WorldWideScience

Sample records for morphometry study employing

  1. Longitudinal MRI studies of brain morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller

    High resolution MR images acquired at multiple time points of the brain allow quantification of localized changes induced by external factors such as maturation, ageing or disease progression/recovery. High-dimensional warping of such MR images incorporates changes induced by external factors...... into the accompanying deformation field. Deformation fields from high dimensional warping founds tensor based morphometry (TBM), and provides unique opportunities to study human brain morphology and plasticity. In this thesis, specially adapted image processing streams utilizing several image registration techniques...... to characterize differences between brains, demonstrate the versatility and specificity of the employed voxel-wise morphometric methods. More specifically TBM is used to study neurodegenerative changes following severe traumatic brain injuries. Such injuries progress for months, perhaps even years postinjury...

  2. Studying ventricular abnormalities in mild cognitive impairment with hyperbolic Ricci flow and tensor-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie; Stonnington, Cynthia M; Thompson, Paul M; Chen, Kewei; Gutman, Boris; Reschke, Cole; Baxter, Leslie C; Reiman, Eric M; Caselli, Richard J; Wang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia and people with MCI are at high risk of progression to dementia. MCI is attracting increasing attention, as it offers an opportunity to target the disease process during an early symptomatic stage. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures have been the mainstay of Alzheimer's disease (AD) imaging research, however, ventricular morphometry analysis remains challenging because of its complicated topological structure. Here we describe a novel ventricular morphometry system based on the hyperbolic Ricci flow method and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) statistics. Unlike prior ventricular surface parameterization methods, hyperbolic conformal parameterization is angle-preserving and does not have any singularities. Our system generates a one-to-one diffeomorphic mapping between ventricular surfaces with consistent boundary matching conditions. The TBM statistics encode a great deal of surface deformation information that could be inaccessible or overlooked by other methods. We applied our system to the baseline MRI scans of a set of MCI subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI: 71 MCI converters vs. 62 MCI stable). Although the combined ventricular area and volume features did not differ between the two groups, our fine-grained surface analysis revealed significant differences in the ventricular regions close to the temporal lobe and posterior cingulate, structures that are affected early in AD. Significant correlations were also detected between ventricular morphometry, neuropsychological measures, and a previously described imaging index based on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans. This novel ventricular morphometry method may offer a new and more sensitive approach to study preclinical and early symptomatic stage AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An optimized voxel-based morphometry MRI study of the brain in patients with first episode schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Su; Huang Xiaoqi; Tang Hehan; Gong Qiyong; Ouyang Luo; Deng Wei; Jiang Lijun; Li Tao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the structural differences between patients with first episode schizophrenia and normal controls using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study. Methods: High resolution T 1 weighted images were obtained using 3.0 T MR from 13 first-episode, untreated schizophrenia and 13 age, sex, handedness matched normal controls. Images were preprocessed by employing the optimized VBM and two sample t-test was used to detect differences between patients and normal controls with respect to both density and volume of gray matter in the brain. Results Patients with schizophrenia had significant lower gray matter density and gray matter volume generally distributed among bilateral hemispheres, especially in bilateral frontal and temporal lobes. However, no significant increase of gray matter density and gray matter volume was observed in these patients. Conclusions: Optimized voxel-based morphometry study is an automatic and effective method to study psychological diseases such as schizophrenia. Compared with normal controls, patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower gray matter density and gray matter volume across the bilateral hemispheres. (authors)

  4. A deformation-based morphometry study of patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, P; Østergaard, Karen; Cumming, P

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) utilized primarily voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and investigated mostly patients with moderate- to late-stage disease. We now use deformation-based morphometry (DBM), a method...... purported to be more sensitive than VBM, to test for atrophy in patients with early-stage PD. METHODS: T1-weighted MRI images from 24 early-stage PD patients and 26 age-matched normal control subjects were compared using DBM. Two separate studies were conducted, where two minimally-biased nonlinear...... intensity-average were created; one for all subjects and another for just the PD patients. The DBM technique creates an average population-based MRI-average in an iterative hierarchical fashion. The nonlinear transformations estimated to match each subject to the MRI-average were then analysed. RESULTS...

  5. Aging effects on cerebral asymmetry: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Aoki, Shigeki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Sasaki, Hiroki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2010-01-01

    The hemispheres of the human brain are functionally and structurally asymmetric. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on gray and white matter asymmetry. Two hundred twenty-six right-handed normal volunteers aged 21-71 years were included in this study. The effects of aging on gray matter volume asymmetry and white matter fractional anisotropy asymmetry were evaluated with use of voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based analysis of fractional anisotropy maps derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. The voxel-based morphometry showed no significant correlation between age and gray matter volume asymmetry. The voxel-based analysis of DTI also showed no significant correlation between age and white matter fractional anisotropy asymmetry. Our results showed no significant effects of aging on either gray matter volume asymmetry or white matter fractional anisotropy asymmetry.

  6. Diffusion tensor imaging and voxel based morphometry study in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: relationships with motor disability

    OpenAIRE

    Thivard, Lionel; Pradat, Pierre‐François; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Lacomblez, Lucette; Dormont, Didier; Chiras, Jacques; Benali, Habib; Meininger, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of cortical and subcortical lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using, in combination, voxel based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and voxel based morphometry (VBM). We included 15 patients with definite or probable ALS and 25 healthy volunteers. Patients were assessed using the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R). In patients, reduced fractional anisotropy was found in bilateral corticospinal tra...

  7. Can Taichi reshape the brain? A brain morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Xia Wei

    Full Text Available Although research has provided abundant evidence for Taichi-induced improvements in psychological and physiological well-being, little is known about possible links to brain structure of Taichi practice. Using high-resolution MRI of 22 Tai Chi Chuan (TCC practitioners and 18 controls matched for age, sex and education, we set out to examine the underlying anatomical correlates of long-term Taichi practice at two different levels of regional specificity. For this purpose, parcel-wise and vertex-wise analyses were employed to quantify the difference between TCC practitioners and the controls based on cortical surface reconstruction. We also adopted the Attention Network Test (ANT to explore the effect of TCC on executive control. TCC practitioners, compared with controls, showed significantly thicker cortex in precentral gyrus, insula sulcus and middle frontal sulcus in the right hemisphere and superior temporal gyrus and medial occipito-temporal sulcus and lingual sulcus in the left hemisphere. Moreover, we found that thicker cortex in left medial occipito-temporal sulcus and lingual sulcus was associated with greater intensity of TCC practice. These findings indicate that long-term TCC practice could induce regional structural change and also suggest TCC might share similar patterns of neural correlates with meditation and aerobic exercise.

  8. Diffuse Decreased Gray Matter in Patients with Idiopathic Craniocervical Dystonia: a Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Callegari Piccinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have addressed the role of structures other than the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of craniocervical dystonia. Neuroimaging studies have attempted to identify structural abnormalities in craniocervical dystonia but a clear pattern of alteration has not been established. We performed whole brain evaluation using voxel-based morphometry to identify patterns of gray matter changes in craniocervical dystonia.Methods: We compared 27 patients with craniocervical dystonia matched in age and gender to 54 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare gray matter volumes. We created a two-sample t-test corrected for subjects’ age and we tested with a level of significance of p<0.001 and false discovery rate correction (p<0.05. Results: Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated significant reductions of gray matter using p<0.001 in the cerebellar vermis IV/V, bilaterally in the superior frontal gyrus, precuneus, anterior cingulate and paracingulate, insular cortex, lingual gyrus and calcarine fissure; in the left hemisphere in the supplemementary motor area (SMA, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, temporal pole, supramarginal gyrus, rolandic operculum , hippocampus, middle occipital gyrus, cerebellar lobules IV/V, superior and middle temporal gyri; in the right hemisphere, the middle cingulate and precentral gyrus. Our study did not report any significant result using the false discovery rate correction. We also detected correlations between gray matter volume and age, disease duration, duration of botulinum toxin treatment and the Marsden-Fahn dystonia scale scores.Conclusions: We detected large clusters of gray matter changes chiefly in structures primarily involved in sensorimotor integration, motor planning, visuospatial function and emotional processing.

  9. Variations in renal morphometry: A hospital-based Indian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet S Rathore

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study revealed that there exist differences in various morphometric parameters of the kidney and ureter in different subsets of the Indian population attending our hospital as compared with the standard values quoted in the world literature.

  10. Structural covariance in the hallucinating brain: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modinos, Gemma; Vercammen, Ans; Mechelli, Andrea; Knegtering, Henderikus; McGuire, Philip K.; Aleman, André

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies have indicated that a number of cortical regions express altered patterns of structural covariance in schizophrenia. The relation between these alterations and specific psychotic symptoms is yet to be investigated. We used voxel-based morphometry to examine regional grey matter volumes and structural covariance associated with severity of auditory verbal hallucinations. Methods We applied optimized voxel-based morphometry to volumetric magnetic resonance imaging data from 26 patients with medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs); statistical inferences were made at p < 0.05 after correction for multiple comparisons. Results Grey matter volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus was positively correlated with severity of AVHs. Hallucination severity influenced the pattern of structural covariance between this region and the left superior/middle temporal gyri, the right inferior frontal gyrus and hippocampus, and the insula bilaterally. Limitations The results are based on self-reported severity of auditory hallucinations. Complementing with a clinician-based instrument could have made the findings more compelling. Future studies would benefit from including a measure to control for other symptoms that may covary with AVHs and for the effects of antipsychotic medication. Conclusion The results revealed that overall severity of AVHs modulated cortical intercorrelations between frontotemporal regions involved in language production and verbal monitoring, supporting the critical role of this network in the pathophysiology of hallucinations. PMID:19949723

  11. A Cadaveric Study of the Morphometry of the Cervical Spinal Canal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometry of the cervical spinal canal is of clinical importance in traumatic, degenerative and inflammatory conditions. A small canal diameter has been associated with an increase of injury mainly in athletes who participate in contact or collision sports. Before abnormal spinal morphometry can be determined, it is first ...

  12. Study of nuclear morphometry on cytology specimens of benign and malignant breast lesions: A study of 122 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Anamika; Jain, Manjula; Shukla, Shailaja; Andley, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer has emerged as a leading site of cancer among women in India. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been routinely applied in assessment of breast lesions. Cytological evaluation in breast lesions is subjective with a "gray zone" of 6.9-20%. Quantitative evaluation of nuclear size, shape, texture, and density parameters by morphometry can be of diagnostic help in breast tumor. To apply nuclear morphometry on cytological breast aspirates and assess its role in differentiating between benign and malignant breast lesions with derivation of suitable cut-off values between the two groups. The present study was a descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study of nuclear morphometric parameters of benign and malignant cases. The study included 50 benign breast disease (BBD), 8 atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and 64 carcinoma cases. Image analysis was performed on Papanicolaou-stained FNAC slides by Nikon Imaging Software (NIS)-Elements Advanced Research software (Version 4.00). Nuclear morphometric parameters analyzed included 5 nuclear size, 2 shape, 4 texture, and 2 density parameters. Nuclear morphometry could differentiate between benign and malignant aspirates with a gradually increasing nuclear size parameters from BBD to ADH to carcinoma. Cut-off values of 31.93 μm 2 , 6.325 μm, 5.865 μm, 7.855 μm, and 21.55 μm for mean nuclear area, equivalent diameter, minimum feret, maximum ferret, and perimeter, respectively, were derived between benign and malignant cases, which could correctly classify 7 out of 8 ADH cases. Nuclear morphometry is a highly objective tool that could be used to supplement FNAC in differentiating benign from malignant lesions, with an important role in cases with diagnostic dilemma.

  13. Gray matter abnormalities in Internet addiction: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yan, E-mail: clare1475@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, RenJi Hospital, Jiao Tong University Medical School, Shanghai 200127 (China); Lin Fuchun, E-mail: fclin@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Du Yasong, E-mail: yasongdu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Qin Lingdi, E-mail: flyingfool838@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, RenJi Hospital, Jiao Tong University Medical School, Shanghai 200127 (China); Zhao Zhimin, E-mail: zmzsky@163.com [Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xu Jianrong, E-mail: xujianr@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, RenJi Hospital, Jiao Tong University Medical School, Shanghai 200127 (China); Lei Hao, E-mail: leihao@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Background: This study aims to investigate brain gray matter density (GMD) changes in adolescents with Internet addiction (IA) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis on high-resolution T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images. Methods: Eighteen IA adolescents and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls took part in this study. High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed on the two groups. VBM analysis was used to compare the GMD between the two groups. Results: Compared with healthy controls, IA adolescents had lower GMD in the left anterior cingulate cortex, left posterior cingulate cortex, left insula, and left lingual gyrus. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that brain structural changes were present in IA adolescents, and this finding may provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of IA.

  14. Gray matter abnormalities in Internet addiction: A voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yan; Lin Fuchun; Du Yasong; Qin Lingdi; Zhao Zhimin; Xu Jianrong; Lei Hao

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study aims to investigate brain gray matter density (GMD) changes in adolescents with Internet addiction (IA) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis on high-resolution T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images. Methods: Eighteen IA adolescents and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls took part in this study. High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed on the two groups. VBM analysis was used to compare the GMD between the two groups. Results: Compared with healthy controls, IA adolescents had lower GMD in the left anterior cingulate cortex, left posterior cingulate cortex, left insula, and left lingual gyrus. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that brain structural changes were present in IA adolescents, and this finding may provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of IA.

  15. Effect of Experimental Thyrotoxicosis on Brain Gray Matter: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Anna; Heldmann, Marcus; Göttlich, Martin; Dirk, Anna-Luise; Brabant, Georg; Münte, Thomas F

    2015-09-01

    Hyper-as well hypothyroidism have an effect on behavior and brain function. Moreover, during development thyroid hormones influence brain structure. This study aimed to demonstrate an effect of experimentally induced hyperthyroidism on brain gray matter in healthy adult humans. High-resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired in 29 healthy young subjects prior to as well as after receiving 250 µg of T4 per day for 8 weeks. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 (SPM8). Laboratory testing confirmed the induction of hyperthyroidism. In the hyperthyroid condition, gray matter volumes were increased in the right posterior cerebellum (lobule VI) and decreased in the bilateral visual cortex and anterior cerebellum (lobules I-IV) compared to the euthyroid condition. Our study provides evidence that short periods of hyperthyroidism induce distinct alterations in brain structures of cerebellar regions that have been associated with sensorimotor functions as well as working memory in the literature.

  16. Frontotemporal alterations in pediatric bipolar disorder: results of a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, Daniel P; Milham, Michael P; Nugent, Allison C; Drevets, Wayne C; Charney, Dennis S; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2005-07-01

    While numerous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have evaluated adults with bipolar disorder (BPD), few have examined MRI changes in children with BPD. To determine volume alterations in children with BPD using voxel-based morphometry, an automated MRI analysis method with reduced susceptibility to various biases. A priori regions of interest included amygdala, accumbens, hippocampus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex. Ongoing study of the pathophysiology of pediatric BPD. Intramural National Institute of Mental Health; approved by the institutional review board. Patients Pediatric subjects with BPD (n = 20) with at least 1 manic or hypomanic episode meeting strict DSM-IV criteria for duration and elevated, expansive mood. Controls (n = 20) and their first-degree relatives lacked psychiatric disorders. Groups were matched for age and sex and did not differ in IQ. With a 1.5-T MRI machine, we collected 1.2-mm axial sections (124 per subject) with an axial 3-dimensional spoiled gradient recalled echo in the steady state sequence. Image analysis was by optimized voxel-based morphometry. Subjects with BPD had reduced gray matter volume in the left DLPFC. With a less conservative statistical threshold, additional gray matter reductions were found in the left accumbens and left amygdala. No difference was found in the hippocampus or orbitofrontal cortex. Our results are consistent with data implicating the prefrontal cortex in emotion regulation, a process that is perturbed in BPD. Reductions in amygdala and accumbens volumes are consistent with neuropsychological data on pediatric BPD. Further study is required to determine the relationship between these findings in children and adults with BPD.

  17. Do manual and voxel-based morphometry measure the same? – A proof of concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels K. Focke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Voxel-based morphometry (VBM is a commonly used method to study volumetric variations on a whole brain basis. However it is often criticised for potential confounds, mainly based on imperfect spatial registration. We therefore aimed to evaluate if VBM and gold-standard manual volumetry are measuring the same effects with respect to subcortical grey matter volumes. Manual regions-of-interest (ROIs were drawn in the hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, putamen, pallidum and caudate nucleus bilaterally. Resulting volumes were used for a whole brain VBM correlation analysis with SPM8. The hippocampus, amygdala, putamen and caudate nucleus were correctly identified by SPM using the contemporary high-dimensional normalization (DARTEL toolbox. This strongly suggests that VBM and manual volumetry both are indeed measuring the same effects with regard to subcortical brain structures.

  18. Relating inter-individual differences in verbal creative thinking to cerebral structures: an optimal voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Zhu

    Full Text Available Creativity can be defined the capacity of an individual to produce something original and useful. An important measurable component of creativity is divergent thinking. Despite existing studies on creativity-related cerebral structural basis, no study has used a large sample to investigate the relationship between individual verbal creativity and regional gray matter volumes (GMVs and white matter volumes (WMVs. In the present work, optimal voxel-based morphometry (VBM was employed to identify the structure that correlates verbal creativity (measured by the verbal form of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking across the brain in young healthy subjects. Verbal creativity was found to be significantly positively correlated with regional GMV in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, which is believed to be responsible for language production and comprehension, new semantic representation, and memory retrieval, and in the right IFG, which may involve inhibitory control and attention switching. A relationship between verbal creativity and regional WMV in the left and right IFG was also observed. Overall, a highly verbal creative individual with superior verbal skills may demonstrate a greater computational efficiency in the brain areas involved in high-level cognitive processes including language production, semantic representation and cognitive control.

  19. Relating Inter-Individual Differences in Verbal Creative Thinking to Cerebral Structures: An Optimal Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feifei; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Creativity can be defined the capacity of an individual to produce something original and useful. An important measurable component of creativity is divergent thinking. Despite existing studies on creativity-related cerebral structural basis, no study has used a large sample to investigate the relationship between individual verbal creativity and regional gray matter volumes (GMVs) and white matter volumes (WMVs). In the present work, optimal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to identify the structure that correlates verbal creativity (measured by the verbal form of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking) across the brain in young healthy subjects. Verbal creativity was found to be significantly positively correlated with regional GMV in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which is believed to be responsible for language production and comprehension, new semantic representation, and memory retrieval, and in the right IFG, which may involve inhibitory control and attention switching. A relationship between verbal creativity and regional WMV in the left and right IFG was also observed. Overall, a highly verbal creative individual with superior verbal skills may demonstrate a greater computational efficiency in the brain areas involved in high-level cognitive processes including language production, semantic representation and cognitive control. PMID:24223921

  20. Lip morphometry in 600 North Indian adults: a data base study for sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Archana; Patnaik, Vvg; Puri, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    The study comprised lip morphometry of 600 North Indian adults (300 males and 300 females). The aim of the study was to create base data of various linear and vertical measurements of the upper and lower lips and width of the mouth. This standard may serve as a guideline for sexual dimorphism as well as for restoration or enhancement of esthetic and plastic surgery for the lips in the north Indian population, which will enable the surgeon to offer a better cosmetic result. Prior informed written consent from all the subjects was obtained. The exclusion and inclusion criteria for the subjects were predefined. The analysis shows the sexual dimorphism in most parameters of lips being greater in males. The results were compared with the available data for north white Americans, Malays, Malaysian Indians, Italians, western Indians and Caucasians. In the population under study, the measurements differ in all dimensions with Malays, Italians and Caucasians and show resemblance to the Malaysian Indians. Knowledge of the proportion between the upper and lower lips helps in surgical correction of the region. This study highlights the applied significance of observations of the present study to forensic, namely racial and sex dimorphic, criteria of identification. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Combined brain voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study in idiopathic restless legs syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G; Manners, D; Vetrugno, R; Tonon, C; Malucelli, E; Plazzi, G; Marconi, S; Pizza, F; Testa, C; Provini, F; Montagna, P; Lodi, R

    2012-07-01

      The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of abnormalities in the brain of patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).   Twenty patients and twenty controls were studied. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) and FSL-VBM software tools. For voxel-wise analysis of DTI, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and SPM8 were used.   Applying an appropriate threshold of probability, no significant results were found either in comparison or in correlation analyses.   Our data argue against clear structural or microstructural abnormalities in the brain of patients with idiopathic RLS, suggesting a prevalent role of functional or metabolic impairment. © 2011 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  2. Cytological Study of Breast Carcinoma Before and After Oncotherapy with Special Reference to Morphometry and Proliferative Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koley, Sananda; Chakrabarti, Srabani; Pathak, Swapan; Manna, Asim Kumar; Basu, Siddhartha

    2015-12-01

    Our study was done to assess the cytological changes due to oncotherapy in breast carcinoma especially on morphometry and proliferative activity. Cytological aspirates were collected from a total of 32 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma both before and after oncotherapy. Morphometry was done on the stained cytological smears to assess the different morphological parameters of cell dimension by using the ocular morphometer and the software AutoCAD 2007. Staining was done with Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as proliferative markers. Different morphological parameters were compared before and after oncotherapy by unpaired Student's t test. Statistically significant differences were found in morphometric parameters, e.g., mean nuclear diameter, mean nuclear area, mean cell diameter, and mean cell area, and in the expression of proliferative markers (Ki-67 and PCNA). Statistical analysis was done by obtaining p values. There are statistically significant differences between morphological parameter of breast carcinoma cells before and after oncotherapy.

  3. Regional brain structural abnormality in ischemic stroke patients: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study used regional homogeneity analysis and found that activity in some brain areas of patients with ischemic stroke changed significantly. In the current study, we examined structural changes in these brain regions by taking structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 ischemic stroke patients and 15 healthy participants, and analyzing the data using voxel-based morphometry. Compared with healthy participants, patients exhibited higher gray matter density in the left inferior occipital gyrus and right anterior white matter tract. In contrast, gray matter density in the right cerebellum, left precentral gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus was less in ischemic stroke patients. The changes of gray matter density in the middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with the clinical rating scales of the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (r = -0.609, P = 0.047 and the left middle temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with the clinical rating scales of the nervous functional deficiency scale (r = -0.737, P = 0.010. Our findings can objectively identify the functional abnormality in some brain regions of ischemic stroke patients.

  4. Creativity and borderline personality disorder: evidence from a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutgeb, Verena; Ille, Rottraut; Wabnegger, Albert; Schienle, Anne; Schöggl, Helmut; Weber, Bernhard; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Fink, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Throughout the history, various examples of eminent creative people suffering from mental disorders along with some empirical research reports strengthened the idea of a potential link between creativity and psychopathology. This study investigated different facets of psychometrically determined creativity in 20 females diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) relative to 19 healthy female controls. In addition, group differences in grey matter (GM) were examined. Behavioural findings revealed no significant differences between the BPD group and healthy controls with respect to verbal and figural-graphic creative task performance and creativity-related personality characteristics. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed a distinct pattern of GM reductions in the BPD group (relative to controls) in a network of brain regions closely associated with various cognitive and emotional functions (including the bilateral orbital inferior frontal gyri and the left superior temporal gyrus), partly overlapping with creativity-related brain regions. Correlation analyses moreover revealed that in the BPD group GM reductions in the orbital parts of the inferior and middle frontal gyri were associated with lower levels of creativity. This study provides no indications in favour of the putative link between creativity and psychopathology, as sometimes reported in the literature.

  5. Increased gray matter density in the parietal cortex of mathematicians: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, K; Ucar, A; Oguz, K K; Okur, O O; Agayev, A; Unal, Z; Yilmaz, S; Ozturk, C

    2007-01-01

    The training to acquire or practicing to perform a skill, which may lead to structural changes in the brain, is called experience-dependent structural plasticity. The main purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the presence of experience-dependent structural plasticity in mathematicians' brains, which may develop after long-term practice of mathematic thinking. Twenty-six volunteer mathematicians, who have been working as academicians, were enrolled in the study. We applied an optimized method of voxel-based morphometry in the mathematicians and the age- and sex-matched control subjects. We assessed the gray and white matter density differences in mathematicians and the control subjects. Moreover, the correlation between the cortical density and the time spent as an academician was investigated. We found that cortical gray matter density in the left inferior frontal and bilateral inferior parietal lobules of the mathematicians were significantly increased compared with the control subjects. Furthermore, increase in gray matter density in the right inferior parietal lobule of the mathematicians was strongly correlated with the time spent as an academician (r = 0.84; P mathematicians' brains revealed increased gray matter density in the cortical regions related to mathematic thinking. The correlation between cortical density increase and the time spent as an academician suggests experience-dependent structural plasticity in mathematicians' brains.

  6. Alexithymia is related to differences in gray matter volume: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihme, Klas; Dannlowski, Udo; Lichev, Vladimir; Stuhrmann, Anja; Grotegerd, Dominik; Rosenberg, Nicole; Kugel, Harald; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2013-01-23

    Alexithymia has been characterized as the inability to identify and describe feelings. Functional imaging studies have revealed that alexithymia is linked to reactivity changes in emotion- and face-processing-relevant brain areas. In this respect, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala, anterior insula and fusiform gyrus (FFG) have been consistently reported. However, it remains to be clarified whether alexithymia is also associated with structural differences. Voxel-based morphometry on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images was used to investigate gray matter volume in 17 high alexithymics (HA) and 17 gender-matched low alexithymics (LA), which were selected from a sample of 161 healthy volunteers on basis of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Data were analyzed as statistic parametric maps for the comparisons LA>HA and HA>LA in a priori determined regions of interests (ROIs), i.e., ACC, amygdala, anterior insula and FFG. Moreover, an exploratory whole brain analysis was accomplished. For the contrast LA>HA, significant clusters were detected in the ACC, left amygdala and left anterior insula. Additionally, the whole brain analysis revealed volume differences in the left middle temporal gyrus. No significant differences were found for the comparison HA>LA. Our findings suggest that high compared to low alexithymics show less gray matter volume in several emotion-relevant brain areas. These structural differences might contribute to the functional alterations found in previous imaging studies in alexithymia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Different brain structures associated with artistic and scientific creativity: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Baoguo; Cao, Xiaoqing; Chen, Qunlin; Zhuang, Kaixiang; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-02-21

    Creativity is the ability to produce original and valuable ideas or behaviors. In real life, artistic and scientific creativity promoted the development of human civilization; however, to date, no studies have systematically investigated differences in the brain structures responsible for artistic and scientific creativity in a large sample. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study identified differences in regional gray matter volume (GMV) across the brain between artistic and scientific creativity (assessed by the Creative Achievement Questionnaire) in 356 young, healthy subjects. The results showed that artistic creativity was significantly negatively associated with the regional GMV of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In contrast, scientific creativity was significantly positively correlated with the regional GMV of the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and left inferior occipital gyrus (IOG). Overall, artistic creativity was associated with the salience network (SN), whereas scientific creativity was associated with the executive attention network and semantic processing. These results may provide an effective marker that can be used to predict and evaluate individuals' creative performance in the fields of science and art.

  8. Grey matter abnormalities in untreated hyperthyroidism: A voxel-based morphometry study using the DARTEL approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: will.zhang.1111@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Department of Radiology, Sichuan Provincial Corps Hospital, Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Leshan 614000 (China); Song, Lingheng, E-mail: songlh1023@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Department of Radiology, No. 324 Hospital of PLA, Chongqing 400020 (China); Yin, Xuntao, E-mail: xuntaoyin@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Zhang, Jiuquan, E-mail: jiuquanzhang@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Liu, Chen, E-mail: cqliuchen@foxmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Wang, Jian, E-mail: wangjian_811@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Zhou, Daiquan, E-mail: zhoudq77@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Chen, Bing, E-mail: chenbing3@medmail.com.cn [Department of Endocrinology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Lii, Haitao, E-mail: haitaolii023@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Hyperthyroidism is frequently associated with pronounced neuropsychiatric symptoms such as impulsiveness, irritability, poor concentration, and memory impairments. Functional neuroimaging has revealed changes in cerebral metabolism in hyperthyroidism, but regional changes in cortical morphology associated with specific neurological deficits have not been studied so far. To investigate the pathophysiology underlying hyperthyroid-associated neural dysfunction, we compared grey matter volume (GMV) between adult hyperthyroid patients and matched healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Materials and methods: High resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired by 3T MRI from 51 hyperthyroid patients and 51 controls. VBM analysis was performed using SPM8. Correlations between regional GMV and both serum free thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations and disease duration were assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Compared to controls, GM volumes in the bilateral hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, calcarine, lingual gyrus, and left temporal pole were lower and bilateral supplementary motor area GMV higher in hyperthyroid patients. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentration was negatively correlated with the normalized regional volume (NRV) of the left parahippocampal gyrus and serum free thyroxine (FT4) concentration negatively correlated with the NRV of the left hippocampus and right parahippocampal gyrus. Disease duration was negatively correlated with the NRV of the left hippocampus, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, and left temporal pole. Conclusion: Hyperthyroid patients exhibited reduced GMV in regions associated with memory, attention, emotion, vision, and motor planning. Negative correlations between GMV and both free TH and disease duration suggest that chronic TH elevation induces abnormalities in the adult cortex.

  9. Longitudinal volumetric changes following traumatic brain injury: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbota, Kimberly D M; Sodhi, Aparna; Bendlin, Barbara B; McLaren, Donald G; Xu, Guofan; Rowley, Howard A; Johnson, Sterling C

    2012-11-01

    After traumatic injury, the brain undergoes a prolonged period of degenerative change that is paradoxically accompanied by cognitive recovery. The spatiotemporal pattern of atrophy and the specific relationships of atrophy to cognitive changes are ill understood. The present study used tensor-based morphometry and neuropsychological testing to examine brain volume loss in 17 traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and 13 controls over a 4-year period. Patients were scanned at 2 months, 1 year, and 4 years post-injury. High-dimensional warping procedures were used to create change maps of each subject's brain for each of the two intervals. TBI patients experienced volume loss in both cortical areas and white matter regions during the first interval. We also observed continuing volume loss in extensive regions of white matter during the second interval. Neuropsychological correlations indicated that cognitive tasks were associated with subsequent volume loss in task-relevant regions. The extensive volume loss in brain white matter observed well beyond the first year post-injury suggests that the injured brain remains malleable for an extended period, and the neuropsychological relationships suggest that this volume loss may be associated with subtle cognitive improvements.

  10. Structural brain alterations in hemifacial spasm: A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Ye; Yu, Tian; Wei, Yongxu; Sun, Kun; Zhao, Weiguo; Yu, Buwei

    2016-02-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is characterized by involuntary, irregular clonic or tonic movement of muscles innervated by the facial nerve. We evaluated structural reorganization in brain gray matter and white matter and whether neuroplasticity is linked to clinical features in HFS patients. High-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data were acquired by 3.0 T MRI from 42 patients with HFS and 30 healthy subjects. The severity of the spasm was assessed according to Jankovic disability rating scale. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis were performed to identify regional grey matter volume (GMV) changes and whole-brain microstructural integrity disruption measured by fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD). The VBM analysis showed that patients with HFS reduced GMV in the right inferior parietal lobule and increased GMV in the cerebellar lobule VIII, when compared with healthy subjects. Furthermore, within the HFS disease group, GMV decreased with the disease duration in the right inferior parietal lobule. TBSS did not identify group differences in diffusivity parameters. While no white matter integrity disruption was detected in the brain of patients with HFS, our study identified evident GMV changes in brain areas which were known to be involved in motor control. Our results suggest that HFS, a chronic neurovascular conflict disease, is related to structural reorganization in the brain. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Longitudinal assessment of grey matter contraction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A tensor based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Federica; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Pagani, Elisabetta; Sala, Stefania; Caputo, Domenico; Perini, Michele; Bartolomei, Ilaria; Fruguglietti, Maria Elena; Filippi, Massimo

    2009-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate grey matter (GM) contraction in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using tensor based morphometry (TBM). Using a 1.5 Tesla scanner, T1-weighted MRI scans were obtained at baseline and at follow-up (mean interval, 9 months) from 16 ALS and 10 controls. Standard TBM procedures in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2) were used for image processing and statistical analyses. The frontotemporal cortex and basal ganglia were considered areas of interest, based on pathological studies. Eight patients showed rapid clinical progression of ALS during the follow-up period. Compared to controls, all ALS patients showed progression of GM atrophy in left premotor cortex and right basal ganglia. Patients with rapidly progressing ALS showed GM atrophy changes in a larger motor cortical-subcortical area and in extramotor frontal regions compared to both controls and to non-rapidly progressing cases. Thus, TBM detected longitudinal atrophy changes in the motor network in ALS occurring over less than one year. The faster the clinical progression, the greater was the GM loss in motor and prefrontal areas. Further advances in tracking longitudinal changes in cortical and subcortical regions in ALS may provide an objective marker for monitoring disease progression, and the disease-modifying effect of potential treatments.

  12. Atrophy progression in semantic dementia with asymmetric temporal involvement: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambati, S M; Rankin, K P; Narvid, J; Seeley, W W; Dean, D; Rosen, H J; Miller, B L; Ashburner, J; Gorno-Tempini, M L

    2009-01-01

    We performed a longitudinal anatomical study to map the progression of gray matter atrophy in anatomically defined predominantly left (LTLV) and right (RTLV) temporal lobe variants of semantic dementia (SD). T1-weighted MRI scans were obtained at presentation and one-year follow-up from 13 LTLV, 6 RTLV, and 25 control subjects. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) in SPM2 was applied to derive a voxel-wise estimation of regional tissue loss over time from the deformation field required to warp the follow-up scan to the presentation scan in each subject. When compared to controls, both LTLV and RTLV showed significant progression of gray matter atrophy not only within the temporal lobe most affected at presentation, but also in the controlateral temporal regions (p<0.05 FWE corrected). In LTLV, significant progression of volume loss also involved the ventromedial frontal and the left anterior insular regions. These results identified the anatomic substrates of the previously reported clinical evolution of LTLV and RTLV into a unique 'merged' clinical syndrome characterized by semantic and behavioral deficits and bilateral temporal atrophy.

  13. Anatomy of the Episodic Buffer: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Patients with Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Berlingeri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2000 Baddeley proposed the existence of a new component of working memory, the episodic buffer, which should contribute to the on-line maintenance of integrated memory traces. The author assumed that this component should be critical for immediate recall of a short story that exceeds the capacity of the phonological store. Accordingly, patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD should suffer of a deficit of the episodic buffer when immediate recall of a short story is impossible. On the other hand, the episodic buffer should be somewhat preserved in such patients when some IR can occur (Baddeley and Wilson, 2002. We adopted this logic for a voxel-based morphometry study. We compared the distribution of grey-matter density of two such groups of AD patients with a group of age-matched controls. We found that both AD groups had a significant atrophy of the left mid-hippocampus; on the other hand, the anterior part of the hippocampus was significantly more atrophic in patients who were also impaired on the immediate prose recall task. Six out of ten patients with no immediate recall were spared at “central executive” tasks. Taken together our findings suggest that the left anterior hippocampus contributes to the episodic buffer of the revised working memory model. We also suggest that the episodic buffer is somewhat independent from the central executive component of working memory.

  14. Potential hippocampal region atrophy in diabetes mellitus type 2. A voxel-based morphometry VSRAD study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Kazutoshi; Sugihara, Masaki; Wada, Akihiko

    2010-01-01

    Among diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) patients, the frequency of cognitive dysfunction is higher and the relative risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is approximately twice that of nondiabetics. Cognitive impairment symptoms of AD are induced by limbic system dysfunction, and an early-stage AD brain without dementia has the potential for atrophy in the hippocampal region. In this study, we estimated potential hippocampal region atrophy in DM2 and pursued the association between DM2 and cognitive impairment/AD. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed in 28 diabetics (14 men, 14 women; ages 59-79 years, mean 70.7 years) and 28 sex- and age- matched (±1 year) nondiabetics. Severity of gray matter loss in the hippocampal region and whole brain were investigated. Group analysis was performed using two-tailed unpaired t-test; significance was assumed with less than 1% (P<0.01) of the critical rate. There was a significant difference between diabetics and nondiabetics regarding the severity of hippocampal region atrophy and whole-brain atrophy. Only diabetics showed a positive correlation for severity of hippocampal region atrophy and whole-brain atrophy (rs=0.69, P<0.0001). Aged DM2 patients have the potential for hippocampal region atrophy, and its dysfunction can be related to the expression of a cognitive impairment that resembles AD. (author)

  15. Grey matter abnormalities in untreated hyperthyroidism: A voxel-based morphometry study using the DARTEL approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Song, Lingheng; Yin, Xuntao; Zhang, Jiuquan; Liu, Chen; Wang, Jian; Zhou, Daiquan; Chen, Bing; Lii, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hyperthyroidism is frequently associated with pronounced neuropsychiatric symptoms such as impulsiveness, irritability, poor concentration, and memory impairments. Functional neuroimaging has revealed changes in cerebral metabolism in hyperthyroidism, but regional changes in cortical morphology associated with specific neurological deficits have not been studied so far. To investigate the pathophysiology underlying hyperthyroid-associated neural dysfunction, we compared grey matter volume (GMV) between adult hyperthyroid patients and matched healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Materials and methods: High resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired by 3T MRI from 51 hyperthyroid patients and 51 controls. VBM analysis was performed using SPM8. Correlations between regional GMV and both serum free thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations and disease duration were assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Compared to controls, GM volumes in the bilateral hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, calcarine, lingual gyrus, and left temporal pole were lower and bilateral supplementary motor area GMV higher in hyperthyroid patients. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentration was negatively correlated with the normalized regional volume (NRV) of the left parahippocampal gyrus and serum free thyroxine (FT4) concentration negatively correlated with the NRV of the left hippocampus and right parahippocampal gyrus. Disease duration was negatively correlated with the NRV of the left hippocampus, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, and left temporal pole. Conclusion: Hyperthyroid patients exhibited reduced GMV in regions associated with memory, attention, emotion, vision, and motor planning. Negative correlations between GMV and both free TH and disease duration suggest that chronic TH elevation induces abnormalities in the adult cortex

  16. Loss aversion is associated with bilateral insula volume. A voxel based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markett, S; Heeren, G; Montag, C; Weber, B; Reuter, M

    2016-04-21

    Loss aversion is a decision bias, reflecting a greater sensitivity to losses than to gains in a decision situation. Recent neuroscientific research has shown that mesocorticolimbic structures like ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum constitute a bidirectional neural system that processes gains and losses and exhibits a neural basis of loss aversion. On a functional and structural level, the amygdala and insula also seem to play an important role in the processing of loss averse behavior. By applying voxel-based morphometry to structural brain images in N=41 healthy participants, the current study provides further evidence for the relationship of brain structure and loss aversion. The results show a negative correlation of gray matter volume in bilateral posterior insula as well as left medial frontal gyrus with individual loss aversion. Hence, higher loss aversion is associated with lower gray matter volume in these brain areas. Both structures have been discussed to play important roles in the brain's salience network, where the posterior insula is involved in interoception and the detection of salience. The medial frontal gyrus might impact decision making through its dense connections with the anterior cingulate cortex. A possible explanation for the present finding is that structural differences in these regions alter the processing of losses and salience, possibly biasing decision making towards avoidance of negative outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Soldiers’ employment attitude and employability: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays it is very difficult for Chinese retired soldiers to find proper jobs, and the primary reason is the significant gap between job requirements and soldiers owned job skills. Therefore, it is very important to improve the soldiers’ job skills and enhance their understanding of employment.Design/methodology/approach: This paper expands the study scope from the soldiers’ job skills to the employability, initiatively introduces the employment attitude which has obvious impact on the employment of soldiers, and analyses the influence that employment attitude can play on employability. At last, this paper develops statistical method to find the relationship between soldiers’ employment attitude and employability.Findings: The empirical analysis shows that soldiers’ employment attitude has the positive linkage with employability, which makes the employment attitude a measurable variable for the employability rather than an absolute standard.Research limitations/implications: According to the research purpose, more variables should be considered in the model, consequently, there are only three indicators to describe solders’ employment attitude and four indicators to describe solders’ employability.Originality/value: This paper takes research on soldiers’ employability in a new perspective. The soldiers’ employment attitude is served as the entry point, showing the influence that soldiers’ employment attitude has on employability.

  18. Structural consequences of diffuse traumatic brain injury: A large deformation tensor-based morphometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghoon; Avants, Brian; Patel, Sunil; Whyte, John; Coslett, H. Branch; Pluta, John; Detre, John A.; Gee, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of long-term disability. Despite the importance of identifying neuropathology in individuals with chronic TBI, methodological challenges posed at the stage of inter-subject image registration have hampered previous voxel-based MRI studies from providing a clear pattern of structural atrophy after TBI. We used a novel symmetric diffeomorphic image normalization method to conduct a tensor-based morphometry (TBM) study of TBI. The key advantage of this method is that it simultaneously estimates an optimal template brain and topology preserving deformations between this template and individual subject brains. Detailed patterns of atrophies are then revealed by statistically contrasting control and subject deformations to the template space. Participants were 29 survivors of TBI and 20 control subjects who were matched in terms of age, gender, education, and ethnicity. Localized volume losses were found most prominently in white matter regions and the subcortical nuclei including the thalamus, the midbrain, the corpus callosum, the mid- and posterior cingulate cortices, and the caudate. Significant voxel-wise volume loss clusters were also detected in the cerebellum and the frontal/temporal neocortices. Volume enlargements were identified largely in ventricular regions. A similar pattern of results was observed in a subgroup analysis where we restricted our analysis to the 17 TBI participants who had no macroscopic focal lesions (total lesion volume> 1.5 cm 3). The current study confirms, extends, and partly challenges previous structural MRI studies in chronic TBI. By demonstrating that a large deformation image registration technique can be successfully combined with TBM to identify TBI-induced diffuse structural changes with greater precision, our approach is expected to increase the sensitivity of future studies examining brain-behavior relationships in the TBI population. PMID:17999940

  19. Regional Grey Matter Structure Differences between Transsexuals and Healthy Controls—A Voxel Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lajos; Kozák, Lajos R.; Simon, Viktória; Czobor, Pál; Unoka, Zsolt; Szabó, Ádám; Csukly, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF) transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM) transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM) obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17) and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females). We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM) structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri). These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender. PMID:24391851

  20. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lajos; Kozák, Lajos R; Simon, Viktória; Czobor, Pál; Unoka, Zsolt; Szabó, Ádám; Csukly, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF) transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM) transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM) obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17) and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females). We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM) structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri). These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender.

  1. Structural neural correlates of multitasking: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Ting; Yang, Tian-Xiao; Wang, Yi; Sui, Yuxiu; Yao, Jingjing; Zhang, Chen-Yuan; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-12-01

    Multitasking refers to the ability to organize assorted tasks efficiently in a short period of time, which plays an important role in daily life. However, the structural neural correlates of multitasking performance remain unclear. The present study aimed at exploring the brain regions associated with multitasking performance using global correlation analysis. Twenty-six healthy participants first underwent structural brain scans and then performed the modified Six Element Test, which required participants to attempt six subtasks in 10 min while obeying a specific rule. Voxel-based morphometry of the whole brain was used to detect the structural correlates of multitasking ability. Grey matter volume of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was positively correlated with the overall performance and time monitoring in multitasking. In addition, white matter volume of the anterior thalamic radiation (ATR) was also positively correlated with time monitoring during multitasking. Other related brain regions associated with multitasking included the superior frontal gyrus, the inferior occipital gyrus, the lingual gyrus, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. No significant correlation was found between grey matter volume of the prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 10) and multitasking performance. Using a global correlation analysis to examine various aspects of multitasking performance, this study provided new insights into the structural neural correlates of multitasking ability. In particular, the ACC was identified as an important brain region that played both a general and a specific time-monitoring role in multitasking, extending the role of the ACC from lesioned populations to healthy populations. The present findings also support the view that the ATR may influence multitasking performance by affecting time-monitoring abilities. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Simon

    Full Text Available Gender identity disorder (GID refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17 and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females. We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri. These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender.

  3. A tensor based morphometry study of longitudinal gray matter contraction in FTD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambati, Simona M.; Renda, Natasha C.; Rankin, Katherine P.; Rosen, Howard J.; Seeley, William W.; Ashburner, John; Weiner, Michael W.; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2008-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive behavioural abnormalities and frontotemporal atrophy. Here we used tensor based morphometry (TBM) to identify regions of longitudinal progression of gray matter atrophy in FTD compared to controls. T1-weighted MRI images were acquired at presentation and 1-year follow-up from 12 patients with mild to moderate FTD and 12 healthy controls. Using TBM as implemented in SPM2, a voxel-wise estimation of regional tissue volume change was derived from the deformation field required to warp a subject’s late to early anatomical images. A whole brain analysis was performed, in which a level of significance of pBased on prior studies, a region of interest (ROI) analysis was also performed, including in the search area bilateral medial and orbital frontal regions, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, amygdala and hippocampus. Within this ROI a level of significance of p<0.001 uncorrected was accepted. In the whole brain analysis, the anterior cingulate/paracingulate gyri were the only regions that showed significant atrophy change over 1 year. In the ROI analysis, the left ventro-medial frontal cortex, right medial superior frontal gyrus, anterior insulae and left amygdala/hippocampus showed significant longitudinal changes. In conclusion, limbic and paralimbic regions showed detectable gray matter contraction over 1 year in FTD, confirming the susceptibility of these regions to the disease and the consistency with their putative role in causing typical presenting behaviours. These results suggest that TBM might be useful in tracking progression of regional atrophy in FTD. PMID:17350290

  4. Grey matter abnormalities in untreated hyperthyroidism: a voxel-based morphometry study using the DARTEL approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Song, Lingheng; Yin, Xuntao; Zhang, Jiuquan; Liu, Chen; Wang, Jian; Zhou, Daiquan; Chen, Bing; Lii, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is frequently associated with pronounced neuropsychiatric symptoms such as impulsiveness, irritability, poor concentration, and memory impairments. Functional neuroimaging has revealed changes in cerebral metabolism in hyperthyroidism, but regional changes in cortical morphology associated with specific neurological deficits have not been studied so far. To investigate the pathophysiology underlying hyperthyroid-associated neural dysfunction, we compared grey matter volume (GMV) between adult hyperthyroid patients and matched healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). High resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired by 3T MRI from 51 hyperthyroid patients and 51 controls. VBM analysis was performed using SPM8. Correlations between regional GMV and both serum free thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations and disease duration were assessed by multiple regression analysis. Compared to controls, GM volumes in the bilateral hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, calcarine, lingual gyrus, and left temporal pole were lower and bilateral supplementary motor area GMV higher in hyperthyroid patients. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentration was negatively correlated with the normalized regional volume (NRV) of the left parahippocampal gyrus and serum free thyroxine (FT4) concentration negatively correlated with the NRV of the left hippocampus and right parahippocampal gyrus. Disease duration was negatively correlated with the NRV of the left hippocampus, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, and left temporal pole. Hyperthyroid patients exhibited reduced GMV in regions associated with memory, attention, emotion, vision, and motor planning. Negative correlations between GMV and both free TH and disease duration suggest that chronic TH elevation induces abnormalities in the adult cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuroanatomical correlates of time perspective: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyi; Guo, Yiqun; Feng, Tingyong

    2018-02-26

    Previous studies indicated that time perspective can affect many behaviors, such as decisions, risk taking, substance abuse and health behaviors. However, very little is known about the neural substrates of time perspective (TP). To address this question, we characterized different dimensions of TP (including the Past, Present, and Future TP) using standardized Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), and quantified the gray matter volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method across two independent samples. Our whole-brain analysis (sample 1, N=150) revealed Past-Negative TP was positively correlated with the GMV of a cluster in LPFC whereas Past-Positive was negatively correlated with the GMV in OFC, and Future TP was negatively correlated with GMV in mPFC. Moreover, two present scales (Present-Hedonistic and Present-Fatalistic TPs) were positively correlated with the GMV of regions in MTG and precuneus, respectively. We further examined the reliability of these correlations between multidimensional TPs and neuroanatomical structures in another independent sample (sample 2, N=58). Results verified our findings that GMV in LPFC could predict Past-Negative TP while GMV in OFC could predict Past-Positive TP, and the GMV in MTG could predict Present-Hedonistic while the GMV in presuneus could predict Present-Fatalistic, as well as the GMV in mPFC could predict Future TP. Thus, our findings suggest that the existence of selective neural basis underlying TPs, and further provide the stable biomarkers for multidimensional TPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain volumes in healthy adults aged 40 years and over: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riello, Roberta; Sabattoli, Francesca; Beltramello, Alberto; Bonetti, Matteo; Bono, Giorgio; Falini, Andrea; Magnani, Giuseppe; Minonzio, Giorgio; Piovan, Enrico; Alaimo, Giuseppina; Ettori, Monica; Galluzzi, Samantha; Locatelli, Enrico; Noiszewska, Malgorzata; Testa, Cristina; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2005-08-01

    Gender and age effect on brain morphology have been extensively investigated. However, the great variety in methods applied to morphology partly explain the conflicting results of linear patterns of tissue changes and lateral asymmetry in men and women. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of age, gender and laterality on the volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in a large group of healthy adults by means of voxel-based morphometry. This technique, based on observer-independent algorithms, automatically segments the 3 types of tissue and computes the amount of tissue in each single voxel. Subjects were 229 healthy subjects of 40 years of age or older, who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) for reasons other than cognitive impairment. MR images were reoriented following the AC-PC line and, after removing the voxels below the cerebellum, were processed by Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM99). GM and WM volumes were normalized for intracranial volume. Women had more fractional GM and WM volumes than men. Age was negatively correlated with both fractional GM and WM, and a gender x age interaction effect was found for WM, men having greater WM loss with advancing age. Pairwise differences between left and right GM were negative (greater GM in right hemisphere) in men, and positive (greater GM in left hemisphere) in women (-0.56+/-4.2 vs 0.99+/-4.8; p=0.019). These results support side-specific accelerated WM loss in men, and may help our better understanding of changes in regional brain structures associated with pathological aging.

  7. Morphometric changes of whole brain in patients with alcohol addiction: a voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinfeng; Chen Zhiye; Ma Lin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate morphometric changes of brain in patients with alcohol addiction by voxel-based morphometry. Methods: Fifteen patients with alcohol addiction and 15 health controls were recruited and underwent fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and 3D fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) T 1 -weighted sequences on a 3.0 T MRI system. 3D FSPGR T 1 structure images were normalized, segmented and smoothed, and then underwent voxel-based morphometry. An ANCOVA was applied with age, body mass index (BMI), and education years as covariates because of exact sex match. A statistical threshold of P 0.05). Conclusions: Regional gray and white matter atrophy can be the initial changes in patients with alcohol addiction and the frontal region is a relative specific damaged brain region. VBM has a potential value for the detection of subtle brain atrophy in patients with alcohol addiction. (authors)

  8. Widespread structural brain changes in OCD: a systematic review of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Federica; Piras, Fabrizio; Chiapponi, Chiara; Girardi, Paolo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    The most widely accepted model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) assumes brain abnormalities in the "affective circuit", mainly consisting of volume reduction in the medial orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate and temporolimbic cortices, and tissue expansion in the striatum and thalamus. The advent of whole-brain, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has provided increasing evidence that regions outside the "affective" orbitofronto-striatal circuit are involved in OCD. Nevertheless, potential confounds from the different image analysis methods, as well as other factors, such as patients' medication and comorbidity status, may limit generalization of results. In the present paper, we systematically reviewed the whole-brain VBM literature on OCD by focussing specifically on degree of consistency between studies, extent to which findings have been replicated and interrelation between clinical variables and OCD anatomy, a potentially crucial factor that has been systematically examined only in a limited number of studies. The PubMed database was searched through February 2012. A total of 156 studies were identified; 18 of them fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria and included 511 patients and 504 controls. Results support the notion that the brain alterations responsible for OCD are represented at the network level, and that widespread structural abnormalities may contribute to neurobiological vulnerability to OCD. Apart from defects in regions within the classic "affective" circuit, volume reduction of the cortical source of the dorsolateral (DL) prefronto-striatal "executive" circuit (dorsomedial, DL, ventrolateral and frontopolar prefrontal cortices), and of reciprocally connected regions (temporo-parieto-occipital associative areas) is consistently described in OCD patients. Moreover, increased volume of the internal capsule and reduced frontal and parietal white matter volumes may account for altered anatomical connectivity in fronto-subcortical circuitry

  9. Study of bony trabecular characteristics using bone morphometry and micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Han; Lee, Wan; Lee, Chang Jin; Ji, Jung Hyun; Lee, Byung Do

    2007-01-01

    The research was done to investigate the effectiveness of 2D bony morphometry and microstructure of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) on the osteoporotic bony change. We performed the bone morphometric analysis of proximal femur in ovariectomized rabbits with BMD and micro-CT examination. Twenty-one female (Newzeland, about 16 weeks old, 2.9-3.4 kg) rabbits were used. Three rabbits were sacrificed on the day when experiment began (Basline). The remaining 18 rabbits were divided into two groups. One group was ovariectomized bilaterally (OVX) and the other animals were subjected to sham operation (Sham). Bone specimens were obtained from the right and left femur of sacrificed rabbits. At intervals of 1,2,3,5,6 months respectively, BMD tests were performed on the proximal on the proximal femur by using PIXImus 2 (GE Lunar Co. USA), 2-dimensional bone morphometric analysis by custom computer program and 2D / 3D bone structure analysis by micro-CT (Skyscan1072, Antwerpen, Belgium). Statistical analysis was carried out for the correlation between bone morphometry, micro-CT and BMD. BV/TV, Tb.Th, Tb.N of micro-CT parameters showed higher values in sham group than OVX group. N.Nd/Ar.RI, N.NdNd, N.NdTm, N. TmTm, PmB/Ar.RI, 3-D BoxSlope of 2D morphometric parameters showed higher values in Sham group than OVX group. The micro-CT parameters of Tb.Sp. Tb.N were statistically significant correlated with BMD respectively. Several 2D morphometric parameters were statistically significant correlated with BMD respectively. Several parameters of 2D bony morphometry and micro-CT showed effective aspects on the osteoporotic bony change

  10. Cognitive learning is associated with gray matter changes in healthy human individuals: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Antonia; Rocca, Maria Assunta; Pagani, Elisabetta; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2009-11-15

    Longitudinal voxel-based morphometry studies have demonstrated morphological changes in cortical structures following motor and cognitive learning. In this study, we applied, for the first time, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to assess the short-term structural brain gray matter (GM) changes associated with cognitive learning in healthy subjects. Using a 3 T scanner, a 3D T1-weighted sequence was acquired from 32 students at baseline and after two weeks. Students were separated into two groups: 13 defined as "students in cognitive training", who underwent a two-week cognitive learning period, and 19 "students not in cognitive training", who were not involved in any teaching activity. GM changes were assessed using TBM and statistical parametric mapping. Baseline regional GM volume did not differ between the two groups. At follow up, compared to "students not in cognitive training", the "students in cognitive training" had a significant GM volume increase in the dorsomedial frontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, and the precuneus (p<0.001). These results suggest that cognitive learning results in short-term structural GM changes of neuronal networks of the human brain, which are known to be involved in cognition. This may have important implications for the development of rehabilitation strategies in patients with neurological diseases.

  11. Cerebral asymmetry in patients with schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Aoki, Shigeki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the differences in gray- and white-matter asymmetry between schizophrenia patients and normal subjects. Forty-eight right-handed patients with chronic schizophrenia (24 males and 24 females) and 48 right-handed age- and sex-matched healthy controls (24 males and 24 females) were included in this study. The effects of diagnosis on gray-matter volume asymmetry and white-matter fractional anisotropy (FA) asymmetry were evaluated with use of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and voxel-based analysis of FA maps derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. The mean gray- and white-matter volumes were significantly smaller in the schizophrenia group than in the control group. The voxel-based morphometry (VBM) showed no significant effect of diagnosis on gray-matter volume asymmetry. The voxel-based analysis of DTI also showed no significant effect of diagnosis on white-matter FA asymmetry. Our results of voxel-based analyses showed no significant differences in either gray-matter volume asymmetry or white-matter FA asymmetry between schizophrenia patients and normal subjects. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Study of morphometry to debit drainage basin (DAS) arau Padang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, Lusi; Amrizal, Berd, Isril; Zuherna

    2017-11-01

    High intensity rain that happened in Padang city cause the happening of floods at DAS Arau. Floods that happened in Padang besides caused high rain intensity, require to be by research about morphometry that is cause parameter the happening of floods. Morphometry drainage basin physical network (DAS) quantitatively related to DAS geomorphology that is related to form of DAS, river network, closeness of stream, ramp, usage of farm, high and gradient steepness of river. Form DAS will influence rain concentration to outlet. Make an index to closeness of stream depict closeness of river stream at one particular DAS. Speed of river stream influenced by storey, level steepness of river. Steepness storey, level is comparison of difference height of river downstream and upstream. Ever greater of steepness of river stream, excelsior speed of river stream that way on the contrary. High to lower speed of river stream influence occurrence of floods, more than anything else if when influenced by debit big. Usage of farm in glove its link to process of infiltration where if geology type which is impermeable, be difficult the happening of infiltration, this matter will enlarge value of run off. Research by descriptive qualitative that is about characteristic of DAS. Method the used is method survey with data collecting, in the form of rainfall data of year 2005 until year 2015 and Image of DEM IFSAR with resolution 5 meter, analyzed use Software ARGIS. Result of research got by DAS reside in at condition of floods gristle.

  13. Tracking the development of agrammatic aphasia: A tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitwell, Jennifer L; Duffy, Joseph R; Machulda, Mary M; Clark, Heather M; Strand, Edythe A; Senjem, Matthew L; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Spychalla, Anthony J; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A

    2017-05-01

    Agrammatic aphasia can be observed in neurodegenerative disorders and has been traditionally linked with damage to Broca's area, although there have been disagreements concerning whether damage to Broca's area is necessary or sufficient for the development of agrammatism. We aimed to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of the emergence of agrammatic aphasia utilizing a unique cohort of patients with primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) that did not have agrammatism at baseline but developed agrammatic aphasia over time. Twenty PPAOS patients were recruited and underwent detailed speech/language assessments and 3T MRI at two visits, approximately two years apart. None of the patients showed evidence of agrammatism in writing or speech at baseline. Eight patients developed aphasia at follow-up (progressors) and 12 did not (non-progressors). Tensor-based morphometry utilizing symmetric normalization (SyN) was used to assess patterns of grey matter atrophy and voxel-based morphometry was used to assess patterns of grey matter loss at baseline. The progressors were younger at onset and more likely to show distorted sound substitutions or additions compared to non-progressors. Both groups showed change over time in premotor and motor cortices, posterior frontal lobe, basal ganglia, thalamus and midbrain, but the progressors showed greater rates of atrophy in left pars triangularis, thalamus and putamen compared to non-progressors. The progressors also showed greater grey matter loss in pars triangularis and putamen at baseline. This cohort provided a unique opportunity to assess the anatomical changes that accompany the development of agrammatic aphasia. The results suggest that damage to a network of regions including Broca's area, thalamus and basal ganglia are responsible for the development of agrammatic aphasia in PPAOS. Clinical and neuroimaging abnormalities were also present before the onset of agrammatism that could help improve prognosis in

  14. Larger right posterior parietal volume in action video game experts: a behavioral and voxel-based morphometry (VBM study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tanaka

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts.

  15. Personality traits related to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: MRI reveals prefrontal abnormalities through a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Filho, Gerardo Maria; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Lin, Katia; Guaranha, Mirian S B; Guilhoto, Laura M F F; da Silva, Henrique Hattori; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Júnior, Henrique Carrete; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T

    2009-06-01

    Studies involving juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) patients have demonstrated an elevated prevalence of cluster B personality disorders (PD) characterized as emotional instability, immaturity, unsteadiness, lack of discipline, and rapid mood changes. We aimed to verify a possible correlation between structural brain abnormalities in magnetic resonance image (MRI) and the PD in JME using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Sixteen JME patients with cluster B PD, 38 JME patients without psychiatric disorders, and 30 healthy controls were submitted to a psychiatric evaluation through SCID I and II and to a MRI scan. Significant reduction in thalami and increase in mesiofrontal and frontobasal regions' volumes were observed mainly in JME patients with PD. Structural alterations of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), involved in regulation of mood reactivity, impulsivity, and social behavior, were also observed. This study supports the hypothesis of frontobasal involvement in the pathophysiology of cluster B PD related to JME.

  16. Gray Matter Atrophy within the Default Mode Network of Fibromyalgia: A Meta-Analysis of Voxel-Based Morphometry Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemin Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, studies have demonstrated morphological changes in the brain of fibromyalgia (FMS. We aimed to conduct a coordinate-based meta-analytic research through systemic review on voxel-based morphometry (VBM imaging results to identify consistent gray matter (GM difference between FMS patients and healthy subjects. We performed a comprehensive literature search in PubMed (January 2000–December 2015 and included six VBM publication on FMS. Stereotactic data were extracted from 180 patients of FMS and 123 healthy controls. By means of activation likelihood estimation (ALE technique, regional GM reduction in left medial prefrontal cortex and right dorsal posterior cingulate cortex was identified. Both regions are within the default mode network. In conclusion, the gray matter deficit is related to the both affective and nonaffective components of pain processing. This result also provided the neuroanatomical correlates for emotional and cognitive symptoms in FMS.

  17. Behavioral Inhibition System activity is associated with increased amygdala and hippocampal gray matter volume: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrós-Loscertales, A; Meseguer, V; Sanjuán, A; Belloch, V; Parcet, M A; Torrubia, R; Avila, C

    2006-11-15

    Recent research has examined anxiety and hyperactivity in the amygdala and the anterior hippocampus while processing aversive stimuli. In order to determine whether these functional differences have a structural basis, optimized voxel-based morphometry was used to study the relationship between gray matter concentration in the brain and scores on a Behavioral Inhibition System measure (the Sensitivity to Punishment scale) in a sample of 63 male undergraduates. Results showed a positive correlation between Sensitivity to Punishment scores and gray matter volume in the amygdala and the hippocampal formation, that is, in areas that Gray, J.A., and McNaughton, N.J. (2000). The neuropsychology of anxiety. Oxford: Oxford Medical Publications. associated with the Behavioral Inhibition System.

  18. Assessment of memory/attention impairment in children with primary nocturnal enuresis: A voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Bing; Kong, Fanxing; Peng, Miao; Ma, Hongwei; Liu, Na; Guo, Qiyong

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Assessment of memory/attention impairment and related exploration of the gray matter differential MR density variations between children with and without primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methodology is the aim of the present study. Methods: A total of 75 right-handed PNE children (M/F = 39:36, average age 10.4 ± 1.3 years) and 72 age-matched, right-handed, healthy controls (M/F = 40:32, 10.0 ± 1.2 years) were recruited for the study. First, intelligence tests were performed using the China-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C-WISC) in both PNE and control children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ), and memory/caution (M/C) factor were measured. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed using high resolution 3 Tesla T1-weighted MR images, processed using VBM5 in the PNE and control children. Student's t-test or Mann–Whitney U test were performed to analyze the difference in the gray matter density (GMD) between the PNE and control children. Results: The FIQ, VIQ, and PIQ in the PNE group were within the normal range and did not significantly differ from the control group, though the M/C factor was statistically lower in the PNE group. Compared with normal controls, PNE children exhibited lower GMD in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the left cerebellum (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Impairment in memory/attention was detected in PNE children, and the structural abnormalities of the right DLPFC and left cerebellum are likely to be implicated in these deficits.

  19. Assessment of memory/attention impairment in children with primary nocturnal enuresis: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Bing, E-mail: yubing@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Kong, Fanxing, E-mail: kongfx@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Peng, Miao, E-mail: pengm@sj-hospital.org [Psychological Outpatient Service, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Ma, Hongwei, E-mail: mahongwei1960@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Liu, Na, E-mail: liuna.916@163.com [Department of Radiology, the People' s Hospital of Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110016 (China); Guo, Qiyong, E-mail: guoqy@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Aim: Assessment of memory/attention impairment and related exploration of the gray matter differential MR density variations between children with and without primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methodology is the aim of the present study. Methods: A total of 75 right-handed PNE children (M/F = 39:36, average age 10.4 ± 1.3 years) and 72 age-matched, right-handed, healthy controls (M/F = 40:32, 10.0 ± 1.2 years) were recruited for the study. First, intelligence tests were performed using the China-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C-WISC) in both PNE and control children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ), and memory/caution (M/C) factor were measured. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed using high resolution 3 Tesla T1-weighted MR images, processed using VBM5 in the PNE and control children. Student's t-test or Mann–Whitney U test were performed to analyze the difference in the gray matter density (GMD) between the PNE and control children. Results: The FIQ, VIQ, and PIQ in the PNE group were within the normal range and did not significantly differ from the control group, though the M/C factor was statistically lower in the PNE group. Compared with normal controls, PNE children exhibited lower GMD in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the left cerebellum (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Impairment in memory/attention was detected in PNE children, and the structural abnormalities of the right DLPFC and left cerebellum are likely to be implicated in these deficits.

  20. Genetic influence of apolipoprotein E4 genotype on hippocampal morphometry: An N = 725 surface-based Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie; Leporé, Natasha; Gutman, Boris A; Thompson, Paul M; Baxter, Leslie C; Caselli, Richard J; Wang, Yalin

    2014-08-01

    The apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hippocampal volumes are generally smaller in AD patients carrying the e4 allele compared to e4 noncarriers. Here we examined the effect of APOE e4 on hippocampal morphometry in a large imaging database-the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We automatically segmented and constructed hippocampal surfaces from the baseline MR images of 725 subjects with known APOE genotype information including 167 with AD, 354 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 204 normal controls. High-order correspondences between hippocampal surfaces were enforced across subjects with a novel inverse consistent surface fluid registration method. Multivariate statistics consisting of multivariate tensor-based morphometry (mTBM) and radial distance were computed for surface deformation analysis. Using Hotelling's T(2) test, we found significant morphological deformation in APOE e4 carriers relative to noncarriers in the entire cohort as well as in the nondemented (pooled MCI and control) subjects, affecting the left hippocampus more than the right, and this effect was more pronounced in e4 homozygotes than heterozygotes. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that showed e4 carriers exhibit accelerated hippocampal atrophy; we extend these findings to a novel measure of hippocampal morphometry. Hippocampal morphometry has significant potential as an imaging biomarker of early stage AD. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mapping the regional influence of genetics on brain structure variability--a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Caroline C; Leporé, Natasha; Pennec, Xavier; Lee, Agatha D; Barysheva, Marina; Madsen, Sarah K; Avedissian, Christina; Chou, Yi-Yu; de Zubicaray, Greig I; McMahon, Katie L; Wright, Margaret J; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2009-10-15

    Genetic and environmental factors influence brain structure and function profoundly. The search for heritable anatomical features and their influencing genes would be accelerated with detailed 3D maps showing the degree to which brain morphometry is genetically determined. As part of an MRI study that will scan 1150 twins, we applied Tensor-Based Morphometry to compute morphometric differences in 23 pairs of identical twins and 23 pairs of same-sex fraternal twins (mean age: 23.8+/-1.8 SD years). All 92 twins' 3D brain MRI scans were nonlinearly registered to a common space using a Riemannian fluid-based warping approach to compute volumetric differences across subjects. A multi-template method was used to improve volume quantification. Vector fields driving each subject's anatomy onto the common template were analyzed to create maps of local volumetric excesses and deficits relative to the standard template. Using a new structural equation modeling method, we computed the voxelwise proportion of variance in volumes attributable to additive (A) or dominant (D) genetic factors versus shared environmental (C) or unique environmental factors (E). The method was also applied to various anatomical regions of interest (ROIs). As hypothesized, the overall volumes of the brain, basal ganglia, thalamus, and each lobe were under strong genetic control; local white matter volumes were mostly controlled by common environment. After adjusting for individual differences in overall brain scale, genetic influences were still relatively high in the corpus callosum and in early-maturing brain regions such as the occipital lobes, while environmental influences were greater in frontal brain regions that have a more protracted maturational time-course.

  2. [Voxel-Based Morphometry in Autism Spectrum Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder shows deficits in social communication and interaction including nonverbal communicative behaviors (e.g., eye contact, gestures, voice prosody, and facial expressions) and restricted and repetitive behaviors as its core symptoms. These core symptoms are emerged as an atypical behavioral development in toddlers with the disorder. Atypical neural development is considered to be a neural underpinning of such behaviorally atypical development. A number of studies using voxel-based morphometry have already been conducted to compare regional brain volumes between individuals with autism spectrum disorder and those with typical development. Furthermore, more than ten papers employing meta-analyses of the comparisons using voxel based morphometry between individuals with autism spectrum disorder and those with typical development have already been published. The current review paper adds some brief discussions about potential factors contributing to the inconsistency observed in the previous findings such as difficulty in controlling the confounding effects of different developmental phases among study participants.

  3. Neural Correlates of Post-Conventional Moral Reasoning: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn, Kristin; Korczykowski, Marc; Rao, Hengyi; Fang, Zhuo; Detre, John A.; Robertson, Diana C.

    2015-01-01

    Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema) or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema), whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which moral development is reflected in structural brain architecture remains unknown. To investigate this question, we used voxel-based morphometry and examined the brain structure in a sample of 67 Master of Business Administration (MBA) students. Subjects completed the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2) which measures moral development in terms of cognitive schema preference. Results demonstrate that subjects at the post-conventional level of moral reasoning were characterized by increased gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, compared with subjects at a lower level of moral reasoning. Our findings support an important role for both cognitive and emotional processes in moral reasoning and provide first evidence for individual differences in brain structure according to the stages of moral reasoning first proposed by Kohlberg decades ago. PMID:26039547

  4. Neural correlates of post-conventional moral reasoning: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Prehn

    Full Text Available Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema, whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which moral development is reflected in structural brain architecture remains unknown. To investigate this question, we used voxel-based morphometry and examined the brain structure in a sample of 67 Master of Business Administration (MBA students. Subjects completed the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2 which measures moral development in terms of cognitive schema preference. Results demonstrate that subjects at the post-conventional level of moral reasoning were characterized by increased gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, compared with subjects at a lower level of moral reasoning. Our findings support an important role for both cognitive and emotional processes in moral reasoning and provide first evidence for individual differences in brain structure according to the stages of moral reasoning first proposed by Kohlberg decades ago.

  5. Neural correlates of post-conventional moral reasoning: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn, Kristin; Korczykowski, Marc; Rao, Hengyi; Fang, Zhuo; Detre, John A; Robertson, Diana C

    2015-01-01

    Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema) or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema), whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which moral development is reflected in structural brain architecture remains unknown. To investigate this question, we used voxel-based morphometry and examined the brain structure in a sample of 67 Master of Business Administration (MBA) students. Subjects completed the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2) which measures moral development in terms of cognitive schema preference. Results demonstrate that subjects at the post-conventional level of moral reasoning were characterized by increased gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, compared with subjects at a lower level of moral reasoning. Our findings support an important role for both cognitive and emotional processes in moral reasoning and provide first evidence for individual differences in brain structure according to the stages of moral reasoning first proposed by Kohlberg decades ago.

  6. Progression of brain atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalchi, Mario; Diciotti, Stefano; Giannelli, Marco; Ginestroni, Andrea; Soricelli, Andrea; Nicolai, Emanuele; Aiello, Marco; Tessa, Carlo; Galli, Lucia; Dotti, Maria Teresa; Piacentini, Silvia; Salvatore, Elena; Toschi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is the second most frequent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia worldwide. We investigated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track in vivo progression of brain atrophy in SCA2 by examining twice 10 SCA2 patients (mean interval 3.6 years) and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean interval 3.3 years) on the same 1.5 T MRI scanner. We used T1-weighted images and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to investigate volume changes and the Inherited Ataxia Clinical Rating Scale to assess the clinical deficit. With respect to controls, SCA2 patients showed significant higher atrophy rates in the midbrain, including substantia nigra, basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles and posterior medulla corresponding to the gracilis and cuneatus tracts and nuclei, cerebellar white matter (WM) and cortical gray matter (GM) in the inferior portions of the cerebellar hemisphers. No differences in WM or GM volume loss were observed in the supratentorial compartment. TBM findings did not correlate with modifications of the neurological deficit. In conclusion, MRI volumetry using TBM is capable of demonstrating the progression of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2, supporting a possible role of MRI as biomarker in future trials.

  7. A voxel-based morphometry study of brain volume changes in patients with neuromyelitis optica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yunyun; Liu Yaou; Liang Peipeng; Huang Jing; Ren Zhuoqiong; Ye Jing; Dong Huiqing; Chen Hai; Li Kuncheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To detect changes of regional grey matter and white matter volume in patients of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) by voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and investigate its relationship with clinical variables. Methods: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and structural three-dimensional MRI were obtained from 20 NMO and 20 sex-and age-matched healthy volunteers. The comparison of grey matter and white matter volume between the two groups was analyzed by VBM tools of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 5. Pearson correlation analysis was used to assess correlations between regional volume decrease and disease duration and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores in NMO patients. Results: Compared with normal controls, NMO patients had grey matter atrophy in several cortical regions, such as right inferior frontal gyrus (cluster size 514), left superior temporal gyrus (282), right middle temporal gyrus (229) and right insula (211) (t=3.58-5.11, AlphaSim corrected, P<0.05). White matter atrophy was found in several subcortical regions in NMO patients, such as right precentral and postcentral gyrus (cluster size 457, 110), left middle frontal gyrus (285), and right inferior parietal lobule (231) (t=2.90-4.25, AlphaSim corrected, P<0.05). Grey matter and white matter volume loss were not significantly correlated with clinical duration or EDSS score in NMO. Conclusion: By means of VBM, regional atrophy of grey matter and white matter is found in NMO patients, which may provide evidence for brain structural abnormality in NMO. (authors)

  8. A Voxel Based Morphometry Study of Brain Gray Matter Volumes in Juvenile Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarajan, Rajan Nishanth; Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Viswanath, Biju; Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Srinath, Shoba; Chandrashekar, C R; Janardhan Reddy, Y C

    2015-01-01

    Adult patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have been shown to have gray matter (GM) volume differences from healthy controls in multiple regions - the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), medial frontal gyri (MFG), striatum, thalamus, and superior parietal lobule. However, there is paucity of data with regard to juvenile OCD. Hence, we examined GM volume differences between juvenile OCD patients and matched healthy controls using voxel based morphometry (VBM) with the above apriori regions of interest. Fifteen right handed juvenile patients with OCD and age- sex- handedness- matched healthy controls were recruited after administering the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-KID and the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and scanned using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. VBM methodology was followed. In comparison with healthy controls, patients had significantly smaller GM volumes in left ACC. YBOCS total score (current) showed significant negative correlation with GM volumes in bilateral OFC, and left superior parietal lobule. These findings while reiterating the important role of the orbito-fronto-striatal circuitry, also implicate in the parietal lobe - especially the superior parietal lobule as an important structure involved in the pathogenesis of OCD.

  9. Progression of brain atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mascalchi

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2 is the second most frequent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia worldwide. We investigated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to track in vivo progression of brain atrophy in SCA2 by examining twice 10 SCA2 patients (mean interval 3.6 years and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean interval 3.3 years on the same 1.5 T MRI scanner. We used T1-weighted images and tensor-based morphometry (TBM to investigate volume changes and the Inherited Ataxia Clinical Rating Scale to assess the clinical deficit. With respect to controls, SCA2 patients showed significant higher atrophy rates in the midbrain, including substantia nigra, basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles and posterior medulla corresponding to the gracilis and cuneatus tracts and nuclei, cerebellar white matter (WM and cortical gray matter (GM in the inferior portions of the cerebellar hemisphers. No differences in WM or GM volume loss were observed in the supratentorial compartment. TBM findings did not correlate with modifications of the neurological deficit. In conclusion, MRI volumetry using TBM is capable of demonstrating the progression of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2, supporting a possible role of MRI as biomarker in future trials.

  10. The neural substrates of procrastination: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Liu, Peiwei; Guo, Yiqun; Feng, Tingyong

    2018-03-01

    Procrastination is a pervasive phenomenon across different cultures and brings about lots of serious consequences, including performance, subjective well-being, and even public policy. However, little is known about the neural substrates of procrastination. In order to shed light upon this question, we investigated the neuroanatomical substrates of procrastination across two independent samples using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. The whole-brain analysis showed procrastination was positively correlated with the graymatter (GM) volume of clusters in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and the orbital frontal cortex (OFC), while negatively correlated with the GM volume of clusters in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in sample one (151 participants). We further conducted a verification procedure on another sample (108 participants) using region-of-interest analysis to examine the reliability of these results. Results showed procrastination can be predicted by the GM volume of the OFC and the MFG. The present findings suggest that the MFG and OFC, which are the key regions of self-control and emotion regulation, may play an important role in procrastination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Progression of brain atrophy in the early stages of Parkinson's disease: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study in de novo patients without cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessa, Carlo; Lucetti, Claudio; Giannelli, Marco; Diciotti, Stefano; Poletti, Michele; Danti, Sabrina; Baldacci, Filippo; Vignali, Claudio; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Mascalchi, Mario; Toschi, Nicola

    2014-08-01

    The presence of brain atrophy and its progression in early Parkinson's disease (PD) are still a matter of debate, particularly in patients without cognitive impairment. The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess whether PD patients who remain cognitively intact develop progressive atrophic changes in the early stages of the disease. For this purpose, we employed high-resolution T1-weighted MR imaging to compare 22 drug-naïve de novo PD patients without cognitive impairment to 17 age-matched control subjects, both at baseline and at three-year follow-up. We used tensor-based morphometry to explore the presence of atrophic changes at baseline and to compute yearly atrophy rates, after which we performed voxel-wise group comparisons using threshold-free cluster enhancement. At baseline, we did not observe significant differences in regional atrophy in PD patients with respect to control subjects. In contrast, PD patients showed significantly higher yearly atrophy rates in the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulum, caudate nucleus, and thalamus when compared to control subjects. Our results indicate that even cognitively preserved PD patients show progressive cortical and subcortical atrophic changes in regions related to cognitive functions and that these changes are already detectable in the early stages of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Pivotal Role of the Parieto-Occipital Lobe in Card Game-Induced Reflex Epilepsy: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kang Min; Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Byung In

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of card game-induced reflex epilepsy has not been determined so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate structural abnormalities using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis, which may give some clue about the pathogenesis in card game-induced reflex epilepsy. The 3 subjects were diagnosed with card game-induced reflex epilepsy. Evaluation involved a structured interview to obtain clinical information and brain MRI. In VBM analysis, Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 running on the MATLAB platform was employed to analyze the structural differences between patients with card game-induced reflex epilepsy and age- and sex-matched control subjects. The results of VBM analysis revealed that patients with card game-induced reflex epilepsy had significantly increased gray matter volume in the right occipital and parietal lobe. However, there were no structures with decreased gray matter volume in patients with card game-induced reflex epilepsy compared with control subjects. In addition, we found that the patients with card game-induced reflex epilepsy had onset of seizures in adulthood rather than in adolescence, and all of the patients were men. The parieto-occipital lobes might be partially involved in the neuronal network responsible for card game-induced reflex epilepsy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Right Brodmann area 18 predicts tremor arrest after Vim radiosurgery: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuleasca, Constantin; Witjas, Tatiana; Van de Ville, Dimitri; Najdenovska, Elena; Verger, Antoine; Girard, Nadine; Champoudry, Jerome; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Levivier, Marc; Guedj, Eric; Régis, Jean

    2018-03-01

    Drug-resistant essential tremor (ET) can benefit from open standard stereotactic procedures, such as deep-brain stimulation or radiofrequency thalamotomy. Non-surgical candidates can be offered either high-focused ultrasound (HIFU) or radiosurgery (RS). All procedures aim to target the same thalamic site, the ventro-intermediate nucleus (e.g., Vim). The mechanisms by which tremor stops after Vim RS or HIFU remain unknown. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on pretherapeutic neuroimaging data and assessed which anatomical site would best correlate with tremor arrest 1 year after Vim RS. Fifty-two patients (30 male, 22 female; mean age 71.6 years, range 49-82) with right-sided ET benefited from left unilateral Vim RS in Marseille, France. Targeting was performed in a uniform manner, using 130 Gy and a single 4-mm collimator. Neurological (pretherapeutic and 1 year after) and neuroimaging (baseline) assessments were completed. Tremor score on the treated hand (TSTH) at 1 year after Vim RS was included in a statistical parametric mapping analysis of variance (ANOVA) model as a continuous variable with pretherapeutic neuroimaging data. Pretherapeutic gray matter density (GMD) was further correlated with TSTH improvement. No a priori hypothesis was used in the statistical model. The only statistically significant region was right Brodmann area (BA) 18 (visual association area V2, p = 0.05, cluster size K c  = 71). Higher baseline GMD correlated with better TSTH improvement at 1 year after Vim RS (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = 0.002). Routine baseline structural neuroimaging predicts TSTH improvement 1 year after Vim RS. The relevant anatomical area is the right visual association cortex (BA 18, V2). The question whether visual areas should be included in the targeting remains open.

  14. Voxel-based morphometry in Alzheimers disease and mild cognitive impairment: Systematic review of studies addressing the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luís Gustavo; Busatto, Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a useful approach for investigating neurostructural brain changes in dementia. We systematically reviewed VBM studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), specifically focusing on grey matter (GM) atrophy in the frontal lobe. Two searches were performed on the Pubmed database. A set of exclusion criteria was applied to ensure the selection of only VBM studies that directly investigated GM volume abnormalities in AD and/or MCI patients compared to cognitively normal controls. From a total of 46 selected articles, 35 VBM studies reported GM volume reductions in the frontal lobe. The frontal subregions, where most of the volume reductions were reported, included the inferior, superior and middle frontal gyri, as well as the anterior cingulate gyrus. We also found studies in which reduced frontal GM was detected in MCI patients who converted to AD. In a minority of studies, correlations between frontal GM volumes and behavioural changes or cognitive deficits in AD patients were investigated, with variable findings. Results of VBM studies indicate that the frontal lobe should be regarded as an important brain area when investigating GM volume deficits in association with AD. Frontal GM loss might not be a feature specific to late AD only. Future VBM studies involving large AD samples are warranted to further investigate correlations between frontal volume deficits and both cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  15. White matter and schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Enrico; Tatu, Mona Karina; Pignolo, Claudia; Cauda, Franco; Costa, Tommaso; Ando', Agata; Zennaro, Alessandro

    2017-12-30

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are the most implemented methodologies to detect alterations of both gray and white matter (WM). However, the role of WM in mental disorders is still not well defined. We aimed at clarifying the role of WM disruption in schizophrenia and at identifying the most frequently involved brain networks. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify VBM and DTI studies focusing on WM alterations in patients with schizophrenia compared to control subjects. We selected studies reporting the coordinates of WM reductions and we performed the anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE). Moreover, we labeled the WM bundles with an anatomical atlas and compared VBM and DTI ALE-scores of each significant WM tract. A total of 59 studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. WM alterations were reported in 31 and 34 foci with VBM and DTI methods, respectively. The most occurred WM bundles in both VBM and DTI studies and largely involved in schizophrenia were long projection fibers, callosal and commissural fibers, part of motor descending fibers, and fronto-temporal-limbic pathways. The meta-analysis showed a widespread WM disruption in schizophrenia involving specific cerebral circuits instead of well-defined regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuroanatomical Alterations in Patients with Early Stage of Unilateral Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawen Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past several years, the rapid development of neuroimaging techniques has contributed greatly in the noninvasive imaging studies of tinnitus. The aim of the present study was to explore the brain anatomical alterations in patients with right-sided unilateral pulsatile tinnitus (PT in the early stage of PT symptom using voxel-based morphometry (VBM analysis. Twenty-four patients with right-sided pulsatile tinnitus and 24 age- and gender-matched normal controls were recruited to this study. Structural image data preprocessing was performed using VBM8 toolbox. Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI score was acquired in the tinnitus group to assess the severity of tinnitus and tinnitus-related distress. Two-sample t-test and Pearson’s correlation analysis were used in statistical analysis. Patients with unilateral pulsatile tinnitus had significantly increased gray matter (GM volume in bilateral superior temporal gyrus compared with the normal controls. However, the left cerebellum posterior lobe, left frontal superior orbital lobe (gyrus rectus, right middle occipital gyrus (MOG, and bilateral putamen showed significantly decreased brain volumes. This was the first study which demonstrated the features of neuroanatomical changes in patients with unilateral PT during their early stages of the symptom.

  17. Mapping grey matter reductions in schizophrenia: an anatomical likelihood estimation analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornito, A; Yücel, M; Patti, J; Wood, S J; Pantelis, C

    2009-03-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a popular tool for mapping neuroanatomical changes in schizophrenia patients. Several recent meta-analyses have identified the brain regions in which patients most consistently show grey matter reductions, although they have not examined whether such changes reflect differences in grey matter concentration (GMC) or grey matter volume (GMV). These measures assess different aspects of grey matter integrity, and may therefore reflect different pathological processes. In this study, we used the Anatomical Likelihood Estimation procedure to analyse significant differences reported in 37 VBM studies of schizophrenia patients, incorporating data from 1646 patients and 1690 controls, and compared the findings of studies using either GMC or GMV to index grey matter differences. Analysis of all studies combined indicated that grey matter reductions in a network of frontal, temporal, thalamic and striatal regions are among the most frequently reported in literature. GMC reductions were generally larger and more consistent than GMV reductions, and were more frequent in the insula, medial prefrontal, medial temporal and striatal regions. GMV reductions were more frequent in dorso-medial frontal cortex, and lateral and orbital frontal areas. These findings support the primacy of frontal, limbic, and subcortical dysfunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and suggest that the grey matter changes observed with MRI may not necessarily result from a unitary pathological process.

  18. Grey and white matter changes in children with monocular amblyopia: voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Jiang, Qinying; Guo, Mingxia; Li, Qingji; Cai, Chunquan; Yin, Xiaohui

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the potential morphological alterations of grey and white matter in monocular amblyopic children using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A total of 20 monocular amblyopic children and 20 age-matched controls were recruited. Whole-brain MRI scans were performed after a series of ophthalmologic exams. The imaging data were processed and two-sample t-tests were employed to identify group differences in grey matter volume (GMV), white matter volume (WMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA). After image screening, there were 12 amblyopic participants and 15 normal controls qualified for the VBM analyses. For DTI analysis, 14 amblyopes and 14 controls were included. Compared to the normal controls, reduced GMVs were observed in the left inferior occipital gyrus, the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and the left supramarginal/postcentral gyrus in the monocular amblyopic group, with the lingual gyrus presenting augmented GMV. Meanwhile, WMVs reduced in the left calcarine, the bilateral inferior frontal and the right precuneus areas, and growth in the WMVs was seen in the right cuneus, right middle occipital and left orbital frontal areas. Diminished FA values in optic radiation and increased FA in the left middle occipital area and right precuneus were detected in amblyopic patients. In monocular amblyopia, cortices related to spatial vision underwent volume loss, which provided neuroanatomical evidence of stereoscopic defects. Additionally, white matter development was also hindered due to visual defects in amblyopes. Growth in the GMVs, WMVs and FA in the occipital lobe and precuneus may reflect a compensation effect by the unaffected eye in monocular amblyopia.

  19. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    Background Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine grey matter differences between controls and siblings of patients with schizophrenia and to examine whether the age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms of selected individuals could explain the previously reported inconsistencies. Methods We compared the grey matter volume and grey matter concentration of healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls matched for age, sex and education using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Furthermore, we selected subsamples based on age (< 30 yr), genetic loading and subclinical psychotic symptoms to examine whether this would lead to different results. Results We included 89 siblings and 69 controls in our study. The results showed that siblings and controls did not differ significantly on grey matter volume or concentration. Furthermore, specifically selecting participants based on age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms did not alter these findings. Limitations The main limitation was that subdividing the sample resulted in smaller samples for the subanalyses. Furthermore, we used MRI data from 2 different scanner sites. Conclusion These results indicate that grey matter measured through VBM might not be a suitable endophenotype for schizophrenia. PMID:25768029

  20. Structural changes of central white matter tracts in Kennedy's disease - a diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, C C; Konrad, C; Sommer, J; Teismann, I; Schiffbauer, H

    2013-05-01

    Spinobulbar muscular atrophy [Kennedy's disease (KD)] is a rare X-linked neurodegenerative disorder of mainly spinal and bulbar motoneurons. Recent studies suggest a multisystem character of this disease. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize structural changes of gray (GM) and white matter (WM) in the central nervous system. Whole-brain-based voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses were applied to MRI data of eight genetically proven patients with KD and compared with 16 healthy age-matched controls. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis showed not only decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the brainstem, but also widespread changes in central WM tracts, whereas VBM analysis of the WM showed alterations primarily in the brainstem and cerebellum. There were no changes in GM volume. The FA value decrease in the brainstem correlated with the disease duration. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis revealed subtle changes of central WM tract integrity, while GM and WM volume remained unaffected. In our patient sample, KD had more extended effects than previously reported. These changes could either be attributed primarily to neurodegeneration or reflect secondary plastic changes due to atrophy of lower motor neurons and reorganization of cortical structures. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of the Brain of University Students Majoring in Music and Nonmusic Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kanako; Kirino, Eiji; Tanaka, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    The brain changes flexibly due to various experiences during the developmental stages of life. Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have shown volumetric differences between musicians and nonmusicians in several brain regions including the superior temporal gyrus, sensorimotor areas, and superior parietal cortex. However, the reported brain regions depend on the study and are not necessarily consistent. By VBM, we investigated the effect of musical training on the brain structure by comparing university students majoring in music with those majoring in nonmusic disciplines. All participants were right-handed healthy Japanese females. We divided the nonmusic students into two groups and therefore examined three groups: music expert (ME), music hobby (MH), and nonmusic (NM) group. VBM showed that the ME group had the largest gray matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; BA 44), left middle occipital gyrus (BA 18), and bilateral lingual gyrus. These differences are considered to be caused by neuroplasticity during long and continuous musical training periods because the MH group showed intermediate volumes in these regions.

  2. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-05-01

    Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine grey matter differences between controls and siblings of patients with schizophrenia and to examine whether the age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms of selected individuals could explain the previously reported inconsistencies. We compared the grey matter volume and grey matter concentration of healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls matched for age, sex and education using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Furthermore, we selected subsamples based on age (grey matter volume or concentration. Furthermore, specifically selecting participants based on age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms did not alter these findings. The main limitation was that subdividing the sample resulted in smaller samples for the subanalyses. Furthermore, we used MRI data from 2 different scanner sites. These results indicate that grey matter measured through VBM might not be a suitable endophenotype for schizophrenia.

  3. Structural brain alterations in bipolar disorder II: a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Elisa; Rossi-Espagnet, Maria Camilla; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Comparelli, Anna; Del Casale, Antonio; Carducci, Filippo; Romano, Andrea; Manfredi, Giovanni; Tatarelli, Roberto; Bozzao, Alessandro; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-09-05

    Brain structural changes have been described in bipolar disorder (BP), but usually studies focused on both I and II subtypes indiscriminately and investigated changes in either brain volume or white matter (WM) integrity. We used combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis to track changes in the grey matter (GM) and WM in the brains of patients affected by BPII, as compared to healthy controls. Using VBM and DTI, we scanned 20 DSM-IV-TR BPII patients in their euthymic phase and 21 healthy, age- and gender-matched volunteers with no psychiatric history. VBM showed decreases in GM of BPII patients, compared to controls, which were diffuse in nature and most prominent in the right middle frontal gyrus and in the right superior temporal gurus. DTI showed significant and widespread FA reduction in BPII patients in all major WM tracts, including cortico-cortical association tracts. The small sample size limits the generalisability of our findings. Reduced GM volumes and WM integrity changes in BPII patients are not prominent like those previously reported in bipolar disorder type-I and involve cortical structures and their related association tracts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A voxel-based morphometry study of regional gray and white matter correlate of self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShanShan; Wei, DongTao; Li, WenFu; Li, HaiJiang; Wang, KangCheng; Xue, Song; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Self-disclosure is an important performance in human social communication. Generally, an individual is likely to have a good physical and mental health if he is prone to self-disclosure under stressful life events. However, as for now, little is known about the neural structure associated with self-disclosure. Therefore, in this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to explore regional gray matter volume (rGMV) and white matter volume (rWMV) associated with self-disclosure measured by the Jourard Self-disclosure Questionnaire in a large sample of college students. Results showed that individual self-disclosure was significantly and positively associated with rGMV of the left postcentral gyrus, which might be related to strengthen individual's ability of body feeling; while self-disclosure was significantly and negatively associated with rGMV of the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), which might be involved in increased positive emotion experience seeking (intrinsically rewarding). In addition, individual self-disclosure was also associated with smaller rWMV in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL). These findings suggested a biological basis for individual self-disclosure, distributed across different gray and white matter areas of the brain.

  5. Increased Grey Matter Associated with Long-Term Sahaja Yoga Meditation: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Elías Hernández

    Full Text Available To investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation.Twenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three non-meditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry.Grey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole brain. In addition, grey matter volume was larger in several predominantly right hemispheric regions: in insula, ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal and parietal cortices as well as in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left insula. No areas with larger grey matter volume were found in non-meditators relative to meditators.The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception. The increased grey matter volume in these attention and self-control mediating regions suggests use-dependent enlargement with regular practice of this meditation.

  6. Discrepancy between perceived pain and cortical processing: A voxel-based morphometry and contact heat evoked potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, J L K; Jutzeler, C R; Haefeli, J; Curt, A; Freund, P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if local gray and white matter volume variations between subjects could account for variability in responses to CHEP stimulation. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to perform voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of gray and white matter in 30 neurologically healthy subjects. Contact heat stimulation was performed on the dorsum of the right hand at the base of the thumb. Evoked potentials were acquired from a vertex-recording electrode referenced to linked ears. Controlling for age, total intracranial volume, and skull/scalp thickness, CHEP amplitude and pain rating were not significantly correlated between subjects. A VBM region of interest approach demonstrated a significant interaction between pain rating and N2 amplitude in the right insular cortex (ppain rating. This finding suggests that the discrepancy between pain ratings and the amplitude of evoked potentials is not solely related to measurement artifact, but rather attributable, in part, to anatomical differences between subjects. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The overlapping brain region accounting for the relationship between procrastination and impulsivity: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peiwei; Feng, Tingyong

    2017-09-30

    Procrastination is a prevalent problematic behavior that brings serious consequences, such as lower levels of health, wealth, and well-being. Previous research has verified that impulsivity is one of the traits most strongly correlated with procrastination. However, little is known about why there is a tight behavioral relationship between them. To address this question, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore the common neural substrates between procrastination and impulsivity. In line with previous findings, the behavioral results showed a strong behavioral correlation between procrastination and impulsivity. Neuroimaging results showed impulsivity and procrastination shared the common neurobiological underpinnings in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) based on the data from 85 participants (sample 1). Furthermore, the mediation analysis revealed that impulsivity mediated the impact of gray matter (GM) volumes of this overlapping region in the DLPFC on procrastination on another independent 84 participants' data (sample 2). In conclusion, the overlapping brain region in the DLPFC would be responsible for the close relationship between procrastination and impulsivity. As a whole, the present study extends our knowledge on procrastination, and provides a novel perspective to explain the tight impulsivity - procrastination relationship. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased Grey Matter Associated with Long-Term Sahaja Yoga Meditation: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elías; Suero, José; Barros, Alfonso; González-Mora, José Luis; Rubia, Katya

    2016-01-01

    To investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation. Twenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three non-meditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry. Grey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole brain. In addition, grey matter volume was larger in several predominantly right hemispheric regions: in insula, ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal and parietal cortices as well as in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left insula. No areas with larger grey matter volume were found in non-meditators relative to meditators. The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception. The increased grey matter volume in these attention and self-control mediating regions suggests use-dependent enlargement with regular practice of this meditation.

  9. Cadaveric Study of Male Lumbar Intervertebral Foramina Morphometry in Ile-Ife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday E. C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to investigate the mean lumbar foramina height and length in male cadaveric specimens in Ile-Ife. Aim and Objectives: Two hundred and fifty intervertebral foramina derived from twenty-five male cadaveric specimens were analyzed, were studied. They were obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State in Southwestern Nigeria. The cadavers were positioned prone and a routine paraspinal approach was employed to gain exposure to the posterior spinal element following meticulous soft tissue dissection. An osteotomy of the iliac crest was performed to adequately expose the fifth lumbar (L1-S1 foramina.Parameters assessed were; the foramen height and the foraminal length. The measurement was performed three times on each side using vernier calipers. The variations of the different measurements in the cephalo-caudal direction were analyzed for statistical differences using the “One way ANOVA” with post hoc test. Results: The result showed a gradual increase of the foramina height were observed on both right and left side from L1-L2 to L3- L4 and from then on decreased progressively towards the L5-S1 level. No statistical difference was noted in the measurements derived (p<0.05. Conclusion: A good understanding of the lumbar intervertebral foraminal are essential in surgical planning of suitably sized cannulas necessary for less invasive spine surgeries as well as help in diagnosis of pathologies surrounding this important region following adequate clinical evaluation and measurements using imaging.

  10. Comparison of grey matter atrophy between patients with neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis: A voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yunyun; Liu Yaou; Liang Peipeng; Jia Xiuqin; Yu Chunshui; Qin Wen; Sun Hui; Liao Zhangyuan; Ye Jing; Li Kuncheng

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have established regional grey matter (GM) loss in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, whether there is any regional GM atrophy in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and the difference between NMO and MS is unclear. The present study addresses this issue by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and T1-weighted three-dimensional MRI were obtained from 26 NMO patients, 26 relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) patients, and 26 normal controls. An analysis of covariance model assessed with cluster size inference was used to compare GM volume among three groups. The correlations of GM volume changes with disease duration, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and brain T2 lesion volume (LV) were analyzed. Results: GM atrophy was found in NMO patients in several regions of frontal, temporal, parietal lobes and insula (uncorrected, p < 0.001). While extensive GM atrophy was found in RRMS patients, including most cortical regions and the deep grey matter (corrected for multiple comparisons, p < 0.01). Compared with NMO, those with RRMS had significant GM loss in bilateral thalami, caudate, left parahippocampal gyrus, right hippocampus and insula (corrected, p < 0.01). In RRMS group, regional GM loss in right caudate and bilateral thalami were strongly correlated with brain T2LV. Conclusions: Our study found the difference of GM atrophy between NMO and RRMS patients mainly in deep grey matter. The correlational results suggested axonal degeneration from lesions on T2WI may be a key pathogenesis of atrophy in deep grey matter in RRMS.

  11. Disease and genetic contributions toward local tissue volume disturbances in schizophrenia: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaling; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Phillips, Owen R; Gutman, Boris; Kurth, Florian; Dinov, Ivo; Thompson, Paul M; Asarnow, Robert F; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L

    2012-09-01

    Structural brain deficits, especially frontotemporal volume reduction and ventricular enlargement, have been repeatedly reported in patients with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether brain structural deformations may be attributable to disease-related or genetic factors. In this study, the structural magnetic resonance imaging data of 48 adult-onset schizophrenia patients, 65 first-degree nonpsychotic relatives of schizophrenia patients, 27 community comparison (CC) probands, and 73 CC relatives were examined using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to isolate global and localized differences in tissue volume across the entire brain between groups. We found brain tissue contractions most prominently in frontal and temporal regions and expansions in the putamen/pallidum, and lateral and third ventricles in schizophrenia patients when compared with unrelated CC probands. Results were similar, though less prominent when patients were compared with their nonpsychotic relatives. Structural deformations observed in unaffected patient relatives compared to age-similar CC relatives were suggestive of schizophrenia-related genetic liability and were pronounced in the putamen/pallidum and medial temporal regions. Schizophrenia and genetic liability effects for the putamen/pallidum were confirmed by regions-of-interest analysis. In conclusion, TBM findings complement reports of frontal, temporal, and ventricular dysmorphology in schizophrenia and further indicate that putamen/pallidum enlargements, originally linked mainly with medication exposure in early studies, also reflect a genetic predisposition for schizophrenia. Thus, brain deformation profiles revealed in this study may help to clarify the role of specific genetic or environmental risk factors toward altered brain morphology in schizophrenia.

  12. Childhood adversity is linked to differential brain volumes in adolescents with alcohol use disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Samantha J; Dalvie, Shareefa; Cuzen, Natalie L; Cardenas, Valerie; Fein, George; Stein, Dan J

    2014-06-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies link both alcohol use disorder (AUD) and early adversity to neurobiological differences in the adult brain. However, the association between AUD and childhood adversity and effects on the developing adolescent brain are less clear, due in part to the confound of psychiatric comorbidity. Here we examine early life adversity and its association with brain volume in a unique sample of 116 South African adolescents (aged 12-16) with AUD but without psychiatric comorbidity. Participants were 58 adolescents with DSM-IV alcohol dependence and with no other psychiatric comorbidities, and 58 age-, gender- and protocol-matched light/non-drinking controls (HC). Assessments included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). MR images were acquired on a 3T Siemens Magnetom Allegra scanner. Volumes of global and regional structures were estimated using SPM8 Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM), with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and regression analyses. In whole brain ANCOVA analyses, a main effect of group when examining the AUD effect after covarying out CTQ was observed on brain volume in bilateral superior temporal gyrus. Subsequent regression analyses to examine how childhood trauma scores are linked to brain volumes in the total cohort revealed a negative correlation in the left hippocampus and right precentral gyrus. Furthermore, bilateral (but most significantly left) hippocampal volume was negatively associated with sub-scores on the CTQ in the total cohort. These findings support our view that some alterations found in brain volumes in studies of adolescent AUD may reflect the impact of confounding factors such as psychiatric comorbidity rather than the effects of alcohol per se. In particular, early life adversity may influence the developing adolescent brain in specific brain regions, such as the hippocampus.

  13. Influence of magnetic field strength and image registration strategy on voxel-based morphometry in a study of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Artur; Kherif, Ferath; Krueger, Gunnar; Grabowska, Anna; Frackowiak, Richard; Draganski, Bogdan

    2014-05-01

    Multi-centre data repositories like the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) offer a unique research platform, but pose questions concerning comparability of results when using a range of imaging protocols and data processing algorithms. The variability is mainly due to the non-quantitative character of the widely used structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Although the stability of the main effect of Alzheimer's disease (AD) on brain structure across platforms and field strength has been addressed in previous studies using multi-site MR images, there are only sparse empirically-based recommendations for processing and analysis of pooled multi-centre structural MR data acquired at different magnetic field strengths (MFS). Aiming to minimise potential systematic bias when using ADNI data we investigate the specific contributions of spatial registration strategies and the impact of MFS on voxel-based morphometry in AD. We perform a whole-brain analysis within the framework of Statistical Parametric Mapping, testing for main effects of various diffeomorphic spatial registration strategies, of MFS and their interaction with disease status. Beyond the confirmation of medial temporal lobe volume loss in AD, we detect a significant impact of spatial registration strategy on estimation of AD related atrophy. Additionally, we report a significant effect of MFS on the assessment of brain anatomy (i) in the cerebellum, (ii) the precentral gyrus and (iii) the thalamus bilaterally, showing no interaction with the disease status. We provide empirical evidence in support of pooling data in multi-centre VBM studies irrespective of disease status or MFS. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Grey matter volume in healthy and epileptic beagles using voxel-based morphometry – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Frank

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most common chronic neurological disorders in dogs is idiopathic epilepsy (IE diagnosed as epilepsy without structural changes in the brain. In the current study the hypothesis should be proven that subtle grey matter changes occur in epileptic dogs. Therefore, magnetic resonance (MR images of one dog breed (Beagles were used to obtain an approximately uniform brain shape. Local differences in grey matter volume (GMV were compared between 5 healthy Beagles and 10 Beagles with spontaneously recurrent seizures (5 dogs with IE and 5 dogs with structural epilepsy (SE, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. T1W images of all dogs were prepared using Amira 6.3.0 for brain extraction, FSL 4.1.8 for registration and SPM12 for realignment. After creation of tissue probability maps of cerebrospinal fluid, grey and white matter from control images to segment all extracted brains, GM templates for each group were constructed to normalize brain images for parametric statistical analysis, which was achieved using SPM12. Results Epileptic Beagles (IE and SE Beagles displayed statistically significant reduced GMV in olfactory bulb, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus and cortex, especially in temporal and occipital lobes. Beagles with IE showed statistically significant decreased GMV in olfactory bulb, cortex of parietal and temporal lobe, hippocampus and cingulate gyrus, Beagles with SE mild statistically significant GMV reduction in temporal lobe (p < 0.05; family- wise error correction. Conclusion These results suggest that, as reported in epileptic humans, focal reduction in GMV also occurs in epileptic dogs. Furthermore, the current study shows that VBM analysis represents an excellent method to detect GMV differences of the brain between a healthy dog group and dogs with epileptic syndrome, when MR images of one breed are used.

  15. Use of wing morphometry for the discrimination of some Cerceris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The outline analysis, in which geometric and traditional morphometry potentials are insufficient, was performed by using the Fourier transformation. As a result of the comprehensive wing morphometry study, it was found that both Cerceris species can be distinguished according to their wing structures and the metric ...

  16. Central region morphometry in a child brain; Age and gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Data on central region morphometry of a child brain is important not only in terms of providing us with information about central region anatomy of the brain but also in terms of the help of this information for the plans to be applied in neurosurgery. Objective: In the present study, central region morphometry of a ...

  17. Brain-volume changes in young and middle-aged smokers: a DARTEL-based voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Wang, Zhenchang; Jiang, Tao; Chu, Shuilian; Wang, Shuangkun; Xiao, Dan

    2017-09-01

    Many studies have reported brain volume changes in smokers. However, the volume differences of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in young and middle-aged male smokers with different lifetime tobacco consumption (pack-years) remain uncertain. To examine the brain volume change, especially whether more pack-years smoking would be associated with smaller gray matter and white matter volume in young and middle-aged male smokers. We used a 3T MR scanner and performed Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL)-based voxel-based morphometry on 53 long-term male smokers (30.72 ± 4.19 years) and 53 male healthy non-smokers (30.83 ± 5.18 years). We separated smokers to light and heavy smokers by pack-years and compared brain volume between different smoker groups and non-smokers. And then we did analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) between smokers and non-smokers by setting pack-years as covariates. Light and heavy smokers all displayed smaller GM and WM volume than non-smokers and more obviously in heavy smokers. The main smaller areas in light and heavy smokers were superior temporal gyrus, insula, middle occipital gyrus, posterior cingulate, precuneus in GM and posterior cingulate, thalamus and midbrain in WM, in addition, we also observed more pack-years smoking was associated with some certain smaller GM and WM volumes by ANCOVA. Young and middle-aged male smokers had many smaller brain areas than non-smokers. Some of these areas' volume had negative correlation with pack-years, while some had not. These may due to different pathophysiological role of smokings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Structural correlates of creative thinking in patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls-a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Pei-Chi; Kuan, Yi-Hsuan; Li, Cheng-Ta; Su, Tung-Ping

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the structural correlates of creative thinking in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) to understand the possible neural mechanism of creative thinking in BD. We recruited 59 patients with BD I or BD II (35.3±8.5 y) and 56 age- and sex-matched controls (HCs; 34±7.4 y). Each participant underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging and evaluation of creative thinking, which was assessed using two validated tools: the Chinese version of the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults for divergent thinking and the Chinese Word Remote Associates Test for remote association. Voxel-based morphometry was performed using SPM12. In patients with BD, divergent thinking positively correlated with the gray matter volume (GMV) in right medial frontal gyrus (Brodmann area [BA] 9), and remote association positively correlated with the GMV in the medial prefrontal gyrus (BA 10). In the HCs, divergent thinking negatively correlated with the GMV in left superior frontal gyrus (BA 8) and positively correlated with the GMV in the precuneus and occipital regions, and remote association positively correlated with the GMV in the hippocampus. Patients with BD were receiving various dosages of antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizer. These medications may confound the GMV-creative thinking relationship in patients with BD. Our findings indicate that medial prefrontal cortex plays a major and positive role in creative thinking in patients with BD. By contrary, creative thinking involves more diverse structures, and the prefrontal cortex may have an opposite effect in HCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Voxel-based morphometry study of brain volumetry and diffusivity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with mild disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, F; Pagani, E; Rocca, M A; Caputo, D; Perini, M; Salvi, F; Prelle, A; Filippi, M

    2007-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive and simultaneous degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. The pathological process associated to ALS, albeit more pronounced in the motor/premotor cortices and along the corticospinal tracts (CST), does not spare extra-motor brain gray (GM) and white (WM) matter structures. However, it remains unclear whether such extra-motor cerebral abnormalities occur with mildly disabling disease, and how irreversible tissue loss and intrinsic tissue damage are interrelated. To this end, we used an optimized version of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis to investigate the patterns of regional GM density changes and to quantify GM and WM diffusivity alterations of the entire brain from mildly disabled patients with ALS. A high-resolution T1-weighted 3D magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo and a pulsed gradient spin-echo single shot echo-planar sequence of the brain were acquired from 25 mildly disabled patients with ALS and 18 matched healthy controls. An analysis of covariance was used to compare volumetry and diffusivity measurements between patients and controls. Compared with controls, ALS patients had significant clusters of locally reduced GM density (P frontal gyrus (IFG), and superior temporal gyrus (STG), bilaterally. In ALS patients contrasted to controls, we also found significant clusters of locally increased MD (P gyrus (MTG) of the right hemisphere, and in the WM adjacent to the MTG and lingual gyrus in the left hemisphere. Compared with controls, ALS patients also had significant clusters of locally decreased FA values (P < 0.001) in the CST in the midbrain and corpus callosum, bilaterally. This study supports the notion that ALS is a multisystem disorder and suggests that extra-motor involvement may be an early feature of the disease. (copyright) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. From Cortical and Subcortical Grey Matter Abnormalities to Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayane Aghakhanyan

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS is a rare neurogenetic disorder due to loss of expression of maternal ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A gene. It is characterized by severe developmental delay, speech impairment, movement or balance disorder and typical behavioral uniqueness. Affected individuals show normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings, although mild dysmyelination may be observed. In this study, we adopted a quantitative MRI analysis with voxel-based morphometry (FSL-VBM method to investigate disease-related changes in the cortical/subcortical grey matter (GM structures. Since 2006 to 2013 twenty-six AS patients were assessed by our multidisciplinary team. From those, sixteen AS children with confirmed maternal 15q11-q13 deletions (mean age 7.7 ± 3.6 years and twenty-one age-matched controls were recruited. The developmental delay and motor dysfunction were assessed using Bayley III and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to the clinical and neuropsychological datasets. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired and FSL-VBM approach was applied to investigate differences in the local GM volume and to correlate clinical and neuropsychological changes in the regional distribution of GM. We found bilateral GM volume loss in AS compared to control children in the striatum, limbic structures, insular and orbitofrontal cortices. Voxel-wise correlation analysis with the principal components of the PCA output revealed a strong relationship with GM volume in the superior parietal lobule and precuneus on the left hemisphere. The anatomical distribution of cortical/subcortical GM changes plausibly related to several clinical features of the disease and may provide an important morphological underpinning for clinical and neurobehavioral symptoms in children with AS.

  1. MRI study of the morphometry of the cervical musculature in F-16 pilots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Loose, Veerle; van den Oord, Marieke; Keser, Ilke; Burnotte, Frédéric; van Tiggelen, Damien; Dumarey, Alexandre; Cagnie, Barbara; Witvrouw, Erik; Danneels, Lieven

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In fighter pilots neck muscle strengthening exercises are often recommended to protect the neck against pathologies. The aim of the current study was to compare the relative cross-sectional area (rCSA) and muscle:fat ratio of the cervical musculature of F-16 pilots experiencing neck

  2. Structural brain aging and speech production: a surface-based brain morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Deschamps, Isabelle

    2016-07-01

    While there has been a growing number of studies examining the neurofunctional correlates of speech production over the past decade, the neurostructural correlates of this immensely important human behaviour remain less well understood, despite the fact that previous studies have established links between brain structure and behaviour, including speech and language. In the present study, we thus examined, for the first time, the relationship between surface-based cortical thickness (CT) and three different behavioural indexes of sublexical speech production: response duration, reaction times and articulatory accuracy, in healthy young and older adults during the production of simple and complex meaningless sequences of syllables (e.g., /pa-pa-pa/ vs. /pa-ta-ka/). The results show that each behavioural speech measure was sensitive to the complexity of the sequences, as indicated by slower reaction times, longer response durations and decreased articulatory accuracy in both groups for the complex sequences. Older adults produced longer speech responses, particularly during the production of complex sequence. Unique age-independent and age-dependent relationships between brain structure and each of these behavioural measures were found in several cortical and subcortical regions known for their involvement in speech production, including the bilateral anterior insula, the left primary motor area, the rostral supramarginal gyrus, the right inferior frontal sulcus, the bilateral putamen and caudate, and in some region less typically associated with speech production, such as the posterior cingulate cortex.

  3. Laterality Influences Brain Atrophy in Parkinson's Disease - a Voxel-based Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Arci Santos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several neuroimaging studies revealed widespread neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease but only few considered the asymmetrical clinical presentation. Objective: To investigate gray matter (GM atrophy in Parkinson Disease considering the side of motor symptom onset. Methods: Sixty patients (57.87± 10.27 years diagnosed according to the Brain Bank criteria, 26 with right-sided disease onset (RDO and 34 with left-sided disease onset (LDO, were compared to 80 healthy controls (HC (57.1± 9.47 years. T1-weighted images were acquired on a 3T scanner. VBM8 (SPM8/Dartel on Matlab R2012b platform processed and analyzed the images. Statistics included a two-sample test (FWE p<0.05 with extent threshold of 20 voxels. In a secondary analysis, we used MRIcro software to flip the images right/left of 25 patients, which had a RDO, so that all images had the contralateral side of disease onset at the right hemisphere. Thirty-five HC images were flipped, as the hemispheres are not completely equivalent. Results: Compared to HC, GM atrophy in LDO was identified in the insula, putamen, anterior cingulate, frontotemporal cortex and right caudate. For the RDO group, anterior cingulate, insula, frontotemporal and occipital cortex. VBM of total brain-flipped images showed GM loss mainly in the left putamen, left olfactory cortex, amygdala, parahipocampal gyrus and in the rectus gyrus, insula, frontotemporal cortex, cuneus, precuneus and calcarine fissure bilaterally. (p<0.05 FWE corrected. Conclusions: The study revealed widespread GM atrophy in PD, predominantly in the left hemisphere. Future investigations should also consider handedness and side of onset to better characterize cerebral involvement and its progression in PD.

  4. Apathy is related to cortex morphology in CADASIL. A sulcal-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouvent, E; Reyes, S; Mangin, J-F; Roca, P; Perrot, M; Thyreau, B; Hervé, D; Dichgans, M; Chabriat, H

    2011-04-26

    Apathy is a debilitating symptom in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), the pathophysiology of which remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroanatomic correlates of apathy, using new MRI postprocessing methods based on the identification of cortical sulci, in a large cohort of patients with CADASIL. A total of 132 patients with genetically confirmed diagnosis were included in this prospective cohort study. Global cognitive performances were assessed by the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS) and disability by the modified Rankin score (mRS). Apathy was defined according to standard criteria. Depth, width, and cortical thickness of 10 large sulci of the frontal lobe in each hemisphere were measured. Logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate the links between apathy and cortical thickness, depth, or width of the different sulci. All models were adjusted for age, gender, level of education, MDRS, mRS, depression, and global brain volume. Complete MRI datasets of high quality were available in 119 patients. Depth of the posterior cingulate sulcus exhibited the strongest association with apathy in fully adjusted models (right: p value = 0.0006; left: p value = 0.004). Depth and width of cortical sulci in mediofrontal and orbitofrontal areas were independently associated with apathy. By contrast, cortical thickness was not. Cortical morphology in mediofrontal and orbitofrontal areas, by contrast to cortical thickness, is strongly and independently associated with apathy. These results suggest that apathy is related to a reduction of cortical surface rather than of cortical thickness secondary to lesion accumulation in CADASIL.

  5. Global and regional brain volumes normalization in weight-recovered adolescents with anorexia nervosa: preliminary findings of a longitudinal voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomba M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Monica Bomba,1,* Anna Riva,1,* Sabrina Morzenti,2 Marco Grimaldi,3 Francesca Neri,1 Renata Nacinovich1 1Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, San Gerardo Hospital, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy; 2Medical Physics Department, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy; 3Department of Radiology, Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The recent literature on anorexia nervosa (AN suggests that functional and structural abnormalities of cortico-limbic areas might play a role in the evolution of the disease. We explored global and regional brain volumes in a cross-sectional and follow-up study on adolescents affected by AN. Eleven adolescents with AN underwent a voxel-based morphometry study at time of diagnosis and immediately after weight recovery. Data were compared to volumes carried out in eight healthy, age and sex matched controls. Subjects with AN showed increased cerebrospinal fluid volumes and decreased white and gray matter volumes, when compared to controls. Moreover, significant regional gray matter decrease in insular cortex and cerebellum was found at time of diagnosis. No regional white matter decrease was found between samples and controls. Correlations between psychological evaluation and insular volumes were explored. After weight recovery gray matter volumes normalized while reduced global white matter volumes persisted. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, adolescent, gray matter, insula, voxel-based morphometry study

  6. Role of Nuclear Morphometry in Breast Cancer and its Correlation with Cytomorphological Grading of Breast Cancer: A Study of 64 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Anamika; Jain, Manjula; Shukla, Shailaja; Andley, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and reliable method of diagnosis of breast mass. Cytoprognostic grading in breast cancers is important to identify high-grade tumors. Computer-assisted image morphometric analysis has been developed to quantitate as well as standardize various grading systems. To apply nuclear morphometry on cytological aspirates of breast cancer and evaluate its correlation with cytomorphological grading with derivation of suitable cutoff values between various grades. Descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study. This study included 64 breast cancer cases (29 of grade 1, 22 of grade 2, and 13 of grade 3). Image analysis was performed on Papanicolaou stained FNAC slides by NIS -Elements Advanced Research software (Ver 4.00). Nuclear morphometric parameters analyzed included 5 nuclear size, 2 shape, 4 texture, and 2 density parameters. Nuclear size parameters showed an increase in values with increasing cytological grades of carcinoma. Nuclear shape parameters were not found to be significantly different between the three grades. Among nuclear texture parameters, sum intensity, and sum brightness were found to be different between the three grades. Nuclear morphometry can be applied to augment the cytology grading of breast cancer and thus help in classifying patients into low and high-risk groups.

  7. lakemorpho: Calculating lake morphometry metrics in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Jeffrey; Stachelek, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Metrics describing the shape and size of lakes, known as lake morphometry metrics, are important for any limnological study. In cases where a lake has long been the subject of study these data are often already collected and are openly available. Many other lakes have these data collected, but access is challenging as it is often stored on individual computers (or worse, in filing cabinets) and is available only to the primary investigators. The vast majority of lakes fall into a third category in which the data are not available. This makes broad scale modelling of lake ecology a challenge as some of the key information about in-lake processes are unavailable. While this valuable in situ information may be difficult to obtain, several national datasets exist that may be used to model and estimate lake morphometry. In particular, digital elevation models and hydrography have been shown to be predictive of several lake morphometry metrics. The R package lakemorpho has been developed to utilize these data and estimate the following morphometry metrics: surface area, shoreline length, major axis length, minor axis length, major and minor axis length ratio, shoreline development, maximum depth, mean depth, volume, maximum lake length, mean lake width, maximum lake width, and fetch. In this software tool article we describe the motivation behind developing lakemorpho , discuss the implementation in R, and describe the use of lakemorpho with an example of a typical use case.

  8. Building Employer Capacity to Support Meaningful Employment for Persons with Developmental Disabilities: A Grounded Theory Study of Employment Support Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Marghalara; Hodgetts, Sandra; Nicholas, David

    2017-11-01

    To explore strategies to build employer capacity to support people with DD in meaningful employment from perspective of employment support workers. A grounded theory study was conducted with 34 employment support individuals. A theoretical sampling approach was used to identify and recruit participants from multiple sites in Ontario and Alberta. Three main themes, with seven sub-themes, emerged: (1) experiences of supporting employment finding for people with DD, (2) institutional influences on employee experiences, and (3) attitudes, assumptions and stigma. Several recommendations related to building employer capacity were offered. Our findings provide insight on specific elements and strategies that can support building employer capacity for persons with DD.

  9. Brain involvement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikou, Anastasia K; Kosmidou, Maria; Astrakas, Loukas G; Tzarouchi, Loukia C; Tsianos, Epameinondas; Argyropoulou, Maria I

    2014-10-01

    To investigate structural brain changes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 18 IBD patients (aged 45.16 ± 14.71 years) and 20 aged-matched control subjects. The imaging protocol consisted of a sagittal-FLAIR, a T1-weighted high-resolution three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo sequence, and a multisession spin-echo echo-planar diffusion-weighted sequence. Differences between patients and controls in brain volume and diffusion indices were evaluated using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) methods, respectively. The presence of white-matter hyperintensities (WMHIs) was evaluated on FLAIR images. VBM revealed decreased grey matter (GM) volume in patients in the fusiform and the inferior temporal gyrus bilaterally, the right precentral gyrus, the right supplementary motor area, the right middle frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal gyrus (p tensor imaging detects microstructural brain abnormalities in IBD. • Voxel based morphometry reveals brain atrophy in IBD.

  10. A case study of a multiply talented savant with an autism spectrum disorder: neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L; Happé, Francesca; Giedd, Jay N

    2009-05-27

    Neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry in a savant (case GW) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and both calendar calculation and artistic skills are quantified and compared with small groups of neurotypical controls. Good memory, mental calculation and visuospatial processing, as well as (implicit) knowledge of calendar structure and 'weak' central coherence characterized the cognitive profile of case GW. Possibly reflecting his savant skills, the superior parietal region of GW's cortex was the only area thicker (while areas such as the superior and medial prefrontal, middle temporal and motor cortices were thinner) than that of a neurotypical control group. Taken from the perspective of learning/practice-based models, skills in domains (e.g. calendars, art, music) that capitalize upon strengths often associated with ASD, such as detail-focused processing, are probably further enhanced through over-learning and massive exposure, and reflected in atypical brain structure.

  11. Grey matter volume differences associated with gender in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Villemonteix

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Female participants have been underrepresented in previous structural magnetic resonance imaging reports on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. In this study, we used optimized voxel-based morphometry to examine grey matter volumes in a sample of 33 never-medicated children with combined-type ADHD and 27 typically developing (TD children. We found a gender-by-diagnosis interaction effect in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, whereby boys with ADHD exhibited reduced volumes compared with TD boys, while girls with ADHD showed increased volumes when compared with TD girls. Considering the key role played by the ventral ACC in emotional regulation, we discuss the potential contribution of these alterations to gender-specific symptoms’ profiles in ADHD.

  12. Grey matter volume differences associated with gender in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemonteix, Thomas; De Brito, Stéphane A; Slama, Hichem; Kavec, Martin; Balériaux, Danielle; Metens, Thierry; Baijot, Simon; Mary, Alison; Peigneux, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    Female participants have been underrepresented in previous structural magnetic resonance imaging reports on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we used optimized voxel-based morphometry to examine grey matter volumes in a sample of 33 never-medicated children with combined-type ADHD and 27 typically developing (TD) children. We found a gender-by-diagnosis interaction effect in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), whereby boys with ADHD exhibited reduced volumes compared with TD boys, while girls with ADHD showed increased volumes when compared with TD girls. Considering the key role played by the ventral ACC in emotional regulation, we discuss the potential contribution of these alterations to gender-specific symptoms' profiles in ADHD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of vertebral morphometry in the lumbar vertebrae by T1-weighted sagittal MRI and radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Murase, Kenya; Sone, Teruki; Fukunaga, Masao

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we investigated the usefulness of T1-weighted sagittal MR images at the lumbar vertebrae in the vertebral morphometry, in comparison with lateral radiographs. Subjects and methods: The subjects were 42 men (mean age: 53.0 years) and 41 women (mean age: 57.9 years). Both MRI and radiography of the lumbar spine were performed within 1 month. The vertebral body heights and their ratios were measured by the semi-automatic measuring system. The frequency of a vertebral fracture and the absolute value of vertebral body height in both morphometry were compared. Results: Based on the criteria for prevalent vertebral fracture using vertebral height ratios, the vertebrae were classified into four groups. Group 1 was defined as the vertebrae without fracture (n = 347 vertebrae). Groups 2-4 were defined as the vertebrae with fracture; Group 2 by both MRI and X-ray morphometry (n = 17), Group 3 by MRI morphometry alone (n = 17), and Group 4 by X-ray morphometry alone (n = 4). The rate of prevalent vertebral fracture diagnosed by MRI morphometry (8.8%) was higher than that by X-ray morphometry (5.5%). In Group 1, the values of anterior and posterior vertebral height obtained by MRI morphometry were greater than those obtained by X-ray morphometry. On the other hand, the values of central vertebral height obtained by MRI morphometry were smaller than those obtained by X-ray morphometry. Conclusion: Severe biconcave deformity of vertebra can be detected by both MRI and X-ray morphometry, although mild biconcave deformity can be detected only by MRI morphometry

  14. Entorhinal volume, aerobic fitness, and recognition memory in healthy young adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; Budson, Andrew E; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis effects of aerobic exercise and environmental enrichment are beneficial for cognition, in particular for hippocampus-supported learning and memory. Recent work in humans suggests that exercise training induces changes in hippocampal volume, but it is not known if aerobic exercise and fitness also impact the entorhinal cortex. In animal models, aerobic exercise increases expression of growth factors, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This exercise-enhanced expression of growth hormones may boost synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival and differentiation, potentially supporting function and structure in brain areas including but not limited to the hippocampus. Here, using voxel based morphometry and a standard graded treadmill test to determine cardio-respiratory fitness (Bruce protocol; ·VO2 max), we examined if entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy young adults (N=33). In addition, we examined if volumes were modulated by recognition memory performance and by serum BDNF, a putative marker of synaptic plasticity. Our results show a positive association between volume in right entorhinal cortex and cardio-respiratory fitness. In addition, average gray matter volume in the entorhinal cortex, bilaterally, was positively associated with memory performance. These data extend prior work on the cerebral effects of aerobic exercise and fitness to the entorhinal cortex in healthy young adults thus providing compelling evidence for a relationship between aerobic fitness and structure of the medial temporal lobe memory system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain expansion in patients with type II diabetes following insulin therapy: a preliminary study with longitudinal voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiye; Li, Jinfeng; Sun, Jie; Ma, Lin

    2014-01-01

    We performed a longitudinal analysis based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to investigate the brain structural and perfusion changes caused by insulin therapy in patients with type II diabetes. High resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo images and flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) images were obtained from 11 patients with type II diabetes before and 1 year after initiation of insulin therapy and 11 normal controls. Brain volume changes were investigated by a longitudinal voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and perfusion changes were evaluated by FAIR imaging between baseline and follow-up data. Significant regional gray matter (GM) expansion located in bilateral frontal, parietal, and left occipital lobes, and regional white matter (WM) expansion was shown in left precentral subcortical WM and right angular subcortical WM after insulin therapy (P Brain hyperperfusion was detected in bilateral frontal cortex, left occipital cortex, and right temporal cortex after insulin therapy (P brain expansion and hyperperfusion were demonstrated 1 year after initiation of insulin therapy, and insulin therapy could contribute to the brain volume gainment in the patients with type II diabetes. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  16. Motor learning in healthy humans is associated to gray matter changes: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Massimo; Ceccarelli, Antonia; Pagani, Elisabetta; Gatti, Roberto; Rossi, Alice; Stefanelli, Laura; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Rocca, Maria Assunta

    2010-04-15

    We used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to: 1) map gray matter (GM) volume changes associated with motor learning in young healthy individuals; 2) evaluate if GM changes persist three months after cessation of motor training; and 3) assess whether the use of different schemes of motor training during the learning phase could lead to volume modifications of specific GM structures. From 31 healthy subjects, motor functional assessment and brain 3D T1-weighted sequence were obtained: before motor training (time 0), at the end of training (two weeks) (time 2), and three months later (time 3). Fifteen subjects (group A) were trained with goal-directed motor sequences, and 16 (group B) with non purposeful motor actions of the right hand. At time 1 vs. time 0, the whole sample of subjects had GM volume increase in regions of the temporo-occipital lobes, inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and middle frontal gyrus, while at time 2 vs. time 1, an increased GM volume in the middle temporal gyrus was seen. At time 1 vs. time 0, compared to group B, group A had a GM volume increase of the hippocampi, while the opposite comparison showed greater GM volume increase in the IPL and insula in group B vs. group A. Motor learning results in structural GM changes of different brain areas which are part of specific neuronal networks and tend to persist after training is stopped. The scheme applied during the learning phase influences the pattern of such structural changes.

  17. Progressive and widespread brain damage in ALS: MRI voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Joe; Kato, Shigenori; Kaga, Tomotsugu; Ito, Mizuki; Atsuta, Naoki; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Naganawa, Shinji; Sobue, Gen

    2011-01-01

    We investigated 17 patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor images (DTI) at baseline and after a six-month follow-up. Compared with 17 healthy controls, ALS patients at baseline showed only minimal white matter volume decreases in the inferior frontal gyrus but marked decreases in the gray matter of several regions, especially in the bilateral paracentral lobule of the premotor cortex. DTI revealed reduced fractional anisotropy in the bilateral corticospinal tracts, insula, ventrolateral premotor cortex, and parietal cortex. Increased mean diffusivity was noted bilaterally in the motor cortex, ventrolateral premotor cortex, insula, hippocampal formation, and temporal gyrus. At the six-month follow-up, ALS patients showed widespread volume decreases in gray matter, and DTI abnormalities extended mainly into the bilateral frontal lobes, while volume changes in the white matter remained minimal but more distinct. Our combined VBM and DTI techniques revealed extra-corticospinal tract neuronal degeneration mainly in the frontotemporal lobe of ALS patients. In particular, follow-up examinations in these patients showed that whole-brain DTI changes occurred predominantly in the regions of brain atrophy. These objective analyses can be used to assess the disease condition of the ALS brain.

  18. Motor learning in healthy humans is associated to gray matter changes: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Filippi

    Full Text Available We used tensor-based morphometry (TBM to: 1 map gray matter (GM volume changes associated with motor learning in young healthy individuals; 2 evaluate if GM changes persist three months after cessation of motor training; and 3 assess whether the use of different schemes of motor training during the learning phase could lead to volume modifications of specific GM structures. From 31 healthy subjects, motor functional assessment and brain 3D T1-weighted sequence were obtained: before motor training (time 0, at the end of training (two weeks (time 2, and three months later (time 3. Fifteen subjects (group A were trained with goal-directed motor sequences, and 16 (group B with non purposeful motor actions of the right hand. At time 1 vs. time 0, the whole sample of subjects had GM volume increase in regions of the temporo-occipital lobes, inferior parietal lobule (IPL and middle frontal gyrus, while at time 2 vs. time 1, an increased GM volume in the middle temporal gyrus was seen. At time 1 vs. time 0, compared to group B, group A had a GM volume increase of the hippocampi, while the opposite comparison showed greater GM volume increase in the IPL and insula in group B vs. group A. Motor learning results in structural GM changes of different brain areas which are part of specific neuronal networks and tend to persist after training is stopped. The scheme applied during the learning phase influences the pattern of such structural changes.

  19. Brain involvement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zikou, Anastasia K.; Astrakas, Loukas G.; Tzarouchi, Loukia C.; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kosmidou, Maria; Tsianos, Epameinondas [University of Ioannina, 1st Department of Internal Medicine (Hepato-Gastroenterology Unit), Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2014-10-15

    To investigate structural brain changes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 18 IBD patients (aged 45.16 ± 14.71 years) and 20 aged-matched control subjects. The imaging protocol consisted of a sagittal-FLAIR, a T1-weighted high-resolution three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo sequence, and a multisession spin-echo echo-planar diffusion-weighted sequence. Differences between patients and controls in brain volume and diffusion indices were evaluated using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) methods, respectively. The presence of white-matter hyperintensities (WMHIs) was evaluated on FLAIR images. VBM revealed decreased grey matter (GM) volume in patients in the fusiform and the inferior temporal gyrus bilaterally, the right precentral gyrus, the right supplementary motor area, the right middle frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal gyrus (p < 0.05). TBSS showed decreased axial diffusivity (AD) in the right corticospinal tract and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus in patients compared with controls. A larger number of WMHIs was observed in patients (p < 0.05). Patients with IBD show an increase in WMHIs and GM atrophy, probably related to cerebral vasculitis and ischaemia. Decreased AD in major white matter tracts could be a secondary phenomenon, representing Wallerian degeneration. (orig.)

  20. An optimized voxel-based morphometry study in the evaluation of brain structural abnormalities in anisometropic amblyopia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shengyuan; Zhang Jing; Zhang Quan; Yin Huiming; Zhang Lihong; Li Wei; Zhang Yunting

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible neural mechanism of anisometropic amblyopia by analysing the whole brain volume changes both in grey matter and white matter using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: Twelve anisometropic amblyopia patients and 12 age,gender and handedness matched healthy volunteers underwent 3-dimensional (3D) fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) sequence scanning on 1.5 Tesla MR system. Raw data was processed and analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 5. Results: Compared to healthy controls,the grey matter exhibiting significantly decreased volume in patients included right cuneus, bilateral occipital gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right precuneus,and middle part of right cingulate gyrus (clusters > 10). The grey matter showing increased volume in patients included right cerebellum,right parahippocampal gyrus, left precentral gyrus,and left superior frontal gyrus (clusters > 10). The white matter volume in bilateral optic radiation and internal capsule, especially right optic radiation, decreased significantly in patient group (clusters > 10 ). No white matter showed significantly increased volume in patient group. Conclusion: VBM can be used to investigate the changes of grey matter volume and white matter volume in the whole brain of anisometropic amblyopia children, it provides a method to illustrate the presumed neuro-mechanism from a morphologic point of view. (authors)

  1. Brain involvement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikou, Anastasia K.; Astrakas, Loukas G.; Tzarouchi, Loukia C.; Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Kosmidou, Maria; Tsianos, Epameinondas

    2014-01-01

    To investigate structural brain changes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 18 IBD patients (aged 45.16 ± 14.71 years) and 20 aged-matched control subjects. The imaging protocol consisted of a sagittal-FLAIR, a T1-weighted high-resolution three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo sequence, and a multisession spin-echo echo-planar diffusion-weighted sequence. Differences between patients and controls in brain volume and diffusion indices were evaluated using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) methods, respectively. The presence of white-matter hyperintensities (WMHIs) was evaluated on FLAIR images. VBM revealed decreased grey matter (GM) volume in patients in the fusiform and the inferior temporal gyrus bilaterally, the right precentral gyrus, the right supplementary motor area, the right middle frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal gyrus (p < 0.05). TBSS showed decreased axial diffusivity (AD) in the right corticospinal tract and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus in patients compared with controls. A larger number of WMHIs was observed in patients (p < 0.05). Patients with IBD show an increase in WMHIs and GM atrophy, probably related to cerebral vasculitis and ischaemia. Decreased AD in major white matter tracts could be a secondary phenomenon, representing Wallerian degeneration. (orig.)

  2. Neural substrates underlying balanced time perspective: A combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yiqun; Chen, Zhiyi; Feng, Tingyong

    2017-08-14

    Balanced time perspective (BTP), which is defined as a mental ability to switch flexibly among different time perspectives Zimbardo and Boyd (1999), has been suggested to be a central component of positive psychology Boniwell and Zimbardo (2004). BTP reflects individual's cognitive flexibility towards different time frames, which leads to many positive outcomes, including positive mood, subjective wellbeing, emotional intelligence, fluid intelligence, and executive control. However, the neural basis of BTP is still unclear. To address this question, we quantified individual's deviation from the BTP (DBTP), and investigated the neural substrates of DBTP using both voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) methods VBM analysis found that DBTP scores were positively correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) in the ventral precuneus. We further found that DBTP scores were negatively associated with RSFCs between the ventral precuneus seed region and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ), parahippocampa gyrus (PHG), and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). These brain regions found in both VBM and RSFC analyses are commonly considered as core nodes of the default mode network (DMN) that is known to be involved in many functions, including episodic and autobiographical memory, self-related processing, theory of mind, and imagining the future. These functions of the DMN are also essential to individuals with BTP. Taken together, we provide the first evidence for the structural and functional neural basis of BTP, and highlight the crucial role of the DMN in cultivating an individual's BTP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An optimized voxel-based morphometry study of gray matter abnormalities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fei; Lu Su; Huang Xiaoqi; Wu Qizhu; Qiu Lihua; Li Bin; Yang Yanchun; Gong Qiyong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore changes of gray matter volume in patients with obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) in Chinese Han population using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and investigate its relationship with clinical symptoms. Methods: Twenty patients with OCD and 20 age, sex and handedness matched healthy controls were scanned using 3D-T 1 images on a 3.0 T MR system. The high resolution T 1 WI was preprocessed according to the optimized VBM protocol in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM5). Two-sample t test was performed to characterize the differences of the gray matter volume (GMV) between the OCD patients and healthy controls, and the correlations between the GMV and symptom severity and cumulative illness duration were examined using Pearson correlation in SPSS 16.0, respectively. Results: Compared to controls, OCD patients demonstrated increased GMV in left thalamus, right thalamus and left cerebellum after false discovery rate (FDR) correction. No areas of significantly decreased GMV was observed in OCD patients in relative to healthy controls. The mean eigenvalue ranged from 0.5782 to 0.889 representing the left thalamus volume of OCD patients was 0.6813±0.0718, and that ranged from 0.5546 to 0.9062 was 0.6869±0.0808 for right thalamus. The mean eigenvalues were positively correlated in bilateral thalamus (r=0.94, P<0.01). Conclusion: Using optimized VBM, the current research indicates that the pathophysiology of OCD is associated with GMV abnormalities not only in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit, but also in the cerebellum. (authors)

  4. Pilot study of brain morphometry in a sample of Brazilian children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: influence of clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastura, Giuseppe; Kubo, Tadeu Takao Almodovar; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Figueiredo, Otavio; Mattos, Paulo; Prüfer Araújo, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    Currently, the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rests on clinical criteria. Nonetheless, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that children with ADHD have different cortical thickness and volume measures to typically developing children (TDC). In general, studies do not evaluate the influence of clinical presentation in the brain morphometry of ADHD children. Our objective was to perform a pilot study in order to evaluate cortical thickness and brain volume in a sample of Brazilian ADHD children and compare these to those of TDC, taking into account the influence of clinical presentation. We performed an analytic study comparing 17 drug-naïve ADHD children of both genders, aged between 7 and 10, and 16 TDC. ADHD subjects were first considered as one group and further separated based on clinical presentation. The brain volume did not differ between patients and TDC. Smaller cortical thicknesses were identified on the left superior, medium and inferior temporal cortex, as well as in the left inferior parietal cortex. When compared to TDC, combined and inattentive ADHD presentations depicted smaller cortical thickness with high significance and power. The same magnitude of results was not observed when comparing inattentive ADHD and TDC. In this pilot study, ADHD is associated with abnormalities involving the cortical thickness of the posterior attentional system. The cortical thickness in the left superior, medium and inferior temporal cortex, as well as in the left inferior parietal cortex may differ according to ADHD presentations.

  5. A combined tract-based spatial statistics and voxel-based morphometry study of the first MRI scan after diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with subgroup analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alruwaili, A R; Pannek, K; Coulthard, A; Henderson, R; Kurniawan, N D; McCombe, P

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to compare the cortical and subcortical deep gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of ALS subjects and controls and to compare ALS subjects with (ALScog) and without (ALSnon-cog) cognitive impairment. The study was performed in 30 ALS subjects, and 19 healthy controls. Structural T1- and diffusion-weighted MRI data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). All DTI measures and GM volume differed significantly between ALS subjects and controls. Compared to controls, greater DTI changes were present in ALScog than ALSnon-cog subjects. GM results showed reduction in the caudate nucleus volume in ALScog subjects compared to ALSnon-cog. and comparing all ALS with controls, there were changes on the right side and in a small region in the left middle frontal gyrus. This combined DTI and VBM study showed changes in motor and extra-motor regions. The DTI changes were more extensive in ALScog than ALSnon-cog subjects. It is likely that the inclusion of ALS subjects with cognitive impairment in previous studies resulted in extra-motor WM abnormalities being reported in ALS subjects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Atlas warping for brain morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alexei M. C.; Gee, James C.

    1998-06-01

    In this work, we describe an automated approach to morphometry based on spatial normalizations of the data, and demonstrate its application to the analysis of gender differences in the human corpus callosum. The purpose is to describe a population by a reduced and representative set of variables, from which a prior model can be constructed. Our approach is rooted in the assumption that individual anatomies can be considered as quantitative variations on a common underlying qualitative plane. We can therefore imagine that a given individual's anatomy is a warped version of some referential anatomy, also known as an atlas. The spatial warps which transform a labeled atlas into anatomic alignment with a population yield immediate knowledge about organ size and shape in the group. Furthermore, variation within the set of spatial warps is directly related to the anatomic variation among the subjects. Specifically, the shape statistics--mean and variance of the mappings--for the population can be calculated in a special basis, and an eigendecomposition of the variance performed to identify the most significant modes of shape variation. The results obtained with the corpus callosum study confirm the existence of substantial anatomical differences between males and females, as reported in previous experimental work.

  7. Depressive symptoms and neuroanatomical structures in community-dwelling women: A combined voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study with tract-based spatial statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayoi K. Hayakawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms, even at a subclinical level, have been associated with structural brain abnormalities. However, previous studies have used regions of interest or small sample sizes, limiting the ability to generalize the results. In this study, we examined neuroanatomical structures of both gray matter and white matter associated with depressive symptoms across the whole brain in a large sample. A total of 810 community-dwelling adult participants underwent measurement of depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. The participants were not demented and had no neurological or psychiatric history. To examine the gray and white matter volume, we used structural MRI scans and voxel-based morphometry (VBM; to examine the white matter integrity, we used diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS. In female participants, VBM revealed a negative correlation between bilateral anterior cingulate gray matter volume and the CES-D score. TBSS showed a CES-D-related decrease in fractional anisotropy and increase in radial and mean diffusivity in several white matter regions, including the right anterior cingulum. In male participants, there was no significant correlation between gray or white matter volume or white matter integrity and the CES-D score. Our results indicate that the reduction in gray matter volume and differences in white matter integrity in specific brain regions, including the anterior cingulate, are associated with depressive symptoms in women.

  8. Depressive symptoms and neuroanatomical structures in community-dwelling women: A combined voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study with tract-based spatial statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yayoi K; Sasaki, Hiroki; Takao, Hidemasa; Hayashi, Naoto; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni; Aoki, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms, even at a subclinical level, have been associated with structural brain abnormalities. However, previous studies have used regions of interest or small sample sizes, limiting the ability to generalize the results. In this study, we examined neuroanatomical structures of both gray matter and white matter associated with depressive symptoms across the whole brain in a large sample. A total of 810 community-dwelling adult participants underwent measurement of depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The participants were not demented and had no neurological or psychiatric history. To examine the gray and white matter volume, we used structural MRI scans and voxel-based morphometry (VBM); to examine the white matter integrity, we used diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). In female participants, VBM revealed a negative correlation between bilateral anterior cingulate gray matter volume and the CES-D score. TBSS showed a CES-D-related decrease in fractional anisotropy and increase in radial and mean diffusivity in several white matter regions, including the right anterior cingulum. In male participants, there was no significant correlation between gray or white matter volume or white matter integrity and the CES-D score. Our results indicate that the reduction in gray matter volume and differences in white matter integrity in specific brain regions, including the anterior cingulate, are associated with depressive symptoms in women.

  9. Examining brain structures associated with the motive to achieve success and the motive to avoid failure: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Dan; Chen, Qunlin; Yang, Wenjing; Chen, Rui; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Qiu, Jiang; Xu, Zhan; Zhang, Qinglin

    2016-01-01

    The motive to achieve success (MAS) and motive to avoid failure (MAF) are two different but classical kinds of achievement motivation. Though many functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have explored functional activation in motivation-related conditions, research has been silent as to the brain structures associated with individual differences in achievement motivation, especially with respect to MAS and MAF. In this study, the voxel-based morphometry method was used to uncover focal differences in brain structures related to MAS and MAF measured by the Mehrabian Achieving Tendency Scale in 353 healthy young Chinese adults. The results showed that the brain structures associated with individual differences in MAS and MAF were distinct. MAS was negatively correlated with regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)/orbitofrontal cortex while MAF was negatively correlated with rGMV in the mPFC/subgenual cingulate gyrus. After controlling for mutual influences of MAS and MAF scores, MAS scores were found to be related to rGMV in the mPFC/orbitofrontal cortex and another cluster containing the parahippocampal gyrus and precuneus. These results may predict that compared with MAF, the generation process of MAS may be more complex and rational, thus in the real world, perhaps MAS is more beneficial to personal growth and guaranteeing the quality of task performance.

  10. Mapping directionality specific volume changes using tensor based morphometry: an application to the study of gyrogenesis and lateralization of the human fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Habas, Piotr A; Kim, Kio; Rousseau, Francois; Glenn, Orit A; Barkovich, A James; Studholme, Colin

    2012-11-01

    Tensor based morphometry (TBM) is a powerful approach to analyze local structural changes in brain anatomy. However, conventional scalar TBM methods do not completely capture all direction specific volume changes required to model complex changes such as those during brain growth. In this paper, we describe novel TBM descriptors for studying direction-specific changes in a subject population which can be used in conjunction with scalar TBM to analyze local patterns in directionality of volume change during brain development. We also extend the methodology to provide a new approach to mapping directional asymmetry in deformation tensors associated with the emergence of structural asymmetry in the developing brain. We illustrate the use of these methods by studying developmental patterns in the human fetal brain, in vivo. Results show that fetal brain development exhibits a distinct spatial pattern of anisotropic growth. The most significant changes in the directionality of growth occur in the cortical plate at major sulci. Our analysis also detected directional growth asymmetry in the peri-Sylvian region and the medial frontal lobe of the fetal brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing gray matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Xiao-Fei; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Li-Zhi; Zhang, You-Ming; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that temporal lobe radiation necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy (RT) could involve gray matter (GM). The purpose of the study was to assess the radiation-induced GM volume differences between NPC patients who had and had not received RT and the effect of time after RT on GM volume differences in those patients who had received RT. We used magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess differences in GM volume between 30 NPC patients with normal-appearing whole-brain GM after RT and 15 control patients with newly diagnosed but not yet medically treated NPC. Correlation analyses were used to investigate the relationship between GM volume changes and time after RT. Patients who had received RT had GM volume decreases in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule (p 100 voxels). Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that regional GM volume loss in the left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were negatively related to the mean dose to the ipsilateral temporal lobe, respectively. These results indicate that GM volume deficits in bilateral temporal lobes in patients who had received RT might be radiation-induced. Our findings might provide new insight into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced structural damage in normal-appearing brain tissue. Yet this is an exploratory study, whose findings should therefore be taken with caution. (orig.)

  12. Brain morphometry and the neurobiology of levodopa-induced dyskinesias: current knowledge and future potential for translational pre-clinical neuroimaging studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare eFinlay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine replacement therapy in the form of levodopa results in a significant proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD developing debilitating dyskinesia. This significantly complicates further treatment and negatively impacts patient quality of life. A greater understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID is therefore crucial to develop new treatments to prevent or mitigate LID. Such investigations in humans are largely confined to assessment of neurochemical and cerebrovascular blood flow changes using positron emission tomography (PET and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. However, recent evidence suggests that LID is associated with specific morphological changes in the frontal cortex and midbrain, detectable by structural MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM. Current human neuroimaging methods however lack sufficient resolution to reveal the biological mechanism driving these morphological changes at the cellular level. In contrast, there is a wealth of literature from well-established rodent models of LID documenting detailed post-mortem cellular and molecular measurements. The combination therefore of advanced neuroimaging methods and rodent LID models offers an exciting opportunity to bridge these currently disparate areas of research. To highlight this opportunity, in this mini-review, we provide an overview of the current clinical evidence for morphological changes in the brain associated with LID and identify potential cellular mechanisms as suggested from human and animal studies. We then suggest a framework for combining small animal MRI imaging with rodent models of LID, which may provide important mechanistic insights into the neurobiology of LID.

  13. Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative: a one-year follow up study using tensor-based morphometry correlating degenerative rates, biomarkers and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Alex D; Yanovsky, Igor; Parikshak, Neelroop; Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Bernstein, Matt A; Britson, Paula J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Ward, Chadwick P; Borowski, Bret; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Fleisher, Adam S; Harvey, Danielle; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene E; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2009-04-15

    Tensor-based morphometry can recover three-dimensional longitudinal brain changes over time by nonlinearly registering baseline to follow-up MRI scans of the same subject. Here, we compared the anatomical distribution of longitudinal brain structural changes, over 12 months, using a subset of the ADNI dataset consisting of 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 40 healthy elderly controls, and 40 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Each individual longitudinal change map (Jacobian map) was created using an unbiased registration technique, and spatially normalized to a geometrically-centered average image based on healthy controls. Voxelwise statistical analyses revealed regional differences in atrophy rates, and these differences were correlated with clinical measures and biomarkers. Consistent with prior studies, we detected widespread cerebral atrophy in AD, and a more restricted atrophic pattern in MCI. In MCI, temporal lobe atrophy rates were correlated with changes in mini-mental state exam (MMSE) scores, clinical dementia rating (CDR), and logical/verbal learning memory scores. In AD, temporal atrophy rates were correlated with several biomarker indices, including a higher CSF level of p-tau protein, and a greater CSF tau/beta amyloid 1-42 (ABeta42) ratio. Temporal lobe atrophy was significantly faster in MCI subjects who converted to AD than in non-converters. Serial MRI scans can therefore be analyzed with nonlinear image registration to relate ongoing neurodegeneration to a variety of pathological biomarkers, cognitive changes, and conversion from MCI to AD, tracking disease progression in 3-dimensional detail.

  14. Visual rating method and tensor-based morphometry in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a comparative magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuokkola, Terhi; Koikkalainen, Juha; Parkkola, Riitta; Karrasch, Mira; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Rinne, Juha O

    2016-03-01

    Atrophy of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is the main structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, evaluating the degree of atrophy is still demanding. The visual rating method (VRM) was compared with multi-template tensor-based morphometry (TBM), in terms of its efficacy in diagnosing of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. Forty-seven patients with MCI, 80 patients with AD and 84 controls were studied. TBM seems to be more sensitive than VRM at the early stage of dementia in the areas of MTL and ventricles. The methods were equally good in distinguishing controls and the MCI group from the AD group. At the frontal areas TBM was better than VRM in all comparisons. A user-friendly VRM is still useful for the clinical evaluation of MCI patients, but multi-template TBM is more sensitive for diagnosing the early stages of dementia. However, TBM is currently too demanding to use for daily clinical work. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  15. Brainstem dysfunction in patients with late-onset Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Min Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been a few reports of patients who developed Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS in the second decades of their life. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate electroclinical presentation in patients with late-onset LGS. In addition, we evaluated structural abnormalities of the brain, which may give some clue about the common pathogenic pathway in LGS. Materials and Methods: We enrolled the patients with late-onset LGS. We collected electroclinical characteristics of the patients and evaluated structural abnormalities using voxel-based morphometry (VBM and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS analysis. Results: The three subjects were diagnosed with late-onset LGS. The patients have no mental retardation and normal background activities on electroencephalography (EEG, and they had generalized paroxysmal fast activities on EEG, especially during sleep. The TBSS analysis revealed that fractional anisotropy values in the patients were significantly reduced in the white matter of brainstem compared with normal controls. However, VBM analysis did not show any significant difference between the patients and normal controls. Conclusions: Patients with late-onset LGS have different clinical and EEG characteristics from those with early-onset LGS. In addition, we demonstrated that brainstem dysfunction might contribute to the pathogenesis of late-onset LGS.

  16. How reliable are gray matter disruptions in specific reading disability across multiple countries and languages? Insights from a large-scale voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Altarelli, Irene; Monzalvo Lopez, Ana Karla; van Ermingen-Marbach, Muna; Grande, Marion; Grabowska, Anna; Heim, Stefan; Ramus, Franck

    2015-05-01

    The neural basis of specific reading disability (SRD) remains only partly understood. A dozen studies have used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate gray matter volume (GMV) differences between SRD and control children, however, recent meta-analyses suggest that few regions are consistent across studies. We used data collected across three countries (France, Poland, and Germany) with the aim of both increasing sample size (236 SRD and controls) to obtain a clearer picture of group differences, and of further assessing the consistency of the findings across languages. VBM analysis reveals a significant group difference in a single cluster in the left thalamus. Furthermore, we observe correlations between reading accuracy and GMV in the left supramarginal gyrus and in the left cerebellum, in controls only. Most strikingly, we fail to replicate all the group differences in GMV reported in previous studies, despite the superior statistical power. The main limitation of this study is the heterogeneity of the sample drawn from different countries (i.e., speaking languages with varying orthographic transparencies) and selected based on different assessment batteries. Nevertheless, analyses within each country support the conclusions of the cross-linguistic analysis. Explanations for the discrepancy between the present and previous studies may include: (1) the limited suitability of VBM to reveal the subtle brain disruptions underlying SRD; (2) insufficient correction for multiple statistical tests and flexibility in data analysis, and (3) publication bias in favor of positive results. Thus the study echoes widespread concerns about the risk of false-positive results inherent to small-scale VBM studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Strategies employed for LHC software performance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is to collect and assess the software performance related strategies employed by the major players in the LHC software arena: the four main experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) and the two main software frameworks (Geant4 and ROOT). As the software used differs between the parties, so do the directions and methods in optimization, and their intensity. The common feeling shared by nearly all interviewed parties is that performance is not one of their top priorities and that maintaining it at a constant level is a satisfactory solution, given the resources at hand. In principle, despite some organized efforts, a less structured approach seems to be the dominant one, and opportunistic optimization prevails. Four out of six surveyed groups are investigating memory management related effects, deemed to be the primary cause of their performance issues. The most commonly used tools include Valgrind and homegrown software. All questioned groups expressed the desire for advanced tools, s...

  18. CT morphometry of adult thoracic intervertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Justin G R; Stringer, Mark D; Briggs, Christopher A; Davies, Tilman M; Woodley, Stephanie J

    2015-10-01

    Despite being commonly affected by degenerative disorders, there are few data on normal thoracic intervertebral disc dimensions. A morphometric analysis of adult thoracic intervertebral discs was, therefore, undertaken. Archival computed tomography scans of 128 recently deceased individuals (70 males, 58 females, 20-79 years) with no known spinal pathology were analysed to determine thoracic disc morphometry and variations with disc level, sex and age. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Anterior and posterior intervertebral disc heights and axial dimensions were significantly greater in men (anterior disc height 4.0±1.4 vs 3.6±1.3 mm; posterior disc height 3.6±0.90 vs 3.4±0.93 mm; p<0.01). Disc heights and axial dimensions at T4-5 were similar or smaller than at T2-3, but thereafter increased caudally (mean anterior disc height T4-5 and T10-11, 2.7±0.7 and 5.4±1.2 mm, respectively, in men; 2.6±0.8 and 5.1±1.3 mm, respectively, in women; p<0.05). Except at T2-3, anterior disc height decreased with advancing age and anteroposterior and transverse disc dimensions increased; posterior and middle disc heights and indices of disc shape showed no consistent statistically significant changes. Most parameters showed substantial to almost perfect agreement for intra- and inter-rater reliability. Thoracic disc morphometry varies significantly and consistently with disc level, sex and age. This study provides unique reference data on adult thoracic intervertebral disc morphometry, which may be useful when interpreting pathological changes and for future biomechanical and functional studies.

  19. Gray and white matter asymmetries in healthy individuals aged 21-29 years: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Aoki, Shigeki; Sasaki, Hiroki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yoshioka, Naoki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2011-10-01

    The hemispheres of the human brain are functionally and structurally asymmetric. The study of structural asymmetries provides important clues to the neuroanatomical basis of lateralized brain functions. Previous studies have demonstrated age-related changes in morphology and diffusion properties of brain tissue. In this study, we simultaneously explored gray and white matter asymmetry using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 109 young healthy individuals (58 females and 51 males). To eliminate the potential confounding effects of aging and handedness, we restricted the study to right-handed subjects aged 21-29 years. VBM and voxel-based analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) maps derived from DTI revealed a number of gray matter volume asymmetries (including the right frontal and left occipital petalias and leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale) and white matter FA asymmetries (including leftward asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum, and corticospinal tract). There was no significant effect of sex on gray and white matter asymmetry. Leftward volume asymmetry of the planum temporale and leftward FA asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus were simultaneously demonstrated. Post hoc analysis showed that the gray matter volume of the planum temporale and FA of the arcuate fasciculus were positively related (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.43; P < 0.0001). The results of our study demonstrate gray and white matter asymmetry in right-handed healthy young adults and suggest that leftward volume asymmetry of the planum temporale and leftward FA asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus may be related. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. A comparative study of the morphometry of sperm head components in cattle, sheep, and pigs with a computer-assisted fluorescence method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús L Yániz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the sperm nuclear and acrosomal morphometry of three species of domestic artiodactyls; cattle (Bos taurus, sheep (Ovis aries, and pigs (Sus scrofa. Semen smears of twenty ejaculates from each species were fixed and labeled with a propidium iodide-Pisum sativum agglutinin (PI/PSA combination. Digital images of the sperm nucleus, acrosome, and whole sperm head were captured and analyzed. The use of the PI/PSA combination and CASA-Morph fluorescence-based method allowed the capture, morphometric analysis, and differentiation of most sperm nuclei, acrosomes and whole heads, and the assessment of acrosomal integrity with a high precision in the three species studied. For the size of the head and nuclear area, the relationship between the three species may be summarized as bull > ram > boar. However, for the other morphometric parameters (length, width, and perimeter, there were differences in the relationships between species for sperm nuclei and whole sperm heads. Bull sperm acrosomes were clearly smaller than those in the other species studied and covered a smaller proportion of the sperm head. The acrosomal morphology, small in the bull, large and broad in the sheep, and large, long, and with a pronounced equatorial segment curve in the boar, was species-characteristic. It was concluded that there are clear variations in the size and shape of the sperm head components between the three species studied, the acrosome being the structure showing the most variability, allowing a clear distinction of the spermatozoa of each species.

  1. Structural Changes Induced by Daily Music Listening in the Recovering Brain after Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Ripollés, Pablo; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Salli, Eero; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve cognitive recovery and improve mood after an acute middle cerebral artery stroke. Extending this study, a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis utilizing cost function masking was performed on the acute and 6-month post-stroke stage structural magnetic resonance imaging data of the patients (n = 49) who either listened to their favorite music [music group (MG), n = 16] or verbal material [audio book group (ABG), n = 18] or did not receive any listening material [control group (CG), n = 15] during the 6-month recovery period. Although all groups showed significant gray matter volume (GMV) increases from the acute to the 6-month stage, there was a specific network of frontal areas [left and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), right medial SFG] and limbic areas [left ventral/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (SACC) and right ventral striatum (VS)] in patients with left hemisphere damage in which the GMV increases were larger in the MG than in the ABG and in the CG. Moreover, the GM reorganization in the frontal areas correlated with enhanced recovery of verbal memory, focused attention, and language skills, whereas the GM reorganization in the SACC correlated with reduced negative mood. This study adds on previous results, showing that music listening after stroke not only enhances behavioral recovery, but also induces fine-grained neuroanatomical changes in the recovering brain. PMID:24860466

  2. Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Ripollés, Pablo; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Salli, Eero; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve cognitive recovery and improve mood after an acute middle cerebral artery stroke. Extending this study, a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis utilizing cost function masking was performed on the acute and 6-month post-stroke stage structural magnetic resonance imaging data of the patients (n = 49) who either listened to their favorite music [music group (MG), n = 16] or verbal material [audio book group (ABG), n = 18] or did not receive any listening material [control group (CG), n = 15] during the 6-month recovery period. Although all groups showed significant gray matter volume (GMV) increases from the acute to the 6-month stage, there was a specific network of frontal areas [left and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), right medial SFG] and limbic areas [left ventral/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (SACC) and right ventral striatum (VS)] in patients with left hemisphere damage in which the GMV increases were larger in the MG than in the ABG and in the CG. Moreover, the GM reorganization in the frontal areas correlated with enhanced recovery of verbal memory, focused attention, and language skills, whereas the GM reorganization in the SACC correlated with reduced negative mood. This study adds on previous results, showing that music listening after stroke not only enhances behavioral recovery, but also induces fine-grained neuroanatomical changes in the recovering brain.

  3. Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teppo eSärkämö

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve cognitive recovery and improve mood after an acute middle cerebral artery (MCA stroke. Extending this study, a voxel-based morphometry (VBM analysis utilizing cost-function masking was performed on the acute and 6-month post-stroke stage structural MRI data of the patients (n = 49 who either listened to their favourite music (music group, n = 16 or verbal material (audio book group, n = 18 or did not receive any listening material (control group, n = 15 during the 6-month recovery period. Although all groups showed significant grey matter volume (GMV increases from the acute to the 6-month stage, there was a specific network of frontal areas [left and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG, right medial SFG] and limbic areas [left ventral / subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (SACC and right ventral striatum (VS] in patients with left hemisphere damage in which the GMV increases were larger in the music group than in the audio book and control groups. Moreover, the GM reorganization in the frontal areas correlated with enhanced recovery of verbal memory, focused attention, and language skills, whereas the GM reorganization in the SACC correlated with reduced negative mood. This study adds on previous results, showing that music listening after stroke not only enhances behavioural recovery, but also induces fine-grained neuroanatomical changes in the recovering brain.

  4. Combining voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging to detect age-related brain changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmbeck, Jan T; Brassen, Stefanie; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Braus, Dieter F

    2006-04-03

    The present study combined optimized voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging to detect age-related brain changes. We compared grey matter density maps (grey matter voxel-based morphometry) and white matter fractional anisotropy maps (diffusion tensor imaging-voxel-based morphometry) between two groups of 17 younger and 17 older women. Older women exhibited reduced white matter fractional anisotropy as well as decreased grey matter density most prominently in the frontal, limbic, parietal and temporal lobes. A discriminant analysis identified four frontal and limbic grey and white matter areas that separated the two groups most effectively. We conclude that grey matter voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging voxel-based morphometry are well suited for the detection of age-related changes and their combination provides high accuracy when detecting the neural correlates of aging.

  5. Thymus morphometry of New Zealand White Rabbits treated with gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Magalhães Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometry of cortical and medullary thymic lobes individualized by determination of area (μm2, perimeter (μm, maximum and minimum diameter (μm and shape factor in New Zealand White rabbits. The spleens of ten rabbits treated with gentamicin and ten control rabbits (males and females were histologically processed. The gentamicin dosage and the time of administration of this aminoglicoside were according to therapeutic recommendation. This antibiotic did not cause any alteration in the morphometry of the spleen, and it seemed not to be an immunosuppressive drug.

  6. Thymus morphometry of New Zealand White Rabbits treated with gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Magalhães Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometry of cortical and medullary thymic lobes individualized by determination of area (µm2, perimeter (µm, maximum and minimum diameter (µm and shape factor in New Zealand White rabbits. The spleens of ten rabbits treated with gentamicin and ten control rabbits (males and females were histologically processed. The gentamicin dosage and the time of administration of this aminoglicoside were according to therapeutic recommendation. This antibiotic did not cause any alteration in the morphometry of the spleen, and it seemed not to be an immunosuppressive drug.

  7. White and gray matter abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a diffusion-tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherfler, Christoph; Frauscher, Birgit; Schocke, Michael; Iranzo, Alex; Gschliesser, Viola; Seppi, Klaus; Santamaria, Joan; Tolosa, Eduardo; Högl, Birgit; Poewe, Werner

    2011-02-01

    We applied diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) including measurements of mean diffusivity (MD), a parameter of brain tissue integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA), a parameter of neuronal fiber integrity, as well as voxel-based morphometry (VBM), a measure of gray and white matter volume, to detect brain tissue changes in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 26 patients with iRBD (mean disease duration, 9.2 ± 6.4 years) and 14 age-matched healthy control subjects. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was applied to objectively identify focal changes of MRI parameters throughout the entire brain volume. SPM localized significant decreases of FA in the tegmentum of the midbrain and rostral pons and increases of MD within the pontine reticular formation overlapping with a cluster of decreased FA in the midbrain (p < 0.001). VBM revealed increases of gray matter densities in both hippocampi of iRBD patients (p < 0.001). The observed changes in the pontomesencephalic brainstem localized 2 areas harboring key neuronal circuits believed to be involved in the regulation of REM sleep and overlap with areas of structural brainstem damage causing symptomatic RBD in humans. Bilateral increases in gray matter density of the hippocampus suggest functional neuronal reorganization in this brain area in iRBD. This study indicates that DTI detects distinct structural brainstem tissue abnormalities in iRBD in the regions where REM is modulated. Further studies should explore the relationship between MRI pathology and the risk of patients with iRBD of developing alpha-synuclein-related neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2010 American Neurological Association.

  8. Structural brain alteration in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with chemotherapy treatment: A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liwei; Su, Lianzi; Xu, Jiajia; Xiang, Li; Wang, Longsheng; Zhai, Zhimin; Zheng, Suisheng

    2017-03-01

    To assess structural brain changes in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with chemotherapy treatment by combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). 28 ALL patients (mean age: 40.71±8.58years, years since diagnosis: 7-38) and 20 age-matched control subjects (mean age: 42.95±6.39years) selected in this study with 3D T1 and diffusion tensor imaging acquired on a 3.0T Siemens MRI scanner. The ALL group had a history of chemotherapy treatment and off-therapy at least for 3years was enrolled. VBM and TBSS analysis were performed to detect regional grey matter (GM) volume changes and white matter (WM) alternation measured by fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). VBM revealed decreased GM volume in ALL patients in lingual gyrus, left occipital middle gyrus, left temporal middle gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, left parietal inferior gyrus, left precentral gyrus, left frontal superior gyrus and increased GM volume in right caudate and frontal lobe. WM integrity changes measured by TBSS which showed decreased FA and AD in several WM regions, and increased MD and RD in ALL patients with chemotherapy treatment. Our results indicate that ALL patients had smaller GM volume and WM integrity changes in several regions. The current study may shed further light on the potential brain effects of chemotherapy treatment in ALL patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. White matter differences in monozygotic twins discordant or concordant for obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a combined diffusion tensor imaging/voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Braber, Anouk; van 't Ent, Dennis; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cath, Danielle C; Veltman, Dick J; Thompson, Paul M; de Geus, Eco J C

    2011-11-15

    Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients point to deficits in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits that might include changes in white matter. The contribution of environmental and genetic factors to the various OCD-related changes in brain structures remains to be established. White matter structures were analyzed in 140 subjects with both diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry. We studied 20 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) to detect the effects of environmental risk factors for obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptomatology. Furthermore, we compared 28 monozygotic twin pairs concordant for low OCS scores with 23 twin pairs concordant for high OCS scores to detect the effects of genetic risk factors for OC symptomatology. Discordant pair analysis showed that the environmental risk was associated with an increase in dorsolateral-prefrontal white matter. Analysis of concordant pairs showed that the genetic risk was associated with a decrease in inferior frontal white matter. Various white matter tracts showed opposite effects of environmental and genetic risk factors (e.g., right medial frontal, left parietal, and right middle temporal), illustrating the need for designs that separate these classes of risk factors. Different white matter regions were affected by environmental and genetic risk factors for OC symptomatology, but both classes of risk factors might, in aggregate, create an imbalance between the indirect loop of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical network (to the dorsolateral-prefrontal region)-important for inhibition and switching between behaviors-and the direct loop (involving the inferior frontal region) that contributes to the initiation and continuation of behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tensor-based morphometry as a neuroimaging biomarker for Alzheimer's disease: an MRI study of 676 AD, MCI, and normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D; Parikshak, Neelroop; Lee, Suh; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2008-11-15

    In one of the largest brain MRI studies to date, we used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to create 3D maps of structural atrophy in 676 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy elderly controls, scanned as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Using inverse-consistent 3D non-linear elastic image registration, we warped 676 individual brain MRI volumes to a population mean geometric template. Jacobian determinant maps were created, revealing the 3D profile of local volumetric expansion and compression. We compared the anatomical distribution of atrophy in 165 AD patients (age: 75.6+/-7.6 years), 330 MCI subjects (74.8+/-7.5), and 181 controls (75.9+/-5.1). Brain atrophy in selected regions-of-interest was correlated with clinical measurements--the sum-of-boxes clinical dementia rating (CDR-SB), mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and the logical memory test scores - at voxel level followed by correction for multiple comparisons. Baseline temporal lobe atrophy correlated with current cognitive performance, future cognitive decline, and conversion from MCI to AD over the following year; it predicted future decline even in healthy subjects. Over half of the AD and MCI subjects carried the ApoE4 (apolipoprotein E4) gene, which increases risk for AD; they showed greater hippocampal and temporal lobe deficits than non-carriers. ApoE2 gene carriers--1/6 of the normal group--showed reduced ventricular expansion, suggesting a protective effect. As an automated image analysis technique, TBM reveals 3D correlations between neuroimaging markers, genes, and future clinical changes, and is highly efficient for large-scale MRI studies.

  11. Radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing gray matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Xiao-Fei; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Li-Zhi; Zhang, You-Ming [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Ming-Yuan [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Guangzhou (China); Li, Li [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-05-15

    Evidence is accumulating that temporal lobe radiation necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy (RT) could involve gray matter (GM). The purpose of the study was to assess the radiation-induced GM volume differences between NPC patients who had and had not received RT and the effect of time after RT on GM volume differences in those patients who had received RT. We used magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess differences in GM volume between 30 NPC patients with normal-appearing whole-brain GM after RT and 15 control patients with newly diagnosed but not yet medically treated NPC. Correlation analyses were used to investigate the relationship between GM volume changes and time after RT. Patients who had received RT had GM volume decreases in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule (p < 0.001, uncorrected, cluster size >100 voxels). Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that regional GM volume loss in the left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were negatively related to the mean dose to the ipsilateral temporal lobe, respectively. These results indicate that GM volume deficits in bilateral temporal lobes in patients who had received RT might be radiation-induced. Our findings might provide new insight into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced structural damage in normal-appearing brain tissue. Yet this is an exploratory study, whose findings should therefore be taken with caution. (orig.)

  12. The common traits of the ACC and PFC in anxiety disorders in the DSM-5: meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The core domains of social anxiety disorder (SAD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, panic disorder (PD with and without agoraphobia (GA, and specific phobia (SP are cognitive and physical symptoms that are related to the experience of fear and anxiety. It remains unclear whether these highly comorbid conditions that constitute the anxiety disorder subgroups of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders--Fifth Edition (DSM-5 represent distinct disorders or alternative presentations of a single underlying pathology. METHODS: A systematic search of voxel-based morphometry (VBM studies of SAD, GAD, PD, GA, and SP was performed with an effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM meta-analysis to estimate the clusters of significant gray matter differences between patients and controls. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Reductions in the right anterior cingulate gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus gray matter volumes (GMVs were noted in patients with anxiety disorders when potential confounders, such as comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD, age, and antidepressant use were controlled for. We also demonstrated increased GMVs in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in comorbid depression-anxiety (CDA, drug-naïve and adult patients. Furthermore, we identified a reduced left middle temporal gyrus and right precentral gyrus in anxiety patients without comorbid MDD. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that a reduced volume of the right ventral anterior cingulate gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus is common in anxiety disorders and is independent of comorbid depression, medication use, and age. This generic effect supports the notion that the four types of anxiety disorders have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. The results are consistent with neuroanatomical DLPFC models of physiological responses, such as worry and

  13. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on cognitive functions and neural substrates: a voxel-based morphometry study in aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora eCutuli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human and experimental studies have revealed putative neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA in aging, evidencing positive correlations between peripheral n-3 PUFA levels and regional grey matter (GM volume, as well as negative correlations between dietary n-3 PUFA levels and cognitive deficits. We recently showed that n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibit better hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions, along with enhanced cellular plasticity and reduced neurodegeneration, thus supporting a role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in preventing cognitive decline during aging. To corroborate these initial results and develop new evidence on the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on brain substrates at macro-scale level, here we expanded behavioral analyses to the emotional domain (anxiety and coping skills, and carried out a fine-grained regional GM volumetric mapping by using high-resolution MRI-based voxel-based morphometry. The behavioral effects of 8 week n-3 PUFA supplementation were measured on cognitive (discriminative, spatial and social and emotional (anxiety and coping abilities of aged (19 month-old at the onset of study C57B6/J mice. n-3 PUFA supplemented mice showed better mnesic performances as well as increased active coping skills. Importantly, these effects were associated with enlarged regional hippocampal, retrosplenial and prefrontal GM volumes, and with increased post mortem n-3 PUFA brain levels. These findings indicate that increased dietary n-3 PUFA intake in normal aging can improve fronto-hippocampal GM structure and function, an effect present also when the supplementation starts at late age. Our data are consistent with a protective role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in counteracting cognitive decline, emotional dysfunctions and brain atrophy.

  14. Effects of gestational age on brain volume and cognitive functions in generally healthy very preterm born children during school-age: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakari Lemola

    Full Text Available To determine whether the relationship of gestational age (GA with brain volumes and cognitive functions is linear or whether it follows a threshold model in preterm and term born children during school-age.We studied 106 children (M = 10 years 1 month, SD = 16 months; 40 females enrolled in primary school: 57 were healthy very preterm children (10 children born 24-27 completed weeks' gestation (extremely preterm, 14 children born 28-29 completed weeks' gestation, 19 children born 30-31 completed weeks' gestation (very preterm, and 14 born 32 completed weeks' gestation (moderately preterm all born appropriate for GA (AGA and 49 term-born children. Neuroimaging involved voxel-based morphometry with the statistical parametric mapping software. Cognitive functions were assessed with the WISC-IV. General Linear Models and multiple regressions were conducted controlling age, sex, and maternal education.Compared to groups of children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later, children born <28 completed weeks' gestation had less gray matter volume (GMV and white matter volume (WMV and poorer cognitive functions including decreased full scale IQ, and processing speed. Differences in GMV partially mediated the relationship between GA and full scale IQ in preterm born children.In preterm children who are born AGA and without major complications GA is associated with brain volume and cognitive functions. In particular, decreased brain volume becomes evident in the extremely preterm group (born <28 completed weeks' gestation. In preterm children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later the relationship of GA with brain volume and cognitive functions may be less strong as previously thought.

  15. Regional gray matter correlates of memory for emotion-laden words in middle-aged and older adults: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsa, Juho; Laine, Matti; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha O.; Karrasch, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Emotional content is known to enhance memory in a content-dependent manner in healthy populations. In middle-aged and older adults, a reduced preference for negative material, or even an enhanced preference for positive material has been observed. This preference seems to be modulated by the emotional arousal that the material evokes. The neuroanatomical basis for emotional memory processes is, however, not well understood in middle-aged and older healthy people. Previous research on local gray matter correlates of emotional memory in older populations has mainly been conducted with patients suffering from various neurodegenerative diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine regional gray matter correlates of immediate free recall and recognition memory of intentionally encoded positive, negative, and emotionally neutral words using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a sample of 50-to-79-year-old cognitively intact normal adults. The behavioral analyses yielded a positivity bias in recognition memory, but not in immediate free recall. No associations with memory performance emerged from the region-of-interest (ROI) analyses using amygdalar and hippocampal volumes. Controlling for total intracranial volume, age, and gender, the whole-brain VBM analyses showed statistically significant associations between immediate free recall of negative words and volumes in various frontal regions, between immediate free recall of positive words and cerebellar volume, and between recognition memory of positive words and primary visual cortex volume. The findings indicate that the neural areas subserving memory for emotion-laden information encompass posterior brain areas, including the cerebellum, and that memory for emotion-laden information may be driven by cognitive control functions. PMID:28771634

  16. Regional gray matter correlates of memory for emotion-laden words in middle-aged and older adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Carina; Joutsa, Juho; Laine, Matti; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha O; Karrasch, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Emotional content is known to enhance memory in a content-dependent manner in healthy populations. In middle-aged and older adults, a reduced preference for negative material, or even an enhanced preference for positive material has been observed. This preference seems to be modulated by the emotional arousal that the material evokes. The neuroanatomical basis for emotional memory processes is, however, not well understood in middle-aged and older healthy people. Previous research on local gray matter correlates of emotional memory in older populations has mainly been conducted with patients suffering from various neurodegenerative diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine regional gray matter correlates of immediate free recall and recognition memory of intentionally encoded positive, negative, and emotionally neutral words using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a sample of 50-to-79-year-old cognitively intact normal adults. The behavioral analyses yielded a positivity bias in recognition memory, but not in immediate free recall. No associations with memory performance emerged from the region-of-interest (ROI) analyses using amygdalar and hippocampal volumes. Controlling for total intracranial volume, age, and gender, the whole-brain VBM analyses showed statistically significant associations between immediate free recall of negative words and volumes in various frontal regions, between immediate free recall of positive words and cerebellar volume, and between recognition memory of positive words and primary visual cortex volume. The findings indicate that the neural areas subserving memory for emotion-laden information encompass posterior brain areas, including the cerebellum, and that memory for emotion-laden information may be driven by cognitive control functions.

  17. Optimizing power to track brain degeneration in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment with tensor-based morphometry: an ADNI study of 515 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Yanovsky, Igor; Leow, Alex D; Chou, Yi-Yu; Ho, April J; Gutman, Boris; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Bernstein, Matt A; Reiman, Eric M; Harvey, Danielle J; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene E; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2009-12-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is a powerful method to map the 3D profile of brain degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We optimized a TBM-based image analysis method to determine what methodological factors, and which image-derived measures, maximize statistical power to track brain change. 3D maps, tracking rates of structural atrophy over time, were created from 1030 longitudinal brain MRI scans (1-year follow-up) of 104 AD patients (age: 75.7+/-7.2 years; MMSE: 23.3+/-1.8, at baseline), 254 amnestic MCI subjects (75.0+/-7.2 years; 27.0+/-1.8), and 157 healthy elderly subjects (75.9+/-5.1 years; 29.1+/-1.0), as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). To determine which TBM designs gave greatest statistical power, we compared different linear and nonlinear registration parameters (including different regularization functions), and different numerical summary measures derived from the maps. Detection power was greatly enhanced by summarizing changes in a statistically-defined region-of-interest (ROI) derived from an independent training sample of 22 AD patients. Effect sizes were compared using cumulative distribution function (CDF) plots and false discovery rate methods. In power analyses, the best method required only 48 AD and 88 MCI subjects to give 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the mean annual change using a two-sided test (at alpha=0.05). This is a drastic sample size reduction relative to using clinical scores as outcome measures (619 AD/6797 MCI for the ADAS-Cog, and 408 AD/796 MCI for the Clinical Dementia Rating sum-of-boxes scores). TBM offers high statistical power to track brain changes in large, multi-site neuroimaging studies and clinical trials of AD.

  18. Impact of Early and Late Visual Deprivation on the Structure of the Corpus Callosum: A Study Combining Thickness Profile with Surface Tensor-Based Morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie; Collignon, Olivier; Xu, Liang; Wang, Gang; Kang, Yue; Leporé, Franco; Lao, Yi; Joshi, Anand A; Leporé, Natasha; Wang, Yalin

    2015-07-01

    Blindness represents a unique model to study how visual experience may shape the development of brain organization. Exploring how the structure of the corpus callosum (CC) reorganizes ensuing visual deprivation is of particular interest due to its important functional implication in vision (e.g., via the splenium of the CC). Moreover, comparing early versus late visually deprived individuals has the potential to unravel the existence of a sensitive period for reshaping the CC structure. Here, we develop a novel framework to capture a complete set of shape differences in the CC between congenitally blind (CB), late blind (LB) and sighted control (SC) groups. The CCs were manually segmented from T1-weighted brain MRI and modeled by 3D tetrahedral meshes. We statistically compared the combination of local area and thickness at each point between subject groups. Differences in area are found using surface tensor-based morphometry; thickness is estimated by tracing the streamlines in the volumetric harmonic field. Group differences were assessed on this combined measure using Hotelling's T(2) test. Interestingly, we observed that the total callosal volume did not differ between the groups. However, our fine-grained analysis reveals significant differences mostly localized around the splenium areas between both blind groups and the sighted group (general effects of blindness) and, importantly, specific dissimilarities between the LB and CB groups, illustrating the existence of a sensitive period for reorganization. The new multivariate statistics also gave better effect sizes for detecting morphometric differences, relative to other statistics. They may boost statistical power for CC morphometric analyses.

  19. Apolipoprotein E genotype is associated with temporal and hippocampal atrophy rates in healthy elderly adults: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Po H; Thompson, Paul M; Leow, Alex; Lee, Grace J; Lee, Agatha; Yanovsky, Igor; Parikshak, Neelroop; Khoo, Theresa; Wu, Stephanie; Geschwind, Daniel; Bartzokis, George

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 genotype is a strong risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Conversely, the presence of the ε2 allele has been shown to mitigate cognitive decline. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM), a novel computational approach for visualizing longitudinal progression of brain atrophy, was used to determine whether cognitively intact elderly participants with the ε4 allele demonstrate greater volume reduction than those with the ε2 allele. Healthy "younger elderly" volunteers, aged 55-75, were recruited from the community and hospital staff. They were evaluated with a baseline and follow-up MRI scan (mean scan interval = 4.72 years, s.d. = 0.55) and completed ApoE genotyping. Twenty-seven participants were included in the study of which 16 had the ε4 allele (all heterozygous ε3ε4 genotype) and 11 had the ε2ε3 genotype. The two groups did not differ significantly on any demographic characteristics and all subjects were cognitively "normal" at both baseline and follow-up time points. TBM was used to create 3D maps of local brain tissue atrophy rates for individual participants; these spatially detailed 3D maps were compared between the two ApoE groups. Regional analyses were performed and the ε4 group demonstrated significantly greater annual atrophy rates in the temporal lobes (p = 0.048) and hippocampus (p = 0.016); greater volume loss was observed in the right hippocampus than the left. TBM appears to be useful in tracking longitudinal progression of brain atrophy in cognitively asymptomatic adults. Possession of the ε4 allele is associated with greater temporal and hippocampal volume reduction well before the onset of cognitive deficits.

  20. White matter microstructure in 22q11 deletion syndrome: a pilot diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Frederick; Campbell, Linda E; Azuma, Rayna; Daly, Eileen; Bloemen, Oswald J N; Barker, Gareth J; Chitnis, Xavier; Jones, Derek K; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Murphy, Kieran C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2010-06-01

    Young people with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) are at substantial risk for developing psychosis and have significant differences in white matter (WM) volume. However, there are few in vivo studies of both WM microstructural integrity (as measured using Diffusion Tensor (DT)-MRI) and WM volume in the same individual. We used DT-MRI and structural MRI (sMRI) with voxel based morphometry (VBM) to compare, respectively, the fractional anisotropy (FA) and WM volume of 11 children and adolescents with 22q11DS and 12 controls. Also, within 22q11DS we related differences in WM to severity of schizotypy, and polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. People with 22q11DS had significantly lower FA in inter-hemispheric and brainstem and frontal, parietal and temporal lobe regions after covarying for IQ. Significant WM volumetric increases were found in the internal capsule, anterior brainstem and frontal and occipital lobes. There was a significant negative correlation between increased schizotypy scores and reduced WM FA in the right posterior limb of internal capsule and the right body and left splenium of corpus callosum. Finally, the Val allele of COMT was associated with a significant reduction in both FA and volume of WM in the frontal lobes, cingulum and corpus callosum. Young people with 22q11DS have significant differences in both WM microstructure and volume. Also, there is preliminary evidence that within 22q11DS, some regional differences in FA are associated with allelic variation in COMT and may perhaps also be associated with schizotypy.

  1. Optimizing power to track brain degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment with tensor-based morphometry: An ADNI study of 515 subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Yanovsky, Igor; Leow, Alex D.; Chou, Yi-Yu; Ho, April J.; Gutman, Boris; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Bernstein, Matt A.; Reiman, Eric M.; Harvey, Danielle J.; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is a powerful method to map the 3D profile of brain degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We optimized a TBM-based image analysis method to determine what methodological factors, and which image-derived measures, maximize statistical power to track brain change. 3D maps, tracking rates of structural atrophy over time, were created from 1030 longitudinal brain MRI scans (1-year follow-up) of 104 AD patients (age: 75.7 ± 7.2 years; MMSE: 23.3 ± 1.8, at baseline), 254 amnestic MCI subjects (75.0 ± 7.2 years; 27.0 ± 1.8), and 157 healthy elderly subjects (75.9 ± 5.1 years; 29.1 ± 1.0), as part of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). To determine which TBM designs gave greatest statistical power, we compared different linear and nonlinear registration parameters (including different regularization functions), and different numerical summary measures derived from the maps. Detection power was greatly enhanced by summarizing changes in a statistically-defined region-of-interest (ROI) derived from an independent training sample of 22 AD patients. Effect sizes were compared using cumulative distribution function (CDF) plots and false discovery rate methods. In power analyses, the best method required only 48 AD and 88 MCI subjects to give 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the mean annual change using a two-sided test (at α = 0.05). This is a drastic sample size reduction relative to using clinical scores as outcome measures (619 AD/6797 MCI for the ADAS-Cog, and 408 AD/796 MCI for the Clinical Dementia Rating sum-of-boxes scores). TBM offers high statistical power to track brain changes in large, multi-site neuroimaging studies and clinical trials of AD. PMID:19615450

  2. Clinical Study White Matter Atrophy in Patients with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Voxel-Based Morphometry Analysis of T1- and T2-Weighted MR Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, B.; Yasuda, C.L.; Cendes, F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis is highly refractory to clinical treatment. MRI voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of T1-weighted images has revealed a widespread pattern of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy in MTLE. Few studies have investigated the role of T2-weighted images in revealing WM atrophy using VBM. Objectives. To compare the results of WM atrophy between T1- and T2-weighted images through VBM. Methods. We selected 28 patients with left and 27 with right MTLE and 60 normal controls. We analyzed T1- and T2- weighted images with SPM8, using VBM/DARTEL algorithm to extract maps of GM and WM. The second level of SPM was used to investigate areas of WM atrophy among groups. Results. Both acquisitions showed bilateral widespread WM atrophy. T1-weighted images showed higher sensibility to detect areas of WM atrophy in both groups of MTLE. T2-weighted images also showed areas of WM atrophy in a more restricted pattern, but still bilateral and with a large area of superposition with T1-weighted images. Conclusions. In MTLE, T1-weighted images are more sensitive to detect subtle WM abnormalities using VBM, compared to T2 images, although both present a good superposition of statistical maps. 1. Introduction The mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is highly refractory to pharmacological treatment [1], and it is the main group of epilepsy referred to the tertiary care hospitals for surgical treatment [2]. MTLE shows a good surgical prognosis, with satisfactory seizures control in 60-80% of the patients [3]. In approximately 65%

  3. Employability of Graduates from International Development Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Knowledge to shape learning This study will collect and analyze longitudinal data ... Canadian Consortium of University Programs in International Development ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open ... an opportunity for the awardees to develop their skills and network with some of ...

  4. A STUDY ON THE ISSUES OF EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS AND PRACTICES OF EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS IN UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYED HUSSAIN HAIDER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available People who belongs to underdeveloped and developing countries, focus on getting employment in different developed countries. In the recent past years the number of people working in different countries has increased dramatically. In Pakistan it’s a trend of moving to different countries to get better employment opportunities. For employment Hong Kong, Singapore, UAE, and Saudi Arabia are considered as the favorable countries for the Pakistanis. Despite the fact, these countries don’t offer favorable and secured working environment to the immigrants, but still people prefer to go there for better earnings. Employment issues such as low wage rate, preference to residents, absence of contractual nexus, and sexual abuse etc. are common. This study aims to identify the major gaps in the implementation of laws regarding immigrant work force and the conditions of immigrants working in these countries. The study is qualitative and the respondents are those who have work experience of minimum three years. The results of this study shows that employers hardly follow labor laws for the immigrant work force, where as some countries have a clear policy which is enforced by their government. There is a dire need to do legislation regarding the rights of immigrant workforce and its implementation.

  5. Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed graded levels of cassava leaf meal. ... It was concluded that the inclusion of up to 27% of CLM in bucks' diets is not detrimental to good health and normal reproductive tract development. It is recommended that further studies on the feeding potentials of ...

  6. Testicular morphometry and sperm reserves of local turkey toms fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphometry and sperm reserves of the testis, epididymis and vas deferens of three groups (n=5/ group) of sexually active adult local turkey toms fed isocaloric diet with varying levels (12 %, 16 %, 20 %) of protein were studied for sixteen weeks. The weights of the toms before treatment were between 3.5 – 4.5 kg, while ...

  7. Morphometry Predicts Early GFR Change in Primary Proteinuric Glomerulopathies: A Longitudinal Cohort Study Using Generalized Estimating Equations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin V Lemley

    Full Text Available Most predictive models of kidney disease progression have not incorporated structural data. If structural variables have been used in models, they have generally been only semi-quantitative.We examined the predictive utility of quantitative structural parameters measured on the digital images of baseline kidney biopsies from the NEPTUNE study of primary proteinuric glomerulopathies. These variables were included in longitudinal statistical models predicting the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR over up to 55 months of follow-up.The participants were fifty-six pediatric and adult subjects from the NEPTUNE longitudinal cohort study who had measurements made on their digital biopsy images; 25% were African-American, 70% were male and 39% were children; 25 had focal segmental glomerular sclerosis, 19 had minimal change disease, and 12 had membranous nephropathy. We considered four different sets of candidate predictors, each including four quantitative structural variables (for example, mean glomerular tuft area, cortical density of patent glomeruli and two of the principal components from the correlation matrix of six fractional cortical areas-interstitium, atrophic tubule, intact tubule, blood vessel, sclerotic glomerulus, and patent glomerulus along with 13 potentially confounding demographic and clinical variables (such as race, age, diagnosis, and baseline eGFR, quantitative proteinuria and BMI. We used longitudinal linear models based on these 17 variables to predict the change in eGFR over up to 55 months. All 4 models had a leave-one-out cross-validated R2 of about 62%.Several combinations of quantitative structural variables were significantly and strongly associated with changes in eGFR. The structural variables were generally stronger than any of the confounding variables, other than baseline eGFR. Our findings suggest that quantitative assessment of diagnostic renal biopsies may play a role in estimating the baseline

  8. Accelerated cerebral white matter development in preterm infants: a voxel-based morphometry study with diffusion tensor MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giménez, Mónica; Miranda, Maria J; Born, A Peter

    2008-01-01

    stratum. While some earlier findings in preterm infants have suggested developmental delays, the results of this study are more consistent with accelerated white matter development, possibly as a result of increased sensorimotor stimulation in the extrauterine environment. These results are the first...... to suggest that the increased intensity of stimulation associated with preterm birth may advance the process of white matter maturation in the human brain. Questions remain about whether these findings reflect acceleration of the process of white matter maturation generally, or localized alterations induced...

  9. Preliminary study of the influence of red blood cells morphometry on the species determinism of domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezar Adili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This survey was realized on cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and dogs, in order to study the influence of three morphometric parameters: the diameter, the circumference and the surface of red blood cells on the determinism of these species. Materials and Methods: For each species, blood samples were taken from 15 adult female by jugular venipuncture with confection of blood smears on microscope slides immediately after blood collection and stained according to the method of May-Gründwald Giemsa. Morphometric study was realized using the software OPTIKA Pro Vision. To better describe the results, the statistical analysis was assessed by using the descriptive Boxplots test, ANOVA, and the Student's t-test. Results: The morphometric parameters of red blood cells are biggest in dogs followed by horses, cattle, and sheep, while goats have the lowest ones. Conclusion: This investigation allowed us to show that from a drop of blood we can have an idea about the animal species taking into account the diameter, the circumference, and the surface of erythrocytes.

  10. Morphometry study on pre and post-hatching nerve cell bodies of lumbar spinal ganglia of Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Ferraz de Carvalho

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available A cytomorphometric study was performed in lumbar spinal ganglia neurons of Gallus domesticus on the 10th and 18th incubation days and 8th, 35th, 61st, and 120th post-hatching days. The absolute volume of nucleus and relative volume of cytoplasm were respectively estimated by the Bach² caryometric method and by point-counting volumetry, carried out in 0.5mm thick araldite sections. The relative volume, the surface-to-volume ratio and the total surface of RER, SER, mitochondria, dense bodies, Golgi complex and the relative volume of hyaloplasm inside and outside the Nissl bodies were estimated from electronmicrographs by the Weibel et al.58 method. The conclusions were: a there was an increase of the cell volume and a decrease of the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, particularly between the first two ages; b the relative volumes of RER and SER change inversely with respect to each other: the RER increases before hatching, decreasing progressively afterwards; the changes of relative volume of dense bodies are similar to those of the RER, and the mitochondria show relatively small variations concerning the same parameter; c the relative volume of hyaloplasm inside the Nissl bodies decreases while those outside increases; d the surface-to-volume ratio drops sharply for all organelles from the 10th to the 18th day of incubation; after hatching, a tendency to increase is observed; e the membrane surface-to-cytoplasmic volume ratio decreases for all organelles from the 10th to the 18th day of incubation; after hatching, this ratio increases slightly for mitochondria and Golgi complex, sharply for SER, dropping for dense bodies. The RER values alternate regularly.

  11. Health effects of employment: a systematic review of prospective studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Noordt, Maaike; IJzelenberg, Helma; Droomers, Mariël; Proper, Karin I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to systematically summarise the literature on the health effects of employment. A search for prospective studies investigating the effect of employment on health was executed in several electronic databases, and references of selected publications were checked.

  12. Loggerhead oral cavity morphometry study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard external morphometrics and internal oral cavity morphometrics data were collected on wild and captive reared loggerhead sea turtles in size classes ranging...

  13. Bioavailability of the sodium pertechnetate and morphometry of organs isolated from rats: study of possible pharmacokinetic interactions of a ginkgo biloba extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Arnobio, Adriano; Caldas, Luiz Querino de Araujo; Carvalho, Jorge Jose; Nascimento, Ana Lucia; Pereira, Mario; Dire, Glaucio; Bernardo Filho, Mario; Rocha, Emely Kazan

    2005-01-01

    Many compounds affect the bioavailability of radiobiocomplexes as radiopharmaceuticals. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb) has several effects. The influence of an EGb on the bioavailability of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ) and on the morphometry of the organs was evaluated. Rats were treated with EGb and Na 99m TcO 4 was injected. The animals were sacrificed; the radioactivity in the organs was counted. The results showed that EGb altered the Na 99m TcO 4 bioavailability in the kidneys, liver and duodenum. Morphometric analysis of the organs showed significant alterations (P 99m TcO 4 . (author)

  14. MORPHOMETRY OF SPLEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Spleen is organ of lymphatic system located on left side of abdominal cavity under diaphragm. It is a secondary lymphatic organ that plays an important role in cell mediated immunity. Foetal spleen is erythropoietic in nature. MATERIAL & METHODS Present study was done in 50 adult spleens and 50 foetal spleens. RESULTS Morphometric features like length, breadth, thickness & weight are measured. Length varied from 6.3 to 12.5 cm, breadth varied from 2.6 to 8.6 cm, thickness ranged from 2 cm to 4.6 cm, weight ranged from 65 g to 225 g. Average total length of spleen is 2.52 cm x 1.76 x 2 cm, weight 6.5 g. Shapes of spleens observed wedge shape spleen–48%, tetrahedral spleen–24%, triangular spleen-28%. Splenic notches on superior border & inferior border are observed. Incident of accessory spleen in 1% of cases. CONCLUSIONS Present knowledge of study may be helpful for surgeons in surgical procedures like splenectomy, resection of tumours and extirpation of cysts

  15. Employment among patients with multiple sclerosis-a population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Marie Bøe Lunde

    Full Text Available To investigate demographic and clinical factors associated with employment in MS.The study included 213 (89.9% of all MS patients in Sogn and Fjordane County, Western Norway at December 31st 2010. The patients underwent clinical evaluation, structured interviews and completed self-reported questionnaires. Demographic and clinical factors were compared between patients being employed versus patients being unemployed and according to disease course of MS. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with current employment.After a mean disease duration of almost 19 years, 45% of the population was currently full-time or part- time employed. Patients with relapsing -remitting MS (RRMS had higher employment rate than patients with secondary (SPMS and primary progressive (PPMS. Higher educated MS patients with lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, less severe disability and less fatigue were most likely to be employed.Nearly half of all MS patients were still employed after almost two decades of having MS. Lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, higher education, less fatigue and less disability were independently associated with current employment. These key clinical and demographic factors are important to understand the reasons to work ability in MS. The findings highlight the need for environmental adjustments at the workplace to accommodate individual 's needs in order to improve working ability among MS patients.

  16. Employment among patients with multiple sclerosis-a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe Lunde, Hanne Marie; Telstad, Wenche; Grytten, Nina; Kyte, Lars; Aarseth, Jan; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Bø, Lars

    2014-01-01

    To investigate demographic and clinical factors associated with employment in MS. The study included 213 (89.9%) of all MS patients in Sogn and Fjordane County, Western Norway at December 31st 2010. The patients underwent clinical evaluation, structured interviews and completed self-reported questionnaires. Demographic and clinical factors were compared between patients being employed versus patients being unemployed and according to disease course of MS. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with current employment. After a mean disease duration of almost 19 years, 45% of the population was currently full-time or part- time employed. Patients with relapsing -remitting MS (RRMS) had higher employment rate than patients with secondary (SPMS) and primary progressive (PPMS). Higher educated MS patients with lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, less severe disability and less fatigue were most likely to be employed. Nearly half of all MS patients were still employed after almost two decades of having MS. Lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, higher education, less fatigue and less disability were independently associated with current employment. These key clinical and demographic factors are important to understand the reasons to work ability in MS. The findings highlight the need for environmental adjustments at the workplace to accommodate individual 's needs in order to improve working ability among MS patients.

  17. Domestic Employment In Career Centered Families: A Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic Employment In Career Centered Families: A Case Study Of Covenant University Ota, ... Gender and Behaviour ... However, eighty three (83) useable instruments were returned with the teaching staff having the highest response rate.

  18. Employment among patients with multiple sclerosis - A population study

    OpenAIRE

    Lunde, Hanne Marie; Telstad, Wenche; Torkildsen, Nina Agnethe Grytten; Kyte, Lars; Aarseth, Jan; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Bø, Lars

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate demographic and clinical factors associated with employment in MS. METHODS: The study included 213 (89.9%) of all MS patients in Sogn and Fjordane County, Western Norway at December 31st 2010. The patients underwent clinical evaluation, structured interviews and completed self-reported questionnaires. Demographic and clinical factors were compared between patients being employed versus patients being unemployed and according to disease course of MS. Logist...

  19. Multivariate Tensor-based Brain Anatomical Surface Morphometry via Holomorphic One-Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yalin; Chan, Tony F.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Here we introduce multivariate tensor-based surface morphometry using holomorphic one-forms to study brain anatomy. We computed new statistics from the Riemannian metric tensors that retain the full information in the deformation tensor fields. We introduce two different holomorphic one-forms that induce different surface conformal parameterizations. We applied this framework to 3D MRI data to analyze hippocampal surface morphometry in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD; 26 subjects), lateral ventricula...

  20. Multivariate tensor-based brain anatomical surface morphometry via holomorphic one-forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Chan, Tony F; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    Here we introduce multivariate tensor-based surface morphometry using holomorphic one-forms to study brain anatomy. We computed new statistics from the Riemannian metric tensors that retain the full information in the deformation tensor fields. We introduce two different holomorphic one-forms that induce different surface conformal parameterizations. We applied this framework to 3D MRI data to analyze hippocampal surface morphometry in Alzheimer's Disease (AD; 26 subjects), lateral ventricular surface morphometry in HIV/AIDS (19 subjects) and cortical surface morphometry in Williams Syndrome (WS; 80 subjects). Experimental results demonstrated that our method powerfully detected brain surface abnormalities. Multivariate statistics on the local tensors outperformed other TBM methods including analysis of the Jacobian determinant, the largest eigenvalue, or the pair of eigenvalues, of the surface Jacobian matrix.

  1. Frailty, prefrailty and employment outcomes in Health and Employment After Fifty (HEAF) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Keith T; D'Angelo, Stefania; Harris, E Clare; Linaker, Cathy; Gale, Catharine R; Evandrou, Maria; Syddall, Holly; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cooper, Cyrus; Aihie Sayer, Avan; Coggon, David; Walker-Bone, Karen

    2017-07-01

    Demographic changes are requiring people to work longer. No previous studies, however, have focused on whether the 'frailty' phenotype (which predicts adverse events in the elderly) is associated with employment difficulties. To provide information, we assessed associations in the Health and Employment After Fifty Study, a population-based cohort of 50-65-year olds. Subjects, who were recruited from 24 English general practices, completed a baseline questionnaire on 'prefrailty' and 'frailty' (adapted Fried criteria) and several work outcomes, including health-related job loss (HRJL), prolonged sickness absence (>20 days vs less, past 12 months), having to cut down substantially at work and difficulty coping with work's demands. Associations were assessed using logistic regression and population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. In all, 3.9% of 8095 respondents were classed as 'frail' and 31.6% as 'prefrail'. Three-quarters of the former were not in work, while 60% had left their last job on health grounds (OR for HRJL vs non-frail subjects, 30.0 (95% CI 23.0 to 39.2)). Among those in work, ORs for prolonged sickness absence, cutting down substantially at work and struggling with work's physical demands ranged from 10.7 to 17.2. The PAF for HRJL when any frailty marker was present was 51.8% and that for prolonged sickness absence was 32.5%. Associations were strongest with slow reported walking speed. Several associations were stronger in manual workers than in managers. Fried frailty symptoms are not uncommon in mid-life and are strongly linked with economically important adverse employment outcomes. Frailty could represent an important target for prevention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Skull morphometry and diferentation: a case in ovis

    OpenAIRE

    Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel

    2015-01-01

    Techniques of traditional morphometry, based on the application of multivariate statistical methods on a set of linear variables, have been running since the appearance of personal computers. However, a variety of new techniques has emerged recently, grouped together in what has been called geometric morphometrics (GM) appropriate for the statistical study of variation and covariation of the form (shape + size). This is more useful and consistent for the study of the morphological variation t...

  3. Anti-basal ganglia antibodies and Tourette's syndrome: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study in an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, D; Draganski, B; Cavanna, A; Church, A; Defazio, G; Robertson, M M; Frackowiak, R S J; Giovannoni, G; Critchley, H D

    2008-07-01

    Anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGAs) have been suggested to be a hallmark of autoimmunity in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS), possibly related to prior exposure to streptococcal infection. In order to detect whether the presence of ABGAs was associated with subtle structural changes in GTS, whole-brain analysis using independent sets of T(1) and diffusion tensor imaging MRI-based methods were performed on 22 adults with GTS with (n = 9) and without (n = 13) detectable ABGAs in the serum. Voxel-based morphometry analysis failed to detect any significant difference in grey matter density between ABGA-positive and ABGA-negative groups in caudate nuclei, putamina, thalami and frontal lobes. These results suggest that ABGA synthesis is not related to structural changes in grey and white matter (detectable with these methods) within frontostriatal circuits.

  4. Cerebral and cerebellar gray matter reduction in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Jing, E-mail: ppengjjing@sina.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Liu Jiangtao, E-mail: Liujiangtao813@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Nie Binbin, E-mail: niebb@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Yang, E-mail: Liyang2007428@hotmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Shan Baoci, E-mail: shanbc@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Gang, E-mail: gangwang@gmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng1955@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate cerebral and cerebellar gray matter abnormalities in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Materials and methods: We examined the structural difference in regional gray matter density (GMD) between 22 first-episode MDD patients and 30 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls by optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed decreased GMD in the right medial and left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral temporal pole, right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral anterior insular cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum. In addition, in MDD patients, there was a negative correlation between GMD values of the right DLPFC and the score of the depression rating scale. Conclusions: Our findings provided additional support for the involvement of limbic-cortical circuits in the pathophysiology of MDD and preliminary evidence that a defect involving the cerebellum may also be implicated.

  5. Cerebral and cerebellar gray matter reduction in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jing; Liu Jiangtao; Nie Binbin; Li Yang; Shan Baoci; Wang Gang; Li Kuncheng

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate cerebral and cerebellar gray matter abnormalities in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Materials and methods: We examined the structural difference in regional gray matter density (GMD) between 22 first-episode MDD patients and 30 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls by optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed decreased GMD in the right medial and left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral temporal pole, right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral anterior insular cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum. In addition, in MDD patients, there was a negative correlation between GMD values of the right DLPFC and the score of the depression rating scale. Conclusions: Our findings provided additional support for the involvement of limbic-cortical circuits in the pathophysiology of MDD and preliminary evidence that a defect involving the cerebellum may also be implicated.

  6. Numerical Transcoding Proficiency in 10-Year-Old Schoolchildren is Associated with Gray Matter Inter-Individual Differences: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Amélie; Rossi, Sandrine; Simon, Grégory; Lanoë, Céline; Leroux, Gaëlle; Poirel, Nicolas; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in gray matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N = 22) whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less gray matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri) and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  7. Numerical transcoding proficiency in 10-year-old schoolchildren is associated with grey-matter interindividual differences: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie eLubin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in grey matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N=22 whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less grey matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  8. Pronounced within-individual plasticity in sperm morphometry across social environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immler, Simone; Pryke, Sarah R; Birkhead, Tim R; Griffith, Simon C

    2010-06-01

    Sperm morphometry (i.e., size and shape) and function are important determinants of male reproductive success and are thought to be under stabilizing selection. However, recent studies suggest that sperm morphometry can be a phenotypically plastic trait, which can be adjusted to varying conditions. We tested whether different behavioral strategies in aggression between aggressive red and nonaggressive black males of the color polymorphic Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae) can influence sperm morphometry. We show pronounced within-individual phenotypic plasticity in sperm morphometry of male Gouldian finches in three different social environments. Both red and black males placed in intermediate to high competitive environments (high frequency of red males) increased the relative length of their sperm midpiece. By contrast, red males placed in low to intermediate competitive environments (higher frequency of black males) increased the length of the sperm flagellum. Significant changes in stress and sex steroid hormone levels (in response to the competitive environment) appear to influence sperm traits in red but not in black males, suggesting that changes in hormonal levels are not solely responsible for the observed changes in sperm morphometry. These findings imply that males can adjust sperm morphometry across social environments.

  9. Structural connectivity via the tensor-based morphometry

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, S.; Chung, M.; Hanson, J.; Avants, B.; Gee, J.; Davidson, R.; Pollak, S.

    2011-01-01

    The tensor-based morphometry (TBM) has been widely used in characterizing tissue volume difference between populations at voxel level. We present a novel computational framework for investigating the white matter connectivity using TBM. Unlike other diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based white matter connectivity studies, we do not use DTI but only T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To construct brain network graphs, we have developed a new data-driven approach called the ε-neighbor ...

  10. Separation from supported employment: a retrospective chart review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael; Targett, Pamela; Wehman, Paul; Cifu, Gabriella; Davis, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine job separations from supported employment (SE). The aim was to identify the types and nature of separations and precipitating events leading to the separation. A retrospective chart review methodology was utilized. The study was conducted in a metropolitan area in the Southeast United States by a university-based SE program. Participants were 47 SE clients who had been placed into and separated from 67 jobs. Using a coding form, information regarding the type of separation and issues that preceded the separation were recorded. Data were aggregated using descriptive statistics. The largest number of separations was due to termination, followed by resignation and mutual consent of the employer and employee. The mean number of issues leading to the separation was 2.2, ranging from one to five. Only eight positive issues were found (compared to 116 negative and 20 neutral), the most prevalent being entry into an educational or training program. Common negative issues included poor work performance, attendance and punctuality problems, conflicts with the supervisor, and social and behavioral issues. The findings of this study illustrate the need to address job retention issues during the job development process, finding the most appropriate person-job fit and workplace culture for each client. The findings also support the need for vigilant and regular communication between the SE program and employers to intervene quickly when problems arise. Separation from Supported Employment (SE) SE is an evidence-based employment practice that has been shown effective across multiple disability groups. Studying job separations can provide valuable information for improving service. Locating the best person-job fit, as well as frequent contract with employers, can help prevent unnecessary job loss.

  11. Employment Composition: A Study of Australian Employment Growth, 2002–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy Lawson; Crystal Ossolinski

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey to examine whether there was a change in employment rates for people with ‘low employment’ characteristics between 2002 and 2006, which was a period of strong employment growth. In particular, it estimates the relationships between employment and personal and household characteristics using a binomial logit model, with a comparison of the coefficients in 2002 and 2006 providing tentative evidence o...

  12. A STUDY ON THE ISSUES OF EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS AND PRACTICES OF EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS IN UAE

    OpenAIRE

    SYED HUSSAIN HAIDER; MINAA FATIMA; MUZAFFAR ASAD; ALAA ZUHAIR AHMAD ALMANSOUR

    2016-01-01

    People who belongs to underdeveloped and developing countries, focus on getting employment in different developed countries. In the recent past years the number of people working in different countries has increased dramatically. In Pakistan it’s a trend of moving to different countries to get better employment opportunities. For employment Hong Kong, Singapore, UAE, and Saudi Arabia are considered as the favorable countries for the Pakistanis. Despite the fact, these countries don’t offer fa...

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Work After Retirement: Examining Predictors of Bridge Employment, Continued Career Employment, and Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Misty M; Beehr, Terry A; Lepisto, Lawrence R

    2016-09-01

    Older employees are increasingly accepting bridge employment, which occurs when older workers take employment for pay after they retire from their main career. This study examined predictors of workers' decisions to engage in bridge employment versus full retirement and career employment. A national sample of 482 older people in the United States was surveyed regarding various work-related and nonwork related predictors of retirement decisions, and their retirement status was measured 5 years later. In bivariate analyses, both work-related variables (career goal achievement and experienced pressure to retire) and nonwork-related variables (psychological distress and traditional gender role orientation) predicted taking bridge employment, but in multinomial logistic regression, only nonwork variables had unique effects. Few predictors differentiated the bridge employed and fully retired groups. Nonwork variables were salient in making the decision to retire, and bridge employment may be conceptually more similar to full retirement than to career employment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Formulating Employability Skills for Graduates of Public Health Study Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qomariyah, Nurul; Savitri, Titi; Hadianto, Tridjoko; Claramita, Mora

    2016-01-01

    Employability skills (ES) are important for effective and successful individual participation in the workplace. The main aims of the research were to identify important ES needed by graduates of Public Health Study Program Universitas Ahmad Dahlan (PHSP UAD) and to assess the achievement of the ES development that has been carried out by PHSP UAD.…

  15. Employing Case Study Methodology in Special Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Angelise M.

    2016-01-01

    In general, case studies are a preferred strategy when "how" or "why" questions are being posed, when the investigator has little control over events, and when the focus is on a contemporary phenomenon within some real-life context (Yin, 2009). This article will examine the advantages and disadvantages of employing case study…

  16. An employer's experience with infertility coverage: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Kaylen; Meletiche, Dennis; Del Rosario, Gina

    2009-12-01

    A case study of Southwest Airlines, a Fortune 500 company, demonstrates that a well-designed infertility coverage plan can control resource use. This successful model could be used by employers who wish to ensure that their employees have access to high-quality, cost-effective infertility services in a managed-care environment.

  17. Student employment and study effort for engineering students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Harder, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    more than those in studies from e.g. UK and US [3, 4, 5]. A similar trend was seen in a study from Norway [6]. Government financial support seems to limit the amount of hours spent on paid work but not the percentage of students who take on paid work. Thus, full-time studies with benefits of increased...... capabilities and experience gained through employment could be aided by proper policies. Additionally, one of the highest impacts on study activity was the perceived study environment. As the engineering students have four hours per week of interaction with an instructor for each five ECTS...... to answer if the full-time student is under demise in these settings as opposed to settings without financial support [1, 2]. The research consisted of a web-based survey amongst all students at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The students in this survey had fewer employment hours and studied...

  18. Population Based Analysis of Directional Information in Serial Deformation Tensor Morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studholme, Colin; Cardenas, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Deformation morphometry provides a sensitive approach to detecting and mapping subtle volume changes in the brain. Population based analyses of this data have been used successfully to detect characteristic changes in different neurodegenerative conditions. However, most studies have been limited to statistical mapping of the scalar volume change at each point in the brain, by evaluating the determinant of the Jacobian of the deformation field. In this paper we describe an approach to spatial normalisation and analysis of the full deformation tensor. The approach employs a spatial relocation and reorientation of tensors of each subject. Using the assumption of small changes, we use a linear modeling of effects of clinical variables on each deformation tensor component across a population. We illustrate the use of this approach by examining the pattern of significance and orientation of the volume change effects in recovery from alcohol abuse. Results show new local structure which was not apparent in the analysis of scalar volume changes. PMID:18044583

  19. Periodic assessment of plasma sFlt-1 and PlGF concentrations and its association with placental morphometry in gestational hypertension (GH) - a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevaratnam, Kamalan; Nadarajah, Vishna Devi; Judson, John Paul; Nalliah, Sivalingam; Abdullah, Mohd Farouk

    2010-09-28

    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy contributes to about 12% of maternal deaths in Malaysia and similarly worldwide. Early detection and adequate management are preventable strategies. Biochemical markers of abnormal angiogenesis would be more specific in early detection than routine blood pressure and proteinuria measurements. The aim of this study was to estimate maternal plasma PlGF and sFlt-1 levels in pregnant women with gestational hypertension at three intervals of pregnancy and correlate these biomarker levels with placental morphometry. Venous blood samples (antepartum, intrapartum and post partum periods) were drawn to estimate for sFlt-1 and PlGF levels while placental tissue samples were examined for placental morphometry. PlGF levels were lower in gestational hypertension (GH) compared to normotensive during antepartum and intrapartum period, whereas sFlt-1 levels were elevated in GH at antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum intervals during pregnancy. An inverse relationship between these two biomarkers was observed through correlation analysis. PlGF levels were inversely correlated with total villous surface area of the placental periphery (TCsa-C) and villous capillarization (VC-C) of the placental periphery. We established periodic values of for sFlt-1 and PlGF levels for the first time in an ethnically diverse Malaysian setting. We suggest the development of GH in women is related to defective capillarization. In demonstrating periodic changes, this study suggest the possibility of developing GH and other long term health complications as a result of prolonged exposure to sFlt-1. The correlation between PlGF levels and morphometric findings also support possible capillarization defect.

  20. Periodic assessment of plasma sFlt-1 and PlGF concentrations and its association with placental morphometry in gestational hypertension (GH - a prospective follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalliah Sivalingam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy contributes to about 12% of maternal deaths in Malaysia and similarly worldwide. Early detection and adequate management are preventable strategies. Biochemical markers of abnormal angiogenesis would be more specific in early detection than routine blood pressure and proteinuria measurements. The aim of this study was to estimate maternal plasma PlGF and sFlt-1 levels in pregnant women with gestational hypertension at three intervals of pregnancy and correlate these biomarker levels with placental morphometry. Methods Venous blood samples (antepartum, intrapartum and post partum periods were drawn to estimate for sFlt-1 and PlGF levels while placental tissue samples were examined for placental morphometry. Results PlGF levels were lower in gestational hypertension (GH compared to normotensive during antepartum and intrapartum period, whereas sFlt-1 levels were elevated in GH at antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum intervals during pregnancy. An inverse relationship between these two biomarkers was observed through correlation analysis. PlGF levels were inversely correlated with total villous surface area of the placental periphery (TCsa-C and villous capillarization (VC-C of the placental periphery. Conclusion We established periodic values of for sFlt-1 and PlGF levels for the first time in an ethnically diverse Malaysian setting. We suggest the development of GH in women is related to defective capillarization. In demonstrating periodic changes, this study suggest the possibility of developing GH and other long term health complications as a result of prolonged exposure to sFlt-1. The correlation between PlGF levels and morphometric findings also support possible capillarization defect.

  1. Impact of mothers' employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila

    2014-04-02

    To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers' employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers' employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Mothers of infants employment compromises infant feeding and care', 'caregivers' inability to substitute mothers' care', 'compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA' and 'employment as disempowering'. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers' employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers' employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions.

  2. Impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers’ employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. Setting The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Participants Mothers of infants employment compromises infant feeding and care’, ‘caregivers’ inability to substitute mothers’ care’, ‘compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA’ and ‘employment as disempowering’. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. Conclusions This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers’ employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers’ employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions. PMID:24694624

  3. Volcano morphometry and volume scaling on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.; Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A broad variety of volcanic edifices have been observed on Venus. They ranged in size from the limits of resolution of the Magellan SAR (i.e., hundreds of meters) to landforms over 500 km in basal diameter. One of the key questions pertaining to volcanism on Venus concerns the volume eruption rate or VER, which is linked to crustal productivity over time. While less than 3 percent of the surface area of Venus is manifested as discrete edifices larger than 50 km in diameter, a substantial component of the total crustal volume of the planet over the past 0.5 Ga is related to isolated volcanoes, which are certainly more easily studied than the relatively diffusely defined plains volcanic flow units. Thus, we have focused our efforts on constraining the volume productivity of major volcanic edifices larger than 100 km in basal diameter. Our approach takes advantage of the topographic data returned by Magellan, as well as our database of morphometric statistics for the 20 best known lava shields of Iceland, plus Mauna Loa of Hawaii. As part of this investigation, we have quantified the detailed morphometry of nearly 50 intermediate to large scale edifices, with particular attention to their shape systematics. We found that a set of venusian edifices which include Maat, Sapas, Tepev, Sif, Gula, a feature at 46 deg S, 215 deg E, as well as the shield-like structure at 10 deg N, 275 deg E are broadly representative of the approx. 400 volcanic landforms larger than 50 km. The cross-sectional shapes of these 7 representative edifices range from flattened cones (i.e., Sif) similar to classic terrestrial lava shields such as Mauna Loa and Skjaldbreidur, to rather dome-like structures which include Maat and Sapas. The majority of these larger volcanoes surveyed as part of our study displayed cross-sectional topographies with paraboloidal shaped, in sharp contrast with the cone-like appearance of most simple terrestrial lava shields. In order to more fully explore the

  4. Sex Determination by Morphometry of Lips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Senthil Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facial anthropometric parameters are affected by various factors including age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, environment and region. The lips become thinner as age increases and the wet line moves caudally, in addition oral commissure begins to downturn. Aim and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to create a baseline data in determining the sex of the people from India and Malaysia depending on morphometry of lips. Materials and Methods:Atotal of 100 Malaysians and 100 South Indians were enrolled for the study. Various morphometric measurements of lips were taken using Vernier caliper. The data were analyzed by one way ANOVAto find out the significance among the sex and population. Results: All the measurements of upper and lower lips were higher in males as compared to females and thus sexual dimorphism exists. Mouth width and height were found to be more in Indian males followed by Malaysian males whereas in females it's vice versa. Vermilion upper lip occupied less than half of total upper lip height, whereas vermilion lower lip occupied more than half of total lower lip height in both the population. Indian males and females differed significantly in lip parameters from those of Malaysian males and females. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the study that same standards cannot be used on each other's populations for identification and cosmetic surgery. The study highlights the applied significance of observations to forensic medicine namely, personal identification, racial and sex dimorphic criteria of identification.

  5. Early gray-matter and white-matter concentration in infancy predict later language skills: a whole brain voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz Can, Dilara; Richards, Todd; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans were obtained from 19 infants at 7 months. Expressive and receptive language performance was assessed at 12 months. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) identified brain regions where gray-matter and white-matter concentrations at 7 months correlated significantly with children's language scores at 12 months. Early gray-matter concentration in the right cerebellum, early white-matter concentration in the right cerebellum, and early white-matter concentration in the left posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC)/cerebral peduncle were positively and strongly associated with infants' receptive language ability at 12 months. Early gray-matter concentration in the right hippocampus was positively and strongly correlated with infants' expressive language ability at 12 months. Our results suggest that the cerebellum, PLIC/cerebral peduncle, and the hippocampus may be associated with early language development. Potential links between these structural predictors and infants' linguistic functions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Morphometry of terrestrial shield volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Pablo; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2018-03-01

    Shield volcanoes are described as low-angle edifices built primarily by the accumulation of successive lava flows. This generic view of shield volcano morphology is based on a limited number of monogenetic shields from Iceland and Mexico, and a small set of large oceanic islands (Hawaii, Galápagos). Here, the morphometry of 158 monogenetic and polygenetic shield volcanoes is analyzed quantitatively from 90-meter resolution SRTM DEMs using the MORVOLC algorithm. An additional set of 24 lava-dominated 'shield-like' volcanoes, considered so far as stratovolcanoes, are documented for comparison. Results show that there is a large variation in shield size (volumes from 0.1 to > 1000 km3), profile shape (height/basal width (H/WB) ratios mostly from 0.01 to 0.1), flank slope gradients (average slopes mostly from 1° to 15°), elongation and summit truncation. Although there is no clear-cut morphometric difference between shield volcanoes and stratovolcanoes, an approximate threshold can be drawn at 12° average slope and 0.10 H/WB ratio. Principal component analysis of the obtained database enables to identify four key morphometric descriptors: size, steepness, plan shape and truncation. Hierarchical cluster analysis of these descriptors results in 12 end-member shield types, with intermediate cases defining a continuum of morphologies. The shield types can be linked in terms of growth stages and shape evolution, related to (1) magma composition and rheology, effusion rate and lava/pyroclast ratio, which will condition edifice steepness; (2) spatial distribution of vents, in turn related to the magmatic feeding system and the tectonic framework, which will control edifice plan shape; and (3) caldera formation, which will condition edifice truncation.

  7. Fast Food Jobs. National Study of Fast Food Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age…

  8. Anterior Temporal Lobe Morphometry Predicts Categorization Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Béatrice; Urbanski, Marika; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2018-01-01

    Categorization is the mental operation by which the brain classifies objects and events. It is classically assessed using semantic and non-semantic matching or sorting tasks. These tasks show a high variability in performance across healthy controls and the cerebral bases supporting this variability remain unknown. In this study we performed a voxel-based morphometry study to explore the relationships between semantic and shape categorization tasks and brain morphometric differences in 50 controls. We found significant correlation between categorization performance and the volume of the gray matter in the right anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri. Semantic categorization tasks were associated with more rostral temporal regions than shape categorization tasks. A significant relationship was also shown between white matter volume in the right temporal lobe and performance in the semantic tasks. Tractography revealed that this white matter region involved several projection and association fibers, including the arcuate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. These results suggest that categorization abilities are supported by the anterior portion of the right temporal lobe and its interaction with other areas.

  9. Anterior Temporal Lobe Morphometry Predicts Categorization Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Garcin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Categorization is the mental operation by which the brain classifies objects and events. It is classically assessed using semantic and non-semantic matching or sorting tasks. These tasks show a high variability in performance across healthy controls and the cerebral bases supporting this variability remain unknown. In this study we performed a voxel-based morphometry study to explore the relationships between semantic and shape categorization tasks and brain morphometric differences in 50 controls. We found significant correlation between categorization performance and the volume of the gray matter in the right anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri. Semantic categorization tasks were associated with more rostral temporal regions than shape categorization tasks. A significant relationship was also shown between white matter volume in the right temporal lobe and performance in the semantic tasks. Tractography revealed that this white matter region involved several projection and association fibers, including the arcuate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. These results suggest that categorization abilities are supported by the anterior portion of the right temporal lobe and its interaction with other areas.

  10. Longitudinal changes in the brain in mild cognitive impairment: a magnetic resonance imaging study using the visual rating method and tensor-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuokkola, Terhi; Koikkalainen, Juha; Parkkola, Riitta; Karrasch, Mira; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Rinne, Juha O

    2017-01-01

    Background Brain atrophy is associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and by using volumetric and visual analyzing methods, it is possible to differentiate between individuals with progressive MCI (MCIp) and stable MCI (MCIs). Automated analysis methods detect degenerative changes in the brain earlier and more reliably than visual methods. Purpose To detect and evaluate structural brain changes between and within the MCIs, MCIp, and control groups during a two-year follow-up period. Material and Methods Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 11 participants with MCIs, 18 participants with MCIp, and 84 controls were analyzed by the visual rating method (VRM) and tensor-based morphometry (TBM). Results At baseline, both VRM and TBM differentiated the whole MCI group (combined MCIs and MCIp) and the MCIp group from the control group, but they did not differentiate the MCIs group from the control group. At follow-up, both methods differentiated the MCIp group from the control group, but minor differences between the MCIs and control groups were only seen by TBM. Neuropsychological tests did not find differences between the MCIs and control groups at follow-up. Neither method revealed relevant signs of brain atrophy progression within or between MCI subgroups during the follow-up time. Conclusion Both methods are equally good in the evaluation of structural brain changes in MCI if the groups are sufficiently large and the disease progresses to AD. Only TBM disclosed minor atrophic changes in the MCIs group compared to controls at follow-up. The results need to be confirmed with a large patient group and longer follow-up time.

  11. The neuroanatomy of subthreshold depressive symptoms in Huntington's disease: a combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprengelmeyer, R; Orth, M; Müller, H-P; Wolf, R C; Grön, G; Depping, M S; Kassubek, J; Justo, D; Rees, E M; Haider, S; Cole, J H; Hobbs, N Z; Roos, R A C; Dürr, A; Tabrizi, S J; Süssmuth, S D; Landwehrmeyer, G B

    2014-07-01

    Depressive symptoms are prominent psychopathological features of Huntington's disease (HD), making a negative impact on social functioning and well-being. We compared the frequencies of a history of depression, previous suicide attempts and current subthreshold depression between 61 early-stage HD participants and 40 matched controls. The HD group was then split based on the overall HD group's median Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-depression score into a group of 30 non-depressed participants (mean 0.8, s.d. = 0.7) and a group of 31 participants with subthreshold depressive symptoms (mean 7.3, s.d. = 3.5) to explore the neuroanatomy underlying subthreshold depressive symptoms in HD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Frequencies of history of depression, previous suicide attempts or current subthreshold depressive symptoms were higher in HD than in controls. The severity of current depressive symptoms was also higher in HD, but not associated with the severity of HD motor signs or disease burden. Compared with the non-depressed HD group DTI revealed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insula and cerebellum of the HD group with subthreshold depressive symptoms. In contrast, VBM measures were similar in both HD groups. A history of depression, the severity of HD motor signs or disease burden did not correlate with FA values of these regions. Current subthreshold depressive symptoms in early HD are associated with microstructural changes - without concomitant brain volume loss - in brain regions known to be involved in major depressive disorder, but not those typically associated with HD pathology.

  12. Turkish Women Seafarers and A Quastionnaire Study on Employment Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yġlmaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, women have struggled to gain a place and establish their presence in social life. Mostly, they have continued their life in the position of carrying out family responsibilities. When women want to get involved in the business world, they are facing some problems arising from dogmatic thinking and prejudices, especially among the professions with "male-dominated" judiciary. Maritime profession, one of the oldest professions in the world, was also regarded as a single-gender area until the 20th century. However, in recent years, economical and political changes in the world, equal opportunity in education and incentive works of the International Maritime Organization have led women to work as seafarers. Although female seafarers constitute 2% of the world seafarers, this ratio is higher in developed countries than that of undeveloped or developing countries (URL-1. There is very little information regarding women seafarers in general, including the actual population size. Most of studies focus on passenger ships or cruise ships, not cargo ships (Sohyun, 2010. It is difficult to find relevant studies regarding women seafarers in the world, including in Turkey. In Turkey, women have played an active role and gained an apparent identity in the maritime sector since the 2000s. According to 2015 data, Turkey is ranks the 14th in the world maritime trade with more than 27,6 million deadweight tonnage and manages 1530 vessels (UNCTAD, 2015. In Turkey, many studies related to the employment of seafarers are carried out as in the whole world. However, studies on the employment of women seafarers should be paid more attention. In this study, a questionnaire was carried out with the personnel department managers in Turkish shipping companies. Employment, career, educational status of female seafarers and the general difficulties they face were revealed.

  13. Comparative Minicolumnar Morphometry of Three Distinguished Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Manuel F.; Switala, Andrew E.; Trippe, Juan; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that the cell minicolumn is the smallest module capable of information processing within the brain. In this case series, photomicrographs of six regions of interests (Brodmann areas 4, 9, 17, 21, 22, and 40) were analyzed by computerized image analysis for minicolumnar morphometry in the brains of three distinguished…

  14. Legal Knowledge of Legislated Employment Rights: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hapriza Ashari; Nik Ahmad Kamal Nik Mahmod

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to assess the level of basic knowledge of statutory employment rights at the workplace as prescribed by the Malaysian Employment Act 1955. The statutory employment rights comprises of a variety of individual employment rights such as protections of wages, statutory right to the general standard of working time, statutory right to rest day, public holidays, annual leave and sick leave as well as female employee’s statutory right to paid maternity leave. A field survey was car...

  15. Direct employment in the wind energy sector: An EU study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel [Department of Economic Analysis, University of Alcala de Henares, 28802 Alcala de Henares (Spain)], E-mail: isabel.blanco@ewea.org; Rodrigues, Gloria [Department of Economic Analysis, University of Alcala de Henares, 28802 Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    Wind energy is often said to have positive effects on employment, but few studies have systematically dealt with this matter. This article presents estimates of direct wind energy employment in all EU countries, gathered for the first time. By using a thematic survey, the authors have been able to analyse aspects such as gender distribution, company profiles and the shortage of skilled workers reported by wind energy companies. The outcomes show that wind energy deployment creates a significant number of jobs (over 104,000 in 2008), and does so at a time when other energy sectors are shrinking. There is a clear relationship between MW installed and number of jobs, but the use of a single EU job/MW ratio is not feasible, due to differences in the export/import capacity. Wind turbine manufacturers-including major sub-components-are responsible for the lion's share of the jobs, and there is a marked prevalence of males in the workforce. The scarcity of specialist roles-project managers, engineers and O and M technicians-is not likely to be solved unless a series of educational, mobility and dissemination measures are put into practice.

  16. Direct employment in the wind energy sector. An EU study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Rodrigues, Gloria [Department of Economic Analysis, University of Alcala de Henares, 28802 Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    Wind energy is often said to have positive effects on employment, but few studies have systematically dealt with this matter. This article presents estimates of direct wind energy employment in all EU countries, gathered for the first time. By using a thematic survey, the authors have been able to analyse aspects such as gender distribution, company profiles and the shortage of skilled workers reported by wind energy companies. The outcomes show that wind energy deployment creates a significant number of jobs (over 104,000 in 2008), and does so at a time when other energy sectors are shrinking. There is a clear relationship between MW installed and number of jobs, but the use of a single EU job/MW ratio is not feasible, due to differences in the export/import capacity. Wind turbine manufacturers - including major sub-components - are responsible for the lion's share of the jobs, and there is a marked prevalence of males in the workforce. The scarcity of specialist roles - project managers, engineers and O and M technicians - is not likely to be solved unless a series of educational, mobility and dissemination measures are put into practice. (author)

  17. Direct employment in the wind energy sector: An EU study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Rodrigues, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Wind energy is often said to have positive effects on employment, but few studies have systematically dealt with this matter. This article presents estimates of direct wind energy employment in all EU countries, gathered for the first time. By using a thematic survey, the authors have been able to analyse aspects such as gender distribution, company profiles and the shortage of skilled workers reported by wind energy companies. The outcomes show that wind energy deployment creates a significant number of jobs (over 104,000 in 2008), and does so at a time when other energy sectors are shrinking. There is a clear relationship between MW installed and number of jobs, but the use of a single EU job/MW ratio is not feasible, due to differences in the export/import capacity. Wind turbine manufacturers-including major sub-components-are responsible for the lion's share of the jobs, and there is a marked prevalence of males in the workforce. The scarcity of specialist roles-project managers, engineers and O and M technicians-is not likely to be solved unless a series of educational, mobility and dissemination measures are put into practice.

  18. Employment preferences of Lithuanian MA graduates in economic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaitiekus Novikevičius

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available People may demonstrate preferences for different alternatives when choosing a workplace, for example: wages, career opportunities or workplace location. It is therefore important to determine which of the alternatives provides the maximum performance for the respondents. For this purpose, the authors have carried out extensive research of utility functions, originated theoretical models and / or employed practically. Unfortunately, there has been a lack of such research in Lithuania. The paper aims to examine the preferences and financial incentives based on the utility aspect Lithuanian master’s graduates in economic studies, including financial incentives, when they choose a workplace. The paper formulates the definition of the utility functions and the analysis its types. Moreover, it analyzes the utility functions of the MA graduates in economic studies from four universities, distinguishes their preferences and major financial incentives which give them the maximum utility.

  19. STRUCTURAL CONNECTIVITY VIA THE TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Chung, Moo K; Hanson, Jamie L; Avants, Brian B; Gee, James C; Davidson, Richard J; Pollak, Seth D

    2011-01-01

    The tensor-based morphometry (TBM) has been widely used in characterizing tissue volume difference between populations at voxel level. We present a novel computational framework for investigating the white matter connectivity using TBM. Unlike other diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based white matter connectivity studies, we do not use DTI but only T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To construct brain network graphs, we have developed a new data-driven approach called the ε -neighbor method that does not need any predetermined parcellation. The proposed pipeline is applied in detecting the topological alteration of the white matter connectivity in maltreated children.

  20. Institutions and service employment: a panel study for OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Julián

    2004-01-01

    We live in a service economy, but the extent of development of service employment differs across developed countries. This paper assesses the role of structural factors and institutions in explaining the common patterns and main di?erences in the recent expansion of service employment in OECD countries. It finds that GDP per capita, the size of the government sector and the extent of urbanization are positively associated with the service employment share. However, the evidence suggests that ...

  1. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams’s Kmult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  2. Evaluation of the importance of employment pacts and the case study - Moravian-Silesian employment pact in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Šárká Prudká

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the evaluation of the effectiveness of a tool that is used in the world and Europe to a comprehensive and systematic solution of the employment at the regional level. These are the so-called employment pacts. The theme is the more up-to-date due to the onset of the global economic crisis since 2008, which brought a deepening of socio-economic problems in the labour market, with negative implications upon an increasing rate of unemployment. The Moravian-Silesian Employment Pact has been chosen for the case study. It was established as the first one of its kind in the Czech Republic, in the structurally affected region of Silesia. The result is the finding that employment pacts are generally a useful tool to resolve problems in regional labor markets.

  3. Studying place practices and consumption through volunteer-employed photography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene; Møller, Karina Torp

    2016-01-01

    upon such choices. Additionally, we argue that the employed data collection techniques, involving a combination of volunteer-employed photography with participants’ comments on their own photos and information about their socio-demographic profile, constitute a particularly apt approach for shedding...

  4. Work Ethic and Employment Status: A Study of Jobseekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Roger B.; Fouts, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Although there have been numerous changes within the workplace during the past century, employers continue to search for employees with a strong work ethic. Employers often cite a strong work ethic as the most desired characteristic in a new employee. Work ethic can be described as a set of characteristics and attitudes in which an individual…

  5. TRENDS IN YOUTH EMPLOYMENT: ROMANIA CASE OF STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura PATACHE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reducing poverty and creating employment are the twin challenges of Europe 2020 strategy. During the crisis period, relative poverty has been increased among 0-17 years of age group and in some Romanian development regions. The European Union is concerned in taking action on increasing youth employment, because: the youth unemployment rate is more than twice as high as the adult one; the chances for a young unemployed person of finding a job are low, when young people do work, their jobs tend to be less stable; early leavers from education and training are a high-risk group; resignation is an increasing concern; a significant percent of young people were neither in employment nor in education or training (NEETs; there are significant skills mismatches on Europe's labour market. This paper presents the dynamics of the Romanian youth employment in the development regions of Romania between 2008 and 2014.

  6. Morphometry of latent palmprints as a function of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Rodrigo M; Faria, Bruna E F; Kuckelhaus, Selma A S

    2013-12-01

    In many crimes, the elapsed time between production and collecting fingermark traces is crucial. and a method able to detect the aging of latent prints would represent an improvement in forensic procedures. Considering that as the latent print gets older, substantial changes in the relative proportion of individual components secreted by skin glands could affect the morphology of ridges, morphometry could be a potential tool to assess the aging of latent fingermarks. Then, considering the very limited research in the field, the present work aims to evaluate the morphometry of latent palmprint ridges, as a function of time, in order to identify an aging pattern. The latent marks were deposited by 20 donors on glass microscope slides considering pressure and contact angle, and then were maintained under controlled environmental conditions. The morphometric study was conducted on marks developed with magnetic powder in 7 different time intervals after deposition (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 days); 60 ridges were evaluated for each developed mark. The results showed that: 1) the method for the replacement and mixing of skin secretions on the palm was appropriate to ensure reproducibility of latent prints, and 2) considering the studied group, there was a time-dependent reduction in the width of ridges and on the percentage of visible ridges over 30 days. Results suggest the possibility of using the morphometric method to determine an aging profile of latent palmprints on glass surface, aiming for forensic purposes. © 2013.

  7. Employability in Online Higher Education: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 15 years, learning in distance education universities has become more interactive, flexible, collaborative, and participative. Nevertheless, some accounts have highlighted the importance of developing more instrumental and standardized educational practices to answer the challenges of employability. In fact, the choice of skills that are important to learning communities and the labour market has been the subject of controversy because it involves heterogeneous motives among different groups.This paper compares the perceptions of employability skills in a sample of teachers from the Universidade Aberta and a sample of students who attend a local learning centre at this University. The research focused on the following dimensions: a the most important employability skills, and b the employability skills to be developed in online undergraduate degrees. To collect the required data, a questionnaire was prepared and applied to students and teachers, taking the theoretical model of Knight and Yorke (2006 as its main reference. In spite of the specificity of each group, the results revealed some similarities between students and teachers with regard to employability. The conclusions also highlighted the need to promote research on this matter in online education.

  8. Who benefits from supported employment: a meta-analytic study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Campbell, Kikuko

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: This meta-analysis sought to identify which subgroups of clients with severe mental illness (SMI) benefited from evidence-based supported employment. METHODS: We used meta-analysis to pool the samples from 4 randomized controlled trials comparing the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model of supported employment to well-regarded vocational approaches using stepwise models and brokered services. Meta-analysis was used to determine the magnitude of effects for IPS\\/control group differences within specific client subgroups (defined by 2 work history, 7 sociodemographic, and 8 clinical variables) on 3 competitive employment outcomes (obtaining a job, total weeks worked, and job tenure). RESULTS: The findings strongly favored IPS, with large effect sizes across all outcomes: 0.96 for job acquisition, 0.79 for total weeks worked, and 0.74 for job tenure. Overall, 90 (77%) of the 117 effect sizes calculated for the 39 subgroups exceeded 0.70, and all 117 favored IPS. CONCLUSIONS: IPS produces better competitive employment outcomes for persons with SMI than alternative vocational programs regardless of background demographic, clinical, and employment characteristics.

  9. Impact of cancer on employment: A qualitative study exploring employment changes and financial coping strategies following breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yek-Ching Kong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have examined the impact of cancer diagnosis on employment among breast cancer patients. We aim to gain an in-depth understanding on the employment issues faced by breast cancer patients as well as their financial coping strategies in a multi-ethnic Asian setting. Methods: Six focus group discussions (FGDs were carried out with breast cancer patients, representing various ethnicities and socioeconomic backgrounds, who were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur, a public hospital, and University Malaya Medical Centre, a public academic hospital. All FGDs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was carried out using the NVivo software. Results: Majority of breast cancer patients quitted their jobs upon diagnosis of breast cancer, with many describing that their bosses were not understanding in terms of their cancer diagnosis. Those who were self-employed meanwhile reported less productivity. Patterns of financial coping strategies due to employment changes were diverse. Some patients chose to do light weight part time jobs, while others described the important role of husbands and relatives in coping with income loss. There were mixed responses regarding return to work, in which money was the major reason to return to work, while stress was cited as a barrier to not return to work. However, many reported barriers in finding a job after cancer due to discrimination against their cancer and their age. Conclusion: It is evident that a breast cancer diagnosis brings about adverse impact on employment. Multidisciplinary interventions are urgently required in Malaysia to improve the employment status of our cancer survivors including legislative reforms to prevent discrimination. This study was funded by AIA Bhd. NMRR ID: NMRR-16-2054-32802 

  10. Diffusion tensor studies and voxel-based morphometry of the temporal lobe to determine the cognitive prognosis in cases of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: Do white matter changes precede gray matter changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Morikawa, Masayuki; Inoue, Makoto; Kiuchi, Kuniaki; Kitamura, Soichiro; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Naganawa, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters for determining the prognosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We also analyzed the correlation among DTI, voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and results of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). The subjects of this prospective study were patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment. We performed annual follow-ups with DTI, VBM, and MMSE for 2 or 3 years. On DTI, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the uncinate fascicles were measured. VBM was performed to provide a z-score for the parahippocampal gyrus. The correlations among these factors were evaluated in the same period and the next period of the follow-up study. For evaluation of the same period, both DTI parameters and z-scores showed statistically significant correlations with the MMSE score. Also for evaluation of the next period, both DTI parameters and z-scores showed statistically significant correlations with the MMSE score of the next period. We observed a statistically significant correlation between the ADC value of the uncinate fascicles and the z-score of the next period. Diffusion tensor parameters (ADC and FA) of the uncinate fascicles correlated well with cognitive function in the next year and seemed to be feasible for use as biomarkers for predicting the progression of AD. In addition, the white matter changes observed in the ADC seemed to precede changes in the gray matter volume of the parahippocampal gyrus that were represented by z-scores of VBM.

  11. Altered Gray Matter Volume and Resting-State Connectivity in Individuals With Internet Gaming Disorder: A Voxel-Based Morphometry and Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Ji-Woo; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2018-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) have been accumulating due to growing concerns regarding the psychological and social problems associated with Internet use. However, relatively little is known about the brain characteristics underlying IGD, such as the associated functional connectivity and structure. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in gray matter (GM) volume and functional connectivity during resting state in individuals with IGD using voxel-based morphometry and a resting-state connectivity analysis. The participants included 20 individuals with IGD and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Resting-state functional and structural images were acquired for all participants using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging. We also measured the severity of IGD and impulsivity using psychological scales. The results show that IGD severity was positively correlated with GM volume in the left caudate (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons), and negatively associated with functional connectivity between the left caudate and the right middle frontal gyrus (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). This study demonstrates that IGD is associated with neuroanatomical changes in the right middle frontal cortex and the left caudate. These are important brain regions for reward and cognitive control processes, and structural and functional abnormalities in these regions have been reported for other addictions, such as substance abuse and pathological gambling. The findings suggest that structural deficits and resting-state functional impairments in the frontostriatal network may be associated with IGD and provide new insights into the underlying neural mechanisms of IGD. PMID:29636704

  12. Altered Gray Matter Volume and Resting-State Connectivity in Individuals With Internet Gaming Disorder: A Voxel-Based Morphometry and Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Woo Seok

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD have been accumulating due to growing concerns regarding the psychological and social problems associated with Internet use. However, relatively little is known about the brain characteristics underlying IGD, such as the associated functional connectivity and structure. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in gray matter (GM volume and functional connectivity during resting state in individuals with IGD using voxel-based morphometry and a resting-state connectivity analysis. The participants included 20 individuals with IGD and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Resting-state functional and structural images were acquired for all participants using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging. We also measured the severity of IGD and impulsivity using psychological scales. The results show that IGD severity was positively correlated with GM volume in the left caudate (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons, and negatively associated with functional connectivity between the left caudate and the right middle frontal gyrus (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons. This study demonstrates that IGD is associated with neuroanatomical changes in the right middle frontal cortex and the left caudate. These are important brain regions for reward and cognitive control processes, and structural and functional abnormalities in these regions have been reported for other addictions, such as substance abuse and pathological gambling. The findings suggest that structural deficits and resting-state functional impairments in the frontostriatal network may be associated with IGD and provide new insights into the underlying neural mechanisms of IGD.

  13. Automatic morphometry of synaptic boutons of cultured cells using granulometric analysis of digital images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prodanov, D.P.; Heeroma, Joost; Marani, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    Numbers, linear density, and surface area of synaptic boutons can be important parameters in studies on synaptic plasticity in cultured neurons. We present a method for automatic identification and morphometry of boutons based on filtering of digital images using granulometric analysis. Cultures of

  14. Employability in Online Higher Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Paula; Lourtie, Pedro; Aires, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, learning in distance education universities has become more interactive, flexible, collaborative, and participative. Nevertheless, some accounts have highlighted the importance of developing more instrumental and standardized educational practices to answer the challenges of employability. In fact, the choice of skills that…

  15. Background Study on Employment and Labour Market in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Reka; Abraham, Arpad; Horvath, Tibor; Kopeczi-Bocz, Tamas

    Most deficiencies of the Hungarian labor market emerge from a combination of the transition crisis and special features of the economy or transition process. The most crucial labor market problem is low employment. Negative impacts are high taxation and social security contributions; reduced investment, job creation, and economic growth; and…

  16. Developing Career and Employability Skills: A US Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinser, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Western Michigan University's technical teacher education program developed a course on teaching career and employability skills using state standards and benchmarks as a framework. Preservice teachers complete five projects: job shadowing, professional portfolio, written lesson plan, videotape and self-critique of lesson plan, and an application…

  17. Association between the scores of the Japanese version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia and whole-brain structure in patients with chronic schizophrenia: A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidese, Shinsuke; Ota, Miho; Matsuo, Junko; Ishida, Ikki; Hiraishi, Moeko; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hattori, Kotaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is a concise tool designed to evaluate cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. We examined the possible association between BACS scores and whole-brain structure, as observed using magnetic resonance imaging with a relatively large sample. The study sample comprised 116 patients with schizophrenia (mean age, 39.3 ± 11.1 years; 66 men) and 118 healthy controls (HC; mean age, 40.0 ± 13.6 years; 58 men) who completed the Japanese version of the BACS (BACS-J). All participants were of Japanese ethnicity. The magnetic resonance imaging volume and diffusion tensor imaging data were processed with voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics, respectively. There were significant reductions in the regional gray matter volumes and white matter fractional anisotropy values in patients with schizophrenia compared to HC. For the gray matter areas, the working memory score had a significant positive correlation with the anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortices volumes in the patients. For the white matter areas, the motor speed score had a significant positive correlation with fractional anisotropy values in the corpus callosum, internal capsule, superior corona radiata, and superior longitudinal fasciculus in the patients. However, there was no significant correlation among either the gray or white matter areas in the HC. Our results suggest that among the BACS-J measures, the working memory and motor speed scores are associated with several structural alterations in the brains of patients with schizophrenia. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  18. ALFF Value in Right Parahippocampal Gyrus Acts as a Potential Marker Monitoring Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Progression: a Neuropsychological, Voxel-Based Morphometry, and Resting-State Functional MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjia; Fu, Xiaoling; Cui, Fang; Yang, Fei; Ren, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Xiaolan; Chen, Zhaohui; Ling, Li; Huang, Xusheng

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Forty-four participants matched for age, sex, and educational background were enrolled as the sporadic ALS group (n = 22) and the control group (n = 22). All participants completed comprehensive neuropsychological tests, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (SCWT), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Frontal Assessment Battery. The participants underwent a series of 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Resting-state functional MRI (Rs-fMRI) using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was performed. Three-dimensional T1-weighted anatomical images obtained by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to conduct correlation analyses and group comparisons with the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics. The results indicated that the decreased gray matter (GM) volume in the bilateral precentral gyri and increased ALFF values in the right parahippocampal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus, left anterior cingulate gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and left middle occipital gyrus were identified in the sporadic ALS group. The increased ALFF value in the right parahippocampal gyrus was positively correlated with ALS progression rate. The ALS patients exhibited poor performances on cognitive and executive tests, which were significantly or marginally significantly correlated with the ALFF values in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the frontal, temporal, and parahippocampal cortices. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence of an extramotor involvement and suggest that the ALFF value in the right parahippocampal gyrus could represent a potential marker to monitor disease progression.

  19. "It's about fitting in with the organisation": A qualitative study of employers of nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidel, Stacy; Hauck, Yvonne; McGough, Shirley

    2018-04-01

    To explore the views of employers about the value nurse practitioners (NPs) add to health services, enablers and barriers to employing NPs, and intentions to employ NPs or expand NP services in the future. Research on Australian NPs has focused on NPs' experiences or patient-related factors like waiting times. Few studies have explored NP roles from the perspective of employers. Australian NPs employed by the private sector are eligible for reimbursement by the national health insurance scheme (Medicare Australia), potentially generating revenue for employers and broadening their career opportunities. We aimed to explore private sector employers' views on the barriers and facilitators to employing NPs and to identify factors affecting NP employability. A qualitative descriptive exploratory study. Employers of NPs from 23 private and nonprofit health services in Western Australia were interviewed. Inductive content analysis was used to explore the data. Enablers to employing an NP included enhanced customer service and improved health outcomes. Barriers to employing an NP included lack of financial benefit and inadequate experience or qualifications. Employers also identified future directions for NP employability, such as filling a gap that added value to the health service. Employers wanted NPs to work towards a shared vision of patient care that aligned with organisational needs. Findings can inform NP education and workforce planning to optimally meet employer and patient health needs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Nuclear morphometry and prognosis in favorable histology Wilms' tumor: A prospective reevaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, N E; Partin, A W; Lee, B R; Guthrie, K A; Beckwith, J B; Green, D M

    1999-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the ability of a previously published nuclear morphometry discriminant function to predict disease-free survival in patients with Wilms' tumor. We identified 218 patients with stage I-IV Wilms' tumor of favorable histology who were entered onto the National Wilms' Tumor Study (NWTS) between January 1, 1990 and April 15, 1994. The nuclear morphometry score was calculated for each patient as follows: MV(f) = (0.02 x AGE) + (1.17 x SNRF) + (90.6 x LEFD) - 94, with AGE denoting age at diagnosis in months, SNRF the skewness of the nuclear roundness factor, and LEFD the lowest value of nuclear ellipticity as measured by the feret diameter method. Relative risks of relapse were estimated for the total score and for each of its components. Sensitivity and specificity were determined for the criterion of "MV(f) is greater than -0.35" as a predictor of relapse. By contrast with previously published results, neither the SNRF nor the LEFD made any contribution to the prediction of disease-free survival. Sensitivity and specificity of the criterion of "MV(f) is greater than -0.35" were 71% and 56%, respectively. Re-evaluation of a published nuclear morphometry score showed that it did not predict disease-free survival in patients with Wilms' tumor. The earlier study very likely overestimated the predictive power of nuclear morphometry by using the same data set both to develop the score and to evaluate its properties. Because of the huge number of combinations of nuclear morphometry measurements that may enter into the multivariate discriminant function, use of appropriate statistical methods is essential to estimate accurately the sensitivity and specificity.

  1. New experimental results in atlas-based brain morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James C.; Fabella, Brian A.; Fernandes, Siddharth E.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.

    1999-05-01

    In a previous meeting, we described a computational approach to MRI morphometry, in which a spatial warp mapping a reference or atlas image into anatomic alignment with the subject is first inferred. Shape differences with respect to the atlas are then studied by calculating the pointwise Jacobian determinant for the warp, which provides a measure of the change in differential volume about a point in the reference as it transforms to its corresponding position in the subject. In this paper, the method is used to analyze sex differences in the shape and size of the corpus callosum in an ongoing study of a large population of normal controls. The preliminary results of the current analysis support findings in the literature that have observed the splenium to be larger in females than in males.

  2. Effects of image distortion correction on voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Masami; Abe, Osamu; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to show that correcting image distortion significantly affects brain volumetry using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and to assess whether the processing of distortion correction reduces system dependency. We obtained contiguous sagittal T 1 -weighted images of the brain from 22 healthy participants using 1.5- and 3-tesla magnetic resonance (MR) scanners, preprocessed images using Statistical Parametric Mapping 5, and tested the relation between distortion correction and brain volume using VBM. Local brain volume significantly increased or decreased on corrected images compared with uncorrected images. In addition, the method used to correct image distortion for gradient nonlinearity produced fewer volumetric errors from MR system variation. This is the first VBM study to show more precise volumetry using VBM with corrected images. These results indicate that multi-scanner or multi-site imaging trials require correction for distortion induced by gradient nonlinearity. (author)

  3. Morphometry of Left Frontal and Temporal Poles Predicts Analogical Reasoning Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichelburg, Clarisse; Urbanski, Marika; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Humbert, Frederic; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical for making inferences and adapting to novelty. It can be studied experimentally using tasks that require creating similarities between situations or concepts, i.e., when their constituent elements share a similar organization or structure. Brain correlates of analogical reasoning have mostly been explored using functional imaging that has highlighted the involvement of the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (rlPFC) in healthy subjects. However, whether inter-individual variability in analogical reasoning ability in a healthy adult population is related to differences in brain architecture is unknown. We investigated this question by employing linear regression models of performance in analogy tasks and voxel-based morphometry in 54 healthy subjects. Our results revealed that the ability to reason by analogy was associated with structural variability in the left rlPFC and the anterior part of the inferolateral temporal cortex. Tractography of diffusion-weighted images suggested that these 2 regions have a different set of connections but may exchange information via the arcuate fasciculus. These results suggest that enhanced integrative and semantic abilities supported by structural variation in these areas (or their connectivity) may lead to more efficient analogical reasoning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. White matter microstructure in 22q11 deletion syndrome: a pilot diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study of children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundram, Frederick; Campbell, Linda E.; Azuma, Rayna; Daly, Eileen; Bloemen, Oswald J. N.; Barker, Gareth J.; Chitnis, Xavier; Jones, Derek K.; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Young people with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) are at substantial risk for developing psychosis and have significant differences in white matter (WM) volume. However, there are few in vivo studies of both WM microstructural integrity (as measured using Diffusion Tensor (DT)-MRI) and WM volume

  5. White matter differences in monozygotic twins discordant or concordant for obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a combined diffusion tensor imaging/voxel-based morphometry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Braber, Anouk; van 't Ent, Dennis; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Cath, Danielle C.; Veltman, Dick J.; Thompson, Paul M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients point to deficits in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits that might include changes in white matter. The contribution of environmental and genetic factors to the various OCD-related changes in brain structures remains to be

  6. White matter differences in monozygotic twins discordant or concordant for obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a combined diffusion tensor imaging/voxel-based morphometry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Braber, A.; van t Ent, D.; Boomsma, D.I.; Cath, D.C.; Veltman, D.J.; Thompson, P.M.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients point to deficits in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits that might include changes in white matter. The contribution of environmental and genetic factors to the various OCD-related changes in brain structures

  7. Patients with poor response to antipsychotics have a more severe pattern of frontal atrophy: a voxel-based morphometry study of treatment resistance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarantelli, Mario; Palladino, Olga; Prinster, Anna; Schiavone, Vittorio; Carotenuto, Barbara; Brunetti, Arturo; Marsili, Angela; Casiello, Margherita; Muscettola, Giovanni; Salvatore, Marco; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 30% of schizophrenia patients do not respond adequately to the therapy. Previous MRI studies have suggested that drug treatment resistance is associated with brain morphological abnormalities, although region-of-interest analysis of MR studies from nonresponder and responder patients failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference between these two schizophrenia subgroups. We have used a voxel-based analysis of segmented MR studies to assess structural cerebral differences in 20 nonresponder and 15 responder patients and 16 age-matched normal volunteers. Differences between the three groups emerged bilaterally mainly at the level of the superior and middle frontal gyri, primarily due to reduced grey matter volumes in nonresponders, as compared to both normal volunteers and responder patients. Post hoc direct comparison between the two schizophrenia subgroups demonstrated significantly reduced grey matter volumes in middle frontal gyrus bilaterally, in the dorsolateral aspects of left superior frontal gyrus extending into postcentral gyrus and in the right medial temporal cortex. Our results extend and integrate previous findings suggesting a more severe atrophy in nonresponder schizophrenia patients, compared to responder patients, mainly at the level of the superior and middle frontal gyri. Longitudinal studies in drug-naïve patients are needed to assess the role of these associations.

  8. Feasibility study of fusion breeding blanket concept employing graphite reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Mu-Young; Lee, Cheol Woo; Kim, Eung Seon; Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Youngmin; Lee, Dong Won

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) breeding blanket concept adopts graphite as a reflector material by reducing the amount of beryllium multiplier. • Its feasibility was investigated in view point of the nuclear performance as well as material-related issues. • A nuclear analysis is performed under the fusion reactor condition to address the feasibility of graphite reflector in breeding blanket. • Also, the chemical stability of the graphite is investigated considering the chemical stability under accident conditions. • In conclusion, the adaptation of graphite reflector in breeding blanket is intrinsically safe and plausible under fusion reactor condition. - Abstract: To obtain high tritium breeding performance with limited blanket thickness, most of solid breeder blanket concepts employ a combination of lithium ceramic as a breeder and beryllium as a multiplier. In this case, considering that huge amount of beryllium are needed in fusion power plants, its handling difficulty and cost can be a major factor to be accounted for commercial use. Korea has proposed a Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) breeding blanket concept relevant to fusion power plants. Here, graphite is used as a reflector material by reducing the amount of beryllium multiplier. Its feasibility has been investigated in view point of the nuclear performance as well as material-related issues. In this paper, a nuclear analysis is performed under the fusion reactor condition to address the feasibility of graphite reflector in breeding blanket, considering tritium breeding capability and neutron shielding and activation aspects. Also, the chemical stability of the graphite is investigated considering the chemical stability under accident conditions, resulting in that the adaptation of graphite reflector in breeding blanket is intrinsically safe and plausible under fusion reactor condition.

  9. Feasibility study of fusion breeding blanket concept employing graphite reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seungyon, E-mail: sycho@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu-Young [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheol Woo; Kim, Eung Seon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Youngmin [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) breeding blanket concept adopts graphite as a reflector material by reducing the amount of beryllium multiplier. • Its feasibility was investigated in view point of the nuclear performance as well as material-related issues. • A nuclear analysis is performed under the fusion reactor condition to address the feasibility of graphite reflector in breeding blanket. • Also, the chemical stability of the graphite is investigated considering the chemical stability under accident conditions. • In conclusion, the adaptation of graphite reflector in breeding blanket is intrinsically safe and plausible under fusion reactor condition. - Abstract: To obtain high tritium breeding performance with limited blanket thickness, most of solid breeder blanket concepts employ a combination of lithium ceramic as a breeder and beryllium as a multiplier. In this case, considering that huge amount of beryllium are needed in fusion power plants, its handling difficulty and cost can be a major factor to be accounted for commercial use. Korea has proposed a Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) breeding blanket concept relevant to fusion power plants. Here, graphite is used as a reflector material by reducing the amount of beryllium multiplier. Its feasibility has been investigated in view point of the nuclear performance as well as material-related issues. In this paper, a nuclear analysis is performed under the fusion reactor condition to address the feasibility of graphite reflector in breeding blanket, considering tritium breeding capability and neutron shielding and activation aspects. Also, the chemical stability of the graphite is investigated considering the chemical stability under accident conditions, resulting in that the adaptation of graphite reflector in breeding blanket is intrinsically safe and plausible under fusion reactor condition.

  10. Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: a voxel-based morphometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Särkämö, Teppo; Ripollés, Pablo; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Salli, Eero; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Rodríguez Fornells, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract.] Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neuro- logical rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music...

  11. Forces affecting employment dynamics in Drenthe; Case study in a leading rural region in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, I.J.; Post, J.H.; Wisselink, A.J.; Overbeek, M.M.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this report the focus is on employment dynamics in Drenthe since the beginning of the 1980s. This study is part of an EU wide research project on employment development in leading and lagging rural regions of the EU. Total employment in Drenthe increased by 24,500 jobs or with over 20% in the

  12. Working While Studying: The Impact of Term-Time Employment on Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovdhaugen, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    There are many possible reasons why students leave university prior to degree completion, and one of the more commonly cited is being employed while studying. This paper analyses the impact of employment status on dropout rates using survival analysis. It finds that employment status does have an impact on dropout rates; students who work full…

  13. The bigger the worse? A comparative study of the welfare state and employment commitment

    OpenAIRE

    van der Wel, Kjetil A.; Halvorsen, Knut

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates how welfare generosity and active labour market policies relate to employment commitment. As social policy is increasingly directed towards stimulating employment in broader sections of society, this article particularly studies employment commitment among groups with traditionally weaker bonds to the labour market. This is also theoretically interesting because the employment commitment in these groups may be more affected by the welfare context than is the employme...

  14. Voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging of the optic pathway in primary open-angle glaucoma: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikou, A K; Kitsos, G; Tzarouchi, L C; Astrakas, L; Alexiou, G A; Argyropoulou, M I

    2012-01-01

    Neuropathologic studies in experimental and human glaucoma have demonstrated degenerative changes in the optic pathway. The purpose of this study was to assess the optic pathway in POAG by using VBM and DTI. Eighteen patients 57.05 ± 11.38 years of age with POAG of 8.30 ± 5.14 years' duration and 18 control subjects underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including quantification of the RNFLT by using Stratus OCT 3, and brain imaging. The imaging protocol consisted of a T1-weighted high-resolution 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence and a multisection spin-echo- planar diffusion-weighted sequence. Data preprocessing and analysis were performed by using Matlab 7.0 and SPM 5. Left temporal and right nasal RNFLTs were significantly thinner than right temporal and left nasal RNFLTs. In patients, VBM revealed a significant reduction in the left visual cortex volume, the left lateral geniculate nucleus, and the intracranial part of the ONs and the chiasma. In addition, a significant decrease of FA was observed in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the longitudinal and inferior frontal fasciculi, the putamen, the caudate nucleus, the anterior and posterior thalamic radiations, and the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule of the left hemisphere (P < .05). Neurodegenerative changes of the optic pathway and several brain areas associated with the visual system can be observed by using VBM and DTI in patients with POAG, suggesting that glaucoma is a complex neurologic disease.

  15. Nuclear Morphometry in Ductal Breast Carcinoma with Correlation to Cell Proliferative Activity and Prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, M.M.; Amer, K.A.; Mokhtar, N.M.

    2003-01-01

    Morphometry is the quantitative description of biologic structures. This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of morphometric measurements in diagnosis and prognosis of patients with breast carcinoma. Methods: Histological samples from 61 patients of invasive duct carcinoma (IDC) of no special type (NST), 12 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 14 control breast samples taken from fibrocystic change disease were retrospectively analyzed by computerized nuclear morphometry. All IDC patients underwent modified radical mastectomy without preoperative chemotherapy. The mean follow up was 28±19 months (range] -71). In each case, 25-50 nuclei were measured and the mean nuclear area (MNA), mean nuclear perimeter (MNP), mean maximum nuclear diameter (MMNO) and mean minimal nuclear diameter (Mmnd) were measured. The mean axis ratio (MAR), mean nuclear compactness (MNC), mean nuclear size (MNS) and mean shape factor (MSHF), were calculated mathematically. To measure the nuclear diameters, a new method was employed using the AutoCAD program. Morphometric parameters were compared with different clinico pathologic features, patient's survival and cell proliferative activity as determined by Ki-67 immunostaining which was evaluated quantitatively. Most of the morphometric parameters were significantly higher in DCIS and IDC groups than benign one. In IDC group morphometric features related to nuclear size (MNA, MNP, MMNO, Mmnd and MNS) were significantly correlated to most clinico pathologic features and cell proliferative activity assessed by Ki-67 immunostaining. However, the shape factor failed to achieve this correlation. The univariate analysis using Kaplan Meier curves indicated that short survival time was correlated with high nuclear morphometric values (MNA. MNP, MMND, Mmnd, MNS and MSHF). Moreover, the Spear man correlation analysis showed that Mmnd has the highest converse correlation with survival (r= -0.75, (ρ < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis

  16. Impact of coil design on the contrast-to-noise ratio, precision, and consistency of quantitative cartilage morphometry at 3 Tesla: a pilot study for the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Felix; Kunz, Manuela; Hudelmaier, Martin; Jackson, Rebecca; Yu, Joseph; Eaton, Charles B; Schneider, Erika

    2007-02-01

    Phased-array (PA) coils generally provide higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) than quadrature knee coils. In this pilot study for the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) we compared these two types of coils in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), precision, and consistency of quantitative femorotibial cartilage measurements. Test-retest measurements were acquired using coronal fast low-angle shot with water excitation (FLASHwe) and coronal multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) of sagittal double-echo steady state with water excitation (DESSwe) at 3T. The precision errors for cartilage volume and thickness were coil and coil with FLASHwe, and coil and sequence. The PA coil measurements did not always fully agree with the quadrature coil measurements, and some differences were significant. The higher CNR of the PA coil did not translate directly into improved precision of cartilage measurement; however, summing up cartilage plates within the medial and lateral compartment reduced precision errors. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Glaucoma anterior chamber morphometry based on optical Scheimpflug images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Ruiz Simonato; Ambrósio Junior, Renato; Paranhos Junior, Augusto; Sakata, Lisandro Massanori; Ventura, Marcelo Palis

    2010-01-01

    To compare the performance of gonioscopy and noncontact morphometry with anterior chamber tomography (High Resolution Pentacam - HR) using optical Scheimpflug images in the evaluation of the anterior chamber angle (ACA). Transversal study. 112 eyes from 74 subjects evaluated at the Glaucoma Department, Fluminense Federal University, underwent gonioscopy and Pentacam HR. Using gonioscopy, the ACA was graded using the Shaffer Classification (SC) by a single experienced examiner masked to the Pentacam HR findings. Narrow angle was determined in eyes in which the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen in two or more quadrants on non-indentation gonioscopy (SC Grade 2 or less). Pentacam HR images of the nasal and temporal quadrants were evaluated by custom software to automatically obtain anterior chamber measurements, such as: anterior chamber angle (ACA), anterior chamber volume (ACV) and anterior chamber depth (ACD). Based on gonioscopy results, 74 (60.07%) eyes of patients classified as open-angle (SC 3 and 4) and 38 (33.93%) eyes of patients classified as narrow-angle (SC 1 and 2). Noncontact morphometry with Scheimpflug images revealed a mean ACA of 39.20 ± 5.31 degrees for open-angle and 21.18 ± 7.98 degrees for narrow-angle. The open-angle group showed significant greater ACV and ACD values when compared to narrow-angle group (ACV of 193 ± 36 mm³ vs. 90 ± 25 mm³, respectively, p<0.001; and ACD of 3,09 ± 0,42 mm vs. 1,55 ± 0,64 mm, respectively, p<0.0001.). In screening eyes with open-angle and narrow-angle with the Pentacam ACA of 20º (SC Grade 2) using the ROC curves, the analysis showed 52.6% of sensitivity and 100% of specificity. The Pentacam showed ability in detecting eyes at risk for angle closure analyzing ACV and ACD.

  18. Structural MRI in frontotemporal dementia: comparisons between hippocampal volumetry, tensor-based morphometry and voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Ruiz, Miguel Ángel; Hartikainen, Päivi; Koikkalainen, Juha; Wolz, Robin; Julkunen, Valtteri; Niskanen, Eini; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Kivipelto, Miia; Vanninen, Ritva; Rueckert, Daniel; Liu, Yawu; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Soininen, Hilkka

    2012-01-01

    MRI is an important clinical tool for diagnosing dementia-like diseases such as Frontemporal Dementia (FTD). However there is a need to develop more accurate and standardized MRI analysis methods. To compare FTD with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) with three automatic MRI analysis methods - Hippocampal Volumetry (HV), Tensor-based Morphometry (TBM) and Voxel-based Morphometry (VBM), in specific regions of interest in order to determine the highest classification accuracy. Thirty-seven patients with FTD, 46 patients with AD, 26 control subjects, 16 patients with progressive MCI (PMCI) and 48 patients with stable MCI (SMCI) were examined with HV, TBM for shape change, and VBM for gray matter density. We calculated the Correct Classification Rate (CCR), sensitivity (SS) and specificity (SP) between the study groups. We found unequivocal results differentiating controls from FTD with HV (hippocampus left side) (CCR = 0.83; SS = 0.84; SP = 0.80), with TBM (hippocampus and amygdala (CCR = 0.80/SS = 0.71/SP = 0.94), and with VBM (all the regions studied, especially in lateral ventricle frontal horn, central part and occipital horn) (CCR = 0.87/SS = 0.81/SP = 0.96). VBM achieved the highest accuracy in differentiating AD and FTD (CCR = 0.72/SS = 0.67/SP = 0.76), particularly in lateral ventricle (frontal horn, central part and occipital horn) (CCR = 0.73), whereas TBM in superior frontal gyrus also achieved a high accuracy (CCR = 0.71/SS = 0.68/SP = 0.73). TBM resulted in low accuracy (CCR = 0.62) in the differentiation of AD from FTD using all regions of interest, with similar results for HV (CCR = 0.55). Hippocampal atrophy is present not only in AD but also in FTD. Of the methods used, VBM achieved the highest accuracy in its ability to differentiate between FTD and AD.

  19. Structural MRI in frontotemporal dementia: comparisons between hippocampal volumetry, tensor-based morphometry and voxel-based morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Muñoz-Ruiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MRI is an important clinical tool for diagnosing dementia-like diseases such as Frontemporal Dementia (FTD. However there is a need to develop more accurate and standardized MRI analysis methods. OBJECTIVE: To compare FTD with Alzheimer's Disease (AD and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI with three automatic MRI analysis methods - Hippocampal Volumetry (HV, Tensor-based Morphometry (TBM and Voxel-based Morphometry (VBM, in specific regions of interest in order to determine the highest classification accuracy. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with FTD, 46 patients with AD, 26 control subjects, 16 patients with progressive MCI (PMCI and 48 patients with stable MCI (SMCI were examined with HV, TBM for shape change, and VBM for gray matter density. We calculated the Correct Classification Rate (CCR, sensitivity (SS and specificity (SP between the study groups. RESULTS: We found unequivocal results differentiating controls from FTD with HV (hippocampus left side (CCR = 0.83; SS = 0.84; SP = 0.80, with TBM (hippocampus and amygdala (CCR = 0.80/SS = 0.71/SP = 0.94, and with VBM (all the regions studied, especially in lateral ventricle frontal horn, central part and occipital horn (CCR = 0.87/SS = 0.81/SP = 0.96. VBM achieved the highest accuracy in differentiating AD and FTD (CCR = 0.72/SS = 0.67/SP = 0.76, particularly in lateral ventricle (frontal horn, central part and occipital horn (CCR = 0.73, whereas TBM in superior frontal gyrus also achieved a high accuracy (CCR = 0.71/SS = 0.68/SP = 0.73. TBM resulted in low accuracy (CCR = 0.62 in the differentiation of AD from FTD using all regions of interest, with similar results for HV (CCR = 0.55. CONCLUSION: Hippocampal atrophy is present not only in AD but also in FTD. Of the methods used, VBM achieved the highest accuracy in its ability to differentiate between FTD and AD.

  20. Employing Two Factor Authentication Mechanisms: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Cameron; Fulton, Eric; Evans, Gerald; Firth, David

    2014-01-01

    This case study examines the life of a digital native who has her online accounts hacked, passwords reset, and is locked out of important online resources including her university email account and Facebook. Part one of the case study examines how the hack was perpetrated and the fallout of losing control of one's digital identity. Part two of the…

  1. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and physical health. Method: The authors explored the causal relationship between employment status and physical health through conducting a systematic review of 22 longitudinal studies conducted in Finland, France, the…

  2. Computer-assisted sperm morphometry fluorescence-based analysis has potential to determine progeny sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria, Pilar; Pauciullo, Alfredo; Silvestre, Miguel A; Vicente-Fiel, Sandra; Villanova, Leyre; Pinton, Alain; Viruel, Juan; Sales, Ester; Yániz, Jesús L

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the ability of computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASA-Morph) with fluorescence to discriminate between spermatozoa carrying different sex chromosomes from the nuclear morphometrics generated and different statistical procedures in the bovine species. The study was divided into two experiments. The first was to study the morphometric differences between X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa (SX and SY, respectively). Spermatozoa from eight bulls were processed to assess simultaneously the sex chromosome by FISH and sperm morphometry by fluorescence-based CASA-Morph. SX cells were larger than SY cells on average (P potential to find differences between X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in bovine species although more studies are needed to increase the precision of sex determination by this technique.

  3. Fluvial processes and channel morphometry of the upper Orashi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fluvial processes and channel morphometry of the upper Orashi basin in ... of channel equilibrium between morphology and hydrology, the Orashi channel is not well ... Drainage basins, watershed morphology, morphometric analysis, Nigeria ...

  4. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Tennessee Region 6 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  5. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Ohio Region 5 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  6. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in California Region 18 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  7. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Classification of Studies Employing Psychological Endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandberg DavidE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychological outcomes in persons with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH have received substantial attention. The objectives of this paper were to (1 catalog psychological endpoints assessed in CAH outcome studies and (2 classify the conceptual/theoretical model shaping the research design and interpretation of CAH-related psychological effects. A total of 98 original research studies, published between 1955 and 2009, were categorized based on psychological endpoints examined as well as the research design and conceptual model guiding analysis and interpretation of data. The majority of studies (68% investigated endpoints related to psychosexual differentiation. The preponderance of studies (76% examined a direct relationship (i.e., inferring causality between prenatal androgen exposure and psychological outcomes. Findings are discussed in relation to the observed imbalance between theoretical interest in the role of prenatal androgens in shaping psychosexual differentiation and a broader conceptual model that examines the role of other potential factors in mediating or moderating the influence of CAH pathophysiology on psychological outcomes in both affected females and males. The latter approach offers to identify factors amenable to clinical intervention that enhance both health and quality of life outcomes in CAH as well as other disorders of sex development.

  8. Barriers to Employment Among Social Security Disability Insurance Beneficiaries in the Mental Health Treatment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milfort, Roline; Bond, Gary R; McGurk, Susan R; Drake, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    This study examined barriers to employment among Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries who received comprehensive vocational and mental health services but were not successful in returning to work. This study examined barriers to employment among 430 SSDI beneficiaries with mental disorders who received evidence-based vocational and mental health services for two years but worked less than one month or not at all. Comprehensive care teams, which included employment specialists, made consensus judgments for each participant, identifying the top three barriers to employment from a checklist of 14 common barriers. Teams most frequently identified three barriers to employment: poorly controlled symptoms of mental illness (55%), nonengagement in supported employment (44%), and poorly controlled general medical problems (33%). Other factors were identified much less frequently. Some SSDI beneficiaries, despite having access to comprehensive services, continued to experience psychiatric impairments, difficulty engaging in vocational services, and general medical problems that limited their success in employment.

  9. Factors associated with persons with disability employment in India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraharisetti, Ramya; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-10-07

    Over twenty million persons with disability in India are increasingly being offered poverty alleviation strategies, including employment programs. This study employs a spatial analytic approach to identify correlates of employment among persons with disability in India, considering sight, speech, hearing, movement, and mental disabilities. Based on 2001 Census data, this study utilizes linear regression and spatial autoregressive models to identify factors associated with the proportion employed among persons with disability at the district level. Models stratified by rural and urban areas were also considered. Spatial autoregressive models revealed that different factors contribute to employment of persons with disability in rural and urban areas. In rural areas, having mental disability decreased the likelihood of employment, while being female and having movement, or sight impairment (compared to other disabilities) increased the likelihood of employment. In urban areas, being female and illiterate decreased the likelihood of employment but having sight, mental and movement impairment (compared to other disabilities) increased the likelihood of employment. Poverty alleviation programs designed for persons with disability in India should account for differences in employment by disability types and should be spatially targeted. Since persons with disability in rural and urban areas have different factors contributing to their employment, it is vital that government and service-planning organizations account for these differences when creating programs aimed at livelihood development.

  10. Employing Machine-Learning Methods to Study Young Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Vast amounts of data exist in the astronomical data archives, and yet a large number of sources remain unclassified. We developed a multi-wavelength pipeline to classify infrared sources. The pipeline uses supervised machine learning methods to classify objects into the appropriate categories. The program is fed data that is already classified to train it, and is then applied to unknown catalogues. The primary use for such a pipeline is the rapid classification and cataloging of data that would take a much longer time to classify otherwise. While our primary goal is to study young stellar objects (YSOs), the applications extend beyond the scope of this project. We present preliminary results from our analysis and discuss future applications.

  11. Family employment and child socioemotional behaviour: longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Steven; Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Law, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    Levels of paid employment in two parent and lone parent families have increased in the UK but evidence of its impact on child socioemotional behaviour is limited and inconsistent. We conducted a longitudinal analysis using the first four sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (9 months, 3 years, 5 years and 7 years) to investigate the influence of family employment trajectories in the early years on socioemotional behaviour at 7 years, unadjusted and adjusted for covariates. In addition, mothers' employment was investigated separately. Children from families where no parent was employed for one or more sweeps were at a greater risk of socioemotional problem behaviour compared with those where a parent was continuously employed, even after adjustment for covariates. Children of mothers who were non-employed for one or more sweeps were at greater risk of problem behaviour compared with mothers who were employed at all sweeps. Adjustment for covariates fully attenuated the excess risk for children whose mothers had moved into employment by the time they were 7 years. In contrast, the elevated risk associated with continuous non-employment and a single transition out of employment was attenuated after adjustment for early covariates, fathers' employment, household income and mothers' psychological distress at 7 years, but remained significant. Family and mothers' employment were associated with a lower risk of problem behaviour for children in middle childhood, in part explained by sociodemographic characteristics of families and the apparent psychological and socioeconomic benefits of employment. Results for mothers' transitions in or out of the labour market suggest that child problem behaviour is influenced by current status, over and above diverse earlier experiences of employment and non-employment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Family employment and child socioemotional behaviour: longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Steven; Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Law, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background Levels of paid employment in two parent and lone parent families have increased in the UK but evidence of its impact on child socioemotional behaviour is limited and inconsistent. Methods We conducted a longitudinal analysis using the first four sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (9 months, 3 years, 5 years and 7 years) to investigate the influence of family employment trajectories in the early years on socioemotional behaviour at 7 years, unadjusted and adjusted for covariates. In addition, mothers’ employment was investigated separately. Results Children from families where no parent was employed for one or more sweeps were at a greater risk of socioemotional problem behaviour compared with those where a parent was continuously employed, even after adjustment for covariates. Children of mothers who were non-employed for one or more sweeps were at greater risk of problem behaviour compared with mothers who were employed at all sweeps. Adjustment for covariates fully attenuated the excess risk for children whose mothers had moved into employment by the time they were 7 years. In contrast, the elevated risk associated with continuous non-employment and a single transition out of employment was attenuated after adjustment for early covariates, fathers’ employment, household income and mothers’ psychological distress at 7 years, but remained significant. Conclusions Family and mothers’ employment were associated with a lower risk of problem behaviour for children in middle childhood, in part explained by sociodemographic characteristics of families and the apparent psychological and socioeconomic benefits of employment. Results for mothers’ transitions in or out of the labour market suggest that child problem behaviour is influenced by current status, over and above diverse earlier experiences of employment and non-employment. PMID:24889054

  13. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiqun; Guo Xiaojuan; Qi Zhigang; Yao Li; Li Kuncheng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Materials and methods: We studied 14 patients with MCI and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by SPM2 to generate white matter volume maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MCI prominently including the bilateral temporal gyrus, the right anterior cingulate, the bilateral superior and medial frontal gyrus and right parietal angular gyrus. White matter reduction was more prominent in anterior regions than that in posterior regions. Conclusion: Whole-brain white matter reduction in MCI patients detected with VBM has special distribution which is in line with the white matter pathology of MCI.

  14. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhiqun [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China); Guo Xiaojuan [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); National Key Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); Qi Zhigang [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China); Yao Li [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); National Key Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng@xwh.ccmu.edu.c [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Materials and methods: We studied 14 patients with MCI and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by SPM2 to generate white matter volume maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MCI prominently including the bilateral temporal gyrus, the right anterior cingulate, the bilateral superior and medial frontal gyrus and right parietal angular gyrus. White matter reduction was more prominent in anterior regions than that in posterior regions. Conclusion: Whole-brain white matter reduction in MCI patients detected with VBM has special distribution which is in line with the white matter pathology of MCI.

  15. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Aihong [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China)], E-mail: Likuncheng@vip.sina.com; Li Lin; Shan Baoci [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Wang Yuping; Xue Sufang [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences (China)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Materials and methods: We studied 23 patients with MTLE and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The seizure focus was right sided in 11 patients and left sided in 12. The data were collected on a 1.5 T MR system and analyzed by SPM 99 to generate white matter density maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MTLE prominently including bilateral frontal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and corpus callosum. White matter reduction was also found in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in the left MTLE group. Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automated approach that is able to identify diffuse whole-brain white matter reduction in MTLE.

  16. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Aihong; Li Kuncheng; Li Lin; Shan Baoci; Wang Yuping; Xue Sufang

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Materials and methods: We studied 23 patients with MTLE and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The seizure focus was right sided in 11 patients and left sided in 12. The data were collected on a 1.5 T MR system and analyzed by SPM 99 to generate white matter density maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MTLE prominently including bilateral frontal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and corpus callosum. White matter reduction was also found in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in the left MTLE group. Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automated approach that is able to identify diffuse whole-brain white matter reduction in MTLE

  17. Differences in sickness absence between self-employed and employed doctors: a cross-sectional study on national sample of Norwegian doctors in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Doctors have a low prevalence of sickness absence. Employment status is a determinant in the multifactorial background of sickness absence. The effect of doctors’ employment status on sickness absence is unexplored. The study compares the number of sickness absence days during the last 12 months and the impact of employment status, psychosocial work stress, self-rated health and demographics on sickness absence between self-employed practitioners and employed hospital doctors in Norway. Methods The study population consisted of a representative sample of 521 employed interns and consultants and 313 self-employed GPs and private practice specialists in Norway, who received postal questionnaires in 2010. The questionnaires contained items on sickness absence days during the last 12 months, employment status, demographics, self-rated health, professional autonomy and psychosocial work stress. Results 84% (95% CI 80 to 88%) of self-employed and 60% (95% CI 55 to 64%) of employed doctors reported no absence at all last year. In three multivariate logistic regression models with sickness absence as response variable, employment category was a highly significant predictor for absence vs. no absence, 1 to 3 days of absence vs. no absence and 4 to 99 days of absence vs. no absence), while in a model with 100 or more days of absence vs. no absence, there was no difference between employment categories, suggesting that serious chronic disease or injury is less dependent on employment category. Average or poor self-rated health and low professional autonomy, were also significant predictors of sickness absence, while psychosocial work stress, age and gender were not. Conclusion Self-employed GPs and private practice specialist reported lower sickness absence than employed hospital doctors. Differences in sickness compensation, and organisational and individual factors may to a certain extent explain this finding. PMID:24885230

  18. Generalized Tensor-Based Morphometry of HIV/AIDS Using Multivariate Statistics on Deformation Tensors

    OpenAIRE

    Lepore, Natasha; Brun, Caroline; Chou, Yi-Yu; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Dutton, Rebecca A.; Hayashi, Kiralee M.; Luders, Eileen; Lopez, Oscar L.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Toga, Arthur W.; Becker, James T.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of a new multivariate method for tensor-based morphometry (TBM). Statistics on Riemannian manifolds are developed that exploit the full information in deformation tensor fields. In TBM, multiple brain images are warped to a common neuroanatomical template via 3-D nonlinear registration; the resulting deformation fields are analyzed statistically to identify group differences in anatomy. Rather than study the Jacobian determinant (volume expansion factor...

  19. Employer branding i Statens vegvesen: en studie av hvordan employer branding kan vinkles for å forsterke organisasjonstilknytning

    OpenAIRE

    Sadovic, Una

    2017-01-01

    Masteroppgave - OLA 4090 Organisasjon, ledelse og arbeid. Universitetet i Oslo. Denne oppgaven vil berøre temaet employer branding. Et sterkt employer brand er med på å øke attraktiviteten til en arbeidsplass og medvirker på hvor lenge arbeidstakere blir værende hos en arbeidsgiver. Arbeid med employer branding kan ofte deles inn i to perspektiver, et internt og eksternt. Ifølge Maxwell og Knox (2009) er de fleste forskere opptatt av hva som gjør en organisasjon attraktiv for potensielle a...

  20. Antecedents of perceived graduate employability: A study of student volunteers in a community-based organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suki Goodman

    2016-05-01

    Research purpose: This study aimed at investigating motivations to volunteer, perceived graduate competencies, extent of participating in volunteering, along with gender and faculty of registration, as antecedents of perceived graduate employability among student volunteers and to compare the relative contributions of these antecedences in predicting perceived employability. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional research design and a quantitative data collection method were used. The relative weights analysis was conducted to answer the research question. Main findings: Overall, the results demonstrated, firstly, that different sets of predictors statistically significantly predict Perceived External Employability and Perceived Internal Employability, respectively. In the case of Perceived External Employability, a biographical predictor (faculty of registration is the strongest predictor, whereas in the case of Internal Employability, a questionnaire measurement (of Social Motivation comes out on top. Practical implications/managerial implications: The social motivation factor as a predictor of perceived internal employability suggests that the more students valued the social interactions brought about by their volunteering activities, the better they saw themselves equipped for employment. This gives some weight to the argument that engaging in volunteer activities can help equip students with competencies that make them more prepared for the world of work. Contribution/value-add: The study provided support for the construct validity of the scale for the measurement of perceived employability and evidence that different sets of predictors contribute to perceived internal and external employability.

  1. Maternal employment and breast-feeding initiation: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer S; Griffiths, Lucy J; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

    2007-05-01

    Maternal employment rates have increased rapidly in recent years and little is known about how this influences whether women start breast feeding. We examined data from the Millennium Cohort Study to determine whether a mother's employment status (full-time, part-time, self-employed, on leave, not employed/student) and employment characteristics are related to breast-feeding initiation. This analysis comprised 14 830 white mothers from Britain and Ireland (6917 employed) with singleton babies, born from 2000 to 2002. Information was obtained on infant feeding history and mother's employment when the cohort child was 9 months old. We found that women employed full-time were less likely to initiate breast feeding than mothers who were not employed/students, after adjustment for confounding factors [adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89, 0.96]; however, there were no differences in breast-feeding initiation between mothers employed part-time, self-employed, or on leave and mothers who were not employed/students. Among employed mothers, those who returned to work within 4 months postpartum were less likely to start breast feeding than women who returned at 5 or 6 months [aRR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92, 0.99], and women who returned within the first 6 weeks were much less likely to start breast feeding [aRR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.77, 0.94]. Mothers returning for financial reasons were also less likely to initiate breast feeding [aRR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.93, 0.99] than those who returned for other reasons. Policies to increase breast feeding should address how both the time and circumstances of a mother's return to employment postpartum influence whether she decides to start breast feeding.

  2. Extending a model of precarious employment: A qualitative study of immigrant workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porthé, Victoria; Ahonen, Emily; Vázquez, M Luisa; Pope, Catherine; Agudelo, Andrés Alonso; García, Ana M; Amable, Marcelo; Benavides, Fernando G; Benach, Joan

    2010-04-01

    Since the 1980s, changes in the labor market have modified power relations between capital and labor, leading to greater levels of precarious employment among workers. Globalization has led to a growth in migration, as people leave their countries in search of work. We aimed to describe the dimensions of precarious employment for immigrant workers in Spain. Qualitative study using analytic induction. Criterion sampling was used to recruit 129 immigrant workers in Spain with documented and undocumented administrative status. Data quality was ensured by triangulation. Immigrant workers reported that precarious employment is characterized by high job instability, a lack of power for negotiating employment conditions, and defenselessness against high labor demands. They described insufficient wages, long working hours, limited social benefits, and difficulty in exercising their rights. Undocumented workers reported greater defenselessness and worse employment conditions. This study allowed us to describe the dimensions of precarious employment in immigrant workers. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Recommended Skill Requirements of Recent Management Information Systems Graduates for Employment: A Modified Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Michael A., Sr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Modified Delphi study was to achieve a consensus and forecast a prediction from expert IT hiring managers on what skills are required of MIS graduates for employment. In doing so, guidance could be provided to academic leaders who design curricula for MIS students on the required skills for employment. This study was conducted…

  4. Individual Placement and Support in Spinal Cord Injury: A Longitudinal Observational Study of Employment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottomanelli, Lisa; Goetz, Lance L; Barnett, Scott D; Njoh, Eni; Dixon, Thomas M; Holmes, Sally Ann; LePage, James P; Ota, Doug; Sabharwal, Sunil; White, Kevin T

    2017-08-01

    To determine the effects of a 24-month program of Individual Placement and Support (IPS) supported employment (SE) on employment outcomes for veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI). Longitudinal, observational multisite study of a single-arm, nonrandomized cohort. SCI centers in the Veterans Health Administration (n=7). Veterans with SCI (N=213) enrolled during an episode of either inpatient hospital care (24.4%) or outpatient care (75.6%). More than half the sample (59.2%) had a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). IPS SE for 24 months. Competitive employment. Over the 24-month period, 92 of 213 IPS participants obtained competitive jobs for an overall employment rate of 43.2%. For the subsample of participants without TBI enrolled as outpatients (n=69), 36 obtained competitive jobs for an overall employment rate of 52.2%. Overall, employed participants averaged 38.2±29.7 weeks of employment, with an average time to first employment of 348.3±220.0 days. Nearly 25% of first jobs occurred within 4 to 6 months of beginning the program. Similar employment characteristics were observed in the subsample without TBI history enrolled as outpatients. Almost half of the veterans with SCI participating in the 24-month IPS program as part of their ongoing SCI care achieved competitive employment, consistent with their expressed preferences at the start of the study. Among a subsample of veterans without TBI history enrolled as outpatients, employment rates were >50%. Time to first employment was highly variable, but quite long in many instances. These findings support offering continued IPS services as part of ongoing SCI care to achieve positive employment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal employment and early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, S. S.; Cole, T. J.; Law, C.; Millennium Cohort Study Child Health Group, The

    2008-01-01

    Background: In most developed countries, maternal employment has increased rapidly. Changing patterns of family life have been suggested to be contributing to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity. Objectives: Our primary objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and partner employment and overweight in children aged 3 years. Our secondary objective was to investigate factors related to early childhood overweight only among mothers in employment. Design: Cohort study. Su...

  6. Maternal employment and early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, S. S.; Cole, T. J.; Law, C.; Millennium Cohort Study Child Hlth

    2008-01-01

    Background: In most developed countries, maternal employment has increased rapidly. Changing patterns of family life have been suggested to be contributing to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity.Objectives: Our primary objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and partner employment and overweight in children aged 3 years. Our secondary objective was to investigate factors related to early childhood overweight only among mothers in employment.Design: Cohort study.Subje...

  7. Multivariate tensor-based morphometry on surfaces: application to mapping ventricular abnormalities in HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Zhang, Jie; Gutman, Boris; Chan, Tony F; Becker, James T; Aizenstein, Howard J; Lopez, Oscar L; Tamburo, Robert J; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2010-02-01

    Here we developed a new method, called multivariate tensor-based surface morphometry (TBM), and applied it to study lateral ventricular surface differences associated with HIV/AIDS. Using concepts from differential geometry and the theory of differential forms, we created mathematical structures known as holomorphic one-forms, to obtain an efficient and accurate conformal parameterization of the lateral ventricular surfaces in the brain. The new meshing approach also provides a natural way to register anatomical surfaces across subjects, and improves on prior methods as it handles surfaces that branch and join at complex 3D junctions. To analyze anatomical differences, we computed new statistics from the Riemannian surface metrics-these retain multivariate information on local surface geometry. We applied this framework to analyze lateral ventricular surface morphometry in 3D MRI data from 11 subjects with HIV/AIDS and 8 healthy controls. Our method detected a 3D profile of surface abnormalities even in this small sample. Multivariate statistics on the local tensors gave better effect sizes for detecting group differences, relative to other TBM-based methods including analysis of the Jacobian determinant, the largest and smallest eigenvalues of the surface metric, and the pair of eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix. The resulting analysis pipeline may improve the power of surface-based morphometry studies of the brain. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thanatophoric dysplasia. Correlation among bone X-ray morphometry, histopathology, and gene analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E.; Donzelli, Carla M.; Izzi, Claudia; Baldi, Maurizia; Di Gaetano, Giuseppe; Bondioni, MariaPia

    2014-01-01

    Documentation through X-ray morphometry and histology of the steady phenotype expressed by FGFR3 gene mutation and interpolation of mechanical factors on spine and long bones dysmorphism. Long bones and spine of eight thanatophoric dysplasia and three age-matched controls without skeletal dysplasia were studied after pregnancy termination between the 18th and the 22nd week with X-ray morphometry, histology, and molecular analysis. Statistical analysis with comparison between TD cases and controls and intraobserver/interobserver variation were applied to X-ray morphometric data. Generalized shortening of long bones was observed in TD. A variable distribution of axial deformities was correlated with chondrocyte proliferation inhibition, defective seriate cell columns organization, and final formation of the primary metaphyseal trabeculae. The periosteal longitudinal growth was not equally inhibited, so that decoupling with the cartilage growth pattern produced the typical lateral spurs around the metaphyseal growth plates. In spine, platyspondyly was due to a reduced height of the vertebral body anterior ossification center, while its enlargement in the transversal plane was not restricted. The peculiar radiographic and histopathological features of TD bones support the hypothesis of interpolation of mechanical factors with FGFR3 gene mutations. The correlated observations of X-ray morphometry, histopathology, and gene analysis prompted the following diagnostic workup for TD: (1) prenatal sonography suspicion of skeletal dysplasia; (2) post-mortem X-ray morphometry for provisional diagnosis; (3) confirmation by genetic tests (hot-spot exons 7, 10, 15, and 19 analysis with 80-90 % sensibility); (4) in negative cases if histopathology confirms TD diagnosis, research of rare mutations through sequential analysis of FGFR3 gene. (orig.)

  9. Thanatophoric dysplasia. Correlation among bone X-ray morphometry, histopathology, and gene analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E. [University of Brescia, Orthopaedic Clinic, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Donzelli, Carla M. [Spedali Civili di Brescia, Morbid Anatomy Department, Brescia (Italy); Izzi, Claudia [University of Brescia, Prenatal Diagnosis Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Brescia (Italy); Baldi, Maurizia [Hospital Galliera, Human Genetic Laboratory, Genova (Italy); Di Gaetano, Giuseppe; Bondioni, MariaPia [University of Brescia, Paediatric Radiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    Documentation through X-ray morphometry and histology of the steady phenotype expressed by FGFR3 gene mutation and interpolation of mechanical factors on spine and long bones dysmorphism. Long bones and spine of eight thanatophoric dysplasia and three age-matched controls without skeletal dysplasia were studied after pregnancy termination between the 18th and the 22nd week with X-ray morphometry, histology, and molecular analysis. Statistical analysis with comparison between TD cases and controls and intraobserver/interobserver variation were applied to X-ray morphometric data. Generalized shortening of long bones was observed in TD. A variable distribution of axial deformities was correlated with chondrocyte proliferation inhibition, defective seriate cell columns organization, and final formation of the primary metaphyseal trabeculae. The periosteal longitudinal growth was not equally inhibited, so that decoupling with the cartilage growth pattern produced the typical lateral spurs around the metaphyseal growth plates. In spine, platyspondyly was due to a reduced height of the vertebral body anterior ossification center, while its enlargement in the transversal plane was not restricted. The peculiar radiographic and histopathological features of TD bones support the hypothesis of interpolation of mechanical factors with FGFR3 gene mutations. The correlated observations of X-ray morphometry, histopathology, and gene analysis prompted the following diagnostic workup for TD: (1) prenatal sonography suspicion of skeletal dysplasia; (2) post-mortem X-ray morphometry for provisional diagnosis; (3) confirmation by genetic tests (hot-spot exons 7, 10, 15, and 19 analysis with 80-90 % sensibility); (4) in negative cases if histopathology confirms TD diagnosis, research of rare mutations through sequential analysis of FGFR3 gene. (orig.)

  10. University Studies as a Side Job: Causes and Consequences of Massive Student Employment in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerkens, Maarja; Magi, Eve; Lill, Liis

    2011-01-01

    Student employment is increasingly common in many countries. Compared to earlier decades, not only more students work but they also work longer hours. Among European countries Estonia is one of the clear "leaders" in student employment. This study uses survey data from 2,496 students in Estonian public and private universities to examine…

  11. How Persons with a Neuromuscular Disease Perceive Employment Participation : A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baziel van Engelen; Yvonne Heerkens; Josephine Engels; Astrid Kinébanian; Ton Satink; Marie-Antoinette van Minis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A qualitative study was carried out to understand how people with a slow progressive adult type neuromuscular disease (NMD) perceive employment participation. Methods 16 paid employed persons with NMD were interviewed in open, in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using the constant

  12. Keep the expert! Occupational expertise, perceived employability and job search: A study across age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, A. de; Forrier, A.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; De Cuyper, N.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE - In the current war for talent employers are concerned about the idea that the best employees are more likely to leave the organization for another employer (i.e. the management paradox). This study tests this management paradox. The purpose of this paper is to advance our understandings

  13. Aggregates morphometry in a Latosol (Oxisol under different soil management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Eloize Carducci

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in soil physical properties are inherent in land use, mainly in superficial layers. Structural alterations can directly influence distribution, stability and especially morphometry of soil aggregates, which hence will affect pore system and the dynamic process of water and air in soil. Among the methods used to measure these changes, morphometry is a complementary tool to the classic methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate structural quality of a Latosol (Oxisol, under different management systems, using morphometric techniques. Treatments consisted of soil under no-tillage (NT; pasture (P, in which both had been cultivated for ten years, and an area under native vegetation (NV – Savannah like vegetation. Aggregates were sampled at depths of 0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m, retained on sieves with 9.52 – 4.76 mm, 4.76 – 1.0mm, 1.0 – 0.5mm diameter ranges. Aggregate morphometry was assessed by 2D images from scanner via QUANTPORO software. The analyzed variables were: area, perimeter, aspect, roughness, Ferret diameter and compactness. Moreover, disturbed samples were collected at the same depths to determine particle size, aggregate stability in water, water-dispersible clay, clay flocculation index and organic matter content. It was observed that different soil management systems have modified soil aggregate morphology as well as physical attributes; and management effects’ magnitude increased from NT to P.

  14. Anatomic Variation in Morphometry of Human Coracoid Process among Asian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Fathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic origin plays an important role in bone morphometry. Studies examining the influence of coracoid process have focused primarily on adults and have not included people from diverse Asian ethnic backgrounds. Our goal was to explore ethnic differences in morphometry of coracoid among Asian population. We performed morphometric measurements of coracoid process on cadaveric shoulders and shoulder CT scans from 118 specimens. The cadaveric sample included Indian (46%, Chinese (27%, and Myanmarese (27% subjects, while the CT scans sample included Chinese (67% and Malay (33% subjects. The morphometric measurements were performed using digital caliper and software developed at Golden Horses Health Sanctuary (GHHS. In the Indian cadaveric shoulders, the coracoid process is better developed than the other groups with the exception of the tip width of coracoid process. There are significant differences in almost all measurements (P<0.05 between the ethnic groups. On the other hand, the morphometry of coracoid process from CT scans data is bigger in Chinese than Malay subjects when stratified by sex (P<0.05. Moreover, in all morphometric measurements, the females had smaller measurements than males (P<0.05. Understanding such differences is important in anatomy, forensic and biological identity, and orthopaedic and shoulder surgeries.

  15. Introduction to the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health Employment Conditions Network (EMCONET) study, with a glossary on employment relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Santana, Vilma; Quinlan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Although the conditions and power relations of employment are known to be crucial health determinants for workers and their families, the nature of these relations and their effects on health have yet to be fully researched. Several types of employment--precarious employment in developed countries; informal sectors, child labor, slavery, and bonded labor in developing countries--expose workers to risky working conditions. Hazardous work and occupation-related diseases kill approximately 1,500 workers, globally, every day. Growing scientific evidence suggests that particular employment conditions, such as job insecurity and precarious employment, create adverse health effects; yet the limited number of studies and the poor quality of their methods prevent our understanding, globally, the complexity of employer-employee power relations, working conditions, levels of social protections, and the reality of employment-related health inequalities. This article introduces a special section on employment-related health inequalities, derived from the EMCONET approach, which focuses on (1) describing major methods and sources of information; (2) presenting theoretical models at the micro and macro levels; (3) presenting a typology of labor markets and welfare states worldwide; (4) describing the main findings in employment policies, including four key points for implementing strategies; and (5) suggesting new research developments, a policy agenda, and recommendations. This introduction includes a glossary of terms in the emerging area of employment conditions and health inequalities.

  16. Dyslexia and voxel-based morphometry: correlations between five behavioural measures of dyslexia and gray and white matter volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamboer, P.; Scholte, H.S.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in

  17. A longitudinal study of employment and skill acquisition among individuals with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Dawn L; Collins, Michael D; Dodder, Richard A

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation, especially the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990, generated the closure of institutions for people with disabilities and inclusion into community residences and employment. It has been well documented that individuals with developmental disabilities often experience difficulties with employment including both obtaining and maintaining jobs, and many researchers have looked for ways to make employment more successful [McConkey, R. & Mezza F. (2001). Employment aspirations of people with learning disabilities attending day centers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 5(4), 309-318; Stevens, G. (2002). Employers' perceptions and practice in the employability of disabled people: a survey of companies in south east UK. Disability and Society, 17(7), 779-796; Capella, M., Roessler, R., & Hemmeria, K. (2002). Work-related skills awareness in high-school students with disabilities. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 33(2), 17-23; Ingraham, K., Rahimi, M., Tsang, H., Chan, F., & Oulvey, E. (2001). Work support groups in state vocational rehabilitation agency settings: a case study. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Skills, 5(1), 6-21; Gosling, V. & Cotterill, L. (2000). An employment project as a route to social inclusion for people with learning difficulties? Disability and Society, 15(7), 1001-1018; Neitupski, J. & Hamre-Nietupski, S. (2000). A systematic process for carving supported employment positions for people with severe disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 12(2), 103-119]. While research has accumulated that has examined predictors of successful employment, this research assessed longitudinal outcomes of employment. Data were obtained from an existing data set of all known persons receiving services from the Developmental Disabilities Division of the Oklahoma Department of Human Services (N=2760). Results indicated that as people moved to employment, scores on adaptive skills increased, that as people moved

  18. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and mental health. Method: The authors conducted a systematic review of 48 longitudinal studies conducted in Australia, Canada, Croatia, Germany, Ireland, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States…

  19. Employability of mentally ill persons in India: A self-report-based population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chellamuthu Ramasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The employment status of mentally ill patients is a reflection of their productivity, control of illness besides providing therapeutic benefits and integration into mainstream society. Owing to the associated stigma, self-reporting of mental illness (SRMI often is rare. Census exercise of India in 2011 provides an insight of SRMI and employment status of such people. This study was undertaken to consider the role of gender, age group, and place on the employment status of SRMI. Methodology: Frequency of SRMI, age group, gender, and employment status was gathered from Indian 2011 census sources. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were employed. P≤ 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Majority (68.6% of the SRMI people resides in rural areas, in the economically productive age group of 15–59 years (75.88% and often males (57.51%. Of the SRMI as reported in the data, 78.62% were not employed while 2.4% of them were currently employed. The employability frequency distributions of SMRIs were statistically different in terms of area, age group, and gender with significance. Discussion: Although the mental illness data of 2011 census was rejected by mental health professionals citing discrepancy and underestimating of the prevalence of mental illness, it provides a robust estimate of the employability, self-reporting tendency of mental illness. The association of the factors provides a unique insight into SRMIs in India. Conclusion: Understanding the interplay of factors may yield robust estimates and clues for policy framers to formulate employment-related policies for employment opportunities for mentally ill patients.

  20. Structural MRI in Frontotemporal Dementia: Comparisons between Hippocampal Volumetry, Tensor-Based Morphometry and Voxel-Based Morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Ruiz, Miguel Ángel; Hartikainen, Päivi; Koikkalainen, Juha; Wolz, Robin; Julkunen, Valtteri; Niskanen, Eini; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Kivipelto, Miia; Vanninen, Ritva; Rueckert, Daniel; Liu, Yawu; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Soininen, Hilkka

    2012-01-01

    Background MRI is an important clinical tool for diagnosing dementia-like diseases such as Frontemporal Dementia (FTD). However there is a need to develop more accurate and standardized MRI analysis methods. Objective To compare FTD with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) with three automatic MRI analysis methods - Hippocampal Volumetry (HV), Tensor-based Morphometry (TBM) and Voxel-based Morphometry (VBM), in specific regions of interest in order to determine the highest classification accuracy. Methods Thirty-seven patients with FTD, 46 patients with AD, 26 control subjects, 16 patients with progressive MCI (PMCI) and 48 patients with stable MCI (SMCI) were examined with HV, TBM for shape change, and VBM for gray matter density. We calculated the Correct Classification Rate (CCR), sensitivity (SS) and specificity (SP) between the study groups. Results We found unequivocal results differentiating controls from FTD with HV (hippocampus left side) (CCR = 0.83; SS = 0.84; SP = 0.80), with TBM (hippocampus and amygdala (CCR = 0.80/SS = 0.71/SP = 0.94), and with VBM (all the regions studied, especially in lateral ventricle frontal horn, central part and occipital horn) (CCR = 0.87/SS = 0.81/SP = 0.96). VBM achieved the highest accuracy in differentiating AD and FTD (CCR = 0.72/SS = 0.67/SP = 0.76), particularly in lateral ventricle (frontal horn, central part and occipital horn) (CCR = 0.73), whereas TBM in superior frontal gyrus also achieved a high accuracy (CCR = 0.71/SS = 0.68/SP = 0.73). TBM resulted in low accuracy (CCR = 0.62) in the differentiation of AD from FTD using all regions of interest, with similar results for HV (CCR = 0.55). Conclusion Hippocampal atrophy is present not only in AD but also in FTD. Of the methods used, VBM achieved the highest accuracy in its ability to differentiate between FTD and AD. PMID:23285078

  1. Dog sperm head morphometry: its diversity and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Soler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs have been under strong artificial selection as a consequence of their relationship with man. Differences between breeds are evident that could be reflected in seminal characteristics. The present study was to evaluate differences in sperm head morphometry between seven well-defined breeds of dog: the British Bulldog, Chihuahua, German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, Staffordshire Terrier, and Valencian Rat Hunting dog. Semen samples were obtained by masturbation and smears stained with Diff-Quik. Morphometric analysis (CASA-Morph produced four size and four shape parameters. Length, Ellipticity, and Elongation showed higher differences between breeds. MANOVA revealed differences among all breeds. Considering the whole dataset, principal component analysis (PCA showed that PC1 was related to head shape and PC2 to size. Procluster analysis showed the British Bulldog to be the most isolated breed, followed by the German Shepherd. The PCA breed by breed showed the Chihuahua, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, and Staffordshire Terrier to have PC1 related to shape and PC2 to size, whereas the British Bulldog, Valencia Rat Hunting dog, and German Shepherd had PC1 related to size and PC2 to shape. The dendrogram for cluster groupings and the distance between them showed the British Bulldog to be separated from the rest of the breeds. Future work on dog semen must take into account the large differences in the breeds′ sperm characteristics. The results provide a base for future work on phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of dogs, based on their seminal characteristics.

  2. Ultrastructural morphometry of parotid acinar cells following fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grehn, A.-L.; Gustafsson, H.; Franzen, L.; Thornell, L.-E.; Henriksson, R.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects on the ultrastructure of parotid glands after fractionated irradiation. The method implemented involved 5 x 6 Gy and 5 x 8 Gy, Monday to Friday 6 MV photons. By unilateral irradiation, the contralateral parotid gland served as a control. Although irradiation diminished the acinar cell density in light microscopic sections from 75 to 32% after 5 x 8 Gy of irradiation, ultrastructural morphometry could not detect any statistically significant differences in acinar cell size, nuclear size, nuclear density, granule area, mean granule size, or granule density. In general, greater differences were seen between rats receiving 30 or 40 Gy, on both the irradiated and the control side, than between the irradiated side and the control side. This was interpreted as due to differences in the nutritional state of the animals. This analysis concluded that individual acinar cells that survive irradiation seem not to be damaged in the long term when evaluated at the ultrastructural level. The study further stresses the importance of adequate sampling sizes and the use of adequate controls. (author)

  3. [Morphometry of pulmonary tissue: From manual to high throughput automation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallon, C; Soulet, D; Tremblay, Y

    2017-12-01

    Weibel's research has shown that any alteration of the pulmonary structure has effects on function. This demonstration required a quantitative analysis of lung structures called morphometry. This is possible thanks to stereology, a set of methods based on principles of geometry and statistics. His work has helped to better understand the morphological harmony of the lung, which is essential for its proper functioning. An imbalance leads to pathophysiology such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in neonates. It is by studying this imbalance that new therapeutic approaches can be developed. These advances are achievable only through morphometric analytical methods, which are increasingly precise and focused, in particular thanks to the high-throughput automation of these methods. This review makes a comparison between an automated method that we developed in the laboratory and semi-manual methods of morphometric analyzes. The automation of morphometric measurements is a fundamental asset in the study of pulmonary pathophysiology because it is an assurance of robustness, reproducibility and speed. This tool will thus contribute significantly to the acceleration of the race for the development of new drugs. Copyright © 2017 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Dog sperm head morphometry: its diversity and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Carles; Alambiaga, Ana; Martí, Maria A; García-Molina, Almudena; Valverde, Anthony; Contell, Jesús; Campos, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Dogs have been under strong artificial selection as a consequence of their relationship with man. Differences between breeds are evident that could be reflected in seminal characteristics. The present study was to evaluate differences in sperm head morphometry between seven well-defined breeds of dog: the British Bulldog, Chihuahua, German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, Staffordshire Terrier, and Valencian Rat Hunting dog. Semen samples were obtained by masturbation and smears stained with Diff-Quik. Morphometric analysis (CASA-Morph) produced four size and four shape parameters. Length, Ellipticity, and Elongation showed higher differences between breeds. MANOVA revealed differences among all breeds. Considering the whole dataset, principal component analysis (PCA) showed that PC1 was related to head shape and PC2 to size. Procluster analysis showed the British Bulldog to be the most isolated breed, followed by the German Shepherd. The PCA breed by breed showed the Chihuahua, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, and Staffordshire Terrier to have PC1 related to shape and PC2 to size, whereas the British Bulldog, Valencia Rat Hunting dog, and German Shepherd had PC1 related to size and PC2 to shape. The dendrogram for cluster groupings and the distance between them showed the British Bulldog to be separated from the rest of the breeds. Future work on dog semen must take into account the large differences in the breeds' sperm characteristics. The results provide a base for future work on phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of dogs, based on their seminal characteristics.

  5. Validation of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueyu; Chen, Kewei; Guo, Xiaojuan; Yao, Li

    2007-03-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is an automated and objective image analysis technique for detecting differences in regional concentration or volume of brain tissue composition based on structural magnetic resonance (MR) images. VBM has been used widely to evaluate brain morphometric differences between different populations, but there isn't an evaluation system for its validation until now. In this study, a quantitative and objective evaluation system was established in order to assess VBM performance. We recruited twenty normal volunteers (10 males and 10 females, age range 20-26 years, mean age 22.6 years). Firstly, several focal lesions (hippocampus, frontal lobe, anterior cingulate, back of hippocampus, back of anterior cingulate) were simulated in selected brain regions using real MRI data. Secondly, optimized VBM was performed to detect structural differences between groups. Thirdly, one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test were used to assess the accuracy and sensitivity of VBM analysis. The results revealed that VBM was a good detective tool in majority of brain regions, even in controversial brain region such as hippocampus in VBM study. Generally speaking, much more severity of focal lesion was, better VBM performance was. However size of focal lesion had little effects on VBM analysis.

  6. Employment Outcome Ten Years after Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauwmeijer, Erik; Heijenbrok-Kal, Majanka H; Haitsma, Ian K; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the probability of employment and predictors of employment in patients with moderate- to- severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) over 10-year follow-up. One hundred nine patients (18-67 years) were included with follow-up measurements 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months and 10 years post-TBI. Potential predictors of employment probability included patient characteristics, injury severity factors, functional outcome measured at discharge from the hospital with the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), Barthel Index (BI), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and the Functional Assessment Measure (FAM). Forty-eight patients (42%) completed the 10-year follow-up. Three months post-TBI, 12% were employed, which gradually, but significantly, increased to 57% after 2-years follow-up (p employed persons had less-severe TBI, shorter length of hospital stay (LOS), and higher scores on the GOS, BI, FIM, and FAM at hospital discharge than unemployed persons. No significant differences in age, sex, educational level, living with partner/family or not, pre-injury employment, professional category, psychiatric symptoms, or discharge destination were found. Longitudinal multivariable analysis showed that time, pre-injury employment, FAM, and LOS were independent predictors of employment probability. We concluded that employment probability 10 years after moderate or severe TBI is related to injury severity and pre-injury employment. Future studies on vocational rehabilitation should focus on modifiable factors and take into consideration the effects of national legislation and national labor market forces.

  7. Employer Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Stroblová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the Master Thesis is to describe how to build Employer Brand a company. It is based on the description of Employer Branding project of a particular company and the evaluation its process. The thesis is a case study and consists of theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part focuses on trends and changes in leadership approach, definition of Employer Branding and HR Marketing. The practical part deals with the brand building process itself, describes the outputs of the proj...

  8. [Economic development and married women's employment in Taiwan: a study of female marginalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y

    1994-07-01

    As in other developing countries, the industrial development in Taiwan seems to marginalize female workers. This study tries to examine the trend of women's employment status, using both macro- and micro-level data. The statistics suggest that female employment had significantly declined during the early stages of industrialization. Although rapid economic development has expanded women's job opportunities, most women are concentrated in lower-status jobs and the informal sector. Informal employment is especially prevalent among married women. In the micro-level analysis the study examines the factors that led to the marginalization of women's labor force. The empirical analysis applies a multinomial logistic model to a 1980 KAP (knowledge, attitude, and practice) survey sample of 3859 married women. The results suggest that married women's work patterns in terms of formal vs. informal employment are determined by the family organization rather than by labor market conditions. Wives from families with small businesses are more likely to be involved in informal employment. Wives also tend to work informally when they have young children. On the other hand, the effects of labor market conditions are mediated by the types of family economy. Therefore the women's informal employment in Taiwan, as a characteristic of female marginalization, is the result of the sexual division of labor in the family organization and the prevalence of the family business, rather than that of being excluded into the marginal forms of employment through the process of capitalistic production, as argued by the female marginalization theorists.

  9. Sex differences in impulsivity and brain morphometry in methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogachi, Shannon; Chang, Linda; Alicata, Daniel; Cunningham, Eric; Ernst, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive stimulant, and METH users have abnormal brain structures and function. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between impulsivity, brain structures, and possible sex-specific differences between METH users and non-drug using Controls. Structural MRI and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) questionnaire were completed in 124 subjects: 62 METH (ages 41.2 ± 1.4 years, 34 males) and 62 Controls (ages 43.3 ± 2.3 years, 36 males). Independent and interactive effects of METH use status and sex were evaluated. Relationships between METH usage characteristics, brain morphometry, and impulsivity scores were examined. METH users had higher impulsivity scores, on both the Cognitive and Behavioral Factors from the BIS (p impulsivity (interaction-p ≤ 0.05). Only female METH users showed relatively larger nucleus accumbens (interaction-p = 0.03). Greater impulsivity and thinner frontal cortices in METH users are validated. Larger superior frontal cortex in male METH users with greater cognitive impulsivity suggest decreased dendritic pruning during adolescence might have contributed to their impulsive and drug use behaviors. In the female METH users, smaller frontal cortices and the associated greater impulsivity suggest greater neurotoxicity to these brain regions, while their relatively larger nucleus accumbens suggest an estrogen-mediated neuroprotective glial response. Men and women may be affected differently by METH use.

  10. Stereological Cell Morphometry In Right Atrium Myocardium Of Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarim-De-Lacerda, Carlos A...; Hureau, Jacques

    1986-07-01

    The mechanism by which the cardiac impulse is propagated in normal hearts from its origin in the sinus node to the atrio-ventricular node has not been agreed on fully. We studied the "internodal posterior tract" through the crista terminalis by light microscopy and stereological morphometry. The hearts of 12 Papio cynocephalus were perfused , after sacrifice,with phosphate-buffered formol saline. The regions of the crista terminalis (CT), interatrial septum (IAS), atrioventricular bundle (AVB) and interventricular septum (IVS) were cut off and embedded in paraplast and sectioned (10 4m). The multipurpose test system M 42 was superimposed over the photomicrographs (1,890 points test, ESR = 2%) to the stereological computing. The quantitative results show that the cells from CT were more closely relationed with IAS cells than others cells (IVS and AVB cells). This results are not a morphological evidence to establish the specificity of the "internodal posterior tract". The cellular arrangement and anatomical variation in CT myocardium is very important.

  11. Self-employment as a solution for attitudinal barriers: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, Melanie C

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a case study to examine attitudinal barriers to employment and underemployment. We follow the career path of PR, a woman with multiple physical impairments, as she seeks financial independence through several employment strategies. In these, she faced attitudinal barriers and employment situations without opportunity for advancement. Eventually, PR opens her own business, turning to an alternative loan program to acquire the funds necessary to purchase a ready-made vehicle that matches her needs for accessible transportation. Use of this vehicle to provide delivery services for her business has more than doubled her income.

  12. E-government and employment services a case study in effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Fugini, Maria Grazia; Valles, Ramon Salvador

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the factors that affect the efficiency and effectiveness of electronic government (e-Government) by analyzing two employment- service systems in Italy and Catalonia: the Borsa Lavoro Lombardia Portal (Lombardy Employment Services Portal) and the Servei d'Ocupació de Catalunya (Catalan Employment Services Portal). The evaluation methodology used in the case studies and the related set of technical, social, and economic indicators are clearly described. The technological and organizational features of the systems of the two systems are then compared and their impacts assessed

  13. Demographic characteristics and employment among people with severe mental illness in a multisite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke-Miller, Jane K; Cook, Judith A; Grey, Dennis D; Razzano, Lisa A; Blyler, Crystal R; Leff, H Stephen; Gold, Paul B; Goldberg, Richard W; Mueser, Kim T; Cook, William L; Hoppe, Sue K; Stewart, Michelle; Blankertz, Laura; Dudek, Kenn; Taylor, Amanda L; Carey, Martha Ann

    2006-04-01

    People with psychiatric disabilities experience disproportionately high rates of unemployment. As research evidence is mounting regarding effective vocational programs, interest is growing in identifying subgroup variations. Data from a multisite research and demonstration program were analyzed to identify demographic characteristics associated with employment outcomes, after adjusting for the effects of program, services, and study site. Longitudinal analyses found that people with more recent work history, younger age, and higher education were more likely to achieve competitive employment and to work more hours per month, while race and gender effects varied by employment outcome. Results provide strong evidence of demographic subgroup variation and need.

  14. Employment status and sick-leave following obesity surgery: a five-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John Roger; Hernæs, Ulrikke J V; Hufthammer, Karl Ove; Våge, Villy

    2015-01-01

    Background. Severe obesity is a risk factor for lower participation in paid work, but whether employment increases and sick leave decreases after obesity surgery is not well documented. Methods. We assessed 224 Norwegian patients with severe obesity (mean age: 40; mean BMI: 49; 61% female) regarding employment status (working versus not working) and the number of days of sick leave during the preceding 12 months, before and five years after obesity surgery (75% follow-up rate). Logistic regression analysis was used to study preoperative predictors of employment status after surgery. Results. There were no change in the employment rate over time (54% versus 58%), but the number of days of sick leave per year was significantly reduced, from a mean of 63 to a mean of 26, and from a median of 36 to a median of 4. Most of this change was attributable to patients with zero days of sick leave, which increased from 25% to 41%. Being female, older, having low education level, receiving disability pension and not being employed before obesity surgery were important risk factors for not being employed after obesity surgery. The type of obesity surgery, BMI and marital status were not useful predictors. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that undergoing obesity surgery is not associated with a higher rate of employment, although it may reduce the number of days of sick leave. Additional interventions are likely needed to influence the employment status of these patients. The significant preoperative predictors of not being employed in this study provide suggestions for further research.

  15. Employment status and sick-leave following obesity surgery: a five-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Roger Andersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Severe obesity is a risk factor for lower participation in paid work, but whether employment increases and sick leave decreases after obesity surgery is not well documented.Methods. We assessed 224 Norwegian patients with severe obesity (mean age: 40; mean BMI: 49; 61% female regarding employment status (working versus not working and the number of days of sick leave during the preceding 12 months, before and five years after obesity surgery (75% follow-up rate. Logistic regression analysis was used to study preoperative predictors of employment status after surgery.Results. There were no change in the employment rate over time (54% versus 58%, but the number of days of sick leave per year was significantly reduced, from a mean of 63 to a mean of 26, and from a median of 36 to a median of 4. Most of this change was attributable to patients with zero days of sick leave, which increased from 25% to 41%. Being female, older, having low education level, receiving disability pension and not being employed before obesity surgery were important risk factors for not being employed after obesity surgery. The type of obesity surgery, BMI and marital status were not useful predictors.Conclusions. Our findings suggest that undergoing obesity surgery is not associated with a higher rate of employment, although it may reduce the number of days of sick leave. Additional interventions are likely needed to influence the employment status of these patients. The significant preoperative predictors of not being employed in this study provide suggestions for further research.

  16. Employers' views on the promotion of workplace health and wellbeing: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescud, Melanie; Teal, Renee; Shilton, Trevor; Slevin, Terry; Ledger, Melissa; Waterworth, Pippa; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-07-11

    The evidence surrounding the value of workplace health promotion in positively influencing employees' health and wellbeing via changes to their health behaviours is growing. The aim of the study was to explore employers' views on the promotion of workplace health and wellbeing and the factors affecting these views. Using a qualitative phenomenological approach, 10 focus groups were conducted with employers selected from a range of industries and geographical locations within Western Australia. The total sample size was 79. Three factors were identified: employers' conceptualization of workplace health and wellbeing; employers' descriptions of (un)healthy workers and perceptions surrounding the importance of healthy workers; and employers' beliefs around the role the workplace should play in influencing health. Progress may be viable in promoting health and wellbeing if a multifaceted approach is employed taking into account the complex factors influencing employers' views. This could include an education campaign providing information about what constitutes health and wellbeing beyond the scope of occupational health and safety paradigms along with information on the benefits of workplace health and wellbeing aligned with perceptions relating to healthy and unhealthy workers.

  17. The influence of social capital on employers' use of occupational health services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Christian; Åborg, Carl; Toomingas, Allan; Parmsund, Marianne; Kjellberg, Katarina

    2015-10-23

    Occupational health services may have a strategic role in the prevention of sickness absence, as well as in rehabilitation and return to work after sick leave, because of their medical expertise in combination with a close connection to workplaces. The purpose of this study was to explore how employers and occupational health service providers describe their business relations and the use of occupational health services in rehabilitation in relation to the organization of such services. The study uses a theoretical framework based on social capital to analyse the findings. Interviews and focus groups with managers with Swedish public employers (n = 60), and interviews with occupational health services professionals (n = 25). Employers emphasized trustful relationships, local workplace knowledge, long-term contracts and dialogue about services for good relationships with occupational health providers. Occupational health providers strove to be strategic partners to employers, promoting preventive work, which was more easily achieved in situations where the services were organized in-house. Employers with outsourced occupational health services expressed less trust in their providers than employers with internal occupational health provision. Social capital emerges as central to understanding the conditions for cooperation and collective action in the use of occupational health services, with reference to structural (e.g. contracts), relational (e.g. trust) as well as cognitive (e.g. shared vision) dimensions. The study suggests that attention to the quality of relationships is imperative for developing purposeful occupational health service delivery in rehabilitation and return to work.

  18. Employment insecurity, workplace justice and employees' burnout in Taiwanese employees: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yawen; Huang, Hsun-Yin; Li, Pei-Rong; Hsu, Jin-Huei

    2011-12-01

    Employment insecurity and workplace injustice are important psychosocial hazards. However, few studies of these associations have been conducted in Chinese-speaking populations. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of employment insecurity and workplace justice scales, and examined their associations with the levels of workers' burnout status in Taiwanese workers. Study subjects were participants in a national survey of employees in Taiwan, consisting of 9,636 men and 7,406 women. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess employment insecurity (six items) and workplace justice (nine items), as well as other psychosocial work characteristics. After the survey was completed, in-depth interviews with 10 employees were conducted for a qualitative evaluation. Cronbach's α was 0.87 or greater for the workplace justice scale and 0.76 or greater for the employment insecurity scale, indicating satisfactory internal consistencies. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a factor pattern consistent with the theoretically assumed structure, except that the items with statements in reversed direction were loaded on separated factors. Higher levels of employment insecurity and lower levels of workplace justice were associated with higher burnout scores. However, results from the qualitative interviews suggested that some questionnaire items contained double-barreled questions, and some questions were misinterpreted or considered irrelevant by participants. The Chinese version of employment insecurity and workplace justice scales were found to have satisfactory reliability and validity. However, improvement of these scales is still needed.

  19. Who opts for self-employment after retirement? A longitudinal study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Solinge, Hanna

    2014-09-01

    Self-employment among older age groups is rising. A better understanding of the role of self-employment in extending the working lives of individuals is, therefore, relevant from a policy perspective. By bridging the gap in the literature on work/retirement decision-making and entrepreneurship, the present study examines the factors associated with entry into self-employment post-retirement, after a worker has left a regular salaried position. This decision is modelled as a choice between full retirement and prolonged labour force participation, in the form of either a typical wage-providing job or self-employment. Data were derived from the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute Work and Retirement Panel, an ongoing longitudinal survey of older workers (50 years and over) employed by three private sector organisations and employed as civil servants in the Netherlands. These data were then analysed using multinomial logistic regression analysis. The results of this study show that the decision to pursue self-employment is primarily taken by retirees with relatively high levels of financial and human capital (wealth and educational attainment), those possessing entrepreneurial attitudes (high self-efficacy scores) and those who perceive their retirements to be completely involuntary. The results lend support to self-employment being selected as a postretirement path through opportunity rather than out of necessity. The fact that the retirements of the studied population were generally quite early, while not considered involuntary also suggests that the timing of the decision to retire may be driven by the emergence of new (business) opportunities.

  20. Brand Awareness in the Context of Mistrust: The Case Study of an Employment Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ročkutė

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Brand awareness is important for a good market performance of a company. However, research on the contextual preconditions needed for the improvement of brand awareness is limited, particularly in specific service sectors such as employment agencies. We present the research results of the preconditions for the improvement of awareness (which is one of the dimensions of brand equity in an employment agency. We also analyze the effects of the perceived trust of customers on the improvement of brand awareness in the employment sector. As a case study, we present an example of an employment agency in Lithuania. This research is particularly timely in the Lithuanian context, where high levels of emigration are having a considerable negative impact on companies and their major internal operations—human resource management, marketing, and strategic planning—challenging the aims of long-term socially sustainable development. This research paper has a high relevance for other high-emigration economies.

  1. Studying Abroad as a Sorting Criterion in the Recruitment Process: A Field Experiment among German Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Knut

    2017-01-01

    As the experience of studying abroad can signal general and transnational human capital, it is considered to be increasingly important for professional careers, particularly in the context of economies' internationalization. However, studies using graduate surveys face problems of self-selection and studies on employers' opinions face problems of…

  2. The impact of maternal employment on breast-feeding duration in the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Griffiths, Lucy Jane; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

    2007-09-01

    To examine the relationship of maternal employment characteristics, day care arrangements and the type of maternity leave pay to breast-feeding for at least 4 months. Cohort study. Babies aged 9 months in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between September 2000 and January 2002. A total of 6917 British/Irish white employed mothers with singleton babies. Mothers employed part-time or self-employed were more likely to breast-feed for at least 4 months than those employed full-time (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30 (1.17-1.44) and 1.74 (1.46-2.07), respectively). The longer a mother delayed her return to work postpartum, the more likely she was to breast-feed for at least 4 months (P for trend employer offered family-friendly (aRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27) or flexible work arrangements (aRR 1.24, 95% CI 1.00-1.55), or they received Statutory Maternity Pay (SMP) plus additional pay during their maternity leave rather than SMP alone (aRR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26). These findings were independent of confounding factors, such as socio-economic status and maternal education. Current policies may encourage mothers to enter or return to employment postpartum, but this may result in widening inequalities in breast-feeding and persistence of low rates. Policies should aim to increase financial support and incentives for employers to offer supportive work arrangements.

  3. Employment status of patients receiving maintenance dialysis – peritoneal and hemodialysis: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Lakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term dialysis therapy for end-stage renal disease takes a heavy toll of quality of life of the patient. Several factors such as fatigue and decreased physical capability, impaired social and mental functioning, contribute to this forlorn state. To meld maintenance dialysis treatment with a regular employment can be a serious test. A cross-sectional study of employment of patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in a state government tertiary institute in South India was performed between June 2015 and December 2015. Patients who completed 3 months of regular dialysis were only included in the study. The number of patients on hemodialysis was 157 and on peritoneal dialysis was 69. The employment status before the initiation of dialysis was 60% (93 out of 155 and 63.7% (44 out of 69 in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, respectively. After initiation, the loss of employment was observed in 44% (41 out of 93 in hemodialysis and 51.2% (26 out of 44 in peritoneal dialysis (P = 0.2604. Even though there was fall of absolute number of job holders in both the blue and white collar jobs, the proportion of jobholders in the white collar job holders improved. On univariate analysis, the factors which influenced the loss of employment were males, age between 50 and 60 years, number of comorbidities >2, illiteracy and blue collar versus white collar job before the initiation of dialysis. The majority of patients had the scores above 80 on Karnofsky performance scale and the majority belonged upper and middle classes than lower classes on modified Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale; however, the loss of employment was also disproportionately high. There appeared a substantial difference in the attitude of the patients toward the employment. There was no difference between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in the loss of employment of our patients.

  4. Maternal employment and early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S S; Cole, T J; Law, C

    2008-01-01

    In most developed countries, maternal employment has increased rapidly. Changing patterns of family life have been suggested to be contributing to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity. Our primary objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and partner employment and overweight in children aged 3 years. Our secondary objective was to investigate factors related to early childhood overweight only among mothers in employment. Cohort study. A total of 13 113 singleton children aged 3 years in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between 2000 and 2002 in the United Kingdom, who had complete height/weight data and parental employment histories. Parents were interviewed when the child was aged 9 months and 3 years, and the child's height and weight were measured at 3 years. Overweight (including obesity) was defined by the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. A total of 23% (3085) of children were overweight at 3 years. Any maternal employment after the child's birth was associated with early childhood overweight (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]; 1.14 [1.00, 1.29]), after adjustment for potential confounding and mediating factors. Children were more likely to be overweight for every 10 h a mother worked per week (OR [95% CI]; 1.10 [1.04, 1.17]), after adjustment. An interaction with household income revealed that this relationship was only significant for children from households with an annual income of pound33 000 ($57 750) or higher. There was no evidence for an association between early childhood overweight and whether or for how many hours the partner worked, or with mothers' or partners' duration of employment. These relationships were also evident among mothers in employment. Independent risk factors for early childhood overweight were consistent with the published literature. Long hours of maternal employment, rather than lack of money may impede young children's access to healthy foods and physical activity. Policies

  5. Employment and insurance outcomes and factors associated with employment among long-term thyroid cancer survivors: a population-based study from the PROFILES registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminga, S J; Bültmann, U; Husson, O; Kuijpens, J L P; Frings-Dresen, M H W; de Boer, A G E M

    2016-04-01

    To obtain insight into employment and insurance outcomes of thyroid cancer survivors and to examine the association between not having employment and other factors including quality of life. In this cross-sectional population-based study, long-term thyroid cancer survivors from the Netherlands participated. Clinical data were collected from the cancer registry. Information on employment, insurance, socio-demographic characteristics, long-term side effects, and quality of life was collected with questionnaires. Of the 223 cancer survivors (response rate 87 %), 71 % were employed. Of the cancer survivors who tried to obtain insurance, 6 % reported problems with obtaining health care insurance, 62 % with life insurance, and 16 % with a mortgage. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (OR 1.07, CI 1.02-1.11), higher level of fatigue (OR 1.07, CI 1.01-1.14), and lower educational level (OR 3.22, CI 1.46-7.09) were associated with not having employment. Employment was associated with higher quality of life. Many thyroid cancer survivors face problems when obtaining a life insurance, and older, fatigued, and lower educated thyroid cancer survivors may be at risk for not having employment.

  6. Growth performance, immune status and organ morphometry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, immune status and organ morphometry in broilers fed Bacillus subtilis -supplemented diet. ... In conclusion, B. subtilis-type probiotics contributed positively to better growth performance, improved immune system and modulated morphology of lymphoid organs and gut mucosa in broilers. Keywords: ...

  7. Genitalia morphometry and testicular characteristics of male white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was designed to evaluate genitalia morphometry of the male white Japanese quails at three different age groups. Fifty-four male Japanese quails were allotted to 3 treatment groups (Pubertal, Mature and Adult) in a completely randomized design. Pubertal (7-10 weeks), mature (15-20 weeks) and the adults ...

  8. Testicular Morphometry and Sperm Quality of Rabbit Bucks Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty rabbit bucks of mixed breeds, aged four to five weeks which weighed between 627.4g to 631.5g were used to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on testicular morphometry and sperm quality. Five bucks were randomly assigned to each of the four diets containing MOLM at 0%. 5%, 10% and ...

  9. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences Testicular histo-morphometry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Olurode et al./Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 16(1): 24 - 30. Testicular histo-morphometry and semen parameters of West. African Dwarf bucks ..... Table 2: Mean of Semen parameters of West African Dwarf goat. Parameters. Mean ± SD. Semen colour. Semen volume (ml). Creamy/milky white. 0.40 ± 0.07.

  10. Central region morphometry in a child brain; Age and gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-10

    Oct 10, 2013 ... Background: Data on central region morphometry of a child brain is important not only in terms of ... brain volume reaches the peak at the age of 14.5 in men ..... child and adolescent brain and effects of genetic variation.

  11. Patch-Based Morphometry: Application to Alzheimer’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coupe, Pierrick; Manjon, Jose; Fonov, Vladimir

    Background: While widely used to detect morphological differences between groups, Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) is based on the assumption of one-to-one anatomical mapping between subjects and Gaussian distributions of focal tissue densities during statistical testing. To make data fit this model...

  12. Individual Assessment of Brain Tissue Changes in MS and the Effect of Focal Lesions on Short-Term Focal Atrophy Development in MS: A Voxel-Guided Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Fox

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We performed voxel-guided morphometry (VGM investigating the mechanisms of brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS related to focal lesions. VGM maps detect regional brain changes when comparing 2 time points on high resolution T1-weighted (T1w magnetic resonace imaging (MRI. Two T1w MR datasets from 92 relapsing-remitting MS patients obtained 12 months apart were analysed with VGM. New lesions and volume changes of focal MS lesions as well as in the surrounding tissue were identified by visual inspection on colour coded VGM maps. Lesions were dichotomized in active and inactive lesions. Active lesions, defined by either new lesions (NL (volume increase > 5% in VGM, chronic enlarging lesions (CEL (pre-existent T1w lesions with volume increase > 5%, or chronic shrinking lesions (CSL (pre-existent T1w lesions with volume reduction > 5% in VGM, were accompanied by tissue shrinkage in surrounding and/or functionally related regions. Volume loss within the corpus callosum was highly correlated with the number of lesions in its close proximity. Volume loss in the lateral geniculate nucleus was correlated with lesions along the optic radiation. VGM analysis provides strong evidence that all active lesion types (NL, CEL, and CSL contribute to brain volume reduction in the vicinity of lesions and/or in anatomically and functionally related areas of the brain.

  13. Study on the situation of female employment in the Guangxi Zhuangzhu autonomous region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the gap between the female labor force and employment opportunities in Guangxi Zhuangzhu Autonomous Region (GZAR) in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 census and the 1% sample survey in 1995. GZAR has undergone recent market reforms. In 1995, the total number of employed persons was 24,520,500, of whom 46.8% were women; 46.3% were employed women in 1990. Female employment grew by 8.3% during 1990-95; male employment grew by 5.8%. GZAR has a higher rate of female employment than other provinces. The female employment rates in GZAR, Guangdong, and Guizhou were fairly stable. Rates were the highest in the middle age group and lowest among the old and young. Women in GZAR begin work at an earlier age. The higher female employment rate is attributed to expansion of the light and service industries and migration of males outside home areas. During 1990-95, the number of women working declined in agriculture and increased in light industry and service sectors, especially in wholesale and retail trades, finance and insurance, and restaurants. Women in professions increased. Female professionals were 331/10,000 in GZAR, 410/10,000 in Guizhou, and 743/10,000 in Guangdong. Female professionals were better educated than male professionals. The percentage of illiterates and semiliterates declined by 3.0% for women and 1.8% for men. More women than men worked in areas that required strength. Female unemployment was high; reemployment was higher for males. Four suggestions are made to improve women's economic position.

  14. The Impact of Adolescent Stuttering on Educational and Employment Outcomes: Evidence from a Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In interview and survey studies, people who stutter report the belief that stuttering has had a negative impact on their own education and employment. This population study sought objective evidence of such disadvantage for people who stutter as a group, compared with people who do not stutter. Method: A secondary analysis of a British…

  15. Employment among Spinal Cord Injured Patients Living in Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin; Bardak, Ayse Nur

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of employment and to establish the factors affecting vocational status in spinal cord injured patients living in Turkey. One hundred and fifty-two traumatic spinal cord injured patients older than 18 years with injury duration of at least 1 year and living in the community were included in the study;…

  16. Methodological Appendix of Research Methods Employed in the Mexican American Education Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights released Mexican American Education Study findings in a series of documents: (1) "The Ethnic Isolation of Mexican Americans in the Public Schools of the Southwest" (ED 052 849), "The Unfinished Education" (ED 056 821), and "The Excluded Student" (ED 062 069). The research methods employed in the study are…

  17. Education as a signal of trainability: results from a vignette study with Italian employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Stasio, V.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on queuing theory, this study explores the relationship between education and labour market entry from the perspective of employers. On the basis of vignette study, we simulated a hiring process with a sample of recruiters and human resource managers. We analysed the role of education in the

  18. Scaling of Myocardial Mass to Flow and Morphometry of Coronary Arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Choy, Jenny Susana; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2008-01-01

    There is no doubt that scaling relations exist between myocardial mass and morphometry of coronary vasculature. The purpose of this study is to quantify several morphological (diameter, length, and volume) and functional (flow) parameters of the coronary arterial tree in relation to myocardial mass. Eight normal porcine hearts of 117-244 g (mean of 177.5±32.7) were used in this study. Various coronary sub-trees of the Left Anterior Descending (LAD), Right Coronary (RCA) and Left Circumflex (L...

  19. Kinetic of magnetic nanoparticles uptake evaluated by morphometry of mice peritoneal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.P.; Kuckelhaus, S.; Guedes, M.H.A.; Lacava, Z.G.M.; Tedesco, A.C.; Morais, P.C.; Azevedo, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    The development of magnetic fluids (MFs) has led to a wide range of new biomedical applications. Nevertheless, few studies have examined the kinetics of the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) internalization by phagocytes. In this study, we present morphometry as a method to quantify the cell surface covered by MNPs. The maximum cell surface covered by MNPs aggregates was 32.5% (8.5 min), 18.3% (24.1 min), and 18.0% (20.2 min) in DMSA, citric acid and dextran-coated MNPs, respectively. We concluded that the phagocytosis process of MNPs is strongly dependent upon the coating species

  20. Loss of permanent employment and its association with suicidal ideation: a cohort study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seohyun; Kim, Ja Young; Park, Jooyoung; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2017-09-01

    Objective Precarious employment is associated with worse mental health, but it is unclear whether changes in employment status are related to suicidal behaviors. This study examined the association between change in employment status and suicidal ideation among workers in South Korea. Methods To maximize power of the analysis, we combined data from the ongoing Korean Welfare Panel Study. We analyzed 3793 participants who were permanent workers at baseline (2011-2014) and who either: (i) maintained permanent employment; (ii) became a full-time precarious worker; (iii) became a part-time precarious worker; or (iv) became unemployed in the following year (2012-2015). Suicidal ideation was assessed annually by asking participants, "Have you ever seriously thought about dying by suicide in the past year?" Logistic regression was applied to examine associations between change in employment status and suicidal ideation, adjusting for potential confounders such as lifetime suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms at baseline. Results Participants who became part-time precarious workers were more likely to have suicidal ideation [odd ratio (OR) 2.37, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.07-5.25, P=0.033] compared to those who remained permanent workers. In analysis restricted to workers who never previously thought about dying by suicide, suicidal ideation was more common among those who became either full-time (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.09-4.99, P=0.029) or part-time (OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.46-10.64, P=0.007) precarious workers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that change in employment status from permanent to precarious employment may increase suicidal ideation among workers in South Korea.

  1. How Does Millennials’ Perception on Their Employers Affect Their Work Ethic? A Study in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsun-Lok Kwong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Work ethic of millennial employees has raised considerable attention in Hong Kong. Current article examined how the millennials’ perception on their employers would have an effect on their own work ethic. A survey study of 212 millennial respondents showed that the millennials in general perceived their employers positively and embraced good work ethic. Two variables – perception and work ethic – are significantly related. The study also revealed that millennials in Hong Kong hold peculiar interpretations of work and leisure, and of work and success. It was suggested that parenting, educational system, and modern working environments might have caused these interpretations.

  2. Morphometry of A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery and its clinical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, A; Nayak, S R; Bagoji, I B; D'Costa, S; Pai, M M; Jiji, P J; Kumar, C G; Rai, R

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cerebral artery, one of the terminal branches of the internal carotid artery is an important vessel taking part in the formation of circle of Willis. It supplies a large part of the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere containing the areas of motor and somatosensory cortices of the lower limb. Aim of this study was the morphometry of A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery. 93 formalin fixed brain specimen of either sex and of Indian origin were studied. The mean length, mean external diameter and the anomalies present in A1 segment of the vessel were studied in detail and photographed. The mean length of A1 segment of the vessel was 14.49+/-0.28 mm and 14.22+/-0.22 mm on right and left side respectively. The mean external diameter of the vessel on right and left side was 2.12+/-0.07 mm and 2.32+/-0.06 mm respectively. Narrowing, aneurysm formation, buttonhole formation and median anterior cerebral artery were the anomalies seen with an occurrence of 15.05%, 5.37%, 3.22% and 12.9%, respectively. The above anomalies did not have any sex or side predilection. Knowledge of morphometry of the vessel will be of use to neurosurgeons while performing the shunt operation, in assessing the feasibility of such operations and in the choice of patients. From this study we infer that the morphometry of anterior cerebral artery varies in different population and that the neurosurgeons operating should have a thorough knowledge of the possible variations.

  3. Morphology and digitally aided morphometry of the human paracentral lobule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasojević, Goran; Malobabic, Slobodan; Pilipović-Spasojević, Olivera; Djukić-Macut, Nataša; Maliković, Aleksandar

    2013-02-01

    The human paracentral lobule, the junction of the precentral and postcentral gyri at the medial hemispheric surface, contains several important functional regions, and its variable morphology requires exact morphological and quantitativedata. In order to obtain precise data we investigated the morphology of the paracentral lobule and quantified its visible (extrasulcal) surface. This surface corresponds to commonly used magnetic resonance imaging scout images. We studied 84 hemispheres of adult persons (42 brains; 26 males and 16 females; 20-65 years) fixed in neutral formalin for at least 4 weeks. The medial hemispheric surface was photographed at standard distance and each digital photo was calibrated. Using the intercommissural line system (commissura anterior-commissura posterior or CA-CP line), we performed standardised measurements of the paracentral lobule. Exact determination of its boundaries and morphological types was followed by digital morphometry of its extrasulcal surface using AutoCAD software. We found two distinct morphological types of the human paracentral lobule: continuous type, which was predominant (95.2%), and rare segmented type (4.8%). In hemispheres with segmented cingulate sulcus we also found the short transitional lobulo-limbic gyrus (13.1%). The mean extrasulcal surface of the left paracentral lobule was significantly larger, both in males (left 6.79 cm2 vs. right 5.76 cm2) and in females (left 6.05 cm2 vs. right 5.16 cm2). However, even larger average surfaces in males were not significantly different than the same in females. Reported morphological and quantitative data will be useful during diagnostics and treatment of pathologies affecting the human paracentral lobule, and in further studies of its cytoarchitectonic and functional parcellations.

  4. Contribution of glomerular morphometry to the diagnosis of pediatric nephropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Barreto Marini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies describe histopathological changes in renal biopsies performed in pediatric patients. This study was conducted to identify an association between morphometric data in renal biopsies and renal function of these patients. Fifty-nine individuals with ages between 2 and 18 years old were selected, who were divided into six groups consisting of frequent nephropathies in children and adolescents and one control group. Proteinuria, urea, and creatinine values of the patients were recorded. Interactive image analysis software Leica QWin[®]was used for morpho- metric analysis of Bowman′s capsule, glomerular capillary tuft, and Bowman′s space area. The mean glomerular tuft area was higher in the membranous glomerulopathy group than in the podo- cytopathy group (57,101 ± 25,094 vs. 27,420 c ± 6279 µm2; P <0.05. The median of Bowman′s space area was higher in the control group than in the podocytopathy group and in the thin basement membrane/Alport syndrome group [12,210 (7676-26,945 vs. 5801 (3031-7852 µm2; P <0.01 and 12210 (7676-26,945 vs. 4183 (3797-7992 µm2; P <0.01, respectively]. There was a positive and significant correlation between Bowman′s capsule area and the levels of proteinuria, creatinine, and urea of the patients, as well as between the glomerular tuft area and the levels of proteinuria, creatinine, and urea in the patients, regardless of their nephropathy. Glomerular morphometry may contribute to the diagnosis of some glomerulopathies and the association between glomerular morphometric parameters, and laboratory data may promote a better understanding of the prognosis of these patients.

  5. Exposure to temporary employment and job insecurity: a longitudinal study of the health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Pekka; Janlert, Urban; Hammarström, Anne

    2011-08-01

    This study analysed interactions between job insecurity and temporary employment and health. We tested the violation hypothesis (whether permanent employment increases the health risk associated with job insecurity) and the intensification hypothesis (whether temporary employment increases the health risk associated with job insecurity) in a longitudinal setting. Previous research on this topic is scarce and based on cross-sectional data. A population cohort (n=1071) was surveyed at age 30 and age 42. Exposure to temporary employment during this 12-year period was elicited with a job-time matrix and measured as the score of 6-month periods. Exposure to job insecurity was measured according to the perceived threat of unemployment. Health at follow-up was assessed as optimal versus suboptimal self-rated health, sleep quality and mental health. In addition to sociodemographics and baseline health, the analyses were adjusted for exposure to unemployment, non-employment and self-employment during the 12-year period. 26% of participants had been exposed to temporary employment. The effect of job insecurity on health was the same in the exposed and unexposed groups, that is the violation hypothesis was not supported. Non-significant interactions between the exposures and all health outcomes also indicated null findings regarding the intensification hypothesis. These findings suggest that perceived job insecurity can lead to adverse health effects in both permanent and temporary employees. Policies should aim to improve work-related well-being by reducing job insecurity. Efforts towards 'flexicurity' are important, but it is equally important to remember that a significant proportion of employees with a permanent contract experience job insecurity.

  6. Employment conditions and maternal postpartum mental health: results from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Canterford, Louise; Strazdins, Lyndall; Nicholson, Jan M

    2011-06-01

    Maternal postpartum mental health is influenced by a broad range of risk and protective factors including social circumstances. Forty percent of Australian women resume employment in the first year postpartum, yet poor quality employment (without security, control, flexibility or leave) has not been investigated as a potential social determinant of maternal psychological distress. This paper examines whether poor quality jobs are associated with an increased risk of maternal postpartum psychological distress. Data were collected from employed mothers of infants ≤12 months (n = 1,300) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Logistic regression analyses estimated the association between job quality and maternal psychological distress, adjusting for prior depression, social support, quality of partner relationship, adverse life events and sociodemographic characteristics. Only 21% of women reported access to all four optimal job conditions. After adjustment for known risk factors for poor maternal mood, mothers were significantly more likely to report psychological distress (adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.09, 1.77) with each reduction in the number of optimal employment conditions. Interventions for maternal postpartum affective disorders are unlikely to be successful if major risk factors are not addressed. These results provide strong evidence that employment conditions are associated with maternal postpartum mood, and warrant consideration in psychosocial risk assessments and interventions.

  7. Psychological contract in the light of flexible employment: The review of studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Żołnierczyk-Zreda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Changing employment relations between employees and employers due to the increasing employment flexibility have contributed to the development of a new paradigm to analyze these relations based on the concept of psychological contract. This paradigm might be particularly relevant in Poland where the employment flexibility understood as the number of workers with temporary contracts is the highest in Europe. In this paper the concept of psychological contract is presented along with the existing findings related to its range, balance and contract fulfilment vs. contract breach. The results of studies showing the differences in psychological contract of temporary and permanent workers are also presented. The majority of them indicate that psychological contracts of temporary workers are limited in their extent, less balanced and asymmetric (to workers’ disadvantage, as well as more transactional in their nature than those of permanent workers. The temporary workers’ well-being and attitudes towards work and their reaction to psychological contract breach largely depends on their preferences for this type of employment, on their qualifications and on a labor market situation. Med Pr 2016;67(4:529–536

  8. [Psychological contract in the light of flexible employment: The review of studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    Changing employment relations between employees and employers due to the increasing employment flexibility have contributed to the development of a new paradigm to analyze these relations based on the concept of psychological contract. This paradigm might be particularly relevant in Poland where the employment flexibility understood as the number of workers with temporary contracts is the highest in Europe. In this paper the concept of psychological contract is presented along with the existing findings related to its range, balance and contract fulfilment vs. contract breach. The results of studies showing the differences in psychological contract of temporary and permanent workers are also presented. The majority of them indicate that psychological contracts of temporary workers are limited in their extent, less balanced and asymmetric (to workers' disadvantage), as well as more transactional in their nature than those of permanent workers. The temporary workers' well-being and attitudes towards work and their reaction to psychological contract breach largely depends on their preferences for this type of employment, on their qualifications and on a labor market situation. Med Pr 2016;67(4):529-536. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  9. Consequences of occupational asthma on employment and financial status: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameille, J; Pairon, J C; Bayeux, M C; Brochard, P; Choudat, D; Conso, F; Devienne, A; Garnier, R; Iwatsubo, Y

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in employment and income following a diagnosis of occupational asthma, and to determine what factors might affect these changes. Two hundred and nine patients with occupational asthma were reviewed on average 3.1 yrs after the diagnosis had been made. They were contacted by telephone or were sent a self-administered questionnaire by post. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to determine which variables were associated with loss of employment after the diagnosis. At the time of review, 44% of patients had left their previous job and 25% were currently unemployed. Remarkably, 32% remained exposed to the offending agents in the same job. Forty six percent of the patients had suffered a reduction of income (84% of those who had left their employer versus 19% of those still employed in the same company (p company, level of education, and age at the time of diagnosis were significantly associated with a risk for becoming unemployed or having a new employer after the diagnosis of occupational asthma. Occupational asthma results in severe socioeconomic consequences. The French compensation system for occupational asthma should be revised, as the criteria currently used to determine compensation for this disease largely underestimate the social and occupational damages.

  10. A case-control study of employment status and mortality in a cohort of Australian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, S; Taylor, R; Quine, S; Kerr, C; Western, J

    1999-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a link in young populations between unemployment and ill health. The purpose of this study is to correlate mortality with employment status in two cohorts of young Australian males, aged 17-25 years, from 1984 to 1988. Two youth cohorts consisting of an initially unemployed sample (n = 1424 males) and a population sample (n = 4573 males), were surveyed annually throughout the study period. Those lost to follow-up during the survey period were matched with death registries across Australia. Employment status was determined from weekly diaries and death certificates and was designated as: employed or student; unemployed; not in the work force (excluding students). Conditional logistic regression, using age- and cohort- matched cases (deaths) and controls (alive), was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of dying with regard to employment status, taking into account potential confounders such as ethnicity, aboriginality, educational attainment, pre-existing health problems, socio-economic status of parents, and other factors. Twenty three male survey respondents were positively matched to death registry records. Compared to those employed or students (referent group), significantly elevated ORs were found to be associated with neither being in the workforce nor a student for all cause, external cause, and external cause mortality other than suicide. Odds ratios were adjusted for age, survey cohort, ethnicity, pre-existing physical and mental health status, education level, and socio-economic status of parent(s). A statistically significant increasing linear trend in odds ratios of male mortality for most cause groups was found across the employment categories, from those employed or student (lowest ORs), through those unemployed, to those not in the workforce (highest ORs). Suicide was higher, but not statistically significantly, in those unemployed or not in the workforce. Suicide also was associated, though not significantly, with

  11. Systematic Morphometry of Catecholamine Nuclei in the Brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Domenico; Busceti, Carla L; Calierno, Maria T; Di Pietro, Paola; Madonna, Michele; Biagioni, Francesca; Ryskalin, Larisa; Limanaqi, Fiona; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Catecholamine nuclei within the brainstem reticular formation (RF) play a pivotal role in a variety of brain functions. However, a systematic characterization of these nuclei in the very same experimental conditions is missing so far. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immune-positive cells of the brainstem correspond to dopamine (DA)-, norepinephrine (NE)-, and epinephrine (E)-containing cells. Here, we report a systematic count of TH-positive neurons in the RF of the mouse brainstem by using stereological morphometry. All these nuclei were analyzed for anatomical localization, rostro-caudal extension, volume, neuron number, neuron density, and mean neuronal area for each nucleus. The present data apart from inherent informative value wish to represent a reference for neuronal mapping in those studies investigating the functional anatomy of the brainstem RF. These include: the sleep-wake cycle, movement control, muscle tone modulation, mood control, novelty orienting stimuli, attention, archaic responses to internal and external stressful stimuli, anxiety, breathing, blood pressure, and innumerable activities modulated by the archaic iso-dendritic hard core of the brainstem RF. Most TH-immune-positive cells fill the lateral part of the RF, which indeed possesses a high catecholamine content. A few nuclei are medial, although conventional nosography considers all these nuclei as part of the lateral column of the RF. Despite the key role of these nuclei in psychiatric and neurological disorders, only a few of them aspired a great attention in biomedical investigation, while most of them remain largely obscure although intense research is currently in progress. A simultaneous description of all these nuclei is not simply key to comprehend the variety of brainstem catecholamine reticular neurons, but probably represents an intrinsically key base for understanding brain physiology and physiopathology.

  12. Systematic Morphometry of Catecholamine Nuclei in the Brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Bucci

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Catecholamine nuclei within the brainstem reticular formation (RF play a pivotal role in a variety of brain functions. However, a systematic characterization of these nuclei in the very same experimental conditions is missing so far. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immune-positive cells of the brainstem correspond to dopamine (DA-, norepinephrine (NE-, and epinephrine (E-containing cells. Here, we report a systematic count of TH-positive neurons in the RF of the mouse brainstem by using stereological morphometry. All these nuclei were analyzed for anatomical localization, rostro-caudal extension, volume, neuron number, neuron density, and mean neuronal area for each nucleus. The present data apart from inherent informative value wish to represent a reference for neuronal mapping in those studies investigating the functional anatomy of the brainstem RF. These include: the sleep-wake cycle, movement control, muscle tone modulation, mood control, novelty orienting stimuli, attention, archaic responses to internal and external stressful stimuli, anxiety, breathing, blood pressure, and innumerable activities modulated by the archaic iso-dendritic hard core of the brainstem RF. Most TH-immune-positive cells fill the lateral part of the RF, which indeed possesses a high catecholamine content. A few nuclei are medial, although conventional nosography considers all these nuclei as part of the lateral column of the RF. Despite the key role of these nuclei in psychiatric and neurological disorders, only a few of them aspired a great attention in biomedical investigation, while most of them remain largely obscure although intense research is currently in progress. A simultaneous description of all these nuclei is not simply key to comprehend the variety of brainstem catecholamine reticular neurons, but probably represents an intrinsically key base for understanding brain physiology and physiopathology.

  13. Computed tomography measurement of rib cage morphometry in emphysema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Sverzellati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Factors determining the shape of the human rib cage are not completely understood. We aimed to quantify the contribution of anthropometric and COPD-related changes to rib cage variability in adult cigarette smokers. METHODS: Rib cage diameters and areas (calculated from the inner surface of the rib cage in 816 smokers with or without COPD, were evaluated at three anatomical levels using computed tomography (CT. CTs were analyzed with software, which allows quantification of total emphysema (emphysema%. The relationship between rib cage measurements and anthropometric factors, lung function indices, and %emphysema were tested using linear regression models. RESULTS: A model that included gender, age, BMI, emphysema%, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%, and forced vital capacity (FVC% fit best with the rib cage measurements (R(2 = 64% for the rib cage area variation at the lower anatomical level. Gender had the biggest impact on rib cage diameter and area (105.3 cm(2; 95% CI: 111.7 to 98.8 for male lower area. Emphysema% was responsible for an increase in size of upper and middle CT areas (up to 5.4 cm(2; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.8 for an emphysema increase of 5%. Lower rib cage areas decreased as FVC% decreased (5.1 cm(2; 95% CI: 2.5 to 7.6 for 10 percentage points of FVC variation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that simple CT measurements can predict rib cage morphometric variability and also highlight relationships between rib cage morphometry and emphysema.

  14. Mean template for tensor-based morphometry using deformation tensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporé, Natasha; Brun, Caroline; Pennec, Xavier; Chou, Yi-Yu; Lopez, Oscar L; Aizenstein, Howard J; Becker, James T; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2007-01-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) studies anatomical differences between brain images statistically, to identify regions that differ between groups, over time, or correlate with cognitive or clinical measures. Using a nonlinear registration algorithm, all images are mapped to a common space, and statistics are most commonly performed on the Jacobian determinant (local expansion factor) of the deformation fields. In, it was shown that the detection sensitivity of the standard TBM approach could be increased by using the full deformation tensors in a multivariate statistical analysis. Here we set out to improve the common space itself, by choosing the shape that minimizes a natural metric on the deformation tensors from that space to the population of control subjects. This method avoids statistical bias and should ease nonlinear registration of new subjects data to a template that is 'closest' to all subjects' anatomies. As deformation tensors are symmetric positive-definite matrices and do not form a vector space, all computations are performed in the log-Euclidean framework. The control brain B that is already the closest to 'average' is found. A gradient descent algorithm is then used to perform the minimization that iteratively deforms this template and obtains the mean shape. We apply our method to map the profile of anatomical differences in a dataset of 26 HIV/AIDS patients and 14 controls, via a log-Euclidean Hotelling's T2 test on the deformation tensors. These results are compared to the ones found using the 'best' control, B. Statistics on both shapes are evaluated using cumulative distribution functions of the p-values in maps of inter-group differences.

  15. Sex differences in impulsivity and brain morphometry in methamphetamine users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogachi, Shannon; Chang, Linda; Alicata, Daniel; Cunningham, Eric; Ernst, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive stimulant, and METH users have abnormal brain structures and function. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between impulsivity, brain structures, and possible sex-specific differences between METH users and non-drug using Controls. Structural MRI and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) questionnaire were completed in 124 subjects: 62 METH (ages 41.2 ± 1.4 years, 34 males) and 62 Controls (ages 43.3 ± 2.3 years, 36 males). Independent and interactive effects of METH use status and sex were evaluated. Relationships between METH usage characteristics, brain morphometry, and impulsivity scores were examined. METH users had higher impulsivity scores, on both the Cognitive and Behavioral Factors from the BIS (p users had larger, while female METH users had smaller, right superior frontal cortex (interaction-p = 0.0005). The male METH users with larger frontal volumes and female METH users with smaller or thinner frontal cortices had greater Cognitive impulsivity (interaction-p ≤ 0.05). Only female METH users showed relatively larger nucleus accumbens (interaction-p = 0.03). Greater impulsivity and thinner frontal cortices in METH users are validated. Larger superior frontal cortex in male METH users with greater cognitive impulsivity suggest decreased dendritic pruning during adolescence might have contributed to their impulsive and drug use behaviors. In the female METH users, smaller frontal cortices and the associated greater impulsivity suggest greater neurotoxicity to these brain regions, while their relatively larger nucleus accumbens suggest an estrogen-mediated neuroprotective glial response. Men and women may be affected differently by METH use. PMID:27095357

  16. Self-Employment of Immigrants: A Cross-National Study of 17 Western Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubergen, Frank van

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the role of immigrants' country of origin, country of destination and combinations thereof (settings or communities) in the likelihood of immigrants being self-employed. I pooled census data from three classic immigrant countries (Australia, Canada and the United States) and labor-force surveys from 14 countries in the European…

  17. An Exploratory Study of the Impacts of an Employer-Supported Child Care Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Warner, Mildred E.

    2011-01-01

    Although employer-sponsored child care programs have become more common, there is little empirical research on whether these programs affect employees' satisfaction with child care or their work-life balance, and if effects vary across employee characteristics. In this exploratory study, we administered a survey to employees with children at one…

  18. Classifying University Employability Strategies: Three Case Studies and Implications for Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenga, Stéphane A.; Quinlan, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study documents three main strategic models used by Russell Group Careers Services to support students' preparation for graduate careers. It is framed against the backdrop of a challenging graduate labour market, discussions of employability in the literature and the policy assumption that universities are responsible for…

  19. Design of the study on transitions in employment, ability and motivation (STREAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuskens, G.A.; Ybema, J.F.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Wind, A. de; Leijten, M.S.; Joling, C.I.; Blatter, B.M. van; Burdorf, A.; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) is to acquire knowledge on determinants of healthy and productive work participation among persons aged 45–64 years. A research framework was developed with main outcomes of productivity and transitions in

  20. German Dual Curricula to Improve School to Employment Transition: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Maria Cecilia Noche

    2015-01-01

    The German Dual System is a model educational and employment approach that other nations could emulate. The ability of young apprentices to work and study at the same time to gain both practical and theoretical skills leads to more meaningful education and decreased dropout and youth unemployment rates. The collaboration of the government,…

  1. APPLYING SPARSE CODING TO SURFACE MULTIVARIATE TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY TO PREDICT FUTURE COGNITIVE DECLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Stonnington, Cynthia; Li, Qingyang; Shi, Jie; Bauer, Robert J; Gutman, Boris A; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M; Thompson, Paul M; Ye, Jieping; Wang, Yalin

    2016-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disease. Accurate diagnosis of AD and its prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment, is crucial for clinical trial design. There is also growing interests in identifying brain imaging biomarkers that help evaluate AD risk presymptomatically. Here, we applied a recently developed multivariate tensor-based morphometry (mTBM) method to extract features from hippocampal surfaces, derived from anatomical brain MRI. For such surface-based features, the feature dimension is usually much larger than the number of subjects. We used dictionary learning and sparse coding to effectively reduce the feature dimensions. With the new features, an Adaboost classifier was employed for binary group classification. In tests on publicly available data from the Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, the new framework outperformed several standard imaging measures in classifying different stages of AD. The new approach combines the efficiency of sparse coding with the sensitivity of surface mTBM, and boosts classification performance.

  2. Brain Morphometry on Congenital Hand Deformities based on Teichmüller Space Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Wang, Xu; Duan, Ye; Frey, Scott H; Gu, Xianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Congenital Hand Deformities (CHD) are usually occurred between fourth and eighth week after the embryo is formed. Failure of the transformation from arm bud cells to upper limb can lead to an abnormal appearing/functioning upper extremity which is presented at birth. Some causes are linked to genetics while others are affected by the environment, and the rest have remained unknown. CHD patients develop prehension through the use of their hands, which affect the brain as time passes. In recent years, CHD have gain increasing attention and researches have been conducted on CHD, both surgically and psychologically. However, the impacts of CHD on brain structure are not well-understood so far. Here, we propose a novel approach to apply Teichmüller space theory and conformal welding method to study brain morphometry in CHD patients. Conformal welding signature reflects the geometric relations among different functional areas on the cortex surface, which is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric, invariant under conformal deformation, and encodes complete information of the functional area boundaries. The computational algorithm is based on discrete surface Ricci flow, which has theoretic guarantees for the existence and uniqueness of the solutions. In practice, discrete Ricci flow is equivalent to a convex optimization problem, therefore has high numerically stability. In this paper, we compute the signatures of contours on general 3D surfaces with surface Ricci flow method, which encodes both global and local surface contour information. Then we evaluated the signatures of pre-central and post-central gyrus on healthy control and CHD subjects for analyzing brain cortical morphometry. Preliminary experimental results from 3D MRI data of CHD/control data demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. The statistical comparison between left and right brain gives us a better understanding on brain morphometry of subjects with Congenital Hand Deformities, in particular, missing

  3. Geographical variation in morphometry, craniometry, and diet of amammalian species (Stone marten, Martes foina) using data mining

    OpenAIRE

    PAPAKOSTA, MALAMATI; KITIKIDOU, KYRIAKI; BAKALOUDIS, DIMITRIOS; VLACHOS, CHRISTOS; CHATZINIKOS, EVANGELOS; ALEXANDROU, OLGA; SAKOULIS, ANASTASIOS

    2018-01-01

    Ecologists use various data mining techniques to make predictions and estimations, to identify patterns in datasets and relationships between qualitative and quantitative variables, or to classify variables. The aim of this study was to investigate if the application of data mining could be used to study geographical variation in the morphometry, craniometry, and diet of a mammalian species (Martes foina), and to determine whether data mining can complement genetic analysis to recognize subsp...

  4. The peculiarities' study of higher education applicants' employment in pharmaceutical specialties of full-time training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kotvitska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Employment of applicants of pharmaceutical higher education has both positive and negative impact on the quality of educational services provided by institutions, especially in terms of knowledge and skills acquired by student. Objective is to study peculiarities of higher education employment, full-time training, and features driving them to conclude labor agreements. Materials and methods. During the study, we used juridical and comparative legal methods of analysis. Results. The study has defined the following features of the employment of applicants of higher education in the health care institutions, pharmaceutical enterprises and organizations. The current legislation provides the applicants of higher education enrolled in HEIs for full-time training with a right to make a free choice of the field of study, profession, type of occupation and work. The relationship developed between an applicant and higher education institutions are not to be regarded as an employment relationship. The working under the items of labor agreement for person who combine it with the full-time education is not a part or combination or sharing, and is considered the main place of job. Thus, it stipulates maintenance of records book of the employed worker according to the general procedure. An applicant of higher education has discretion to choose working hours (full- or part-time working day, full- or part-time working week with taking into consideration the HEIs schedule and only in the free time. When full-time operating in frameworks of collective agreement at enterprise, institution, or organization, having accounted peculiarities of operation, non-standardized working day for some positions can be set. The current legislation stipulates possibility of employment for persons without higher pharmaceutical education to the health care institutions on the clearly defined positions. Conclusions.The country authority has created and is providing favorable

  5. A Descriptive Study of Occupational Health Services in Self-employed Enterprises (Nanoscale Enterprises, Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jahangiri

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed a poor level of the implementation of occupational health services in Iranian self-employed enterprises. Based on the findings, providing basic training on the occupational health, more enforcing in conduction of health examinations and providing PPE, and taking appropriate strategies aimed at eliminating or minimizing work environment harmful agents are the major factor that should be considered to improve the level of occupational health services among the studied enterprises.

  6. NICKEL HYDROXIDE FILMS IN CONTACT WITH AN ELECTROACTIVE SOLUTION. A STUDY EMPLOYING ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    RICARDO TUCCERI

    2018-01-01

    The deactivation of nickel hydroxide films after prolonged storage times without use was studied. This study was carried out in the context of the Rotating Disc Electrode Voltammetry (RDEV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) when the nickel hydroxide film contacts an electroactive solution and a redox reaction occurs at the Au-Ni(OH)2|electrolyte interface. Deferasirox (4-(3,5-bis(2- hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) benzoic acid) was employed as redox species in solution. Limi...

  7. ‘Placement budgets’ for supported employment – improving competitive employment for people with mental illness: study protocol of a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordt Carlos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vocational integration of people with mental illness is poor despite their willingness to work. The ‘Individual Placement and Support’ (IPS model which emphasises rapid and direct job placement and continuing support to patient and employer has proven to be the most effective vocational intervention programme. Various studies have shown that every second patient with severe mental illness was able to find competitive employment within 18 months. However, the goal of taking up employment within two months was rarely achieved. Thus, we aim to test whether the new concept of limited placement budgets increases the effectiveness of IPS. Methods/Design Six job coaches in six out-patients psychiatric clinics in the Canton of Zurich support unemployed patients of their clinic who seek competitive employment. Between June 2010 and May 2011 patients (N=100 are randomly assigned to three different placement budgets of 25h, 40h, or 55h working hours of job coaches. Support lasts two years for those who find a job. The intervention ends for those who fail to find competitive employment when the respective placement budgets run out. The primary outcome measure is the time between study inclusion and first competitive employment that lasted three months or longer. Over a period of three years interviews are carried out every six months to measure changes in motivation, stigmatization, social network and social support, quality of life, job satisfaction, financial situation, and health conditions. Cognitive and social-cognitive tests are conducted at baseline to control for confounding variables. Discussion This study will show whether the effectiveness of IPS can be increased by the new concept of limited placement budgets. It will also be examined whether competitive employment leads in the long term to an improvement of mental illness, to a transfer of the psychiatric support system to private and vocational networks, to an increase

  8. Student employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Marita; Gerth, Maria; Weiss, Felix

    2018-01-01

    , according to social origins, in student employment from first-year students through graduating students. We show that inequality in job quality exists and is partly attributable to the need for students from lower social origins to work to finance their studies. We hypothesise that initial inequalities......In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality...

  9. Equality of employment opportunities for nurses at the point of qualification: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth; Ooms, Ann; Grant, Robert; Marshall-Lucette, Sylvie; Chu, Christine Sek Fun; Sayer, Jane; Burke, Linda

    2013-03-01

    Securing employment after qualification is of utmost importance to newly qualified nurses to consolidate knowledge and skills. The factors that influence success in gaining this first post are not known. The study aimed to describe the first post gained after qualification in terms of setting, nature of employment contract and geographical distribution and explore the relationship between a range of factors (including ethnicity) and employment at the point of qualification. An exploratory study using structured questionnaires and secondary analysis of data routinely collected by the universities about students and their progress during their course. The study was conducted in eight universities within a large, multicultural city in the UK as part of the 'Readiness for Work' research programme. Eight hundred and four newly qualified nurses who had successfully completed a diploma or degree from one of the universities; a response rate of 77% representing 49% of all graduating students in the study population. Data were collected by self-completed semi-structured questionnaires administered to students at the time of qualification and at three months post-qualification. Routinely collected data from the universities were also collected. Fifty two percent of participants had been offered a job at the point of qualification (85% of those who had applied and been interviewed). Of these, 99% had been offered a nursing post, 88% in the city studied, 67% in the healthcare setting where they had completed a course placement. 44% felt "confident" and 32% "very confident" about their employment prospects. Predictors of employment success included ethnicity, specialty of nursing and university attended. Predictors of confidence and preparedness for job seeking included ethnicity, nursing specialty, gender and grade of degree. Newly qualified nurses from non-White/British ethnic groups were less likely to get a job and feel confident about and prepared for job seeking. This

  10. Computer-assisted sperm morphometry fluorescence-based analysis has potential to determine progeny sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Santolaria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the ability of computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASA-Morph with fluorescence to discriminate between spermatozoa carrying different sex chromosomes from the nuclear morphometrics generated and different statistical procedures in the bovine species. The study was divided into two experiments. The first was to study the morphometric differences between X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa (SX and SY, respectively. Spermatozoa from eight bulls were processed to assess simultaneously the sex chromosome by FISH and sperm morphometry by fluorescence-based CASA-Morph. SX cells were larger than SY cells on average (P < 0.001 although with important differences between bulls. A simultaneous evaluation of all the measured features by discriminant analysis revealed that nuclear area and average fluorescence intensity were the variables selected by stepwise discriminant function analysis as the best discriminators between SX and SY. In the second experiment, the sperm nuclear morphometric results from CASA-Morph in nonsexed (mixed SX and SY and sexed (SX semen samples from four bulls were compared. FISH allowed a successful classification of spermatozoa according to their sex chromosome content. X-sexed spermatozoa displayed a larger size and fluorescence intensity than nonsexed spermatozoa (P < 0.05. We conclude that the CASA-Morph fluorescence-based method has the potential to find differences between X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in bovine species although more studies are needed to increase the precision of sex determination by this technique.

  11. Perceptions of employers and unemployed youth on the proposed youth employment wage subsidy incentive in South Africa: A KwaZulu-Natal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyokazi N. Mtembu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa has high levels of unemployment and severe problem of youth unemployment. This implies that the country requires a comprehensive strategy to create more jobs for the youth. Policymaking is one of the strategies that have been introduced to encourage job creation for the youth. The youth wage subsidy is just one of the strategies proposed and this article unpacks what employers and unemployed youth say and think about this policy directive. Research purpose: The main aim of the study was to determine the perceptions of unemployed South African youth and employers on the proposed youth wage subsidy incentive scheme. Motivation for the study: Youth unemployment is a very important issue and the reality is that it is a concern of every government globally. South Africa is therefore not an exception as it is a country that has been experiencing high levels of youth unemployment for the last few decades. In an attempt to curb this pressing challenge of youth unemployment, a proposal to introduce a youth wage subsidy policy was made by government; (since its mention, this idea has been met with a lot of opposing opinions from those against it and applause from those who support it. This has motivated this study to probe the perceptions of the subsidy by those who will be affected by its provisions. Method: A triangulated research approach was adopted through the administration of survey questionnaires amongst the unemployed youth and semi-structured interviews with human resource managers and specialists. A sample of unemployed youth was drawn from selected communities within KwaZulu-Natal. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with human resource managers and specialists at selected organisations to determine their perceptions of the proposed scheme and any benefits or limitations they believe it might have. Non-probability sampling was used to sample 100 respondents (N = 100, 90% of whom were unemployed

  12. A New Method for Automated Identification and Morphometry of Myelinated Fibers Through Light Microscopy Image Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Novas, Romulo Bourget; Fazan, Valeria Paula Sassoli; Felipe, Joaquim Cezar

    2015-01-01

    Nerve morphometry is known to produce relevant information for the evaluation of several phenomena, such as nerve repair, regeneration, implant, transplant, aging, and different human neuropathies. Manual morphometry is laborious, tedious, time consuming, and subject to many sources of error. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a new method for the automated morphometry of myelinated fibers in cross-section light microscopy images. Images from the recurrent laryngeal nerve of adult rats and ...

  13. Recreational marijuana use impacts white matter integrity and subcortical (but not cortical) morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Joseph M; Paschall, Courtnie J; Banich, Marie T

    2016-01-01

    A recent shift in legal and social attitudes toward marijuana use has also spawned a surge of interest in understanding the effects of marijuana use on the brain. There is considerable evidence that an adolescent onset of marijuana use negatively impacts white matter coherence. On the other hand, a recent well-controlled study demonstrated no effects of marijuana use on the morphometry of subcortical or cortical structures when users and non-users were matched for alcohol use. Regardless, most studies have involved small, carefully selected samples, so the ability to generalize to larger populations is limited. In an attempt to address this issue, we examined the effects of marijuana use on white matter integrity and cortical and subcortical morphometry using data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) consortium. The HCP data consists of ultra-high resolution neuroimaging data from a large community sample, including 466 adults reporting recreational marijuana use. Rather than just contrasting two groups of individuals who vary significantly in marijuana usage as typifies prior studies, we leveraged the large sample size provided by the HCP data to examine parametric effects of recreational marijuana use. Our results indicate that the earlier the age of onset of marijuana use, the lower was white matter coherence. Age of onset also also affected the shape of the accumbens, while the number of lifetime uses impacted the shape of the amygdala and hippocampus. Marijuana use had no effect on cortical volumes. These findings suggest subtle but significant effects of recreational marijuana use on brain structure.

  14. The Employer Potential of MOOCs: A Mixed-Methods Study of Human Resource Professionals' Thinking on MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Alexandria Walton; Robles, Jessica; Cataylo, Stacey; Horn, Laura; Thornton, Jessica; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2014-01-01

    While press coverage of MOOCs (massive open online courses) has been considerable and major MOOC providers are beginning to realize that employers may be a market for their courses, research on employers' receptivity to using MOOCs is scarce. To help fill this gap, the Finding and Developing Talent study surveyed 103 employers and interviewed a…

  15. Determinants of breastfeeding initiation and cessation among employed mothers: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Schold, Jesse D; Randall, Xian J

    2016-07-29

    The U.S. continues to have one of the lowest breastfeeding rates in the industrialized world. Studies have shown that full-time employment and early return to work decreased breastfeeding duration, but little is known about the relationship between leave policies and breastfeeding initiation and cessation. This study aimed to identify workplace-related barriers and facilitators associated with breastfeeding initiation and cessation in the first 6 months postpartum. A prospective cohort study design was utilized to recruit 817 Minnesota women aged 18 and older while hospitalized for childbirth. Selection criteria included English-speaking, employed mothers with a healthy, singleton birth. These women were followed up using telephone interviews at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months after childbirth. The main study outcomes were breastfeeding initiation, measured during hospital enrollment, and breastfeeding cessation by 6 months postpartum. Women were 30 years old; 86 % were White, and 73 % were married. Breastfeeding rates were 81 % at childbirth, 67 % at 6 weeks, 49 % at 12 weeks, and 33 % at 6 months postpartum. Logistic regression revealed the odds of breastfeeding initiation were higher for women who: held professional jobs, were primiparae, had graduate degree, did not smoke prenatally, had no breastfeeding problems, and had family or friends who breastfeed. Survival analyses showed the hazard for breastfeeding cessation by 6 months was: higher for women who returned to work at any time during the 6 months postpartum versus those who did not return, lower for professional workers, higher among single than married women, higher for every educational category compared to graduate school, and higher for those with no family or friends who breastfeed. While employer paid leave policy did not affect breastfeeding initiation or cessation, women who took shorter leaves were more likely to stop breastfeeding in the first 6 months postpartum. Future research should examine

  16. Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Wing Hung Alex; Chan, Yu.Lung; Au, Kit Sum Agnes; Yeung, Ka Wai David; Kwan, Ting Fai; To, Cho Yee

    2005-01-01

    The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)

  17. Cortical morphometry in frontoparietal and default mode networks in math-gifted adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Carmona, Susana; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Sánchez-González, Javier; Guzmán-de-Villoria, Juan; Franco, Carolina; Robles, Olalla; Arango, Celso; Desco, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Math-gifted subjects are characterized by above-age performance in intelligence tests, exceptional creativity, and high task commitment. Neuroimaging studies reveal enhanced functional brain organization and white matter microstructure in the frontoparietal executive network of math-gifted individuals. However, the cortical morphometry of these subjects remains largely unknown. The main goal of this study was to compare the cortical morphometry of math-gifted adolescents with that of an age- and IQ-matched control group. We used surface-based methods to perform a vertex-wise analysis of cortical thickness and surface area. Our results show that math-gifted adolescents present a thinner cortex and a larger surface area in key regions of the frontoparietal and default mode networks, which are involved in executive processing and creative thinking, respectively. The combination of reduced cortical thickness and larger surface area suggests above-age neural maturation of these networks in math-gifted individuals. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1893-1902, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Generalized tensor-based morphometry of HIV/AIDS using multivariate statistics on deformation tensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, N; Brun, C; Chou, Y Y; Chiang, M C; Dutton, R A; Hayashi, K M; Luders, E; Lopez, O L; Aizenstein, H J; Toga, A W; Becker, J T; Thompson, P M

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of a new multivariate method for tensor-based morphometry (TBM). Statistics on Riemannian manifolds are developed that exploit the full information in deformation tensor fields. In TBM, multiple brain images are warped to a common neuroanatomical template via 3-D nonlinear registration; the resulting deformation fields are analyzed statistically to identify group differences in anatomy. Rather than study the Jacobian determinant (volume expansion factor) of these deformations, as is common, we retain the full deformation tensors and apply a manifold version of Hotelling's $T(2) test to them, in a Log-Euclidean domain. In 2-D and 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from 26 HIV/AIDS patients and 14 matched healthy subjects, we compared multivariate tensor analysis versus univariate tests of simpler tensor-derived indices: the Jacobian determinant, the trace, geodesic anisotropy, and eigenvalues of the deformation tensor, and the angle of rotation of its eigenvectors. We detected consistent, but more extensive patterns of structural abnormalities, with multivariate tests on the full tensor manifold. Their improved power was established by analyzing cumulative p-value plots using false discovery rate (FDR) methods, appropriately controlling for false positives. This increased detection sensitivity may empower drug trials and large-scale studies of disease that use tensor-based morphometry.

  19. Formic acid demineralization does not affect the morphometry of cervical zygapophyseal joint meniscoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Scott F; Osmotherly, Peter G; Rivett, Darren A; Cornwall, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Demineralization can facilitate the dissection of soft tissue structures in inaccessible locations by softening surrounding bone so that it can be easily removed without risking damage to the structure of interest. However, it is unclear whether demineralization alters the morphometry of soft tissues if used for this purpose. We have therefore examined the effect of extended-immersion formic acid demineralization on the size and shape of cervical zygapophyseal joint meniscoids to evaluate its usefulness as a means of facilitating dissection and examination of soft tissue structures from bony regions. Four cadaveric cervical spines were dissected, and three randomly selected zygapophyseal joints from each spine (12 in total) were removed, disarticulated and immersed in 5% formic acid for 32 days. Each joint was examined using a surgical microscope and photographed, and meniscoid length and surface area measured at days 0, 4, 18, and 32. Measurements were made on magnified digital photographs, and each measurement was repeated three times to determine intra-rater reliability. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Significance was set at p reliability was high (intra-class correlation > 0.9). These results support the use of formic acid demineralization to facilitate the study of cervical spine meniscoids by dissection, as even after a period of extended immersion in the solution, the morphometry of the structures was not significantly altered. Findings may have implications for dissection studies of other meniscoid-like soft tissue structures that use formic acid demineralization.

  20. Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Wing Hung Alex; Chan, Yu.Lung [Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Au, Kit Sum Agnes [James Cook University, Department of Psychology, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Yeung, Ka Wai David; Kwan, Ting Fai; To, Cho Yee

    2005-06-01

    The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)

  1. Pathology and morphometry of Hystrichis acanthocephalicus (Nematoda from Phimosus infuscatus (Pelecaniformes in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Scheer

    Full Text Available Abstract Species of Hystrichis are parasite nematodes of the digestive tract of aquatic birds in South America, Europe and Asia. In Brazil, Hystrichis acanthocephalicus has been reported in Phimosus infuscatus. There are few data on the morphometry of this species and there are no reports on pathological conditions that it causes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to report morphometric data from H. acanthocephalicus and describe the pathological effects of this parasite on the Phimosus infuscatus proventriculus. Thirty gastrointestinal tracts of P. infuscatus were examined to search for nematodes and H. acanthocephalicus occurred in 83% of hosts. Were measured the total length and body width of males and females, and of their respective cuticular spines, esophagus, spicules and eggs, and the internal and external diameter of copulatory bursa. Histopathological examination revealed parasitic structures in the proventriculus from the lumen (anterior end to the outer layers of the organ (intermediate and posterior parts, in which we observed inflammatory reaction with infiltration of heterophils, hemorrhage and hemosiderin. The results of this study of histopathology, morphometry and parasitological indices are the first ones reported to H. acanthocephalicus and should contribute to the identification and recognition in cases of outbreaks in the Neotropical region.

  2. Trends in study design and the statistical methods employed in a leading general medicine journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosho, M; Sato, Y; Nagashima, K; Takahashi, S

    2018-02-01

    Study design and statistical methods have become core components of medical research, and the methodology has become more multifaceted and complicated over time. The study of the comprehensive details and current trends of study design and statistical methods is required to support the future implementation of well-planned clinical studies providing information about evidence-based medicine. Our purpose was to illustrate study design and statistical methods employed in recent medical literature. This was an extension study of Sato et al. (N Engl J Med 2017; 376: 1086-1087), which reviewed 238 articles published in 2015 in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) and briefly summarized the statistical methods employed in NEJM. Using the same database, we performed a new investigation of the detailed trends in study design and individual statistical methods that were not reported in the Sato study. Due to the CONSORT statement, prespecification and justification of sample size are obligatory in planning intervention studies. Although standard survival methods (eg Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox regression model) were most frequently applied, the Gray test and Fine-Gray proportional hazard model for considering competing risks were sometimes used for a more valid statistical inference. With respect to handling missing data, model-based methods, which are valid for missing-at-random data, were more frequently used than single imputation methods. These methods are not recommended as a primary analysis, but they have been applied in many clinical trials. Group sequential design with interim analyses was one of the standard designs, and novel design, such as adaptive dose selection and sample size re-estimation, was sometimes employed in NEJM. Model-based approaches for handling missing data should replace single imputation methods for primary analysis in the light of the information found in some publications. Use of adaptive design with interim analyses is increasing

  3. Type of employment relationship and mortality: prospective study among Finnish employees in 1984-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nätti, Jouko; Kinnunen, Ulla; Mäkikangas, Anne; Mauno, Saija

    2009-04-01

    The study investigated the relationship between the type of employment (permanent/temporary) contract and mortality. Factors through which temporary employment was expected to be associated with increased mortality were the degree of satisfaction with the uncertainty related to temporary work situation (Study 1) and the voluntary/involuntary basis for temporary work (Study 2). In Study 1 the data consisted of representative survey on Finnish employees in 1984 (n = 4502), which was merged with register-based follow-up data in Statistics Finland covering years 1985-2000. In Study 2 the data consisted of representative survey on Finnish employees in 1990 (n = 3502) with register-based follow-up data covering years 1991-2000. The relative risk of death was examined by conducting Cox proportional hazards analyses for the permanent and the two temporary employment groups, respectively. In Study 1 temporary employees feeling the insecure situation unsatisfactory had a 1.95-fold higher risk of mortality than permanent employees (95% CI 1.13-3.35) after adjusted for background, health- and work-related factors. In Study 2 employees in the position of having a temporary job on the involuntarily basis had a 2.59-fold higher risk of mortality than permanent employees (95% CI 1.16-5.80). The present study confirmed that temporary employees are not a homogeneous group, which holds true even for mortality. Those temporary employees, who either felt the insecure situation unsatisfactory or who worked in temporary work involuntarily, had higher risk of mortality than permanent employees.

  4. Balancing dual roles in self-employed women: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty-Lee McLellan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at exploring how self-employed women cope in balancing their dual roles as mothers and executives. Through the elicitation of constructs by making use of Kelly’s repertory grid technique, the personal construct system of five self-employed white women in Gauteng across varying industries was established. While being successful dual earners, they still bore the primary responsibility for nurturing their families and assuring their well-being. The successful balancing of their dual roles was attributed to the following central themes, which emerged from all the participants: quality time spent with children and family, structure and planning, coping with guilt, support structures and self-reliance, and balance between work and life.

  5. Trust-based or performance-based management: a study of employment contracting in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Inger Johanne

    2011-01-01

    Hospitals are frequently changing managerial practices due to numerous public sector reforms taking place. In general, these reforms include the making and monitoring of contracts that regulate relations between the hospitals and their professional staffs. The aim of this paper is to discuss some main characteristics of the contracts that regulate the perceived relations between physicians as employees and the public hospital as employer. The theoretical framework is based on a contract theory approach. The empirical data is based on survey data from full-time employed physicians in the medical and surgical divisions in one of the largest university hospitals in Norway. This study shows that perceived obligations and psychological contracts indicate high degree of relational contracts between the hospital and the physicians. These socio-cultural elements should be recognized as important mechanisms of coordination and communication when policy makers and hospital managers are designing hospital management control systems. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Job design, employment practices and well-being: a systematic review of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Kevin; Gedikli, Cigdem; Watson, David; Semkina, Antonina; Vaughn, Oluwafunmilayo

    2017-09-01

    There is inconsistent evidence that deliberate attempts to improve job design realise improvements in well-being. We investigated the role of other employment practices, either as instruments for job redesign or as instruments that augment job redesign. Our primary outcome was well-being. Where studies also assessed performance, we considered performance as an outcome. We reviewed 33 intervention studies. We found that well-being and performance may be improved by: training workers to improve their own jobs; training coupled with job redesign; and system wide approaches that simultaneously enhance job design and a range of other employment practices. We found insufficient evidence to make any firm conclusions concerning the effects of training managers in job redesign and that participatory approaches to improving job design have mixed effects. Successful implementation of interventions was associated with worker involvement and engagement with interventions, managerial commitment to interventions and integration of interventions with other organisational systems. Practitioner Summary: Improvements in well-being and performance may be associated with system-wide approaches that simultaneously enhance job design, introduce a range of other employment practices and focus on worker welfare. Training may have a role in initiating job redesign or augmenting the effects of job design on well-being.

  7. Bronchial morphometry in smokers: comparison with healthy subjects by using 3D CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaudon, Michel; Berger, Patrick; Marthan, Roger; Lederlin, Mathieu; Tunon-de-Lara, Jose Manuel; Laurent, Francois

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of airway dimensions in patients with airway disease by using computed tomography (CT) has been limited by the obliquity of bronchi, the ability to identify the bronchial generation, and the limited number of bronchial measurements. The aims of the present study were (i) to analyze cross-sectional bronchial dimensions after automatic orthogonal reconstruction of all visible bronchi on CT images, and (ii) to compare bronchial morphometry between smokers and nonsmokers. CT and pulmonary function tests were performed in 18 males separated into two groups: 9 nonsmokers and 9 smokers. Bronchial wall area (WA) and lumen area (LA) were assessed using dedicated 3D software able to provide accurate cross-sectional measurements of all visible bronchi on CT. WA/LA and WA/(WA+LA) ratios were computed and all parameters were compared between both groups. Smokers demonstrated greater WA, smaller LA, and consequently greater LA/WA and LA/(WA+LA) ratios than nonsmokers. These differences occurred downward starting at the fourth bronchial generation. 3D quantitative CT method is able to demonstrate significant changes in bronchial morphometry related to tobacco consumption. (orig.)

  8. Precision of tibial cartilage morphometry with a coronal water-excitation MR sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyhlik-Duerr, A. [Musculoskeletal Research Group, Institute of Anatomy, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Klinik fuer Orthopaedie und Sportorthopaedie der Technischen Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Faber, S.; Reiser, M. [Klinik fuer Orthopaedie und Sportorthopaedie der Technischen Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Burgkart, R. [Institut fuer Medizinische Informatik und Systemforschung (MEDIS), GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Stammberger, T.; Englmeier, K.H. [Institut fuer Medizinische Informationsverarbeitung, Biometrie und Epidemiologie, Klinikum Grosshadern, Marchioninistrasse 15, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Maag, K.P. [Institut fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Eckstein, F. [Musculoskeletal Research Group, Institute of Anatomy, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the precision of tibial cartilage morphometry, by using a fast, coronal water-excitation sequence with high spatial resolution, to compare the reproducibility of 3D thickness vs volume estimates, and to test the technique in patients with severe osteoarthritis. The tibiae of 8 healthy volunteers and 3 patients selected for total knee arthroplasty were imaged repeatedly with a water-excitation sequence (image time 6 h 19 min, resolution 1.2 x 0.31 x 0.31 mm{sup 3}), with the knee being repositioned between each replicate acquisition. After 3D reconstruction, the cartilage volume, the mean, and the maximal tibial cartilage thickness were determined by 3D Euclidean distance transformation. In the volunteers, the precision of the volume measurements was 2.3 % (CV%) in the medial and 2.6 % in the lateral tibia. The reproducibility of the mean cartilage thickness was similar (2.6 and 2.5 %, respectively), and that of the maximal thickness lower (6.5 and 4.4 %). The patients showed a considerable reduction in volume and thickness, the precision being comparable with that in the volunteers. We find that, using a new imaging protocol and computational algorithm, it is possible to determine tibial cartilage morphometry with high precision in healthy individuals as well as in patients with osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  9. Morphology and morphometry of two banderitas species (Orchidaceae: masdevallia) in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuervo Martinez, Monica Adriana; Bonilla Gomez, Maria Argenis; Bustos Singer, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Masdevallia coccinea and the Masdevallia ignea (Banderitas) are ornamental orchids which are very prized by amateur farmers and collectors. In Colombia, the harvest pressure on these species has been enormous and few natural populations survive in the departments of Boyaca (Arcabuco of Berlin Paramo, Duitama) and Santander (between Malaga and Bucaramanga), in which these populations are reduced and of difficult access. For this reason these species are in the II appendix of cites. However, little is known on their reproductive biology, floral biology and pollination and the literature about this is incomplete. Under this framework, the goal of the project was to study the morphology and morphometry of m. coccinea and m. ignea (pleurothallidinae) under semicultivation conditions in the Villa Rosa Farm located in the municipality of Guasca, Cundinamarca (Colombia). The floral morphology was analyzed by digital photography, morphometry and scanning electron microscope. The main results were differences in color and length of dorsal and lateral sepals between m. coccinea (x = 53.0 mm Sigma = 7.4 mm and x = 44.4 mm and Sigma = 8.3 mm) and m. ignea (x = 34 mm Sigma = 7.7 mm and x = 31.5 mm and Sigma = 6.1 mm). These parts were longest in m. coccinea in contrast to m. ignea. However the lip was longest in m. ignea (x = 7.1 mm y Sigma = 0.6 mm). On the other hand both species had lip articulated to the column but without rewards as nectar and osmophores.

  10. Anatomic Variation in Morphometry of Human Coracoid Process among Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Manal; Cheah, Pike-See; Ahmad, Umar; Nasir, M Nizlan; San, Aye Aye; Abdul Rahim, Ezamin; Hussin, Paisal; Mahmud, Rozi; Othman, Fauziah

    2017-01-01

    Ethnic origin plays an important role in bone morphometry. Studies examining the influence of coracoid process have focused primarily on adults and have not included people from diverse Asian ethnic backgrounds. Our goal was to explore ethnic differences in morphometry of coracoid among Asian population. We performed morphometric measurements of coracoid process on cadaveric shoulders and shoulder CT scans from 118 specimens. The cadaveric sample included Indian (46%), Chinese (27%), and Myanmarese (27%) subjects, while the CT scans sample included Chinese (67%) and Malay (33%) subjects. The morphometric measurements were performed using digital caliper and software developed at Golden Horses Health Sanctuary (GHHS). In the Indian cadaveric shoulders, the coracoid process is better developed than the other groups with the exception of the tip width of coracoid process. There are significant differences in almost all measurements ( P Chinese than Malay subjects when stratified by sex ( P < 0.05). Moreover, in all morphometric measurements, the females had smaller measurements than males ( P < 0.05). Understanding such differences is important in anatomy, forensic and biological identity, and orthopaedic and shoulder surgeries.

  11. Recession, employment and self-rated health: a study on the gender gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Palacio, I; Carrera-Lasfuentes, P; Sánchez-Recio, R; Alonso, J P; Rabanaque, M J

    2018-01-01

    Employment status and economic recession have been associated with negative effects on self-rated health, and this effect differs by gender. We analysed the effects of the Spanish economic recession in terms of self-rated health, its differential effect among genders and its influence on gender gap. Repeated cross-sectional study using Spanish health surveys (2001-2014). Logistic regression models were conducted to explore the association between self-rated health and employment status and its evolution over time and gender. To test the impact of the economic recession, pooled data regression models were conducted. In this study, we considered 104,577 subjects. During the last 15 years, women have entered the labour market, leading to wide changes in the Spanish traditional family roles. Instead of an increasing proportion of women workers, gender employment differences persist. Therefore, in 2014, the prevalence of workers was 55.77% in men, whereas in women, it was 44.01%. Self-rated health trends during the economic recession differ by gender, with women improving slightly their self-rated health from a low self-rated health prevalence of 38.76% in 2001 to 33.78% in 2014. On the contrary, men seem more vulnerable to employment circumstances, which have led to substantial reduction in the gender gap. Although a gender gap persists, the change in socio-economic roles seems to increase women's self-rated health, reducing this gap. It is important to promote women's labour market inclusion, even in economic recession periods. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Personality and the gender gap in self-employment: a multi-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Terracciano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    What role does personality play in the pervasive gender gap in entrepreneurship across the globe? This two-study analysis focuses on self-employment in the working population and underlying gender differences in personality characteristics, thereby considering both single trait dimensions as well as a holistic, configural personality approach. Applying the five-factor model of personality, Study 1, our main study, investigates mediation models in the prediction of self-employment status utilizing self-reported personality data from large-scaled longitudinal datasets collected in the U.S., Germany, the U.K., and Australia (total N = 28,762). Study 2 analyzes (observer-rated) Big Five data collected in 51 cultures (total N = 12,156) to take a more global perspective and to explore the pancultural universality of gender differences in entrepreneurial personality characteristics. Across the four countries investigated in Study 1, none of the major five dimension of personality turned out as a consistent and robust mediator. In contrast, the holistic, configural approach yielded consistent and robust mediation results. Across the four countries, males scored higher on an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile, which in turn predicted self-employment status. These results suggest that gender differences in the intra-individual configuration of personality traits contribute to the gender gap in entrepreneurship across the globe. With the restriction of limited representativeness, the data from Study 2 suggest that the gender difference in the entrepreneurship-prone personality profile (males score higher) is widespread across many cultures, but may not exist in all. The results are discussed with an emphasis on implications for research and practice, which a particular focus on the need for more complex models that incorporate the role of personality.

  13. Personality and the Gender Gap in Self-Employment: A Multi-Nation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Terracciano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    What role does personality play in the pervasive gender gap in entrepreneurship across the globe? This two-study analysis focuses on self-employment in the working population and underlying gender differences in personality characteristics, thereby considering both single trait dimensions as well as a holistic, configural personality approach. Applying the five-factor model of personality, Study 1, our main study, investigates mediation models in the prediction of self-employment status utilizing self-reported personality data from large-scaled longitudinal datasets collected in the U.S., Germany, the U.K., and Australia (total N = 28,762). Study 2 analyzes (observer-rated) Big Five data collected in 51 cultures (total N = 12,156) to take a more global perspective and to explore the pancultural universality of gender differences in entrepreneurial personality characteristics. Across the four countries investigated in Study 1, none of the major five dimension of personality turned out as a consistent and robust mediator. In contrast, the holistic, configural approach yielded consistent and robust mediation results. Across the four countries, males scored higher on an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile, which in turn predicted self-employment status. These results suggest that gender differences in the intra-individual configuration of personality traits contribute to the gender gap in entrepreneurship across the globe. With the restriction of limited representativeness, the data from Study 2 suggest that the gender difference in the entrepreneurship-prone personality profile (males score higher) is widespread across many cultures, but may not exist in all. The results are discussed with an emphasis on implications for research and practice, which a particular focus on the need for more complex models that incorporate the role of personality. PMID:25089706

  14. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  15. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia: The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-José van Tol

    2014-01-01

    Discussion: Results suggest that STG GM abnormalities underlie the general susceptibility to experience psychotic symptoms and that additional abnormalities in a network of medial temporal, ventrolateral, putaminal, and parietal regions related to verbal memory and speech production may specifically increase the likelihood of experiencing AVH. Future studies should clarify the meaning of morphometry abnormalities for functional interregional communication.

  16. A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analysis of asymptomatic Parkinson's disease-related G2019S LRRK2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thaler, A.; Artzi, M.; Mirelman, A.; Jacob, Y.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Nuenen, B.F.L. van; Gurevich, T.; Orr-Urtreger, A.; Marder, K.; Bressman, S.; Bloem, B.R.; Hendler, T.; Giladi, N.; Bashat, D. Ben; et al.,

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson's disease have reduced gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy in both cortical and sub-cortical structures, yet changes in the pre-motor phase of the disease are unknown. METHODS: A comprehensive imaging study using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion

  17. A descriptive study of employment patterns and work environment outcomes of specialist nurses in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane; Duffield, Christine; Rizk, Paul; Nahm, Sang; Chu, Charlene H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to describe the number, demographic characteristics, work patterns, exit rates, and work perceptions of nurses in Ontario, Canada, in 4 specialty classifications: advanced practice nurse (APN)-clinical nurse specialist (CNS), APN-other, primary healthcare nurse practitioner [RN(extended class [EC])], and registered nurse (RN) with specialty certification. The objectives were to (1) describe how many qualified nurses are available by specialty class; (2) create a demographic profile of specialist nurses; (3) determine the proportions of specialist and nonspecialist nurses who leave (a) direct patient care and (b) nursing practice annually; (4) determine whether specialist and nonspecialist nurses differ in their self-ratings of work environment, job satisfaction, and intention to remain in nursing. Employment patterns refer to nurses' employment status (eg, full-time, part-time, casual), work duration (ie, length of employment in nurses and in current role), and work transitions (ie, movement in and out of the nursing workforce, and movement out of current role). A longitudinal analysis of the Ontario nurses' registration database from 2005 to 2010 and a survey of specialist nurses in Canada was conducted. The setting was Canada. The database sample consisted of 3 specialist groups, consisting of RN(EC), CNS, and APN-other, as well as 1 nonspecialist RN staff nurse group. The survey sample involved 359 nurses who were classified into groups based on self-reported job title and RN specialty-certification status. Data sources included College of Nurses of Ontario registration database and survey data. The study measures were the Nursing Work Index, a 4-item measure of job satisfaction, and 1-item measure of intent to leave current job. Nurses registered with the College of Nurses of Ontario were tracked over the study period to identify changes in their employment status with comparisons made between nurses employed in specialist roles and those

  18. Time-greedy employment relationships: four studies on the time claims of post-Fordist work

    OpenAIRE

    van Echtelt, P.

    2007-01-01

    Recent case studies consistently show that employees in contemporary work structures (often referred to as post-Fordist work designs) spend longer hours at work than in more traditional workplaces. This study investigates the association of post-Fordist work with working unpaid overtime and over-employment, using a multi-firm survey in the Netherlands. We test a range of explanations of why people would agree to work overtime for no pay. We also examine how and under what conditions working o...

  19. The influence of coping styles on long-term employment in multiple sclerosis: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, Nina; Skår, Anne Br; Aarseth, Jan Harald; Assmus, Jorg; Farbu, Elisabeth; Lode, Kirsten; Nyland, Harald I; Smedal, Tori; Myhr, Kjell Morten

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to investigate predictive values of coping styles, clinical and demographic factors on time to unemployment in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) during 1998-2002 in Norway. All patients ( N = 108) diagnosed with MS 1998-2002 in Hordaland and Rogaland counties, Western Norway, were invited to participate in the long-term follow-up study in 2002. Baseline recordings included disability scoring (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS)), depression (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)), and questionnaire assessing coping (the Dispositional Coping Styles Scale (COPE)). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with unemployed at baseline, and Cox regression analysis to identify factors at baseline associated with time to unemployment during follow-up. In all, 41 (44%) were employed at baseline. After 13 years follow-up in 2015, mean disease duration of 22 years, 16 (17%) were still employed. Median time from baseline to unemployment was 6 years (±5). Older age at diagnosis, female gender, and depression were associated with patients being unemployed at baseline. Female gender, long disease duration, and denial as avoidant coping strategy at baseline predicted shorter time to unemployment. Avoidant coping style, female gender, and longer disease duration were associated with shorter time to unemployment. These factors should be considered when advising patients on MS and future employment.

  20. Numerical study of neutron beam divergence in a beam-fusion scenario employing laser driven ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, A.; Green, A.; Ahmed, H.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Cerchez, M.; Clarke, R.; Doria, D.; Dorkings, S.; Fernandez, J.; McKenna, P.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Naughton, K.; Neely, D.; Norreys, P.; Peth, C.; Powell, H.; Ruiz, J. A.; Swain, J.; Willi, O.; Borghesi, M.; Kar, S.

    2016-09-01

    The most established route to create a laser-based neutron source is by employing laser accelerated, low atomic-number ions in fusion reactions. In addition to the high reaction cross-sections at moderate energies of the projectile ions, the anisotropy in neutron emission is another important feature of beam-fusion reactions. Using a simple numerical model based on neutron generation in a pitcher-catcher scenario, anisotropy in neutron emission was studied for the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction. Simulation results are consistent with the narrow-divergence (∼ 70 ° full width at half maximum) neutron beam recently served in an experiment employing multi-MeV deuteron beams of narrow divergence (up to 30° FWHM, depending on the ion energy) accelerated by a sub-petawatt laser pulse from thin deuterated plastic foils via the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism. By varying the input ion beam parameters, simulations show that a further improvement in the neutron beam directionality (i.e. reduction in the beam divergence) can be obtained by increasing the projectile ion beam temperature and cut-off energy, as expected from interactions employing higher power lasers at upcoming facilities.

  1. Employment status and perceived health in the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, Simon; Glozier, Nicholas; Mæland, John Gunnar; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2006-01-01

    Background Most western countries have disability benefit schemes ostensibly based upon requiring (1) a work inhibiting functional limitation that (2) can be attributed to a diagnosable condition, injury or disease. The present paper examines to what extent current practice matches the core premises of this model by examining how much poorer the perceived health of disability benefit recipients is, compared to the employed and the unemployed, and further to examine to what extent any poorer perceived health among benefit recipients can be attributed to mental or somatic illness and symptoms. Methods Information on disability benefit recipiency was obtained from Norwegian registry data, and merged with health information from the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) in Western Norway, 1997–99. Participants (N = 14 946) aged 40–47 were assessed for perceived physical and mental health (Short Form-12), somatic symptoms, mental health, and self reported somatic conditions and diseases treated with medication. Differences associated with employment status were tested in chi-square and t-tests, as well as multivariate and univariate regression models to adjust for potential confounders. Results Recipients of disability benefits (n = 1 351) had poorer perceived physical and mental health than employees (n = 13 156); group differences were 1.86 and 0.74 pooled standard deviations respectively. Self reported somatic diagnoses, mental health and symptoms accounted for very little of this difference in perceived health. The unemployed (n = 439) were comparable to the employed rather than the recipients of disability benefits. Conclusion Recipients of disability benefits have poor perceived health compared to both the employed and the unemployed. Surprisingly little of this difference can be ascribed to respondents' descriptions of their illnesses and symptoms. Even allowing for potential underascertainment of condition severity, this finding supports the increasing focus on non

  2. Employment status and perceived health in the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarø Leif

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most western countries have disability benefit schemes ostensibly based upon requiring (1 a work inhibiting functional limitation that (2 can be attributed to a diagnosable condition, injury or disease. The present paper examines to what extent current practice matches the core premises of this model by examining how much poorer the perceived health of disability benefit recipients is, compared to the employed and the unemployed, and further to examine to what extent any poorer perceived health among benefit recipients can be attributed to mental or somatic illness and symptoms. Methods Information on disability benefit recipiency was obtained from Norwegian registry data, and merged with health information from the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK in Western Norway, 1997–99. Participants (N = 14 946 aged 40–47 were assessed for perceived physical and mental health (Short Form-12, somatic symptoms, mental health, and self reported somatic conditions and diseases treated with medication. Differences associated with employment status were tested in chi-square and t-tests, as well as multivariate and univariate regression models to adjust for potential confounders. Results Recipients of disability benefits (n = 1 351 had poorer perceived physical and mental health than employees (n = 13 156; group differences were 1.86 and 0.74 pooled standard deviations respectively. Self reported somatic diagnoses, mental health and symptoms accounted for very little of this difference in perceived health. The unemployed (n = 439 were comparable to the employed rather than the recipients of disability benefits. Conclusion Recipients of disability benefits have poor perceived health compared to both the employed and the unemployed. Surprisingly little of this difference can be ascribed to respondents' descriptions of their illnesses and symptoms. Even allowing for potential underascertainment of condition severity, this finding supports the

  3. Auras and clinical features in temporal lobe epilepsy: a new approach on the basis of voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Maria Teresa Castilho Garcia; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; da Silva, Henrique Hattori; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Carrete, Henrique; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2010-05-01

    MRI investigations in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) have demonstrated structural abnormalities extending beyond ipsilateral hippocampus which may be studied through voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We investigated brain morphology related to clinical features in patients with refractory TLE with MTS using VBM. One hundred patients with unilateral TLE with MTS (59 left) and 30 controls were enrolled. VBM5 was employed to analyze (1) hemispheric damage, (2) influence of initial precipitating injury (IPI): 23 patients with febrile seizures and 19 with status epilepticus, and (3) types of auras classified as: mesial, including psychic auras (19 patients); anterior mesio-lateral, as autonomic symptoms, specially epigastric auras (27 patients) and neocortical, which included auditory, vertiginous, somatosensory and visual auras (16 patients). (1) Left TLE patients presented more widespread gray matter volume (GMV) reductions affecting ipsilateral hippocampus, temporal neocortex, insula and also left uncus, precentral gyrus, thalamus, parietal lobule, cuneus and bilateral cingulum. (2) Febrile seizures group presented ipsilateral GMV reductions in hippocampus, neocortical temporal, frontal and occipital cortices, insula and cingulum. Status epilepticus group presented more widespread GMV reductions involving temporal and extratemporal lobes. (3) Patients with mesial auras showed significant ipsilateral GMV reductions in hippocampus and amygdala, particularly right TLE group, who presented greater extension of GMV reduction in the entorhinal cortex. Significant reductions in hippocampus, amygdala and insula were seen in patients with anterior mesio-lateral auras. This study evaluated a large number of TLE-MTS patients showing structural damage extending beyond hippocampus, and different types of IPI associated with the extension of brain damage. Subtypes of auras are related to different clusters of areas of GMV reductions in

  4. An integrative model for measuring graduates’ employability skills—A study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Su

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Employability is a key issue in graduates’ job-hunting, but little research has been done on that of the graduates in Chinese universities. These universities have been experiencing a decline in their graduate employment since the past decade. This paper attempts to tackle this issue. It reviews the relevant research on employability and develops a research-based theoretical framework to evaluate and analyze the graduates’ employability in China. It adopts multiple approaches to establish the skills that will enhance university students’ employability. Investigating around 100 employers and 200 undergraduates from the universities in Beijing, the paper explores the characteristics of and factors influencing the graduates’ employability. Subsequently, it proposes a qualitative model to measure graduates’ employability. Based on the findings, it discusses the theoretical and practical implications and provides advice for Chinese graduates to improve their employability.

  5. Predictors of sickness absence in college and university educated self-employed: a historic register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnvoord, Liesbeth E C; Van der Klink, Jac J L; De Boer, Michiel R; Brouwer, Sandra

    2014-05-02

    Despite a large proportion of the workforce being self-employed, few studies have been conducted on risk factors for sickness absence in this population. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for future sickness absence in a population of college and university educated self-employed. In a historic register study based on insurance company files risk factors were identified by means of logistic regression analysis. Data collected at application for private disability insurance from 634 applicants were related to subsequent sickness absence periods of 30 days or more during a follow-up period of 7.95 years. Variables studied were self-reported lifestyle variables, variables concerning medical history and present health conditions and variables derived from the general medical examination including blood tests and urinary analysis. Results from analysis of data from 634 applicants for private disability insurance show that previous periods of sickness absence (OR 2.07), female gender (OR 2.04), health complaints listed in the health declaration (OR 1.88), elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (OR 4.05) and the nature of the profession were related to a higher risk of sickness absence. Sickness absence was found to be related to demographic variables (gender, profession), medical variables (health complaints and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and to variables with both a medical and a behavioural component (previous sickness absence).

  6. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia: The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Marie-José; van der Meer, Lisette; Bruggeman, Richard; Modinos, Gemma; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2014-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia (SZ) have been proposed to result from abnormal local, interregional and interhemispheric integration of brain signals in regions involved in language production and perception. This abnormal functional integration may find its base in morphological abnormalities. Structurally, AVHs have been frequently linked to abnormal morphology of the superior temporal gyrus (STG), but only a few studies investigated the relation of hallucination presence with both whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) morphometry. Using a unified voxel-based morphometry-DARTEL approach, we investigated correlates of AVH presence in 51 schizophrenia patients (20 non-hallucinating [SZ -], 31 hallucinating [SZ +]), and included 51 age and sex matched healthy participants. Effects are reported at p frontal and right parahippocampal gyrus, and higher WM volume of the left postcentral and superior parietal lobule than controls. Finally, volume of the putamen was lower in SZ + compared to SZ -. No effects on corpus callosum morphometry were observed. Delusion severity, general positive and negative symptomatology illness duration, and medication status could not explain the results. Results suggest that STG GM abnormalities underlie the general susceptibility to experience psychotic symptoms and that additional abnormalities in a network of medial temporal, ventrolateral, putaminal, and parietal regions related to verbal memory and speech production may specifically increase the likelihood of experiencing AVH. Future studies should clarify the meaning of morphometry abnormalities for functional interregional communication.

  7. The Relationship between Employer Endorsement of Continuing Education and Training and Work and Study Performance: A Hong Kong Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Humphry; Wong, Yiu Hing

    2007-01-01

    Based on psychological contract theory and expectancy disconfirmation theory, we posit that if employers support their staff by endorsing their continuing education and training, these employees will in turn be more satisfied and will perform better not only in their studies but also in their jobs. We also propose that such an endorsement will…

  8. Occupational health of self-employed women workers. Experiences from community based studies of the Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, M

    1993-02-01

    The Self-Employed Workers' Association (SEWA) has conducted 4 longitudinal, community-based studies to survey the occupational health of self-employed women in Ahmedabad and Indore, India. It included the workers in all stages of research. SEWA staff examined women in readymade garment, bidi, agarbatti, and masala fields. Since SEWA did not use control groups, they could not establish cause and effect relationships. Masala workers had the highest illiteracy rate (66%). At least 50% of all workers (89% of readymade garment workers) worked 8-12 hours/day. Daily wages of most workers did not exceed Rs.10, confirming their low poverty level. The most common occupational health problem while working was pain in the limbs for bidi (63%) and readymade garment workers (80%). They also experienced back pain and headaches. After work, back pain was common among agarbatti (73%) and masala (39%) workers. Masala workers also suffered from blisters and calluses (51%) and burning sensation (45%), particularly in their hands. Gynecological problems (e.g., early periods, white discharge, and burning sensation while urinating) and abdominal pain were common in all 4 groups. These results demonstrated a need for further research on occupational health and gynecological diseases; health facilities to adjust services to meet self-employed workers needs; provision of safe and subsidized tools, safety equipment, benefits (e.g., sick leave and child care), and health insurance; and health education. SEWA recommends that self-employed workers receive identity cards, the government enforce minimum wage laws and regulate working hours, and workers are provided basic amenities (e.g., potable water and sanitation).

  9. Do employers value international study and internships? A comparative analysis of 31 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mol, C.

    2017-01-01

    International student mobility is often promoted as enhancing graduates’ employability in globalised labour markets. Nevertheless, empirical evidence on this assumed causal link remains limited. Particularly the perspectives of employers remains understudied. Therefore, in this paper I analyse (1)

  10. OPINION OF YOUTH ON ISSUES AND CHALLENGES RELATED TO EMPLOYMENT: A STUDY IN MYSORE CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mohan A.K

    2017-01-01

    Employment status is one of the developmental indicators of nation. For this two things are vital, one is availability of employment opportunities and second is skillful workforce. Employment and skills are linked with many other social, economic and demographic factors. India is hoping to excel economically using its youth power. Hence many skill development programmes linked with employment options are being provided to youth by government and non-government agencies. However, the issue of ...

  11. Labour Markets and Employment Practices in the Age of Flexibility: A Case Study of Silicon Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Flexible employment has accounted for more than half of Silicon Valley's total employment growth in the past 10 years. Flexible employment has become a permanent strategy that may create insecurity for low-skilled workers; it also leads to a high turnover rate among highly skilled workers. (JOW)

  12. Maternal employment and child socio-emotional behaviour in the UK: longitudinal evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMunn, Anne; Kelly, Yvonne; Cable, Noriko; Bartley, Mel

    2012-07-01

    Mothers of young children are increasingly combining paid work with childrearing. Empirical evidence on the effects of maternal employment on children is contradictory and little work has considered the impact of maternal employment within the context of the employment patterns of both parents. Data on parental employment across three sweeps (when children were in infancy, age 3 and age 5 y) of the Millennium Cohort Study, a large nationally representative prospective birth cohort study, were used to investigate the relation between parental employment and child socio-emotional behaviour at age 5 years independent of maternal education, maternal depression or household income. The cumulative effect of maternal employment across the early years was investigated. The impact of maternal employment in the first year of life was separately examined as a potentially 'sensitive period'. There was no evidence of detrimental effects of maternal employment in the early years on subsequent child socio-emotional behaviour. There were significant gender differences in the effects of parental employment on behavioural outcomes. The most beneficial working arrangement for both girls and boys was that in which both mothers and fathers were present in the household and in paid work independent of maternal educational attainment and household income. No detrimental effects of maternal employment in the early years were seen. There were important gender differences in relationships between parental working arrangements and child socio-emotional outcomes.

  13. A social work study on impact of gender, marital status and employment status on internet addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, internet has penetrated into people’s personal lives, significantly. People communicate with each other through internet facilities such as email services, social web pages, etc. Internet has influenced so much of our lives that many people get addicted and it has become a serious issue among different societies. In this study, we perform an empirical study to find the relationship of three issues of age, gender and employment status on internet addiction behavior. The survey selects 190 men and 160 women from a city of NajafAbad located in province of Esfahan, Iran and a questionnaire consists of 35 questions are distributed among them. The survey uses Chi-Square statistics to examine the effects of three mentioned factors and the results indicate that internet addiction is more among singles than married (Chi-Square=19.94. The survey also indicates that internet addition is more on men than women do (Chi-Square=6.64. However, our survey does not find any evidence to believe job employment has any impact on internet addiction.

  14. A STUDY ON EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS OF MBA STUDENTS FROM THE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTES IN THE STATE OF KERALA

    OpenAIRE

    Bindhu Ann Thomas; Dr. K. V. Unninarayanan

    2018-01-01

    This study of employability skills among management students identifies various abilities of students including communication skills, problem solving skills , planning and organising skills , interpersonal skills, motivation skills, attitude skills , leadership skill, team work skills, decision making skills, computer skills, learning skills, and functional skills. This study identifies the mean score of each skill and overall employability skills possessed by managements students in the sta...

  15. Interviewing in Virtual Worlds: A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Success Factors of Job Applicants Utilizing Second Life to Gain Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufoudakis-Whittington, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of success factors of job applicants utilizing Second Life to gain employment. The study focused on identifying the perception of what qualified as a successful interview through the lived common experiences of 16 employment recruiters. The research problem was that a gap existed in scholarly research on…

  16. Assessment of the impact of the scanner-related factors on brain morphometry analysis with Brainvisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouhi Mahsa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain morphometry is extensively used in cross-sectional studies. However, the difference in the estimated values of the morphometric measures between patients and healthy subjects may be small and hence overshadowed by the scanner-related variability, especially with multicentre and longitudinal studies. It is important therefore to investigate the variability and reliability of morphometric measurements between different scanners and different sessions of the same scanner. Methods We assessed the variability and reliability for the grey matter, white matter, cerebrospinal fluid and cerebral hemisphere volumes as well as the global sulcal index, sulcal surface and mean geodesic depth using Brainvisa. We used datasets obtained across multiple MR scanners at 1.5 T and 3 T from the same groups of 13 and 11 healthy volunteers, respectively. For each morphometric measure, we conducted ANOVA analysis and verified whether the estimated values were significantly different across different scanners or different sessions of the same scanner. The between-centre and between-visit reliabilities were estimated from their contribution to the total variance, using a random-effects ANOVA model. To estimate the main processes responsible for low reliability, the results of brain segmentation were compared to those obtained using FAST within FSL. Results In a considerable number of cases, the main effects of both centre and visit factors were found to be significant. Moreover, both between-centre and between-visit reliabilities ranged from poor to excellent for most morphometric measures. A comparison between segmentation using Brainvisa and FAST revealed that FAST improved the reliabilities for most cases, suggesting that morphometry could benefit from improving the bias correction. However, the results were still significantly different across different scanners or different visits. Conclusions Our results confirm that for morphometry

  17. Parental employment, income, education and allergic disorders in children: a prebirth cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Sasaki, S; Hirota, Y

    2012-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence on the relationship between socio-economic status and allergic disorders has been inconsistent. We examined the associations between maternal employment, maternal job type, household income, and paternal and maternal educational levels and the risk of allergic disorders in Japanese children aged 4.5 years. Subjects were 480 mother-child pairs. Definitions of wheeze and eczema symptoms were based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed asthma and atopic eczema were available. Compared with children whose mothers had received less than 13 years of education, those with mothers with ≥15 years of education had a significantly increased risk of wheeze and doctor-diagnosed asthma: the adjusted ORs were respectively 2.41 (95%CI 1.18-5.17) and 2.70 (95%CI 1.03-8.08). Fifteen years or more of paternal education was independently associated with an increased risk of eczema, but not of doctor-diagnosed atopic eczema (adjusted OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.07-3.42). Mother's employment, mother's job type and household income were not related to any of the outcomes. Higher maternal educational level may increase the risk of wheeze and asthma, while higher paternal educational level may increase the risk of eczema.

  18. A transdiagnostic study of education, employment, and training outcomes in young people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R S C; Hermens, D F; Scott, J; O'Dea, B; Glozier, N; Scott, E M; Hickie, I B

    2017-09-01

    Optimizing functional recovery in young individuals with severe mental illness constitutes a major healthcare priority. The current study sought to quantify the cognitive and clinical factors underpinning academic and vocational engagement in a transdiagnostic and prospective youth mental health cohort. The primary outcome measure was 'not in education, employment or training' ('NEET') status. A clinical sample of psychiatric out-patients aged 15-25 years (n = 163) was assessed at two time points, on average, 24 months apart. Functional status, and clinical and neuropsychological data were collected. Bayesian structural equation modelling was used to confirm the factor structure of predictors and cross-lagged effects at follow-up. Individually, NEET status, cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms at baseline were predictive of NEET status at follow-up (p education, employment or training (i.e. being NEET) was reported in about one in four members of this cohort. The initial level of cognitive functioning was the strongest determinant of future NEET status, whereas being academically or vocationally engaged had an impact on future negative symptomatology. If replicated, these findings support the need to develop early interventions that target cognitive phenotypes transdiagnostically.

  19. Employment as a Journey or a Destination? Interpreting Graduates' and Employers' Perceptions--A Malaysia Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Kee-Cheok; Hill, Christopher; Leong, Yin-Ching; Zhang, Chen

    2018-01-01

    As human capital came to the fore in the discourse on economic growth, so too has the concepts of employment prospects and employability attributes as students transit to the labor market. This paper examines three issues in this transition in the context of Malaysia. These are, first, how important is employment prospects a consideration when…

  20. Effects of child long-term illness on maternal employment: longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Law, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Maternal employment has increased in European countries, but levels of employment are lower among mothers whose children have a limiting long-term illness or disability. However, we do not know whether having a child with a limiting illness prevents take-up or maintenance of paid employment or whether ‘common causes’, such as lack of qualifications or maternal disability lead to both maternal unemployment and childhood illness. Longitudinal data have the potential to distinguish between these. Methods: We analyzed four waves (3, 5, 7 and 11 years) of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to examine the relationship between childhood limiting illness and maternal employment, unadjusted and adjusted for covariates. Multinomial regression models were used to test the association between child illness and trajectories of maternal employment. Fixed effects models assessed whether a new report of a child illness increased the odds of a mother exiting employment. Results: At every wave, maternal employment was more likely if the child did not have a limiting illness. After adjustment for covariates, childhood illness was associated with risks of continuous non-employment (adjusted Relative Risk Ratio = 1.46 [Confidence Interval: 1.21, 1.76]) or disrupted employment (aRRR = 1.26 [CI: 1.06, 1.49]), compared with entering or maintaining employment. If a child developed a limiting long-term illness, the likelihood of their mother exiting employment increased (adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.27 [CI: 1.05, 1.54]). Conclusions: ‘Common causes’ did not fully account for the association between child illness and maternal employment. Having a child with a limiting illness potentially reduces maternal employment opportunities. PMID:28177497

  1. Mapping abnormal subcortical brain morphometry in an elderly HIV+ cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Benjamin S C; Valcour, Victor G; Wendelken-Riegelhaupt, Lauren; Esmaeili-Firidouni, Pardis; Joshi, Shantanu H; Gutman, Boris A; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Over 50% of HIV + individuals exhibit neurocognitive impairment and subcortical atrophy, but the profile of brain abnormalities associated with HIV is still poorly understood. Using surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV + participants and 31 uninfected controls. The thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, brainstem, accumbens, callosum and ventricles were segmented from high-resolution MRIs. To investigate shape-based morphometry, we analyzed the Jacobian determinant (JD) and radial distances (RD) defined on each region's surfaces. We also investigated effects of nadir CD4 + T-cell counts, viral load, time since diagnosis (TSD) and cognition on subcortical morphology. Lastly, we explored whether HIV + participants were distinguishable from unaffected controls in a machine learning context. All shape and volume features were included in a random forest (RF) model. The model was validated with 2-fold cross-validation. Volumes of HIV + participants' bilateral thalamus, left pallidum, left putamen and callosum were significantly reduced while ventricular spaces were enlarged. Significant shape variation was associated with HIV status, TSD and the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. HIV + people had diffuse atrophy, particularly in the caudate, putamen, hippocampus and thalamus. Unexpectedly, extended TSD was associated with increased thickness of the anterior right pallidum. In the classification of HIV + participants vs. controls, our RF model attained an area under the curve of 72%.

  2. Mapping abnormal subcortical brain morphometry in an elderly HIV+ cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin S.C. Wade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of HIV+ individuals exhibit neurocognitive impairment and subcortical atrophy, but the profile of brain abnormalities associated with HIV is still poorly understood. Using surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV+ participants and 31 uninfected controls. The thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, brainstem, accumbens, callosum and ventricles were segmented from high-resolution MRIs. To investigate shape-based morphometry, we analyzed the Jacobian determinant (JD and radial distances (RD defined on each region's surfaces. We also investigated effects of nadir CD4+ T-cell counts, viral load, time since diagnosis (TSD and cognition on subcortical morphology. Lastly, we explored whether HIV+ participants were distinguishable from unaffected controls in a machine learning context. All shape and volume features were included in a random forest (RF model. The model was validated with 2-fold cross-validation. Volumes of HIV+ participants' bilateral thalamus, left pallidum, left putamen and callosum were significantly reduced while ventricular spaces were enlarged. Significant shape variation was associated with HIV status, TSD and the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. HIV+ people had diffuse atrophy, particularly in the caudate, putamen, hippocampus and thalamus. Unexpectedly, extended TSD was associated with increased thickness of the anterior right pallidum. In the classification of HIV+ participants vs. controls, our RF model attained an area under the curve of 72%.

  3. A Multilevel Study of Students' Motivations of Studying Accounting: Implications for Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Philip; Yuen, Desmond

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of factors affecting students' choice of accounting as a study major in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach: Multinomial logistic regression and Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling (HGLM) are used to analyze the survey data for the level one and level two data, which is the…

  4. Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Outcomes in the First Three Years of Life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Examined data on 900 European American children from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care to explore links between maternal employment during the child's first year and child cognitive outcomes. Found that maternal employment by the child's ninth month related to lower school readiness scores at 36 months, with more pronounced effects for certain…

  5. The Employers' View of "Work-Ready" Graduates: A Study of Advertisements for Marketing Jobs in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Ellen; Kubacki, Krzysztof; Pang, Bo; Alcaraz, Celeste

    2017-01-01

    This study of job advertisements extends our understanding of how employers, rather than researchers, describe the specific skills and attributes sought in candidates for employment in graduate marketing roles in Australia. The article presents the findings of a content analysis of 359 marketing job advertisements downloaded in 2016, in two…

  6. A simple method employed for the treatment of filters used in atmospheric pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendez B, M.M.; Ortiz C, J.L.; Garrido, J.I.; Huerta P, R.; Alvarez B, C.; Zolezzi C, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the multielement routine analysis of atmospheric particulate matter is described. The samples collected on four different types of filters were treated with HNO 3 and HCl at 110-120 deg C in pyrex glassware. Time required for the different stages of the treatment was determined by using 60 Co, 65 Zn and 137 Cs as radioactive tracers. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentration of the elements. The efficiency for 11 elements (Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) was determined. The method was succesfully employed for the treatment of filters used in atmospheric pollution studies in both urban and rural areas. (author)

  7. Predictors for Employment Status in People With Multiple Sclerosis: A 10-Year Longitudinal Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslin, Mia; Fink, Katharina; Hammar, Ulf; von Koch, Lena; Johansson, Sverker

    2018-01-31

    To identify predictors for employment status after 10 years in a cohort of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), with the aim to increase knowledge concerning factors present at an early stage that are important for working life and work-life balance. A 10-year longitudinal observational cohort study. University hospital. A consecutive sample of people with MS (N=154) of working age were included at baseline, of which a total of 116 people participated in the 10-year follow-up; 27 people declined participation and 11 were deceased. Not applicable. Baseline data on personal factors and functioning were used as independent variables. Employment status 10 years after baseline, categorized as full-time work, part-time work, and no work, was used as the dependent variable. A generalized ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the predictive value of the independent variables. Predictors for full- or part-time work after 10 years were young age (P=.002), low perceived physical impact of MS (P=.02), fatigue (P=.03), full-time work (P=.001), and high frequency of social/lifestyle activities (P=.001) at baseline. Low perceived physical impact of MS (P=.02) at baseline also predicted full-time work after 10 years. This study underlines the complexity of working life for people with MS, and indicates that it may be valuable to give more attention to the balance between working and private life, both in clinical practice and future research, to achieve a sustainable working life over time. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Robust tumor morphometry in multispectral fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabesh, Ali; Vengrenyuk, Yevgen; Teverovskiy, Mikhail; Khan, Faisal M.; Sapir, Marina; Powell, Douglas; Mesa-Tejada, Ricardo; Donovan, Michael J.; Fernandez, Gerardo

    2009-02-01

    Morphological and architectural characteristics of primary tissue compartments, such as epithelial nuclei (EN) and cytoplasm, provide important cues for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic response prediction. We propose two feature sets for the robust quantification of these characteristics in multiplex immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy images of prostate biopsy specimens. To enable feature extraction, EN and cytoplasm regions were first segmented from the IF images. Then, feature sets consisting of the characteristics of the minimum spanning tree (MST) connecting the EN and the fractal dimension (FD) of gland boundaries were obtained from the segmented compartments. We demonstrated the utility of the proposed features in prostate cancer recurrence prediction on a multi-institution cohort of 1027 patients. Univariate analysis revealed that both FD and one of the MST features were highly effective for predicting cancer recurrence (p <= 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, an MST feature was selected for a model incorporating clinical and image features. The model achieved a concordance index (CI) of 0.73 on the validation set, which was significantly higher than the CI of 0.69 for the standard multivariate model based solely on clinical features currently used in clinical practice (p < 0.0001). The contributions of this work are twofold. First, it is the first demonstration of the utility of the proposed features in morphometric analysis of IF images. Second, this is the largest scale study of the efficacy and robustness of the proposed features in prostate cancer prognosis.

  9. Gray Matter Alterations in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Identified by Voxel Based Morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Larry J.; Biederman, Joseph; Liang, Lichen; Valera, Eve M.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Brown, Ariel; Kaiser, Jonathan; Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen V.; Makris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Background Gray and white matter volume deficits have been reported in many structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, there is a paucity of structural MRI studies of adults with ADHD. This study used voxel based morphometry and applied an a priori region of interest approach based on our previous work, as well as from well-developed neuroanatomical theories of ADHD. Methods Seventy-four adults with DSM-IV ADHD and 54 healthy control subjects comparable on age, sex, race, handedness, IQ, reading achievement, frequency of learning disabilities, and whole brain volume had an MRI on a 1.5T Siemens scanner. A priori region of interest hypotheses focused on reduced volumes in ADHD in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, putamen, inferior parietal lobule, and cerebellum. Analyses were carried out by FSL-VBM 1.1. Results Relative to control subjects, ADHD adults had significantly smaller gray matter volumes in parts of six of these regions at p ≤ .01, whereas parts of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule were significantly larger in ADHD at this threshold. However, a number of other regions were smaller and larger in ADHD (especially fronto-orbital cortex) at this threshold. Only the caudate remained significantly smaller at the family-wise error rate. Conclusions Adults with ADHD have subtle volume reductions in the caudate and possibly other brain regions involved in attention and executive control supporting frontostriatal models of ADHD. Modest group brain volume differences are discussed in the context of the nature of the samples studied and voxel based morphometry methodology. PMID:21183160

  10. Contemporary employment arrangements and mental well-being in men and women across Europe: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moortel, Deborah; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2014-10-28

    There is the tendency in occupational health research of approximating the 'changed world of work' with a sole focus on the intrinsic characteristics of the work task, encompassing the job content and working conditions. This is insufficient to explain the mental health risks associated with contemporary paid work as not only the nature of work tasks have changed but also the terms and conditions of employment. The main aim of the present study is to investigate whether a set of indicators referring to quality of the employment arrangement is associated with the well-being of people in salaried employment. Associations between the quality of contemporary employment arrangements and mental well-being in salaried workers are investigated through a multidimensional set of indicators for employment quality (contract type; income; irregular and/or unsocial working hours; employment status; training; participation; and representation). The second and third aim are to investigate whether the relation between employment quality and mental well-being is different for employed men and women and across different welfare regimes. Cross-sectional data of salaried workers aged 15-65 from 21 EU-member states (n =11,940) were obtained from the 2010 European Social Survey. Linear regression analyses were performed. For both men and women, and irrespective of welfare regime, several sub-dimensions of low employment quality are significantly related with poor mental well-being. Most of the significant relations persist after controlling for intrinsic job characteristics. An insufficient household income and irregular and/or unsocial working hours are the strongest predictors of poor mental well-being. A differential vulnerability of employed men and women to the sub-dimensions of employment quality is found in Traditional family and Southern European welfare regimes. There are significant relations between indicators of low employment quality and poor mental well-being, also when

  11. Do changes in spousal employment status lead to domestic violence? Insights from a prospective study in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Subbiah, Kalyani; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of physical domestic violence--violence against women perpetrated by husbands--is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status, and physical domestic violence. In 2005-2006, 744 married women, aged 16-25, residing in low-income communities in Bangalore, India were enrolled in the study. Data were collected at enrollment, 12 and 24 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the prospective association between women's employment status, their perceptions of their husband's employment stability, and domestic violence. Women who were unemployed at one visit and began employment by the next visit had an 80% higher odds of violence, as compared to women who maintained their unemployed status. Similarly, women whose husbands had stable employment at one visit and newly had difficulty with employment had 1.7 times the odds of violence, as compared to women whose husbands maintained their stable employment. To our knowledge, this study is the first from a developing country to confirm that changes in spousal employment status are associated with subsequent changes in violence risk. It points to the complex challenges of violence prevention, including the need for interventions among men and gender-transformative approaches to promote gender-equitable attitudes, practices and norms among men and women.

  12. Recreational marijuana use impacts white matter integrity and subcortical (but not cortical morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Orr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent shift in legal and social attitudes toward marijuana use has also spawned a surge of interest in understanding the effects of marijuana use on the brain. There is considerable evidence that an adolescent onset of marijuana use negatively impacts white matter coherence. On the other hand, a recent well-controlled study demonstrated no effects of marijuana use on the morphometry of subcortical or cortical structures when users and non-users were matched for alcohol use. Regardless, most studies have involved small, carefully selected samples, so the ability to generalize to larger populations is limited. In an attempt to address this issue, we examined the effects of marijuana use on white matter integrity and cortical and subcortical morphometry using data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP consortium. The HCP data consists of ultra-high resolution neuroimaging data from a large community sample, including 466 adults reporting recreational marijuana use. Rather than just contrasting two groups of individuals who vary significantly in marijuana usage as typifies prior studies, we leveraged the large sample size provided by the HCP data to examine parametric effects of recreational marijuana use. Our results indicate that the earlier the age of onset of marijuana use, the lower was white matter coherence. Age of onset also also affected the shape of the accumbens, while the number of lifetime uses impacted the shape of the amygdala and hippocampus. Marijuana use had no effect on cortical volumes. These findings suggest subtle but significant effects of recreational marijuana use on brain structure.

  13. Tensor-based morphometry of fibrous structures with application to human brain white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Yushkevich, Paul A; Rueckert, Daniel; Gee, James C

    2009-01-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is a powerful approach for examining shape changes in anatomy both across populations and in time. Our work extends the standard TBM for quantifying local volumetric changes to establish both rich and intuitive descriptors of shape changes in fibrous structures. It leverages the data from diffusion tensor imaging to determine local spatial configuration of fibrous structures and combines this information with spatial transformations derived from image registration to quantify fibrous structure-specific changes, such as local changes in fiber length and in thickness of fiber bundles. In this paper, we describe the theoretical framework of our approach in detail and illustrate its application to study brain white matter. Our results show that additional insights can be gained with the proposed analysis.

  14. White matter impairments in autism, evidence from voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xiaoyan; Tang, Tianyu; Hong, Shanshan; Hang, Yueyue; Zou, Bing; Li, Huiguo; Zhou, Zhenyu; Ruan, Zongcai; Lu, Zuhong; Tao, Guotai; Liu, Yijun

    2009-04-10

    This study explored white matter abnormalities in a group of Chinese children with high functioning autism (HFA). Twelve male children with HFA and ten matched typically developing children underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as well three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI for voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We found a significant decrease of the white matter density in the right frontal lobe, left parietal lobe and right anterior cingulate and a significant increase in the right frontal lobe, left parietal lobe and left cingulate gyrus in the HFA group compared with the control group. The HFA group also had decreased FA in the frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. By combining DT-MRI FA and MRI volumetric analyses based on the VBM model, the results showed consistent white matter abnormalities in a group of Chinese children with HFA.

  15. Regional gray matter volume is associated with trait modesty: Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chuhua; Wu, Qiong; Jin, Yan; Wu, Yanhong

    2017-11-02

    Modesty when defined as a personality trait, is highly beneficial to interpersonal relationship, group performance, and mental health. However, the potential neural underpinnings of trait modesty remain poorly understood. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate the structural neural basis of trait modesty in Chinese college students. VBM results showed that higher trait modesty score was associated with lager regional gray matter volume in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left superior temporal gyrus/left temporal pole, and right posterior insular cortex. These results suggest that individual differences in trait modesty are linked to brain regions associated with self-evaluation, self-regulation, and social cognition. The results remained robust after controlling the confounding factor of global self-esteem, suggesting unique structural correlates of trait modesty. These findings provide evidence for the structural neural basis of individual differences in trait modesty.

  16. Estimation and Perturbation of the Mid-Sagittal Plane and its Effects on Corpus Callosum Morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoglund, Karl; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Ryberg, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    callosum (CC), the white-matter nervous tissue bridging the left and right cerebral hemisphere. A multitude of papers (e.g. [2]) report on measurements performed on the two-dimensional cross-section of the CC defined by the mid-sagittal plane (MSP) which separates the left hemisphere from the right......Brain morphometry is an important tool for detecting and monitoring brain pathologies such as epilepsy, dementia [1,2] and multiple sclerosis [3]. A common method is to delineate some well-defined area of the brain to yield a shape for interor intra-subject studies. One such structure is the corpus....... Differences in shape due to pathologies are often slight (e.g. [1]). This makes it imperative to define the MSP in an accurate and consistent manner. This work investigates the importance of proper MSP estimation by measuring relative area changes of the CC as a function of plane perturbation angle from...

  17. Image interpolation allows accurate quantitative bone morphometry in registered micro-computed tomography scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Friederike A; Lambers, Floor M; Mueller, Thomas L; Stauber, Martin; Müller, Ralph

    2014-04-01

    Time-lapsed in vivo micro-computed tomography is a powerful tool to analyse longitudinal changes in the bone micro-architecture. Registration can overcome problems associated with spatial misalignment between scans; however, it requires image interpolation which might affect the outcome of a subsequent bone morphometric analysis. The impact of the interpolation error itself, though, has not been quantified to date. Therefore, the purpose of this ex vivo study was to elaborate the effect of different interpolator schemes [nearest neighbour, tri-linear and B-spline (BSP)] on bone morphometric indices. None of the interpolator schemes led to significant differences between interpolated and non-interpolated images, with the lowest interpolation error found for BSPs (1.4%). Furthermore, depending on the interpolator, the processing order of registration, Gaussian filtration and binarisation played a role. Independent from the interpolator, the present findings suggest that the evaluation of bone morphometry should be done with images registered using greyscale information.

  18. Influences of Women's Employment on the Gendered Division of Household Labor over the Life Course: Evidence from a 31-Year Panel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Mick

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on data from a panel study of White women spanning 31 years, the analyses examine the influence of women's employment on the gendered division of household labor. Multiple dimensions of women's employment are investigated, including accumulated employment histories, current employment status, current employment hours, and relative income.…

  19. Maternal employment and atopic dermatitis in children: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I J; Wen, H J; Chiang, T L; Lin, S J; Chen, P C; Guo, Y L

    2013-04-01

    Considering the early onset of atopic dermatitis (AD), which most often arises in the first year of life, risk factors occurring very early in life must be considered. Little is known about the effects of maternal occupational exposure on the development of atopic disorders in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between maternal employment and childhood AD. We used multistage stratified systematic sampling to recruit 24,200 mother-newborn pairs from the Taiwan national birth register. Information on maternal occupation categories, work stress, working time, shift work and potential confounders during pregnancy was gathered by questionnaires after birth. At 3 years of age, information on the development of AD was assessed by home interviews. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the association of maternal employment and AD. Overall, 11,962 out of 19,381 mothers (61·7%) worked during pregnancy. The children of mothers who worked during pregnancy had an increased risk of AD compared with those whose mothers did not work [odds ratio (OR) 1·38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·25-1·53]. The children of mothers with a professional or technical occupation had a higher risk of AD (OR 1·64, 95% CI 1·44-1·87). The risk of AD was found to increase with maternal work stress during pregnancy in a dose-response manner (P(trend)maternal shift work was found. Working in professional or technical occupations increased the risk of childhood AD in addition to work stress during pregnancy. © 2013 The Authors. BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Who opts for self-employment after retirement? A longitudinal study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Solinge, H.

    2014-01-01

    Self-employment among older age groups is rising. A better understanding of the role of self-employment in extending the working lives of individuals is, therefore, relevant from a policy perspective. By bridging the gap in the literature on work/retirement decision-making and entrepreneurship, the

  1. Information Management Graduates' Accounts of Their Employability: A Case Study from the University of Sheffield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Andrew M.; Al Daoud, Mohammad; Rudd, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring that graduates are employable is an important priority for universities. It is challenging for fields such as Information Management (IM), that are not fully understood by employers and where there is no very clearly defined entry level job market. This paper takes a graduate identity perspective to explore how IM graduates from the…

  2. A Study on Relationship between Personality Traits and Employment Factors of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai-Wen, Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The goal of vocational education is to enhance students' professional knowledge, technical skills, and professional ethics to make them readily available for employment and capable of satisfying the needs of economic constructions. Vocational education plays an important role in guiding and assisting students in seeking employment. However, in…

  3. "Employment and arthritis: making it work" a randomized controlled trial evaluating an online program to help people with inflammatory arthritis maintain employment (study protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Erin C; Rogers, Pamela; Backman, Catherine L; Goldsmith, Charles H; Gignac, Monique A; Marra, Carlo; Village, Judy; Li, Linda C; Esdaile, John M; Lacaille, Diane

    2014-07-21

    Arthritis and musculoskeletal conditions are the leading cause of long-term work disability (WD), an outcome with a major impact on quality of life and a high cost to society. The importance of decreased at-work productivity has also recently been recognized. Despite the importance of these problems, few interventions have been developed to reduce the impact of arthritis on employment. We have developed a novel intervention called "Making It Work", a program to help people with inflammatory arthritis (IA) deal with employment issues, prevent WD and improve at-work productivity. After favorable results in a proof-of-concept study, we converted the program to a web-based format for broader dissemination and improved accessibility. The objectives of this study are: 1) to evaluate in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) the effectiveness of the program at preventing work cessation and improving at-work productivity; 2) to perform a cost-utility analysis of the intervention. 526 participants with IA will be recruited from British Columbia, Alberta, and Ontario in Canada. The intervention consists of a) 5 online group sessions; b) 5 web-based e-learning modules; c) consultations with an occupational therapist for an ergonomic work assessment and a vocational rehabilitation counselor. Questionnaires will be administered online at baseline and every 6 months to collect information about demographics, disease measures, costs, work-related risk factors for WD, quality of life, and work outcomes. Primary outcomes include at-work productivity and time to work cessation of > 6 months for any reason. Secondary outcomes include temporary work cessation, number of days missed from work per year, reduction in hours worked per week, quality adjusted life year for the cost utility analysis, and changes from baseline in employment risk factors. Analysis of Variance will evaluate the intervention's effect on at-work productivity, and multivariable Cox regression models will

  4. Determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage: a population-based study of the Danish labour force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann Demant; Søgaard, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    AIM: In 2002, the Danish tax law was changed, giving employees a tax exemption on supplemental, employer-paid health insurance. This might have conflicted with one of the key foundations of the healthcare system, namely equal access for equal needs. The aim of this study was to investigate...... determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. METHOD: The analysis...... employer-paid health insurance coverage. RESULTS: The individuals who were most likely to be insured were those employed in foreign companies as mid-level managers within the field of building and construction. Other important variables were the number of persons employed in a company, gender, ethnicity...

  5. The cost and benefits of employment: a qualitative study of experiences of persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kurt L; Yorkston, Kathryn M; Klasner, Estelle R; Kuehn, Carrie M; Johnson, Erica; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2004-02-01

    To attain a better understanding of the benefits and barriers faced by persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the workplace. Qualitative research methodology comprising a series of semistructured interviews. Community-based setting. Fourteen women and 2 men with MS living in the community who were employed or recently employed at the time of interviews. Not applicable. Accounts of personal experiences related to employment. Four themes emerged: the cost-benefit economy of working; fatigue and cognitive changes; stress in the workplace; and accommodations made to address barriers. Although participants valued work highly, they were also aware of the cost of being employed. The consequences of unemployment or changing jobs were considered negative and appeared stressful. For persons with MS, employment had both costs and significant benefits. Accommodations in the workplace and modifications of roles and responsibilities at home made it possible for individuals to continue working. Health care providers must consider the complexity and timing of decisions by people with MS to continue or leave employment before recommending either action. Identifying critical periods of intervention to stabilize this cost-benefit balance is a critical next step for understanding issues of employment and MS.

  6. Modeling the cost-benefit of nerve conduction studies in pre-employment screening for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanoff, Bradley; Kymes, Steve

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the costs associated with pre-employment nerve conduction testing as a screening tool for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in the workplace. We used a Markov decision analysis model to compare the costs associated with a strategy of screening all prospective employees for CTS and not hiring those with abnormal nerve conduction, versus a strategy of not screening for CTS. The variables included in our model included employee turnover rate, the incidence of CTS, the prevalence of median nerve conduction abnormalities, the relative risk of developing CTS conferred by abnormal nerve conduction screening, the costs of pre-employment screening, and the worker's compensation costs to the employer for each case of CTS. In our base case, total employer costs for CTS from the perspective of the employer (cost of screening plus costs for workers' compensation associated with CTS) were higher when screening was used. Median costs per employee position over five years were US$503 for the screening strategy versus US$200 for a no-screening strategy. A sensitivity analysis showed that a strategy of screening was cost-beneficial from the perspective of the employer only under a few circumstances. Using Monte Carlo simulation varying all parameters, we found a 30% probability that screening would be cost-beneficial. A strategy of pre-employment screening for CTS should be carefully evaluated for yield and social consequences before being implemented. Our model suggests such screening is not appropriate for most employers.

  7. Case studies on employment-related health inequalities in countries representing different types of labor markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The authors selected nine case studies, one country from each cluster of their labor market inequalities typology, to outline the macro-political and economic roots of employment relations and their impacts on health. These countries illustrate variations in labor markets and health, categorized into a global empirical typology. The case studies illustrated that workers' health is significantly connected with labor market characteristics and the welfare system. For a core country, the labor market is characterized by a formal sector. The labor institutions of Sweden traditionally have high union density and collective bargaining coverage and a universal health care system, which correlate closely with positive health, in comparison with Spain and the United States. For a semi-periphery country, the labor market is delineated by a growing informal economy. Although South Korea, Venezuela, and El Salvador provide some social welfare benefits, a high proportion of irregular and informal workers are excluded from these benefits and experience hazardous working conditions that adversely affect their health. Lastly, several countries in the global periphery--China, Nigeria, and Haiti--represent informal work and severe labor market insecurity. In the absence of labor market regulations, the majority of their workers toil in the informal sector in unsafe conditions with inadequate health care.

  8. Applying tensor-based morphometry to parametric surfaces can improve MRI-based disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Yuan, Lei; Shi, Jie; Greve, Alexander; Ye, Jieping; Toga, Arthur W; Reiss, Allan L; Thompson, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Many methods have been proposed for computer-assisted diagnostic classification. Full tensor information and machine learning with 3D maps derived from brain images may help detect subtle differences or classify subjects into different groups. Here we develop a new approach to apply tensor-based morphometry to parametric surface models for diagnostic classification. We use this approach to identify cortical surface features for use in diagnostic classifiers. First, with holomorphic 1-forms, we compute an efficient and accurate conformal mapping from a multiply connected mesh to the so-called slit domain. Next, the surface parameterization approach provides a natural way to register anatomical surfaces across subjects using a constrained harmonic map. To analyze anatomical differences, we then analyze the full Riemannian surface metric tensors, which retain multivariate information on local surface geometry. As the number of voxels in a 3D image is large, sparse learning is a promising method to select a subset of imaging features and to improve classification accuracy. Focusing on vertices with greatest effect sizes, we train a diagnostic classifier using the surface features selected by an L1-norm based sparse learning method. Stability selection is applied to validate the selected feature sets. We tested the algorithm on MRI-derived cortical surfaces from 42 subjects with genetically confirmed Williams syndrome and 40 age-matched controls, multivariate statistics on the local tensors gave greater effect sizes for detecting group differences relative to other TBM-based statistics including analysis of the Jacobian determinant and the largest eigenvalue of the surface metric. Our method also gave reasonable classification results relative to the Jacobian determinant, the pair of eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix and volume features. This analysis pipeline may boost the power of morphometry studies, and may assist with image-based classification. Copyright © 2013

  9. Influence of Gestational Overfeeding on Cardiac Morphometry and Hypertrophic Protein Markers in Fetal Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiujuan; Turdi, Subat; Ford, Stephen P.; Hua, Yinan; Nijland, Mark J.; Zhu, Meijun; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Intrauterine overnutrition is associated with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood although the underlying mechanism has not been precisely elucidated. This study evaluated the effects of maternal overnutrition on fetal cardiac morphometry and hypertrophy-related mRNA/protein expression. Multiparous ewes were fed either 150% of NRC nutrient requirements (overfed group) or 100% of NRC requirements (control group) from 60 days before mating to day 75 (D75) of gestation, when ewes were euthanized. Cardiac morphometry, histology and expression of Akt, forkhead-3a (Foxo3a), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), NFATc3 and GATA4, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), calcineurin A and caspase-8 were examined. Crown rump length, left and right ventricular free wall weights and left ventricular wall thickness were increased in D75 overnourished fetuses. H&E staining revealed irregular myofiber orientation and increased interstitial space in heart tissues from overfed group. Masson’s trichrome staining displayed myofiber hypertrophy and fascicular disarray in heart tissues from overfed group. Overfeeding significantly enhanced Foxo3a phosphorylation in both ventricles while protein expression of Akt, Foxo3a, GSK3β and caspase-8 as well as phosphorylated Akt and GSK3β in either ventricle was unaffected. Overfeeding increased left ventricular mTOR, NFATc3 (both total and phosphorylated) and calcineurin A. GATA4, pGATA4 and ANF expression were unchanged in both ventricles. Collectively, our data suggested that overfeeding during early to mid gestation (D75) leads to morphometric changes without overt pathology which may be related to elevated expression of mTOR, NFATc3, calcineurin A and phosphorylation of Foxo3a, mTOR and NFATc3. PMID:20188535

  10. Taxonomic Identity of the Invasive Fruit Fly Pest, Bactrocera invadens: Concordance in Morphometry and DNA Barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Fathiya M.; Masiga, Daniel K.; Mohamed, Samira A.; Salifu, Daisy; de Meyer, Marc; Ekesi, Sunday

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, a new fruit fly pest species was recorded for the first time in Kenya and has subsequently been found in 28 countries across tropical Africa. The insect was described as Bactrocera invadens, due to its rapid invasion of the African continent. In this study, the morphometry and DNA Barcoding of different populations of B. invadens distributed across the species range of tropical Africa and a sample from the pest's putative aboriginal home of Sri Lanka was investigated. Morphometry using wing veins and tibia length was used to separate B. invadens populations from other closely related Bactrocera species. The Principal component analysis yielded 15 components which correspond to the 15 morphometric measurements. The first two principal axes contributed to 90.7% of the total variance and showed partial separation of these populations. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that only the first five canonical variates were statistically significant. The first two canonical variates contributed a total of 80.9% of the total variance clustering B. invadens with other members of the B. dorsalis complex while distinctly separating B. correcta, B. cucurbitae, B. oleae and B. zonata. The largest Mahalanobis squared distance (D2 = 122.9) was found to be between B. cucurbitae and B. zonata, while the lowest was observed between B. invadens populations against B. kandiensis (8.1) and against B. dorsalis s.s (11.4). Evolutionary history inferred by the Neighbor-Joining method clustered the Bactrocera species populations into four clusters. First cluster consisted of the B. dorsalis complex (B. invadens, B. kandiensis and B. dorsalis s. s.), branching from the same node while the second group was paraphyletic clades of B. correcta and B. zonata. The last two are monophyletic clades, consisting of B. cucurbitae and B. oleae, respectively. Principal component analysis using the genetic distances confirmed the clustering inferred by the NJ tree. PMID:23028649

  11. Models to estimate volume of individual trees by morphometry of crowns obtained with lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Orfanó Figueiredo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The volumetric estimate from digital scanning of the forests through the use of LIDAR increases the precision of forest management techniques in planning tropical forest logging operations. The use of this remote detection technology allows the incorporation of crown morphometric variables which are still little known and little used due to the difficulty of collecting field data for volume equations. The objective of this study was to build equations capable of estimating the stem volume of dominant and codominant individual trees from the crown's morphometry obtained by airborne LIDAR, considering two forest inventory situations: a with the collection of diameter at breast height (DBH, and crown morphometric variables obtained from LIDAR data and b using only the crown morphometry variables. For the selection of models the factors considered were: the correlation matrix of predictor variables and the combination of variables that generates the best results by statistical criteria Syx, Syx(% and Pressp, and that were homoscedastic and had a normal and independent distribution of errors. The influence analysis was performed for the best equations. The results for the statistical fit of the equations to the two situations allowed the selection of models with and without DBH, with R2aj.( % values of a 92.92 and b 79.44, Syx(% values of a 16.73 and b 27.47, and, Pressp criterion values of a 201.15 m6 and b 537.47 m6, respectively. Through morphometric variables it was possible to develop equations capable of accurately estimating the stem volume of dominant and codominant trees in tropical forests.

  12. Neighbourhood effects as indirect effects: evidence from a Dutch case study on the significance of neighbourhood for employment trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkster, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in the study of neighbourhood effects on work is to understand the pathways through which disadvantaged neighbourhoods impact the employment opportunities of residents. Endogenous explanations for neighbourhood effects focus on social life in these neighbourhoods,

  13. Multivariate analysis of eigenvalues and eigenvectors in tensor based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Vidya; Schwartzman, Armin; Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex; Thompson, Paul; Lepore, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    We develop a new algorithm to compute voxel-wise shape differences in tensor-based morphometry (TBM). As in standard TBM, we non-linearly register brain T1-weighed MRI data from a patient and control group to a template, and compute the Jacobian of the deformation fields. In standard TBM, the determinants of the Jacobian matrix at each voxel are statistically compared between the two groups. More recently, a multivariate extension of the statistical analysis involving the deformation tensors derived from the Jacobian matrices has been shown to improve statistical detection power.7 However, multivariate methods comprising large numbers of variables are computationally intensive and may be subject to noise. In addition, the anatomical interpretation of results is sometimes difficult. Here instead, we analyze the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrices. Our method is validated on brain MRI data from Alzheimer's patients and healthy elderly controls from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuro Imaging Database.

  14. MANDIBULAR ASYMMETRY CHARACTERIZATION USING GENERALIZED TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Alhadidi, Abeer; Cevidanes, Lucia; Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek

    2011-12-31

    Quantitative assessment of facial asymmetry is crucial for successful planning of corrective surgery. We propose a tensor-based morphometry (TBM) framework to locate and quantify asymmetry using 3D CBCT images. To this end, we compute a rigid transformation between the mandible segmentation and its mirror image, which yields global rotation and translation with respect to the cranial base to guide the surgery's first stage. Next, we nonrigidly register the rigidly aligned images and use TBM methods to locally analyze the deformation field. This yields data on the location, amount and direction of "growth" (or "shrinkage") between the left and right sides. We visualize this data in a volumetric manner and via scalar and vector maps on the mandibular surface to provide the surgeon with optimal understanding of the patient's anatomy. We illustrate the feasibility and strength of our technique on 3 representative patients with a wide range of facial asymmetries.

  15. Employment Trajectories After Spinal Cord Injury : Results From a 5-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdiana, Astri; Post, Marcel W.; Hoekstra, Trynke; van der Woude, Luccas H.; van der Klink, Jac J.; Bultmann, Ute

    Objectives: To identify different employment trajectories in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) after discharge from initial rehabilitation and to determine predictors of different trajectories from demographic, injury, functional, and psychological characteristics. Design: Prospective cohort

  16. Feature-based morphometry: discovering group-related anatomical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Matthew; Wells, William; Collins, D Louis; Arbel, Tal

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents feature-based morphometry (FBM), a new fully data-driven technique for discovering patterns of group-related anatomical structure in volumetric imagery. In contrast to most morphometry methods which assume one-to-one correspondence between subjects, FBM explicitly aims to identify distinctive anatomical patterns that may only be present in subsets of subjects, due to disease or anatomical variability. The image is modeled as a collage of generic, localized image features that need not be present in all subjects. Scale-space theory is applied to analyze image features at the characteristic scale of underlying anatomical structures, instead of at arbitrary scales such as global or voxel-level. A probabilistic model describes features in terms of their appearance, geometry, and relationship to subject groups, and is automatically learned from a set of subject images and group labels. Features resulting from learning correspond to group-related anatomical structures that can potentially be used as image biomarkers of disease or as a basis for computer-aided diagnosis. The relationship between features and groups is quantified by the likelihood of feature occurrence within a specific group vs. the rest of the population, and feature significance is quantified in terms of the false discovery rate. Experiments validate FBM clinically in the analysis of normal (NC) and Alzheimer's (AD) brain images using the freely available OASIS database. FBM automatically identifies known structural differences between NC and AD subjects in a fully data-driven fashion, and an equal error classification rate of 0.80 is achieved for subjects aged 60-80 years exhibiting mild AD (CDR=1). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Morphometry and land cover based multi-criteria analysis for assessing the soil erosion susceptibility of the western Himalayan watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Sadaff; Meraj, Gowhar; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Complex mountainous environments such as Himalayas are highly susceptibility to natural hazards particular those that are triggered by the action of water such as floods, soil erosion, mass movements and siltation of the hydro-electric power dams. Among all the natural hazards, soil erosion is the most implicit and the devastating hazard affecting the life and property of the millions of people living in these regions. Hence to review and devise strategies to reduce the adverse impacts of soil erosion is of utmost importance to the planners of watershed management programs in these regions. This paper demonstrates the use of satellite based remote sensing data coupled with the observational field data in a multi-criteria analytical (MCA) framework to estimate the soil erosion susceptibility of the sub-watersheds of the Rembiara basin falling in the western Himalaya, using geographical information system (GIS). In this paper, watershed morphometry and land cover are used as an inputs to the MCA framework to prioritize the sub-watersheds of this basin on the basis of their different susceptibilities to soil erosion. Methodology included the derivation of a set of drainage and land cover parameters that act as the indicators of erosion susceptibility. Further the output from the MCA resulted in the categorization of the sub-watersheds into low, medium, high and very high erosion susceptibility classes. A detailed prioritization map for the susceptible sub-watersheds based on the combined role of land cover and morphometry is finally presented. Besides, maps identifying the susceptible sub-watersheds based on morphometry and land cover only are also presented. The results of this study are part of the watershed management program in the study area and are directed to instigate appropriate measures to alleviate the soil erosion in the study area.

  18. Lost in transition? A study of newly graduated teachers' experiences during the initial period of employment

    OpenAIRE

    Hultell, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The most crucial factors affecting burnout and work engagement when entering employment were feelings of competence to satisfactorily perform one’s work, the discrepancy between previous expectations and the actual conditions of employment, and the balance between work and private life. Beginning teachers who felt competent, had their expectations met, and had a sound balance between their work and private life experienced less burnout and were more engaged in their work. Over...

  19. A Study of Employment Discrimination against Women in China from a Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Nana

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is intended to focus on the employment discrimination against women in China. Firstly, the thesis will set forth the research background, including the research questions, literature review, theoretical orientations and methodology. Secondly, it will describe the current situation of employment discrimination against women in China, and analyze the reasons from the economic, social, cultural and legal aspects. Thirdly, it will analyze current anti-discrimination legislation and en...

  20. Returns to Qualification in Informal Employment: A Study of Urban Youth in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Informal employment is a reality for roughly two-thirds of economically active youth in urban Egypt, and it has been argued to be correlated with poverty, poor working conditions, and few opportunities for advancement. This essay analyzes whether informal employment rewards job qualification measures, using survey data from 2006 and a Blinder-Oaxaca wage decomposition. After creating a taxonomy of formal, para-formal, and informal modes of qualification, it is shown that formal public and for...

  1. Seeking the balance between caregiving in dementia, family and employment: study protocol for a mixed methods study in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Lydia; König, Hans-Helmut; Brettschneider, Christian

    2018-02-27

    The debate on reconciliation between childcare and working has to be expanded to caregiving for the elderly, since the importance of informal caregiving will increase in the future due to populations' ageing and women's increasing labour force participation. Informal caregivers who are caring for the rising number of persons with dementia (PwD) are often female and subjected to high caregiving requirements. These are added to further demands emerging from their family and work life. How affected caregivers seek to balance those requirements depends on, inter alia, their own characteristics and the informal caregiving network to whom they relate. Both aspects were not yet considered in previous studies. This mixed methods study thus aims to explore the reconciliation between caregiving in dementia, family and employment by including different members of caregiving networks of home-dwelling PwD and by considering their personal characteristics. By purposive sampling, we include at least five caregiving networks of home-dwelling PwD; each of them consisting of at least three informal caregivers living in Northern Germany. Narrative interviews of participants will be recorded, transcribed verbatim and interpreted according to the Documentary Method (QUAL). By completing standardised questionnaires, participants will provide sociodemographic and psychographic data concerning themselves and the networks from whom they arise (quan). This supplemental, descriptive information will give further background to the themes and types emerging from the interviews. Hence, the quan-data enrich the QUAL-data by exploring the narratives of participants in the light of their personal and network-related characteristics. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the German Society of Nursing Sciences. Study results will be disseminated through conference presentations and publications in peer-reviewed journals. DRKS00012929. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s

  2. Employers' paradoxical views about temporary foreign migrant workers' health: a qualitative study in rural farms in southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narushima, Miya; Sanchez, Ana Lourdes

    2014-09-10

    The province of Ontario hosts nearly a half of Canada's temporary foreign migrant farm workers (MFWs). Despite the essential role played by MFWs in the economic prosperity of the region, a growing body of research suggests that the workers' occupational safety and health are substandard, and often neglected by employers. This study thus explores farm owners' perceptions about MFWs occupational safety and general health, and their attitudes towards health promotion for their employees. Using modified grounded theory approach, we collected data through in-depth individual interviews with farm owners employing MFWs in southern Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed following three steps (open, axial, and selective coding) to identify thematic patterns and relationships. Nine employers or their representatives were interviewed. Four major overarching categories were identified: employers' dependence on MFWs; their fragmented view of occupational safety and health; their blurring of the boundaries between the work and personal lives of the MFWs on their farms; and their reluctance to implement health promotion programs. The interaction of these categories suggests the complex social processes through which employers come to hold these paradoxical attitudes towards workers' safety and health. There is a fundamental contradiction between what employers considered public versus personal. Despite employers' preference to separate MFWs' workplace safety from personal health issues, due to the fact that workers live within their employers' property, workers' private life becomes public making their personal health a business-related concern. Farmers' conflicting views, combined with a lack of support from governing bodies, hold back timely implementation of health promotion activities in the workplace. In order to address the needs of MFWs in a more integrated manner, an ecological view of health, which includes the social and psychological determinants of health, by employers

  3. Bioreactor Study Employing Bacteria with Enhanced Activity toward Cyanobacterial Toxins Microcystins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Dziga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An important aim of white (grey biotechnology is bioremediation, where microbes are employed to remove unwanted chemicals. Microcystins (MCs and other cyanobacterial toxins are not industrial or agricultural pollutants; however, their occurrence as a consequence of human activity and water reservoir eutrophication is regarded as anthropogenic. Microbial degradation of microcystins is suggested as an alternative to chemical and physical methods of their elimination. This paper describes a possible technique of the practical application of the biodegradation process. The idea relies on the utilization of bacteria with a significantly enhanced MC-degradation ability (in comparison with wild strains. The cells of an Escherichia coli laboratory strain expressing microcystinase (MlrA responsible for the detoxification of MCs were immobilized in alginate beads. The degradation potency of the tested bioreactors was monitored by HPLC detection of linear microcystin LR (MC-LR as the MlrA degradation product. An open system based on a column filled with alginate-entrapped cells was shown to operate more efficiently than a closed system (alginate beads shaken in a glass container. The maximal degradation rate calculated per one liter of carrier was 219.9 µg h−1 of degraded MC-LR. A comparison of the efficiency of the described system with other biological and chemo-physical proposals suggests that this new idea presents several advantages and is worth investigating in future studies.

  4. A study of effluent control technologies employed by radiopharmaceutical users and suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, L.; Slider, J.; Chakoff, E.; Chen, J.I.; Savage, E.

    1980-01-01

    The quantities of radiopharmaceuticals produced for in-vivo diagnostic and therapy procedures has been estimated to be growing at the rate of 16% per year, based on 1978 sales figures. Nuclear medicine facilities are experiencing an average annual growth rate of 5% per year. The principle radionuclides produced and used for nuclear medicine are 131 I, 131 Xe, and sup(9m)Tc. Of particular concern is that amount of these radionuclides which might become airborne and escape into the environment during the process of manufacture or during aliquotting or administration by hospital personnel. Therefore, a study was made of the effluent control technology employed by radiopharmaceutical suppliers and users. Generally, the means used to control airborne radioactive effluents fall into two classes according to function. The controls either dilute and direct the effluent to a specific point of release or hold up the effluent to reduce by decay the amount of radioactivity released. Radiopharmaceutical suppliers and hospitals were contacted, and a survey made of the control technology used. The classes and types of effluent control equipment and their general characteristics, cost and effectiveness were determined. It was concluded that control equipment was readily available, reliable, and effective in reducing radioactive releases from radiopharmaceutical facilities. (author)

  5. Studies on preparation of medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatkar, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vijay Kumar; Khatkar, Anju Boora

    2014-09-01

    A study was conducted to develop good quality medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration (UF) process. The buffalo skim milk was UF concentrated to 4.05 to 4.18 (23.63 ± 0.30 % TS) fold and standardized to 10 % fat (on Dry Matter Basis) (i.e. formulation) and homogenized at 175.76 kg/cm(2). The addition of 0.4 % mixture of monosodium and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) improved the heat stability of homogenized formulation to an optimum of 66 min. The bland flavour of homogenized formulation with added 0.4 % mixture of monosodium phosphate and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) and 18 % sugar (on DMB) (i.e. medium fat liquid dairy whitener) was improved significantly (P coffee was significantly (P market dairy whitener samples. At 2 % solids level, standardized medium fat liquid dairy whitener in tea/coffee fetched significantly (P market sample at 3 % solids level. There could be clear 33 % solids quantity saving in case of developed product compared to market dairy whitener sample.

  6. Stress in nonregular work arrangements: A longitudinal study of task- and employment-related aspects of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahle-Hinz, Tim

    2016-10-01

    In nonregular forms of employment, such as fixed-term or temporary agency work, 2 sources of stress must be distinguished: task-related stress components (e.g., time pressure) and employment-related stress components (e.g., effort to maintain employment). The present study investigated the relationship between task- and employment-related demands and resources and indicators of strain, well-being, work engagement, and self-rated performance in a sample of nonregular employed workers. Using a 2-wave longitudinal design, the results of autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation models demonstrated that time pressure, as a task-related demand, is positively related to strain and negatively related to well-being and self-rated performance. Autonomy, as a task-related resource, exhibited no significant relationships in the current study. Employment-related demands exhibited negative relationships with well-being and work engagement as well as negative and positive relationships with self-rated performance over time. Employment-related resources were primarily positive predictors of well-being and self-rated performance. Fit indices of comparative models indicated that reciprocal effect models (which enable causal and reverse effects) best fit the data. Accordingly, demands and resources predicted strain, well-being, work engagement, and self-rated performance over time and vice versa. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Upper Colorado Region 14 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  8. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in North East Region 1 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  9. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Souris Red Rainy Region 9 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  10. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Lower Colorado Region 15 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  11. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Upper Mississippi Region 7 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  12. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in the Upper Portion of the Missouri Region 10 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  13. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Great Lakes Region 4 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  14. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Rio Grande Region 13 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  15. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Arkansas White Red Region 11 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  16. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Pacific Northwest Region 17 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  17. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Lower Mississippi Region 8 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  18. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Texas-Gulf Region 12 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  19. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in the Lower Portion of the Missouri Region 10 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  20. Supporting the Transition into Employment: A Study of Canadian Young Adults Living with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Arif; Bowring, Julie; Furrie, Adele; Smith, Frank; Breslin, Curtis

    2018-04-25

    Objective To examine the job accommodation and benefit needs of young adults with disabilities as they transition into employment, and their perceived barriers to meeting support needs. Methods An online survey was conducted of 155 Canadian young adults with disabilities (mean age = 25.8 years). Respondents were either employed or seeking employment, and were asked about their need for health benefits, and soft (e.g., flexible scheduling) and hard accommodations (e.g., ergonomic interventions), and perceived accommodation barriers. Disability characteristics (e.g., disability type), demographic details and work context information were collected. Multivariable logistic analyses were conducted to examine the factors associated with a greater need for health benefits and hard and soft accommodations. Result Participants reported having a physical (79%), psychological (79%) or cognitive/learning disability (77%); 68% had > 1 disability. Over half (55%) were employed. Health benefits and soft accommodations were most needed by participants. Also, an average of six perceived accommodation barriers were indicated; difficulty with disability disclosure was most frequently reported. More perceived accommodation barriers were associated with a greater need for health benefits (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31) and soft accommodations (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.27). A psychological disability was a associated with a greater need for health benefits (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.09-7.43) and soft accommodations (OR 3.83, 95% CI 1.41-10.42). Discussion Employers can support the employment of young adults with disabilities through provision of extended health benefits and soft accommodations. Addressing accommodation barriers could minimize unmet workplace need, and improve employment outcomes for young adults with disabilities as they begin their career and across the life course.

  1. Employment and sociodemographic characteristics: a study of increasing precarity in the health districts of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcellos Coelho, Maria Cristina Ramos; Assunção, Ada Avila; Belisário, Soraya Almeida

    2009-07-13

    The fundamental importance of human resources for the development of health care systems is recognized the world over. Health districts, which constitute the middle level of the municipal health care system in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, deal with demands from all parts of the system. This research seeks to provide the essential features required in order to understand the phenomenon of increase in precarity of employment in these health districts. The legal and human resource management documents used by the Municipal Health Secretariat of the City of Belo Horizonte were adopted as the corpus for this research. In order to analyse the changes in employment (2002-2006), the data were collected from ArteRH, a computerized database dealing specifically with data related to human resources, which began operating in 2001. The workers were classified into permanent and non-permanent groups, and their contractual rights were described. Employment dynamics and changes were examined, concentrating on the incorporation of workers and on their social and employment rights during the period under study. The comparative data for the two groups obtained were presented in frequency distribution tables according to type of employment, sex, age group, level of education and wages from 2002 to 2006. There was a clear difference between the permanent worker and non-permanent worker groups as regards existing guaranteed employment rights and social security. The increase in the number of non-permanent workers in the workforce, the growing proportion of older workers among the permanently employed and the real wage reductions during the period from 2002 to 2006 are indicative of the process of growing precarity of employment in the group studied. It is a plausible supposition that the demand for health reforms, along with the legal limits imposed on financial expenditure, gave rise to the new types of contract and the present employment situation in the health districts in

  2. Employment and sociodemographic characteristics: a study of increasing precarity in the health districts of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunção Ada

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fundamental importance of human resources for the development of health care systems is recognized the world over. Health districts, which constitute the middle level of the municipal health care system in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, deal with demands from all parts of the system. This research seeks to provide the essential features required in order to understand the phenomenon of increase in precarity of employment in these health districts. Methods The legal and human resource management documents used by the Municipal Health Secretariat of the City of Belo Horizonte were adopted as the corpus for this research. In order to analyse the changes in employment (2002–2006, the data were collected from ArteRH, a computerized database dealing specifically with data related to human resources, which began operating in 2001. The workers were classified into permanent and non-permanent groups, and their contractual rights were described. Employment dynamics and changes were examined, concentrating on the incorporation of workers and on their social and employment rights during the period under study. The comparative data for the two groups obtained were presented in frequency distribution tables according to type of employment, sex, age group, level of education and wages from 2002 to 2006. Results There was a clear difference between the permanent worker and non-permanent worker groups as regards existing guaranteed employment rights and social security. The increase in the number of non-permanent workers in the workforce, the growing proportion of older workers among the permanently employed and the real wage reductions during the period from 2002 to 2006 are indicative of the process of growing precarity of employment in the group studied. Conclusion It is a plausible supposition that the demand for health reforms, along with the legal limits imposed on financial expenditure, gave rise to the new types of contract

  3. Employers' readiness for the mother-friendly workplace: an elicitation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yeon K; Wunderlich, Shahla M; Weinstock, Marni

    2012-10-01

    Currently over half of mothers of infants under 1-year-old are in the workforce in the United States. These women face challenges to continue breastfeeding when they return to work 3 to 6 months post-partum. This study explored the perspectives of employers on mother-friendly environments to assess their readiness to provide breastfeeding accommodation using the elicitation under the theory of planned behaviour. Researchers conducted phone/in-person interviews with a convenient sample of 20 human resource managers from companies that had 500 or more employees in the New York metropolitan area in 2009. Content analyses identified the common concepts that represent underlying beliefs of the constructs of the theory. The demography of the participants is 40% male and 80% White, with mean ages of 34.3±8.5 years. 'Happy employees' and 'high retention rate and improved loyalty' were the most frequently mentioned (95%) benefits to the company (behavioural beliefs). Supporters of a mother-friendly environment (normative beliefs) in the workplace included 'mothers and expectant mothers (70%)', and 'managers supervising women and new mothers (55%)'. Most frequently mentioned company drawbacks (control beliefs) were 'not cost effective (65%)' and 'time consuming (65%)', followed by 'perception of special favours for some (50%)'. Workplace breastfeeding promotion efforts can be successful by reinforcing positive beliefs and addressing the challenges associated with implementation of breastfeeding accommodation through education and other incentives such as recognition of model companies and tax breaks. The identified beliefs provide a basis for the development of a quantitative instrument to study workplace breastfeeding support further. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage: a population-based study of the Danish labour force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ann; Søgaard, Rikke

    2013-08-01

    In 2002, the Danish tax law was changed, giving employees a tax exemption on supplemental, employer-paid health insurance. This might have conflicted with one of the key foundations of the healthcare system, namely equal access for equal needs. The aim of this study was to investigate determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. The analysis was based on data from a range of Danish person-level and company-level registers (explanatory variables). These data were combined with information on insurance status obtained from the trade organisation for insurance (dependent variable). A logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds of having employer-paid health insurance coverage. The individuals who were most likely to be insured were those employed in foreign companies as mid-level managers within the field of building and construction. Other important variables were the number of persons employed in a company, gender, ethnicity, region of residence, years of education, and annual income. Both company and individual characteristics were found to be important and significant predictors for employer-paid health insurance coverage. The Danish tax exemption on private health insurance in the years 2002-12 thus seems to have led to inequality in employer-paid health insurance coverage.

  5. The experiences of urban, professional women when combining breastfeeding with paid employment in Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Karmaliani, Rozina

    2013-06-01

    Pakistan has the second highest child mortality rate in South Asia. Breastfeeding can promote infant health, prevent infection and possibly mortality. However, a gradual decline in breastfeeding is reported for Pakistan; especially among urban, educated, employed women. Little research exists regarding the experiences of professional women in Pakistan who are breastfeeding and employed. To describe the experiences of urban, professional women who breastfeed and are employed, as related to facilitators and barriers of breastfeeding. Using a qualitative descriptive design, nine full-time employed women were recruited through purposive sampling from a private tertiary care health setting in Karachi, Pakistan. A pre-tested, semi-structured interview guide was used for an in-depth interview of 40-45min with each participant. Most women spoke about the challenges of combining breastfeeding with employment, which resulted in early cessation of breastfeeding. The study indicated that positive maternal attributes such as knowledge about breastfeeding, planning, self-commitment, and open communication, as well as availability of social and workplace support is essential to enable urban, professional women in Pakistan to continue breastfeeding while employed. Pakistan has high infant and child mortality rate and decreasing prevalence of breastfeeding, especially among employed professional women. Our findings indicate an urgent need for lactation support programs that include integrated interventions for lactating women that offer informational support, social support, and formal workplace support. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experiences of employed women with attention deficit hyperactive disorder: A phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuer, N; Dorot, R

    2017-01-01

    Employees with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) face various risks in the workplace. Little is known of the specific challenges women with ADHD experience. To explore the experiences of working women with ADHD and learn the strategies and accommodations that facilitate their maintaining employment. Qualitative phenomenological approach was used to echo women's subjective perceptions and experiences representing their daily interactions in their workplace. In-depth interviews were conducted with eleven tertiary-educated employed women (M = 33.5; SD = 6.61 years), diagnosed with ADHD and the transcripts were analyzed by three researchers, using the qualitative phenomenological approach. Most interviewed women with ADHD described interactions with their workplace as confusing, overwhelming, and chaotic. They perceived their ADHD as a significant obstacle to success in employment that also conferred some advantages. Three interview themes are explored here (1) challenges in coping with job demands and the workplace, including the disclosure dilemma; (2) personal coping strategies; (3) useful accommodations. For the women interviewed, employment was important for their self-identity, beyond simply making a living. Their experiences indicate impaired executive functioning and inhibition and sensory sensitivity, consistently with theoretical models for ADHD. They identified gender-specific issues, such as using medication during pregnancy, which led them to seek for non-pharmacological coping mechanisms. They contributed practical knowledge regarding employee-led adaptations and employer-provided workplace accommodations.

  7. The Process of Adapting the Employer Brand to Attract the Right Employees : A Case Study of How SEB Uses Employer Branding to Go Digital

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Tabea; Ferhatovic, Amela

    2016-01-01

    Compa