Nanking, Minnie Vautrin, an educational missionary from the United Christian Missionary Society, took charge of the Ginling College campus. As one of the 25 refugee camps, Ginling provided shelter to about 10,000 women and children in late December 1937—the hardest time during World War II in China. With her neutral identity of American nationality, Vautrin seriously struggled with Japanese soldiers when they were seizing Chinese women for rape from the campus; thus, she helped many women avoid the possible fate of sexual violence and slaughter. The Chinese people promoted her as a “Goddess of Mercy”, in the Chinese language a “Living Buddha” (Huo pu sa or “Guanyin Buddha” (Guan Yin pu sa. The Chinese central government awarded her the Order of Jade (Cai Yu xun zhang. Drawing from Vautrin’s diaries and other original materials, this paper narrates this Christian female missionary’s moving story in humanism, evangelism, and internationalism. Her devotion to the Chinese refugee women and children made her an eyewitness to the Nanking Massacre, a rehabilitator of refugee sufferings, and a mental and bodily victim of disastrous war.

  3. Mother Trouble

    Griselda Pollock


    Full Text Available In the late 1980s a practising painter who is also a practising psychoanalyst reflected upon the significance of events occurring in her painting and being reflected upon in her notebooks to evolve a major theoretical intervention in psychoanalytical thinking at the intersections of British Object Relations (Bion, Laing, Winnicott in which she was trained at the Tavistock and Parisian Lacanian and post Lacanian thinking (Laplanche, Guattari, Aulagnier, Dolto.  Supplementing the  then dominant understanding of Lacan's phallic Symbolic,  defined by the sovereignty of the phallus as the sole signifier, Bracha Ettinger proposed a further symbol, the Matrix and its non-phallic, non-Oedipal process, metramorphosis.  The matrixial enables us to catch up into theoretical knowledge another, shifting but not excluding dimension of  subjectivity that is the effect , on all subjects, irrespective of later, Oedipalised gender or sexuality, of the  feminine sexual specificity of human generation in the non-prohibited intimacy of the feminine-becoming-maternal-in co-emergence-with an-unknown-becoming-partial-other.  Moving beyond the theoretical engagements of object relations with early mother-child, hence post-natal relations between subjects, hence beyond intersubjectivity, Ettinger has been exploring, for almost two decades, the implications for theories of subjectivity and hence for ethics and even the politics of our multiple moments of transsubjective co-affections and co-effects, of the proposition that the feminine, understood as this sexual specificity of the severality of mutual co-effecting becoming of life, has something profound to offer our understanding of the human, its ethics, aesthetics and even politics.  Daring to theorize the gift to later subjectivities of the prolonged encounter-event between pre-natality and pre-maternity, Ettinger has contributed to debates about the maternal, the feminine and human subjectivity in general. In

  4. A new Liu-Storey type nonlinear conjugate gradient method for unconstrained optimization problems

    Zhang, Li


    Although the Liu-Storey (LS) nonlinear conjugate gradient method has a similar structure as the well-known Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP) and Hestenes-Stiefel (HS) methods, research about this method is very rare. In this paper, based on the memoryless BFGS quasi-Newton method, we propose a new LS type method, which converges globally for general functions with the Grippo-Lucidi line search. Moreover, we modify this new LS method such that the modified scheme is globally convergent for nonconvex minimization if the strong Wolfe line search is used. Numerical results are also reported.

  5. Modification on Lynett and Liu's model for internal solitary wave propagation over variable bathymetry

    BAI Yefei; SONG Jinbao


    A two-dimensional, depth-integrated model proposed by Lynett and Liu (2002) was checked carefully, and several misprints in the model were corrected after detailed examination on both the theory and the numerical program. Several comparisons were made on wave profile, system energy and maximum wave amplitude. It is noted that the modified model can simulate the propagation of the internal solitary waves over variable bathymetry more reasonably to a certain degree, and the wave profiles obtained based on the modified model can better fit the experiment data reported by Helfrich (1992)than those from original model.

  6. Localized Penrose inequality for the Liu-Yau mass in spherical symmetry

    Ho, Fei-hung; Xie, Naqing


    For an asymptotically flat initial data, the Penrose inequality gives a lower bound of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner total mass of a spacetime in terms of the area of certain surfaces representing black holes. This is a deep and beautiful refinement of the famous positive mass theorem and it plays an important role in the study of gravitational collapse. Gravitational collapse can also happen if sufficient mass is concentrated into a finite region. This motivates us to seek a localized version of the Penrose inequality. In this Letter, we successfully make a precise statement of this form for the Liu-Yau quasi-local mass in spherical symmetry.

  7. The adaptive synchronization of fractional-order Liu chaotic system with unknown parameters



    In this paper, the chaos control and the synchronization of two fractional-order Liu chaotic systems with unknown parameters are studied. According to the Lyapunov stabilization theory and the adaptive control theorem, the adaptive control rule is obtained for the described error dynamic stabilization. Using the adaptive rule and a proper Lyapunov candidate function, the unknown coefficients of the system are estimated and the stabilization of the synchronizer system is demonstrated. Finally, the numerical simulation illustrates the efficiency of the proposed method in synchronizing two chaotic systems.

  8. Suicidal mothers

    Salvatore Gentile


    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological research has demonstrated that suicidal ideation is a relatively frequent complication of pregnancy in both developed and developing countries. Hence, the aims of this study are: to assess whether or not pregnancy may be considered a period highly susceptible to suicidal acts; to recognize potential contributing factors to suicidal behaviors; to describe therepercussions of suicide attempts on maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcome; to identify a typical profile of women at high risk of suicide during pregnancy.Methods: Medical literature information published in any language since 1950 was identified using MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Search terms were: “pregnancy”,(antenatal “depression”, “suicide”. Searches were last updated on 28 September 2010. Forty-six articles assessing the suicidal risk during pregnancy and obstetrical outcome of pregnancies complicated by suicide attempts were analyzed, without methodological limitations.Results: Worldwide, frequency of suicidal attempts and the rate of death by suicidal acts are low. Although this clinical event is rare, the consequences of a suicidal attempt are medically andpsychologically devastating for the mother-infant pair. We also found that common behaviors exist in women at high risk for suicide during pregnancy. Review data indeed suggest that a characteristicprofile can prenatally identify those at highest risk for gestational suicide attempts.Conclusions: Social and health organizations should make all possible efforts to identify women at high suicidal risk, in order to establish specific programs to prevent this tragic event. The available data informs health policy makers with a typical profile to screen women at high risk ofsuicide during pregnancy. Those women who have a current or past history of psychiatric disorders,are young, unmarried, unemployed, have incurred an unplanned pregnancy (eventually terminated with an

  9. Lone mothers in Sweden

    Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S


    To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....

  10. Circuitry implementation of a novel nonautonomous hyperchaotic Liu system based on sine input

    Luo Xiao-Hua


    Based on the three-dimensional Liu system with a nonlinear term of square,this paper appends a state variable to the system,and further adds a driving signal of the sine signal to construct a novel 4-demensional nonautonomous hyperchaotic Liu system.The appended variable is formed by the product of the nonlinear quadratic term of the original state variables and the driving signal.Through adjusting the frequency of the driving signal,the system can be controlled to show some different dynamic behaviors.By numerical simulations,the Lyapunov exponent spectrums,bifurcation diagrams and phase diagrams of the novel systems are analyzed.Furthermore,the corresponding hardware circuits are implemented.Both the experimental results and the simulation results confirm that the method is feasible.The method,which adjusts the frequency of the input sine signal to control the system to show different dynamic behaviors,can make the dynamic property of the system become more complex,but easier to be controlled accurately as well.

  11. [On Liu qin xi (six animal frolics) in Huai nan zi (Discourses of Master Huainanzi)].

    Sun, Xiaozhong


    The six styles of the art of Daoyin recorded in Liu An's Huai nan zi (Discourses of Master Huainanzi) of the Western Han Dynasty was called the Liu qin xi which was simplified from the complicated ancient Daoyin art of bionic practice imitating the movements of six kinds of animal. Among them, the "xiong jing"imitates the erecting walking style of a bear so as to strengthen the waist and lower extremities; the "niao shen"follows the spreading of wings of a bird so as to extend the arms and legs, to train the shoulders and extremities; the "fu yu"imitates the movements of swimming and moving head of a wild duck so as to train the head and neck; the "yuan jue"imitates the jumping of a monkey among the tree branches so as to train the legs and waist; the "chi shi"imitates the streching neck movements of an eagle so as to strengthen the neck and improvement of vision; while the "hu gu"imitates the movement of turning head of a tiger so as to train one's nape and the buttock.

  12. Uncertainty and perspectives in studies of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in China: A response to Liu et al. (2015).

    He, Nianpeng; Zhu, Jianxing; Wang, Qiufeng


    In this paper, we have formally responded to the speculation in "Liu et al. suspect that Zhu et al. (2015) may have underestimated dissolved organic N but overestimated total particulate N in wet deposition in China" by Liu et al. (2015). Here, we first discussed the uncertainty and plausible reasons of atmospheric deposition in China, which have been reported in different studies. We disagree with their interpretation on some points. Firstly, the difficulties in quality control from sampling to analyzing are common to all studies regarding atmospheric deposition, including the studies cited by Liu et al. (2015). More importantly, their discussion did not fully consider the apparent influence of different scaling-up methods (from an observation site scale to a national scale) on estimations of atmospheric N deposition in China. Furthermore, we provided the optimal approaches to resolve these challenges discussed in order to promote the related studies of atmospheric N deposition in China in the future.

  13. 再论刘基与风水的纠葛%The Origin of Geomancy Legends of Liu Ji



    刘伯温是民间传说中上知天文下知地理的传奇式人物,但是其人历史上却是一名功勋卓著的官员,世人对刘伯温的种种灵异传说很大程度上是附会神化的结果.通过史料分析,我们发现风水神话对塑造刘伯温的神人形象发挥了重要作用,但也不是空穴来风,刘伯温成为风水大师背后有精通象纬和家学渊源的关系,本文试图通过厘清刘伯温其人与风水实践、风水著作之间的万千纠葛,指出隐藏在刘伯温道士形象和风水大师形象背后的是民众的审美心理诉求.%Liu Bowen is a folklore legend who knew everything especially astronomy and geography knowledge, but he was a meritorious official in history. All sorts of the legend of Liu Bowen are largely results from apotheosis of later generations. Through study, we found Feng Shui legend played important roles in the process of Liu Bowen legends, and it mostly based on the fact that Liu Bowen knew astronomy and geography and once studied them systematically. Thus we clarified the relationship between Liu Bowen and Feng Shui legend, and certained that people psychology were also a key factor to Liu Bowen Taoist image and Feng Shui stories.

  14. “嫦娥奔月”原型的生态意蕴%The Ecological Implication of "The Goddess Chang's Flying to The Moon"Prototype



    For Chinese wonderful myth "The Goddess Chang's flying to the moon",the academic circles have made researches from language learning ,anthropology and philosophical perspectives .However ,the ecological implications behind it have been seldomly touched .Based on the present and using relevant theo‐ries of ecology and archetypal criticism ,the thesis probes into the ecological implications of the story .In modern ecology perspective ,women and nature have been combined together again to form a life and death alliance ,thus deconstructing the male center ,binary opposition and rank order ,then the Logocentrism logic itself is deconstucted .This will play a key role to solve the contemporary ecological predicament ,as well as to provide rich ecological wisdom to establish a new ecological harmony between man and nature ,which is different from the traditional "harmony".%对于中国神话奇葩“嫦娥奔月”,学术界或从语言文字学、人类学,或从哲学角度进行探寻,遗憾的是他们对其背后深藏的生态思想蕴含却很少触及。本文立足当下,运用生态学和原型批评的有关理论,对“嫦娥奔月”原型所蕴涵的生态意蕴进行探析。在现代生态学视域下,女人与自然再度结成生死联盟,解构男权中心、二元对立和等级秩序,进而解构罗格斯中心主义逻辑本身。这对解决当代各种生态困境将发挥重要作用,同时也为人类与自然之间建立新型的“人天合一”的生态关系提供丰富的生态智慧,并与传统的“天人合一”区别开来。

  15. Faithfulness and Similarity in Spirit-An Appreciation of Liu Shicong’s English Translation Wild Grass

    SONG Xiu-wen


    As a modern famous translator, Liu Shicong believes that literary translation should be faithful to the content of the original text and more importantly, it should convey its artistic effect, which includes the style, spirit and verve of the original text, namely transmitting the spirit of the original text. Based upon this translation principle, the paper aims to analyze and com-pare his English translation Wild Grass with the source text written by XiaYan in the aspects of being faithful to the original text and transmitting the verve of the original text, thus proving that the principles for prose translation initiated by Liu Shicong are applicable and effective.

  16. Multichannel computerized control system of current pulses in LIU-30 electron accelerator

    Gerasimov, A I; Kulgavchuk, V V; Pluzhnikov, A V


    In LIU-30 power linear pulsed induction electron accelerator (40 MeV, 10 kA, 25 ns) 288 radial lines with water insulation serve as energy accumulators and shapers of accelerating voltage pulses. The lines are charged simultaneously up to 500 kV using a system comprising 72 Arkadiev-Marx screened generators. To control parameter of synchronous pulses of charging current with up to 60 kA amplitude and 0.85 mu s duration in every of 72 charging circuits one applies a computer-aided system. Current pulse is recorded at output of every generator using the Rogowski coil signal from which via a cable line is transmitted to an analog-digital converter, is processed with 50 ns sampling and is recorded to a memory unit. Upon actuation of accelerator the signals are sequentially or selectively displayed and are compared with pulse typical shape

  17. Verification of the IVA4 film boiling model with the data base of Liu and Theofanous

    Kolev, N.I. [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany)


    Part 1 of this work presents a closed analytical solution for mixed-convection film boiling on vertical walls. Heat transfer coefficients predicted by the proposed model and experimental data obtained at the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden by Okkonen et al are compared. All data predicted are inside the {+-}10% error band, with mean averaged error being below 4% using the slightly modified analytical solution. The solution obtained is recommended for practical applications. The method presented here is used in Part 2 as a guideline for developing model for film boiling on spheres. The new semi-empirical film boiling model for spheres used in IVA4 computer code is compared with the experimental data base obtained by Liu and Theofanous. The data are predicted within {+-}30% error band. (author)

  18. The Power of Mothers


    MOTHERS always give so much to their children. Regardless of how rich or poor they may be, or whether they are highly educated or not, all mothers guide their children by their own words and actions. Here, six famous figures share their thoughts on the power of mothers.

  19. Description of the immature stages of Kuwanina betula Wu & Liu, with a discussion of its placement in the Acanthococcidae family group (Hemiptera: Coccoidea).

    Wu, San-An; Nan, Nan


    The immature stages of Kuwanina betula Wu & Liu are described and illustrated. Based on morphological and molecular data (18S and 28S rDNA), it is argued that K. betula is closer to Pseudochermes Nitsche than to Kuwanina Cockerell in Fernald and so this species is transferred to Pseudochermes as P. betula (Wu & Liu) comb. nov..

  20. 奥运风云人物——刘翔%Glorious People in the Olympics History——Liu Xiang



    @@ As Liu Xiang raced to victory in the 110-meter hurdles1 at the Athens Olympics, his legs pumping2 with flawless precision to clock3 a world record-tying time of 12.91 sec., the panic creeping into sports announcers' voices was almost palpable4.

  1. The bifunctional role of LiuE from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, displays additionally HIHG-CoA lyase enzymatic activity.

    Chávez-Avilés, Mauricio; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Campos-García, Jesús


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to utilize leucine/isovalerate and acyclic terpenes as sole carbon sources. Key enzymes which play an important role in these catabolic pathways are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (CoA) lyase (EC; HMG-CoA lyase) and the 3-hydroxy-3-isohexenylglutaryl-CoA lyase (EC; HIHG-CoA lyase), respectively. HMG-CoA lyase is encoded by the liuE gene while the gene for HIHG-CoA lyase remains unidentified. A mutant in the liuE gene was unable to utilize both leucine/isovalerate and acyclic terpenes indicates an involvement of liuE in both catabolic pathways (Chávez-Avilés et al. 2009, FEMS Microbiol Lett 296:117-123). The LiuE protein was purified as a His-tagged recombinant protein and in addition to show HMG-CoA lyase activity (Chávez-Avilés et al. 2009, FEMS Microbiol Lett 296:117-123), also displays HIHG-CoA lyase activity, indicating a bifunctional role in both the leucine/isovalerate and acyclic terpenes catabolic pathways.

  2. Dr Liu Yanhua, Deputy Minister of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, People's Republic of China

    Patrice Loiez


    China and CERN renew co-operation agreement for a further five years. During a visit to CERN on 17 February, Liu Yanhua, the vice-minister of science and technology of the People's Republic of China, signed a new co-operation agreement with the laboratory.

  3. Ajubaba: Shakespeare and Yoruba Goddess


    Yoruba belief system has conceptualized the place and power of women, long before Feminist fervour swept through the European world and beyond. In his oeuvre, Shakespeare also inadvertently alluded to this “power” of the feminine by recognizing that the combination of womanhood, motherhood and the female principle can, and do have significant influence on the individual’s destiny. In conceptualizing this female power, descriptive phrases such as “aje”, “atunnida” “iyami osoronga”, “iyami ajub...

  4. Ajubaba: Shakespeare and Yoruba Goddess

    Lekan Balogun


    Full Text Available Yoruba belief system has conceptualized the place and power of women, long before Feminist fervour swept through the European world and beyond. In his oeuvre, Shakespeare also inadvertently alluded to this “power” of the feminine by recognizing that the combination of womanhood, motherhood and the female principle can, and do have significant influence on the individual’s destiny. In conceptualizing this female power, descriptive phrases such as “aje”, “atunnida” “iyami osoronga”, “iyami ajubaba” are used by the Yoruba, who fear, respect and loathe these powers one and the same time. By creating unforgettable characters who are “not modified by the customs of particular places, or by the accidents of transient fashions or temporary opinions” (Johnson,1931, Shakespeare’s “women” are, through oral texts from Ifa, the Yoruba “system of divination, which also offers humans the possibility of knowing”(Fatunmbi,1994 examined, in order to show the relationship between literature and religion, how drama can effectively be utilized as a cultural material of universal appeal and how beliefs separated by time and clime interconnect, particularly in relation to the Yoruba world and Shakespeare’s Elizabethan/Jacobean society.

  5. The Great Goddesses of Egypt

    SheldonGosline; KatjaReinhardt; NortheastNormalUniversity



  6. 刘毓盘与民国词坛%Liu Yupan and Ci Poetics Circles in Republic of China



    Liu Yupan is a professor and a Ci poetics writer. He specialized in writing Ci poetics, and his anthology of Ci poetics called Qin Jiao JI has come down to modern times. Liu also made a long-term study of Ci poetics. His work The History of Ci Poetics is a monograph of Ci poetics in the earlier academic history. Liu Yupan taught the history of Ci poetics and relevant courses in college as well, which exerted a vital influence on the promotion of college Ci poetics teaching. In addition, he did a hard job to compile Ci poetics, Tang Wu Dai Song Liao Jin Yuan Ming Jia Ci Ji Liu Shi Zhong Ji. Liu Yupan’s understanding of Ci poetics content was mostly affected by“Chang-zhou School”in the Qing dynasty.%刘毓盘作为一位民国时期的教授词人,他既擅长词创作,有词集《噙椒集》流传至今;又长期从事词学研究,其撰写的《词史》是中国学术史上较早的词史专著。同时,他又在大学讲授词史与词学课程,对推动大学词学教学产生了重要影响。此外,刘毓盘对词籍的辑录也十分用力,曾辑录《唐五代宋辽金元名家词集六十种辑》。在对词体的认识上,刘毓盘更多的是受清代常州词派的影响。

  7. Liu-stain quick cytodiagnosis of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in diagnosis of liver tumors

    Chi-Sin Changchien; Jing-Houng Wang; Sheng-Nan Lu; Chao-Hung Hung; Chien-Hung Chen; Chuan-Mo Lee


    AIM: To combine ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) and Liu (Riu) stain to make a quick study on liver tumor lesions.METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-eight aspirations from 232 patients were completely studied. The operator himself made the quick cytodiagnosis of US-FNA smear stained by Liu method within thirty minutes. The US-FNA specimen was also sent to the pathological department for cytological study and cellblock histology. The result of our Liu-stain quick cytodiagnosis in each patient was confirmed by the final cytopathological diagnosis from pathological report.RESULTS: Among 228 samples, the quick cytodiagnosis revealed 146 malignancies, 81 benign lesions and one inadequate specimen. Cytopathological diagnosis from the pathological department revealed 150 malignancies,and 78 benign lesions. Four well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) were under-diagnosed by quick cytodiagnosis as benign and 3 benign lesions were over-diagnosed as well-differentiated HCCs. Compared with cytopathological diagnosis, quick cytodiagnosis correctly diagnosed 143 malignancies and 77 benign lesions. Except for the one inadequate specimen in quick cytodiagnosis, the accuracy of quick cytodiagnosis was 96.9% (220/227), and its sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 97.9%, 95.1%,97.3% and 96.3%, respectively.CONCLUSION: Liu-stain quick cytodiagnosis is a fast,convenient, safe and effective method for hepatologists in clinic practice to diagnose liver tumor. In few cases of well-differentiated HCC, Liu-stain quick cytodiagnosis has its limitation.

  8. A Heterogeneous Dialogue:On Goddess of the Arabian Sea, a Novel of Ocean by Xu Xu%异质文化间对话:论徐訏海洋小说《阿喇伯海的女神》



    Goddess of the Arabian Sea is a novel about Xu Xu’s experience overseas as a student and it deals with the characters’communications through dialogue, which is closely related to the author’s embracive mentality as part of an oceanic culture. The novel is a narration of seven dialogues between Chinese overseas students and an Arab mother and her daughter, all on board a ship in the Arabian Sea. Looked at from the theory of cultural interactivity, the characters have effectively practiced a heterogeneous dialogue. Dialogue between cultures, as a literary form, can play a variety of roles in fiction as plot develops in the dialogue, story is told in it and characters are portrayed in it, too. For this reason, dialogue not only has a cultural significance but is also a way by which text completes itself. And, in that sense, the novel has a certain creative value.%《阿喇伯海的女神》创作与徐留学经历有关,小说以文化间对话的形式处理人物交往,这与作家海洋文化的包容心态密不可分。小说叙述阿喇伯海航船上中国留学生与阿喇伯母女的七场对话,从文化间性理论看,人物有效地实践了异质文化间对话。文化间对话作为一种文学形式,它在小说中起到多种作用:情节在对话中发展、故事在对话中讲完、场景在对话中描述、人物在对话中刻画。因此,对话不仅有文化上的意义,也是文本完成的一种途径,小说有一定的创新价值。

  9. On the Value of LIU Bowen%刘伯温的价值观



    基于刘伯温对宇宙、自然、社会管理建设、以及人生既有理论上思考又有身体力行的实践,从刘伯温生甲经历、功勋成就以及著书立说里梳理得出:成己而后利他,丰满的自我而后创造了社会价值,融自我价值社会价值为一体是刘伯温的价值观,是高屋建瓴并且是具有超越时代性意义的价值观。%Based on Liuji's views on universe, nature, construction of social management, and the life with theoretical reflection and personal practice, the article puts forward the opinions as follows: Altruism should be carried out after self- achievement; Full-self first can create social value; The integration of self-value with social value is not only a LIU Bowen's value, but also a great value beyond time significance.

  10. Using EcoSmart{sup TM} concrete: Liu Centre case study

    Klopp, R. [Architectura Planning Architecture Interiors Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    EcoSmart{sup TM} concrete replaces Portland cement in a concrete mix with a maximum amount of a supplementary cementing material (SCM) while keeping in mind cost effectiveness, constructability and performance. A common SCM is fly ash, which results from the combustion of coal at coal fired power plants. EcoSmart{sup TM} concrete was developed to reduce the embodied energy of concrete, which in turn reduces the emissions of carbon dioxide affecting climate change. In this report, the use and performance of EcoSmart{sup TM} concrete at the Liu Centre for the Study of Global Issues, located at the University of British Columbia, was assessed. The main parameters for assessment in this report were the contribution of EcoSmart{sup TM} concrete in achieving set project goals and the measurable environmental benefits. It was the first instance in British Columbia where EcoSmart{sup TM} concrete was used as an environmentally responsible construction practice. There was no increase in cost, even though EcoSmart{sup TM} concrete was incorporated after the tendering phase. The specified strength and finish qualities of the EcoSmart {sup TM} concrete were achieved, with the use of 35 per cent less cement per volume. Avoidance of carbon dioxide emissions were in the order of 62.4 tonnes. An efficient structural design allowed an additional 19.7 tonne reduction in cement. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  11. A Study on Liu Yingqiu's Scenic Poems%刘应秋山水诗论析

    郑继猛; 和佩


    Liu Yingqiu's scenic poems were the wonderful poetry description of Ankang mountains and rivers that were his visiting records and sigh emotions also.Besides the traditional scenic poem recluse feeling,that Liu Yingqiu's scenic poems strongly express his past memory emotion,history rising and falling,as well as his life thinking.It was a new change to the Chinese scenic poem.%刘应秋的山水诗是对安康地域山水的诗意描写,也是诗人行踪游览景点的记录与感慨。其山水诗有传统山水诗歌的隐逸避世情怀,更有咏怀抒情、历史兴亡等人生思考,这是对山水诗的新变。

  12. On a model of mixtures with internal variables: Extended Liu procedure for the exploitation of the entropy principle

    Francesco Oliveri


    Full Text Available The exploitation of second law of thermodynamics for a mixture of two fluids with a scalar internal variable and a first order nonlocal state space is achieved by using the extended Liu approach. This method requires to insert as constraints in the entropy inequality either the field equations or their gradient extensions. Consequently, the thermodynamic restrictions imposed by the entropy principle are derived without introducing extra terms neither in the energy balance equation nor in the entropy inequality.

  13. 刘关张三结义辩考%On the Sworn Brothers of Liu, Guan and Zhang



    《三国演义》中刘关张桃园三结义的故事源远流长,人们将刘关张视为兄弟结拜的典范。但是文学作品中的这一故事情节,在历史文献中却难以找到确切的记载。通过相关史料发现,刘关张三人有着非常亲密的关系,刘备与关羽都有兄弟结义倾向,汉末三国时期有结义风尚,所以,刘关张三人很可能是兄弟结义关系。%The story of the sworn brothers of Liu, Guan and Zhang inThe Romance of the Three Kingdoms has a long history, which is regarded as a model of sworn brothers by people. But we cannot find reliable documentary records about the story. According to related historical documents, we find that there was a close relationship among them, both Liu Bei and Guan Yu tended to make sworn brothers, and it was a social fashion of making sworn brothers during the Three Kingdoms period. Thus, it can be concluded that Liu, Guan and Zhang were sworn brothers.

  14. 刘三姐形象的符号化建构%On Image Symbolizing Construction of Liu Sanjie



    The communication media and mode transmission of Liu Sanjie's image have changed in three stages so that the range of spreading and accepting Liu Sanjie's image has been widened constantly.As an artistic symbol,the state symbol of Liu Sanjie has been evol%在不同的历史条件下,刘三姐文化的传播媒介与传播方式出现了三个阶段的变化,刘三姐形象传播与接受的时空范围不断被拓展。作为艺术符号的刘三姐形象的物态符号发生了由神祗偶像到明星符号再到象征符号的演变,符号所指发生了由神巫到政治符号及消费符号的嬗变。刘三姐形象相应地发生了从歌仙到平民英雄到世俗歌者的演变。建国后刘三姐文化被纳入国家话语,成为政治文化的表征并成为壮族文化的象征,刘三姐形象的重构要返魅其应有的神圣性。

  15. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia


    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  16. Single Mothers "Do" Family

    Nelson, Margaret K.


    This paper explores how single mothers both incorporate others into family life (e.g., when they ask others to care for their children) and simultaneously "do families" in a manner that holds out a vision of a "traditional" family structure. Drawing on research with White, rural single mothers, the author explores the manner in which these women…

  17. The protective effect of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Fang in salt-sensitive hypertension rats.

    Yang, Qiang; He, Yanming; Wang, Wenjian


    Abstract Hypertension is considered as a chronic and complex disease relating to multiple systemic systems. Apart from lowering blood pressure, the final purpose of the treatment lies in reducing the variability of blood pressure and other risk factors. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of treating hypertension. This study was designed to determine the effect of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Fang (L-W-D-H-F), a compound used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, to treat salt-sensitive hypertension (SSHT) induced by a high-salt and high-fat diet. L-W-D-H-F was prepared from six plant extracts. It was dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution prior to use. Male Sprague-Dawley (6 weeks) rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet (CON); HSF (Without Drug Intervention); VAL (Valsartan 13.33 mg/kg/day); and LW (L-W-D-H-F 8.13 g/kg/day). Six weeks after blood pressure treatment, plasma biochemical analyses and histological and functional examination of the kidney were performed. L-W-D-H-F decreased the levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting blood glucose (FG), insulin (INS), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and angiotensin II (Ang II) from plasma and Ang II and renin from kidney. It also promoted the excretion of urinary Na(+), reducing the loss of urinary K(+) and microalbuminuria (MAU), and improved the glomerular afferent arteriole, arterioles and each kidney unit. Together, these results suggest that L-W-D-H-F is capable of moderately reducing MAP in salt-sensitive hypertension and can work at different levels on multiple differential targets.

  18. Research on Liu Xie's Criticism to SIMA Xiangru%刘勰的司马相如批评研究



    司马相如作为汉代辞赋大家,是刘勰《文心雕龙》讨论较多的作家之一。刘勰《文心雕龙》对于司马相如的批评与前人对司马相如的批评截然不同,前人以“依经立论”为原则,而刘勰《文心雕龙》却是以“衔华佩实”为准则,对司马相如的作品从“有韵之文”和“无韵之笔”两个方面进行批评。其一,对“有韵之文”辞赋作品因其过于华丽,而提出批评和指责;其二,对“无韵之笔”诏策文、檄移文和封禅文等作品给予了肯定。刘勰《文心雕龙》对司马相如的批评,显示了刘勰对汉魏以来文学过于追求形式华丽的一种批评。%SIMA Xiangru, a great master of Han Fu (a literary form), is one of the writers discussed in Wenxin Diaolong or The Liter-ary Mind and The Carving of Dragons by LIU Xie .LIU Xie's criticism for Sima Xiangru was entirely different , in which the former re-searchers studied it according to the previous argument , while LIU Xie took "bear both flowers and fruits -a good essay which has solid substance and beautiful sentences"as the criteria .LIU Xie studied the works of SIMA Xiangru from two aspects of rhyme and non rhyme.First, the"rhyme"works were criticized because they were too luxuriant;second, for the“non rhyme” works, such as the pa-per of admonishing policies , announcement , and the paper about the sacrifices of heaven and earth , were given affirmation .LIU Xie's criticism to SIMA Xiangru was really a kind of criticism to Han literature for its pursuit of excessive magnificence in form .

  19. Teenagers and the mothering experience.

    vonWindeguth, B J; Urbano, R C


    To determine the relationship between maternal age, perceived social support, and home environment to mother-child interaction. Thirty-three adolescent mother-child pairs and 33 older mother-child pairs were randomly selected from a pool of 63 adolescent mothers and 111 older mothers. The Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS), the Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ), and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were completed during a scheduled home visit. One way ANOVA and Multiple Correlation were used to analyze the data. Mother's sensitivity to cues and social-emotional growth-fostering from the NCAFS favored older mothers. Avoidance of restriction and punishment from the HOME favored older mothers. There was a significant relationship between perceived social support and mother-child interaction for both groups. Maternal behavior was related to mother's age. A mother's perception of the adequacy of her social support resources may be a critical factor in how she interacts with her child.

  20. Reintegration of young mothers

    Miranda Worthen


    Full Text Available Young mothers seeking reintegration after periods of time spent livingwith fighting forces and armed groups face exclusion and stigmarather than the support they and their children badly need.

  1. MotherToBaby

    ... experts behind the most up-to-date research! Hurricane Harvey & Baby Are you Pregnant (or Breastfeeding) and Affected by Hurricane Harvey? MotherToBaby experts have answers to your questions. Get ...

  2. Becoming lesbian mothers.

    Hequembourg, Amy L


    Lesbian mothering strategies are commonly theorized as instances of assimilationism or resistance. This essay critiques those approaches and presents a promising alternative using the conceptual framework of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari. Their concepts of "becoming" and "rhizoming" are utilized as mechanisms for understanding the inconsistencies and contradictions that constitute the subjectivities of two lesbian co-mothers. The essay concludes with the political implications of these analyses.

  3. Motherly and Fatherly Love


    Motherly love by its very nature is unconditional.Mother loves the newborn infant because it is her child,not because the child has fulfilled any specific condition, or lived up to any specific expectation.Unconditional love corresponds in one of the deepest longings,not only of the child,but of every human being;on the other hand,

  4. Robot mother ship design

    Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.; Emmerman, Philip J.


    Small physical agents will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, sentry; and communications relay will have advanced sensor and mobility characteristics. The mother ship much effectively deliver/retrieve, service, and control these robots as well as fuse the information gathered by these highly mobile robot teams. The mother ship concept presented in this paper includes the case where the mother ship is itself a robot or a manned system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the robot teams. The mother ship must also establish a robust communications network between the agents and is an up-link point for disseminating the intelligence gathered by the smaller agents; and, because of its global knowledge, provides the high-level information fusion, control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. Additionally, the mother ship incorporates battlefield visualization, information fusion, and multi-resolution analysis, and intelligent software agent technology, to support mission planning and execution. This paper discusses on going research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that supports the development of a robot mother ship. This research includes docking, battlefield visualization, intelligent software agents, adaptive communications, information fusion, and multi- modal human computer interaction.

  5. 论宋遗民刘壎的散文观%The Prose View of Liu Xun



    刘壎是宋元之际著名的文士,《隐居通议》选评历代文人的文章,以此来表达他的文学见解:提倡文法的应用,注重脉络条理、结构统一;将风骨、简严、自然视为文章风格的指归,并提出"揫敛"的方法;散文内容上,强调根据性理、祛腐趋新;重视散文史论的提炼和总结,首倡"江西(文派)体",具有理论价值。%LiuXun, a famous scholar between Song and Yuan Dynasty, expressed his literature view by means of choosing and criti- cizing past dynasties scholars' essays. He advocated utilizing the grammar and thinking clearly. He took vigour of style, conciseness and nature as the destination of the article style. Meanwhile, the method of retrenchment was promoted. Neo-confucianismand novelty played an important role in prose content. Liu had a deep historical perspective, which helped him make an achievement in literary theory and criticism.

  6. LIU Ke-zhuang Prose Research Commentary of Nearly Hundred Years%近百年来刘克庄散文研究述评



    Liu Kezhuang is known as the "Literary master of Prose and si-liu Prose",In the late Southern Song Dynasty his prose was attented by the people's.Compared with the study of the poems,Liu Kezhuang's prose research was ignored by the academic circles.Review of nearly hundred years of Liu Kezhuang's prose in the dissemination and acceptance process,Liu Kezhuang's prose research has a lot of unignored value.%刘克庄被誉为"言文者宗焉,言四六者宗焉",其散文在南宋后期深受时人重视。相较于诗词研究,刘克庄散文研究总体上被学界冷落。回顾近百年来刘克庄散文的接受与传播过程,刘克庄散文研究具有诸多不容忽视的价值。

  7. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Jacek Hołówka


    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  8. Kangaroo Mother Method: Mothers' Experiences and Contributions to Nursing

    João Carlos Arivabene; Maria Antonieta Rubio Tyrrell


    This research aimed to describe mothers' experiences, analyzing them in the light of the principles of the Kangaroo Mother Method (KMM), and discuss the mothers' contributions based on the meanings of these experiences for nursing actions. In data collection, a questionnaire was used that characterized the mothers' socioeconomic profile and, through focus groups, stories were obtained about the benefits of these experiences, which supported the construction of the following categories: surviv...

  9. Mothers in Honors

    Killinger, Mimi; Binder-Hathaway, Rachel; Mitchell, Paige; Patrick, Emily


    This article describes the experiences of four honors mothers as they offer sage advice. They argue convincingly that they are motivated, focused students who bring rich diversity to college programs. They further report disturbing marginalization and isolation that could be ameliorated with support and increased sensitivity on the part of…

  10. Mothers, work and childcare

    Ingrid Ooms; Evelien Eggink; Edwin van Gameren


    Original title: Moeders, werk en kinderopvang in model. The government wants women to go out to work more. The choices made by women between working and looking after children are accordingly receiving a great deal of attention. This report describes which factors influence these choices by mothers

  11. Taxonomy of the Genus Paramegophrys Liu, 1964(Megophryidae, Amphibia)%掌突蟾属Paramegophrys的分类(两栖纲:角蟾科)

    江建平; 叶昌媛; 费梁


    依据有关文献资料,讨论了掌突蟾属的学名有效性问题和亚属分类问题,结果表明掌突蟾属的有效学名为Paramegophrys Liu,1964;该属可分为2个亚属,即掌突蟾亚属Paramegophrys(Paramegophrys)Liu,1964和拟掌突蟾亚属Paramegophrys(Leptolalax)Dubois,1980;目前,它们分别包含11种.


    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.


  13. 论柳永词中的自我意识%On Self-awareness in Liu Yong' s Poems



    By using poetry as a medium to express his feelings, Liu Yong exhibited his demand for individual freedom and strong desire for personality independence. He made his poems develop into Li Yu' s lyric-orientation and showed uneven fate and disappointing and depressing psychological state of the scholars in Song Dynasty.%柳永用词作为抒发情感的手段,向世人昭示了其要求个性自由和人格独立的强烈愿望。使词沿着李煜的抒情取向发展,展示出宋代下层文人世大夫的坎坷命运和失意苦闷的心态。

  14. Confucianism and Motherhood in Liu Hsiang' s Lieh-nü-chuan (劉向『列女傳』)

    下見, 隆雄


    Liu Hsiang (劉向 • 79-8 B.C.), Confucianist in the closing period of Qian Han (前漢) is well known for his compilation of a classified catalogue of the old books owned by the court library. Moreover, he published a number of books himself, which include Lieh-nü-chuan (『列女傳』), Xin-xu (『新序』) and Shuo-yuan (『説苑』) . They are all moral stories gleaned from classics and edited on the Confucian principles. Lieh-nü-chuan is the first biographies of women in China, and is worthy of note in that it adv...

  15. Notes and Cmmentary on liu Hsiang's Lieh-nü-chuan (劉向『列女伝』)

    下見, 隆雄


    Liu Hsiang (劉向 • 79-8 B.C.) Confucianist in the closing period of Qian Han (前漢) is well known for his compilation of a classified catalogue of the old books owned by the court library. Moreover, he published a number of books himself, which include Lieh-nü-chuan (『列女傳』), Xin-xu (『新序』) and Shuo-yuan (『説苑』). They are all moral stories gleaned from classics and edited on the Confucian principles. Lieh-nü-chuan is the first biographies of women in China, and is worthy of note in that it a...

  16. Liu Na’ou And The 1930s Soft Film Movement: A New Approach In Revisionist Chinese Film Historiography

    Donna Ong


    Full Text Available This essay analyzes how the 1930s Chinese “Soft Film” movement emerged and developed in film historiography, and finds it is a discursive formation by the Leftists to create an ideological enemy that serves to define its own group’s identity through a struggle against an “other”. It challenges the naming of “Soft Film” through examining documents beyond the official archive. Unearthing the film writings of Liu Na’ou as the movement’s leading figure is a good entry point into excavating the history of the people and films associated with the label “Soft Film”. Reconstructing this “reactionary cinema” will reveal previously unknown cultural connections with classical and avant-garde Western film theories, and more importantly renovate the established Chinese film canon of the 1930s.

  17. 刘佛年创造教育理念探析%Liu Fonian’ s Theory of Creating Education



    刘佛年是我国著名的教育家,在他看来,创造教育是时代的必需;其目标是培养孩子的创造性思维能力和创新精神,实现孩子的全面发展;创造教育的实施路径是从幼儿开始激发幼儿创造的主动性、改变以往僵硬的课程内容结构、实施创造性教学和提升教师的创造性教学素养。探析刘佛年的创造教育理念,对我们今天的教育改革实践和研究富有启示价值。%Fonian Liu was a famous educator in our country. His educational theory and achievements in-volved in every aspect of pedagogy. Mr. Liu once mentioned the theory of creating education in public speeches and articles, which included the necessity of creating education:era development calls for it, education reform requires creative education in parallel with it. The purposes of creative education are as follows:training the children’ s cre-ative thinking ability and spirit, realizing the children’ s overall development. He incisively discussed the ways of bringing creating education into force which should start at kindergarten, inspire the initiative to create, change the previous rigid curriculum contents, implement creative teaching and enhance teachers’ teaching quality. There-fore, the study of his theory of creating education has an important inspiration for our country’ s educational reform and practice today.


    Haoming FAN; Qiangguo CAI; Chengjiu GUO; Tieliang WANG


    This paper presents information on the particle size characteristics of suspended sediment transported by the Liu River, which has the most serious erosion and sedimentation problems in the northeast of China. The median (d50) particle size for the individual stations on the Liu River ranged from 0.0343 to 0.0588 mm. Particles <0.01 mm ranged from 15.4 to 33.3% and >0.05 mm of ranged from 24.3 to 53.7%. Spatial and temporal variations were noticeable in the particle size composition of suspended sediment within the study basins. At different locations the sediment particles size varies as a result of differences in catchment characteristics. The preferential deposition of the coarser size fractions has resulted in downstream fining of the suspended sediment load. In the flood season the suspended sediment particle size was finer than that in low flow season. The relations among water discharge, suspended sediment concentration, and sediment particle size are complicated. At small water discharge or suspended sediment concentration, with the increase of water discharge or sediment concentration the particle size of suspended sediment decreases to a minimum. However, when the water discharge or sediment concentration exceed certain threshold values (turning points) the particle size increases or remains constant with the increase of water discharge or sediment concentration. The tuning points are different in different rivers. Thus, their relations are double-valued. The negative relation between suspended sediment particle size and flow discharge reflects the importance of supply conditions and the positive relation reflects that the flow and hydraulics take a greater role in sediment transportation. On the whole, variation of the sediment particle size is subject to many factors such as the hydraulic conditions, the type and extent of erosion, human activities, vegetation coverage, hydraulic projects, and sediment supply. The findings reported in this paper

  19. Parenting attitudes of addict mothers.

    Wellisch, D K; Steinberg, M R


    Parenting attitudes of female heroin addicts were investigated in a single factor design which compared addict mothers, addict non-mothers, nonaddict mothers, and nonaddict nonmothers. A principal components factor analysis was performed on the PARI and used as the dependent measure. A factor labeled "authoritarian overinvolvement" emerged which significantly differentiated between groups. Further, the effects of mothering and addiction proved to be additive such that addict mothers were extremely high on this scale. This result was discussed in terms of the parental home environment of addict women.

  20. A Letter to Mother


    MOTHER, I remember the day I left you to emigrate to the United States. We were hugging sadly in your room while the taxi waited to take my husband, my son and me to the airport. My heart was broken by the thought that I might never see you again. On the plane, I could hear your voice : "" Do not worry about what you have left behind. Look forward and be a strong woman.

  1. Mothers depart. Variations 2009

    Agnieszka Czyżak


    Full Text Available This article proposes some considerations on a particular variation of the elegiac mood represented by and manifested in lyrical farewells of departing mothers. A review of the variants commences with an analysis of a particularly important work by Tadeusz Różewicz written at the beginning of this century — Matka odchodzi. The book was, at the time, a particular reference point for the following poetic volumes in which the theme of the death of the poet’s mother was paramount and significant. The article also focuses on volumes of poems, written by poets that belonged to different generations but shared the same date of publication, i.e. the year 2009. Both clear similarities and marked differences in the actual commitment in carrying out the theme and in creating the profiles of mothers that have passed away are to be found in the works of Piotr Sommer (Dni i noce, Jan Polkowski (Cantus and Eugeniusz Tkaczyszyn-Dycki (Piosenka o zależnościach i uzależnieniach.

  2. Planned experiments and corpus based research play a complementary role. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Vasishth, Shravan


    This interesting and informative review by Liu and colleagues [17] in this issue covers the full spectrum of research on the idea that in natural language, dependency distance tends to be small. The authors discuss two distinct research threads: experimental work from psycholinguistics on online processes in comprehension and production, and text-corpus studies of dependency length distributions.

  3. Towards a theory of word order. Comment on "Dependency distance: a new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural language" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, R.


    Liu et al.'s reflections on the term dependency length minimization [1] may look anecdotal but they are not. By the turn of the 20th century, we put forward a ;Euclidean distance minimization; hypothesis for the distance between syntactically linked words and various word order phenomena [2,3].

  4. Generalizing dependency distance. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Futrell, Richard; Levy, Roger; Gibson, Edward


    With the support of the comprehensive review in Liu et al. [14], we consider dependency distance minimization to be firmly established as a quantitative property of syntactic trees. In this comment, we consider future empirical and theoretical directions for this concept, including a recent information-theoretic reinterpretation of dependency locality effects as proposed by Futrell and Levy [4].

  5. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Jacek Hołówka


    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  6. Learning to Laugh: A Portrait of Risk and Resilience in Early Childhood

    Wright, Travis


    In this portrait, Travis Wright documents young Goddess's capacity for strength in the face of trauma and neglect. Goddess, a sixteen-month-old child who has never laughed, is Wright's first client at his clinical internship during his graduate studies. Drawing on his work with Goddess, her mother, and her teachers, Wright explores the ways in…

  7. Learning to Laugh: A Portrait of Risk and Resilience in Early Childhood

    Wright, Travis


    In this portrait, Travis Wright documents young Goddess's capacity for strength in the face of trauma and neglect. Goddess, a sixteen-month-old child who has never laughed, is Wright's first client at his clinical internship during his graduate studies. Drawing on his work with Goddess, her mother, and her teachers, Wright explores the ways in…

  8. [Mining analysis and experience summary for chronic atrophic gastritis cases treated by Professor LIU Feng-bin].

    Hou, Zheng-kun; Liu, Feng-bin; Li, Pei-wu; Zhuang, Kun-hai


    To summarize Professor LIU Feng-bin's clinical experience and theoretical thoughts on chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), the study group designed a retrospective study on his case series and expert interview. First of all, the data of CAG patients treated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine between 2009 and 2013, e. g. herbs, diseases, syndrome type, prescription amount and number of herbs, was collected and processed. The statistical description and binary logistic regression were used to determined the syndrome type, initial basic remedy and modification. During the statistics, a complete and sub-group analysis was performed simultaneously. After the expert interview, the syndrome type and medication were finalized. As a result, a total of 228 CAG patients aged at (50.30 ± 10.18) were collected, including 151 males (66.23%). Of them, the TCM diagnosis and syndrome type were extracted from the information of 157 patients, including 115 cases with gastric stuffiness, 23 cases with gastric pain, 19 missing cases, 2 cases with spleen-stomach weakness syndrome, 57 cases with spleen deficiency and dampness-heat syndrome, 18 cases with spleen-stomach disharmony syndrome, 23 cases with syndrome of liver depression syndrome, 21 cases with liver qi invading stomach syndrome and 26 qi and yin deficiency syndrome, respectively. All of the 228 patients used totally 104 herbs, while the subgroups with 157 patients used 94 herbs. The most frequently used 15 herbs used in each groups were analyzed to determine the initial basic remedy and modification. Subsequently, based on the information of the sub-groups with 157 patients, with the syndrome type as the dependent variable, the logistic regression analysis was made on the most frequently used 32 herbs, in order to determined the modification in herbs for different syndrome types. After experts reviewed and modified, they believed the main causes of CAG were dietary irregularities

  9. A Mother's Humiliation: School Organizational Violence toward Latina Mothers

    Monzo, Lilia D.


    This paper examines how Latina mothers experience violence in schools through everyday interactions with those positioned with greater power in our society. Drawing on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic violence, the article discusses how deficit perspectives held toward Latina mothers and the privileging of White, middle-class frames result in…

  10. Multiple Images of Venus in Chinese Literature and Art .Also On Ye Shuxian's Goddess of Gaotang and Venus%维纳斯在中国文艺中的多重映像——兼议叶舒宪先生的《高唐神女与维纳斯》



    关乎中西文化中的爱与美主题,我们就不能不提到叶舒宪先生的著作《高唐神女与维纳斯》。书中认为,中国文化中一直存在着被主流儒家遮蔽了的“维纳斯”,她就是宋玉《高唐赋》中的高唐神女及其衍生出的女性文学形象。尽管如此,本论仍对高唐神女的“爱神”“美神”特征表示质疑。笔者认为维纳斯在中国文化中的同类表现形式不止一种,中国文艺中存在着多重映像的维纳斯。再者维纳斯象征着永恒的爱与美,必定在不同的时代和文化中得到丰富的赋值、定型、描塑和创造。因此与其挖掘维纳斯的“中国版”,不如立足本土推陈出新。本论拟从社会性别、女性自觉意识等性别角度去寻找、分析散落在古代中国的维纳斯。%When talking about the issue of love and beauty in the Oriental and Western culture, we have to mention Ye Shuxian' s Goddess of Gaotang and Venus. In this book, Ye argues that there exists a "Venus" covered by the mainstream Confucians in the Chinese culture, which is the Goddess of Gaotang in Song Yu's Gao Tang Fu and the female image in the later literature. However, this paper calls the character of Goddess as "goddess of love" and "goddess of beauty" in question. The author believes that there is more than one expression form of Venus in the Chinese culture, and there exist multiple images of Venus in Chinese literature and art. Moreover, the eternal love and beauty that Venus symbolizes is un- doubtedly enriched, finalized, depicted and created in different ages and culture. Therefore, rather than excavating the Chinese version of Venus, why not make creative efforts based on local conditions? This paper intends to finds out and analyzes Venus scattering in the ancient China from perspectives of social gender and female awareness.

  11. Exposed: younger mothers and breastfeeding.

    Noble-Carr, Debbie; Bell, Catherine


    This qualitative study, conducted by volunteers from the Australian Capital Territory/Southern New South Wales (ACT/SNSW) Branch of the Australian Breastfeeding Association (ABA), explored the breastfeeding experiences of younger mothers (under the age of 26 years) in the ACT by conducting three focus groups. The study aimed to gain an understanding of how, when and where younger mothers want and need to receive breastfeeding information and support. Younger mothers provided important insights into their breastfeeding experiences, which were often characterised by judgement from health professionals and the wider public. A number of key issues were identified including: breastfeeding is far from a cultural norm in our society and as such the risks of artificial baby milk are not clearly understood by many younger mothers; younger mothers are strongly influenced by their partners, mothers and peers and they rely upon them for breastfeeding information and support. Younger mothers indicated that a number of improvements could be made to the way that breastfeeding information and support is currently provided within the ACT. The findings indicated that younger mothers (and their significant others) would benefit from receiving clear, concise and consistent breastfeeding information early on in their pregnancy, that is positive in tone, not necessarily 'young mum' specific and consistent with a 'less is more' approach. Younger mothers indicated that after the birth of their baby this breastfeeding information needs to be complemented by readily accessible, seamless, respectful support for as long as they need to establish breastfeeding and overcome any breastfeeding challenges. The focus group findings were largely consistent with the existing literature available on younger mothers and breastfeeding and provide valuable insights to all stakeholders responsible for providing breastfeeding information and support to younger mothers.

  12. 浅论柳永对宋词的贡献%Liu Yong's Contribution to Chinese Song Poems



    柳永,作为一名承上启下的词人,他改变了晚唐五代以来的柔媚的词风,更多注重抒发下层文人士大夫内心的苦闷,使词这种"诗余"正式成为文人的案头文学。他词中抒情主人公的转变,对词境的拓展,情感角度的转换,加上他对慢词的改造,使得他在词史上获得了崇高的声誉。%Liu Yong,as a linking word,he has changed the gental word style since the Late Tang and Five Dynasties,put more emphasis on the lower literati to express inner anguish,this makes the word "Poetry " became a scholar's desk literary.He changes the word in the lyric hero,the expansion of the word environment,the emotional point of conversion,coupled with his slow transformation of the word,making him the history of the word gained a high reputation.

  13. 刘以敏主任疳证论治%Treating malnutrition by director of LIU Yi-min

    杨旭东; 何萍


      疳证是由多种慢性疾患引起的一种疾病,历代医家在治疗疳证一般从脾胃论治,以健脾化滞、益气生津为法,著名国家级名中医刘以敏主任在治疗本病上有独到见解,首先是强调治未病的观点,其次是分期治疗的观点,治疗上取得满意效果。%  Malnutrition is a disease that caused by various chronic diseases. It was treated according to spleen gastric theory of historical and recent medical, the principle was Jianpi Huazhi and Yiqi Shengjin, but Liu Yi-Min who is famous traditional medicine doctor all over the country has insightful views in treating malnutrition, that the first was the emphasis on the viewpoint of “treating disease”, secondly is the viewpoint of staging treatment, and have satisfactory effect.

  14. 75 FR 26875 - Mother's Day, 2010


    ... two parents, a single mother, two mothers, a step-mom, a grandmother, or a guardian. Mother's Day... 8517 of May 7, 2010 Mother's Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Generations of mothers have labored tirelessly and selflessly to support and guide their children and families...

  15. Women's lives, mothers' health.

    Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M


    This document dealing with women's lives and the health of mothers identifies factors conditioning the health and nutritional status of women and girls (life expectancy at birth, maternal mortality rate, and the birthrate); considers nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women, weight gain during preganncy, mothers' age and number of children and interbirth interval, maternal nutritional status and breastfeeding, anemia, work and women's health, pregnancy in adolescents, abortion, the growth of small girls and its effect on future pregnancies, and sexual mutilations; and reports on actions aimed at improving the health of women as well as health problems facing rural women. The 3 key concepts of this reflection on women's lives are: women's health should be taken into account as well as children's health; the development of the whole human being should be respected, implying ongoing surveillance of the health status of women and of their children; and the overall living conditions of women within the family and society must be analyzed at the different phases of their life, so as to encourage integrated actions rather than various uncoordinated efforts. Women's health status, like the health status of everyone, depends on a multitude of socioeconomic and sanitational factors. A figure illustrates several of the many interrelations between the various factors which influence the nutritional status of all individuals. Women of childbearing age are at greater risk than other population groups, due to their reproductive function and their ability to nurse children: pregnancy, like lactation, generates metabolic changes and increases nutritional needs. Delivery itself presents a series of risks for the woman's health, and only regular surveillance of pregnancy may prevent many of these. A woman's health status and, most of all her nutritional status during pregnancy and delivery, condition her future health and ability to assume her many tasks as well as

  16. "Migrant Mother" by Dorothea Lange.

    Henry, Carole


    Maintains that the photograph, "Migrant Mother," is recognized throughout the world. Provides a three-part instructional unit on Dorothea Lange and social issues related to migrant workers. Includes four photographs by Lange, including the most well-known, "Migrant Mother 5." (CFR)




  18. Rhetorical Visions of Unmarried Mothers.

    Endres, Thomas G.


    Examines the symbolic reality of unmarried mothers using Bormann's fantasy theme analysis and Q-methodology. Identifies three rhetorical visions with a dramatistic humanistic analysis produced by and about unmarried mothers: the Down and Out Vision, the Making the Best Vision, and the Yummie Vision. (MS)

  19. Like Mother,Like Daughter


    On the road to maturity, one's parents always have a great degree of influence. Yang Yuying, a young singer, attributes much of her success to her mother Xiong Yonghong. The hard working mother has exerted an imperceptible influence on her daughter's attitude to life with her traditional Chinese virtues.

  20. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others


    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  1. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others


    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  2. Strategies for Supporting Teenage Mothers

    Wells, Robin A.; Thompson, Barbara


    Programs for teenage mothers provided through school districts or community agencies often have their own curricular agenda for teaching teenage mothers about the proper care of and nutrition for infants and the typical stages of child development, but not all programs are successful in supporting the development of positive early relationships…

  3. LIU Liang-jiˊs Experence in Treatmentof Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis%刘良徛治疗肺间质纤维化经验

    胡李慧; 刘良徛


    Pulmonary interstitial fibrosis is the common clinical refractory disease of respiratory system.Professor LIU Liang-ji has his unique understand of the dtiology and pathogenesis and treatment of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis.Professor Liu has made great effect in treatment pulmonary interstitial fibrosis with his Wenfei Huaxian decoction.%肺间质纤维化是临床常见的难治性呼吸系统疾病,刘良徛教授对该病的病因病机及辨证治疗有独到的认识,临证自拟温肺化纤汤加减化裁治疗该病,取得较好疗效。

  4. Is Kate Winslet more American than Lucy Liu? The impact of construal processes on the implicit ascription of a national identity

    Devos, Thierry; Ma, Debbie S.


    In four studies, we investigated the role of person construal on the implicit ascription of a national identity. Participants completed Implicit Association Tests (Studies 1 and 3) or Go/No-go Association Tasks (Studies 2 and 4) assessing the extent to which the concept American was linked to an Asian American celebrity (Lucy Liu) and to a White European celebrity (Kate Winslet). In contrast to explicit responses, the Asian American target was implicitly regarded as being less American than t...

  5. Dependency distances in natural mixed languages. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Wang, Lin


    Haitao Liu et al.'s article [1] offers a comprehensive account of the diversity of syntactic patterns in human languages in terms of an important index of memory burden and syntactic difficulty - the dependency distance. Natural languages, a complex system, present overall shorter dependency distances under the universal pressure for dependency distance minimization; however, there exist some relatively-long-distance dependencies, which reflect that language can constantly adapt itself to some deep-level biological or functional constraints.

  6. 刘爱民教授治疗复发性斑秃的经验%Experience of Prof. LIU Ai-min for treating recurrent alopecia areate

    李静; 刘爱民; 吴姣美; 张琳琳


    Prof. LIU is experienced in the treatment of recurrent alopecia areate and has uniquemethods. The clinical efficacy is satisfactory. The methods should be widely applied.%刘爱民教授治疗复发性斑秃经验丰富,选方用药有其独到之处,临床效果满意,值得推广应用。

  7. Syntactic networks, do they contribute valid information on syntactic development in children?. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by J. Cong and H. Liu

    Ninio, Anat


    In the target article [1] Cong and Liu provide a clear and informative introduction to the use of complex networks in research studying language. I would like to add the perspective of a researcher of language acquisition who has been hopeful that network theory illuminates processes of development [2,3], but feels a certain difficulty with studies applying network analysis to the development of syntax.

  8. 关于柳永艳情词同情妓女的几点思考%Sympathy for Prostitutes:on Liu- Yong Erotic's poetry



    Liu Yong's erotic word in the modern majority view was that the author is truly ignited the care of the lower prostitutes and sympathy, the most important thing is to them on an equal footing with their own to write. However, the social environment and personal experience point of view of Liu Yong, Liu Yong's love is indeed like a prostitute on the surface composition of sympathetic prostitute, but if the society from the time and his description of the word erotic Overall, there Many places worth considering.%柳永的艳情词在现代多数人的观点中被认为是真实地寄寓了作者对下层妓女的关怀和同情,最主要的是把她们放在了与自己同等的地位来写。但从当时的社会环境和柳永的亲身经历来看,柳永的恋妓表面上看确像具有同情妓女的成分,但如果从当时的社会风气和他艳情词的描写总体来看,还是有许多值得思考的地方。

  9. An Analysis of Liu Yiming's "Yin Yang" Idea%刘一明的阴阳思想探析



    在中国的传统文化中,“阴阳”思想十分丰富,渗透到伦理学、养生学、宗教学等方方面面。到了清朝中后期,中国的封建社会整体走向衰落。为了提高“阴阳”思想在道教发展中的作用,推动道教的传播,全真教龙门派十一代传人刘一明从“阴阳”的含义、与“道”的关系等方面对“阴阳”思想作了细致的解读,不但使“阴阳”思想更体现出社会性的特征,而且在一定程度上推动了道教的发展。%Traditional Chinese culture is rich in "Yin Yang" idea, which has penetrated into many aspects of ethics, health science and religion. In the middle and late Qing Dynasty, the feudal society of China as a whole declined. In order to improve the role of "Yin Yang" thoughts played in the development of Taoism, and promote the spread of Taoism, Liu Yiming, the 10th generation descendant of dragon clan of Quanzhen Taoism, made detailed interpretation about the idea of "Yin Yang" from the aspects like the meaning of "Yin Yang" and the relationship between "Tao" and "Yin Yang", making not only the idea of "Yin Yang" reflect the social characteristics, but also to some extent, promote the development of Taoism.

  10. Becoming a mother: teenage mothers' experiences of first pregnancy.

    Maputle, M S


    The purpose of this study was firstly to explore and describe the experiences of teenage mothers of first pregnancy. Secondly, to develop guidelines of a support programme that is contextual and relevant to the needs of teenage mothers. The guidelines are aimed at assisting midwives in meeting the needs of teenage mothers. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and qualitative design was used. The phenomenological approach was implemented to collect and analyze data from a purposively selected sample of fourteen (14) teenage mothers who were pregnant for the first time. The model of Guba and Lincoln (1985: 301-318) was implemented to ensure trustworthiness in this qualitative study. Five themes emerged from the analysis of the data. Guidelines and recommendations for support programme were developed.

  11. 25 November 2008 - State Councilor in charge of Science, Technology and Education Y. Liu, People's Repblic of China, visiting AMS experiment with CERN Director-General R. Aymar and AMS Collaborator Y. Yang.

    Maximilien Brice


    25 November 2008 - State Councilor in charge of Science, Technology and Education Y. Liu, People's Repblic of China, visiting AMS experiment with CERN Director-General R. Aymar and AMS Collaborator Y. Yang.

  12. Medical student-mothers.

    Taylor, Julie; Macnamara, Marina; Groskin, Anna; Petras, Laura


    Medical training is challenging and parenting is a full-time responsibility. Balancing a family with the significant demands of medical school is a daunting endeavor. Yet there is little research available to guide students, faculty, or administrators. Using one U.S. medical school as a case study, this article provides a comprehensive overview of the common personal and professional challenges that medical students who are also mothers face during their undergraduate medical education, and practical strategies and resources useful in navigating such challenges. This article is also a resource guide for the faculty and administrators who teach, advise, and mentor medical-student parents. For leaders in medical education, the article concludes with suggestions to better support the health and educational experience of medical student-parents: 1) a systematic network of career advisors, 2) scheduling flexibility, 3) formal breastfeeding policies and workplace support, 4) institutionally supported childcare, and 5) how student-parents may foster the educational health mission of medical schools.

  13. Troubling Mothers: Introduction

    Imogen Tyler


    Full Text Available This panel explored a range of classed figurations of the maternal. It had two primary aims: firstly, to explore the relationship between social class and 'the maternal' and secondly to foreground the relative absence of psycho-social or psychoanalytic theoretical work on what Diane Reay has called 'The Psychic Landscape of Social Class' (2005. The data explored in this panel primarily originates from 'social spheres', popular and sensationalist media, art practice and 'everyday life'. It aimed to engage with analysis of these mediums and materials, and to initiate debate about the ways in which visible class representations and invisible class relations structure not only 'maternal publics' and also our most intimate, personal and 'interior' sense of ourselves as 'maternal subjects', as well as the ways in which 'visceral aversions, recognition, abjection and the markings of taste constitute a psychic economy of social class [that] contributes powerfully to the ways we are, feel and act' (Reay, 2005, p. 911. Four speakers presented their work on mothers, and three of these talks have been developed for publication in this issue.

  14. Influence of Reception Theory on Translation Strategies--A Case Study of Zhang Peiji’s and Liu Shicong’s translation of “If I Were King”



    “If I Were King” by Nie Gangu is renowned for criticizing servility and autocracy. This paper focuses on two different translation versions of Zhang Peiji and Liu Shicong from the perspective of Reception theory. A good translation cannot be done without a proper understanding of TL readers’ horizon of expectations, including their cultural background, language habits and aesthetic taste. The paper analyzes the translation strategies of Zhang and Liu based on those four diferent aspects.

  15. Experience of Professor LIU Fu-you to Treat Ovular Type of Myasthenia Gravis%刘福友教授治疗眼肌型重症肌无力经验



    刘福友教授善于从脾肾论治,运用补脾益肾法治疗眼肌型重症肌无力,配合瘫瘘胶囊取得满意临床疗效.%Professor LIU Fu-you Liu is good at treating ocular myasthenia gravis through the spleen and kidney treatment, with the Tanwei capsules to achieve a-satisfactory clinical efficacy.

  16. Effect of Training from Trained Mothers and Education from Mother to Mother on Family Functions and Child-Rearing Attitudes

    Demircioglu, Haktan; Ömeroglu, Esra


    The effect of training from trained mothers and education from mother to mother on family functions and child-rearing attitudes was examined. The study was conducted in the 2010-2011 academic year in Ankara, and was modeled based on a pre-test, post-test control group experimental pattern. The study was conducted with a total of 96 mothers, with…

  17. Mothers' Mobility after Separation : Do Grandmothers Matter?

    Das, Marjolijn; de Valk, Helga; Merz, Eva-Maria


    Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit

  18. LIU Wenfeng's Academic Thoughts of Treating Diabetes%刘文峰治疗消渴病之学术思想



    The article summarized professor LIU Wenfeng's academic thoughts of treating diabetes in his 46 years of medical carrer. The pathogenesis of traditional Chinese medicine for diabetes is yin deficiency and dryness-heat, in which yin deficiency is the fundament, dryness-heat is the performance. Therefore, there is the view to treat diabetes from lung , spleen and kidney. Even so, professor LIU thinks that the initial factor of diabetes is liver depression and spleen dysfunction. Based on the theory, he prefers to treat diabetes from liver and spleen. His theory is a supplement and development of diabetes in traditional Chinese medicine, therefore, study on professor LIU's academic thoughts is a new way to treat diabetes.%总结刘文峰教授从医46年治疗消渴病的学术思想,中医传统的观点认为消渴病(糖尿病)发病病机为阴虚燥热,以阴虚为本,燥热为标,主张从肺、脾(胃)、肾三脏论治.刘教授则认为消渴病的发生发展,尽管与肺、脾(胃)、肾三脏有密切关系,然而肝在此病全过程中居重要地位,而脾不散精是津液代谢失常的首要因素,故肝郁、脾不散精为糖尿病的始动因素.因此,提出了“从肝论治”“从脾论治”消渴病(糖尿病)的理论,其理论是对中医药治疗糖尿病的补充和发展,从而亦为消渴病(糖尿病)的治疗提出了新思路.

  19. Chinese patent medicine Fei-Liu-Ping ointment as an adjunctive treatment for non-small cell lung cancer: protocol for a systematic review

    Zheng, Honggang; He, Shulin; Liu, Rui; Xu, Xinyao; Xu, Tao; Chen, Shuntai; Guo, Qiujun; Gao, Yebo; Hua, Baojin


    Introduction Fei-Liu-Ping ointment has been widely applied as adjunctive drug in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there has been no systematic review of research findings regarding the efficacy of this treatment. Here, we provide a protocol for assessing the effectiveness and safety of Fei-Liu-Ping ointment in the treatment of NSCLC. Methods and analysis The electronic databases to be searched will include MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, Excerpt Medica Database (EMBASE), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Scientific Journal Database (VIP), Wanfang Database and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM). Papers in English or Chinese published from inception to 2016 will be included without any restrictions. We will conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trial if possible. The therapeutic effects according to the standard for treatment of solid tumours by the WHO and the quality of life as evaluated by Karnofsky score and weight will be applied as the primary outcomes. We will also evaluate the data synthesis and risk of bias using Review Manager 5.3 software. Dissemination The results of this review will offer implications for the use of Fei-Liu-Ping ointment as an adjunctive treatment for NSCLC. This knowledge will inform recommendations by surgeons and researchers who are interested in the treatment of NSCLC. The results of this systematic review will be disseminated through presentation at a conference and publication of the data in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42016036911. PMID:28093444

  20. The miscarriages of Justice in late Qing Dynasty——analysis focused on the original trial Judge Liu Xitong In the case of Yang Naiwu and Xiao Baicai

    ZHENG Ding; YANG Ang


    This article introduces the case of Yang Naiwu and Xiao Baicai,a famous case in late imperial China,and its important value for the study of legal history of the Qing Dynasty.Based on the analysis of this case,this article focuses on the issue of the responsibility of the magistrate Liu xitong,the judge of this ease,who analyzed the mentation of his miscarriage under the pressure of the rules about judges responsibilities in their judgment through which reveal the stimulation and passive infection of the judgment of the judges.

  1. On the Aesthetic Standards of Applied Writing by Liu Xie%刘勰论应用文写作的审美标准



    刘勰关于应用文写作的审美标准的论述,对后世教益非浅。他主要从应用文的文种结构、观点内容、语言文辞等三个方面来强调应用写作的审美标准。%The arguments of aesthetic standards on applied writing put forward by Liu Xie have deep influence on the later generations .He mainly emphasized the aesthetic standards of the applied w riting from three aspects ,i e. .structure of literary forms ,opinion's contents and linguistic rhetoric .

  2. Coevolution of dependency distance, hierarchical structure and word order. Comment on "Dependency distance: a new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Jing, Yingqi


    Exploring the relationships between structural rules and their linearization constraints have been a central issue in formal syntax and linguistic typology [1]. Liu et al. give a historical overview of the investigation of dependency distance minimization (DDM) in various fields, and specify its potential connections with the graphic patterns of syntactic structure and the linear ordering of words and constituents in real sentences [2]. This comment focuses on discussing the relations between dependency distance (DD), hierarchical structure and word order, and advocates further study on the coevolution of these traits in language histories.

  3. Dependency distance in language evolution. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Liu, Bingli; Chen, Xinying


    In the target article [1], Liu et al. provide an informative introduction to the dependency distance studies and proclaim that language syntactic patterns, that relate to the dependency distance, are associated with human cognitive mechanisms, such as limited working memory and syntax processing. Therefore, such syntactic patterns are probably 'human-driven' language universals. Sufficient evidence based on big data analysis is also given in the article for supporting this idea. The hypotheses generally seem very convincing yet still need further tests from various perspectives. Diachronic linguistic study based on authentic language data, on our opinion, can be one of those 'further tests'.

  4. Projectivity is the mathematical code of syntax. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Ninio, Anat


    The thought-provoking proposal by Liu, Xu and Liang [1] to integrate cognitive considerations involved in Dependency distance minimization (DDM) in syntactic theory will, I am sure, be much discussed in the literature. The authors are to be congratulated for a most serious, thorough and mature presentation. I am sure that DDM will find its rightful place alongside other cognitive factors that are considered to significantly affect the structure and evolution of language such as frequency with its serious impact on grammaticalization [2].

  5. On the relation between dependency distance, crossing dependencies, and parsing. Comment on "Dependency distance: a new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Carlos


    Liu et al. [1] provide a comprehensive account of research on dependency distance in human languages. While the article is a very rich and useful report on this complex subject, here I will expand on a few specific issues where research in computational linguistics (specifically natural language processing) can inform DDM research, and vice versa. These aspects have not been explored much in [1] or elsewhere, probably due to the little overlap between both research communities, but they may provide interesting insights for improving our understanding of the evolution of human languages, the mechanisms by which the brain processes and understands language, and the construction of effective computer systems to achieve this goal.

  6. A Doctoral Dissertation by Undesirable Learning Style——On Liu Fang's Song Dynasty Double Capital of Urban Culture and Literary Production

    Tan Qingyang


    Recently,I saw a doctoral dissertation online.It is Liu Fang' s Song Dynasty Double Capital of Urban Culture and Literary Production which passed Ph.D.thesis defense in a university in 2008.At the first glance at the subject,it is very attractive.While I read the afterword and knew the topic had won three funds given by his university,his province and the Ministry of Education respectively,it seemed even better.But after carefully reading the text,I was disappointed.We can say that it is not only filled with faults everywhere,but also by undesirable learning style.

  7. An in vitro study of the antioxidant activities and effect on human DNA of the Chinese herbal decoction 'Liu Wei Di Huang'.

    Szeto, Yim-Tong; Lei, Pui-Cheong; Ngai, Kam-Leong; Yiu, Andy Tak-Wah; Chan, Catarina Sin-Pek; Kok, Edith Wun-Fong; Leong, Chi-Wa


    A Chinese medicinal formulation, 'Liu Wei Di Huang', and its individual components have been tested for the genoprotective effect on human DNA by the comet assay. Results showed no DNA protection contributed by this prescription. However, the aqueous extracts of individual herbs, namely Cortex Moutan and Rhizoma Dioscoreae, were able to decrease by 10-15% the DNA stand break from hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidative stress. This provides insight to further evaluate the interaction among herbs and the search for the active ingredient responsible for the DNA protective effect.

  8. Parenthood motives in IVF-mothers.

    Colpin, H; De Munter, A; Vandemeulebroecke, L


    This is an exploratory study to answer two questions: (1) does in-vitro fertilization (IVF)-mothers' motivation for parenthood differ from the naturally conceiving mothers' motivation for parenthood? and (2) are IVF-mothers' parenthood motives correlated with their adjustment to parenthood (in the same way as they are for naturally conceiving mothers)? The study sample consisted of 31 mothers with a 24-30 month old, single-born child conceived by homologous IVF and a comparison group of 31 mothers with a naturally conceived child. Self-rating questionnaires were used. Overall, the parenthood motivation pattern was quite similar for IVF-mothers and mothers by natural conception. However, 'identity', 'motherhood' and 'social control' were significantly more important motives for IVF-mothers than for the naturally conceiving mothers. The two former motives remained more important for IVF-mothers when findings were adjusted for the influence of the mothers' age and educational level. Possible explanations for these findings refer to the infertility history. Overall, few correlations between parenthood motives and the adjustment to parenthood were significant, both for the IVF-mothers and for the mothers by natural conception. Further (hypothesis-testing) research is needed to support these findings.

  9. 《柳毅传书遇洞庭水仙女》与《柳毅传》情节、题旨比较研究%The plot and theme study of"Liu Yi book in Dongting water Fairy"and"biography of Liu Yi"



    "Biography of Liu Yi"was a representative text of Tang Chuanqi, later adapted for many,"Liu Yi book in Dongting water Fairy"was"new chapter", was the first adaptation of forming work, can arouse researchers’ attention. This article from two aspects of the plot and the theme to analyze the inheritance and development of"biography of Liu Yi".%《柳毅传》是唐传奇的代表篇章,后世多有改编之作,《柳毅传书遇洞庭水仙女》是《新编醉翁谈录》中的一章,也是《柳毅传》第一部改编的成形之作,不能不引起研究者重视。本文试从情节和题旨两个角度分析《柳毅传书遇洞庭水仙女》对《柳毅传》的继承和发展。

  10. A Narrative of Fear: Advice to Mothers.

    Åström, Berit


    Taking present-day research into so-called new momism and intense mothering as a starting point, this article argues that the current mothering discourse, rather than articulating a new phenomenon, perpetuates a regulative discourse developed in the nineteenth century, in advice books written by medical doctors for pregnant women and new mothers. Both the Victorian and the present-day texts play on feelings of guilt and inadequacy in order to control the actions and emotions of mothers, although the threatened outcome differs: present-day mothers are warned that their children may become obese or develop neuropsychological disorders, whereas Victorian mothers are warned that their children might die.

  11. 盛唐江西诗人刘昚虚交游及诗歌研究%Liu Shen-xu's View of Life and Poems



    An analysis of the view of life, poems and writing style of Liu Shen-xu, a Jiangxi native poet in the flourishing Tang Dynasty, shows that the circle of Jiangxi native poets at that time began to revive. Liu Shen-xu's poems were deeply affected by the poetry school of landscape and pastoral in the flourishing Tang Dynasty, which is believed to be a gorgeous aftereffect resulting from the expansion of the climax of poetry writing from the north to the south and east and also evidences that the culture of the Central Plain culture moved south.%通过分析盛唐江西诗人刘昚虚的交游、诗作及其诗歌风格,表明盛唐江西诗坛初步打破唐以前的封闭低靡状态.刘昚虚的诗歌深受盛唐山水田园诗派的影响,这既是诗国高潮向东向南扩展的绮丽余波,同时也是中原文化南下的又一次佐证.

  12. 刘世平针刺治疗眩晕经验%Clinical Experiences of Chief LIU Shiping on Treating Vertigo by Acupuncture

    解越; 李志亮; 李萌; 史澍


    To summary the peculiar experience of Chief LIU Shiping on treating vertigo by acupuncture. Chief Liu discriminated vertigo by excess and deficiency. He believed that most deficiency because of kidney deficiency, while excess resulted in excessive rising of liver-Yang, stagnation of Qi due to depression of the liver and phlegmatic hygrosis. Treating vertigo mainly based on differentiation of symptoms and signs, so that to choose points. Yin conceals Yang, Yang conceals Yin. Needling a point by three methods at the same time. There were both importance on needling method and choose points. Then an excellent could be obtained.%刘世平主任医师辨眩晕以虚实立论,虚证多肾虚,实证多由肝阳上亢、肝郁气滞、痰湿.治疗以辨证取穴为主,阴中求阳,阳中求阴,一穴三法,穴法、手法并重,效如桴鼓.

  13. 解读刘呐鸥都市小说中的女性身体叙事%Interpretation of Female Body Narrative in Liu Naou's Novels



    As a pioneer of the New-feeling genre,Liu Naou depicts the female body in the metropolitan life of Shanghai with his unique brushstrokes. The female body narrative in Liu Naou's novels caters for the consumer cul-ture whose purpose is pleasure. It is the cultural construction behind the body heterization that reveals the fact that the male discourse power on the leading position is still not changed.%作为新感觉派的先行者,刘呐鸥以独特的笔触描摹着上海大都市生活中的女性躯体。小说中对于女性的身体叙事,迎合了以享乐为题旨的消费文化。正是这种身体异化背后的文化建构,揭示了男性话语权利的中心地位仍未改变的事实。

  14. Feasibility Study of the PS Injection for 2 GeV LIU Beams with an Upgraded KFA-45 Injection Kicker System Operating in Short Circuit Mode

    Kramer, Thomas; Borburgh, Jan; Ducimetière, Laurent; Feliciano, Luis; Ferrero Colomo, Alvaro; Goddard, Brennan; Sermeus, Luc


    Under the scope of the LIU project the CERN PS Booster to PS beam transfer will be modified to match the requirements for the future 2 GeV beams. This paper describes the evaluation of the proposed upgrade of the PS injection kicker. Different schemes of an injection for LIU beams into the PS have been outlined in the past already under the aspect of individual transfer kicker rise and fall time performances. Homogeneous rise and fall time requirements in the whole PSB to PS transfer chain have been established which allowed to consider an upgrade option of the present injection kicker system operated in short circuit mode. The challenging pulse quality constraints require an improvement of the flat top and post pulse ripples. Both operation modes, terminated and short circuit mode are analysed and analogue circuit simulations for the present and upgraded system are outlined. Recent measurements on the installed kickers are presented and analysed together with the simulation data. First measurements verifying...

  15. The Mother of Famous Mathematician


    MOTHERS not only create families, but also create genius. World-famous mathematician Hua Luogeng (1910-1985) is one of the forefathers of China’s modern mathematics research and pedagogy. Hua developed the study of the analytic theory of numbers and the typical matrix geometry in China. Hua Lianqing, 90, is three years older

  16. Volunteerism: 'community mothers' in action.

    Downie, Jill; Clark, Kim; Clemenston, Katy

    Volunteers represent a growing, but often undervalued, section of service delivery in many areas in the community, particularly in health care. This paper is centred on volunteers' perceptions and experiences of home visiting gained through the implementation of the Community Mothers (CM) program in Western Australia (WA). Further, the paper aims to inform debate about the issue of professional versus non-professional home visitors and offers a perspective on the issue that may provide direction for policy makers and practitioners. This qualitative study involved individual telephone interviews with a volunteer sample of 12 participants, purposefully selected. Transcription data from each interview were examined and coded utilising an adapted method of content analysis described by Burnard (1991). Three main themes emerged in the findings as to why volunteers became involved in the Community Mothers Program: (1) Empathetic concern; (2) Contribution to community life; and (3) Lifecourse issues and personal development. With experiences of volunteers in home visiting, four main themes reflected the participants' views: (1) Facilitating client empowerment; (2) Facilitating personal empowerment; (3) Promoting social connectedness; and (4) Enabling goal setting. Although programs such as the Community Mothers Program aim to benefit and support mothers in the parenting role it is clear that there are benefits that emerge also for the individual volunteer, such as increased self-esteem, self-efficacy and satisfaction. Hence, measuring the overall outcomes that result from such program remains a major challenge.

  17. Editorial: Mother Tongue and Education

    S. P. Singh


    Full Text Available Linguists, language experts and child-psychologists believe that children can learn better in their mother tongue but that doesn’t go against multilingual education. It has also been observed that children studying through multilingual system develop better thinking and skills than monolingual education systems. Parents and peer all can help the child understand the issues if it

  18. Working Mothers and Their Children

    Mead, Margaret


    Discusses possible ways of providing continuity of care for young children of working mothers, including industry - sponsored day nurseries, cooperative nursery schools, communal clusters where working and nonworking women share household tasks and child care, and expanded neighborhood day care. (MG)

  19. The mother not the father.

    Adams, P L


    Otto Rank pioneered in regarding the mother's place as paramount in the emotional life of the child, even when he was enveloped in Freudian orthodoxy, but expanded his viewpoint after he had left the Freudian ranks. His more mature views were to stress separation and individuation as lifelong dilemmas because they were in tension with our urges to seek oneness and to merge with others and not to regard that struggle as a dialectic that got worked through or transcended in an early, pre-Oedipal stage. He believed that fusing and individuating were lifetime issues for all, in or out of their psychoanalyses. Rank showed radical feminist attitudes far ahead of his time, contending that the female is central and superior to male existence, and that women need a psychology that is not warmed-over male biases but truly a "female psychology." He foreshadowed later writers who emphasized the motherly warmth and caregiving of psychotherapists. He regarded many of his technical innovations as ways to heighten the reexperiencing of early child-and-mother interactions and thought of the analytic setting itself as being akin to the mother-child relationship. Among psychoanalysts of all colorations respecting their Freudian orthodoxy, there is a special mystique and nostalgia around the Oedipus complex and paramountcy of the father in a child's mental life; but Otto Rank took a militant, yet reasoned, stand against such patriarchal biases.

  20. Neither father nor biological mother

    Dahl, Bente; Malterud, Kirsti


    -mother” wasperceived as a bureaucratic concept. Conclusion: For lesbian co-mothers, being recognized in maternity care implies that they are valued forthe qualities that separate them from other user groups on a personal level. On a societal level, beingrecognized is related to acknowledgement of inventive ways...

  1. Mothers' knowledge, perception and practice of childhood ...

    Methods: A structured questionnaire was administered to 207 mothers who have at ... 13% (27) of mothers had out-rightly rejected immunization during campaign ... with knowledge of reason for immunization and acceptance of immunization ...

  2. 77 FR 28761 - Mother's Day, 2012


    ... mothers. Today, we continue to mark Mother's Day by paying tribute to the women who shape our characters..., at home and overseas, on the beat and on the bench. We celebrate the efforts of all our Nation's...

  3. Depression and Anxiety in Iranian Mothers of Children with Epilepsy



    JS, Lisonkova S. Periodprevalence of epilepsy in children in BC: a population-basedstudy. Can J Neurol Sci 2009 Jan;36(1:36-41.3. Otero S. Psychopathology and psychological adjustmentin children and adolescents with epilepsy. World J Pediatr2009 Feb;5(1:12-7.4. Rodenburg HR, Stams GJJM, Meijer AM, Aldenkamp AP,Dekovic´ M. Psychopathology in children with epilepsy:a metaanalysis. J Pediatr Psychol 2005 Sep;30(6:453-68.Epub 2005 Mar 3.5. Rodenburg R, Meijer AM, Dekovic M, AldenkampAP. Family factors and psychopathology in childrenwith epilepsy: a literature review. Epilepsy Behav 2005Jun;6(4:488-503.6. Lovejoy M, Graczyk PA, O_Hare E, Neuman G. Maternaldepression and parenting behavior: a meta-analytic reviewClin Psychol Rev 2000;20:561-92.7. Shore CP, Buelow JM, Austin JK, Johnson CS.Continuing psychosocial care needs in children with newonsetepilepsy and their parents. J Neurosci Nurs 2009Oct;41(5:244-50.8. Pianta RC, Lothman DJ. Predicting behavior problemsin children with epilepsy: child factors, disease factors,family stress, and child-mother interaction. Child Dev1994 Oct;65(5:1415-28.9. Dunn DW, Austin JK, Huster GA. Symptoms ofdepression in adolescents with epilepsy. J Am Acad ChildAdolesc Psychiatr 1999;38:1133-8.10. Shore CP, Austin JK, Huster GA, Dunn DW. Identifyingrisk factors for maternal depression in families ofadolescents with epilepsy. J Specialists Pediatr Nurs2002;7:71-80.11. Yongli, Cheng-Ye ji, Jiong Qin, Zhi-Xiang Zhang.Parental anxiety and quality of Life of epileptic children.Biomed Environ Sci 2008 Jun;21(3:228-32.12. Williams J, Steel C, Sharp GB, DelosReyes E, PhillipsT, Bates S, et al. Parental anxiety and quality of life inchildren with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 2003;4:483-6.13. Lv R, Wu L, Jin L, Lu Q, Wang M, Qu Y, Liu H. Depression,anxiety and quality of life in parents of children withepilepsy. Acta Neurol Scand 2009 Nov;120(5:335-41.14. Baki O, Erdogan A, Kantarci O, Akisik G, KayaalpL, Yalcinkaya C. Anxiety and depression in

  4. The Rutile (110)-Water Interface: A comment on "Structure and Dynamics of Liquid Water on Rutile TiO2(110)" by L.-M. Liu, C. Zhang, G. Thornton and A. Michaelides

    Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Sofo, Jorge O. [Pennsylvania State University; Bandura, Andrei V. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Zhang, Zhan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Predota, M. [University of South Bohemia, Czech Republic; Kumar, Nitin [ORNL; Kubicki, James D. [Pennsylvania State University; Kent, Paul R [ORNL; Vlcek, Lukas [ORNL; Machesky, Michael L. [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL; Fenter, Paul [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Cummings, Peter T [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Skelton, Adam [ORNL; Rosenqvist, Jorgen K [ORNL


    The (110) surface of rutile ( -TiO2) in contact with water is one of the most technologically-important and scientifically-investigated interfaces that exists. Liu and coworkers1 (hereafter Liu1) expanded on an excellent review of water-titania interfaces2, by conducting extensive static density functional theory (DFT) and DFT molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) investigations of rutile (110) using a range of cell configurations and DFT functionals. We agree with their DFT calculations of the influence of crystal slab thickness on water sorption energies, but find some of their major conclusions unwarranted or overstated, namely a.) that there is no dissociation of first-layer sorbed water at ~300K; b.) that translational diffusion of water molecules in contact with the surface approaches that of bulk liquid water ; and c.) that second layer water structuring and hydrogen bonding to surface oxygens are weak. We present published evidence not cited by Liu1 that challenge these assertions.

  5. Exploring Behavioral Intentions among Young Mothers

    Turney, Howard M.; Conway, Pat; Plummer, Pam; Adkins, Samuel E.; Hudson, George Cliff; McLeod, David A.; Zafaroni, Aileen


    This study examined the relationship between young mothers' individual characteristics (demographics and self-efficacy), social support, and behavioral intentions regarding education and child bearing. Using a home visiting model, the program recruited 141 teen mothers to participate. Young mothers completed an initial assessment, measuring…

  6. Incest Survivor Mothers: Protecting the Next Generation.

    Kreklewetz, Christine M.; Piotrowski, Caroline C.


    A study involving 16 incest-survivor mothers with daughters between the ages of 9-14 found the mothers described themselves as very protective and often overly-protective parents, wanting to parent differently, and better, than they were parented. Many survivors strive to be the "perfect mother" including over-protecting and over-nurturing…

  7. Mothers' Repartnering after a Nonmarital Birth

    Bzostek, Sharon H.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Carlson, Marcia J.


    This article examines the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of unmarried mothers' repartnering patterns following a nonmarital birth. Results indicate that, within five years after a birth, approximately two-thirds of unmarried mothers end their relationship with the focal child's biological father, and more than half of these mothers enter new…

  8. Exploring Behavioral Intentions among Young Mothers

    Turney, Howard M.; Conway, Pat; Plummer, Pam; Adkins, Samuel E.; Hudson, George Cliff; McLeod, David A.; Zafaroni, Aileen


    This study examined the relationship between young mothers' individual characteristics (demographics and self-efficacy), social support, and behavioral intentions regarding education and child bearing. Using a home visiting model, the program recruited 141 teen mothers to participate. Young mothers completed an initial assessment, measuring…

  9. College Students' Positivity toward Teen Mothers

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.


    Although teen pregnancy and parenthood are more visible in society than in the past, teen mothers are often stereotyped and stigmatized. The study examined positivity toward teen mothers among college students (N = 316) at a midwestern university. Although students responded positively to some items regarding teen mothers, other statements showed…

  10. 78 FR 28715 - Mother's Day, 2013


    ... women who raised them. Whether single or in partnership, foster or adoptive, mothers hold a special... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8980 of May 10, 2013 Mother's Day, 2013 By the President of the United States... Americans first came together to mark Mother's Day, generations of women have empowered their children with...

  11. Human milk composition differs in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease

    Olivares, M.; Albrecht, S.; Palma, de G.; Desamparados Ferrer, M.; Castillejo, G.; Schols, H.A.; Sanz, Y.


    Purpose To investigate whether breast-milk composition and microbiota differ in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease (CD) to ultimately contribute to identify additional factors determining CD risk. Methods Breast-milk samples from healthy mothers (n = 12) and mothers with CD (n = 12) wer

  12. 刘秀史事杂考三则--读《后汉书》札记之一%Three Textual Research on Liu Xiu ---One of the Reading Notes About History of the Later Han Dynasty



    对《后汉书》中有关刘秀的材料进行了若干考订,分别涉及刘秀称帝点的政治意义、封更始的意义及关于“公孙皇帝”的辩论。%After reading History of the Later Han Dynasty, three reading notes on Liu Xiu are deduced , which involve the political meaning about Liu Xiu’s being emperor, Geng Shi’s investiture, and the debate about Emperor Gongsun .

  13. Pioneer Mothers' Memorial Forest revisited

    R.C. Schlesinger; D.T. Funk; P.L. Roth; C.C. Myers


    The area now known as Pioneer Mothers' Memorial Forest was acquired by Joseph Cox in 1816 from the public domain. In 1944, a portion of that property, including the area referred to as Cox Woods, was established as a National Forest Research Natural Area. This beech-maple forest, located in the Knobs area of southern Indiana, is considered to be one of the few...

  14. Risk profile of pregnant mothers in Kelantan.

    Zulkifli, A; Rogayah, J; Hashim, M H; Shukri, O; Azmi, H


    A demographic and obstetric profile of pregnant mothers attending antenatal clinics in kelantan over period of one year was determined by a retrospective study of 10,032 registered pregnant mothers. The prevalence of risk factors related to the age of the mother, parity, weight, haemoglobin level, bad obstetric history and pregnancy related diseases were determined. Prevalence of teenage pregnancy and primigravida accounted for 4.3 and 17.2 percent respectively. Nearly 3.9 percent of the mothers weighed less than 40 kg and 44.5 percent of mothers were found to be anaemic (Hb less than 11g/d) at the first antenatal visit. Only 3.2 percent of the mothers did not have any designated risk factor. Previous bad obstetric history and pregnancy related disease accounted for 17.1 and 3.5 percent of mothers respectively.

  15. 刘建忠教授治疗小儿厌食症经验总结%Summary on Professor Liu Jianzhong's Experience on Treating of Infantile Anorexia

    林连美; 裴定邦; 彭文静; 计佳敏; 刘建忠


    Anorexia in children was a common disease , frequently occurring pediatric , seriously affected the growth and development of children.Professor Liu Jianzhong had the unique understanding of this disease .The treatment of infantile anorexia experience was summarized as follows for medical reference .%小儿厌食症是儿科的常见病、多发病,严重者会影响小儿生长发育。刘建忠教授对此病有独特认识,现对其治疗小儿厌食症经验进行总结如下,供广大医学者参考。

  16. Liu Xiang on our track and field development influence%刘翔对我国田径运动发展的影响



    Liu Xiang wins the Championship with the track and field heat, make our CoUntry jumps a hurdle the project overall level be improved and broke the existing world track and field SpOrtS imbalance confrontation; but also exposed the Chinese track and field Sports in the problem of existence, to the athletes themselves created enormous pressure.%刘翔的夺冠带起了田径热,使我国跨栏项目整体水平得到提高并打破了;原有世界田径运动的失衡对抗;但也同时暴露了中国田径运动中存在的问题,给运动员本身造成了巨大压力。

  17. Extending network approach to language dynamics and human cognition. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng


    By analyzing complex networks constructed from authentic language data, Cong and Liu [1] advance linguistics research into the big data era. The network approach has revealed many intrinsic generalities and crucial differences at both the macro and micro scales between human languages. The axiom behind this research is that language is a complex adaptive system [2]. Although many lexical, semantic, or syntactic features have been discovered by means of analyzing the static and dynamic linguistic networks of world languages, available network-based language studies have not explicitly addressed the evolutionary dynamics of language systems and the correlations between language and human cognition. This commentary aims to provide some insights on how to use the network approach to study these issues.

  18. On the interpretation of complex network analysis of language. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Jin Cong, Haitao Liu

    Čech, Radek


    After a rapid and successful development of the theory of complex networks at the turn of the millennium [1,2], attempts to apply this theory to a language analysis emerged immediately [3,4]. The first results seemed to bring new insights to the functioning of language. Moreover, some authors assumed that this approach can even solve some fundamental problems concerning language evolution [5,6]. However, after a decade of the application of complex network theory to language analysis, the initial expectations have not been fulfilled, in my opinion, and the need for a deeper, linguistically based explanation of observed properties has been still more obvious. Cong and Liu's review [7] can be seen as a successful attempt to clarify the main aspects of this kind of research from the linguistics point of view. However, I see two problematic aspects in their study relating to the nature of the character of explanation.

  19. Recension de The Birth Of Chinese Feminism. Essential Texts in Transnational Theory. by L. H. Liu, R. E. Karl & D. Ko

    Abbou, Julie


    Comment s'en sortir, 1; Recension de l'ouvrage The Birth Of Chinese Feminism. Essential Texts in Transnational Theory, édité par L. H. Liu, R. E. Karl & D. Ko.Cet ouvrage offre la première traduction en anglais des textes de la féministe anarchiste chinoise He-Yin Zhen, qui, au début du 20° siècle, voit dans la catégorisation de genre le modèle de toute catégorisation : un dispositif de pouvoir qui répartit la société selon un principe de domination, un mécanisme de division conceptuelle. Les...

  20. 士族身份与柳宗元的无嗣之忧%Gentry Family Identity and Liu Zongyuan’s Worrying about Being No Descendants



      中唐时期,士族家庭在婚姻上依然保持着门第观念,而在仕途上,则已经风光不再了。士族出身对士子的仕宦生涯所发生的影响渐小,他们能够守住的是“婚”的底线和优美的家学家风。无嗣之忧与柳宗元的士族出身有直接的关系,这关涉如何传宗接代以继承家学门风。对于柳宗元本人来说,建功立业已经遥不可及,而以著述传世尚可。这就需要有传人,所以他在与年轻人的交流中传播自己的文学观念。家族教育的兴盛、文学教育的看重本就是河东柳氏的传统。没有子嗣意味着家学难以为继的局面。对柳宗元的文学活动做一番考察,就会发现,这是他文学创作最为活跃的一个时期。柳宗元对自己身后事的处理中同样存在无嗣之忧的影响。%In the middle period of Tang Dynasty ,the marriage of gentry family was still maintaining the family concept in marriage ,but the gentry family had been no longer successful career .The influence on career had become gradually smaller whether or not they were nobles .What they can hold is the bottom line of marriage and good family tradition .There is a direct relationship between Liu Zongyuan ’s family i-dentity and worrying about being no descendants ,which relates to how to inherit the family name and fami-ly tradition .For Liu Zongyuan ,building up a successful career has been out of reach ,and only the works handed down is possible .This requires a successor ,thus he spread his ideas of literature when he commu-nicated with young people .The boom and ebb of family education and literary education appreciate the family tradition of Mr. Liu Zhongyuan ,who live in the left bank of the river .No heir means no inheritance to the family cultures .Doing a survey of Liu Zongyuan’s literary activities ,we will find that this is a most active period of his literary creation .Effect of heirless worries also consist in

  1. Computer simulation as an important approach to explore language universal. Comment on "Dependency distance: a new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Lu, Qian


    Exploring language universal is one of the major goals of linguistic researches, which are largely devoted to answering the ;Platonic questions; in linguistics, that is, what is the language knowledge, how to get and use this knowledge. However, if solely guided by linguistic intuition, it is very difficult for syntactic studies to answer these questions, or to achieve abstractions in the scientific sense. This suggests that linguistic analyses based on the probability theory may provide effective ways to investigate into language universals in terms of biological motivations or cognitive psychological mechanisms. With the view that ;Language is a human-driven system;, Liu, Xu & Liang's review [1] pointed out that dependency distance minimization (DDM), which has been corroborated by big data analysis of corpus, may be a language universal shaped in language evolution, a universal that has profound effect on syntactic patterns.

  2. Dependency distance minimization in understanding of ambiguous structure. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Zhao, Yiyi


    Dependency Distance, proposed by Hudson [1], calculated by Liu [2,3], is an important concept in Dependency Theory. It can be used as a measure of the syntactic difficulty, and lots of research [2,4] have testified the universal of Dependency Distance in various languages. Human languages seem to present a preference for short dependency distance, which may be explained in terms of general cognitive constraint of limited working memory [5]. Psychological experiments in English, German, Russian and Chinese support the hypothesis that Dependency Distance minimization (DDM) make languages to evolve into some syntactic patterns to reduce memory burden [6-9]. The study of psychology focuses on the process and mechanism of syntactic structure selection in speech comprehension. In many speech comprehension experiments [10], ambiguous structure is an important experimental material.

  3. 刘学勤肝胆病学术思想初探%Academic Thoughts of Liver and Gall Disease by Liu Xueqin

    赵庆华; 刘静生; 刘晓彦; 张天华


    Professor Liu Xueqin zhongjing advocates zhong-jing theory in treating liver and gall disease. Make use of classical prescrip-tions,attach great importance to the system concept,combined syndrome differentiation and disease,create liver theory of fever,tonify deficiency in addition to hot first and establish liver sausage. Follow the traditional Chinese medicine theory to make good use of external treatment of liver and gall.%刘学勤教授治疗肝胆病崇尚仲景学说,善用经方治疗肝胆病;重视系统观念,辨证与辨病相结合;创立肝热病理论,补虚除热为先;阐发肝肠理论,倡立肝病肠治;遵循中医理论,善用肝胆外治。

  4. Professor Liu Shenlin′s experience in treating pancreatic cancer%刘沈林教授辨治胰腺癌经验探析

    张力; 祁明浩; 王鹂


    Professor Liu Shenlin , Vice-president of Jiangsu TCM association , is Jiangsu Provincial famous physician and promi-nent TCM cancer experts .Liu has rich experience in syndrome differentiation for pancreatic cancer and summarized its pathetical factors as dysfunction of spleen , dampness and heat in liver and gallbladder , qi stagnation in middle-Jiao, toxic stasis in liver and spleen.He emphasizes strengthening spleen to tonify qi , clearing heat and dispelling dampness to sooth liver and gallbladder , soothing liver to regulate qi so as to relieve pain , activating qi to eliminating blood stasis , and removing toxins to eliminating stasis and receives good results .This paper is to analyze Prof .Liu′s academic thoughts and experience in treating pancreatic cancer through two case studies for providing more references .%刘沈林教授是江苏省名中医、江苏省中医药学会副会长、著名中医肿瘤专家.其在多年临证经验中,辨证分析胰腺癌的中医病因病机多为脾运不健、肝胆湿热、中焦气滞、肝脾瘀毒,并总结出以健脾益气,助运和中;清热化湿,疏泄肝胆;疏肝理气,行气止痛;活血化瘀,解毒散结为主的治疗大法,临床收效甚佳.作者列举两例典型胰腺癌诊治经过,探析刘师辨治思想及治疗经验,以供同道参考.

  5. Power Struggle between Assisting Ministers Group and Hereditary Gentry in the Early Reign of Emperor Qianfei of Liu Song%蔡兴宗远徙事发微


    宋前废帝在位初年,刘义恭等顾命大臣与戴法兴等恩倖势力联合控制了政局。为了争夺政治权力,刘义恭、戴法兴等执政者与以蔡兴宗为代表的高门士族围绕吏部选官问题展开斗争。执政者企图凭借对“尚书”和“中旨”的控制强行压制高门士族,却遭到高门士族主导之舆论的强烈抵制。最终,刘义恭、戴法兴等执政大臣因为高门士族的反对而在统治阶层中陷于孤立,不久被前废帝消灭,刘宋政局也由此进入一个激烈冲突和动荡的时期。%In the early reign of Emperor Qianfei of Liu Song,Yongguang Assisting Ministers Group,comprising assisting ministers like Liuyigong and minions like Daifaxing,controlled the political situation. Struggling for more political power,the assisting minister group contested with hereditary gentry represented by Caixingzong on the of-ficer collection of the Ministry of Official Personnel Affairs. The assisting minister group attempted to suppress he-reditary gentry with their control of government and court,but was fiercely resisted by the public voices which were dominated by hereditary gentry. Eventually,the assisting minister group was isolated in the dominance hierarchy, which was caused by the opposition of hereditary gentry. Shortly after that,Emperor Qianfei was eliminated and the political situation of Liu Song entered a period of furious conflicts and turbulences.

  6. The Study of LIU Guo-jun's Human Resource Management%民国企业家刘国钧人力资源管理研究



    LIU Guo-jun,an entrepreneur,established Dacheng Spinning Weaving Dyeing 1930.During the Great Depression in 1929-1933,many national entrepreneurs went bankrupt.While Dacheng developed rapidly in less than eight years and created a miracle in modern business history.The reason was that LIU Guojun paid attention to human resource management,whose thought embodies the combination of tradition and modern culture.He turned crises into opportunities by selecting talents,training personnel,developing employees benefits,exerting workers' subjectivity and initiative.%1930年常州大成纺织染有限公司由民族企业家刘国钧创办,时值1929-1933年世界经济危机,而大成纺织染有限公司在不到8年的时间内,发展迅速,创造了近代中国企业史的奇迹。大成奇迹的出现与刘国钧重视企业人力资源管理是分不开的。刘国钧人力资源管理思想体现了传统与现代的结合,刘国钧甄选人才、培养人才、发展职工福利、积极发挥职工的主体性和积极性,使企业化危为机。

  7. Mothers' part-time employment: associations with mother and family well-being.

    Buehler, Cheryl; O'Brien, Marion


    The associations between mothers' part-time employment and mother well-being, parenting, and family functioning were examined using seven waves of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data (N = 1,364), infancy through middle childhood. Concurrent comparisons were made between families in which mothers were employed part time and both those in which mothers were not employed and those in which mothers were employed full time. Using multivariate analysis of covariance with extensive controls, results indicated that mothers employed part time had fewer depressive symptoms during the infancy and preschool years and better self-reported health at most time points than did nonemployed mothers. Across the time span studied, mothers working part time tended to report less conflict between work and family than those working full time. During their children's preschool years, mothers employed part time exhibited more sensitive parenting than did other mothers, and at school age were more involved in school and provided more learning opportunities than mothers employed full time. Mothers employed part time reported doing a higher proportion of child care and housework than mothers employed full time. Part-time employment appears to have some benefits for mothers and families throughout the child rearing years.

  8. [Food intakes in breast-feeding mothers].

    Savino, F; Bermond, S; Bonfante, G; Gallo, E; Oggero, R


    The relation between mother's diet and breastmilk composition is still an open issue. Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason breast feeding women usually pay attention about their alimentary practices and about their style of life during breast-feeding period. This research was conducted to verify the adequacy of lactating mother's diet in comparison with the Italian recommended daily assumption levels of nutrients (LARN 1996) for this category. We have also compared food intake of not breast feeding mothers with the LARN, and analyzed the differences between these groups of mothers. Forty-eight healthy infants were selected, 23 bottle fed, 25 breast fed. Mothers's diet in the previous 48 hours was investigated using a structured questionnaire. The data collected were processed using software Dietosystem to obtain the daily nutrient intakes. The wetnurses's diet in comparison with the LARN 1996 resulted hypocaloric and hyperproteic, deficient in Calcium, Iron, folic acid and vitamin E. Surprisingly not breast feeding mothers's intake of nutrients is closer to LARN levels than that of breast feeding mothers. Mothers are not informed enough about their alimentation during lactating period. Pediatricians must improve their knowledge about this subject and give the mothers the information they need to achieve the recommended food requirements.

  9. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B


    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.

  10. How Shen Yue' View of Music Bureau Poems Affected Liu Xie%论沈约“嫉俗趋雅”乐府观对刘勰的影响



    Liu Xie's opinion about Music Bureau Poems is deeply affected by Shen Yue.Liu Xie shows a classical view of Music Bureau Poems in Wen Xin Diao Long when the traditional music has gone.instead,vulgar music becomes very popular.In this point,Liu Xie follows Shen Yue's words in YueZhi of Song Shu.Liu Xie and Shen Yue only appreciate the classics,not referring to the developing factors of the music.But when they talk about other literature genres,they advocate the connection of tradition and pop.In fact,Their views of Music Bureau Poems come from the Music Bureau Poems ' important part in politics.%刘勰的乐府观受沈约影响极深。《文心雕龙·乐府》与《宋书·乐志》均感叹周乐雅正传统一去不返,俚俗之乐甚嚣尘上,体现出“嫉俗趋雅”的乐府观。在论及其它文体时两人均能做到复古与通变的统一,独于乐府只言复古,不及通变,此与历代独重乐府在政教中的作用这一传统有关。

  11. FY 2010 Second Quarter Report Evaluation of the Liu-Daum-McGraw (LDM) Drizzle Threshold Parameterization using Measurements from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere Land Study (VOCALS) Field Campaign

    McGraw, R; Kleinman, LI; Springston, SR; Daum, PH; Senum, G; Wang, J


    Metric for Quarter 2: Evaluate LDM (Liu, Daum, McGraw) drizzle threshold parameterization for a range of cloud conditions by comparing the threshold function computed using measurements of cloud droplet number concentration and cloud liquid water content to measurements of drizzle droplet number concentrations and/or drizzle water content.

  12. Dependency distance: A new perspective on the syntactic development in second language acquisition. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural language" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Jiang, Jingyang; Ouyang, Jinghui


    Liu et al. [1] offers a clear and informative account of the use of dependency distance in studying natural languages, with a focus on the viewpoint that dependency distance minimization (DDM) can be regarded as a linguistic universal. We would like to add the perspective of employing dependency distance in the studies of second languages acquisition (SLA), particularly the studies of syntactic development.

  13. Space Arrangement:Narrative Function of Dance Drama-A Case Study of the 2nd Scene of Goddess Luoshen%调度:舞剧的叙事功能--以我的《洛神赋》第二场为例



    The space arrangement of dance not only includes dance scenes , formations and arrays but also shows space quality , with a special function in the dance drama and same importance as language and movements .The space arrangement is also one of the main skills of choreography .In Goddess Luoshen, its space arrangement has an extremely prominent function of narration and be-comes a typical example in Chinese dance choreography .%舞蹈调度不仅是舞蹈画面、构图或队形,也是空间品质。它在舞蹈舞剧中有特殊的功能,也同动作、语言一样重要,是舞蹈编导重要功力之一。《洛神赋》中舞蹈调度的叙事功能极为突出,是中国舞蹈创作的典型实例。本文既是创作总结,也是研究总结,主要以舞剧第二场的具体设计为例。

  14. Analysis of Liu Zhiji Theory of Historians' and Zhang Xuecheng' s Cultivation Comparison%刘知几与章学诚的史家修养理论比较研究



    Liu Zhiji and Zhang Xuecheng are famous for their historical theory in ancient China. They all put forward the theory of historian historians' cultivation which has important sense to improve historian self-cultivation and historical development. Liu Zhiji argued that historians should have "ability, learning, knowledge", Zhang Xuecheng further put forward historian moral on the basis of the Liu Zhiji~s theory,enriched and developed the theory of the historians~ cultiva- tion. They all emphasize "ability,learning, knowledge", Liu Zhiji emphasize "knowledge" mostly, but Zhang Xuecheng relied heavily on "moral". Comparison and analysis on Liu Zhiji and Zhang Xuecheng's theory of self-cultivation,not only enable us to find their theories difference, under- standing the theory deeply, but also has certain enlightenment function on the contemporary historiography development.%我国古代史学理论大家刘知几、章学诚均提出了有关史家修养的理论,刘知几认为史家应具备"才、学、识",章学诚在继承刘知几史家修养理论的基础上,进一步提出"史德",丰富和发展了史家修养理论。刘知几、章学诚均重视"才、学、识",但刘知几最重"史识",章学诚尤重"史德"。比较和分析二者的史家修养理论,不仅能使我们发现他们理论的异同,深刻理解史家修养理论,而且对当今史学发展也具有一定的启示功用。

  15. The Influence of Tao Yuanming on the Jiangyou Poetic School——Liu Song, Chen Mo and Liu Yongzhi as the Center%论陶渊明对明初江右诗派的影响——以刘崧、陈谟和刘永之等为中心



    The Jiangyou School is one of the five Poetic Schools in the early Ming Dynasty. Its leader was Liu Song, the representatives were Chen mo,Liu Yongzhi, and so on. As the Salaf of the Jiangyou School, Tao Yuanming have profound impact on them with his character integrity, attitude, imagery,poetry style and other aspects . Particularly, at poetry style, the plain style of the Jiangyou School and the mellow style of Tao Yuanming aesthetic pursuit of the same strain.%明初的江右诗派为其时五大诗派之一,领袖人物为刘崧,代表人物有陈谟、刘永之等. 作为江右诗派的乡邦先贤,陶渊明对江右派影响深远,其人品气节、生活态度、诗歌意象及风格等方面都对他的这些隔代乡邦文人们产生了较大的影响.尤其诗风方面,江右派雅淡、醇正的诗歌风尚与陶渊明淡远、真醇的美学追求一脉相承.

  16. Mother and infant: early emotional ties.

    Klaus, M


    Recent behavioral and physiologic observations of infants and mothers have shown them ready to begin interacting in the first minutes of life. Included among these findings are the newborn infant's ability to crawl toward the breast to initiate suckling and mother-infant thermoregulation. The attachment felt between mother and infant may be biochemically modulated through oxytocin; encouraging attachment through early contact, suckling, and rooming-in has been shown to reduce abandonment.

  17. Diaphragmatic myasthenia in mother and child.

    Mier, A K; Havard, C W


    A 28 year old patient with ocular myasthenia for 2 y gave birth to a baby with diaphragmatic weakness. Following delivery the mother developed severe weakness of the diaphragm and required assisted ventilation. The baby recovered spontaneously and the mother responded to treatment with plasma exchange and immunosuppression. Neither mother nor baby responded to anticholinergic drugs and in neither serum were acetyl choline receptor antibodies detected.

  18. Reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission


    In developing countries,mother-to-child trans mission of human immune deficiency virus (HIV)is responsible for 5 to 10 percen t o f all new HIV infections.Most children born to HIV-positive mothers are not HIV positive,but one quarter to one third are.The following instert looks at the p o ssibilities for reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission,and discusses some of the questions that are still unanswered.

  19. Social class, anxieties and mothers' foodwork.

    Wright, Jan; Maher, JaneMaree; Tanner, Claire


    In the context of concerns about childhood obesity, mothers are placed at the forefront of responsibility for shaping the eating behaviour and consequently the health of their young children. This is evident in a multitude of diverse sites such as government reports, health promotion materials, reality TV shows and the advice of childcare nurses and preschools. These sites produce a range of resources available to mothers to draw on to constitute themselves as mothers in terms of caring for their children's health. Drawing on a qualitative study of mothers recruited through three Australian preschool centres, this article examines how the working-class and middle-class mothers of preschool-aged children engage with knowledge about motherhood, children and health and how those engagements impact on their mothering, their foodwork and their children. We argue that, unlike the working-class mothers pathologised in some literature on obesity, these working-class mothers demonstrated a no-nonsense (but still responsibilised) approach to feeding their children. The middle-class mothers, on the other hand, were more likely to engage in practices of self-surveillance and to demonstrate considerable anxieties about the appropriateness of their practices for their children's current and future health.

  20. The Jerusalem psychiatric mother-baby unit.

    Maizel, S; Kandel Katzenelson, S; Fainstein, V


    The Jerusalem mother and baby unit (MBU) is influenced by the psychoanalytical orientation of the staff, and the historical and cultural conditions surrounding the unit. Forty-three patients with 44 babies (one set of twins) were admitted in 13 years, a rate of admission far from the theoretical demand. Schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and mood disorders have been the major diagnoses in more than 50% of the patients. Mothers with schizophrenia were significantly more likely to be admitted sooner after the birth than mothers without schizophrenia (p = 0.025). One infant was separated from the mother on discharge and four recommendations for adoption were given.

  1. Signal Analysis by New Mother Wavelets

    NIU Jin-Bo; FAN Hong-Yi; QI Kai-Guo


    Based on the general formula for finding qualified mother wavelets [Opt. Lett. 31 (2006) 407] we make wavelet transforms computed with the newly found mother wavelets (characteristic of the power 2n) for some optical Gaussian pulses, which exhibit the ability to measure frequency of the pulse more precisely and clearly. We also work with complex mother wavelets composed of new real mother wavelets, which offer the ability of obtaining phase information of the pulse as well as amplitude information. The analogy between the behavior of Hermite-Gauss beams and that of new wavelet transforms is noticed.

  2. Mothers' union histories and the mental and physical health of adolescents born to unmarried mothers.

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Frech, Adrianne; Addo, Fenaba; Cooksey, Elizabeth


    As nonmarital childbearing becomes a dominant pathway to family formation, understanding its long-term consequences for children's well-being is increasingly important. Analysis of linked mother-child data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicates a negative association of having been born to a never-married mother with adolescent self-assessed health but not with depressive symptoms. We also consider the role of mothers' subsequent union histories in shaping the adolescent health outcomes of youth born to unmarried mothers. With two exceptions, unmarried mothers' subsequent unions appear to have little consequence for the health of their offspring during adolescence. Adolescents whose mothers subsequently married and remained with their biological fathers reported better health, yet adolescents whose mothers continuously cohabited with their biological fathers without subsequent marriage reported worse adolescent mental health compared with adolescents whose mothers remained continually unpartnered.

  3. The mother as hidden regulator

    Annie Panzer


    Full Text Available A human baby is born with a decidedly immature brain, and is absolutely dependent on an intense relationship with its mother (or primary caregiver for brain maturation. In the short term, maternal regulation contributes to a more joyful baby, while in the long term it leads to the internalisation and development of self-regulatory capabilities. The ability to regulate one’s own emotional states is based on the development of right orbitofrontal dominance of dual limbic circuits, i.e. the excitatory sympathetic ventral tegmental circuit, and the inhibitory parasympathetic lateral tegmental circuit. Thus the child will be able to calm down after nigh overwhelming emotions by activating the parasympathetic system, but also to bounce back after setbacks by activating the sympathetic system. The mother influences the parcellation of the two limbic systems and thus the permanent excitation-inhibition autonomic balance of its prefrontal regulatory system. Repeated unregulated emotional states in the practicing period from 12-18 months pave the way for various psychological and psychiatric disorders in adulthood. It is worrisome that many children pass through this critical time in nursery schools, where a shortage of adult staff may lead to the scenario where a child’s emotions are repeatedly not modulated, with dire consequences for the internalisation of its future self-regulating capabilities.

  4. Girl Babies Make Mothers Sick



    已经或是将要做母亲的女性阅读此文一定兴味盎然。本文告诉我们: …women suffering from extreme morning sickness during the first three months of pregnancy are more likely to be carrying a daughter than a son. 这个结论不是凭空想象出来的,其调查的对象人数多达百万,令人吃惊: Askling and his team compared more than a million births in Sweden with records of women admitted to hospital for extreme morning sickness. 更令人吃惊的是,除了现代的调查之外,研究人员还引用了古希腊名医希波克拉底的观点: …female fetuses gave the mother a pale face, whereas a mother carrying a male fetus has a healthier tone(气色)to her skin.】

  5. The Impact of Daughters' Eating Disorders in Mothers' Sense of Self: Contextualizing Mothering Experiences.

    Hoskins, Marie L.; Lam, Eugenie


    Examines how daughters' anorexia influence the mothers' understandings of mothering and self within the greater context of societal influences. Using constructivist theory and discursive psychology, four themes characterized participants' relationship to cultural myths and discourses associated with eating disorders and mothering. (Contains 48…

  6. Sexual Health Discussions between African-American Mothers and Mothers of Latino Descent and Their Children

    Murray, Ashley; Ellis, Monica U.; Castellanos, Ted; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Sneed, Carl D.


    We examined approaches used by African-American mothers and mothers of Latino descent for informal sex-related discussions with their children to inform sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention development efforts. We recruited mothers (of children aged 12-15) from youth service agencies and a university in southern California.…

  7. Conflict Between Mothers and Adolescents in Single-Mother, Blended, and Two-Biological-Parent Families.

    Laursen, Brett


    OBJECTIVE: This investigation was designed to shed light on household structure differences in mother - adolescent conflict. DESIGN: Atotal of 453 early, mid, and late adolescents from 3 ethnic groups completed questionnaires describing the rate and affective intensity of daily conflicts with mothers and fathers in single-mother (divorced or never married), 2-biological-parent, and blended (remarried) families. RESULTS: Compared to sons, daughters reported more disagreements with mothers and more negative affect in disagreements with mothers and fathers. Adolescents reported more total disagreements and more angry disagreements with single mothers than with mothers in 2-biological-parent families; adolescents in blended families fell in between. Reports of conflict with fathers did not differ across 2-biological-parent families and blended families. There were no household structure differences in conflict with parents (mothers and residential fathers combined), indicating that levels of conflict with single mothers are elevated by approximately the same number of disagreements that otherwise fall to fathers in 2-parent households. Potential moderators (adolescent age, ethnicity, and gender, maternal employment, prior marital status of single-mothers, socioeconomic status, and levels of social interaction) did not alter the results. CONCLUSIONS: For adolescents, single parenthood restricts the number of partners available for disagreement but has little bearing on the number or affective tenor of daily disagreements with mothers. In contrast, single parenthood is associated with elevated levels of family discord for mothers.

  8. Contributing Factors to Older Teen Mothers' Academic Success as Very Young Mothers

    Hernandez, Jennifer; Abu Rabia, Hazza M.


    This qualitative study explores the factors contributed to 13 older teen mothers' academic success as very young mothers. The participants were older teen mothers who were pregnant and gave birth at the age of 16 years old or younger, and who have achieved a college degree from an accredited college or university while they raised their…

  9. 试论刘纲纪美学中的“情感”%On the Feeling Concept in Liu Gangji's Aesthetics Thought



    Emotion is an important conception in Liu Gangji's aesthetics.According to the practical ontology ,Liu Gangji considered the emotion to be a reflection of the reality .The subjectivity of emotion contains objectivity social content .Fundamentally speaking ,the tar-get of art expression is a reality ,and emotion is just an intermediary of artistic expression .The art emotion is intuitive to the emotional nature of human freedom .In classical Chinese art and aesthetics , emotion occupied a core position .The clan era is historical and cul-tural roots of paying attention to emotional in Chinese art and aesthetics .Confucianism benevolence originated in the blood affection .The realization of benevolence is beauty to achieve .The Taoism aesthetics transcended the confucianism benevolence and had a broad feel -ings to incorporate all things .The art of Chu pay attention to the emotion because it retains more tradition of clan society .%情感是刘纲纪美学中的重要问题。刘纲纪基于实践本体论,把情感理解为人对现实的一种反映形式,情感的主观性中包含了客观性的社会内容,艺术表现的对象根本上是现实,情感是中介。艺术表现的情感是直观到人的自由本质的情感。情感处在中国艺术与美学的核心位置,氏族时代重视血缘亲情是中国艺术与美学重视情感的历史文化根源。儒家的仁以血缘亲情为基础,仁的实现就是美的实现。道家美学具有超越差等之爱而兼怀万物的博大情怀,楚骚艺术极重情感缘于楚国更多保留了氏族社会的传统。

  10. On Liu qin xi (Six animal frolics) in Huai nan zi (Discourses of Master Huainanzi)%论《淮南子》六禽戏



    西汉刘安《淮南子》中记载的6种导引术式,学者们称之为“六禽戏”.六禽戏是从古代繁杂的导引术式中简化而来的,是模仿6种动物的形象而成的仿生导引.其中“熊经”是模仿熊直立摇晃行走的动作,以锻炼腰背下肢;“鸟伸”是模仿鸟伸展双臂和双腿的动作,以锻炼肩膀四肢;“凫浴”是模仿野鸭摇头游水的动作,以锻炼头颈;“蝯躩”是模仿猿在树间跳跃的动作,以锻炼腰腿;“鸱视”是模仿鸱鹰的伸颈动作,以锻炼颈项和眼睛;“虎顾”是模仿老虎扭头回视的动作,以锻炼项臀.%The six styes of the art of Daoyin recorded in Liu An's Huai nan zi (Discourses of Master Huainanzi) of the Western Han Dynasty was called the Liu qin xi which was simplified from the complicated ancient Daoyin art of bionic practice imitating the movements of six kinds of animal.Among them,the "xiong jing" imitates the erecting walking style of a bear so as to strengthen the waist and lower extremities;the "niao shen" follows the spreading of wings of a bird so as to extend the arms and legs,to train the shoulders and extremities ; the "fu yu" imitates the movements of swimming and moving head of a wild duck so as to train the head and neck; the "yuan jue"imitates the jumping of a monkey among the tree branches so as to train the legs and waist; the "chi shi" imitates the streching neck movements of an eagle so as to strengthen the neck and improvement of vision; while the "hu gu" imitates the movement of turning head of a tiger so as to train one's nape and the buttock.

  11. Hispanic Mothers' Perceptions of Self-Determination

    Shogren, Karrie


    Limited research has explored the perceptions of self-determination held by diverse families. In this study, seven mothers of transition-age youth with severe disabilities who were Hispanic were interviewed. Each mother was actively engaged in advocacy related to diverse children with disabilities in their local schools and communities. Mothers…

  12. Looking Mother Tongue Instruction through Different Perspectives

    Regmi, Kapil Dev


    Mother Tongue Instruction has been a debatable issue since long. There may be two options in the medium of instruction: either to teach especially primary and preprimary schoolchildren in their own mother tongue or continue using second or foreign language as the medium of instruction. Both of the approaches bear some pros and cons. This article…

  13. Postpartum Mental State of Mothers of Twins

    Brantmüller, Éva; Gyúró, Mónika; Galgán, Kitti; Pakai, Annamária


    Twin birth is a relevant risk factor for postnatal depression (PND). The primary objective of our study is to reveal the prevalence of suspected cases of depression and to identify some background factors among mothers of twins. We applied convenience sampling method within a retrospective, quantitative study among mothers given birth to twins for…

  14. Mothers' Perceptions of Female Genital Mutilation

    Ahanonu, E. L.; Victor, O.


    The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics…

  15. Today's Unmarried Mothers: The Choices Have Changed.

    Grow, Lucille J.


    A mid-1970s study of the characteristics of pregnant unmarried mothers who keep their children and those who surrender them for adoption discloses some differences from the characteristics of such mothers in the late 1960s and early 1970s. (CM)

  16. Follow-up of Unmarried Adolescent Mothers

    Clapp, Douglas F.; Raab, Rebecca Staude


    As more adolescent unmarried mothers decide to keep their babies, social service agencies need to reevaluate their programs to meet changing needs. This study examines the living situations, educational and employment status, and interpersonal relationships of 30 adolescent unmarried mothers to determine the services they themselves thought they…

  17. How Mothers Perceive Their Own Sexuality

    Trice-Black, Shannon


    For women, the transition to motherhood is often a time period filled with excitement, changes, and challenges. Mothers often face changes in their own sexuality in their adjustment to motherhood. The majority of research on the sexual changes during motherhood has focused on the first year postpartum of mothers and has emphasized biological,…

  18. Undergraduate Single Mothers' Experiences in Postsecondary Education

    Beeler, Sydney


    Using Astin's (1993) College Impact Model, this chapter explores the current literature as it relates to single mothers in undergraduate postsecondary education. The chapter looks at the ways that undergraduates who are single mothers are counter to the "ideal-student" norms. Policy and best-practice recommendations conclude the chapter.

  19. The Sesame Mother Project. Final Report.

    Filep, Robert T.; And Others

    The main objective of the Sesame Mother Pilot Project was to increase the effectiveness of the television program with preschool children in densely populated, low-income, inner-city areas. Volunteer Mothers selected from the inner-city areas of Los Angeles and Chicago were trained to conduct viewing sessions in their own homes. Following the…

  20. Undergraduate Single Mothers' Experiences in Postsecondary Education

    Beeler, Sydney


    Using Astin's (1993) College Impact Model, this chapter explores the current literature as it relates to single mothers in undergraduate postsecondary education. The chapter looks at the ways that undergraduates who are single mothers are counter to the "ideal-student" norms. Policy and best-practice recommendations conclude the chapter.

  1. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.


    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  2. The Visional Compensation for the Regrets in Reality and Intellectuals’ Self-appreciating Romantic Feelings--The Study on the Goddess-man Love Novels from the Perspective of the Protagonists’ Different Statuses%现实缺憾的虚幻补偿和风流自赏的士子情怀--从主人公不同身份看魏晋南北朝人神恋小说



    魏晋南北朝人神恋小说是此时婚恋小说中一个非常值得注意的类别。如果将此时人神恋作品按照主人公是否为士子进行分类比较,可以发现以非士子为主人公的人神恋小说表达的是当时普遍的一种社会心理。相反的,以士子为主人公的作品则着重表现了当时文人士子的特殊心态。具体来说,正是由于作者和小说主人公身份的同一,使该类作品对士子风流自赏的心态有了淋漓尽致的表现。%The goddess-man love novels are a very notable category among the love-marriage novels in the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties. If they are classified and compared according to whether the protagonists are intellectuals or not, it can be found out that what the goddess-man love novels with non-intellectuals as protagonists express is a kind of general social psychology at that time. In contrast, the works with intellectuals as protagonists focus on the representation of the intellectuals’ special mentality of the time. To be specific, it is just because of the identity between intellectuals and protagonists that this kind of works expresses the intellectuals’ self-appreciating romantic feelings to the full play.

  3. Listening to Hispanic mothers: guidelines for teaching.

    Wilson, A H; Robledo, L


    Teaching Hispanic mothers in a culturally sensitive way to care for their children is a challenge to pediatric nurses. Pediatric nurses must be familiar with customs and the folk medicine practiced by Hispanic mothers. It is very important that the pediatric nurse listens to the voices of Hispanic mothers to determine their health practices, and those that may have been used in their children. Familiarity with folk medicine and health practices will facilitate an appropriate treatment plan and will help to determine whether the mothers' practices are dangerous or beneficial for the child. Pediatric nurses should assess for concurrent use of home remedies and conventional medications to determine if there are any known interactive effects. Finally, increasing the number of pediatric nurses who are fluent in Spanish will enable the voices of Hispanic mothers to be better heard, which in turn, will improve the health status of Hispanic children.

  4. Mortality in mothers after perinatal loss

    Hvidtjørn, D; Wu, C; Schendel, D


    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether mothers who lost a child from stillbirth or in the first week of life have an increased overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. DESIGN: A population based follow-up study. SETTING: Data from Danish national registers. POPULATION: All mothers in Denmark were...... included in the cohort at time of their first delivery from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008 and followed until 31 December 2009 or death, whichever came first. METHODS: The association between perinatal loss and total and cause-specific mortality in mothers was estimated with hazard ratios (HR) and 95......% confidence intervals (95% CI) calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 838 331 mothers in the cohort gave birth to one or more children and 7690 mothers (0.92%) experienced...

  5. Dependency distance distribution - from the perspective of genre variation. Comment on "Dependency distance: a new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Wang, Yaqin


    Language can be regarded as a system where different components fit together, according to Saussure [1]. Likewise, the central axiom of synergetic linguistic is that language is a self-organized and self-adapting system. One of its main concerns is to view language as ;a psycho-social phenomenon and a biological-cognitive one at the same time; [2, 760]. Based on this assumption, Liu, Xu and Liang propose a novel approach, i.e., dependency distance, to study the general tendency hidden beneath diverse human languages [3]. As the authors describe in sections 1-3, variations within and between human languages all show the similar tendency towards dependency distance minimization (DDM). In sections 4-5, they introduce certain syntactic patterns related to both short and long dependency distances. However, the effect of genre seems to be given less sufficient attention by the authors. A study suggests that different distributions of closeness and degree centralities across genres can broaden the understanding of dependency distance distribution [4]. Another one shows that different genres have different parameters in terms of modeling dependency distance distribution [5]. Further research on the genre variation, therefore, can provide additional support for this issue.

  6. Liu Shipei’s Ideas on the Origin of Articles%浅析刘师培的文章起源观



      刘师培在小学、经学、校勘学、文学、学术史等方面的研究均成绩斐然。笔者从文章学的角度探求刘师培的文章源始观。刘师培认为,文章的起源导源于文字的起源,而文字的出现是出于实用的目的,以补口耳传闻之弊端。而从小学入手他又推究出文章各体的源头是巫祝的祭词,进而推论出了“文”之本质,而这也是本文将着重探讨的内容。%Liu Shipei has made great achievements in the study of Xiao Xue ,Confucian classics ,textual criticism ,literature and academic history .This article attempts to study his ideas about the origin of arti‐cles from the perspective of article studies .In his opinion ,articles originated from writing characters ,and characters came into being with the practical purpose of overcoming the disadvantages of speech .Starting with Xiao Xue ,he not only concluded that different genres of articles originated from funeral sacrifice of sorcery but also the nature of “Wen” ,about which this article emphatically discusses .

  7. 柳诒徵与近代中国传记史学%Liu Yizheng and modern biographical history of China



    Biographical historical theory wasn't well developed in modern China , while biographical history was thriving .Liu Yizheng made great achievements in Chinese cultural history as well as in biographical history .He produced many biographies of other famous people and also autobiography of himself .The characteristics of his bi-ographies of attaching importance to enlightenment , academic values and facts manifested the special aspect of mod-ern biographical history of China .%传记史学理论在中国近代虽然不甚发达,但传记史学却颇为兴盛。柳诒徵不仅在中国文化史、史学理论等方面成就显著,在传记史学方面也颇有建树,他传、自传多有行世,而其传记的注重教化、学术性、真实性等特点,也昭示了中国近代传记史学的特有面向。

  8. On the Core Tone in Liu Tianhua's Erhu Music%刘天华二胡曲的核心音调



    The "core tone" refers to a melody snippet that has identifiability in hearing.It runs through the whole musical composition in the form of archetype,melisma and expansion or contraction of rhythm.In Chinese classical music,the "core tone" is an important technique of melodic development.This paper analyzes and explores the use of the "core tone",based on the research of Liu Tianhua's erhu music,The moonlit night,New Year's Eve Ballad and The Song of Ademonia.%"核心音调"是指一个在听觉上具有可识别性的短小旋律片段,在乐曲中以原型、加花、节奏的扩张收缩等形式贯穿于全曲。在民族乐曲中,"核心音调"是旋律发展的一种重要手法。文章以刘天华的二胡曲《月夜》、《除夜小唱》和《苦闷之讴》为研究对象,就其中核心音调的运用进行分析和探讨。

  9. A Review of Liu Huangtian%闲情里的格局与深味--知人论世说刘荒田



    刘荒田“闲话”式杂感具备两个特征,一是“置身其中”的草根性,二是浓浓的闲适意趣。写“俗”、入“俗”、品“俗”的“世俗书写”,植根现实土壤深处而深刻剖示人情世态,处处见大雅,在人腥气、土腥气与烟火气之中,氤氲着书卷气。%Liu Huangtian’ s “gossip”-style prose boasts two traits: one is the grassroots nature of “immer-sion”, and the other is a distinct sense of leisureliness and coziness. Liu’ s“secular writing”, marked by his nar-ration, acceptance and appreciation of “secular matters”, results from his rootedness in reality as well as his pro-found dissection of ways of the world.

  10. 刘若愚《中国文学理论》的技巧观%On the Skills View of Liu Ruoyu's Chinese Literature Theories



    In view of western culture and the world literature, Liu Ruoyu's Chinese Literature Theories explored the systematized thoughts of the art of Chinese poetry. The skills of bearing the meaning in the speech reveal the Taoism of the human social law. The thought of Liu's poetic skills increased Chinese influence on the field of the world literary.%参以西学文化,立足世界文学视野来探究中国诗学的技巧观,刘若愚《中国文学理论》发掘了中国诗学的系统化思想。以言语为意义承载的技巧,跃升为揭示人类社会规律的道,刘若愚中国诗学的技巧之思,加重了世界文论领域的中国声音。

  11. Linguistic complex networks as a young field of quantitative linguistics. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by J. Cong and H. Liu

    Köhler, Reinhard


    We have long been used to the domination of qualitative methods in modern linguistics. Indeed, qualitative methods have advantages such as ease of use and wide applicability to many types of linguistic phenomena. However, this shall not overshadow the fact that a great part of human language is amenable to quantification. Moreover, qualitative methods may lead to over-simplification by employing the rigid yes/no scale. When variability and vagueness of human language must be taken into account, qualitative methods will prove inadequate and give way to quantitative methods [1, p. 11]. In addition to such advantages as exactness and precision, quantitative concepts and methods make it possible to find laws of human language which are just like those in natural sciences. These laws are fundamental elements of linguistic theories in the spirit of the philosophy of science [2,3]. Theorization effort of this type is what quantitative linguistics [1,4,5] is devoted to. The review of Cong and Liu [6] has provided an informative and insightful survey of linguistic complex networks as a young field of quantitative linguistics, including the basic concepts and measures, the major lines of research with linguistic motivation, and suggestions for future research.

  12. A perspective on the advancement of natural language processing tasks via topological analysis of complex networks. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu

    Amancio, Diego Raphael


    Concepts and methods of complex networks have been applied to probe the properties of a myriad of real systems [1]. The finding that written texts modeled as graphs share several properties of other completely different real systems has inspired the study of language as a complex system [2]. Actually, language can be represented as a complex network in its several levels of complexity. As a consequence, morphological, syntactical and semantical properties have been employed in the construction of linguistic networks [3]. Even the character level has been useful to unfold particular patterns [4,5]. In the review by Cong and Liu [6], the authors emphasize the need to use the topological information of complex networks modeling the various spheres of the language to better understand its origins, evolution and organization. In addition, the authors cite the use of networks in applications aiming at holistic typology and stylistic variations. In this context, I will discuss some possible directions that could be followed in future research directed towards the understanding of language via topological characterization of complex linguistic networks. In addition, I will comment the use of network models for language processing applications. Additional prospects for future practical research lines will also be discussed in this comment.

  13. 刘知几《史通·论赞》考析%Analysis of Shi Tong·Comments by Liu Zhiji



    Comment,a form adopted to discuss history in ancient China,is to present an author's or commentator's viewpoints on historical figures and the evaluation of historical events.Centered on Liu Zhiji's monograph Shi Tong·Comments and starting from his definition of comment,the present paper focuses on the four aspects of his comments.Then it explores his standpoints on writing history books embodied in the monograph.The paper ultimately analyzes what is to be desired of the monograph from the perspectives of "what is said by Sima Qian" and the source of comments.%该文以《史通.论赞》篇为中心,从刘知几对"论赞"的命名入手,集中分析了其论赞观的四个方面,进而探讨该篇中所体现的刘知几的著史思想,最后又从"太史公曰"及论赞源流的角度对篇目中值得商榷之处予以辨析。

  14. 从《变形记》对《日光流年》的影响说开去%Impact of Metamorphosis on Ri Guang Liu Nian



    Mr .Yan Lianke once mentioned Kafka in his reading diary ,appraising Metamorphosis as“one of the most grotesque classics in the last century” .Mr .Yan speaks very highly of Kafka and his works ,even his own works are deeply influenced by him in some aspects .This paper analyzes the similari-ty of Ri Guang Liu Nian and Metamorphosis .%阎连科先生曾在他的读书笔记中提到卡夫卡,并将《变形记》誉为“上世纪最为异类的经典作品之一”,阎先生对卡夫卡,对于卡夫卡的作品十分熟悉并且对他的评价极高,他自己的作品也在很多方面受到了影响。以阎连科的小说《日光流年》为例,分析了卡夫卡对其的影响。

  15. Zhutheca Liu, Li et Hilton gen. nov., the fertile pinnules of Fascipteris densata Gu et Zhi and their significance in marattialean evolution.

    Liu; Li; Hilton


    The morphology of the fertile pinnules of Fascipteris densata Gu et Zhi have been subjected to a detailed morphological investigation based on recently collected specimens from the Upper Permian of Yunnan Province, south China. These investigations have revealed that this species possesses synangia of the Asterotheca-type, situated in two or three rows either side of the midrib on a Fascipteris-type pinnule. This arrangement of Asterotheca-type synangia is extremely unusual considering that all other reports of this genus are with a single row of synangia located on each side of the midrib of a pecopteroid-type pinnule. As a consequence of this unique morphological arrangement, a new genus, Zhutheca densata Liu, Li et Hilton gen. et comb. nov. has been created to distinguish this material from other specimens of the Asterotheca and Fascipteris types. The structure and arrangement of the fertile pinnule of Zhutheca are compared with other Palaeozoic and Mesozoic marattialean taxa with which it shares certain features of its morphology. In addition, the stratigraphic, evolutionary and phylogenetic significance of Zhutheca are considered in detail.

  16. A numerical algorithm to evaluate the transient response for a synchronous scanning streak camera using a time-domain Baum-Liu-Tesche equation

    Pei, Chengquan; Tian, Jinshou; Wu, Shengli; He, Jiai; Liu, Zhen


    The transient response is of great influence on the electromagnetic compatibility of synchronous scanning streak cameras (SSSCs). In this paper we propose a numerical method to evaluate the transient response of the scanning deflection plate (SDP). First, we created a simplified circuit model for the SDP used in an SSSC, and then derived the Baum-Liu-Tesche (BLT) equation in the frequency domain. From the frequency-domain BLT equation, its transient counterpart was derived. These parameters, together with the transient-BLT equation, were used to compute the transient load voltage and load current, and then a novel numerical method to fulfill the continuity equation was used. Several numerical simulations were conducted to verify this proposed method. The computed results were then compared with transient responses obtained by a frequency-domain/fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, and the accordance was excellent for highly conducting cables. The benefit of deriving the BLT equation in the time domain is that it may be used with slight modifications to calculate the transient response and the error can be controlled by a computer program. The result showed that the transient voltage was up to 1000 V and the transient current was approximately 10 A, so some protective measures should be taken to improve the electromagnetic compatibility.

  17. A review of mother-child relational interventions and their usefulness for mothers with schizophrenia.

    Wan, Ming Wai; Moulton, Steff; Abel, Kathryn M


    This review evaluates empirical studies that have attempted to improve observed mother-infant relationships in order to inform a potential approach for mothers with schizophrenia, a growing group of vulnerable families where mothers are known to have relational difficulties. Parenting intervention studies in: (1) mothers with a mental disorder; (2) other vulnerable groups were reviewed. Only interventions that empirically evaluated observations of mother-child interaction or child attachment were included, and their potential usefulness for mothers with schizophrenia was examined. Nine studies involved mothers with mental disorder; none involved mothers with psychotic disorder specifically. Overall, approaches that emphasise the mother-child dyad, such as sensitivity-focused behavioural techniques and toddler-parent psychotherapy, were most efficacious for improving maternal sensitivity/child attachment. Although individual psychological therapies are the more conventional treatment, little current evidence suggests that mother-infant relations improve with symptom reduction. The usefulness of the available evidence for informing interventions with mothers with schizophrenia is discussed in the context of their clinical needs. Feasibility studies are needed, which provide a focus on enhancing maternal sensitivity directly within a multi-level support package.

  18. My Mother and Me: Why Tiger Mothers Motivate Asian Americans But Not European Americans.

    Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose


    "Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence.

  19. Setting up Kangaroo Mother Care at Queen Elizabeth Central ...

    Central Hospital, Blantyre - A practical approach .... It is not sustainable .... This is a very distressing event for the mother, other mothers and .... management of well preterm infants: a pilot study. ... Kangaroo Mother Care — A practical guide.

  20. Reducing the stigmatization of teen mothers.

    SmithBattle, Lee I


    Teen mothers are stigmatized by stereotypes that they are unmotivated, irresponsible, and incompetent parents. In spite of the pervasiveness of these stereotypes, stigma is rarely described as a contributing factor to teen mothers' difficulties and their health and social disparities. After tracing how teen mothers have been misrepresented and stereotyped over the last half century, I describe what is known about the stigma associated with teen mothering, reasons for its persistence, efforts to reduce it, and its potentially harmful effects. Stigma should be of concern to nurses because stigmatizing practices impede effective clinical care, contribute to teen mothers' many challenges, and violate the nursing ethic that patients be treated with respect and dignity. Recommendations for restoring dignity and reducing stigma in healthcare focus on developing recognition practices that are predicated on respect and concern for the teen's well-being and her capacity as a mother. Nurses are also urged to advocate for services and policies that reduce the stigmatization and marginalization of teen mothers.

  1. Mothers' night work and children's behavior problems.

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle A; Su, Jessica Houston


    Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9-5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. In the present article, we used longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3-5 years) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children's behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers' night shift work. We employed 3 analytic strategies with various approaches to adjusting for observed and unobserved selection factors; these approaches provided an upper and lower bound on the true relationship between night shift work and children's behavior. Taken together, the results provide suggestive evidence for modest associations between exposure to maternal night shift work and higher levels of aggressive and anxious or depressed behavior in children compared with children whose mothers who are not working, those whose mothers work other types of nonstandard shifts, and, for aggressive behavior, those whose mothers work standard shifts.

  2. Lesbian mothers and their children: a comparison with solo parent heterosexual mothers and their children.

    Green, R; Mandel, J B; Hotvedt, M E; Gray, J; Smith, L


    Two types of single-parent households and their effects on children ages 3-11 years were compared. One type comprised 50 homosexual mothers and their 56 children, and the other was a group of 40 heterosexual mothers and their 48 children. There were 30 daughters and 26 sons of homosexual mothers and 28 daughters and 20 sons of heterosexual mothers. The sexual identity and social relationships of the children were assessed in relation to the sexual orientation of the mothers. The samples consisted of families from rural and urban areas in 10 American states. All have lived without adult males (18 years or older) in the household for a minimum of 2 years (average 4). Families with heterosexual mothers were matched to families with homosexual mothers on age and race of mother; length of mother and child separation from father; educational level and income of mother; and number, age, and sex of children. Data are reported from childrens' tests designed to provide information on general intelligence, core-morphologic sexual identity, gender-role preferences, family and peer group relationships, and adjustment to the single-parent family. No significant differences were found between the two types of households for boys and few significant differences for girls. Concerns that being raised by a homosexual mother might produce sexual identity conflict and peer group stigmatization were not supported by the research findings. Data also revealed more similarities than differences in parenting experiences, marital history, and present living situations of the two groups of mothers. The postulated compromised parental fitness of lesbian mothers, commonly asserted in child custody cases, is not supported by these data.

  3. Unmarried mothers in Ireland, 1880-1973.

    Luddy, Maria


    This article explores the changing experiences and representation of Ireland's unmarried mothers from 1880 to 1973. It focuses on the stigma of illegitimacy in political and cultural discourse and the representation of unmarried mothers as immoral and their children as a drain on resources. These remained constant themes within the discourse of unmarried motherhood in Ireland throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The article uses the records of philanthropic, government and religious organisations to chart the rising interest in the moral reformation of unmarried mothers at the end of the nineteenth century and rising tolerance towards them by the end of the twentieth century.

  4. Images about childhood according to Peruvian mothers

    Magaly Nóblega


    Full Text Available This study explores the images that Peruvian mothers of middle and low socioeconomic status hold about childhood. Participants included 91 mothers from four Peruvian cities and information was collected through focus groups. Results show that childhood is seen as a developmental period with its own characteristics and as a period of play and absence of responsibilities. Mothers acknowledge the importance of the affective dimension fordevelopment and perceive the child as an active participant in his surroundings, with cognitive and social capacities. These results reveal a positive view on childhood images in contrast with previous conceptualizations.

  5. Experience of Acupuncture Medication Combined for Nervous Tinnitus by Professor Liu Qunxia%刘群霞教授针药并用治疗神经性耳鸣经验举隅



    Objective: To study the experience of acupuncture medication combined for nervous tinnitus by Professor Liu Qunxia. Methods; To sum up the understanding and clinical experience of nervous tinnitus by Professor Liu Qunxia through zheng differentiation-classification combined with typical case analysis. Results: Acupuncture combined with Chinese medicine treatment has reliable curative effect for nerve tinnitus. Conclusion;The mechanism of acupuncture medication combined for nervous tinnitus by Professor Liu Qunxia is worth further investigation.%目的:探讨刘群霞教授针药并用治疗神经性耳鸣的临证经验.方法:通过辨证分型论治并结合典型病案分析,归纳总结刘群霞教授对神经性耳鸣的认识及临证经验.结果:临床辨证运用针灸配合口服中药治疗神经性耳鸣疗效可靠.结论:刘群霞教授运用针灸配合口服中药治疗神经性耳鸣,疗效显著.

  6. 《三国志》裴注对刘知幾史学批评的影响%The Influence of Pei's Annotations of the History of the Three Kingdoms on Liu ZhijiS Historical Criticism



    It has long been regarded in the academic circles the evidence against Pei Songzhi's Annotations of the History of the Three Kingdoms that Liu Zhiji fiercely criticized Pei's views in his Shi Tong - Mending Notes. In fact, Liu Zhiji's just disagreed with the "supplementary" part instead of the" argument" one of Pei's annotation. To the contrary, Liu Zhiji often took Pei's annotations for reference as in discussing the historical value, guidelines of historical writing, style and layout requirements of historical books, and the comparative study of history; therefore, he was against Pei's annotation in public but followed Prig methods in secret.%刘知幾在《史通·补注》中对裴松之的《三国志注》提出了激烈的批评,长期以来学界认为这是对裴注的否定。事实上刘知幾否定的只是裴注中的“补阙”部分,并不反对其中的“论辨”。而在论述史学价值、撰史准则和史书体例要求及比较研究上,刘知幾则对裴注多有借鉴,是阳毁其注而阴效其法。

  7. 论刘宋孝武帝政治经济改革的努力及其失败%A Study on Political and Economic Reformation of Emperor Xiao-wu in Liu Song Dynasty and Its Failure



    “元嘉之治”后,孝武帝刘骏励精图治,延续文帝的劝农政策,强化君主专制权力,力求恢复元嘉繁荣局面。但是孝武帝的上述努力很难使刘宋恢复到“元嘉之治”的治世水平。国家财政体系发生重大改变,朝廷对地方经济控制力减弱,财政状况持续恶化,币制日益混乱,甚至不得不对地方豪强的经济利益做出重大让步。孝武帝去世后,刘宋王朝在残酷的宗室内战中毁灭。%Emperor Xiao-wu in Liu Song Dynasty continued emperor Wen' s agricultural policy, strengthened despotism power and tried his best to recover the time of peace and prosperity of Yuan Jia after Yuan Jia times. However, it was difficult for him to recover the former glory. Especially, Liu-song Dynasty' s financial system was altered significantly and even it had to concede to local hosts' economic benefit. Liu-Song Dynasty exterminated gradually for cruel battles among royal clans after this emperor.

  8. The Plight of Transnational Latina Mothers: Mothering from a Distance

    Rosa Maria Sternberg


    Full Text Available Economic globalization, trade agreements, and revolutionary changes in transportation and communication have fueled a steady increase in international migration. Foreign-born Latinas, driven by a strong desire to escape poverty and to improve life for their children, face difficult decisions as transnational mothers. These women emigrate from their countries of origin, leaving their children behind with relatives. After overcoming the hardships and dangers involved in a clandestine crossing of the U.S.-Mexico border, they continue to suffer the pain of separation from their children and to hope for eventual family reunification. This study focuses on the experiences of eight Latina transnational mothers and calls for reflection and solidarity by nurses and other health care professionals in order to influence the dynamics of social, economic, and political actions to relieve social suffering.La mondialisation, les accords commerciaux et les évolutions révolutionnaires que connaissent les secteurs des transports et des communications ont favorisé l'augmentation régulière de l’immigration internationale. Motivées par la volonté d’échapper à la pauvreté et d’offrir une vie meilleure à leurs enfants, les mères latino-américaines sont confrontées à des décisions difficiles en tant que mères transnationales. Ces femmes émigrent de leur pays d’origine, laissant leurs enfants à leur famille. Après avoir surmonté les épreuves et les dangers inhérents au passage clandestin de la frontière américano-mexicaine, elles continuent à souffrir du fait de la séparation d’avec leurs enfants et vivent dans l’espoir de se retrouver à nouveau en famille. Cette étude s’intéresse à l’expérience de huit mères latino-américaines vivant aux Etats-Unis et appelle les infirmières et autres professionnels de la santé à réfléchir et à faire preuve de solidarité afin d’influencer une dynamique d’actions sociales,

  9. Wen Xin Diao Long:The Realization of Liu Xie’s Dream%《文心雕龙》:刘勰的梦想达成



    刘勰在《文心雕龙・序志》篇中描写的两个梦,正是他的两个愿望,反映了他写作《文心雕龙》的两个目的。一个是为文重视文采的愿望理想,一个是追随孔子的自豪之情。因此《文心雕龙》处处反映出以儒家思想为统领的文艺观,无论其写作的动机、全书的结构,还是其评论的标准,都是对儒家“树德”理想的实现。在“树德”的基础之上,通过“建言”形成了其文采的理论,这就是《情采》篇中所说的“形文”、“声文”和“情文”,认为“五色杂而成黼黻,五音比而成韶夏,五情发而为辞章”,既强调对文章的修饰和润色,又强调情感对文章的作用。刘勰以此成就了魏晋南北朝时期文论的成熟和繁盛。%The two dreams described in Liu Xie’s The Pre face ofWen X in Diao Long just are his two wi-shes ,reflects his two writing purposes of Wen X in Diao Long .One is the desire for literary attention ,and the other is the pride offollowing Confucius .Therefore ,Wen X in Diao Long reflect literary and art view in all respects based on Confucianism .Regardless of the writing motives ,the book structure ,or the re-view standards are realization on the Confucian “shuter” ideal .On the basis ofthe “shuter” ,the writer forms the literary theory through the “ adv ice” ,which is the “shape essay” ,“sound essay” and “ love es-say” said in the article ofQing Cai ,which thinks “ five color blending to be pleasing beauti ful ,five tune ap plying to be melodious rhythm , five love ex p ressing to be beauti ful art” .It emphasizes on the modifi-cation and embellishment ,and emphasizes the function ofarticle to emotion .Since then ,Liu Xie contrib-utes to the maturity and prosperity ofliterary theory in Wei Jin and Northern and Southern Dynasties .

  10. Review of Liu Yan's Reform for Salt Law in Tang Dynasty%评唐代刘晏对盐法的改革



    Liu Yan is a thoughtful man of action.His implementation of the salt policy reform in the aspect of management,transportation,sales,and prices are very creative that expand the scope of taxation,increased government revenues,easing the financial and political crises.As Liu Yan's reforming the salt law took use of the inter-functioning of businessmen and the market,although its purpose was to increase the revenue,the reform objectively made the court maintain the market order and market prosperity,because there is no fundamental conflict between the market economy development and maintenance of the centralization system.State operating and managing the salt business objectively promoted the development of monetary economy and of market economy.Maintaining a unified and centralized situation,the state had to spend a very high expenditure,so the economic reforms of the past dynasties were all subordinate to the needs of the national finance and ruling.All China's reforms in history occurred in the period of political crisis,while in a period of peace,the state used to take no action without interfering too much of people's production and life,nor intervening in the economy.%刘晏是一位有头脑的实干家,由他推行的盐政改革,在管理、运输、销售和价格等方面都很有创意,其结果扩大了征税范围,增加了政府收入,缓解了当时的财政危机和政治危机。由于刘晏改革盐法利用了商人和市场的作用,虽然其目的是增加财政收入,但客观上使得国家不得不维护市场秩序和市场繁荣,因为市场经济的发展与中央集权制度的维持并无根本冲突。国家经营和管理盐业,还在客观上促进了货币经济的发展和市场经济的发展。国家为维持大一统和中央集权局面,需要很高的费用,历代的经济改革无不从属于国家财政及政权统治上的需要。中国历代的改革都是发生在政权政治危机来临之际,而在和平时期,多

  11. 刘春霖《甲辰科状元策》探源%On Liu Chunlin’s Jia-Chen Ke Zhuang-Yuan Ce



    Lian-Chi Academy was very famous in Late-Qing Dynasty, whose teaching idea and studying atmosphere kept ahead in China. Being the last Zhuang-Yuan of China, Liu Chun-Lin was one of the top students of this academy. Liu’s thoughts, was put what is learned into practice and acting according to circumstances, embodied in his book, Jia-Chen Ke Zhuang-Yuan Ce, that is Volumes by the Topmost Master of the Jia-chen Year, provided a feasible reform idea for the rulers of Late-Qing Dynasty. His examination paper before the emperor reflected his understanding for the social realities and also the ability for resolving problems. His handwriting was also very famous, and was highly praised for his noble qualities.%莲池书院是我国晚清著名的书院,在教学理念和学风上领先于全国。最后一位状元刘春霖是该书院培养出来的高材生之一。他在《甲辰科状元策》中体现的经世致用、因时制宜的思想,为晚清的统治者提供了切实可行的改革思路。殿试卷内容体现了考生对现实的了解程度和解决实际问题的能力。其书法的艺术也名噪一时,高尚品质时人称赞。

  12. 一代国乐大师刘天华%Liu Tian-hua:A Great Master of Traditional Chinese Music in the Generation



    Liu Tian-hua was a great master of traditional Chinese music with his outstanding contributions to modern Chinese music instrument playing, he devoted all his life to innovating traditional Chinese music, opened up a brand-new arena to erhu(a kind of traditional Chinese music instruments) performance, and also made it full of music representability. He had accomplished important achievements in erhu and pipa composition, music teaching and performance, as well as music instrument improving, by which he made a great number of contributions to national instrumental music. Liu' s ideology and pertained practice of improving Chinese traditional music has imparted a far-reaching multi-influences upon modern time and thereafter Chinese instrumental music.%刘天华是近代中国器乐建树卓著的国乐大师,他的一生为改革国乐而奋斗不息,开拓了二胡演奏音乐之新天地,并使之成为极富表现力的音乐。还在二胡、琵琶音乐创作、教学、演奏以及乐器改革、传统音乐记录等方面,建立了重要的业绩,对民族器乐有着多方面的贡献。刘天华关于国乐改进的思想与实践,对近代及其后的中国器乐,有着多方面的深远的影响。

  13. Pharmacokinetics of the main compounds absorbed into blood after oral administration of Liu Wei Di Huang Wan, a typical combinatorial intervention of Chinese medical formula.

    Zhang, Ning; Li, Lijing; Wang, Ping; Sun, Hui; Wu, Zeming; Piao, Chengyu; Wang, Xijun


    Liu Wei Di Huang Wan (LW) has been used as an active Chinese patent formula for "Five Late Syndrome" of Children for thousands of years. Due to the complexity in its chemical constituents, the pharmacokinetics of this formula have not been elucidated clearly, and the understanding of its pharmacological properties has been delayed. Previous studies have identified the constituents absorbed into blood after the oral administration of LW; moreover, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furoic acid (HMFA), loganin and paeonol have been proved as surrogate markers. In this study, a rapid validated high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for determining three marker compounds in plasma. The analysis was performed on a Waters Symmetry Shield™ RP(18) column with acetonitrile and 0.15% phosphoric acid as the mobile phase, which showed acceptable linearity, intra- and inter-day precision, and accuracy. By using the established method, the pharmacokinetic analysis of LW was carried out. The t (1/2)α and t (1/2)β were 2.62/32.66, 0.46/4.71 and 1.30/23.51 h and the climax times and concentrations were 0.56/683.75, 0.70/2826.11 and 0.62 h/4030.48 ng ml(-1) for HMFA, loganin and paeonol, respectively. Especially, both the absorption and disposition of HMFA were swift (t (1/2) kα 0.1 h, t (1/2)α 2.62 h), but the elimination was quite slow (t (1/2)β 32.66 h); this phenomenon reflected the synergetic effect of LW combinatorial intervention and the value of compatibility can be more clearly understood. The pharmacokinetic characters of HMFA, loganin and paeonol not only elucidated the steady and long-lasting pharmacological properties, but they also revealed the practical value of the compatibility of Chinese medical formula.

  14. Transfer of mother tongue in SLA



    In SLA transfer of mother tongue can not be overlooked. And we group it into positive transfer and negative transfer, which are reflected on different levels including pronunciation, vocabulary, syntax and culture.

  15. Surrogate mothers: whose baby is it?

    Cohen, B


    Advances in medical technology offer infertile couples who wish to raise children alternatives to adoption. The increasing number of surrogate mother contracts creates a myriad of legal issues surrounding the rights of the natural mother, the natural father and the child that is produced. In this Article, the Author discusses the legal issues and rights of the parties under the Constitution, the surrogate contract and family law principles. The Author proposes that courts should consider a surrogate contract as a revocable prebirth agreement which allows the natural mother to keep the child if she chooses. In addition, the Author advocates an interpretation of the statutes forbidding baby selling that would prohibit surrogate contracts in which the mother is paid a fee for the child.

  16. Travel Recommendations for the Nursing Mother

    ... Survey Promotion & Support Call to Action Mothers & Their Families Communities Health Care Employment Research & Surveillance Public Health Infrastructure National Policies & Positions Healthy People 2020 Resources & Publications U.S. Breastfeeding Rates Are Up! More Work Is Needed CDC ...

  17. Child Care Arrangements Of Working Mothers

    Singh H


    Full Text Available Children arrangements for infants and preschool children and the reasons for working outside the home were studied in 300 mothers of whom 100 were teachers (Group. I 100 clerks (groups II and 100 tabourers (Group III. The interview method was used. The most common (80% reason for working was financial needs, the next most frequent was utilization of specialized skills. In 58.7% of the cases, substitute childcare was provided by one of the family members, usually the grandmother. Sixty six percent of caretakers were illiterate. Most (93% of the working mothers had also to perform certain household chores. Bottle-feeding was stated at birth by 80% of these mothers: Childcare arrangements for children of working mothers must be considered in the future.

  18. Clinics in Mother and Child Health

    Clinics in Mother and Child Health is a bilingual journal and publishes (in ... Health Care Facility in South-South Nigeria: The Need for Middle Level Health Manpower ... Le syndrome des ovaires micropolykystiques chez les femmes infertiles à ...

  19. Instruction in the Mother Tongues in Yugoslavia.

    Mikes, Melanie


    Educational practices and problems in Yugoslavia with regard to bilingual education are described. The effect of mother-tongue education on the students' academic achievement and literacy attainment is also examined. (RM)

  20. Mampang Yumco: Mother of All Rivers


    The Mapang Yumco Lake is famed as the “Mother of All Rivers”. In the absence of wind and waves, the vast lake surface is like a mirror reflecting the blue sky, white clouds, snowy peaks and steep cliffs.

  1. Clinics in Mother and Child Health: Submissions

    Yaounde Gynaeco - Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital ... letters to the editors and reports from seminars and congresses relating to mother and child health issues and should have a public health impact. Articles ... Synopsis of Pediatric Surgery.

  2. Barriers to physical activity among working mothers.

    Dombrowski, Jill J


    Working mothers experience several barriers to physical activity. If these barriers can be identified by occupational health nurses and they can partner with working mothers to reduce these perceived barriers, the health of these workers can be improved and chronic disease risk prevented. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of self-regulatory efficacy on physical activity among working mothers and to describe specific barriers to physical activity. The Barriers Specific Self-Efficacy Scale (BARSE) and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) were used to measure the variables. Self-regulatory efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of physical activity in a diverse sample of working mothers who did not meet current recommendations for physical activity. Occupational health nurses can use these findings to design programs for groups and for counseling individuals.

  3. A Talk on the Reason to Stay in Librarianship Whole Life of Liu Guojun%解析刘国钧走上图书馆之路的动因磁

    吴稌年; 顾烨青


    Aiming the riddle of why Liu Guojun abandon philosophy for librarianship all his life in library science circle, ac-cording the historical materials such as Liu Guojun listed in the questionnaire in his early life that he engaged in education and library ca-reer all his life, we analyze Liu Guojun’s thought foundation to save the nation by education that was under the influence of May 4th New Culture Movement.The thought to save the nation by education guided Liu Guojun to choose the road to save the nation by education which was practical scholarship and focused on librarianship which is the important institution in social education for struggling all his life instead of mysterious philosophy.His choice was logical guided by the thought to save the nation by education and popularizing education not suddenly.Editing Library Science Quarterly in chief quickened Liu Guojun’s step for working major on librarianship directly.%针对刘国钧为什么“弃哲学而终身从事图书馆事业”这一图书馆学界之谜,依据刘国钧本人早期所填终身从事“教育及图书馆事业”的调查表等史料,分析了刘国钧早年受五四新文化运动影响而产生“教育救国”的思想基础。在这一思想指导下,刘国钧弃哲学而选作为社会教育中重要机构的图书馆为终生奋斗之事业。他的这一选择是在“教育救国”、“普及教育”的思想指导下的一种逻辑发展。主编《图书馆学季刊》,加快了刘国钧直接从事图书馆事业的步伐。

  4. Mother-induced hypertension in familial dysautonomia.

    Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio


    Here we report the case of a patient with familial dysautonomia (a genetic form of afferent baroreflex failure), who had severe hypertension (230/149 mmHg) induced by the stress of his mother taking his blood pressure. His hypertension subsided when he learnt to measure his blood pressure without his mother's involvement. The case highlights how the reaction to maternal stress becomes amplified when catecholamine release is no longer under baroreflex control.

  5. Hester Prynne:Contradictions and Mother's Role



    Hester Prynne,heroine of Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter,seems idealized by the narrator,yet in her attitudes and behaviors there are some contradictions that need a further study.Her role as a mother plays a vital part in all the contradictions,bringing the figure to life from the sacred shrine made for her by the narrator.To understand the significance of Hester's mother's role in her contradictions will reveal a character more human to the reader.

  6. Hester Prynne: Contradictions and Mother's Role



    Hester Prynne,heroine of Hawthorne The Scarlet Letter,seems idealized by the narrator,yet in her anitudes and behaviors there are some contradictions that need a further study.Her role as a mother plays a vital part in all the contradictions.bringing the figure to life from the sacred shrine made for her by the narrator.To understand the significance of Hester's mother's role in her contradictions will reveal a character more human to the reader.

  7. Children of Working Mothers, March 1974.

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Almost 27 million children in the U.S.--or 42 percent of those under age 18--had mothers working or seeking work in March 1974. About one in four of these children (6.1 million) were below regular school age. Since 1970, the number of children whose mothers were in the labor force has risen sharply by 1.2 million, while the total number of…

  8. Between stigma and mother-blame: blind mothers' experiences in USA hospital postnatal care.

    Frederick, Angela


    This study examines instances of discrimination that blind mothers in the USA have experienced at the hands of doctors, nurses and social workers during hospital postnatal care. The author identifies postnatal care as the time when blind mothers are likely to face the most stigmatising interactions with medical staff, as it is when scepticism about their competence as mothers is at its height. The author argues these interactions must be understood within their institutional context in which ideologies of risk and mother-blame are embedded in hospital postnatal practices. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  9. Widowed mothers' coresidence with adult children.

    Seltzer, Judith A; Friedman, Esther M


    Coresidence is one way that middle-aged offspring assist vulnerable, aging parents. This study investigated which characteristics of widowed mothers and adult children predict coresidence. When coresidence occurred, the analysis explored how individual children's characteristics were associated with their coresidence with the mother. Survey data from adults 53-54 years old in 1993 (N = 2,324) and a random sibling reported about their living situation, other siblings, and their mother, median age 80. Logistic regressions revealed that mothers in poor health, who were older, and who had a daughter were more likely to live with a child. Among coresiding families, results from discrete choice conditional logit models showed that widowed mothers were more likely to live with an unmarried son than an unmarried daughter. Married children were less likely to coreside than unmarried children, but married daughters were more likely than married sons to coreside. Past receipt of financial help from parents was not associated with coresidence. Coresidence was more likely for those with a close relationship with the mother. The discussion considers coresidence as an intergenerational transfer and its importance for the contemporary aging society. Data are needed on characteristics of all offspring to test theories about parent-child relationships.

  10. Mother-infant attachment in adoptive families.

    Singer, L M; Brodzinsky, D M; Ramsay, D; Steir, M; Waters, E


    Data from 2 separate samples using the Strange Situation paradigm were combined to assess the quality of attachment relationships in adoptive and nonadoptive mother-infant pairs. Infants were between 13 and 18 months at the time of observation. Results indicated no differences in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Interracial adoptive mother-infant pairs did show a higher incidence of insecure attachment in comparison to nonadoptive pairs. Mothers of interracial adopted infants also were less comfortable having others care for their babies and perceived less emotional support from extended family and friends for their decision to adopt a child prior to the actual adoption than did other mothers. No relation was found, however, between quality of mother-infant attachment and either perceived social support, infant developmental quotient, infant temperament, number of foster homes experienced by the infant, or infant's age at the time of adoption placement. It was suggested that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships during the infancy years.

  11. Food taboos among nursing mothers of Mexico.

    Santos-Torres, Maria Irene; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar


    This cross-sectional study was carried out in Guadalajara, Mexico, during 1998-1999 to identify food taboos among nursing mothers who participated in a breast-feeding support programme. The study included 493 nursing mothers who were interviewed 10-45 days after delivery. A chi-square test was used for finding an association among food taboos, mother's characteristics, and demographic variables. 50.3% of the mothers avoided at least one food in their diet after childbirth due to beliefs that it was harmful during breast-feeding. Forty-seven percent avoided three or more foods. Fruits and vegetables (62%) and legumes (20%) were the most-avoided foods. These food taboos were associated with living more than 10 years in Guadalajara city (odds ratio [OR] 1.95 [1.25-3.09], p = 0.002), breast-feeding experience (OR 1.91 [1.18-3.12], p = 0.005), no-prenatal information about breast-feeding (OR 1.59 [1.08-2.34], (p = 0.01), and other people's suggestion to complement breast-feeding (OR 1.61 [1.09-2.38], p = 0.01). A supportive approach and efficient communication, taking into account mother's characteristics, might reduce the gap between scientific recommendations and nutritional practices of mothers willing to nurse their infants.

  12. Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children

    Hossein Ebrahimi


    Full Text Available Introduction: A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child’s treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children.  Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabilities. The reliability and validity of the instrument were confirmed through content validity and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α=86%, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software.   Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P

  13. Predictors of Mothers' Use of Spanking with Their Infants

    Combs-Orme, Terri; Cain, Daphne S.


    Objectives: This study describes mothers who report spanking their infants in the first 13 months of life. Methods: Two hundred forty-six (246) mothers were interviewed in the Mother-Baby Unit of a large university-affiliated hospital in a large southeastern city of the United States. Ninety-three percent (93%) of those mothers were reinterviewed…

  14. Characteristics of the Mother and Child in Teenage Pregnancy.

    Garn, Stanley M.; Petzold, Audrey S.


    Data from nearly 30,000 pregnant and third decade (20-29 years) mothers show that small infant size among teenage mothers is consistent with the mother's size and not directly related to early age at conception. Third decade mothers of comparable size give birth to infants with essentially the same characteristics and problems. (Author/GC)

  15. Parenting among Mothers with Bipolar Disorder: Children's Perspectives

    Venkataraman, Meenakshi


    Four children from three families in which the mother had a bipolar disorder were interviewed to understand their perspectives on their mothers' parenting. Children identified strengths in their mother's parenting, such as helping them with homework and moods and providing for their wants. They also identified challenges, such as mothers sleeping…

  16. Single, Cohabitating, and Married Mothers' Time with Children

    Kendig, Sarah M.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.


    Utilizing the 2003 and 2004 American Time Use Survey (ATUS), this study examines the relationship between family structure and maternal time with children among 4,309 married mothers and 1,821 single mothers with children less than 13 years of age. Single mothers spend less time with their children than married mothers, though the differences are…

  17. Gender and Patterns of Concerned Responsiveness in Representations of the Mother-Daughter and Mother-Son Relationship

    Butler, Ruth; Shalit-Naggar, Rachel


    Given that girls show more interpersonal concern than boys, it was predicted that more mother-daughter than mother-son dyads would develop a relationship of mutual concerned responsiveness (CR). Two hundred and twenty-six Israeli children (7-8 years old) and 91 mother-child pairs provided narratives of mother-child interactions. At high levels of…

  18. Locating Mothers: How Cultural Debates about Stay-at-Home versus Working Mothers Define Women and Home

    Dillaway, Heather; Pare, Elizabeth


    Most women must decide whether to work for pay while mothering or make mothering their sole social role. Often this decision is portrayed in terms of whether they will be "stay-at-home" and presumably "full-time" mothers, or "working mothers" and therefore ones who prioritize paid work over caregiving. Inferred within this construction is women's…

  19. "I Fell off [the Mothering] Track": Barriers to "Effective Mothering" among Prostituted Women

    Dalla, Rochelle


    Ecological theory and basic assumptions for the promotion of effective mothering among low-income and working-poor women are applied in relation to a particularly vulnerable population: street-level prostitution-involved women. Qualitative data from 38 street-level prostituted women shows barriers to effective mothering at the individual,…

  20. Mother-offspring recognition in the domestic cat: Kittens recognize their own mother's call.

    Szenczi, Péter; Bánszegi, Oxána; Urrutia, Andrea; Faragó, Tamás; Hudson, Robyn


    Acoustic communication can play an important part in mother-young recognition in many mammals. This, however, has still only been investigated in a small range mainly of herd- or colony-living species. Here we report on the behavioral response of kittens of the domestic cat, a typically solitary carnivore, to playbacks of "greeting chirps" and "meows" from their own versus alien mothers. We found significantly stronger responses to the chirps from kittens' own mother than to her meows or to the chirps or meows of alien mothers. Acoustic analysis revealed greater variation between vocalizations from different mothers than for vocalizations from the same mother. We conclude that chirps emitted by mother cats at the nest represent a specific form of vocal communication with their young, and that kittens learn and respond positively to these and distinguish them from chirps of other mothers and from other cat vocalizations while still in the nest. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 568-577, 2016.

  1. Stress in Mothers of Hearing Impaired Children Compared to Mothers of Normal and Other Disabled Children

    Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is associated with life satisfaction and also development of some physical diseases. Birth of a disabled child with mental or physical disability (especially deaf or blind children, impose an enormous load of stress on their parents especially the mothers. This study compared stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of normal children or with other disabilities.Methods: In this study, cluster random sampling was performed in Karaj city. 120 mothers in four groups of having a child with mental retardation, low vision, hearing impairment and with normal children were included. Family inventory of life events (FILE of Mc Cubbin et al. was used to determine stress level in four groups of mothers.Results: The results of this research indicated a significant difference (p<0.05 between stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of other disabled and normal children in subscales of intra-family stress, finance and business strains, stress of job transitions, stress of illness and family care and family members "in and out''. There was no difference between compared groups in other subscales.Conclusion: Since deafness is a hidden inability, the child with hearing impairment has a set of social and educational problems causing great stress for parents, especially to mother. In order to decrease mother’s stress, it is suggested to provide more family consultation, adequate social support and to run educational classes for parents to practice stress coping strategies.

  2. Negotiating Relationships in Single-Mother Households: Perspectives of Children and Mothers

    Nixon, Elizabeth; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane M.


    Little research has considered the nature of parent-child relationships in stable single-parent households that have not undergone transitions such as divorce and repartnering. This study explored how single mothers and their children negotiated their relationships in a context where the mother has been parenting alone continuously from early in…

  3. Once a mother : Relinquishment and adoption from the perspective of unmarried mothers in South India

    Bos, P.


    This research is an anthropological investigation into the decision-making processes of unmarried mothers in Tamil Nadu with regard to the relinquishment or acceptance of their children. This anthropological investigation focuses on these decision-making processes from the mothers' perspectives and

  4. Once a mother : relinquishment and adoption from the perspective of unmarried mothers in South India

    Bos, G.


    This research is an anthropological investigation into the decision-making processes of unmarried mothers in Tamil Nadu with regard to the relinquishment or acceptance of their children. This anthropological investigation focuses on these decision-making processes from the mothers' perspectives and

  5. Attitudes toward teen mothers among nursing students and psychometric evaluation of Positivity Toward Teen Mothers scale.

    Kim, Son Chae; Burke, Leanne; Sloan, Chris; Barnett, Shannon


    To prepare future nurses who can deliver high quality nursing care to teen mothers, a better understanding of the nursing students' perception of teen mothers is needed. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 228 nursing students to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Positivity Toward Teen Mothers (PTTM) scale, to explore nursing students' general empathy and attitudes toward teen mothers, and to investigate the predictors of nursing students' attitudes toward teen mothers. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a 19-item PTTM-Revised scale with Non-judgmental and Supportive subscales. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales were 0.84 and 0.69, respectively, and 0.87 for the total scale. Simultaneous multiple regression models showed that general empathy and having a teen mother in the family or as an acquaintance were significant predictors of positive attitudes toward teen mothers, whereas age was a significant negative predictor. The PTTM-Revised scale is a promising instrument for assessing attitudes toward teen mothers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The "Mother" of All Schemas: Creating Cognitive Dissonance in Children's Fantasy Literature Using the Mother Figure

    Palkovich, Einat Natalie


    Mothers are essential facilitators of early Theory of Mind development and intrinsic to the acquisition, as well as the content, of many basic schemas learnt in infancy. In this article it is argued that the "mother" schema in children's literature can ease a child's transition into literary discourse by exploiting the child's…

  7. Negotiating Relationships in Single-Mother Households: Perspectives of Children and Mothers

    Nixon, Elizabeth; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane M.


    Little research has considered the nature of parent-child relationships in stable single-parent households that have not undergone transitions such as divorce and repartnering. This study explored how single mothers and their children negotiated their relationships in a context where the mother has been parenting alone continuously from early in…

  8. Mother Knows Best? Inhibitory Maternal Gatekeeping, Psychological Control, and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship

    Holmes, Erin Kramer; Dunn, KayLee C.; Harper, James; Dyer, W. Justin; Day, Randal D.


    We used structural equation modeling to explore associations between inhibitory maternal gatekeeping attitudes, reports of inhibitory maternal gatekeeping behaviors, maternal psychological control, observed mother-adolescent warmth, and adolescent reports of maternal involvement. Our random stratified sample consisted of 315 mothers and their…

  9. Associations of Low-Income Working Mothers' Daily Interactions with Supervisors and Mother-Child Interactions

    Gassman-Pines, Anna


    This study investigated associations of low-income working mothers' daily interactions with supervisors and their interactions with children. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children were asked to report on their interactions with their supervisors at work and their interactions with children for 2 weeks (N = 520 workdays). Results show…

  10. [Care of mothers of newborns in intensive care units: experiences, feelings and expectations of the mothers].

    Belli, M A


    The purpose of the study was to examine the experiences, feelings and expectation of mothers of high risk newborns. The population was a group of 20 mothers of high risk newborns of three hospitals in the City of São Paulo. Interview with the mothers was the method of data collection containing opened and structured questions. It was verified that most of the mothers had none or only a little interaction with the newborn after delivery; the eye contact was the most referred during the staying of the newborn in the Intensive Care Unity; all of them demonstrated interest in participating in the care of the newborn and expressed the need of information concerning to the health status of the newborn, the Intensive Care Unity environment and the hospital team. Several were the feelings expressed and the motives that indicated the needs of the mothers.

  11. Cardiorespiratory disorders of infants of diabetic mothers

    Hrabovski Ivan


    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the characteristics of modern era is the explosion of diabetes in the world. Today more than 400,000,000 people suffer from diabetes in the entire world. During the last decade the number of women with the disorder of glucose homeostasis is six to seven times greater than in the previous period. Therefore, the re-evaluation of the impact of glucose intolerance on the course and outcome of pregnancy is very current. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the data on the influence of mothers’ glucose homeostasis disturbances on the occurrence of cardiorespiratory disorders in newborns, as well as their influence on the perinatal outcome. Methods. Prospective examination included 102 newborns in total - 31 infants of mothers with glucose homeostasis disorder (Group I and 71 infants of healthy mothers (Group II. Average age, body height, body weight, body mass index, parity and illness duration of the pregnant women had been determined, as well as the delivery method. Every newborn was provided with physical examination, Apgar score was calculated, body weight and body length were measured. Also, electrocardiography and brain ultrasound, as well as the basic hematology biochemical and microbiological analysis, were performed within the examinations of the infants. Results. The average weight and obesity incidence with diabetic women was higher than in the control group and their infants were heavier and with lower gestational age. Heart failures were diagnosed in five (16.1% infants of diabetic mothers and in one (1.4% infant of a healthy woman (p<0.01. Respiratory disorders were diagnosed in 48.4% infants of diabetic mothers and in 12.6% of healthy mothers (p<0.01. Forty-two percent of infants of diabetic mothers and 19.7% infants of healthy mothers needed additional oxygen. Conclusion. Congenital anomalies of the cardiovascular system and respiratory disorders in the infants of diabetic mothers were six to eight

  12. Mothers' opinions about their daughters' education

    Özgün Bener


    Full Text Available Girl children, in addition to the basic education levels of education receive enough space on the top step of the family and community as the importance to be aware there is an issue This study was planned and conducted for the purpose of determining the opinions of 1180 mothers who were different in age, educational and employment status about their daughters' education. Data were analyzed with frequency and percentage tables and Chi-square test. Almost all mothers of daughters (96.2% is certainly the view of the need for education. More than half (59.1% of the participants, thought that their daughters were not able to benefit equally from educational opportunities today. Extended Abstract:In our society in terms of current child and family training in the first degree is responsible for the child's personality and thus the formation of a cornerstone of defining and children all life will not be deleted on the left track the first gain socialization experience of mothers of children relating to the educating effect is important. By Unicef from 55 countries covering the investigation revealed that one of the clearest findings education of mothers to send their children to school are more likely education level of mothers and children provided education benefits from the increase is effective. Of educated girls as future mothers they send their children to school tend to be too much so that a generation is transferred to another trend with individual training needs of the people and a contribution to society as a whole will grow further. This research; mother of the girls' opinions about education to identify, age group according to demographic variables such as education and working status of mothers subject to identify similarities and differences of opinion about research based on the data obtained as a result of his mother to do work on this issue may apply to researchers and make suggestions related to planned and was carried out. The

  13. Negotiating Religiosity and Sexual Identity Among Hispanic Lesbian Mothers.

    Tuthill, Zelma


    Hispanic lesbian mothers face bicultural tensions that stigmatize their roles as mothers. Religion could produce heightened conflict given their potential incompatibility with the role of a "good mother." In particular, there is a potential for conflict between the definition of a "good mother" set forth in Catholicism and the sexual orientation of Hispanic lesbians. I conducted semistructured in-depth interviews to examine how Hispanic lesbian mothers negotiate their Catholic religious identity with aspects of their sexual identity. More specifically, I examined the strategies that Hispanic lesbian mothers use to reconcile or navigate perceived conflict between their roles as a Catholic and as a lesbian. The research questions to be answered were: How do Hispanic lesbian mothers negotiate a Catholic religious and a sexual identity? How do Hispanic lesbian mothers create and maintain a religious narrative? How do Hispanic lesbian mothers redefine religion and spirituality?

  14. Labor and delivery complications among teenage mothers.

    Lopoo, Leonard M


    A broad set of academic literatures shows that childbearing is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes for teenage mothers. Many researchers question whether teenage childbearing is the causal explanation for the negative outcomes (i.e., whether there is a biological effect of teenage childbearing or whether the relationship is due to other factors correlated with health and teenage childbearing). This study investigates the relationship between teenage childbearing and labor and delivery complications using a panel of confidential birth certificate data over the period from 1994 to 2003 from the state of Texas. Findings show that compared to mothers aged 25 to 29 having their first child, teenager mothers appear to have superior health in most--but not all--labor and delivery outcomes.

  15. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    Anne Driscoll


    Full Text Available Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG. Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, single motherhood, poverty, employment of teen, young adult, and older mothers was compared across cohorts and within cohorts. Results: Among teen mothers, the odds of fulltime employment improved across birth cohorts and the odds of educational attainment beyond high school did not vary. Their odds of single motherhood and living in poverty increased across cohorts. The odds of higher education and single motherhood increased across birth cohorts for young adult mothers as did the odds of living in poverty, even if working fulltime. Among older adult mothers, educational attainment and the odds of single motherhood rose for recent cohorts. Conclusions: Comparisons between teen mothers and both young adult and all adult mothers within cohorts suggest that gaps in single motherhood and poverty between teen and adult mothers have widened over time, to the detriment of teen mothers. Teen mothers have become more likely to be single and poor than in the past and compared to older mothers.

  16. 刘庆思教授防治原发性骨质疏松症经验概述%Experience of prevention and treatment of osteoporosis from Professor LIU Qing-si

    曲崇正; 刘庆思


    Objective:To summarize the experience of Professor LIU Qing-si in the prevention and treatment of primary osteoporosis in the view of TCM.Methods:This paper summerized from five aspects,including Chinese name of disease osteoporosis,Chinese medicine pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of traditional Chinese medicine,Chinese medicine treatment and therapies,so as to re-understanding of primary osteoporosis.Results:Professor LIU Qing-si experience can comprehensively explain the characteristics of the primary osteoporosis, the incidence of the law,clinical prevention and control and produce better clinical results.Conclusion:The experience of prevention and treatment of osteoporosis from Professor LIU Qing-si is the important contribution to TCM.%目的:从中医学的角度对刘庆思教授防治原发性骨质疏松的经验进行总结。方法:从原发性骨质疏松症的中医病名、病因病机、辨证论治、治则治法、防治措施等五个方面进行总结,从而全面地对原发性骨质疏松症进行中医学的再认识。结果:用刘庆思教授的经验,能够全面阐释原发性骨质疏松症的特点,发病规律和临床防治,并产生较好的临床效果。结论:刘庆思教授防治原发性骨质疏松症的经验,是中医学防治骨质疏松症的重要贡献。

  17. 刘弼臣教授中医儿科“调肺学派”探源%Professor LIU Bi-chen's ‘the lung school thought’ in Chinese medicine academy of pediatrics



    Based on the learning and working experience of contemporary pediatrics masterof Chinese medicine LIU Bi-chen, as the main line, discusses the formation and development process and reasons for the formation of pediatric schools of traditional Chinese medicine 'regulating the lung school'. The professor LIU emphasized 'syndrome differentiation and treatment from five zang viscera, especially from lung theory', and lists the practical application of viewpoint in the clinical work. The article expounds the theoretical basis and the forming process of 'the Shao Yang theory' advocated by professor LIU, and resolved the dispute between 'Chun Yang theory' and 'Zhiyin Zhiyang theory' in the pediatrics of Chinese medicine in the long-term, and better explained the basic physiological and pathological characteristics of children, riched the basic theory of pediatrics of Chinese medicine.%文章以当代中医儿科大家刘弼臣教授的学习、从医经历为主线,论述了中医儿科流派“调肺学派”的形成和发展过程以及形成的原因,强调刘教授的“精于五脏证治,突出从肺论治”的学术观点,并列举该观点在临床工作中的实际应用.详细阐述了刘教授倡导的“少阳学说”的理论依据和形成过程,解决了长期在中医儿科界的“纯阳学说”和“稚阴稚阳学说”之争,较好的解释了儿童的基本生理和病理特点,丰富了中医儿科基本理论.

  18. 刘咸炘《四史知意》的史学批评理论%Historical Criticism Theory of On Four Historical Records by Liu Xianxin



    Liu Xianxin is a famous historian in the Republic of China.In On Four Historical Records,he mainly explores the historical significance of the "pre-four historical records",which reflects his identification of ancient historical theory.Liu Xianxin criticizes the comment of "creating something fro nothing" and "my notes on Six Classics",which is methodologically significant.In addition,Liu Xianxin also makes evaluation about the comment on "pre-four historical records" by scholars of past dynasties,which is characterized with dual criticism.His works and ideas play critical role in criticizing bad practice of despising traditional historiography in early 20th century,which is his contribution to historical criticism in the Republic of China.%刘咸炘是民国史学上一位卓有成就的史学家。刘咸炘在《四史知意》中重点探讨"前四史"的史意,反映了他对古代史学理论的认同与实践。刘咸炘批驳"无中生有"和"我注六经"式的评论,在批评原则上具有方法论的意义。刘咸炘不仅评论"前四史",还评骘了历代学者关于"前四史"的评论,形成了双重批判的特点。他的论著和思想对于20世纪初期轻视传统史学的不良风气有针砭的作用,这是刘咸炘对民国时期史学批评的贡献。

  19. 《柳毅传》龙女形象新论%Yi Liu 's Biography: a New Comment on the Dragon King's Daughter



    The origin on the subject of the Tang legend " Yi Liu 's biography", is influenced by the story of Dragon king's daughter owing a debt of gratitude in Buddhist Scripture of India.And it is produced in the process of chinization and seholarization?. While 〈 Yi Liu 's biography 〉?is prasing for Yi Liu 's personal loyalty ?, it also described a new image of dragon king's daughter which is dovetailed with the chinese traditional concept full of gratitude.And the marriage between them is actually the embodiment of the Dragon king's daughetr ?owing a debt of gratitude. This can be Traced to the Same Origins with the archetype of dragon king's daughter.%唐传奇《柳毅传》就题材来源说,应该是受到印度佛经中龙女报恩故事的影响并且在其中国化、文人化的过程中产生的。《柳毅传》在歌颂柳毅的“义”的同时,还为我们描写了一位崭新的但又与中国传统思想相契合的“知恩图报”的龙女形象。而龙女和书生柳毅的婚姻其实就是龙女报恩思想的体现,这和龙女故事的报恩原型也是一脉相承的。

  20. A Study on the Triangular Relationship among Later Chou Chi, Northern Wei and Liu Song Dynasty%论后仇池国与刘宋、北魏的三角关系



    During the period of the Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern dynasties, Later Chou Chi Dynasty was founded by Yang Ding of Di nationality in the Southeast present Gansu Province. Since it was between two forces of Northern Wei and Liu Song Dynasty, in order to survive, Later Chou Chi Dynasty had to submit to them and be quick to switch sides. The purpose was to be the third party benefiting from the tussle and strengthening its own forces. Northern Wei and Liu Song Dynasty tried to co-opt Later Chou Chi Dynasty and implemented a Jimi policy on it in order to suppress each other. Faced with natural disasters, two wars were launched by Later Chou Chi Dynasty on Liu Song Dynasty but failed and led to the demise of the Dynasty.%魏晋南北朝时,氐族杨定建立的后仇池国位于今甘肃省东南部,处于北魏和刘宋两大势力的夹缝中。为了生存发展,后仇池国分别对这两大势力奉表称臣,过着朝秦暮楚的生活,其目的就是想东食西宿、左右逢源,趁机壮大自己的势力。北魏和刘宋为了相互钳制对方,也尽力拉拢后仇池国,对其实行羁縻政策,双方甚至为争夺仇池而大动干戈,进行了你死我活的斗争。为灾荒所逼,后仇池国两次对刘宋发动战争,结果招来灭顶之灾。

  1. Breastfeeding practices in mothers: a qualitative study

    Nanis S. Marzuki


    Full Text Available Background Despite the WHO and UNICEF recommendations, the well-known breastfeeding benefits, and the efforts to promote and support breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding by Indonesian mothers remains low and contributes to high infant mortality rates. Objective To elucidate the factors that influence mothers’ choices for infant feeding Methods This qualitative study was conducted as part of a nationwide survey. The study included 36 in-depth interviews of mothers with infants aged 0-11 months, and health care professionals, including general practitioners, pediatricians, and midwives. This study was performed between October – November 2010 in both rural and urban areas of 4 provinces in Indonesia. Results We found that most mothers intended to breastfeed and had positive perceptions of breastfeeding. However, mothers faced many challenges in the practice of exclusive and proper breastfeeding. Additionally, the perceived definition of exclusive breastfeeding varied among the participants, leading to non-exclusive breastfeeding attitudes. The most frequent reasons for mothers to introduce additional milk formula or food were the perception of an inadequate milk supply, infant dissatisfaction or fussiness after feeding. Different perceptions were also demonstrated in different regions and the varying levels of socioeconomic status. Health care practitioners (HCPs were the most reliable source for giving adequate information, but unfortunately, they were not easily accessible and provided inconsistent information. Consequently, closely-related family members were the major contributors of information to a mother’s choice of infant feeding, because they were easily accessible. Conclusion Factors influencing mothers in their breastfeeding practices are their basic knowledge, demographic and socio-economic status, as well as the availability of support from closely-related family members, friends, and HCPs. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:35-41.].


    Ana-Maria MANDIUC


    A large number of women who practice prostitution get pregnant and have the child. When a mother continues practicing prostitution, while at the same time trying to fulfill parental responsibilities, the child’s rights could end up being violated because of the characteristics of the two roles the woman adopts. The present paper presents the case study of a child of schooling age and whose mother practiced prostitution. The child was put in foster care after the mother’s death and the case st...

  3. Autoethnographic Mother-Writing: Advocating Radical Specificity

    Patty Sotirin


    Full Text Available In considering the similarities between "momoirs"--popular memoirs written by mothers about motherhood experiences--and evocative autoethnographic mother-writing, I argue that differentiating these two forms of intimate observation and personal narrative requires a rethinking of autoethnographic practice. Specifically, I draw on the work of Gilles Deleuze to advocate for a radical specificity in autoethnographic writing. Thinking the autoethnographic narrative in terms of specificities and differences encourages us to think creatively about personal experiences and cultural relations beyond what is shared and communicable.

  4. Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children

    Hossein Ebrahimi


     Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P

  5. Mothers as informal science class teachers

    Katz, Phyllis

    This study explores the participation of mothers as teachers (termed "Adult Leaders") in the Hands On Science Outreach (HOSO) informal science program for pre-kindergarten through sixth grade children. Since women continue to be underrepresented in the sciences (AAUW, 1992; AAUW 1998), there is a need to probe the nature of mothers' choices in science experiences, in the family context, and as role models. Mothers of school age children who choose to lead informal science activities are in a position to teach and learn not only within this alternative setting, but within their homes where values, attitudes, beliefs and motivations are continually cultivated by daily choices (Gordon, 1972; Tamir, 1990; Gerber, 1997). Policy makers recognize that schools are only one environment from many for learning science (National Science Board, 1983; National Research Council, 1996). Using complementary methodology, this study was conducted in two HOSO sessions that extended over six months. Twelve mothers who were HOSO teachers were case study participants. Primary data collection strategies were interviews, journals, and "draw-a-scientist." A larger sample of HOSO mother-teachers (N = 112) also contributed to a surrey, developed from an analysis of the case studies. Informal learning settings must, by their non-compulsory nature, focus on the affective component of learning as a necessity of participation. The framework for the qualitative analysis was from the affective characteristics described by Simpson et al. (1994). The interpretation is informed by sociobiology, science education and adult education theories. The study finds that the twelve mothers began their HOSO teaching believing in science as a way of knowing and valuing the processes and information from its practice. These women perceive their participation as a likely means to increase the success of their child(ren)'s education and are interested in the potential personal gains of leading an informal science

  6. Successful breast feeding: the mother's dilemma.

    Harrison, M J; Morse, J M; Prowse, M


    A content analysis of 141 articles on breast feeding by discipline revealed differences in the factors considered necessary for breast feeding success and in the criteria used to determine success. Whereas medical articles focused on maternal factors prenatally and infant health post-natally, or the length of time breast feeding was maintained, lay articles focused on the relationship of the mother with her infant (the nursing couple) and the mother's ability to manage breast feeding within the family context. The implications of this discrepancy for nursing practice and research are discussed.

  7. The Translator’s Subjectivity under George Steiner’s Fourfold Translation Mo-tion Theory-A Case Study on Lin Yutang’s Translation of Fu Sheng Liu Ji



    Since the advent of the cultural turn in translation studies in the 1970s, the focus of translation studies has been shifted to the subjectivity of translators. This paper attempts to make a tentative probe into the translator ’s subjectivity manifested in the translation of Fu Sheng Liu Ji by Shen Fu on the basis of George Steiner’s fourfold translation motion theory, namely“trust”,“aggression”,“incorporation”and“compensation”. By the study, we may obtain scientific understanding of how the translation is shaped by the translator’s subjectivity, thus affirming the importance and necessity of the later in literary translation.

  8. Professor LIU Yu-Xin's Clinical Experience on Treating Dysmenorrhea with Cold Stagnation and Blood Stasis%导师刘宇新教授治疗寒凝血瘀型痛经临证体会

    李铭欣; 刘宇新


    青春期原发性痛经是临床常见病,导师辨证求因,运用经前温补肾阳、经期祛瘀止痛、经后益气调经之法治疗寒凝血瘀型痛经,疗效显著.%Primary dysmenorrhea in adolescence is a clinical common disease, and professor LIU's diagnosis method is based on the overall analysis of symptoms, the methods of warming and invigorating kidney Yang before menstrual period, eliminating stasis and relieving pain in menstrual period, replenishing qi and regulating the menstrual function after menstrual period, are effective.

  9. Professor Liu Jian's clinical experience in the treatment of sjogren's syndrome by regulating spleen and stomach%刘健从脾胃论治干燥综合征经验

    黄旦; 刘健


    目的:探析刘健教授从脾胃论治干燥综合征的经验。方法从病名、病因病机、遣方用药、综合治疗等方面探讨和分析刘健教授诊治干燥综合征的中医特色。结果刘健教授根据本病的临床特点从中医“燥痹”论治,认为本病的基本病机为脾胃亏虚,津液不布。治疗原则以滋阴清热,健脾化湿,活血通络。选方用药强调培土制水,培土生金。结论刘健教授从脾胃论治干燥综合征,疗效显著,为临床提供了参考。%Objective To explore professor Liu Jian's clinical experience in treatment of sjogren's syndrome by regulating spleen and stomach.Methods Explore and analyze the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine of professor Liu Jian's in the diagnosis and treat of sjogren's syndrome from name of disease,pathogeny and pathogenesis, the clinic off,comprehensive treatment.Results Professor Liu Jian treat sjogren's syndrome according to the clinical characteristics from "Zao Bi"of traditional Chinese medicine.The basic pathogenesis are the deficiency of spleen and stomach,dysfunction of body fluid distribution.The therapeutic principle are nourishing yin clearing heat,invigorating spleen to eliminate dampness and promoting blood circulation to remove meridian obstruction.emphasize using"reinfor-cing spleen to control water"and "reinforcing spleen strengthen lung"theory in the treatment.Conclusion Professor Liu Jian treat sjogren's syndrome by regulating spleen and stomach is effective,and provide a reference for future clinical practice .

  10. Revisiting syntactic development in deaf and hearing children from a dependency approach. Comment on "Dependency distance: a new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Yan, Jingqi


    Linguists are always endeavoring to discover universal rules to explain the language phenomena and interrelations [1]. Through a handful of corpus-based studies and a vast body of supporting evidence from psychological experiments, Liu, Xu and Liang [2] arrive at a conclusion on a general tendency toward dependency distance minimization (DDM) and relate this linguistic universal to the constraints of memory. Dependency distance (DD) is hereby introduced as a linguistic property, with quantitative features of frequency, and profound cognitive grounding as well. However, since the authors do not include language development, in this comment, I would like to discuss some future prospects from this perspective.

  11. Mothering and anxiety: Social support and competence as mitigating factors for first-time mothers.

    Chavis, Llena


    This study investigated anxiety as a phenomenon distinct from depression and evaluated several variables that influence anxiety in first-time mothers. This explored the relationship between maternal sense of competence (both of mothering and efficacy) and perceived social support (from family, friends, and significant others) and first-time mothers' postpartum anxiety, when depression, socioeconomic status (SES), and marital status were controlled for. The population studied were 86 first-time mothers made up of women with children 24 months or younger in two populations of Kentucky and Michigan. The constructs of maternal sense of competence and perceived social support were found to be significant in explaining first-time mothers' anxiety. The study concluded that a combined association of perceived social support and maternal sense of competence were associated with a 34% (change in R-squared = .339) decrease of a first-time mothers' anxiety. However, not all types of social support, or maternal competence appeared to be equally important with regards to maternal anxiety: social support from friends and family and maternal sense of competence in regard to productivity appeared to be most significant. Lastly, some recommendations for health practitioners who work with mothers are provided.

  12. NGA Tukitanga Mai Koka Ki Tona Ira: Maori mothers and child to mother violence.

    Ryan, Ripekapaia Gloria; Wilson, Denise


    In common with other indigenous women Māori mothers risk illness, harm, and possible death when abused and intimidated by their children. Yet women suffering child to mother violence are silenced by their fear and shame, and endeavour to minimise the effects of this form of abuse. A qualitative descriptive research design using kaupapa Māori methodology was adopted to explore the experiences of Māori mothers who had been abused by a son or daughter. During semi-structured interviews with five Māori women experiences of abuse by a child, and its impact on the whānau/family were recorded. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically, and three key themes emerged: behind closed doors, my child and a new journey. These Māri mothers carried the secret of the violence alone; keeping it behind closed doors while paradoxically protecting their abusive child. Nonetheless, these mothers reached a point where they chose to undertake a new journey, one that involved telling their story, reconnecting with their indigenous roots, and engaging in healing activities. The mothers' experiences highlight a lack of support and responsiveness by support and health agencies. Regardless of these negative experiences with support agencies, we highlight the important role nurses have in facilitating whānau ora (family wellbeing) for these women. This research contributes an indigenous perspective to the growing literature on child to mother violence, and provides direction for future research.

  13. Mother-child language style matching predicts children's and mothers' emotion reactivity.

    Rasmussen, Hannah F; Borelli, Jessica L; Smiley, Patricia A; Cohen, Chloe; Cheung, Ryan Cheuk Ming; Fox, Schuyler; Marvin, Matthew; Blackard, Betsy


    Co-regulation of behavior occurring within parent-child attachment relationships is thought to be the primary means through which children develop the capacity to regulate emotion, an ability that is protective across development. Existing research on parent-child co-regulation focuses predominantly on parent-infant dyads, and operationalizes co-regulation as the matching of facial expressions; however, matching can occur on other behaviors, including vocal tone, body movement, and language. Studies with young children find that greater matching is associated with children's lower emotion reactivity, but with unknown impacts on parents. In this study we examine a recently-developed metric of behavioral matching, language style matching (LSM), a composite measure of the similarity of function word use in spoken or written language between two or more people. We test whether LSM between mothers and their school-aged children is associated with children's and mothers' physiological and subjective emotion reactivity. Children completed a standardized stressor task while their mothers observed; children's and mother's cortisol and cardiovascular reactivity were assessed, as were their subjective reports of emotion reactivity. Following the stressor, children and mothers completed independent interviews about the experience, later assessed for LSM. Higher mother-child LSM was associated with lower emotion reactivity (lower cortisol reactivity, lower reports of negative emotion) for children, and with higher maternal cardiovascular but not cortisol or subjective reactivity. Further, higher LSM was more strongly associated with lower child cortisol reactivity when mothers were more reactive themselves. We conclude that mother-child LSM, thought to reflect a history of co-regulated interaction, confers protective benefits for children, but heightened reactivity for mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The other mother: a narrative analysis of the postpartum experiences of nonbirth lesbian mothers.

    McKelvey, Michele M


    The purpose of this study was to develop a metastory of nonbiological lesbian mothers' postpartum experiences utilizing Riessman's structural approach to thematic analysis. Ten nonbirth lesbian mothers were interviewed. Each shared a unique story of her first year of motherhood. Themes were individually analyzed within each story. The metastory of the postpartum experiences of nonbirth lesbian mothers revealed 6 themes including the following: At the mercy of health care providers, Nursing is the major difference between us, Defined by who I am not, Fighting for every piece of motherhood: The world can take them away, What's in a name?, and Epilogue: The new normal.

  15. Motherhood in adolescent mothers: maternal attachment, mother-infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months.

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro


    Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor.

  16. Oxytocin and mutual communication in mother-infant bonding

    Miho eNagasawa


    Full Text Available Mother-infant bonding is universal to all mammalian species. In this review, we describe the manner in which reciprocal communication between the mother and infant leads to mother-infant bonding in rodents. In rats and mice, mother-infant bond formation is reinforced by various social stimuli, such as tactile stimuli and ultrasonic vocalizations from the pups to the mother, and feeding and tactile stimulation from the mother to the pups. Some evidence suggests that mother and infant can develop a cross-modal sensory recognition of their counterpart during this bonding process. Neurochemically, oxytocin in the neural system plays a pivotal role in each side of the mother-infant bonding process, although the mechanisms underlying bond formation in the brains of infants has not yet been clarified. Impairment of mother-infant bonding, that is, deprivation of social stimuli from the mother, strongly influences offspring sociality, including maternal behavior toward their own offspring in their adulthood, implying a non-genomic transmission of maternal environment, even in rodents. The comparative understanding of cognitive functions between mother and infants, and the biological mechanisms involved in mother-infant bonding may help us understand psychiatric disorders associated with mother-infant relationships.

  17. The Mother-Child Home Program.

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    This paper provides a description and evaluation of the Mother-Child Program (developed by the Verbal Interaction Project) for prevention of educational disadvantage. The program consists of 46 semi-weekly home visits by "Toy Demonstrators" in each of two seven month program years, following the local school calendar. Toy Demonstrators are former…

  18. Mothers and the process of social stratification

    Korupp, S.E.


    The question posed is how the mother's education and occupation influence children's educational and occupational status. The chapter follows the chronological sequence of the classical model of status attainment (Blau & Duncan 1967). The specific questions are: (a) how large is the influence of

  19. Mother Goose in the ESL Classroom.

    Galeano, Karen

    Mother Goose is well suited to use in the elementary ESL classroom for several reasons. The stories appeal to children's imagination, adhering to the principle that a good story should have surprise value, interesting characters, meaningful conflict, action, and realism. The natural rhythms help develop English intonation, and the stories…

  20. Mothers' Stress, Resilience and Early Intervention

    Margalit, M.; Kleitman, T.


    The aim of the study was to examine factors that predict maternal stress, reported by mothers whose infants were diagnosed as having developmental disabilities at the beginning of participating in an early intervention programme "Me and My Mommy" and after one year. A second goal was to identify and to portray a subgroup of resilient…

  1. Mother Love: Diabetes is Not Your Destiny


    This podcast featuring Mother Love, co-host of dLifeTV, motivational speaker, and humorist, promotes healthy ways to control diabetes.  Created: 11/8/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 3/11/2008.

  2. The Economic Resource Receipt of New Mothers

    Nichols, Laura; Elman, Cheryl; Feltey, Kathryn M.


    U.S. federal policies do not provide a universal social safety net of economic support for women during pregnancy or the immediate postpartum period but assume that employment and/or marriage will protect families from poverty. Yet even mothers with considerable human and marital capital may experience disruptions in employment, earnings, and…

  3. Lacanian Reading of Marsha Norman's Night, Mother

    Khadijeh Taherifard


    Full Text Available This paper offers a Lacanian/feminist reading of Night, Mother by the American playwright Marsha Norman. The play Night, Mother will be read according to Lacan’s point of view and the concepts of identity and identity formation are studied in this paper. The play will be analyzed based on the Lacanian concepts of the contrast between the Imaginary Order and the Symbolic Order, and the notion of Death Drive, suggesting that in the play Jessie represents the Symbolic Order and her mother, Thelma, represents the Imaginary Order. The notion of Death Drive and its omnipresence in Jessie’s psyche is discussed and emphasized. Thelma functions as the Other for Jessie, while her father functions as the Mother, a reversal of gender roles in the Lacanian reading. Moreover, the relationship between some of the concepts are explained. It will be explicated how the play can be brought in line with a feminist reading of Lacan by reversing the stereotypical gender roles and subsequently getting close to post-feminist authors.

  4. Native American Languages as Heritage Mother Tongues

    McCarty, Teresa L.


    This article examines current efforts to revitalise, stabilise, and maintain Indigenous languages in the USA. Most Native American languages are no longer acquired as a first language by children. They are nonetheless languages of identity and heritage, and in this sense can and should be considered mother tongues. The article begins with a…

  5. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay


    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  6. Alenush Terian: The Iranian Solar Mother

    Talebian, Mohammad; Talebian, Ehsan


    We present a biographical sketch of Alenush Terian, the first Iranian woman physicist, who was known as the Iranian Solar Mother, since she founded the first solar telescopic observatory in Iran. She taught and carried out astronomical research for three decades with inadequate resources but with unflinching devotion, motivated by a strong desire to propagate scientific education and research in her country.

  7. Offspring's Tolerance of Mother Goes Viral.

    Kinder, Jeremy M; Jiang, Tony T; Way, Sing Sing


    Pregnancy uniquely allows genetically discordant tissues of the mother and child to intimately coexist in harmony. In this issue of Immunity, Ou and colleagues show that hepatitis B virus exploits these naturally occurring immune tolerance pathways to establish persistent postnatal infection in offspring.

  8. Predicting Markers of Adulthood among Adolescent Mothers

    Oxford, Monica L.; Lee, Jungeun O.; Lohr, Mary Jane


    This prospective longitudinal study examines the antecedents of adolescent mothers' transition into adulthood and their attainment of multiple adult statuses in their early 30s in a nonclinical sample. The distribution, timing, and impact of factors in adolescence (education, employment, marriage, economic status, criminal involvement, and others)…

  9. 76 FR 27601 - Mother's Day, 2011


    ... as families balance the demands of work, child and elder care, and education. My budget strengthens... the roles and responsibilities of mothers have evolved, their guidance and care remains as strong and... the women in our lives who care for us, shape our values, and set us on the path to a limitless...

  10. Class, Mothering and the Values of Food

    Aamann, Iben Charlotte


    scholars, to explore how class matters. Using the values ascribed to food at social arrangements as a lens, I explore different ways of doing class and mothering: through the exchange value of the food, through its use value and through its healthiness. I conclude by arguing that food studies hold a huge...

  11. Mothers and the process of social stratification

    Korupp, S.E.


    The question posed is how the mother's education and occupation influence children's educational and occupational status. The chapter follows the chronological sequence of the classical model of status attainment (Blau & Duncan 1967). The specific questions are: (a) how large is the influence

  12. Mothers' Community Participation and Child Health

    Nobles, Jenna; Frankenberg, Elizabeth


    We use rich data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey to assess the relationship between mothers' access to social capital via participation in community activities and their children's health. We exploit the advantages of longitudinal data and community fixed effects to mitigate some of the concerns about spuriousness and reverse causality that…

  13. Predicting Adolescent Mothers' Transition to Adulthood.

    Mylod, Deirdre E.; Whitman, Thomas L.; Borkowski, John G.


    Investigated relationships among prenatal maternal resources, perceptions about parenting, and children's temperament at 6 months, and adaptation of 90 adolescent mothers three years after the birth of their first child. Found that maternal resources uniquely predicted later maternal cognitive functioning, personal adjustment, and child abuse…

  14. Mother's Social Network and Family Language Maintenance

    Velazquez, Isabel


    This article reports the results of a social network analysis (SNA) performed on the mother's primary network of interaction in 15 Mexican American families in the city of El Paso, Texas, the neighbourhood of La Villita, in Chicago, and the city of Lincoln, Nebraska. The goal of this study was to examine potential opportunities for Spanish use by…

  15. Mother Tongue Education: Necessary? Possible? Sustainable?

    Graham, Barbara Elaine


    Issues affecting pre-school education in a rural area of Kenya are highlighted in a study of a mother tongue education (MTE) programme in one indigenous language group, the Pokomo. Factors supporting the introduction of MTE include official support for MTE, the welcoming of non-government stakeholder involvement in education, the presence of…

  16. "Motherly Business" and the Moves to Manhood.

    Moore, John Noell


    Discusses three novels that focus on the mother/son relationship: Bruce Books'"The Moves Make the Man," Chris Crutcher's "Stotan!" and Walter Dean Myers'"Fallen Angels." Notes that all three deal with forms of combat, both physical and mental, with competition, and with a struggle to survive--a struggle that each novelist turns into a metaphor for…

  17. Adolescent mothers' breastfeeding social support needs.

    Grassley, Jane S


    To define aspects of social support that adolescents need from nurses when initiating breastfeeding in the early postpartum. MEDLINE and CINAHL databases for years 2000 to 2009. Three searches were done using the following subject terms: adolescent mothers and breastfeeding (12 studies), adolescent mothers and breastfeeding and support (24 studies), and breastfeeding and adolescent mothers and attitudes (15 studies). The 18 studies that were chosen for this synthesized review illuminated the dimensions of social support identified by House. The four types of supportive behavior categories identified by House were described in these studies (informational, instrumental, emotional, and appraisal). Esteem support as defined by Sarafino seemed to be synonymous with appraisal support. Many studies identified the importance of network support as a fifth category of supportive behavior in increased breastfeeding duration among adolescents; network support was included in this synthesis. These five types of social support provide a framework for defining supportive nurse behaviors. Nurses in the early postpartum can promote the long-term health of adolescents and their children through the social support they offer adolescent mothers as they initiate breastfeeding. Network support appears to be essential to adolescents' breastfeeding experiences and needs to be included with informational, instrumental, emotional, and esteem/appraisal support when investigating support for this population. By integrating the five dimensions of social support into their care, nurses play an essential role in providing adolescents with the positive experiences that are so important to establishing breastfeeding. © 2010 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  18. Mother's Social Network and Family Language Maintenance

    Velazquez, Isabel


    This article reports the results of a social network analysis (SNA) performed on the mother's primary network of interaction in 15 Mexican American families in the city of El Paso, Texas, the neighbourhood of La Villita, in Chicago, and the city of Lincoln, Nebraska. The goal of this study was to examine potential opportunities for Spanish use by…

  19. PTSD in Depressed Mothers in Home Visitation

    Ammerman, Robert T.; Putnam, Frank W.; Chard, Kathleen M.; Stevens, Jack; Van Ginkel, Judith B.


    Recent research has suggested that mothers participating in home visitation programs have a high incidence of mental health problems, particularly depression. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common comorbidity with depression, yet its prevalence among home visiting populations and implications for parenting and maternal functioning have not been examined. This study contrasted depressed mothers with (n = 35) and without PTSD (n = 55) who were enrolled in a home visitation program. Results indicated that depressed mothers with comorbid PTSD were more likely to have experienced childhood sexual abuse, had greater severity of depressive symptoms, increased social isolation, and lower overall functioning than their counterparts without PTSD. Among PTSD mothers, greater severity of PTSD symptoms, in particular avoidance and emotional numbness, were associated with increased maternal psychopathology and parenting deficits even after controlling for depression severity. These findings add to the literature documenting the negative impacts of PTSD on maternal functioning and parenting. Implications for screening and treatment in the context of home visitation are discussed. PMID:24307928

  20. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay


    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  1. Mothers understand and can do it (MUAC)

    Blackwell, Nikki; Myatt, Mark; Allafort-Duverger, Thierry


    BACKGROUND: Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was recently endorsed and recommended for screening for acute malnutrition in the community. The objective of this study was to determine whether a colour-banded MUAC strap would allow minimally trained mothers to screen their own children for malnut...

  2. Self-Compassion: A Mentorship Framework for Counselor Educator Mothers

    Solomon, Coralis; Barden, Sejal Mehta


    Counselor educators experience high levels of stress. Mothers in academia face an additional set of emotional stressors. The authors offer a self-compassion framework for mentors to increase emotional resilience of mothers in counselor education.

  3. Evaluation Of Nursing Mothers\\' Ability To Interpret The Growth ...

    Evaluation Of Nursing Mothers\\' Ability To Interpret The Growth Monitoring Chart In Primary Health Care Facilities In Jos. ... correct interpretation of growth curve by mothers from family health clinic compared with the other two PHC facilities.

  4. The experiences of HIV-positive mothers breastfeeding exclusively ...

    The experiences of HIV-positive mothers breastfeeding exclusively in Swaziland. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Seven exclusive breastfeeding, HIV-positive mothers, aged 21-41 years, married and ...

  5. Mother Tongue Eclipsing in the Linguistic Repertoire of Yoruba ...


    Oct 31, 2016 ... Yoruba-speaking parents acquire English as their First Language and Yoruba ..... first language (or mother tongue) learning and reinforcement available to .... use their mother tongue, they would do things that would motivate.

  6. Postpartum depression and infant-mother attachment at one year

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Tharner, Anne; Steele, Howard

    Findings on effects of Postpartum depression (PPD) on infant-mother attachment have been contradictory. This may be due to not considering maternal interpersonal difficulties, for example co-morbid personality disorder (PD). We examined the role of PD in the association between postpartum...... depression and infant-mother attachment. Mothers were recruited either during pregnancy (non-clinical group, n=56) or eight weeks postpartum (PPD-group, n=29). Infants of mothers with PPD only or in combination with PD were compared with infants of mothers with no psychopathology. Depression and PD were...... assessed with questionnaires and clinical interviews. Infant-mother attachment was assessed when infants were 13 months using Strange Situation Procedure. Mothers with PPD were more likely to have co-morbid PD compared with non-clinical mothers. PPD was associated with attachment insecurity only...

  7. Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation.

    Silva Garcia, Karina; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O


    Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children-a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4-5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days. On the first day, mothers and children chose foods for a meal from a buffet and were audio/videotaped so that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices could be later coded. On the second day, children completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) task to measure child appetite regulation. Mothers also completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to measure other aspects of child appetite regulation (food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, and emotional overeating). Maternal autonomy promotion during serving was assessed using seven separate measures of child and maternal behavior. Principal components analyses of these serving measures yielded three components: allows child choice, child serves food, and mother does not restrict. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal autonomy promoting serving practices (i.e., allows child choice and does not restrict) were negatively associated with maternal reports of child food responsiveness and emotional overeating (CEBQ). The results for the EAH task were more complex-mothers who were autonomy promoting in their serving practices had children who ate the most in the absence of hunger, but this linear effect was moderated somewhat by a quadratic effect, with moderate levels of autonomy promotion during serving associated with the greatest child EAH.

  8. Professor LIU Yuxin's Experience on Treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome%刘宇新教授治疗多囊卵巢综合征经验总结



    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common disease in gynecology. This article discussed Professor LIU Yuxin's experience on treating infertility caused by polycystic ovary syndrome from the etiology and pathogenesis, syndrome differentiation, treatment. Professor LIU thinks that this disease is based on kidney deficiency with blockage of phlegm and blood stasis. His self-made Wenyang Huashi Xiaonang Decoction in the treatment of this disease,which medication is according to the menstrual cycle, has obtained satisfactory curative effect.%多囊卵巢综合征(Polycystic ovary syndrome,pCOS)是妇科的常见病,文章从病因病机、辨证论治、治疗经验等方面对刘宇新教授治疗多囊卵巢综合征所致不孕进行论述.刘教授认为本病以肾虚为本,以痰瘀阻滞为标,自拟温阳化湿消囊汤治疗本病,并根据月经周期调整用药,取得满意疗效.

  9. 简析近代“纺织巨子”刘国钧成功的原因%A Brief Analysis of the Success of Liu Guojun, a Textile Magnate in Modern China



    刘国钧是近代中国杰出的民族企业家,是著名的“纺织巨子”。这位泰州籍工商奇才的成功原因主要有三点:视风险为机遇,胆识过人;善抡行业先机,精明过人;为事业不惧生死,勇敢过人。值此全球经济低迷之际,希冀通过对刘国钧成功原因的分析,从而对当前工商企业的发展有所启迪。%As a textile magnate born in Taizhou, Liu Guojun was an outstanding entrepreneur in the modem history of China. His success can be boiled down to the following three factors. First, he exceeded others in wisdom and regarded risks as opportunities. Then, he was so smart that he did very well in taking the decisive occasion. Third, he was brave enough to do whatever he could for the benefits of his enterprise. The current global economy is sluggish, so the author hopes that the analysis of Liu's way to success could be helpful to the development of modem commercial and industrial enterprises.

  10. A model of self-actualization:A Psychobiography Study of Liu Bang's Personality T raits%自我实现者的典范--刘邦自我实现人格的心理传记分析



    Liu Bang is a model of self‐actualization among the political figures . Through analysis and comparison of the nine founding emperors' family backgrounds , birth order , childhood and experiences of education ,and the way to power and ruling time , this paper finds that under limited circumstances Liu Bang achieved his self‐potential to the greatest extent . He not only went beyond himself and changed history ,but also surpassed the limits of human nature .These can be attributed to his personality traits of self‐actualization .%刘邦是政治人物中的自我实现者的典范。研究通过对九位开国帝王的出身、家庭排行、幼年经历与教育情况、获得政权方式、登基时间、在位时间的分析比较发现,相对其他八位开国帝王而言,刘邦是在各方面条件极其受限的情况下,实现了自己潜能最大程度的发挥,他不仅超越了自我、改变了历史,同时也突破了人性的限制。而他对这些限制的突破,源自他诸多自我实现的人格特征。

  11. 刘文峰对糖尿病周围神经血管病变的辨治经验%LIU Wenfeng's Differential Experiments of Diabetic Peripheral Nerval and Vascular Disease



    总结刘文峰教授从医46年治疗消渴病(糖尿病)并发症—糖尿病周围神经血管病变的辨治经验.刘教授认为,糖尿病日久不愈,久病必虚,久病必瘀,久病生痰,久病入络,而致“诸气血凝滞,久而成痹”.显然,气血亏虚,营卫不和,痰瘀阻络,血行不畅,筋脉失养为糖尿病周围神经血管病变的基本病机.%The article summarized professor LIU Wenfeng's experience of treating diabetic complication-diabetic peripheral nerval and vascular disease in his 46 years of medical carrer. Professor LIU thinks that deficiency, blood stasis, phelgm,and collaterals diseases are all caused by the reason that diabetes cant be eured in a short time. And so forth arthromyodynia would be developed by the stasis of qi and blood. Obviously, the basic pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral nerval and vascular disease is defi-cency of qi and blood,disharmony of ying and wei,collaterals stasis of phelgm and blood, unsmoothness of blood,dystrophy of tendon and vessel.

  12. Reply to comment by W. Liu and B. Xia on "Age and geochemistry of western Hoh-Xil-Songpan-Ganzi granitoids, northern Tibet: Implications for the Mesozoic closure of the Paleo-Tethys ocean"

    Zhang, Li-Yun; Ding, Lin; Pullen, Alex; Kapp, Paul


    The process of rapid extensional back-arc basin development, sediment infilling, and oceanic trench migration during collisional orogenesis-commonly referred to as slab rollback or Mediterranean-style tectonics-has been widely documented in modern global tectonics (e.g., Le Pichon and Angelier, 1981; Malinverno and Ryan, 1986; Spakman and Hall, 2010). This process, however, may be underappreciated in the development of ancient orogenic systems where the rates of oceanic subduction relative to plate convergence are poorly constrained or unknown. Some notable exception include the Lachlan orogen (e.g., Collins, 2002; Kemp et al., 2009), the closure of the Rheic Ocean (Martínez Catalán et al., 2009; Stampfli and Borel, 2002), and the eastern Paleo-Tethys Ocean discussed here (Ding et al., 2013; Pullen et al., 2008). We maintain that the valid geological observations made by Liu and Xia (2014) do not invalidate nor necessitate modification to the Mesozoic Paleo-Tethys rollback model presented by Zhang et al. (2014). We begin by summarizing the Mediterranean-style tectonic model applied to the evolution of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean and then discuss how the observations and points made by Liu and Xia (2014) may be addressed within the context of it.

  13. The Sogdian Trade Caravan Traveled Between Liu Hu Zhou and LuoYang in Tang Dynasty%唐代六胡州、洛阳间的粟特商队



    The Liu Hu Zhou trade caravan is still at work on long distance trade in Tang Dynasty.Shi Zhou attracts the caravan to live there for its traffic hub position,economic hinterland superiority condition.The trade route starting from Liu Hu Zhou, passing Shi Zhou and finally arriving at Luo Yang is in a good condition to travel. Wu Ding River Valley, Fen River Valley, and the influx of husbandry, towns, and traffic have provided great convenience for long distant trade. Further, the image of caravan Zoroastrian gods comes from here.%唐代六胡州仍保持着经商的传统,从事着远程长途贸易。石州因着地理交通的便利,经济腹地的支撑,吸引了大量六胡州粟特商队前来定居,形成聚落。从六胡州出发,经石州水陆转运,通往洛阳的商路十分畅通,无定河谷、汾河谷道中,农牧业、城镇、交通的汇集,为远程商贸的展开提供了便利,骆驼祆神形象就诞生在这条路上。

  14. The mother-daughter relationship in eating disorders: the psychotherapy group of mothers

    Alicia Weisz Cobelo


    Full Text Available Psychotherapeutic interventions that bring about differentiation, separation, individuation and autonomy in the mother-daughter relationship are recommended as treatment for eating disorders. With this goal in mind, a psychotherapy group for mothers was organized in an outpatient program for adolescents with eating disorders at a public institution, as one of the psychotherapeutic approaches in the multidisciplinary treatment of adolescent patients. Evidence suggests that this approach can be relevant and effective in the treatment of eating disorders.

  15. Crawling and Walking Infants Elicit Different Verbal Responses from Mothers

    Karasik, Lana B.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Adolph, Karen E.


    We examined mothers' verbal responses to their crawling or walking infants' object sharing (i.e. bids). Fifty mothers and their 13-month-olds were observed for 1 hour at home. Infants bid from a stationary position or they bid after carrying the object to their mothers. Mothers responded with affirmations (e.g. "thank you"),…

  16. The children of homosexual and heterosexual single mothers.

    Javaid, G A


    Children reared in homes headed by homosexual and heterosexual mothers were compared with respect to the mothers' and children's attitudes towards marriage, procreation and homosexuality. The mothers did not prefer their children to be homosexual; they desired them to marry and procreate. This was expressed more unambiguously for their sons. The children mirrored these expectations, boys with greater frequency than the girls. Most of the children expressed reservations about having a homosexual mother.

  17. MUSE, the goddess of muons, and her future.

    Kadono, Ryosuke; Miyake, Yasuhiro


    The Muon Science Establishment (MUSE) is one of the major experimental facilities, along with those for neutron, hadron and neutrino experiments, in J-PARC. It makes up a part of the Materials and Life Science Experiment Facility (MLF) that hosts a tandem neutron facility (JSNS) driven by a single proton beam. The facility consists of a superconducting solenoid (for pion confinement) with a modest-acceptance (about 45 mSr) injector of pions and muons obtained from a 20 mm thick edge-cooled stationary graphite target, delivering a 'surface muon' beam (μ(+)) and a 'decay muon' beam (μ(+)/μ(-)) for a wide variety of applications. It has recently been confirmed that the beamline has the world's highest muon intensity (∼10(6) μ(+)/s) at a proton beam power of 120 kW. The beamline is furnished with two experimental areas (D1 and D2) at the exit branches, where an apparatus for muon spin rotation/relaxation experiments (μSR) is currently installed at the D1 area while test experiments are conducted at the D2 area. In this paper, the current performance of the MUSE facility as a whole is reviewed. The facility is still in the early stage of development, including both beamlines and infrastructure for experiments, and plans for upgrading it are discussed together with perspectives for research works envisaged with unprecedented high-intensity muons.

  18. Goddess Science, Primates and Feminism. Primatology and Human Nature Seeking

    Aleksandra Derra


    Full Text Available The Author introduces basic aims, notions, methodological tools and theories of primatology. Underlining crucial role this discipline has played in defining human nature, she points out how it has changed due to its social duties, close relations to popular culture and growing impact of female researchers with feminist sensitivity. She posits the question about female or feminist character of primatology, indicating that the answer depends on taking for granted certain disputable assumptions about femininity and female scientific methods. Subsequently she presents androcentric bias of primatology studies (concerning sexuality, reproduction, male domination, female roles, aggression, and its later critique. Finally she problematizes culture/nature division which is used both in scientific and everyday discourse.

  19. When The Hindu-Goddess Moves To Denmark

    Fibiger, Marianne Qvortrup


    This article will focus primarily on how the adaption-process into a Danish environment has provided a local śākta-cult from Sri Lanka with a special narrative, and with symbols and text that it, most likely, would not have had if it were still in Sri Lanka. This is important with regards to unde...

  20. The Rhetorical Goddess: A Feminist Perspective on Women in Magic

    Bruns, Laura C.


    Full Text Available Although female magicians have existed since the rise of entertainment magic, women have faced difficulty in entering the “fraternity” of the magic community. As an art form largely based around persuasion, it is useful to study the performance of magic as a text. It is additionally useful to study female magicians within this context of rhetoric. Not only will examining the rhetoric of female magicians provide insights on the rhetoric of women in this unique arena, but also of women in a historically gendered and underrepresented field. Research into this area may disclose other details regarding the communicative differences between women and men and how communication is adapted within a gendered communication paradigm.

  1. Beauty and healing: examining sociocultural expectations of the embodied goddess.

    Yeh, Jin-Tsann; Lin, Chyong-Ling


    Studies indicate mental health improvement can occur via religious communities offering social support and other resources. Many people from many cultures regard medicine as a supernatural or magical treatment that can somehow lead to a better state of living. In medical advertising, female role portrayal involves the blending of beauty, ritual and attractiveness in combination with the best product image. A Chinese saying suggests that, "A girl will doll herself up for him who loves her." Female role attraction is a very important ethical subject in gender issues. Moving forward in time, female role visualization and consumption in medical advertising reveal depictions that encouraged women to do some self-searching and find, or develop, inner strength. This study is designed to examine female role portrayals in a restricted patriarchal society. The results indicate that the ideology of motherhood is an accepted social orientation that the public readily identifies with. Results further indicate that beautification through medical products incorporates an emotional element of religious healing and that the objectification of beauty in the media reveals a possible neglect of women's internal beauty.

  2. 刘林教授运用三仁汤治疗儿科疾病的经验%Experience of Professor Liu Lin Using Sanren Decoction to Treat Pediatric Diseases

    刘欣欣; 刘林


    [目的]总结湖北名中医刘林教授运用三仁汤治疗儿科疾病的经验。[方法]通过跟随刘林教授临诊和整理刘林教授的医案,总结老师运用三仁汤治疗儿科疾病的学术观点和临床经验,并附验案举隅。[结果]刘林教授认为,小儿稚阴未长,肺脏娇嫩,脾常不足,故患病后易致湿热蕴结,出现上、中、下三焦的各种症状,儿科病的治疗应考虑到从湿热论治,同时应依据湿热之邪所居部位辨证施治。刘林教授善用三仁汤加减方治疗多种儿科病,依据邪居部位及临床表现的不同,临症进行各种灵活变通,治疗支气管炎用杏仁为君以祛痰止咳,治疗小儿厌食症用白蔻仁为君以燥湿运脾,治疗小儿肾病综合征用薏苡仁为君以淡渗利水,治疗手足口病则三仁同用以宣畅三焦气机,循证诊治,临床每收良效。[结论]刘林教授运用三仁汤治疗儿科疾病疗效确定,其思想值得深入学习和推广运用。%Objective] The article summarizes the experience of using sanren decoction to treat pediatric diseases by Professor Liu Lin, the famous TCM physician of Hubei. [Methods] Through following Professor Liu Lin clinical diagnosis, organize his medical records, summarize the experience and thoughts of using Sanren decoction to treat pediatric diseases, and for some cases. [Results] Professor Liu Lin believes that the physiological and pathological characteristics of children prone to cause hot and humid accumulation, pediatric Chih-Yin is not substantial, with their lungs often delicate and spleens often inadequate, they prone to get hot and humid accumulation after sick, and later appear a variety of symptoms including upper burner, center burner and lower burner. Therefore, the treatment of pediatric disease should take the heat into account, bearing in mind the residence site of heat evil and syndrome differentiation. Professor Liu Lin makes good use of


    Chapman, Jennifer K; Hart, Sybil L


    This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' perceptions of the transition to second-time motherhood, and advance methodology for supporting mothers during this transition. Fifty-seven pregnant mothers and their firstborn children (M age = 30.3 months) participated in a laboratory procedure in which the mother exposed her child to a brief episode of differential treatment. The episode was designed to simulate an expected experience of caregiving that would occur after the birth of a second child. During a postnatal visit (M=5.72 weeks following childbirth), mothers provided written feedback on their perceptions of the transition and the contribution of the laboratory experience to that transition. Qualitative content analysis revealed that mothers approached the birth of a second child with apprehension. Intrapersonal themes revealed that participation in the procedure shaped mothers' understanding of their expanded maternal roles by enhancing their sense of preparedness and confidence in their abilities to support their children. Interpersonal themes revealed that participation helped mothers appreciate the magnitude of the challenge that their children would face and gave mothers reason to believe that their children would adjust successfully. Findings are discussed in terms of their potential contribution toward developing methodology for helping mothers prepare for the addition of a second child. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Influence of Mothers' Education on Children's Maths Achievement in Kenya

    Abuya, Benta A.; Oketch, Moses; Mutisya, Maurice; Ngware, Moses; Ciera, James


    Research shows that fathers' level of education predicts achievement of both boys and girls, with significantly greater effect for boys. Similarly, mothers' level of education predicts the achievement of girls but not boys. This study tests the mother-child education achievement hypothesis, by examining the effect of mothers' education on the…

  5. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa


    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  6. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.


    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  7. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa


    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  8. Gender Bias in Mothers' Expectations about Infant Crawling.

    Mondschein, Emily R.; Adolph, Karen E.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.


    Examined influence of child's sex on mothers' expectations about their 11-month-olds' motor development. Found that mothers of girls underestimated their performance on the novel task of crawling down steep and shallow slopes and mothers of boys overestimated their performance. Girls and boys exhibited identical levels of motor performance during…

  9. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.


    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  10. How Mothers Encourage and Discourage Infants' Motor Actions

    Karasik, Lana B.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Adolph, Karen E.; Dimitropoulou, Katherine A.


    The content of mothers' emotional, verbal, and gestural communication to their infants was examined under conditions of potential physical risk in a laboratory motor task. Mothers encouraged and discouraged their 12- and 18-month-old infants to crawl or walk down a sloping walkway. Mothers expressed positive affect on nearly every trial. They…

  11. Mother-Adolescent Health Communication: Are All Conversations Created Equally?

    Boone, Tanya L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.


    Fifty-two mother-adolescent dyads (mean adolescent age = 16.3) participated in an observational study of communication about health topics. The aim of the study was to examine mother-adolescent conversations about health issues--drugs/alcohol, sexuality, nutrition/exercise--to determine the extent to which the mothers treat these issues similarly.…

  12. The Parenting Experiences of Mothers with Dissociative Disorders.

    Benjamin, Lynn R.; Benjamin, Robert; Rind, Bruce


    Presents a qualitative analysis of the experience of parenting of mothers with dissociative disorders. Using the mothers' words, describes how the five symptom areas of dissociation impeded their parenting efforts. Discusses the necessity of addressing parenting in the treatment of client-mothers with dissociative disorders. (Author/MKA)

  13. The Birth of a Breastfeeding Baby and Mother

    Lothian, Judith A.


    In this column, the author describes the way in which the normal, natural process of labor and birth prepares both mother and baby for breastfeeding. Birth practices including induced labor, routine interventions, epidural analgesia, and separation of mother and baby disrupt the process of early breastfeeding for mother and baby. Normal, natural birth sets the stage for uncomplicated breastfeeding.

  14. Natural Mentoring Relationships among Adolescent Mothers: A Study of Resilience

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.


    This study focused on natural mentoring relationships between nonparental adults and African American adolescent mothers. Data were collected from 93 adolescent mothers over 5 time points, starting in the adolescent mothers' senior year of high school and ending 5 years after high school. We found that having a natural mentor was related to fewer…

  15. The Feminist Interpretation of ’Night, Mother



    The famous contemporary drama wrights in America, Marsha Norman, had won Pulitzer Prize, Tony Prize, Drama Desk Awards and so on. ’Night, Mother was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1983.Feminist is the theoretical basis of this paper, analyze ’Night, Mother with the theory of feminist.’Night, Mother is a feminist play.

  16. Infant-Mother Attachment among the Dogon of Mali.

    True, Mary McMahan; Pisani, Lelia; Oumar, Fadimata


    Examined infant-mother attachment in Mali's Dogon ethnic group. Found that distribution of Strange Situation classifications was 67 percent secure, 0 percent avoidant, 8 percent resistant, and 25 percent disorganized. Infant attachment security related to quality of mother-infant communication. Mothers of disorganized infants had significantly…

  17. The Developmental Nature of Parental Awareness in Adolescent Mothers.

    Flick, Louise H.; McSweeney, Maryellen

    Adolescent mothers display less frequent, accepting, and involved interaction with their children than do older mothers. Yet the role of the young mothers' psychosocial immaturity in these phenomena remains unexplained. This project explores the validity of Newberger's model of Parental Awareness (PA) which outlines hierarchical stages in the…

  18. Immigrant Parents' Involvement in American Schools: Perspectives from Korean Mothers

    Sohn, Soomin; Wang, X. Christine


    The purpose of this study is to investigate Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on their involvement in American schools. In-depth interviews were conducted with six mothers. The findings indicated that the Korean mothers confronted difficulties while contacting teachers and participating in school activities. These difficulties included…

  19. Neonate-Mother Interaction during Breast-Feeding.

    Thoman, Evelyn B.; And Others

    Using a modified time-sampling procedure, 20 primiparous and 20 multiparous mothers were observed while breast-feeding their 48-hour old infants. In comparison with multiparous mothers, primiparous mothers (1) spend more time in non-feeding activities, (2) spend more time feeding male infants, (3) change activity more frequently, (4) provide more…

  20. Mothers' Concepts of Young Children's Areas of Personal Freedom.

    Nucci, Larry; Smetana, Judith G.


    Investigated mothers and children's concepts of children's areas of personal discretion, autonomy, and individuality. Findings indicated that mothers viewed their roles as educators and nurturers and valued the development of individuality in their children. Gender differences were found in the ways mothers characterized boys' and girls'…

  1. "Cuidate Sin Pena": Mexican Mother-Adolescent Sexuality Communication

    Moncloa, Fe; Wilkinson-Lee, Ada M.; Russell, Stephen T.


    This study explores perceptions of Mexican mother-adolescent communication about sexuality. Participants interviewed included four mother-expecting son pairs and four mother-pregnant daughter pairs. Our interviews revealed important adolescent gender differences. Pena (shame/embarrassment) played a major role vis-a-vis indirect communication about…

  2. Single Mothers' Religious Participation and Early Childhood Behavior

    Petts, Richard J.


    Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…

  3. Single Mothers' Religious Participation and Early Childhood Behavior

    Petts, Richard J.


    Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…

  4. The Influence of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori


    This article examines whether children living with single mothers benefit when they also live with a grandparent, using data from the 1979 to 2002 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged mother-child file (N = 6,501). Results indicate that for White children, living with a single mother and a grandparent is associated with…

  5. Indonesian Mothers and Their Young Children: Towards an Interdependent Society?

    Zevalkink, Jolien

    Considering the mother-child relationship as the first in which culturally-related interdependence or independence is learned, this study examined whether the interdependency hypothesis holds for the mother-child relationship in Indonesia. The study focused on the quality of the mother-child relationship, children's daily social interactions, and…

  6. Qualitative evaluation of the Teenage Mothers Project in Uganda: a community-based empowerment intervention for unmarried teenage mothers

    Leerlooijer, J.N.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Reeuwijk, van M.A.J.; Rijsdijk, E.; Nshakira, N.; Kok, G.


    Background A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda

  7. Affect recognition and the quality of mother-infant interaction: understanding parenting difficulties in mothers with schizophrenia.

    Healy, Sarah J; Lewin, Jona; Butler, Stephen; Vaillancourt, Kyla; Seth-Smith, Fiona


    This study investigated the quality of mother-infant interaction and maternal ability to recognise adult affect in three study groups consisting of mothers with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, mothers with depression and healthy controls. Sixty-four mothers were recruited from a Mother and Baby Unit and local children's centres. A 5-min mother-infant interaction was coded on a number of caregiving variables. Affect recognition and discrimination abilities were tested via a series of computerised tasks. Group differences were found both in measures of affect recognition and in the mother-infant interaction. Mothers with schizophrenia showed consistent impairments across most of the parenting measures and all measures of affect recognition and discrimination. Mothers with depression fell between the mothers with schizophrenia and healthy controls on most measures. However, depressed women's parenting was not significantly poorer than controls on any of the measures, and only showed trends for differences with mothers with schizophrenia on a few measures. Regression analyses found impairments in affect recognition and a diagnosis of schizophrenia to predict the occurrence of odd or unusual speech in the mother-infant interaction. Results add to the growing body of knowledge on the mother-infant interaction in mothers with schizophrenia and mothers with depression compared to healthy controls, suggesting a need for parenting interventions aimed at mothers with these conditions. While affect recognition impairments were not found to fully explain differences in parenting among women with schizophrenia, further research is needed to understand the psychopathology of parenting disturbances within this clinical group.

  8. Qualitative evaluation of the Teenage Mothers Project in Uganda: a community-based empowerment intervention for unmarried teenage mothers

    Leerlooijer, J.N.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Reeuwijk, van, P.; Rijsdijk, E.; Nshakira, N.; G. Kok


    Background A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda empowers unmarried teenage mothers to cope with the consequences of early pregnancy and motherhood. Since 2000, 1036 unmarried teenage mothers, their parents, and community leaders participated in econ...

  9. Comparison of growth and nutritional evolution stages in infants with working mothers and infants with housewife mothers in Isfahan

    Shams, Behzad; Golshiri, Parasto; Saleki, Azam; Isfagani, Motahereh Rabar; Najimi, Arash


    Background: Studies have shown that the growth status of the children with working mothers is about 2 standard deviations lower than that of the children of housewife mothers. It seems that absence of mothers in the second stage of nutritional evolution (attachment), which is a very sensitive stage, has an important role in initiating and continuation of an appropriate supplemental feeding. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 50 children of working mothers and 50 children of...

  10. Mothers as Early Cognitive Trainers: Guiding Low-Income Mothers to Work with Their Pre-Preschoolers.

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The Mother-Child Home Program was planned as a home-based, two-year cognitive intervention method. Women with varied incomes and education, both volunteer and paid, made 30-minute home visits twice weekly to help mothers become cognitive trainers of their own toddlers (starting at age two). Mother-child verbal interaction was stimulated with gifts…

  11. Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families

    Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.


    Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

  12. Measuring Social Support from Mother Figures in the Transition from Pregnancy to Parenthood among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.


    Social support for adolescent mothers, particularly from mother figures, can buffer risks and promote well-being. To date, no longitudinal research has investigated how the dimensions of social support may change during the transition from pregnancy to parenthood for adolescent mothers. This study examined stability and change in dimensions of…

  13. Foster Mother-Infant Bonding: Associations between Foster Mothers' Oxytocin Production, Electrophysiological Brain Activity, Feelings of Commitment, and Caregiving Quality

    Bick, Johanna; Dozier, Mary; Bernard, Kristin; Grasso, Damion; Simons, Robert


    This study examined the biological processes associated with foster mother-infant bonding. In an examination of foster mother-infant dyads ("N" = 41, mean infant age = 8.5 months), foster mothers' oxytocin production was associated with their expressions of behavioral delight toward their foster infant and their average P3 response to images of…

  14. Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families

    Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.


    Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

  15. Teenager-, Mother-, Daughter-, Who Am I? Navajo Adolescent Mothers' Perceptions of the Maternal Role & Implications for Child Developmental Outcomes.

    Dalla, Rochelle L.

    This study explored the meaning of motherhood among Navajo teenagers, their mothers, and community informants living in a small, rural town on a Navajo Reservation. Participating were 8 Navajo teenage mothers ranging from 16 to 19 years, 7 grandmothers (mothers of the teens) who ranged from 41 to 57 years, and 6 community informants: two teachers,…

  16. Low-Income Mothers' Nighttime and Weekend Work: Daily Associations with Child Behavior, Mother-Child Interactions, and Mood

    Gassman-Pines, Anna


    This study investigated low-income mothers' daily nighttime and weekend work and family outcomes. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children reported daily on work hours, mood, mother-child interaction, and child behavior for two weeks (N = 724 person-days). Although nighttime and weekend work are both nonstandard schedules, results showed…

  17. Effects of home visiting on adolescent mothers' parenting attitudes.

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Burrow, Nicola A; Balamurugan, Appathurai; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Plummer, Pamela


    We examined the impact of a home visiting intervention on 227 adolescent mothers' parenting attitudes. At enrollment, half of mothers were at risk for child maltreatment. Mothers assigned to intervention (n = 161) received home visits and case management. Intervention and comparison mothers (n = 66) participated in monthly peer group meetings. Regression analyses controlling for enrollment differences indicated that intervention group mothers had significant improvements in 3 of 5 subscales and in total Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2 scores relative to the comparison group.

  18. Breastfeeding duration, social and occupational characteristics of mothers in the French 'EDEN mother-child' cohort.

    Bonet, Mercedes; Marchand, Laetitia; Kaminski, Monique; Fohran, Anne; Betoko, Aisha; Charles, Marie-Aline; Blondel, Béatrice


    Socio-demographic characteristics of mothers have been associated with exclusive breastfeeding duration, but little is known about the association with maternal full- and part-time employment and return to work in European countries. To study the associations between breastfeeding, any and almost exclusive (infants receiving breast milk as their only milk) breastfeeding, at 4 months of infant's age and the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics of mothers. We used the EDEN mother-child cohort, a prospective study of 2002 singleton pregnant women in two French university hospitals. We selected all mothers (n = 1,339) who were breastfeeding at discharge from the maternity unit. Data on feeding practices were collected at the maternity unit and by postal questionnaires at 4, 8 and 12 months after the birth. Among infants breastfed at discharge, 93% were still receiving any breastfeeding (83% almost exclusive breastfeeding) at the 3rd completed week of life, 78% (63%) at the 1st completed month, and 42% (20%) at the 4th completed month. Time of return to work was a major predictor for stopping breastfeeding: the sooner the mothers returned to work, the less they breastfed their babies at 4 months of infant's age, independently of full-time or part-time employment. The association was stronger for almost exclusive breastfeeding mothers than for any breastfeeding ones. In a society where breastfeeding is not the norm, women may have difficulties combining work and breastfeeding. Specific actions need to be developed and assessed among mothers who return to work and among employers.


    Ana-Maria MANDIUC


    Full Text Available A large number of women who practice prostitution get pregnant and have the child. When a mother continues practicing prostitution, while at the same time trying to fulfill parental responsibilities, the child’s rights could end up being violated because of the characteristics of the two roles the woman adopts. The present paper presents the case study of a child of schooling age and whose mother practiced prostitution. The child was put in foster care after the mother’s death and the case study follows his evolution from birth until the research started, the focus of the study revolving around the four fundamental rights of the child: the right to be raised by the parents, the right to education, the right to health and the right to protection against abuses.

  20. [Mother-friendly childbirth practices and breastfeeding].

    Lin, Ya-Wen; Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Yang, Ya-Ling


    Childbirth, connecting the stages of pregnancy and postpartum, deeply affects maternal motivation with regard to initiating and continuing postnatal breastfeeding and ultimate breastfeeding success. Although promoting breastfeeding is a strategy critical to achieving wellbeing in both mothers and infants, there remains a lack of professional attention and related research into the effect of childbirth on breastfeeding. Promoting successful breastfeeding is a central component of childbirth-friendly nursing care. Therefore, this paper introduces the origin and concepts of mother-and-infant-friendly childbirth, then analyzes the influences on breastfeeding of medicalized birth practices and suggests how to implement childbirth-friendly interventions. This paper was written to help nurses better understand how the childbirth process affects breastfeeding and provide a reference for creating conditions during childbirth that encourage successful breastfeeding practices.

  1. Helping mothers survive bleeding after birth

    Nelissen, Ellen; Ersdal, Hege; Ostergaard, Doris


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants, and ambul......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants...... and feasible, although more time should be allocated for training, and teaching materials should be translated into the local language. Knowledge, skills, and confidence of learners increased significantly immediately after training. However, overall pass rates for skills tests of learners after training were...

  2. Pictorial Essay: Infants of diabetic mothers

    Alorainy Ibrahim


    Full Text Available About 3 to 10% of pregnancies are complicated by glycemic control abnormalities. Maternal diabetes results in significantly greater risk for antenatal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as congenital malformations. The number of diabetic mothers is expected to rise, as more and more of the obese pediatric female population in developed and some developing countries progresses to childbearing age. Radiologists, being part of the teams managing such pregnancies, should be well aware of the findings that may be encountered in infants of diabetic mothers. Timely, accurate, and proper radiological evaluation can reduce morbidity and mortality in these infants. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the imaging findings in the various pathological conditions involving the major body systems in the offspring of women with diabetes

  3. The neonatal nurse: advocating for breastfeeding mothers.

    Darby, Colm; Nurse, Sharon


    Accurate information and support from healthcare professionals as well as respect for parental choice are all factors which contribute to effective breastfeeding in the neonatal unit; with this in mind, Colm Darby and Sharon Nurse discuss the potential problems in expressing breast milk and the interventions which might be effective in avoiding them. Advocacy is an inherent part of neonatal nurses' role whilst caring for sick, vulnerable babies. Colm Darby is a male neonatal nurse working in a predominantly female environment and passionately believes in supporting and advocating for mothers who want to provide breast milk for their babies. In this article, CoIm uses Borton's model of reflection to discuss how he acted as an effective advocate for such a mother.

  4. Cocaine use and the breastfeeding mother.

    Jones, Wendy


    Cocaine is the second most commonly used illicit drug. Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding may have severe consequences for the baby due to its pharmacokinetic properties. Midwives need to be aware of the prolonged action of cocaine and be alert to the possibility of cocaine toxicity if a baby is excessively irritable and tachycardic. Euphoric highs are brief but breast milk and urine remain positive for long periods. Infant urine following exposure to cocaine via breast milk may remain positive for up to 60 hours. Mothers who snort cocaine should pump and dump breast milk for 24-48 hours. Passive inhalation of crack cocaine smoke may also result in infants with positive toxicology screens. Cocaine powder should never be applied to the nipples of breastfeeding mothers.

  5. Child overweight - mothers' competence to take action

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Peitersen, Birgit


    Objective: We investigated mothers' possession and display of action competence to counteract or prevent overweight and eventual obesity in their children. Action competence is defined as a personal resource where the most important aspect is the individual's wish to take action and to believe...... interview about action competence, lifestyle, and their 7- to 9-year-old children. Results: Compared to MNC, MOC considered it more important to change habits, both for themselves (p = 0.003) and their children (p

  6. Parenting practices and expectations among Mexican mothers with young children.

    Solis-Camarar, P; Fox, R A


    Parenting practices and developmental expectations were examined in a sample of 221 Mexican mothers with very young children living in Guadalajara, Jalisco. They completed a Spanish version of the Parent Behavior Checklist (PBC), a 100-item rating scale that measures parents' developmental expectations, discipline, and nurturing practices. The psychometric properties of the PBC for Mexican mothers, including test-retest reliabilities, were very similar to those found for mothers of young children in the United States. Younger Mexican mothers used more frequent discipline and less nurturing with their young children than older mothers did. Married mothers nurtured their children more than unmarried mothers; young, unmarried mothers nurtured their children the least. Lower nurturing scores were associated with lower education levels, and higher nurturing scores were associated with higher education levels. Mothers from higher socioeconomic levels held higher developmental expectations for their children, and they used less frequent discipline and more frequent nurturing practices than mothers from lower socioeconomic levels. These findings are consistent with those for mothers of young children in the United States.

  7. Infant salt preference and mother's morning sickness.

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L


    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults. To determine whether effects on NaCl preference are expressed in infancy, the present study examined 16-week-old infants whose mothers reported either little or no vomiting (N = 15) or frequent moderate to severe vomiting (N = 14) during the first 14 weeks of their pregnancy. The infants' oral-motor facial reactions to each solution and their relative intakes of distilled water and 0.1m and 0.2m NaCl were used as measures of preference. Infants of mothers who reported no or mild symptoms had a significantly lower relative intake of salt solutions than infants whose mothers reported moderate to severe symptoms (p < 0.01). The former infants also showed a greater number of aversive facial responses when given 0.2m NaCl (p < 0.05). Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that maternal dehydration, induced by moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy, can lead to enhanced salt preference in offspring. They also provide a potential explanation for some of the variability encountered when human infants are tested for their salt preference.

  8. Mothers' pupillary responses to infant facial expressions.

    Yrttiaho, Santeri; Niehaus, Dana; Thomas, Eileen; Leppänen, Jukka M


    Human parental care relies heavily on the ability to monitor and respond to a child's affective states. The current study examined pupil diameter as a potential physiological index of mothers' affective response to infant facial expressions. Pupillary time-series were measured from 86 mothers of young infants in response to an array of photographic infant faces falling into four emotive categories based on valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (mild vs. strong). Pupil dilation was highly sensitive to the valence of facial expressions, being larger for negative vs. positive facial expressions. A separate control experiment with luminance-matched non-face stimuli indicated that the valence effect was specific to facial expressions and cannot be explained by luminance confounds. Pupil response was not sensitive to the arousal level of facial expressions. The results show the feasibility of using pupil diameter as a marker of mothers' affective responses to ecologically valid infant stimuli and point to a particularly prompt maternal response to infant distress cues.

  9. Difficulties facing physician mothers in Japan.

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Kozono, Yuki; Mori, Ryo; Marui, Eiji


    Despite recent increases in the number of female physicians graduating in Japan, their premature resignations after childbirth are contributing to the acute shortage of physicians. Previous Japanese studies have explored supportive measures in the workplace, but have rarely focused on the specific problems or concerns of physician-mothers. Therefore, this study explored the challenges facing Japanese physician-mothers in efforts to identify solutions for their retention. Open-ended questionnaires were mailed to 646 alumnae of Juntendo University School of Medicine. We asked subjects to describe their opinions about 'The challenges related to female physicians' resignations'. Comments gathered from alumnae who graduated between 6 and 30 years ago and have children were analyzed qualitatively. Overall, 249 physicians returned the questionnaire (response rate 38.5%), and 73 alumnae with children who graduated in the stated time period provided comments. The challenges facing physician-mothers mainly consisted of factors associated with Japanese society, family responsibilities, and work environment. Japanese society epitomized by traditional gender roles heightened stress related to family responsibilities and promoted gender discrimination at work environment. Additionally, changing Japanese society positively influenced working atmosphere and husband's support. Moreover, the introduction of educational curriculums that alleviated traditional gender role was proposed for pre- and post- medical students. Traditional gender roles encourage discrimination by male physicians or work-family conflicts. The problems facing female physicians involve more than just family responsibilities: diminishing the notion of gender role is key to helping retain them in the workforce.

  10. Postpartum Depression Among Asian Indian Mothers.

    Goyal, Deepika; Park, Van Ta; McNiesh, Susan


    To explore Asian Indian mothers' perspectives of postpartum depression (PPD) and mental health help-seeking behavior. Qualitative exploratory design. Using convenience sampling, postpartum mothers were recruited through flyers posted in public places and on social media sites. Postpartum depression risk was assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) prior to qualitative interviews. Content analysis methods were used to extract themes from participant narratives. Twelve self-identified, married, Asian Indian mothers, aged between 29 and 40 years, living in Northern California, who gave birth to a healthy infant within the last 12 months, took part in this study. Scores on the EPDS indicated two participants were at an increased risk for developing PPD. Content analysis revealed two emerging themes: (1) Culture-specific postpartum practices and ceremonies and their role in maternal-infant postpartum recovery; and (2) Maternal mental health help-seeking behavior. Nurses taking care of women during the extended prenatal and postpartum period have the unique opportunity to build rapport with their patients which can offer a window of opportunity to educate and help dispel myths about PPD symptoms and treatment. To promote successful maternal-infant outcomes, PPD education should be initiated at the first prenatal appointment, continue during the pregnancy, and be incorporated into well-baby visits through the first postpartum year. Education should include signs and symptoms of PPD as well as importance of timely mental-health help-seeking.

  11. Outcomes of Depression in Black Single Mothers.

    Atkins, Rahshida L


    Despite suggestions in the literature that depression has serious consequences, few studies have examined specific health and psychosocial outcomes of depression in Black single mothers. The purpose of this study was to estimate paths in a just-identified theoretical model of outcomes of depression for Black single mothers based on theoretical propositions and empirical findings. The model included the variables, depressive cognitions, depressive symptomatology, perceived social support, and positive health practices. Five direct and two indirect hypothesized relationships were estimated using structural equation modeling. A nonprobability sample of convenience of 159 Black single mothers aged 18 to 45 years was recruited for the study. This study used a cross-sectional correlational design. The participants responded in person or via the U.S. mail to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, the Depressive Cognition Scale, the Personal Resource Questionnaire 85-Part 2, and the Personal Lifestyle Questionnaire. Beta and Gamma path coefficients were statistically significant for four out of five hypothesized direct relationships within the model ( p .05). The two indirect paths were weak but statistically significant ( p < .01). Depressive symptoms and perceived social support were outcomes of depressive cognitions. Positive health practices was not a direct outcome of depressive cognitions. Perceived social support and positive health practices were outcomes of depressive symptoms.

  12. Low-Income First-Time Mothers

    Jean Hannan PhD


    Full Text Available Background. Low-income mothers have greater challenges in accessing health care services due changes in the health care system and budget cuts. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to test a nurse practitioner (NP intervention using cell phone and texting on maternal/infant outcomes. Methods. The sample included 129 mother-infant pairs. Intervention group mothers received NP 2-way cell phone follow-up intervention post–hospital discharge for 6 months. Results. Intervention mothers’ perceived social support was significantly higher. Intervention infants received their first newborn follow-up visit significantly earlier (6 vs 9 days; significantly more infants were immunized at recommended times (2, 4, and 6 months of age; and there were fewer infant morbidities compared to controls. The intervention saved between $51 030 and $104 277 in health care costs averted. Conclusion. This easy-to-use, safe intervention is an effective way to reach a wide range of populations and demonstrated improved maternal/infant outcomes and decreased cost.

  13. Promoting Multivitamins to Hispanic Adolescents and Mothers

    Michael Mackert


    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs can be reduced by 50% to 70% with sufficient periconceptional intake of folic acid. Hispanic women are up to 3 times more likely than non-Hispanics to have a child affected by NTDs. This disparity is complicated by health literacy, as women impacted by this disparity are also at-risk for low health literacy. The purpose of this project was to pilot advertisements to promote multivitamins, increasing folic acid consumption, among Hispanic adolescents. The advertisements for Hispanic adolescents and their mothers focused on broad benefits of a multivitamin, downplaying folic acid’s role in prenatal health. Participants were Hispanic mothers (n = 25 and adolescents (n = 25 at a clinic in the Southwestern United States. Likert-type survey items and an open-ended question were used to assess attitudes toward multivitamins and advertisements. The Newest Vital Sign (NVS was used to assess participants’ health literacy. Participants’ impressions of the ads were positive. Both groups expressed the intent to start taking a daily multivitamin after viewing the ads—adolescents for themselves and mothers to start their daughters on a daily multivitamin. There was no relationship between participants’ health literacy and perceptions of the advertisements or intentions to begin a multivitamin habit. This research illustrates the potential of messages that rely on peripheral health benefits to overcome communication barriers posed by health literacy and address serious health problems such as NTDs.

  14. Outcomes of Depression in Black Single Mothers

    Atkins, Rahshida L.


    Despite suggestions in the literature that depression has serious consequences, few studies have examined specific health and psychosocial outcomes of depression in Black single mothers. The purpose of this study was to estimate paths in a just-identified theoretical model of outcomes of depression for Black single mothers based on theoretical propositions and empirical findings. The model included the variables, depressive cognitions, depressive symptomatology, perceived social support, and positive health practices. Five direct and two indirect hypothesized relationships were estimated using structural equation modeling. A nonprobability sample of convenience of 159 Black single mothers aged 18 to 45 years was recruited for the study. This study used a cross-sectional correlational design. The participants responded in person or via the U.S. mail to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression scale, the Depressive Cognition Scale, the Personal Resource Questionnaire 85–Part 2, and the Personal Lifestyle Questionnaire. Beta and Gamma path coefficients were statistically significant for four out of five hypothesized direct relationships within the model (p supported (Gamma = −.11, p > .05). The two indirect paths were weak but statistically significant (p social support were outcomes of depressive cognitions. Positive health practices was not a direct outcome of depressive cognitions. Perceived social support and positive health practices were outcomes of depressive symptoms. PMID:26912710

  15. Proxemic communication between HIV-infected mother-child pairs.

    Rebouças, Cristiana; Souza Paiva, Simone de; Costa, Enia; Vieira Lima, Ivana Cristina; Freitag Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena; Gimeniz Galvão, Marli Teresinha

    Proxemic communication (behaviours and relations of human interaction) offered by the mother in an HIV-infected mother-child pair during infancy was analysed to determine which proxemic factors promote the exchange of affection. This study, conducted in an experimental laboratory in 2007, included mother-child pairs in which the mother was HIV-positive and the children, under 6 months of age, were born exposed to the virus. Video recordings of the mother-child interaction were analysed according to proxemic factors. Of the 364 interactions recorded for analysis of proxemic communication between the mother-child pair, the most significant proxemic factors were axis, contact behavior, visual code, and tone of voice. The mothers developed communicative strategies such as closer proximity, touch, vocalisation, and smiling to promote the exchange of affection when engaging in maternal care.

  16. Mothers' physical abusiveness in a context of violence: effects on the mother-child relationship.

    Timmer, Susan G; Thompson, Dianne; Culver, Michelle A; Urquiza, Anthony J; Altenhofen, Shannon


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mothers' physical abusiveness on the quality of the mother-child relationship, and note how it further varied by their exposure to interparental violence (IPV). The sample consisted of 232 clinic-referred children, aged 2 to 7 years, and their biological mothers. Slightly more than a quarter of the children (N = 63, 27.2%) had been physically abused by their mothers; approximately half of these children also had a history of exposure to IPV (N = 34, 54%). Investigating effects of physical abuse in the context of IPV history on mothers' and children's emotional availability, we found that physically abused children with no IPV exposure appeared less optimally emotionally available than physically abused children with an IPV exposure. However, subsequent analyses showed that although dyads with dual-violence exposure showed emotional availability levels similar those of nonabusive dyads, they were more overresponsive and overinvolving, a kind of caregiving controllingness charasteric of children with disorganized attachment styles. These findings lend some support to the notion that the effects of abuse on the parent-child relationship are influenced by the context of family violence, although the effects appear to be complex.

  17. The effect of kangaroo mother care on mental health of mothers with low birth weight infants

    Zohreh Badiee


    Full Text Available Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. Results: The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group. Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001. Conclusion: KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers.

  18. Mothers' reading skills and child survival in Nigeria: examining the relevance of mothers' decision-making power.

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily


    Mothers' literacy skills are emerging as a key determinant of children's health and survival in low-income contexts, with emphasis on the cognitive and psychological agency that literacy skills provide. This work has clearly established a strong association between mothers' reading skills--a key subcomponent of broader literacy and language skills--and child mortality. However, this relatively nascent literature has not yet considered how broader social structures condition the process. In Nigeria and in sub-Saharan Africa more broadly, gender-based social inequality constrains many mothers' decision-making power over children's health matters; this structural feature may condition the association between mothers' reading skills and child mortality. This paper uses data from the 2003 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (N = 12,076) to test the conditionality of the relationship between mothers' reading skills and child survival on mothers' decision-making power, highlighting how structural realities should factor more heavily into this individual-action-oriented literature. Among Nigerian children whose mothers have decision-making power, mothers' reading skills convey a 27 percent lower risk of child mortality; however, for children whose mothers lack decision-making power, mothers' reading skills do not yield a significant survival advantage. Overall, these findings support the need for future work to further analyze how broader social structures condition the benefits of mothers' reading skills for children's health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relations between mothers' daily work, home, and relationship stress with characteristics of mother-child conflict interactions.

    Nelson, Jackie A; Boyer, Brittany P; Villarreal, Deyaun L; Smith, Olivia A


    This study examined whether daily variations in levels of mothers' work, home, and relationship stress were related to collaborative and oppositional qualities of mother-child conflict interactions across 1 week. Mothers reported on 1 specific conflict interaction with their 5- to 8-year-old child and their work, home, and relationship stress through online surveys each day for 7 consecutive days. Diary data from 142 mothers were analyzed in 6 multilevel models, each including within- and between-family levels of a stressor predicting collaborative or oppositional conflict qualities. Results suggested that families in the sample differed from each other, and also varied during the week, in collaborative and oppositional conflict qualities as well as stress in all 3 domains. Mothers reported a greater degree of oppositional conflict qualities on days characterized by higher perceptions of home chaos. Additionally, mothers who reported higher average levels of negativity in romantic relationships endorsed oppositional conflict qualities to a greater extent than mothers with lower relationship negativity. Two multilevel models including all 3 stressors in relation to collaborative and oppositional conflict revealed that for mothers managing multiple roles, average romantic relationship stress was the most important unique contributor to mother-child conflict qualities and daily relationship stress was particularly influential among mothers with sons compared to those with daughters. Results support the spillover hypothesis of stress within the family system and are discussed in terms of mothers' coping mechanisms and emotional engagement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Measuring Social Support from Mother-Figures in the Transition from Pregnancy to Parenthood among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers.

    Toomey, Russell B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B; Updegraff, Kimberly A


    Social support for adolescent mothers, particularly from mother figures, can buffer risks and promote well-being. To date, no longitudinal research has investigated how the dimensions of social support may change during the transition from pregnancy to parenthood for adolescent mothers. This study examined stability and change in dimensions of social support from the third trimester of pregnancy to two years postpartum among 191 dyads of Mexican-origin adolescent first-time mothers and their mother figures. Perceptions of social support received from a mother figure shifted from a single dimension (i.e., global support) to three distinct factors (instrumental, emotional, and companionship support) during this transition; however, social support provision as reported by mother figures remained stable. Measurement equivalence was established across interview language (English and Spanish) and across two time points postpartum. Bivariate correlations provided support for the convergent and divergent validity of these measures. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  1. Improving uptake and engagement with child body image interventions delivered to mothers: Understanding mother and daughter preferences for intervention content.

    Garbett, Kirsty M; Diedrichs, Phillippa C


    Mothers are a key influence on adolescent girls' body image. This study aimed to improve understanding of mothers' and daughters' preferences for content in body image interventions designed to assist mothers to promote positive body image among their daughters. British mother-daughter dyads (N=190) viewed descriptions of five evidence-based influences on body image (family, friends, and relationships; appearance-based teasing; media and celebrities; appearance conversations; body acceptance and care). Mothers and daughters each selected the two most important influences to learn about in these interventions. Overall, both mothers and daughters most frequently opted for family, friends, and relationships and body acceptance and care, whereas media and celebrities was their least preferred topic. While the overall sample of mothers and daughters agreed on preferences, Fisher's exact tests showed that within-dyad agreement was low. Recommendations for improving parent and child engagement with, and effectiveness of, child body image interventions delivered to parents are discussed.

  2. Work/non-workday differences in mother, child, and mother-child morning cortisol in a sample of working mothers and their children.

    Hibel, Leah C; Trumbell, Jill M; Mercado, Evelyn


    Mothers have been shown to have higher morning cortisol on days they go to work compared to non-workdays; however, it is unknown how maternal workday associates with child morning cortisol or the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol. This study examined the presence and stability of morning cortisol levels and slopes (i.e., cortisol awakening response or CAR) in a sample of 2-4year old children in out-of-home child care with working mothers. In addition, we examined the differential contributions of maternal workday on mother-child attunement in morning cortisol. Mother and child morning cortisol was sampled twice a day (awakening and 30min later) across four consecutive days (2 non-workdays; 2 workdays) among 47 working mothers and their young children. Mothers also reported on compliance with sampling procedures and provided demographic information. While children exhibited stability in cortisol levels, children's CARs were variable, with children's non-work CARs not predictive of work CARs. Similarly, a significant morning rise in cortisol was only found on workdays, not non-workdays. Overall, mothers had higher cortisol levels and steeper CARs than their children. Further, maternal workday moderated the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol, such that mothers and children had concordant cortisol levels on non-workdays, but discordant cortisol levels on workdays. Morning cortisol may be more variable in pre-school aged children than adults but may be similarly responsive to the social environment. Further, workday mornings may be a time of reduced mother-child cortisol attunement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Major Survey Findings of Listening to MothersSM III: New Mothers Speak Out

    Declercq, Eugene R.; Sakala, Carol; Corry, Maureen P.; Applebaum, Sandra; Herrlich, Ariel


    To understand the experiences and views of childbearing women in the United States and trends over time, Childbirth Connection carried out the third national Listening to Mothers survey among 2,400 women who gave birth in U.S. hospitals to a single baby from mid-2011 to mid-2012 and could participate in English. A follow-up survey directed to the same participants explored postpartum experiences, in depth and well into the second year after birth; views about maternity care; and some additional pregnancy and birth items. Harris Interactive conducted the surveys using a validated methodology that includes data weighting to ensure that results closely reflect the target population. The follow-up survey was reported in Listening to Mothers III: New Mothers Speak Out. PMID:24453464

  4. Care demands on mothers caring for a child with Down syndrome: Malaysian (Sarawak) mothers' perspectives.

    Chan, Kim Geok; Lim, Khatijah Abdullah; Ling, How Kee


    This paper examines the experiences of mothers caring for a child with Down syndrome in the Malaysian (Sarawak) context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 26 biological mothers of children with Down syndrome aged 18 years and below. They were accessed through selected child health clinics, community-based rehabilitation centres and schools using purposive sampling within two regions in Sarawak, one of the two Borneo States of Malaysia. Major themes emerging within the context of care demands were children's health, developmental delays, daily needs and behaviour issues. The insights obtained into the care demands experienced by mothers of children with Down syndrome have several implications for practice by care professionals. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. a Comparison Between Chemically Dependent Mothers and Drug-Free Mothers: Lifestyle during the Perinatal Period

    Uskokovic, Lila Milica

    This study compared maternal lifestyle variables pertinent to the perinatal period in groups of chemically dependent mothers and drug-free mothers. Twenty-nine cocaine -abusing mothers were compared to 29 drug-free mothers carefully matched on age, race, education, and primipara versus multipara status. The drug history of each chemically dependent woman was explicitly documented. The chemically dependent group was subdivided into two groups, mothers who abused cocaine and those who abused cocaine with concomitant opiate use. Each of these two subgroups was compared to its respective matched drug-free control group. Finally, a comparison was made between the two drug subgroups. All subjects were interviewed within 48 hours after delivery using the following measures: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (A-State), Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale, The Self-Esteem Scale, Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitude Questionnaire, The Neonatal Perception Inventory, The Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview Life Events Scale, Maternal Social Support Index, and Short Marital Adjustment Test. A t-test analysis revealed significant differences (p self-esteem, maternal adjustment and attitudes, and life events. An analysis of covariance indicated that life events was the only significant variable when the influence of all other variables was removed. Comparisons made between each drug subgroup and its respective matched control group showed similar results, except that those who abused opiates with cocaine did not differ from their controls on depression and maternal adjustment and attitudes. No significant differences were obtained in the drug subgroup comparisons. These results identify increased life events and specific negative affect states that clinical intervention programs should address to assure the best possible outcome for chemically dependent mothers and their infants.

  6. 钱币八政首 价贵靠威令——论刘基的货币思想%On Liu Ji's Thoughts on Currency



    刘基的货币思想体现在五个方面:钱币八政首,功在通有无;楮币多若土,扬火自焚躯;世人积金贻子孙,一朝金尽难复论;钱币相比较,好丑天然殊;钱币无用物,价贵靠威令。%There are mainly five aspects of Liu Ji's thoughts on currency: Money Occupies the first place among the eight administrative assignments,which functions the circulation of goods;Chu notes are released too much,which will definitely bring disasters just a

  7. Analysis on the Kinematic Features of Liu Hong’s Key Techniques for Race Walking%刘虹竞走关键技术的运动学特征分析

    敬艳; 刘建国; 蒋纯金; 黄鹂; 吴佳贤; 高聪


    By way of literature review,three dimensional photography,video analysis,the present paper studies the technical features of Liu Hong’s 20km race walking in the 2016 National Race Walking Grand Prix and Olym-pic Qualification Competition in the hope of providing reference for athletes’competition in the Rio Olympic Games. The results show that Liu Hong’s techniques are standard and effective on the whole. Her techniques have the following features:her flight time span is within the fuzzy time limit,while her flight time at the sprint stage is far over the threshold value as a result of accelerating. Her head’s vertical motion is large,and both her knee angle and vertical knee joint angle are small while her swing leg is off the ground. The faster her cen-ter of gravity moves,the smaller her knee angle is. This makes her walking look more like “running”. Her landing technique meets the straight leg standard,and her “reverse bow”act during the vertical supporting phase is obvious. The effectiveness of Liu Hong’s techniques is as following:both her left and right step dis-tance increase,it greatly changes the traditional style of “small step and high frequency”;but the left - and -right imbalance remains unchanged. The angle between the thighs is small,indicating that Liu Hong’s tech-nique for hip propulsion is yet to be improved.%运用文献资料法、三维定点摄像法、影像解析法等,以刘虹参加2016年全国竞走大奖赛暨奥运选拔赛20km比赛的技术特征为研究对象,对其技术的优缺点进行归纳总结,旨在为其里约奥运会技术改进提供参考。结果表明:总体来看刘虹技术的规范性、实效性特征较好。技术规范性特征具体表现为其腾空时限处于模糊腾空时限内,但是最后冲刺阶段由于提速导致腾空时限远超过临界值。头顶垂直位移稍偏大,摆动腿离地瞬间膝角偏小,垂直膝关节角度同样偏小,且重心移动

  8. Excavation on the Western Zhou Site at Yandun in Liu'an City, Anhui%安徽六安市堰墩西周遗址发掘简报

    安徽省文物考古研究所; 六安市文物管理所


    The Yandun site lies at Yandun Village of Sanshipu Town in Liu'an City, Anhui Province, and was a terraced settlement within the district of the watershed between the Yangtze and Huihe rivers at the eastern foot of Dabie Mountain. It has deep deposits with pure cultural contents and constitutes a typical village remains of the Western Zhou period. In the extensive area of excavation,totaling about 900 sq m, ash-pits and tombs were discovered along with numerous vestiges related to buildings. Among the abundant objects unearthed are pottery, proto-porcelain, hard pottery with impressed design, bronzes, and stone, bone and shell artifacts. The discovery of the site has great value to the deep-going study of the features of the Western Zhou period archaeological culture in the Yangtze and Huihe valley within the Anhui region.

  9. Professor Liu Shu-hua′s Experience on Clinical Application of WenDanTang%刘树华教授临床运用温胆汤举验



    Professor Liu Shu-hua applied modified WenDanTang to insomnia, vertigo, depression, epilepsia and other diseases with the method of different diseases and same therapy under the theory of syndrome differentiation and treatment, which was proved to be effective. Treatment experience of the cases were recorded and tested.%刘树华教授在辨证论治理论的指导下,运用异病同治的方法,采用温胆汤加减治疗不寐、眩晕、郁证、癫痫等疾病,取得了很好的疗效,谨录临床验案以资验证.

  10. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Mothers Regarding Infant Feeding Practices

    Sushma Sriram


    Full Text Available Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6months. 90.67% think that colostrum is good for baby.34.67% mothers have given pre-lacteal feeds, tea and jaggery was most common.84.67% mothers knew that they should take extra food during lactation. Father (36% most commonly help in feeding while 31.33% don’t get any domestic help.78.67% women consult doctor for feeding problems. Most common reason of stopping breast feeding was inadequate milk secretion(54.67%.18% think that feeding should be stopped during illness. 75.33% women were completely satisfied with their feeding practices. Conclusion-Mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding practices. Inspite of good knowledge there are lacunae in the practices of mothers due to social and economic reasons. Level of education has positive impact on infant feeding practices. Counselling by doctors had a better impact on the attitude and practices of mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 147-150

  11. Understanding how education/support groups help lone mothers

    Cameron Ruth


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lone-mother led families are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage, social isolation and mental health morbidity. Community-based programs are more accessible for families seeking assistance. We examine the experiences of eight lone mothers participating in a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT of a community-based education/support group program using mixed methods. Methods A purposeful sample of eight mothers participating in the intervention arm of an RCT of community-based support/education groups was selected for the qualitative study. Individual interviews asked mothers about themselves and their relationships with their children before and after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Quantitative data collected in the RCT were used to describe these mothers. Results Mothers participating in the RCT and qualitative study experienced multiple difficulties, including financial and mood problems. These mothers reported that before participating in the group, they had shared experiences of social isolation, stigma, a sense of failure, poor relationships with their children and difficulties with financial management. After the group, mothers identified improved self-esteem, support from other mothers, improved parenting skills and improved communication with their children as outcomes of group participation. Conclusions The qualitative data revealed mothers' perceptions of specific areas that improved by participating in the group. The utility of complementary information provided by qualitative and quantitative methods in understanding program impact, as well as the need for broader assistance is noted.

  12. As a mother tenderly: exploring parish ministry through the metaphor and analogy of mothering

    Percy, Emma


    As a mother tenderly: using mothering as a metaphor and analogy for parish ministry. The thesis sets out to use maternal imagery as a way of articulating the practice of parish ministry in the Church of England. The aim is to find a language which can affirm and encourage many aspects of good practice that are in danger of being over looked because they are neither well articulated nor valued. The ministry of a parish priest is a relational activity: characterised by care. It is becaus...

  13. 刘长信自拟经验方泡腿疗法治疗膝关节骨性关节炎%Professor LIU Changxin“Self-made experience”leg-bathing therapy treatment of osteoarthritis of knee

    庄威; 王浩; 刘长信


    刘长信教授认为,膝关节骨性关节炎的病因病机是由于筋骨失营,风寒湿等邪气乘虚而侵袭膝部,体内正气被邪气瘀阻难以通调全身,以致膝部气血凝滞。在临床治疗上以筋骨并重,以筋代骨,强调“经筋”的重要性,同时注重祛风除湿,散寒止痛。腿浴疗法可利用水温本身对皮肤、经络、穴位的刺激和药物的经皮吸收,达到治疗疾病、养生保健的目的。%Professor LIU Changxin think that the reason of knee osteoarthritis is due to the loss the saf e of the bones from the circulation,while wind,cold and other evil elements headed the invasion of the knee;and righteousness in our body is difficult to pass notes systemic evil stasis,lead to the knee blood stagnation. So Professor LIU Changxin in the clinical treatment of bones and try to replace the bones with tendons,stress the importance of“tendons”;the same time focus on get rid of the elements such as wind,cold and pain. Chinese leg-bathing therapy is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy,we use the water and the liquid filled in the instrument,soak the leg and foot,the use of wa-ter temperature on the skin,meridians,acupuncture points to stimulate and absorb from the skin of drugs achieve the purpose of treatment of disease,and health care. .

  14. The TV Series Liu Bang of Han Danasty: The Continuation and Creation to The Historical Records%电视剧《汉刘邦》对《史记》的继承和创新



    Based on the historical facts reflected in The Historical Records, the historical play Liu Bang of Han Dynasty vividly reveals a broad scene of social time then. And the contrasting pictures are created by the integration of true representation and art fiction referring to The Historical Records. The creation of the artistic image Liu Bang and Xiang Yu by the dilution of their legendary highlight the aesthetic thinking tivity reflecting a scientific dialectical attitude showed in the creation of the TV combined by authenticity and crea- series.%历史剧代表作《汉刘邦》以《史记》所载史实为依托,着力反映了当时社会生活的广阔图景,在此基础上又通过真实再现与艺术虚构的有机融合,参照借鉴《史记》的对比手法设置富于对比性的画面,对《史记》人物的传奇性予以淡化,塑造了刘邦与项羽的艺术形象,既凸显了真实性与创造性有机结合的美学思维,更体现出电视剧创作对《史记》历史素材汲取所表现出的较为科学辩证的态度。

  15. Liu Shaoqi's Preliminary Exploration of the Party's Scientific Construction of Anti-corruption and Integrity%刘少奇对反腐倡廉建设科学化的初步探索



    Although Liu Shaoqi did not put forward the concept of "scientific construction of anti-corruption and integrity", in fact he followed objective laws to make a theoretical study of the scientific construction of anti-corruption and integrity. Corruption is the reciprocal consequences of both the subjective factor, namely the indulgence and distortion of human' s selfish motives, and the objective factor, which is the failure of power operation. On the basis of this cognition, Liu Shaoqi advocated that the anti-corruption work should focus on the education of people' s thoughts and harmoniously unify external constraints on power. This point has provided the methodological instruction for the Party' s construction of anti-corruption and integrity under the new situation.%刘少奇尽管没有提出“反腐倡廉建设科学化”的概念,但事实上遵循客观规律对反腐倡廉建设科学化进行过重要的理论探索。基于腐败是行为人私利之心放纵扭曲的主观因素与权力运行规范失效的客观因素交相作用的结果,刘少奇认为反腐败应着眼于对人的思想改造和对权力外在制约的协调统一。这为新形势下加强反腐倡廉建设提供了方法论指导。

  16. Investigation of Printing Time of The Romance of the Three Kingdoms Published by LiuLongtian%刘龙田本《三国志演义》刊刻时间考



    随着《三国志传》的版本意义在《三国志演义》研究中逐渐被发掘,“志传”版本的研究成为《三国志演义》研究的突破口。刘龙田本是其中较为关键的本子,但刘本刊刻年代是一个很多专家忽略而且模糊化的点。笔者就这一问题进行了一些资料的搜集和整理,对刘龙田本的刊刻时间有了一个初步界定,尤其是将刘本的插图和版式放在建安本的演变过程中来论证。刘龙田本和余象斗本、郑少垣本,汤学士本在插图的刊刻上有诸多联系,笔者推断出刘龙田《新锓全像通俗演义三国志传》的刊刻时间应该是万历三十七年,也就是1609年。%As the value of Annals of Three Kingdoms is gradually discovered, the text published by LiuLongtian is a breakthrough in the study of The Romance of the Three Kingdoms . However, there are something important not yet to be fully understood . The paper argues that no matter what version we obtained all have some connections each other in the illustrations printing ,so the printing time of LiuLongTian' s version should be the year of 1609.

  17. Overweight and obese children: mothers' strategies.

    Jackson, Debra; Mannix, Judy; Faga, Pat; McDonald, Glenda


    This paper reports a study exploring the strategies a group of mothers of overweight and obese children were using and planned to use in the future to assist their children to achieve a healthy weight. Over the past two decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has grown exponentially to become a major public health concern. Extant literature suggests that childhood obesity is associated with a range of physical, social and psychological effects, including poor self-esteem, depression, social isolation, and cardio-vascular and other morbidity. Parents are known to be important in determining early eating and exercise habits, and their involvement is crucial to achieving positive child health outcomes. An exploratory-descriptive design informed by feminist research principles shaped the study, which was carried out in 2003-2004. Eleven mothers meeting the inclusion criteria took part in in-depth interviews. These were transcribed, and qualitatively analysed. Participants revealed sound understandings of the concept and ramifications of obesity. They had initiated a range of strategies including role modelling, developing opportunities for increased physical activity, reducing the use of junk food, and heightened awareness of how they used food. Participants viewed the problem as a family rather than an individual problem, and aimed many of the interventions at the entire family to avoid targeting the focus child. Further research into how childhood obesity is managed within the context of family life is needed. Specifically, additional perspectives on how mothers from various socio-cultural groups address childhood obesity within family life, and longitudinal studies to explore the efficacy and sustainability of family-based lifestyle changes that are made in response to concerns about child weight issues. Additional research to explore the type and nature of family support that can best assist families to achieve sustainable lifestyle improvements is needed.

  18. An Ordinary Mother Lived an Extraordinary Life


    MY mother, Hou Xiangyun, was born into an ordinary family in the Eastern District in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province in the winter of 1890. My grandfather was a clerk in a pen shop. My grandmother managed the house and also made some money by winding silk yarn on a spool at home. Suzhou was one of the birthplaces of silk fabric in China, and the silk business was mostly concentrated in the Eastern District of the city. Almost every household was involved in the silk business.

  19. Mothers, domestic violence, and child protection.

    Douglas, Heather; Walsh, Tamara


    This article explores the relationship between understandings of domestic violence and the child protection response drawing on material gathered in focus groups with workers who support mothers dealing with both domestic violence and child protection issues. The interviewees expressed concern that the dynamics of domestic violence are often misunderstood and inappropriately responded to by child protection workers. This article critically examines the interviewees' concerns and concludes that to properly protect children, it is crucial that child protection workers have a clear understanding of the dynamics of and issues related to domestic violence.

  20. Relational ethics: when mothers suffer from psychosis.

    Seeman, M V


    The goal of this review is to aid clinicians with ethical issues arising in the treatment of women who suffer from psychosis. This paper is a synthesis of the recent literature in adult and child psychiatry, ethics, law, and child welfare pertaining to the topic of maternal psychosis. Topics include: family planning, the care of pregnant women with schizophrenia, postpartum psychosis, child custody, involuntary treatment, confidentiality issues, and service fragmentation. Appreciation of the particularized circumstances of issues arising in the treatment of mothers who suffer from psychosis serve the clinician better than the dispassionate application of a principle-driven ethic.

  1. Sample chambers with mother-daughter mode

    Wilk, P.A.; Gregorich, K.E.; Hoffman, D.C.


    A set of eight stand-alone sample chambers with a common interface were constructed at LBNL for improved detection of alpha and fission decay chains over currently used designs. The stainless steel chambers (see Figure 1 for a schematic and Figure 2 for a photograph of a completed chamber) were constructed to allow for low background detection of a daughter event by removal of the sample following the detection of a parent event. This mother-daughter mode of operation has been utilized successfully with our Merry-go-Round (MG) detection system [Gregorich 1994].

  2. Emmy Noether the mother of modern algebra

    Tent, M B W


    This book, written primarily for the young adult reader, tells the life story of Emmy Noether, the most important female mathematician of our time. Because no one expected her to grow into an important scientist, the records of her early life are sketchy. After all, it was assumed that she would grow up to be a wife and mother. Instead, she was a genius who chose a distinctive path. The author has woven this charming story of Emmy Noether's life around the events that appear in the oral and written records, fleshing out the story with details about life in Germany at the time and what we know

  3. Strict Father,Loving Mother, Good Daughter


    ZHANG Nan, still a student at the Industrial Art Design Department of Beijing Industrial University, has already shown great talent in her paintings. Father Zhang Bo is an army art worker and Mother Zhao Suhua works at the Beijing Xuanwu District Committee. An Unexpected Prize As part of the China Year of Tourism, the large-scale "’97 China Art Exhibition" displayed galleries from individual artists, attracting attention from the art circles. When Zhang Bo learned of the news, the Zhang family held a family meeting in which they decided to send some

  4. Discipline behaviors of Chinese American and European American mothers.

    Hulei, Elaine; Zevenbergen, Andrea A; Jacobs, Sue C


    In any society, parenting beliefs are a reflection of that society's cultural values and traditions (J. U. Ogbu, 1981). Verbosity, a parenting behavior considered dysfunctional in European American culture, may not be problematic in Chinese culture. The authors recruited 31 Chinese American and 30 European American mothers and used questionnaires to measure parenting behaviors and child behavior problems. The Chinese American mothers also completed a questionnaire assessing their acculturation level. The Chinese American mothers had higher levels of verbosity than did the European American mothers; however, there were no differences between the groups in child behavior problems. The results also revealed higher levels of laxness in the Chinese American mothers compared to the European American mothers. Acculturation level did not predict verbosity or laxness levels. Results suggest that the effectiveness of a parenting style should be defined relative to cultural context.

  5. Specificity of infants' response to mothers' affective behavior.

    Cohn, J F; Tronick, E


    Mother-infant face-to-face interaction is central to infant socioemotional development. Little has been known about the mechanisms that mediate the mother's influence. Findings are reviewed from a series of laboratory studies that suggest the major functional components of a mother's behavior are its affective quality and its contingent relationship to her baby's behavior. Quality of mother's affective expression accounted for individual differences in the behavior of thirteen 7-month-old infants living in multiproblem families. Infants' response was specific to the type of affective expression mothers displayed. Flat, withdrawn maternal affective expression was associated with infant distress. Intrusive maternal expression was associated with increased gaze aversion. Lack of contingent responsiveness was common to all but four mothers. Findings suggest that withdrawn or intrusive maternal affective expression, together with lack of contingent responsiveness, may in part be responsible for the risk-status of infants in multiproblem families.

  6. Time allocation of the mother and child nutrition.

    Popkin, B M


    The effects of labor force participation of mothers on dietary and time inputs into child care, as well as the resultant impact on the nutritional status of children from 34 rural barios in Laguna, Philippines, are examined. Rural mothers who engage in market activities especially in jobs incompatible with child care, are shown to reduce the time they devote to leisure and child care. Child care provided by older-sibling mother substitutes replaces a part of the mother's reduced child care time. Mothers who engage in market activities are able to provide their children with more calories and protein in relation to their needs. Analysis showed, however, that the intrahousehold time substitutions have net negative effects on the average nutritional status of children ages 1-71 months in each rural household. The results of this study are compatible with other studies which indicate potential conflicts between the mother's participation in market work and child nutrition.

  7. Quality of relationships between preschool children and their divorced mothers

    Argyrakouli Ε.


    Full Text Available It was the purpose of the present study to investigate the consequences of parental divorce on preschool children aged 2,5 to 6,5 years old. More specifically, conflict, dependence and positive aspects of relationship were investigated. A total of 29 divorced mothers and their preschool children and 29 matched control married mothers and their children were ascertained from a general population. Mothers completed the Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS developed by Pianta (1992. Mother –reported PCRS scores showed no differences on dependence and positive aspects of relationship, but conflict scale was significantly lower in children of divorce than in controls. However, younger children of divorced mothers (2,5 -4 years had significantly higher dependence on their mothers than the older ones (4-6,5. Additionally, mothers’ higher education was related to children less dependence and less conflict.

  8. A pilot study to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an intervention to help teen mothers and their mothers clarify relational boundaries.

    Stiles, Anne Scott


    Teen mothers and their mothers experience conflict due to poor relational boundaries. This conflict can result in maternal stress, which can affect the quality of mother-infant interactions. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an intervention to improve relational boundaries between teen mothers and their mothers. Seven first-time teen mothers living with their mothers or mother figures completed the cognitive-behavioral intervention. Participants evaluated each session and the accompanying homework. Relational boundaries were observed before and after the intervention. Results revealed many feasibility issues including scheduling, language, and sample recruitment. Findings are discussed, and recommendations for further research are offered.

  9. Why Are Chinese Mothers More Controlling than American Mothers? "My Child Is My Report Card"

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping


    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (M[subscript age] = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African…

  10. Mothers, Workers and Students: Examining the Experiences of Single Mothers Transferring from Community Colleges into Universities

    Robinson, Emily Erin Peterson


    Single parent households are on the rise, and female headed households are more likely to live in poverty than other single parent households (Holyfield, 2002). Many single mothers who do not have an undergraduate degree see education as a way out of poverty (Holyfield, 2002; Heller & Bjorklund, 2004). This research was undertaken to highlight…

  11. What Do Mothers Say? Korean Mothers' Perceptions of Children's Participation in Extra-Curricular Musical Activities

    Cho, Eun


    A recent study of Korean middle-class mothers' perceptions and parenting practices associated with children's participation in musical activities reported unique forms of musical parenting, which closely correspond with previous studies of concerted cultivation in Western middle-class families. Are these unique patterns exclusive to middle-class…

  12. A Mother and a Friend: Differences in Japanese and Swedish Mothers' Understanding of a Tale.

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Mauritzson, Ulla; Carlsson, Maj Asplund; Ueda, Miyoko


    Examined Swedish and Japanese mothers' understanding of the story, "The Giving Tree," by Shel Silverstein, and possible effects of how their conceptions relate to social and cultural experiences in each society. Found six qualitatively different conceptions, related to differences in age and differences in cultural background. (JPB)

  13. What Do Mothers Say? Korean Mothers' Perceptions of Children's Participation in Extra-Curricular Musical Activities

    Cho, Eun


    A recent study of Korean middle-class mothers' perceptions and parenting practices associated with children's participation in musical activities reported unique forms of musical parenting, which closely correspond with previous studies of concerted cultivation in Western middle-class families. Are these unique patterns exclusive to middle-class…

  14. Why Are Chinese Mothers More Controlling than American Mothers? "My Child Is My Report Card"

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping


    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (M[subscript age] = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African…

  15. Mothers, Workers and Students: Examining the Experiences of Single Mothers Transferring from Community Colleges into Universities

    Robinson, Emily Erin Peterson


    Single parent households are on the rise, and female headed households are more likely to live in poverty than other single parent households (Holyfield, 2002). Many single mothers who do not have an undergraduate degree see education as a way out of poverty (Holyfield, 2002; Heller & Bjorklund, 2004). This research was undertaken to highlight…

  16. Educational Leaders Who Are Mothers: The Negotiation of Their Roles as School Leader and Mother

    Boldur, Stephanie E.


    Women who work outside the home have two jobs: their workplace responsibilities and their home duties. Like working mothers in other fields, school administrators have the challenge of negotiating their rigorous jobs, often while running a household. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of female school administrators who are…

  17. Authoritative Parenting Among Immigrant Chinese Mothers of Preschoolers

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Leung, Christy Y.Y.; Tahseen, Madiha; Schultz, David


    The goals of this study were: (a) to examine authoritative parenting style among Chinese immigrant mothers of young children, (b) to test the mediational mechanism between authoritative parenting style and children’s outcomes; and (c) to evaluate 3 predictors of authoritative parenting style (psychological well-being, perceived support in the parenting role, parenting stress). Participants included 85 Chinese immigrant mothers and their preschool children. Mothers reported on their parenting ...

  18. Authoritative Parenting Among Immigrant Chinese Mothers of Preschoolers

    Cheah, Charissa S.L.; Leung, Christy Y. Y.; Tahseen, Madiha; Schultz, David


    The goals of this study were: (a) to examine authoritative parenting style among Chinese immigrant mothers of young children, (b) to test the mediational mechanism between authoritative parenting style and children’s outcomes; and (c) to evaluate 3 predictors of authoritative parenting style (psychological well-being, perceived support in the parenting role, parenting stress). Participants included 85 Chinese immigrant mothers and their preschool children. Mothers reported on their parenting ...

  19. Health Seeking Behavior among Mothers of Sick Children.

    Shrestha, P D


    Infant and under-five mortality rate in Nepal are 46 and 54 deaths per 1,000 live births, respectively. These mortality indicates, one in every 22 Nepalese children dies before reaching age 1, and one in every 19 does not survive to his or her fifth birthday. Delay in seeking appropriate care and not seeking any care contributes to the large number of child deaths. Existing interventions could prevent many deaths among children if they are presented at health facility and timely care. A descriptive research was carried out in Lele VDC, ward no.7, Lalitpur. The objective of this study was to find out health seeking behavior among mothers of sick children. Non probability, purposive sampling method was used. Sample size was 102 mothers who had sick children from 0 to 59 months. A set of semi structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The mean age of the respondent was 25.8 years and child was 29 months. Respondents' children who suffered with pneumonia, diarrhoea and malnutrition were 64(62.7%),29(28%), 9(8.8%) respectively. Majority 84(81.4%) mothers had sought treatment and among them 58(69%) sought treatment from health facility whereas 26(31%) sought treatment from traditional healer. There was significant relationship between education of the mother(p=0.05), sex of the child (p=0.004), type of sickness of children (p=0.001) of the mother and health seeking behaviour of mothers. However occupation of the mothers for seeking treatment (p=0.66) and treatment seeking at first (p=0.82) were not significant. So there was no relationship between occupation of the mothers and health seeking behaviour. Majority of the mothers sought treatment from health facility, yet around one fourth went at traditional healers. Education of the mother, sex of the child, sickness of child and mother's awareness are the factors affecting health seeking behavior of the mothers.

  20. Being the mother of a pregnant adolescent: experiences and expectations

    Caldeira,Sebastião; Merighi,Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; JESUS, Maria Cristina Pinto de; Oliveira,Deíse Moura de; Domingos,Selisvane Ribeiro da Fonseca; Gonçalves, Roselane


    OBJECTIVE: To understand the typical actions of the mother during the pregnancy of her teenage daughter. METHODS: Qualitative study, based on the theoretical-methodological framework of social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz. The data were collected in 2009, and the subjects were nine mothers of adolescent primigravidae. RESULTS: The mother of the pregnant adolescent is typified as one that reacts with surprise and disappointment to being notified of the pregnancy and who, subsequently, confor...