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Sample records for mood disrupts emotion

  1. A note on age differences in mood-congruent vs. mood-incongruent emotion processing in faces.

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    Voelkle, Manuel C; Ebner, Natalie C; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    (1) Does experienced mood affect emotion perception in faces and is this perception mood-congruent or mood-incongruent?(2) Are there age-group differences in the interplay between experienced mood and emotion perception? (3) Does emotion perception in faces change as a function of the temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation, and (4) does emotion perception in faces serve a mood-regulatory function? One hundred fifty-four adults of three different age groups (younger: 20-31 years; middle-aged: 44-55 years; older adults: 70-81 years) were asked to provide multidimensional emotion ratings of a total of 1026 face pictures of younger, middle-aged, and older men and women, each displaying six different prototypical (primary) emotional expressions. By analyzing the likelihood of ascribing an additional emotional expression to a face whose primary emotion had been correctly recognized, the multidimensional rating approach permits the study of emotion perception while controlling for emotion recognition. Following up on previous research on mood responses to recurring unpleasant situations using the same dataset (Voelkle et al., 2013), crossed random effects analyses supported a mood-congruent relationship between experienced mood and perceived emotions in faces. In particular older adults were more likely to perceive happiness in faces when being in a positive mood and less likely to do so when being in a negative mood. This did not apply to younger adults. Temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation had a strong effect on the likelihood of ascribing an additional emotional expression. In contrast to previous findings, however, there was neither evidence for a change from mood-congruent to mood-incongruent responses over time nor evidence for a mood-regulatory effect.

  2. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

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    ... Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH Home Research ... Chat on Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (Archived Transcript) Research and ... Journal Articles: References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National ...

  3. A note on age differences in mood-congruent versus mood-incongruent emotion processing in faces

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    Manuel C. Voelkle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses four interrelated research questions: (1 Does experienced mood affect emotion perception in faces and is this perception mood-congruent or mood-incongruent? (2 Are there age-group differences in the interplay between experienced mood and emotion perception? (3 Does emotion perception in faces change as a function of the temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation, and (4 does emotion perception in faces serve a mood-regulatory function? One hundred fifty-four adults of three different age groups (younger: 20–31 years; middle-aged: 44–55 years; older adults: 70–81 years were asked to provide multidimensional emotion ratings of a total of 1,026 face pictures of younger, middle-aged, and older men and women, each displaying six different prototypical (primary emotional expressions. By analyzing the likelihood of ascribing an additional emotional expression to a face whose primary emotion had been correctly recognized, the multidimensional rating approach permits the study of emotion perception while controlling for emotion recognition. Following up on previous research on mood responses to recurring unpleasant situations using the same dataset (Voelkle, Ebner, Lindenberger, & Riediger, 2013, crossed random effects analyses supported a mood-congruent relationship between experienced mood and perceived emotions in faces. In particular older adults were more likely to perceive happiness in faces when being in a positive mood and less likely to do so when being in a negative mood. This did not apply to younger adults. Temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation had a strong effect on the likelihood of ascribing an additional emotional expression. In contrast to previous findings, however, there was neither evidence for a change from mood-congruent to mood-incongruent responses over time nor evidence for a mood-regulatory effect.

  4. Emotion word processing: does mood make a difference?

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    Sereno, Sara C.; Scott, Graham G.; Yao, Bo; Thaden, Elske J.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one's inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a function of induced mood as well as their word frequency. Mood was manipulated by exposing participants to different types of music. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions—no music, positive music, and negative music. Participants' moods were assessed during the experiment to confirm the mood induction manipulation. Reaction time results confirmed prior demonstrations of an interaction between a word's emotionality and its frequency. Results also showed a significant interaction between participant mood and word emotionality. However, the pattern of results was not consistent with mood-congruency effects. Although positive and negative mood facilitated responses overall in comparison to the control group, neither positive nor negative mood appeared to additionally facilitate responses to mood-congruent words. Instead, the pattern of findings seemed to be the consequence of attentional effects arising from induced mood. Positive mood broadens attention to a global level, eliminating the category distinction of positive-negative valence but leaving the high-low arousal dimension intact. In contrast, negative mood narrows attention to a local level, enhancing within-category distinctions, in particular, for negative words, resulting in less effective facilitation. PMID:26379570

  5. Is the emotional Stroop task a special case of mood induction? Evidence from sustained effects of attention under emotion.

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    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Mama, Yaniv; Icht, Michal; Algom, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sustained effects of emotion are well known in everyday experience. Surprisingly, such effects are seldom recorded in laboratory studies of the emotional Stroop task, in which participants name the color of emotion and neutral words. Color performance is more sluggish with emotion words than with neutral words, the emotional Stroop effect (ESE). The ESE is not sensitive to the order in which the two groups of words are presented, so the effect of exposure to emotion words does not extend to disrupting performance in a subsequent block with neutral words. We attribute this absence of a sustained effect to habituation engendered by excessive repetition of the experimental stimuli. In a series of four experiments, we showed that sustained effects do occur when habituation is removed, and we also showed that the massive exposure to negative stimuli within the ESE paradigm induces a commensurately negative mood. A novel perspective is offered, in which the ESE is considered a special case of mood induction.

  6. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: current insights

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    Baweja R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Raman Baweja, Susan D Mayes, Usman Hameed, James G Waxmonsky Department of Psychiatry, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA Abstract: Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD was introduced as a new diagnostic entity under the category of depressive disorders in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5. It was included in DSM-5 primarily to address concerns about the misdiagnosis and consequent overtreatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. DMDD does provide a home for a large percentage of referred children with severe persistent irritability that did not fit well into any DSM, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV diagnostic category. However, it has been a controversial addition to the DSM-5 due to lack of published validity studies, leading to questions about its validity as a distinct disorder. In this article, the authors discuss the diagnostic criteria, assessment, epidemiology, criticism of the diagnosis, and pathophysiology, as well as treatment and future directions for DMDD. They also review the literature on severe mood dysregulation, as described by the National Institute of Mental Health, as the scientific support for DMDD is based primarily on studies of severe mood dysregulation. Keywords: disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, persistent irritability, temper outbursts 

  7. Emotions, Mood and Decision Making

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    Agnes Virlics

    2014-01-01

    Decisions are made according to a complex cognitive and emotional evaluation of the situation. The aim of the paper is to examine the effect of mood on risky investment decision making by using a mood induction procedure. The paper investigates how happy and sad mood affects risky investment decision making and whether there is a difference between the perception of fix investments and monetary investments. The analysis has been conducted focusing on individual investment decisions. Data for ...

  8. Effects of sad mood on facial emotion recognition in Chinese people.

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    Lee, Tatia M C; Ng, Emily H H; Tang, S W; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2008-05-30

    This study examined the influence of sad mood on the judgment of ambiguous facial emotion expressions among 47 healthy volunteers who had been induced to feel sad (n=13), neutral (n=15), or happy (n=19) emotions by watching video clips. The findings suggest that when the targets were ambiguous, participants who were in a sad mood tended to classify them in the negative emotional categories rather than the positive emotional categories. Also, this observation indicates that emotion-specific negative bias in the judgment of facial expressions is associated with a sad mood. The finding argues against a general impairment in decoding facial expressions. Furthermore, the observed mood-congruent negative bias was best predicted by spatial perception. The findings of this study provide insights into the cognitive processes underlying the interpersonal difficulties experienced by people in a sad mood, which may be predisposing factors in the development of clinical depression.

  9. Effects of induced sad mood on facial emotion perception in young and older adults.

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    Lawrie, Louisa; Jackson, Margaret C; Phillips, Louise H

    2018-02-15

    Older adults perceive less intense negative emotion in facial expressions compared to younger counterparts. Prior research has also demonstrated that mood alters facial emotion perception. Nevertheless, there is little evidence which evaluates the interactive effects of age and mood on emotion perception. This study investigated the effects of sad mood on younger and older adults' perception of emotional and neutral faces. Participants rated the intensity of stimuli while listening to sad music and in silence. Measures of mood were administered. Younger and older participants' rated sad faces as displaying stronger sadness when they experienced sad mood. While younger participants showed no influence of sad mood on happiness ratings of happy faces, older adults rated happy faces as conveying less happiness when they experienced sad mood. This study demonstrates how emotion perception can change when a controlled mood induction procedure is applied to alter mood in young and older participants.

  10. Verbal and facial-emotional Stroop tasks reveal specific attentional interferences in sad mood.

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    Isaac, Linda; Vrijsen, Janna N; Eling, Paul; van Oostrom, Iris; Speckens, Anne; Becker, Eni S

    2012-01-01

    Mood congruence refers to the tendency of individuals to attend to information more readily when it has the same emotional content as their current mood state. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether attentional interference occurred for participants in sad mood states for emotionally relevant stimuli (mood-congruence), and to determine whether this interference occurred for both valenced words and valenced faces. A mood induction procedure was administered to 116 undergraduate females divided into two equal groups for the sad and happy mood condition. This study employed three versions of the Stroop task: color, verbal-emotional, and a facial-emotional Stroop. The two mood groups did not differ on the color Stroop. Significant group differences were found on the verbal-emotional Stroop for sad words with longer latencies for sad-induced participants. Main findings for the facial-emotional Stroop were that sad mood is associated with attentional interference for angry-threatening faces as well as longer latencies for neutral faces. Group differences were not found for positive stimuli. These findings confirm that sad mood is associated with attentional interference for mood-congruent stimuli in the verbal domain (sad words), but this mood-congruent effect does not necessarily apply to the visual domain (sad faces). Attentional interference for neutral faces suggests sad mood participants did not necessarily see valence-free faces. Attentional interference for threatening stimuli is often associated with anxiety; however, the current results show that threat is not an attentional interference observed exclusively in states of anxiety but also in sad mood.

  11. Looking at food in sad mood: do attention biases lead emotional eaters into overeating after a negative mood induction?

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    Werthmann, Jessica; Renner, Fritz; Roefs, Anne; Huibers, Marcus J H; Plumanns, Lana; Krott, Nora; Jansen, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Emotional eating is associated with overeating and the development of obesity. Yet, empirical evidence for individual (trait) differences in emotional eating and cognitive mechanisms that contribute to eating during sad mood remain equivocal. The aim of this study was to test if attention bias for food moderates the effect of self-reported emotional eating during sad mood (vs neutral mood) on actual food intake. It was expected that emotional eating is predictive of elevated attention for food and higher food intake after an experimentally induced sad mood and that attentional maintenance on food predicts food intake during a sad versus a neutral mood. Participants (N = 85) were randomly assigned to one of the two experimental mood induction conditions (sad/neutral). Attentional biases for high caloric foods were measured by eye tracking during a visual probe task with pictorial food and neutral stimuli. Self-reported emotional eating was assessed with the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and ad libitum food intake was tested by a disguised food offer. Hierarchical multivariate regression modeling showed that self-reported emotional eating did not account for changes in attention allocation for food or food intake in either condition. Yet, attention maintenance on food cues was significantly related to increased intake specifically in the neutral condition, but not in the sad mood condition. The current findings show that self-reported emotional eating (based on the DEBQ) might not validly predict who overeats when sad, at least not in a laboratory setting with healthy women. Results further suggest that attention maintenance on food relates to eating motivation when in a neutral affective state, and might therefore be a cognitive mechanism contributing to increased food intake in general, but maybe not during sad mood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of mood and personality in the perception of emotions represented by music.

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    Vuoskoski, Jonna K; Eerola, Tuomas

    2011-10-01

    Neuroimaging studies investigating the processing of emotions have traditionally considered variance between subjects as statistical noise. However, according to behavioural studies, individual differences in emotional processing appear to be an inherent part of the process itself. Temporary mood states as well as stable personality traits have been shown to influence the processing of emotions, causing trait- and mood-congruent biases. The primary aim of this study was to explore how listeners' personality and mood are reflected in their evaluations of discrete emotions represented by music. A related aim was to investigate the role of personality in music preferences. An experiment was carried out where 67 participants evaluated 50 music excerpts in terms of perceived emotions (anger, fear, happiness, sadness, and tenderness) and preference. Current mood was associated with mood-congruent biases in the evaluation of emotions represented by music, but extraversion moderated the degree of mood-congruence. Personality traits were strongly connected with preference ratings, and the correlations reflected the trait-congruent patterns obtained in prior studies investigating self-referential emotional processing. Implications for future behavioural and neuroimaging studies on music and emotions are raised. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  13. Verbal and facial-emotional Stroop tasks reveal specific attentional interferences in sad mood

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    Isaac, L.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Speckens, A.E.M.; Becker, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Mood congruence refers to the tendency of individuals to attend to information more readily when it has the same emotional content as their current mood state. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether attentional interference occurred for participants in sad mood states for emotionally

  14. Neurophysiologic Correlates of Post-Stroke Mood and Emotional Control

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    Deniz Doruk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Emotional disturbance is a common complication of stroke significantly affecting functional recovery and quality of life. Identifying relevant neurophysiologic markers associated with post-stroke emotional disturbance may lead to a better understanding of this disabling condition, guiding the diagnosis, development of new interventions and the assessments of treatment response. Methods: Thirty-five subjects with chronic stroke were enrolled in this study. The emotion sub-domain of Stroke Impact Scale (SIS-Emotion was used to assess post-stroke mood and emotional control. The relation between SIS-Emotion and neurophysiologic measures was assessed by using covariance mapping and univariate linear regression. Multivariate analyses were conducted to identify and adjust for potential confounders. Neurophysiologic measures included power asymmetry and coherence assessed by electroencephalography (EEG; and motor threshold, intracortical inhibition (ICI and intracortical facilitation (ICF measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Results: Lower scores on SIS-Emotion was associated with 1 frontal EEG power asymmetry in alpha and beta bands, 2 central EEG power asymmetry in alpha and theta bands, and 3 lower inter-hemispheric coherence over frontal and central areas in alpha band. SIS-Emotion also correlated with higher ICF and MT in the unlesioned hemisphere as measured by TMS. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study using EEG and TMS to index neurophysiologic changes associated with post-stroke mood and emotional control. Our results suggest that inter-hemispheric imbalance measured by EEG power and coherence, as well as an increased intracortical facilitation in the unlesioned hemisphere measured by TMS might be relevant markers associated with post-stroke mood and emotional control which can guide future studies investigating new diagnostic and treatment modalities in stroke rehabilitation.

  15. Forgetting feelings: Opposite biases in reports of the intensity of past emotion and mood.

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    Kaplan, Robin L; Levine, Linda J; Lench, Heather C; Safer, Martin A

    2016-04-01

    Memory for feelings is subject to fading and bias over time. In 2 studies, the authors examined whether the magnitude and direction of bias depend on the type of feeling being recalled: emotion or mood. A few days after the U.S. Presidential elections in 2008 and 2012, participants reported how they felt about the election outcome (emotion) and how they felt in general (mood). A month after the elections, participants recalled their feelings. The intensity of past emotion was recalled more accurately than the intensity of past mood. Participants underestimated the intensity of emotion but overestimated the intensity of mood. Participants' appraisals of the importance of the election, which diminished over time, contributed to underestimating the intensity of emotion. In contrast, participants' strong emotional response to the election contributed to overestimating the intensity of mood. These opposing biases have important implications for decision making and clinical assessment. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Neural Correlates of Irritability in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation and Bipolar Disorders.

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    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Brotman, Melissa A; Adleman, Nancy E; Kim, Pilyoung; Oakes, Allison H; Reynolds, Richard C; Chen, Gang; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2016-07-01

    Bipolar disorder and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) are clinically and pathophysiologically distinct, yet irritability can be a clinical feature of both illnesses. The authors examine whether the neural mechanisms mediating irritability differ between bipolar disorder and DMDD, using a face emotion labeling paradigm because such labeling is deficient in both patient groups. The authors hypothesized that during face emotion labeling, irritability would be associated with dysfunctional activation in the amygdala and other temporal and prefrontal regions in both disorders, but that the nature of these associations would differ between DMDD and bipolar disorder. During functional MRI acquisition, 71 youths (25 with DMDD, 24 with bipolar disorder, and 22 healthy youths) performed a labeling task with happy, fearful, and angry faces of varying emotional intensity. Participants with DMDD and bipolar disorder showed similar levels of irritability and did not differ from each other or from healthy youths in face emotion labeling accuracy. Irritability correlated with amygdala activity across all intensities for all emotions in the DMDD group; such correlation was present in the bipolar disorder group only for fearful faces. In the ventral visual stream, associations between neural activity and irritability were found more consistently in the DMDD group than in the bipolar disorder group, especially in response to ambiguous angry faces. These results suggest diagnostic specificity in the neural correlates of irritability, a symptom of both DMDD and bipolar disorder. Such evidence of distinct neural correlates suggests the need to evaluate different approaches to treating irritability in the two disorders.

  17. Unlocking past emotion: verb use affects mood and happiness.

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    Hart, William

    2013-01-01

    In the research reported here, I examined whether the verbs applied to descriptions of past emotional experiences influence present mood and happiness. Participants who described a positive experience using the imperfective aspect, which implies ongoing progression, subsequently reported more positive mood and greater happiness than did participants who described a positive experience using the perfective aspect, which implies completion; likewise, participants who described a negative experience using the imperfective aspect subsequently reported more negative mood and less happiness than did participants who described a negative experience using the perfective aspect. These effects were traced to enhanced memory for the described emotional experience in the imperfective condition relative to the perfective condition. The findings demonstrate how formal features of language shape both the reinstatement of past affective reactions and happiness judgments, and may have practical applications for improving subjective well-being.

  18. Interaction between emotional state and learning underlies mood instability

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    Eldar, Eran; Niv, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Intuitively, good and bad outcomes affect our emotional state, but whether the emotional state feeds back onto the perception of outcomes remains unknown. Here, we use behaviour and functional neuroimaging of human participants to investigate this bidirectional interaction, by comparing the evaluation of slot machines played before and after an emotion-impacting wheel-of-fortune draw. Results indicate that self-reported mood instability is associated with a positive-feedback effect of emotion...

  19. Perceived emotional intelligence in nursing: psychometric properties of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale.

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    Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2014-04-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale in the nursing context and to determine the relationships between emotional intelligence, self-esteem, alexithymia and death anxiety. The Trait Meta-Mood Scale is one of the most widely used self-report measures for assessing perceived emotional intelligence. However, in the nursing context, no extensive analysis has been conducted to examine its psychometric properties. Cross-sectional and observational study. A total of 1417 subjects participated in the study (1208 nursing students and 209 hospital nurses). The Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Death Anxiety Inventory were all applied to half of the sample (n = 707). A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out, and statistical analyses examined the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, as well as its relationship with relevant variables. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the three dimensions of the original scale (Attention, Clarity and Repair). The instrument showed adequate internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational results indicated that nurses with high scores on emotional Attention experience more death anxiety, report greater difficulties identifying feelings and have less self-esteem. By contrast, nurses with high levels of emotional Clarity and Repair showed less death anxiety and higher levels of self-esteem. The Trait Meta-Mood Scale is an effective, valid and reliable tool for measuring perceived emotional intelligence in the nursing context. Training programmes should seek to promote emotional abilities among nurses. Use of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale in the nursing context would provide information about nurses' perceived abilities to interpret and manage emotions when interacting with patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Age and Gender Differences in Relationships Among Emotion Regulation, Mood, and Mental Health

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    Kouhei Masumoto PhD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigated the effects of age on mood and mental health-mediated emotion regulation, such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and examined whether these relationships differ according to gender. Method: We recruited 936 Japanese participants. They comprised six age groups ranging from 20 to 70 years old, with 156 participants in each age group and equal numbers of men and women. Results: Structural equation model analysis showed that older participants were more likely to use cognitive reappraisal, further enhancing positive mood and reducing negative mood, whereas, age did not affect expressive suppression. Moreover, expressive suppression had a smaller impact on mood than cognitive reappraisal. A multi-group analysis showed significant gender differences. In men, cognitive reappraisal increased with age and influenced mood more positively than in women. Discussion: Our findings indicated gender differences in aging effects on emotion regulation. We discussed about these results from the cognitive process, motivation to emotion regulation, and cultural differences.

  1. Age and Gender Differences in Relationships Among Emotion Regulation, Mood, and Mental Health.

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    Masumoto, Kouhei; Taishi, Nozomi; Shiozaki, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the effects of age on mood and mental health-mediated emotion regulation, such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and examined whether these relationships differ according to gender. Method: We recruited 936 Japanese participants. They comprised six age groups ranging from 20 to 70 years old, with 156 participants in each age group and equal numbers of men and women. Results: Structural equation model analysis showed that older participants were more likely to use cognitive reappraisal, further enhancing positive mood and reducing negative mood, whereas, age did not affect expressive suppression. Moreover, expressive suppression had a smaller impact on mood than cognitive reappraisal. A multi-group analysis showed significant gender differences. In men, cognitive reappraisal increased with age and influenced mood more positively than in women. Discussion: Our findings indicated gender differences in aging effects on emotion regulation. We discussed about these results from the cognitive process, motivation to emotion regulation, and cultural differences.

  2. The effect of mood on false memory for emotional DRM word lists.

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    Zhang, Weiwei; Gross, Julien; Hayne, Harlene

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of participants' mood on true and false memories of emotional word lists in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In Experiment 1, we constructed DRM word lists in which all the studied words and corresponding critical lures reflected a specified emotional valence. In Experiment 2, we used these lists to assess mood-congruent true and false memory. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three induced-mood conditions (positive, negative, or neutral) and were presented with word lists comprised of positive, negative, or neutral words. For both true and false memory, there was a mood-congruent effect in the negative mood condition; this effect was due to a decrease in true and false recognition of the positive and neutral words. These findings are consistent with both spreading-activation and fuzzy-trace theories of DRM performance and have practical implications for our understanding of the effect of mood on memory.

  3. Interaction between DRD2 variation and sound environment on mood and emotion-related brain activity.

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    Quarto, T; Fasano, M C; Taurisano, P; Fazio, L; Antonucci, L A; Gelao, B; Romano, R; Mancini, M; Porcelli, A; Masellis, R; Pallesen, K J; Bertolino, A; Blasi, G; Brattico, E

    2017-01-26

    Sounds, like music and noise, are capable of reliably affecting individuals' mood and emotions. However, these effects are highly variable across individuals. A putative source of variability is genetic background. Here we explored the interaction between a functional polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2 rs1076560, G>T, previously associated with the relative expression of D2S/L isoforms) and sound environment on mood and emotion-related brain activity. Thirty-eight healthy subjects were genotyped for DRD2 rs1076560 (G/G=26; G/T=12) and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of an implicit emotion-processing task while listening to music or noise. Individual variation in mood induction was assessed before and after the task. Results showed mood improvement after music exposure in DRD2GG subjects and mood deterioration after noise exposure in GT subjects. Moreover, the music, as opposed to noise environment, decreased the striatal activity of GT subjects as well as the prefrontal activity of GG subjects while processing emotional faces. These findings suggest that genetic variability of dopamine receptors affects sound environment modulations of mood and emotion processing. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Emotional eating and Pavlovian learning: does negative mood facilitate appetitive conditioning?

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    Bongers, Peggy; van den Akker, Karolien; Havermans, Remco; Jansen, Anita

    2015-06-01

    Emotional eating has been suggested to be a learned behaviour; more specifically, classical conditioning processes might be involved in its development. In the present study we investigated whether a negative mood facilitates appetitive conditioning and whether trait impulsivity influences this process. After undergoing either a negative or neutral mood induction, participants were subjected to a differential classical conditioning procedure, using neutral stimuli and appetizing food. Two initially neutral distinctive vases with flowers were (CS+) or were not (CS-) paired with chocolate mousse intake. We measured participants' expectancy and desire to eat (4 CS+ and 4 CS- trials), salivation response, and actual food intake. The BIS-11 was administered to assess trait impulsivity. In both mood conditions, participants showed a classically conditioned appetite. Unexpectedly, there was no evidence of facilitated appetitive learning in a negative mood with regard to expectancy, desire, salivation, or intake. However, immediately before the taste test, participants in the negative mood condition reported a stronger desire to eat in the CS+ compared to the CS- condition, while no such effect occurred in the neutral group. An effect of impulsivity was found with regard to food intake in the neutral mood condition: high-impulsive participants consumed less food when presented with the CS+ compared to the CS-, and also less than low-impulsive participants. An alternative pathway to appetitive conditioning with regard to emotions is that it is not the neutral stimuli, but the emotions themselves that become conditioned stimuli and elicit appetitive responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms by Age in Autism, ADHD, and General Population Samples

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    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Kokotovich, Cari; Mathiowetz, Christine; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L.; Waxmonsky, James

    2017-01-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a controversial "DSM-5" diagnosis. It is not known how DMDD symptoms vary by age and if differences are similar for autism, ADHD, and general population samples. Our study analyzed the two DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts) in 1,827 children with autism or ADHD (with…

  6. Effects of frontal transcranial direct current stimulation on emotional processing and mood in healthy humans

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    Michael A. Nitsche

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex is involved in mood and emotional processing. In patients suffering from depression, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is hypoactive, while activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is enhanced. Counterbalancing these pathological excitability alterations by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS improves mood in these patients. In healthy subjects, however, rTMS of the same areas has no major effect, and the effects of tDCS are mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effects of prefrontal tDCS on mood and mood-related cognitive processing in healthy humans. In a first study, we administered excitability-enhancing anodal, excitability-diminishing cathodal and placebo tDCS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, combined with antagonistic stimulation of the right frontopolar cortex, and tested acute mood changes by an adjective checklist. Subjective mood was not influenced by tDCS. Emotional face identification, however, which was explored in a second experiment, was subtly improved by a tDCS-driven excitability modulation of the prefrontal cortex, markedly by anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for positive emotional content. We conclude that tDCS of the prefrontal cortex improves mood processing in healthy subjects, but does not influence subjective mood state.

  7. Non-response to sad mood induction: implications for emotion research.

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    Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kovacs, Maria; Yaroslavsky, Ilya

    2018-05-01

    Experimental induction of sad mood states is a mainstay of laboratory research on affect and cognition, mood regulation, and mood disorders. Typically, the success of such mood manipulations is reported as a statistically significant pre- to post-induction change in the self-rated intensity of the target affect. The present commentary was motivated by an unexpected finding in one of our studies concerning the response rate to a well-validated sad mood induction. Using the customary statistical approach, we found a significant mean increase in self-rated sadness intensity with a moderate effect size, verifying the "success" of the mood induction. However, that "success" masked that, between one-fifth and about one-third of our samples (adolescents who had histories of childhood-onset major depressive disorder and healthy controls) reported absolutely no sadness in response to the mood induction procedure. We consider implications of our experience for emotion research by (1) commenting upon the typically overlooked phenomenon of nonresponse, (2) suggesting changes in reporting practices regarding mood induction success, and (3) outlining future directions to help scientists determine why some subjects do not respond to experimental mood induction.

  8. Emotions, cognitive interference, and concentration disruption in youth sport.

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    McCarthy, Paul J; Allen, Mark S; Jones, Marc V

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationship between emotions, cognitive interference, concentration disruption and performance in youth sport. In study 1, 150 youth sport athletes (Mage = 13.13 years, s = 1.79) completed measures of emotion, cognitive interference, and concentration disruption for their most recently completed competition. In Study 2, 46 female rhythmic gymnasts (Mage = 10.30 years, s = 1.74) completed measures of emotion immediately before competition, and measures of cognitive interference and concentration disruption immediately after competition. Study 1 showed that anxiety and dejection were associated with more interfering thoughts and greater disruptions in concentration, whereas the effects of anger and happiness on interfering thoughts differed relative to the age of participants. Specifically, anger was associated with more interfering thoughts only in younger athletes and happiness was associated with fewer interfering thoughts only in older athletes. Study 2 showed that emotions experienced before competition were not strongly associated with cognitive interference or concentration disruption, but athletes reporting more thoughts of escape in competition were less successful in the competition as measured by objective performance scores. These findings demonstrate that emotions are important for cognitive interference and concentration disruption, and provide some initial evidence that cognitive interference is important for performance in youth sport.

  9. Integrative Medicine and Mood, Emotions and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anuj K; Becicka, Roman; Talen, Mary R; Edberg, Deborah; Namboodiri, Sreela

    2017-06-01

    An integrative approach to individuals with mood, emotional or mental health concerns involves a comprehensive model of care that is person-centered. Integrative medicine builds on a patient's personal meaning and goals (spiritual aspects) and includes herbal therapies, nutritional support, movement and physical manipulative therapies, mindfulness, relaxation strategies, and psychotherapies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Dependent, but not Perfectionistic, Dysfunctional Attitudes Predict Worsened Mood and Appraisals after Emotional Support from a Romantic Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Steven A. M.; Hooker, Christine I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Receiving emotional support from a romantic partner often leads to emotional costs via negative appraisals about the self and one's relationship, but it is unclear whether certain individuals are more susceptible to these costs. We evaluate whether the presence of perfectionistic and dependent dysfunctional attitudes leads to more negative effects of receiving emotional support from a romantic partner. Methods: Twenty-nine couples (27 men, 31 women; mean age 24.5) completed the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and then a daily online questionnaire by recording their mood, appraisals, and received emotional support. Mixed-effects regressions were used to evaluate whether perfectionistic and dependent dysfunctional attitudes moderated the relationship between emotional support receipt and subsequent mood and appraisals. Results: Perfectionism did not interact with emotional support but exerted a main effect of increasing negative moods and appraisals. Dependency interacted with emotional support such that those with more dependent attitudes reported greater negative next-day moods and appraisals as a function of emotional support. Conclusions: Individuals with dependent, but not perfectionistic, dysfunctional attitudes are more likely to experience emotional and cognitive costs after receiving emotional support. These costs may stem from activation or exacerbation of the attitudes specific to dependency, including need for acceptance, support, and approval of others. PMID:27790161

  11. Emotional Development across Adulthood: Differential Age-Related Emotional Reactivity and Emotion Regulation in a Negative Mood Induction Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliegel, Matthias; Jager, Theodor; Phillips, Louise H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the hypothesis that older adults might differentially react to a negative versus neutral mood induction procedure than younger adults. The rationale for this expectation was derived from Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST), which postulates differential salience of emotional information and ability to regulate…

  12. Moods, Emotions and Creative Thinking: A Framework for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Douglas P.

    2013-01-01

    When planning and teaching, attention is generally given to cognition while the effect of mood and emotion on cognition is ignored. But students are not emotionless thinkers and the effect can make a difference to their thought. This is particularly evident when attempting to foster creative thinking. This article draws on research to describe…

  13. Negative mood state enhances the susceptibility to unpleasant events: neural correlates from a music-primed emotion classification task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various affective disorders are linked with enhanced processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, this link is likely a result of the dominant negative mood derived from the disorder, rather than a result of the disorder itself. Additionally, little is currently known about the influence of mood on the susceptibility to emotional events in healthy populations. METHOD: Event-Related Potentials (ERP were recorded for pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures while subjects performed an emotional/neutral picture classification task during positive, neutral, or negative mood induced by instrumental Chinese music. RESULTS: Late Positive Potential (LPP amplitudes were positively related to the affective arousal of pictures. The emotional responding to unpleasant pictures, indicated by the unpleasant-neutral differences in LPPs, was enhanced during negative compared to neutral and positive moods in the entire LPP time window (600-1000 ms. The magnitude of this enhancement was larger with increasing self-reported negative mood. In contrast, this responding was reduced during positive compared to neutral mood in the 800-1000 ms interval. Additionally, LPP reactions to pleasant stimuli were similar across positive, neutral and negative moods except those in the 800-900 ms interval. IMPLICATIONS: Negative mood intensifies the humans' susceptibility to unpleasant events in healthy individuals. In contrast, music-induced happy mood is effective in reducing the susceptibility to these events. Practical implications of these findings were discussed.

  14. Differential risk for late adolescent conduct problems and mood dysregulation among children with early externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yuko; Bierman, Karen L

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5-7) to late adolescence (ages 17-19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger ("conduct problems"), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation ("mood dysregulation"), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality--possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder--emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood.

  15. Effects of mood induction via music on cardiovascular measures of negative emotion during simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, Stephen H; van der Zwaag, Marjolein; Spiridon, Elena; Westerink, Joyce

    2014-04-22

    A study was conducted to investigate the potential of mood induction via music to influence cardiovascular correlates of negative emotions experience during driving behaviour. One hundred participants were randomly assigned to one of five groups, four of whom experienced different categories of music: High activation/positive valence (HA/PV), high activation/negative valence (HA/NV), low activation/positive valence (LA/PV) and low activation/negative valence (LA/NV). Following exposure to their respective categories of music, participants were required to complete a simulated driving journey with a fixed time schedule. Negative emotion was induced via exposure to stationary traffic during the simulated route. Cardiovascular reactivity was measured via blood pressure, heart rate and cardiovascular impedance. Subjective self-assessment of anger and mood was also recorded. Results indicated that low activation music, regardless of valence, reduced systolic reactivity during the simulated journey relative to HA/NV music and the control (no music) condition. Self-reported data indicated that participants were not consciously aware of any influence of music on their subjective mood. It is concluded that cardiovascular reactivity to negative mood may be mediated by the emotional properties of music. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Smoked marijuana attenuates performance and mood disruptions during simulated night shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Diana R; Gunderson, Erik W; Haney, Margaret; Foltin, Richard W; Hart, Carl L

    2017-09-01

    Individuals who work nonstandard schedules, such as rotating or night shifts, are more susceptible to workplace injuries, performance decrements, and reduced productivity. This population is also almost twice as likely to use illicit drugs as individuals working a standard day shift. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smoked marijuana on performance, mood, and sleep during simulated shift work. Ten experienced marijuana smokers completed this 23-day, within-participant residential study. They smoked a single marijuana cigarette (0, 1.9, 3.56% Δ 9 -THC) one hour after waking for three consecutive days under two shift conditions: day shift and night shift. Shifts alternated three times during the study, and shift conditions were separated by an 'off' day. When participants smoked placebo cigarettes, psychomotor performance and subjective-effect ratings were altered during the night shift compared to the day shift: performance (e.g., vigilance) and a few subjective ratings were decreased (e.g., "Self-Confident"), whereas other ratings were increased (e.g., "Tired"). Objective and subjective measures of sleep were also disrupted, but to a lesser extent. Marijuana attenuated some performance, mood, and sleep disruptions: participants performed better on vigilance tasks, reported being less miserable and tired and sleep a greater number of minutes. Limited negative effects of marijuana were noted. These data demonstrate that abrupt shift changes produce performance, mood, and sleep decrements during night shift work and that smoked marijuana containing low to moderate Δ 9 -THC concentrations can offset some of these effects in frequent marijuana smokers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. "I felt sad and did not enjoy life": Cultural context and the associations between anhedonia, depressed mood, and momentary emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E; Choi, Eunsoo; Ryder, Andrew G; Reyes, Jenny

    2015-10-01

    The meanings of "anhedonia" and "depressed mood," the cardinal emotional symptoms of major depression, may be shaped by cultural norms regarding pleasure and sadness. Thirty-two European Americans, 26 Hispanic Americans, 33 Asian Americans, and 20 Russian Americans provided reports of (a) depressive symptoms, (b) momentary emotions and pleasure, and (c) global subjective well-being. Momentary reports were collected over 10 days using handheld personal digital assistants. Reports of anhedonia were associated with heightened levels of momentary low arousal negative emotions (e.g., sadness), whereas reports of depressed mood were associated with dampened levels of momentary positive emotions (e.g., happiness). Symptoms of anhedonia and depressed mood interacted in their associations with momentary pleasure. In addition, the associations of anhedonia and depressed mood with positive emotions and life satisfaction differed across cultural groups. Specifically, these symptoms were associated with dampened positive emotions in the Asian American group only. Additionally, anhedonia was associated with dampened global life satisfaction in the European American group only. These results suggest that reports of anhedonia and depressed mood cannot be interpreted at face value as specific and culture-free indicators of emotional deficits. Instead, they appear to signal changes in the balance of positive and negative emotions, with the exact nature of these signals shaped at least in part by cultural context. This conclusion has important consequences for the clinical interpretation of depressive symptoms in multicultural societies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. The Effects of Emotional Target and Mood State of Participants on Attentional Blink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Shan Chan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that attentional blink (AB, a failure to report targets temporally close to each other, can be attenuated separately by (1 emotionally significant test stimuli (T2 and (2 the emotional state of the observer. In the present study, we asked whether and how the (1 and (2 interact. Participants were induced with either positive or negative music and asked to complete an AB task which consisted of low-arousal positive, neutral and negative words as T2. We found low arousal negative words significantly reduced AB more than did other words, while no main nor interaction effect for mood was observed. However, on repeating the experiment and replacing low arousal words with high-arousal ones we not only were able to replicate the finding of an advantage of negative words over others, but detected an effect for the mood of the observer: participants who were induced to become happier using music performed better in detecting T2 across lags and word categories than did participants who became sadder. Our findings suggest an interaction of arousal level of emotional target with the induced mood of participants although the underlying mechanisms responsible for this effect need further investigation.

  19. Eyewitness memory: The impact of a negative mood during encoding and/or retrieval upon recall of a non-emotive event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Craig; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Abel, Joseph W; Knott, Lauren M

    2016-07-01

    The police often appeal for eyewitnesses to events that were unlikely to have been emotive when observed. An eyewitness, however, may be in a negative mood whilst encoding or retrieving such events as mood can be influenced by a range of personal, social, and environmental factors. For example, bad weather can induce a negative mood. This experiment compared the impact of negative and neutral moods during encoding and/or retrieval upon eyewitness recall of a non-emotive event. A negative mood during encoding had no impact upon the number of correct details recalled (provided participants were in a neutral mood at retrieval) but a negative mood during retrieval impaired the number of correct details recalled (provided participants were in a neutral mood at encoding). A negative mood at both time points enhanced the number of correct details recalled, demonstrating a mood-dependent memory enhancement. The forensic implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Psilocybin biases facial recognition, goal-directed behavior, and mood state toward positive relative to negative emotions through different serotonergic subreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometer, Michael; Schmidt, André; Bachmann, Rosilla; Studerus, Erich; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptors have been associated with dysfunctional emotional processing biases in mood disorders. These receptors further predominantly mediate the subjective and behavioral effects of psilocybin and might be important for its recently suggested antidepressive effects. However, the effect of psilocybin on emotional processing biases and the specific contribution of 5-HT2A receptors across different emotional domains is unknown. In a randomized, double-blind study, 17 healthy human subjects received on 4 separate days placebo, psilocybin (215 μg/kg), the preferential 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (50 mg), or psilocybin plus ketanserin. Mood states were assessed by self-report ratings, and behavioral and event-related potential measurements were used to quantify facial emotional recognition and goal-directed behavior toward emotional cues. Psilocybin enhanced positive mood and attenuated recognition of negative facial expression. Furthermore, psilocybin increased goal-directed behavior toward positive compared with negative cues, facilitated positive but inhibited negative sequential emotional effects, and valence-dependently attenuated the P300 component. Ketanserin alone had no effects but blocked the psilocybin-induced mood enhancement and decreased recognition of negative facial expression. This study shows that psilocybin shifts the emotional bias across various psychological domains and that activation of 5-HT2A receptors is central in mood regulation and emotional face recognition in healthy subjects. These findings may not only have implications for the pathophysiology of dysfunctional emotional biases but may also provide a framework to delineate the mechanisms underlying psylocybin's putative antidepressant effects. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of acute tryptophan depletion on emotions in individuals with personal and family history of depression following a mood induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Sarah E; Shankman, Stewart A; Spring, Bonnie

    2010-08-01

    Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) has shown depletion-specific increases in depressed mood and overall depressive symptoms, especially in those with a family history and in remitted patients. However, its effect on a broad range of emotions beyond depressed mood has been inconsistent, and studies have rarely employed a negative mood induction. The present double-blind study administered tryptophan-depleted and taste-matched placebo challenge drinks to individuals with a past diagnosis and family history of depression (i.e. depression-vulnerable subjects) and controls in order to investigate the effect of ATD on positive affect, anxiety, anger and depressed mood following a negative mood induction. Certain aspects of positive affect decreased due to ATD in the depression vulnerables but not in the controls. No differential effects were found on depressed mood and anxiety. A stress-induced blunted hedonic capacity may increase vulnerability to ATD and may be a core emotional abnormality in depression. Additionally, serotonin may have a stronger influence on positive affect than on other depression-related emotions during periods of stress. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Mood and the market: can press reports of investors' mood predict stock prices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Scherbaum, Charles A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Staw, Barry M

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether press reports on the collective mood of investors can predict changes in stock prices. We collected data on the use of emotion words in newspaper reports on traders' affect, coded these emotion words according to their location on an affective circumplex in terms of pleasantness and activation level, and created indices of collective mood for each trading day. Then, by using time series analyses, we examined whether these mood indices, depicting investors' emotion on a given trading day, could predict the next day's opening price of the stock market. The strongest findings showed that activated pleasant mood predicted increases in NASDAQ prices, while activated unpleasant mood predicted decreases in NASDAQ prices. We conclude that both valence and activation levels of collective mood are important in predicting trend continuation in stock prices.

  3. Recollecting positive and negative autobiographical memories disrupts working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard J; Schaefer, Alexandre; Falcon, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The present article reports two experiments examining the impact of recollecting emotionally valenced autobiographical memories on subsequent working memory (WM) task performance. Experiment 1 found that negatively valenced recollection significantly disrupted performance on a supra-span spatial WM task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended these findings to a verbal WM task (digit recall), and found that both negative and positive autobiographical recollections had a detrimental effect on verbal WM. In addition, we observed that these disruptive effects were more apparent on early trials, immediately following autobiographical recollection. Overall, these findings show that both positive and negative affect can disrupt WM when the mood-eliciting context is based on autobiographical memories. Furthermore, these results indicate that the emotional disruption of WM can take place across different modalities of WM (verbal and visuo-spatial). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An exploratory study into the effects of extraordinary nature on emotions, mood, and prosociality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick eJoye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental psychology research has demonstrated that exposure to mundane natural environments can be psychologically beneficial, and can, for instance, improve individuals’ mood and concentration. However, little research has yet examined the psychological benefits of extraordinary, awe-evoking kinds of nature, such as spectacular mountain scenes or impressive waterfalls. In this study, we aimed to address the underrepresentation of such extraordinary nature in research on human – nature interactions. Specifically, we examined whether watching a picture slideshow of awesome as opposed to mundane nature differentially affected individuals’ emotions, mood, social value orientation, and their willingness to donate something to others. Our analyses revealed that, compared to mundane nature and a neutral condition, watching awesome natural scenes and phenomena had some unique and pronounced emotional effects (e.g., feeling small and humble, triggered the most mood improvement, and led to a more prosocial social value orientation. We found that participants’ willingness to donate did not differ significantly for any of the conditions.

  5. Mood and the Market: Can Press Reports of Investors' Mood Predict Stock Prices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether press reports on the collective mood of investors can predict changes in stock prices. We collected data on the use of emotion words in newspaper reports on traders' affect, coded these emotion words according to their location on an affective circumplex in terms of pleasantness and activation level, and created indices of collective mood for each trading day. Then, by using time series analyses, we examined whether these mood indices, depicting investors' emotion on a given trading day, could predict the next day's opening price of the stock market. The strongest findings showed that activated pleasant mood predicted increases in NASDAQ prices, while activated unpleasant mood predicted decreases in NASDAQ prices. We conclude that both valence and activation levels of collective mood are important in predicting trend continuation in stock prices. PMID:24015202

  6. Emotional and uncontrolled eating styles and chocolate chip cookie consumption. A controlled trial of the effects of positive mood enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sally Ann; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Warner, Lisa; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    The study tested the effects of positive mood enhancement on chocolate chip cookie consumption in the context of emotional and uncontrolled eating styles. The relationship between emotional eating style and chocolate chip cookie intake was assumed to be mediated by uncontrolled eating style. Further, it was hypothesized that the effectiveness of the positive mood enhancement may be more salient among those who have effective control of their eating. In this experimental study, respondents (N=106, 70% women, aged 16-45 years old) were assigned by means of cluster randomization to the control or positive mood enhancement condition (a comedy movie clip). Compared to the control condition, positive mood enhancement resulted in consuming on average 53.86 kcal less. Relationships between emotional eating style and cookie intake were mediated by uncontrolled eating. Moderated mediation analysis indicated that the effect of a mediator (uncontrolled eating) on cookie intake was moderated by the group assignment. Positive mood enhancement resulted in eating on average 3.3 cookies less among individuals with a more controlled eating style. By contrast, among those who presented uncontrolled eating, positive mood enhancement led to consuming an average of 1.7 cookies more. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Everyday mood and emotions after eating a chocolate bar or an apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Dettmer, Dorothee

    2006-05-01

    Emotional changes after eating chocolate were examined in everyday life. Thirty-seven healthy, normal-weight women ate a chocolate bar, an apple or nothing and rated their subjective state 5, 30, 60 and 90min after eating. Both chocolate and the apple reduced hunger, elevated mood and increased activation, but the effects of the chocolate were stronger. Eating chocolate was also followed by joy and, in some women, by guilt. Guilt responders experienced less intense positive emotions. Whereas positive emotional responses appear to be due to sensory pleasure and it's anticipation and may also be related to reduced hunger, guilt responses are probably induced by negative food-related cognitions.

  8. Achieving the same for less: improving mood depletes blood glucose for people with poor (but not good) emotion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Karen; Totterdell, Peter; Miles, Eleanor; Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found that acts of self-control like emotion regulation deplete blood glucose levels. The present experiment investigated the hypothesis that the extent to which people's blood glucose levels decline during emotion regulation attempts is influenced by whether they believe themselves to be good or poor at emotion control. We found that although good and poor emotion regulators were equally able to achieve positive and negative moods, the blood glucose of poor emotion regulators was reduced after performing an affect-improving task, whereas the blood glucose of good emotion regulators remained unchanged. As evidence suggests that glucose is a limited energy resource upon which self-control relies, the implication is that good emotion regulators are able to achieve the same positive mood with less cost to their self-regulatory resource. Thus, depletion may not be an inevitable consequence of engaging in emotion regulation.

  9. Cognitive and emotional demands of black humour processing: the role of intelligence, aggressiveness and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Hergovich, Andreas; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Stoettner, Susanne; Bunda, Iris; Witting, Andrea; Seidler, Melanie; Moser, Reinhilde; Kacena, Stefanie; Jaeckle, David; Loader, Benjamin; Mueller, Christian; Auff, Eduard

    2017-05-01

    Humour processing is a complex information-processing task that is dependent on cognitive and emotional aspects which presumably influence frame-shifting and conceptual blending, mental operations that underlie humour processing. The aim of the current study was to find distinctive groups of subjects with respect to black humour processing, intellectual capacities, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. A total of 156 adults rated black humour cartoons and conducted measurements of verbal and nonverbal intelligence, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. Cluster analysis yields three groups comprising following properties: (1) moderate black humour preference and moderate comprehension; average nonverbal and verbal intelligence; low mood disturbance and moderate aggressiveness; (2) low black humour preference and moderate comprehension; average nonverbal and verbal intelligence, high mood disturbance and high aggressiveness; and (3) high black humour preference and high comprehension; high nonverbal and verbal intelligence; no mood disturbance and low aggressiveness. Age and gender do not differ significantly, differences in education level can be found. Black humour preference and comprehension are positively associated with higher verbal and nonverbal intelligence as well as higher levels of education. Emotional instability and higher aggressiveness apparently lead to decreased levels of pleasure when dealing with black humour. These results support the hypothesis that humour processing involves cognitive as well as affective components and suggest that these variables influence the execution of frame-shifting and conceptual blending in the course of humour processing.

  10. EMOTIONAL CONTAGION AND MOOD IN CROWD SERVING AS AUDIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beno Arnejcic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The global world is gradually becoming a world of separated crowds despite the artificial wire and wireless connection through television and the Internet. Crowds remain a prevailing subject of research in different social studies, and the research of changes in the psychological structure of crowds and their characteristics is still of primary interest. The main focus of the research is on the interpretation of the results of the research paper about a special separated crowd called audience. It was observed how students, constituting the crowd, perceive a crowd on video. The observation was focused on the research of emotional contagion and mood in the crowd serving as audience. While watching a mass event on a big screen, the crowd serving as audience emotionally converges with someone else, in our case with public speakers.

  11. Pediatric emotional dysregulation and behavioral disruptiveness treated with hypnosis: a time-series design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Alex; Iglesias, Adam

    2014-01-01

    A case of pediatric oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) with concomitant emotional dysregulation and secondary behavioral disruptiveness was treated with hypnosis by means of the hypnotic hold, a method adapted by the authors. An A-B-A-B time-series design with multiple replications was employed to measure the relationship of the hypnotic treatment to the dependent measure: episodes of emotional dysregulation with accompanying behavioral disruptiveness. The findings indicated a statistically significant relationship between the degree of change from phase to phase and the treatment. Follow-up at 6 months indicated a significant reduction of the frequency of targeted episodes of emotional dysregulation and behavioral disruptiveness at home.

  12. Autonomic nervous system dynamics for mood and emotional-state recognition significant advances in data acquisition, signal processing and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    This monograph reports on advances in the measurement and study of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dynamics as a source of reliable and effective markers for mood state recognition and assessment of emotional responses. Its primary impact will be in affective computing and the application of emotion-recognition systems. Applicative studies of biosignals such as: electrocardiograms; electrodermal responses; respiration activity; gaze points; and pupil-size variation are covered in detail, and experimental results explain how to characterize the elicited affective levels and mood states pragmatically and accurately using the information thus extracted from the ANS. Nonlinear signal processing techniques play a crucial role in understanding the ANS physiology underlying superficially noticeable changes and provide important quantifiers of cardiovascular control dynamics. These have prognostic value in both healthy subjects and patients with mood disorders. Moreover, Autonomic Nervous System Dynamics for Mood and ...

  13. Perceptual, not memorial, disruption underlies emotion-induced blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Briana L; Most, Steven B

    2012-04-01

    Emotion-induced blindness refers to impaired awareness of stimuli appearing in the temporal wake of an emotionally arousing stimulus (S. B. Most, Chun, Widders, & Zald, 2005). In previous emotion-induced blindness experiments, participants withheld target responses until the end of a rapid stream of stimuli, even though each target appeared in the middle of the stream. The resulting interval between the targets' offset and participants' initiation of a response leaves open the possibility that emotion-induced blindness reflects a failure to encode or maintain target information in memory rather than a failure of perception. In the present study, participants engaged in a typical emotion-induced blindness task but initiated a response immediately upon seeing each target. Emotion-induced blindness was nevertheless robust. This suggests that emotion-induced blindness is not attributable to the delay between awareness of a target and the initiation of a response, but rather reflects the disruptive impact of emotional distractors on mechanisms driving conscious perception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Mood-congruent false memories persist over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Lauren M; Thorley, Craig

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of mood-congruency and retention interval on the false recognition of emotion laden items using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Previous research has shown a mood-congruent false memory enhancement during immediate recognition tasks. The present study examined the persistence of this effect following a one-week delay. Participants were placed in a negative or neutral mood, presented with negative-emotion and neutral-emotion DRM word lists, and administered with both immediate and delayed recognition tests. Results showed that a negative mood state increased remember judgments for negative-emotion critical lures, in comparison to neutral-emotion critical lures, on both immediate and delayed testing. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of spreading activation and emotion-enhanced memory, with consideration of the applied forensic implications of such findings.

  15. Stress and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relaxation Emotions & Relationships HealthyYouTXT Tools Home » Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Many people who go back to smoking ... story: Time Out Times 10 >> share What Causes Stress? Read full story: What Causes Stress? >> share The ...

  16. How emotions affect logical reasoning:Evidence from experiments with mood-manipulated participants, spider phobics, and people with exam anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine eJung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental studies show that emotions can have a significant effect on the way we think, decide, and solve problems. This paper presents a series of four experiments on how emotions affect logical reasoning. In two experiments different groups of participants first had to pass a manipulated intelligence test. Their emotional state was altered by giving them feedback, that they performed excellent, poor or on average. Then they completed a set of logical inference problems (with if p, then q statements either in a Wason selection task paradigm or problems from the logical propositional calculus. Problem content also had either a positive, negative or neutral emotional value. Results showed a clear effect of emotions on reasoning performance. Participants in negative mood performed worse than participants in positive mood, but both groups were outperformed by the neutral mood reasoners. Problem content also had an effect on reasoning performance. In a second set of experiments, participants with exam or spider phobia solved logical problems with contents that were related to their anxiety disorder (spiders or exams. Spider phobic participants’ performance was lowered by the spider-content, while exam anxious participants were not affected by the exam-related problem content. Overall, unlike some previous studies, no evidence was found that performance is improved when emotion and content are congruent. These results have consequences for cognitive reasoning research and also for cognitively oriented psychotherapy and the treatment of disorders like depression and anxiety.

  17. How emotions affect logical reasoning: evidence from experiments with mood-manipulated participants, spider phobics, and people with exam anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Nadine; Wranke, Christina; Hamburger, Kai; Knauff, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental studies show that emotions can have a significant effect on the way we think, decide, and solve problems. This paper presents a series of four experiments on how emotions affect logical reasoning. In two experiments different groups of participants first had to pass a manipulated intelligence test. Their emotional state was altered by giving them feedback, that they performed excellent, poor or on average. Then they completed a set of logical inference problems (with if p, then q statements) either in a Wason selection task paradigm or problems from the logical propositional calculus. Problem content also had either a positive, negative or neutral emotional value. Results showed a clear effect of emotions on reasoning performance. Participants in negative mood performed worse than participants in positive mood, but both groups were outperformed by the neutral mood reasoners. Problem content also had an effect on reasoning performance. In a second set of experiments, participants with exam or spider phobia solved logical problems with contents that were related to their anxiety disorder (spiders or exams). Spider phobic participants' performance was lowered by the spider-content, while exam anxious participants were not affected by the exam-related problem content. Overall, unlike some previous studies, no evidence was found that performance is improved when emotion and content are congruent. These results have consequences for cognitive reasoning research and also for cognitively oriented psychotherapy and the treatment of disorders like depression and anxiety.

  18. How emotions affect logical reasoning: evidence from experiments with mood-manipulated participants, spider phobics, and people with exam anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Nadine; Wranke, Christina; Hamburger, Kai; Knauff, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental studies show that emotions can have a significant effect on the way we think, decide, and solve problems. This paper presents a series of four experiments on how emotions affect logical reasoning. In two experiments different groups of participants first had to pass a manipulated intelligence test. Their emotional state was altered by giving them feedback, that they performed excellent, poor or on average. Then they completed a set of logical inference problems (with if p, then q statements) either in a Wason selection task paradigm or problems from the logical propositional calculus. Problem content also had either a positive, negative or neutral emotional value. Results showed a clear effect of emotions on reasoning performance. Participants in negative mood performed worse than participants in positive mood, but both groups were outperformed by the neutral mood reasoners. Problem content also had an effect on reasoning performance. In a second set of experiments, participants with exam or spider phobia solved logical problems with contents that were related to their anxiety disorder (spiders or exams). Spider phobic participants' performance was lowered by the spider-content, while exam anxious participants were not affected by the exam-related problem content. Overall, unlike some previous studies, no evidence was found that performance is improved when emotion and content are congruent. These results have consequences for cognitive reasoning research and also for cognitively oriented psychotherapy and the treatment of disorders like depression and anxiety. PMID:24959160

  19. Disrupting reconsolidation: memory erasure or blunting of emotional/motivational value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Elizabeth S; Shapses, Mark A; Robinson, Terry E; Tronson, Natalie C

    2018-05-03

    When memories are retrieved they become labile, and subject to alteration by a process known as reconsolidation. Disruption of memory reconsolidation decreases the performance of learned responses, which is often attributed to erasure of the memory; in the case of Pavlovian learning, to a loss of the association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). However, an alternative interpretation is that disrupting reconsolidation does not erase memories, but blunts their emotional/motivational impact. It is difficult to parse the predictive vs. emotional/motivational value of CSs in non-human animals, but studies on variation in the form of conditioned responses (CRs) in a Pavlovian conditioned approach task suggest a way to do this. In this task a lever-CS paired with a food reward (US) acquires predictive value in all rats, but is attributed with emotional/motivational value to a greater extent in some rats (sign-trackers) than others (goal-trackers). We report that the post-retrieval administration of propranolol selectively attenuates a sign-tracking CR, and the associated neural activation of brain "motive circuits", while having no effect on conditioned orienting behavior in sign-trackers, or on goal-tracking CRs evoked by either a lever-CS or a tone-CS. We conclude that the disruption of reconsolidation by post-retrieval propranolol degrades the emotional/motivational impact of the CS, required for sign-tracking, but leaves the CS-US association intact. The possibility that post-retrieval interventions can reduce the emotional/motivational aspects of memories, without actually erasing them, has important implications for treating maladaptive memories that contribute to some psychiatric disorders.

  20. Sleep Disruptions and Emotional Insecurity Are Pathways of Risk for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems are prevalent in American children. A critical need is to identify sources and processes related to sleep disruptions and their sequelae. We examined a model linking parental marital conflict and children's emotional insecurity, sleep disruptions, and their adjustment and academic problems. Method: One hundred and…

  1. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Bloem, Gerda M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with

  2. Mood-congruent false memories persist over time

    OpenAIRE

    Knott, L.; Thorley, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined the role of mood-congruency and retention interval on the false recognition of emotion laden items using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Previous research has shown a mood-congruent false memory enhancement during immediate recognition tasks. The present study examined the persistence of this effect following a one-week delay. Participants were placed in a negative or neutral mood, presented with negative-emotion and neutral-emotion DRM word lists, and a...

  3. How Substance Users With ADHD Perceive the Relationship Between Substance Use and Emotional Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John T; Weisner, Thomas S; Jensen, Peter S; Murray, Desiree W; Molina, Brooke S G; Arnold, Eugene L; Hechtman, Lily; Swanson, James M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Victor, Elizabeth C; Kollins, Scott H; Wells, Karen C; Belendiuk, Katherine A; Blonde, Andrew; Nguyen, Celeste; Ambriz, Lizeth; Nguyen, Jenny L

    2017-02-01

    Although substance use (SU) is elevated in ADHD and both are associated with disrupted emotional functioning, little is known about how emotions and SU interact in ADHD. We used a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach to explore this relationship. Narrative comments were coded for 67 persistent (50 ADHD, 17 local normative comparison group [LNCG]) and 25 desistent (20 ADHD, 5 LNCG) substance users from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) adult follow-up (21.7-26.7 years-old). SU persisters perceived SU positively affects emotional states and positive emotional effects outweigh negative effects. No ADHD group effects emerged. Qualitative analysis identified perceptions that cannabis enhanced positive mood for ADHD and LNCG SU persisters, and improved negative mood and ADHD for ADHD SU persisters. Perceptions about SU broadly and mood do not differentiate ADHD and non-ADHD SU persisters. However, perceptions that cannabis is therapeutic may inform ADHD-related risk for cannabis use.

  4. Retro-Active Emotion: Do Negative Emotional Stimuli Disrupt Consolidation in Working Memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güven Kandemir

    Full Text Available While many studies have shown that a task-irrelevant emotionally arousing stimulus can interfere with the processing of a shortly following target, it remains unclear whether an emotional stimulus can also retro-actively interrupt the ongoing processing of an earlier target. In two experiments, we examined whether the presentation of a negative emotionally arousing picture can disrupt working memory consolidation of a preceding visual target. In both experiments, the effects of negative emotional pictures were compared with the effects of neutral pictures. In Experiment 1, the pictures were entirely task-irrelevant whereas in Experiment 2 the pictures were associated with a 2-alternative forced choice task that required participants to respond to the color of a frame surrounding the pictures. The results showed that the appearance of the pictures did not interfere with target consolidation when the pictures were task-irrelevant, whereas such interference was observed when the pictures were associated with a 2-AFC task. Most importantly, however, the results showed no effects of whether the picture had neutral or emotional content. Implications for further research are discussed.

  5. Motivated prediction of future feelings: effects of negative mood and mood orientation on affective forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Roger; McFarland, Cathy; Spyropoulos, Vassili; Lam, Kent C H

    2007-09-01

    This article examines the role of motivational factors in affective forecasting. The primary hypothesis was that people predict positive emotional reactions to future events when they are motivated to enhance their current feelings. Three experiments manipulated participants' moods (negative vs. neutral) and orientation toward their moods (reflective vs. ruminative) and then assessed the positivity of their affective predictions for future events. As hypothesized, when participants adopted a reflective orientation, and thus should have been motivated to engage in mood-regulation processes, they predicted more positive feelings in the negative than in the neutral mood condition. This pattern of mood-incongruent affective prediction was not exhibited when participants adopted a ruminative orientation. Additionally, within the negative mood condition, generating affective forecasts had a more positive emotional impact on reflectors than on ruminators. The findings suggest that affective predictions are sometimes driven by mood-regulatory motives.

  6. Effects of mood induction via music on cardiovascular measures of negative emotion during simulated driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairclough, S.H.; Zwaag, van der M.D.; Spiridon, E.; Westerink, J.H.D.M.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the potential of mood induction via music to influence cardiovascular correlates of negative emotions experience during driving behaviour. One hundred participants were randomly assigned to one of five groups, four of whom experienced different categories of

  7. Implications of Circadian Rhythm in Dopamine and Mood Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongah; Jang, Sangwon; Choe, Han Kyoung; Chung, Sooyoung; Son, Gi Hoon; Kim, Kyungjin

    2017-07-31

    Mammalian physiology and behavior are regulated by an internal time-keeping system, referred to as circadian rhythm. The circadian timing system has a hierarchical organization composed of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and local clocks in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral organs. The circadian clock molecular mechanism involves a network of transcription-translation feedback loops. In addition to the clinical association between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders, recent studies have suggested a molecular link between mood regulation and circadian rhythm. Specifically, genetic deletion of the circadian nuclear receptor Rev-erbα induces mania-like behavior caused by increased midbrain dopaminergic (DAergic) tone at dusk. The association between circadian rhythm and emotion-related behaviors can be applied to pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease (PD), DAergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta progressively degenerate leading to motor dysfunction. Patients with PD also exhibit non-motor symptoms, including sleep disorder and neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms that link the molecular circadian clock and brain machinery in the regulation of emotional behaviors and related midbrain DAergic neuronal circuits in healthy and pathological states. This review summarizes the current literature regarding the association between circadian rhythm and mood regulation from a chronobiological perspective, and may provide insight into therapeutic approaches to target psychiatric symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases involving circadian rhythm dysfunction.

  8. Mood induction in depressive patients: a comparative multidimensional approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Falkenberg

    Full Text Available Anhedonia, reduced positive affect and enhanced negative affect are integral characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD. Emotion dysregulation, e.g. in terms of different emotion processing deficits, has consistently been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate mood changes in depressive patients using a multidimensional approach for the measurement of emotional reactivity to mood induction procedures. Experimentally, mood states can be altered using various mood induction procedures. The present study aimed at validating two different positive mood induction procedures in patients with MDD and investigating which procedure is more effective and applicable in detecting dysfunctions in MDD. The first procedure relied on the presentation of happy vs. neutral faces, while the second used funny vs. neutral cartoons. Emotional reactivity was assessed in 16 depressed and 16 healthy subjects using self-report measures, measurements of electrodermal activity and standardized analyses of facial responses. Positive mood induction was successful in both procedures according to subjective ratings in patients and controls. In the cartoon condition, however, a discrepancy between reduced facial activity and concurrently enhanced autonomous reactivity was found in patients. Relying on a multidimensional assessment technique, a more comprehensive estimate of dysfunctions in emotional reactivity in MDD was available than by self-report measures alone and this was unsheathed especially by the mood induction procedure relying on cartoons. The divergent facial and autonomic responses in the presence of unaffected subjective reactivity suggest an underlying deficit in the patients' ability to express the felt arousal to funny cartoons. Our results encourage the application of both procedures in functional imaging studies for investigating the neural substrates of emotion dysregulation in MDD patients. Mood induction via cartoons appears to

  9. The influence of caregiver singing and background music on vocally expressed emotions and moods in dementia care: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götell, Eva; Brown, Steven; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa

    2009-04-01

    Music and singing are considered to have a strong impact on human emotions. Such an effect has been demonstrated in caregiving contexts with dementia patients. The aim of the study was to illuminate vocally expressed emotions and moods in the communication between caregivers and persons with severe dementia during morning care sessions. Three types of caring sessions were compared: the "usual" way, with no music; with background music playing; and with the caregiver singing to and/or with the patient. Nine persons with severe dementia living in a nursing home in Sweden and five professional caregivers participated in this study. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine videotaped recordings of morning care sessions, with a focus on vocally expressed emotions and moods during verbal communication. Compared to no music, the presence of background music and caregiver singing improved the mutuality of the communication between caregiver and patient, creating a joint sense of vitality. Positive emotions were enhanced, and aggressiveness was diminished. Whereas background music increased the sense of playfulness, caregiver singing enhanced the sense of sincerity and intimacy in the interaction. Caregiver singing and background music can help the caregiver improve the patient's ability to express positive emotions and moods, and to elicit a sense of vitality on the part of the person with severe dementia. The results further support the value of caregiver singing as a method to improve the quality of dementia care.

  10. Emotional intelligence and coronary atherosclerosis: exploratory study using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Suárez-Bagnasco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There are no prior studies that assess emotional intelligence in asymptomatic adults with coronary atherosclerosis. Aim The purpose of this study is to explore associations between emotional intelligence in asymptomatic adults with and without coronary atherosclerotic lesions. Design and method Cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 100 asymptomatic 30 to 80 year-old adults that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who underwent coronary multislice computed tomography. Coronary atherosclerosis was shown by 64-channel multislice computed tomography. Emotional intelligence was assessed by applying the Trait Meta-Mood Scale. Results The sample was composed of 73% men and 27% women. Fifty-one percent had coronary atherosclerotic lesions, 78% had scores below the reference values for both Clarity and Repair. Seventy-nine percent had scores above the reference values for Attention. Statistically significant associations were found between the presence of coronary atherosclerotic lesion and: a emotional attention, chi-square: 0.302, p=0.043, b emotional clarity, chi-square: -0.312, p=0.040, b emotional regulation, chi-square: -0.313, p=0.040. Conclusions: People with coronary atherosclerotic lesions showed an excessive tendency to focus on their own feelings and higher levels of rumination, together with lower ability to identify, distinguish and describe their emotions. Likewise, they have lower ability to reduce or eliminate negative emotions and to increase or maintain the intensity of positive emotions.

  11. Context and wine quality effects on consumers' mood, emotions, liking and willingness to pay for Australian Shiraz wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Lukas; Ristic, Renata; Johnson, Trent E; Meiselman, Herbert L; Hoek, Annet C; Jeffery, David W; Bastian, Susan E P

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of different contexts on consumers' mood, product-evoked emotions, liking and willingness to pay for wine. Three consumer trials (n=114, 115, and 120) examined 3 different sample sets of 4 Australian commercial Shiraz wines. Each sample set was comprised of a high, medium-high, medium-low and low quality wine as designated by an expert panel. Wine consumers evaluated the same set of wines in the three different contexts, ranging from a highly-controlled laboratory setting to more realistic restaurant and at-home settings. Results showed that high quality wines were liked more and elicited more intense emotions of positive valence compared to wines of lower quality. Context effects were observed on emotions, but not on liking, indicating that although emotions and liking are correlated, the measurement of emotions can deliver additional information over liking. Tasting wine in the restaurant context evoked more intense positive emotions compared to the home and laboratory contexts. Participants' mood before tasting the wines had a strong influence on consecutive product-evoked emotion ratings, but only weak influence on liking ratings. Furthermore, a strong relationship between wine-evoked emotions and willingness to pay was observed, showing that if a wine-evoked more intense emotion of positive valence e.g., contented, enthusiastic, happy, optimistic and passionate participants were willing to pay significantly more for a bottle. Additionally, the absence of negative emotions, even if typically evoked to a very weak extent, is a requirement for an increased willingness to pay. This study indicates it is worthwhile to consider context and emotions in wine testing and marketing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing the DSM-5 construct of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and ICD-10 Mixed Disorder of Emotion and Conduct in the UK Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (UK-LAMS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar-Ouriaghli, I; Milavic, G; Barton, R; Heaney, N; Fiori, F; Lievesley, K; Singh, J; Santosh, Paramala

    2018-05-05

    It is important to understand new diagnostic entities in classifications of psychopathology such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) (code F34.8) construct of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) and to compare it with possible equivalent disorders in other classificatory systems such as the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10), which has a category that superficially appears similar, that is, Mixed Disorder of Emotion and Conduct (MDEC) (code F92). In this study, the United Kingdom (UK) arm (UK-LAMS) of the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) supported Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) multi-site study was used to evaluate and retrospectively construct DMDD and MDEC diagnoses in order to compare them and understand the conditions they co-occur with, in order to improve the clinical understanding. In particular, the phenomenology of UK-LAMS participants (n = 117) was used to determine whether DMDD is a unique entity within the DSM-5. The findings showed that 24 of 68 participants with either DMDD or MDEC (35.3%) fulfilled both diagnostic criteria for DMDD and MDEC, suggesting that these entities do contain overlapping features, particularly symptoms relating to Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)/Conduct Disorder (CD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)/Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD) and/or an anxiety disorder. The data also showed that most of the participants who met DMDD criteria also fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for ODD/CD, ADHD, followed by an anxiety disorder. In this context, this raises the issue whether DMDD is a unique construct or whether the symptomology for DMDD can be better explained as a specifier for ODD/CD and ADHD. Unlike DMDD, MDEC clearly specifies that the label should only be used if emotional and conduct disorders co-exist.

  13. Disrupted neural processing of emotional faces in psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Pujol, Jesus; Batalla, Iolanda; Harrison, Ben J; Bosque, Javier; Ibern-Regàs, Immaculada; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Deus, Joan; López-Solà, Marina; Pifarré, Josep; Menchón, José M; Cardoner, Narcís

    2014-04-01

    Psychopaths show a reduced ability to recognize emotion facial expressions, which may disturb the interpersonal relationship development and successful social adaptation. Behavioral hypotheses point toward an association between emotion recognition deficits in psychopathy and amygdala dysfunction. Our prediction was that amygdala dysfunction would combine deficient activation with disturbances in functional connectivity with cortical regions of the face-processing network. Twenty-two psychopaths and 22 control subjects were assessed and functional magnetic resonance maps were generated to identify both brain activation and task-induced functional connectivity using psychophysiological interaction analysis during an emotional face-matching task. Results showed significant amygdala activation in control subjects only, but differences between study groups did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, psychopaths showed significantly increased activation in visual and prefrontal areas, with this latest activation being associated with psychopaths' affective-interpersonal disturbances. Psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed a reciprocal reduction in functional connectivity between the left amygdala and visual and prefrontal cortices. Our results suggest that emotional stimulation may evoke a relevant cortical response in psychopaths, but a disruption in the processing of emotional faces exists involving the reciprocal functional interaction between the amygdala and neocortex, consistent with the notion of a failure to integrate emotion into cognition in psychopathic individuals.

  14. Neural circuitry of masked emotional face processing in youth with bipolar disorder, severe mood dysregulation, and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A; Brotman, Melissa A; Bones, Brian L; Chen, Gang; Rosen, Brooke H; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2014-04-01

    Youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with severe, non-episodic irritability (severe mood dysregulation, SMD) show face-emotion labeling deficits. These groups differ from healthy volunteers (HV) in neural responses to emotional faces. It is unknown whether awareness is required to elicit these differences. We compared activation in BD (N=20), SMD (N=18), and HV (N=22) during "Aware" and "Non-aware" priming of shapes by emotional faces. Subjects rated how much they liked the shape. In aware, a face (angry, fearful, happy, neutral, blank oval) appeared (187 ms) before the shape. In non-aware, a face appeared (17 ms), followed by a mask (170 ms), and shape. A Diagnosis-by-Awareness-by-Emotion ANOVA was not significant. There were significant Diagnosis-by-Awareness interactions in occipital regions. BD and SMD showed increased activity for non-aware vs. aware; HV showed the reverse pattern. When subjects viewed angry or neutral faces, there were Emotion-by-Diagnosis interactions in face-emotion processing regions, including the L precentral gyrus, R posterior cingulate, R superior temporal gyrus, R middle occipital gyrus, and L medial frontal gyrus. Regardless of awareness, BD and SMD differ in activation patterns from HV and each other in multiple brain regions, suggesting that BD and SMD are distinct developmental mood disorders. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Neural circuitry of masked emotional face processing in youth with bipolar disorder, severe mood dysregulation, and healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Youth with bipolar disorder (BD and those with severe, non-episodic irritability (severe mood dysregulation, SMD show face-emotion labeling deficits. These groups differ from healthy volunteers (HV in neural responses to emotional faces. It is unknown whether awareness is required to elicit these differences. We compared activation in BD (N = 20, SMD (N = 18, and HV (N = 22 during “Aware” and “Non-aware” priming of shapes by emotional faces. Subjects rated how much they liked the shape. In aware, a face (angry, fearful, happy, neutral, blank oval appeared (187 ms before the shape. In non-aware, a face appeared (17 ms, followed by a mask (170 ms, and shape. A Diagnosis-by-Awareness-by-Emotion ANOVA was not significant. There were significant Diagnosis-by-Awareness interactions in occipital regions. BD and SMD showed increased activity for non-aware vs. aware; HV showed the reverse pattern. When subjects viewed angry or neutral faces, there were Emotion-by-Diagnosis interactions in face-emotion processing regions, including the L precentral gyrus, R posterior cingulate, R superior temporal gyrus, R middle occipital gyrus, and L medial frontal gyrus. Regardless of awareness, BD and SMD differ in activation patterns from HV and each other in multiple brain regions, suggesting that BD and SMD are distinct developmental mood disorders.

  16. Mood Fluctuation and Psychobiological Instability: The Same Core Functions Are Disrupted by Novel Psychoactive Substances and Established Recreational Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Parrott

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many novel psychoactive substances (NPS have entered the recreational drug scene in recent years, yet the problems they cause are similar to those found with established drugs. This article will debate the psychobiological effects of these newer and more traditional substances. It will show how they disrupt the same core psychobiological functions, so damaging well-being in similar ways. Every psychoactive drug causes mood states to fluctuate. Users feel better on-drug, then feel worse off-drug. The strength of these mood fluctuations is closely related to their addiction potential. Cyclical changes can occur with many other core psychobiological functions, such as information processing and psychomotor speed. Hence the list of drug-related impairments can include: homeostatic imbalance, HPA axis disruption, increased stress, altered sleep patterns, neurohormonal changes, modified brain rhythms, neurocognitive impairments, and greater psychiatric vulnerability. Similar patterns of deficit are found with older drugs such as cocaine, nicotine and cannabis, and newer substances such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, mephedrone and spice. All psychoactive drugs damage human well-being through similar basic neuropsychobiological mechanisms.

  17. Age and Gender Differences in Relationships Among Emotion Regulation, Mood, and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Kouhei Masumoto PhD; Nozomi Taishi PhD; Mariko Shiozaki PhD

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the effects of age on mood and mental health-mediated emotion regulation, such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and examined whether these relationships differ according to gender. Method: We recruited 936 Japanese participants. They comprised six age groups ranging from 20 to 70 years old, with 156 participants in each age group and equal numbers of men and women. Results: Structural equation model analysis showed that older participants were mo...

  18. Mood congruity and episodic memory in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Joan; Burke, Deborah M

    2016-02-01

    Although mood congruity effects on episodic memory have been reported extensively in adults, they have not been reported for children younger than 10 years. The current research investigated mood congruity effects in story recall using an embodied approach to mood induction involving a facial manipulation task with 3- and 4-year-old children. Participants held a chopstick or a popsicle stick in their mouths in a way to either produce or inhibit a smile while they listened to a story featuring happy events for a happy character and sad events for a sad character. Children's mood ratings before and after mood induction indicated that mood became more positive in the smile condition, with no change in the no smile condition. Children in the smile condition, but not in the no smile condition, remembered more about the happy character than the sad character in the story. These results extend mood congruity effects to 3- and 4-year olds, suggesting that at this age representations of emotion interact with basic memory processes. Moreover, the efficacy of reenactment of sensorimotor components of emotion in modifying mood is consistent with embodied representation of emotion during early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Change in drawing placement: A measure of change in mood state reflective of hemispheric lateralization of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Tracy R; O'Mara, Erin M; Wilson, Josephine F

    2018-04-26

    The Valence Hypothesis of cerebral lateralization of emotion suggests greater right hemisphere activation during negative mood and greater left hemisphere activation during positive mood. This can manifest as visual field attentional bias. Here, study participants completed an assessment of current mood state (PANAS) and made a drawing (Drawing 1). To induce positive or negative mood, participants played a game; then, the winner read a script depicting a positive interpersonal interaction and the loser read a script depicting a negative interpersonal interaction. Participants then drew a second picture (Drawing 2) and completed the PANAS. We hypothesized that the game outcome would change current mood state and hemispheric activation, which would be reflected in drawing placement. The placement of Drawing 2 moved right for winners and left for losers. Winners experienced a greater increase in positive affect from Time 1 to Time 2 than losers and had decreased negative affect from Time 1. Losers had decreased positive affect from Time 1 and had a greater increase in negative affect from Time 1 to Time 2 than winners. Our results suggest that change in current mood state may be objectively observed by evaluating hemispatial bias reflective of brain hemispheric activation with drawings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Facial EMG responses to dynamic emotional facial expressions in boys with disruptive behavior disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wied, de M.; Boxtel, van Anton; Zaalberg, R.; Goudena, P.P.; Matthys, W.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the assumption that facial mimicry is a key factor in emotional empathy, and clinical observations that children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are weak empathizers, the present study explored whether DBD boys are less facially responsive to facial expressions of emotions than

  1. Poor quality of life, depressed mood, and memory impairment may be mediated by sleep disruption in patients with Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Michelle; Wolf, Pedro S A; Ross, Ian L; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2015-11-01

    Standard replacement therapy for Addison's disease (AD) does not restore a normal circadian rhythm. In fact, hydrocortisone replacement in AD patients likely induces disrupted sleep. Given that healthy sleep plays an important role in improving quality of life, optimizing cognition, and ensuring affect regulation, the aim of this study was to investigate whether poor quality of life, mood alterations, and memory complaints reported by AD patients are associated with their disrupted sleep patterns. Sixty patients with AD and 60 matched healthy controls completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing perceived physical and mental health (Short-Form 36), mood (Beck Depression Inventory-II), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and cognition (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire). A latent variable model revealed that although AD had a significant direct effect on quality of life, the indirect effect of sleep was significantly greater. Furthermore, although AD had no direct effect on cognitive functioning, the indirect effect of sleep was significant. The overall model showed a good fit (comparative fit index = 0.91, root mean square of approximation = 0.09, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.05). Our findings suggest that disrupted sleep, and not the disease per se, may induce poor quality of life, memory impairment, and affect dysregulation in patients with AD. We think that improving sleep architecture may improve cognitive, affective, and physical functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Engagement in mobile phone app for self-monitoring of emotional wellbeing predicts changes in mental health: MoodPrism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, David; Rickard, Nikki

    2018-02-01

    Mobile apps are being used increasingly for mental health purposes, but evidence of their efficacy remains limited. The mechanisms underlying any effects of such apps are also unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of a self-monitoring mobile phone app by investigating the relationships between app engagement and mental health outcomes. Participants downloaded the MoodPrism app from the iOS and Android app stores, completing in-app assessments at start of use and again 30days later. The app prompted participants daily to complete a short mood questionnaire and formulated their responses into a mood diary. Data from 234 assessment completers (73% female; M age = 34.8 years) were analysed via hierarchical and mediation regressions. In this community sample, app engagement ratings predicted decreases in depression and anxiety, and increases in mental well-being. These effects were mediated by increases in emotional self-awareness, but only for participants who were clinically depressed or anxious at the time of the baseline assessment. Mental health literacy and coping self-efficacy did not play mediating roles. Findings suggest that other influential mediators may have not been measured, and future studies could verify the findings by using alternative methodologies, such as comparison with a control group. Engaging with an emotional wellbeing self-monitoring app may reduce depressive and anxious symptoms, and increase mental well-being. Increases in emotional self-awareness may mediate these changes in clinical populations, and further research is needed to reveal other mechanisms that mental health apps can utilize. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chocolate: food for moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S Y; Lua, P L

    2011-08-01

    Chocolate is a popular food and its consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. The effect of chocolate on mood too has long been recognised. Chocolate is thought to have interactions with neurotransmitters which contribute to mood modulation and appetite regulation. However, the evidence in chocolate and mood studies remains highly controversial. As more is known about the influence of chocolate on mood, the reasons for these effects appear increasingly complex and inter-related. We reviewed chocolate's properties and the principal hypotheses addressing its mood altering propensities. The relationship between chocolate and mood are highly complex, combining psychopharmacological components, nutritional and sensory characteristics of the food. Individual and situational differences on chocolate consumption may also exert influence on mood and the mixed results in previous research indicate that the direction of the association remains unclear. The association between chocolate consumption and emotions warrants further multi-prong investigations to substantiate chocolate's mood alterating propensity.

  4. Frontal EEG Asymmetry of Mood: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Palmiero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present mini-review was aimed at exploring the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood. With respect to emotion, interpreted as a discrete affective process, mood is more controllable, more nebulous, and more related to mind/cognition; in addition, causes are less well-defined than those eliciting emotion. Therefore, firstly, the rational for the distinction between emotion and mood was provided. Then, the main frontal EEG asymmetry models were presented, such as the motivational approach/withdrawal, valence/arousal, capability, and inhibition asymmetric models. Afterward, the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood was investigated following three research lines, that is considering studies involving different mood induction procedures, dispositional mood (positive and negative affect, and mood alterations in both healthy and clinical populations. In general, results were found to be contradictory, no model is unequivocally supported regardless the research line considered. Different methodological issues were raised, such as: the composition of samples used across studies, in particular, gender and age were found to be critical variables that should be better addressed in future studies; the importance of third variables that might mediate the relationship between frontal EEG asymmetries and mood, for example bodily states and hormonal responses; the role of cognition, namely the interplay between mood and executive functions. In light of these issues, future research directions were proposed. Amongst others, the need to explore the neural connectivity that underpins EEG asymmetries, and the need to include both positive and negative mood conditions in the experimental designs have been highlighted.

  5. Combined pharmacotherapy-multimodal psychotherapy in children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Milone, Annarita; Manfredi, Azzurra; Brovedani, Paola; Pisano, Simone; Muratori, Pietro

    2016-04-30

    Although multi-component psychotherapeutic interventions are first-line treatments for Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), pharmacotherapy is often associated for more severe patients. Our aim was to explore effectiveness of an associated pharmacotherapy in referred children with DBD receiving a one-year psychotherapeutic intervention. Aggression, callous unemotional (CU) traits and emotional dysregulation were outcome measures. The sample included 144 children, aged 8-12 years, 41 (29%) with an ADHD comorbidity. Fifty-five (38%) patients received an additional pharmacotherapy with one medication, methylphenidate, a second generation antipsychotic, or a mood stabilizer. Data were collected before and after the one-year treatment. According to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), aggressive behaviors, rule-breaking behaviors and emotional dysregulation improved in the whole group, as well as parent- and child-reported CU traits. The hierarchical regression model showed that additional pharmacotherapy significantly predicted lower scores at the CBCL aggressive behaviors and emotional dysregulation, but not CU traits at the end of the treatment. The interaction between methylphenidate and ADHD comorbidity predicted lower aggressive behaviors after the treatment. In summary, this naturalistic investigation suggest that an additional pharmacotherapy significantly improved aggression and emotional dysregulation, but not CU traits. When ADHD was comorbid, methylphenidate was more effective than antipsychotics or mood stabilizers in reducing aggression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Friend or foe? Decoding the facilitative and disruptive effects of emotion on working memory in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda eTruong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of work on emotion-cognition interactions has revealed both facilitative and disruptive effects of emotion on working memory in younger adults. These differing effects may vary by the goal relevancy of emotion within a task. Additionally, it is possible that these emotional effects would be larger for older adults, considering findings of preserved emotional processing with age. To test these hypotheses, the current study examined the effects of emotional content and aging on working memory for target information in the presence of distraction. Thirty-six younger (ages 18-29 and 36 older adults (ages 65-87 completed a delayed-response working memory task. Participants viewed two target words intermixed with two distracter words, and then judged whether a subsequently presented probe word was one of the target words. The emotional content (valence and arousal of targets and distracters was systematically manipulated. Results indicated that emotional targets facilitated working memory in both age groups. In contrast, emotional distracters disrupted performance. Negative distracters were particularly disruptive for older adults, but younger adults did not show an emotional interference effect. These findings help clarify discrepancies in the literature and contribute to the sparse research on emotional working memory in older adults.

  7. The emotional startle effect is disrupted by a concurrent working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rosemary; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2011-02-01

    Working memory (WM) processes are often thought to play an important role in the cognitive regulation of negative emotions. However, little is known about how they influence emotional processing. We report two experiments that tested whether a concurrent working memory task could modulate the emotional startle eyeblink effect, a well-known index of emotional processing. In both experiments, emotionally negative and neutral pictures were viewed in two conditions: a "cognitive load" (CL) condition, in which participants had to actively maintain information in working memory (WM) while viewing the pictures, and a control "no load" (NL) condition. Picture-viewing instructions were identical across CL and NL. In both experiments, results showed a significant reduction of the emotional modulation of the startle eyeblink reflex in the CL condition compared to the NL condition. These findings suggest that a concurrent WM task disrupts emotional processing even when participants are directing visual focus on emotionally relevant information. Copyright © 2010 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. [Mood induction procedures: a critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilet, A-L

    2008-06-01

    For a long period in the history of psychological research, emotion and cognition have been studied independently, as if one were irrelevant to the other. The renewed interest of researchers for the study of the relations between cognition and emotion has led to the development of a range of laboratory methods for inducing temporary mood states. This paper aims to review the main mood induction procedures allowing the induction of a negative mood as well as a positive mood, developed since the pioneer study of Schachter and Singer [Psychol Rev 69 (1962) 379-399] and to account for the usefulness and problems related to the use of such techniques. The first part of this paper deals with the detailed presentation of some of the most popular mood induction procedures according to their type: simple (use of only one mood induction technique) or combined (association of two or more techniques at once). The earliest of the modern techniques is the Velten Mood Induction Procedure [Behav Res Ther 6 (1968) 473-482], which involves reading aloud sixty self-referent statements progressing from relative neutral mood to negative mood or dysphoria. Some researchers have varied the procedure slightly by changing the number of the statements [Behav Res Ther 21 (1983) 233-239, Br J Clin Psychol 21 (1982) 111-117, J Pers Soc Psychol 35 (1977) 625-636]. Various other mood induction procedures have been developed including music induction [Cogn Emotion 11 (1997) 403-432, Br J Med Psychol 55 (1982) 127-138], film clip induction [J Pers Soc Psychol 20 (1971) 37-43, Cogn Emotion 7 (1993) 171-193, Rottenberg J, Ray RR, Gross JJ. Emotion elicitation using films. In: Coan JA, Allen JJB, editors. The handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007], autobiographical recall [J Clin Psychol 36 (1980) 215-226, Jallais C. Effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur les structures de connaissances de type script. Thèse de doctorat non publi

  9. Emotion disrupts neural activity during selective attention in psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Heller, Wendy; Herrington, John D; Engels, Anna S; Warren, Stacie L; Crocker, Laura D; Sutton, Bradley P; Miller, Gregory A

    2013-03-01

    Dimensions of psychopathy are theorized to be associated with distinct cognitive and emotional abnormalities that may represent unique neurobiological risk factors for the disorder. This hypothesis was investigated by examining whether the psychopathic personality dimensions of fearless-dominance and impulsive-antisociality moderated neural activity and behavioral responses associated with selective attention and emotional processing during an emotion-word Stroop task in 49 adults. As predicted, the dimensions evidenced divergent selective-attention deficits and sensitivity to emotional distraction. Fearless-dominance was associated with disrupted attentional control to positive words, and activation in right superior frontal gyrus mediated the relationship between fearless-dominance and errors to positive words. In contrast, impulsive-antisociality evidenced increased behavioral interference to both positive and negative words and correlated positively with recruitment of regions associated with motivational salience (amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, insula), emotion regulation (temporal cortex, superior frontal gyrus) and attentional control (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex). Individuals high on both dimensions had increased recruitment of regions related to attentional control (temporal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex), response preparation (pre-/post-central gyri) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) in response to negative words. These findings provide evidence that the psychopathy dimensions represent dual sets of risk factors characterized by divergent dysfunction in cognitive and affective processes.

  10. Mood, food, and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity. PMID:25225489

  11. Mood, food, and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minati eSingh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.

  12. Mood, food, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.

  13. Emotional intelligence and recovering from induced negative emotional state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín T. Limonero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and recovering from negative emotions induction, using a performance test to measure Emotional Inteligence (EI. Sixty seven undergraduates participated in the procedure, which lasted 75 minutes and was divided into three stages. At Time 1, subjects answered the STAI-S, POMS-A, and EI was assessed by MSCEIT. At Time 2, negative emotions were induced by 9 pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS and participants were asked to complete a second STAI-S and POMS-B questionnaires. At Time 3 participants were allowed to rest doing a distracting task and participants were asked to complete a third STAI-S and POMS-A questionnaires. Results showed that the branches of the MSCEIT emotional facilitation and emotional understanding are related to previous mood states and mood recovery, but not to mood reactivity. This finding contrasts nicely with studies on which emotional recovery was assessed in relation to EI self-reported measures, highlighting the perception and emotional regulation.

  14. The relationship between mood state, interpersonal attitudes and psychological distress in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Margaret A; Andrewes, David G

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated whether increasing positive mood improved interpersonal attitudes and relieved depression in depressed stroke patients despite levels of cognitive and emotional dysfunction. Depressed stroke (n = 30) and rheumatic/orthopaedic controls (n = 30) were compared on the effect of verbal and nonverbal positive and neutral mood induction on mood state, interpersonal attitudes, psychological distress and related cognitive and emotional processing deficits. Compared with the neutral mood induction condition, the positive mood induction significantly improved mood state, interpersonal attitudes and psychological distress, irrespective of cognitive and emotional processing deficits. The nonverbal material was effective for all patients but was more marked for the left hemisphere stroke group. There was no obvious influence of humour appreciation despite reduced understanding in the right hemisphere stroke group. Although the effect is likely to be short-lived, these results support the trial of positive mood induction within therapy programmes to relieve depression.

  15. Mood state effects of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Parker, Isabella; Brotchie, Heather

    2006-06-01

    Chocolate consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. Popular claims confer on chocolate the properties of being a stimulant, relaxant, euphoriant, aphrodisiac, tonic and antidepressant. The last claim stimulated this review. We review chocolate's properties and the principal hypotheses addressing its claimed mood altering propensities. We distinguish between food craving and emotional eating, consider their psycho-physiological underpinnings, and examine the likely 'positioning' of any effect of chocolate to each concept. Chocolate can provide its own hedonistic reward by satisfying cravings but, when consumed as a comfort eating or emotional eating strategy, is more likely to be associated with prolongation rather than cessation of a dysphoric mood. This review focuses primarily on clarifying the possibility that, for some people, chocolate consumption may act as an antidepressant self-medication strategy and the processes by which this may occur. Any mood benefits of chocolate consumption are ephemeral.

  16. Endocrine and emotional response to exclusion among women and men; cortisol, salivary alpha amylase, and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpman, Liat; Penso, Julia; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2017-05-01

    Social exclusion is ubiquitous and painful. Evolutionary models indicate sex differences in coping with social stress. Recent empirical data suggest different sex patterns in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) reactivity. The present study sought to test this hypothesis. We examined differences in endocrine and emotional response to exclusion by using a virtual ball tossing paradigm (Cyberball). Saliva samples and mood ratings were collected to reflect levels before, and repeatedly following, exclusion. The sample included 21 women and 23 men. Cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), biomarkers of the HPA and SAM systems, respectively, were used as indices of two arms of stress response. Following exclusion, all participants experienced mood worsening followed by mood improvement, with men reporting less distress than women. Women evinced decline in cortisol following the Cyberball task, whereas men's cortisol levels showed a non-significant rise, and then decline, following exclusion. Our results concur with previous findings showing SAM reactivity to be gender-neutral and HPA reactivity to be gender-divergent. Additional studies are needed to examine sex-specific response to social exclusion. Implications for individual differences in recovery from stress are discussed.

  17. Scene unseen: Disrupted neuronal adaptation in melancholia during emotional film viewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Hyett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in attention and concentration are distinctive features of melancholic depression, and may diminish the ability to shift focus away from internal dysphoric states. Disrupted brain networks may underlie the inability to effectively disengage from interoceptive signals in this disorder. This study investigates changes in effective connectivity between cortical systems supporting attention, interoception, and perception in those with melancholic depression when shifting attention from rest to viewing dynamic film stimuli. We hypothesised that those with melancholia would show impaired attentional shifting from rest to emotional film viewing, captured in neuronal states that differed little across conditions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were acquired from 48 participants (16 melancholic depressed, 16 non-melancholic depressed, and 16 healthy controls at rest and whilst viewing emotionally salient movies. Using independent component analysis, we identified 8 cortical modes (default mode, executive control, left/right frontoparietal attention, left/right insula, visual and auditory and studied their dynamics using dynamic causal modelling. Engagement with dynamic emotional material diminished in melancholia and was associated with network-wide increases in effective connectivity. Melancholia was also characterised by an increase in effective connectivity amongst cortical regions involved in attention and interoception when shifting from rest to negative film viewing, with the converse pattern in control participants. The observed involvement of attention- and insula-based cortical systems highlights a potential neurobiological mechanism for disrupted attentional resource allocation, particularly in switching between interoceptive and exteroceptive signals, in melancholia.

  18. Emotional Resilience Mediates the Relationship Between Mindfulness and Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuzheng; Xu, Wei; Luo, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that mindfulness promotes positive mood states and reduces negative ones; however, the underlying mechanisms are still controversial. This study assessed the role of emotional resilience as a mediator between mindfulness and emotional regulation. A total of 421 college students (M age = 20.0 year, SD = 2.0; males/females/missing are 152/248/4) completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Profile of Mood States, and Adolescents' Emotional Resilience Questionnaire (AERQ). The ability to generate positive emotion (GP) and the ability to recover from negative emotion (RN) are two subscales of the AERQ. A Structural Equation Modeling analysis indicated that emotional resilience mediated the connection between mindfulness and emotion. Specifically, GP mediated the relationship between mindfulness and both positive and negative emotions while RN mainly mediated the relationship between mindfulness and negative emotions. These findings suggest that mindfulness may play a role in regulating positive and negative emotions through the two different aspects of emotional resilience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Mood Detection in Ambiguous Messages: The Interaction Between Text and Emoticons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Aldunate

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Face-to-face communication has several sources of contextual information that enables language comprehension. This information is used, for instance, to perceive mood of interlocutors, clarifying ambiguous messages. However, these contextual cues are absent in text-based communication. Emoticons have been proposed as cues used to stress the emotional intentions on this channel of communication. Most studies have suggested that their role is to contribute to a more accurate perception of emotions. Nevertheless, it is not clear if their influence on disambiguation is independent of their emotional valence and its interaction with text message valence. In the present study, we designed an emotional congruence paradigm, where participants read a set of messages composed by a positive or negative emotional situation sentence followed by a positive or negative emoticon. Participants were instructed to indicate if the sender was in a good or bad mood. With the aim of analyzing the disambiguation process and observing if the role of the emoticons in disambiguation is different according their valence, we measure the rate of responses of perceived mood and the reaction times (RTs for each condition. Our results showed that the perceived mood in ambiguous messages tends to be more negative regardless of emotion valence. Nonetheless, we observed that this tendency was not the same for positive and negative emoticons. Specifically, negative mood perception was higher for incongruent positive emoticons. On the other hand, RTs for positive emoticons were faster than for the negative ones. Responses for incongruent messages were slower than for the congruent ones. However, the incongruent condition showed different RTs depending on the emoticons’ valence. In the incongruent condition, responses for negative emoticons was the slowest. Results are discussed taking into account previous observations about the potential role of emoticons in mood perception and

  20. Bipolar mood state reflected in cortico-amygdala resting state connectivity: A cohort and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Roscoe O; Margolis, Allison; Masters, Grace A; Keshavan, Matcheri; Öngür, Dost

    2017-08-01

    Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), we previously compared cohorts of bipolar I subjects in a manic state to those in a euthymic state to identify mood state-specific patterns of cortico-amygdala connectivity. Our results suggested that mania is reflected in the disruption of emotion regulation circuits. We sought to replicate this finding in a group of subjects with bipolar disorder imaged longitudinally across states of mania and euthymia METHODS: We divided our subjects into three groups: 26 subjects imaged in a manic state, 21 subjects imaged in a euthymic state, and 10 subjects imaged longitudinally across both mood states. We measured differences in amygdala connectivity between the mania and euthymia cohorts. We then used these regions of altered connectivity to examine connectivity in the longitudinal bipolar group using a within-subjects design. Our findings in the mania vs euthymia cohort comparison were replicated in the longitudinal analysis. Bipolar mania was differentiated from euthymia by decreased connectivity between the amygdala and pre-genual anterior cingulate cortex. Mania was also characterized by increased connectivity between amygdala and the supplemental motor area, a region normally anti-correlated to the amygdala in emotion regulation tasks. Stringent controls for movement effects limited the number of subjects in the longitudinal sample. In this first report of rsfMRI conducted longitudinally across mood states, we find that previously observed between-group differences in amygdala connectivity are also found longitudinally within subjects. These results suggest resting state cortico-amygdala connectivity is a biomarker of mood state in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Glutamate and GABA contributions to medial prefrontal cortical activity to emotion: implications for mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Ana D; Schirda, Claudiu V; Bertocci, Michele A; Bebko, Genna M; Kronhaus, Dina M; Aslam, Haris A; LaBarbara, Eduard J; Tanase, Costin; Lockovich, Jeanette C; Pollock, Myrna H; Stiffler, Richelle S; Phillips, Mary L

    2014-09-30

    The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (MdPFC) and anterior cingulate cortices (ACC) play a critical role in implicit emotion regulation; however the understanding of the specific neurotransmitters that mediate such role is lacking. In this study, we examined relationships between MdPFC concentrations of two neurotransmitters, glutamate and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), and BOLD activity in ACC during performance of an implicit facial emotion-processing task. Twenty healthy volunteers, aged 20-35 years, were scanned while performing an implicit facial emotion-processing task, whereby presented facial expressions changed from neutral to one of the four emotions: happy, anger, fear, or sad. Glutamate concentrations were measured before and after the emotion-processing task in right MdPFC using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). GABA concentrations were measured in bilateral MdPFC after the emotion-processing task. Multiple regression models were run to determine the relative contribution of glutamate and GABA concentration, age, and gender to BOLD signal in ACC to each of the four emotions. Multiple regression analyses revealed a significant negative correlation between MdPFC GABA concentration and BOLD signal in subgenual ACC (psad versus shape contrast. For the anger versus shape contrast, there was a significant negative correlation between age and BOLD signal in pregenual ACC (p<0.05, corrected) and a positive correlation between MdPFC glutamate concentration (pre-task) and BOLD signal in pregenual ACC (p<0.05, corrected). Our findings are the first to provide insight into relationships between MdPFC neurotransmitter concentrations and ACC BOLD signal, and could further understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying emotion processing in healthy and mood-disordered individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic parenting stress and mood reactivity: The role of sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Estrela, Chelsea; Barker, Erin T; Lantagne, Sarah; Gouin, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-01

    Sleep is a basic biological process supporting emotion regulation. The emotion regulation function of sleep may be particularly important in the context of chronic stress. To better understand how chronic stress and sleep interact to predict mood, 66 parents of children with autism completed daily diaries assessing parenting stress, negative mood, and sleep quality for 6 consecutive days. Hierarchical linear modelling revealed that daily negative mood was predicted by between-person differences in parenting stress and between-person differences in sleep efficiency. Further, between-person differences in sleep efficiency and within-person differences in sleep satisfaction moderated the impact of stress on mood. These data suggest that sleep disturbances may exacerbate the association between stress and mood in the context of chronic parenting stress. Further, high parenting stress appears to heighten the impact of transient sleep disturbances on mood. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. DSM-5 intermittent explosive disorder: Relationship with Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccaro, Emil F

    2018-04-30

    This study was designed to estimate how many adults with DSM-5 Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) would also meet diagnostic criteria for Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD). This was done by examining how many individuals with IED would meet the DMDD criterion of being persistently angry in between impulsive aggressive outbursts. The first one-hundred study participants diagnosed with DSM-5 IED in our clinical research program were included in this study. Two questions were added to the IED module from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 Disorders (SCID) inquiring about the duration of anger in between impulsive aggressive outbursts in IED study participants. Data regarding aggression, impulsivity, anger expression, and related dysphoric variables were also collected. The proportion of time spent as angry in between impulsive aggressive outbursts was DSM-5 IED. Despite this, persistently-angry (i.e., angry >50% time in between outbursts) IED study participants displayed no differences from not-persistently-angry IED study participants in dysphoric and aggression/impulsivity related variables. These data indicate that inter-outburst anger in those with IED is relatively brief and that such individuals do not generally display the kind of persistent anger that is a diagnostic feature of DMDD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhuys, A L; Bloem, G M; Groothuis, T G

    1995-04-04

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with respect to the emotions they express (fear, happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, surprise, rejection and invitation). It was found that a particular face could reflect various emotions. All eight emotions were reflected in the set of faces and the emotions were consensually judged. Moreover, gender differences in judgement could be established. Study 2: In a cross-over design, 24 healthy subjects judged the faces after listening to depressing or elating music. The faces were subdivided in six 'ambiguous' faces (i.e., expressing similar amounts of positive and negative emotions) and six 'clear' faces (i.e., faces showing a preponderance of positive or negative emotions). In addition, these two types of faces were distinguished with respect to the intensity of emotions they express. 11 subjects who showed substantial differences in experienced depression after listening to the music were selected for further analysis. It was found that, when feeling more depressed, the subjects perceived more rejection/sadness in ambiguous faces (displaying less intensive emotions) and less invitation/happiness in clear faces. In addition, subjects saw more fear in clear faces that express less intensive emotions. Hence, results show a depression-related negative bias in the perception of facial displays.

  5. Breast cancer diagnosis: biographical disruption, emotional experiences and strategic management in Thai women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Suwankhong, Dusanee

    2015-09-01

    In this article we draw on Bury's theory of biographical disruption to discuss the meanings of, and emotional experiences related to, being diagnosed with breast cancer among southern Thai women. Qualitative methods, including in-depth interviewing and drawing methods, were used to collect data from 20 women with breast cancer. The women perceived breast cancer to be a rhok raai; an evil or dread disease. They believed that breast cancer would lead to death. The disruption in their biography occurred when they detected abnormalities indicating breast cancer. The women's narratives revealed their chaotic lives upon this diagnosis and the news precipitated in them shock, fear, anxiety and loss of hope. Although they experienced chaos and disruption, the women cultivated strategies that helped them cope with their experiences by accepting their fate and adhering to Buddhist beliefs and practices. Through their narratives of biographical disruption, the women in our study offer healthcare providers knowledge that could lead to an appreciation of their needs and concerns. This knowledge is crucial for health professionals who wish to provide emotional support to women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer in Thailand and elsewhere. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  6. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory.

  7. Mood Dependent Music Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Music is one of the most expressive media to show and manipulate emotions, but there have been few studies on how to generate music connected to emotions. Such studies have always been shunned upon by musicians affirming that a machine cannot create expressive music, as it's the composer......'s and player's experiences and emotions that get poured into the piece. At the same time another problem is that music is highly complicated (and subjective) and finding out which elements transmit certain emotions is not an easy task. This demo wants to show how the manipulation of a set of features can...... actually change the mood the music transmits, hopefully awakening an interest in this area of research....

  8. Music-induced Mood Biases Decision Strategies during the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hwanjun; Lee, Eun Jung; Jung, You Jin; Kim, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an increasing attempt has been made to understand the influence of mood on socioeconomic decision-making. We tested in this study whether an unpleasant mood would lead to unfavorable decisions more frequently than a pleasant mood, and whether decisions under different moods can be explained in different ways. Healthy volunteers were assigned to either a pleasant or unpleasant mood group and listened to musical excerpts to induce pleasant or unpleasant mood. Both groups completed the ultimatum game as a responder with an unacquainted partner who was actually a confederate. The proposer’s offers were made in six different ratios of split (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4) in a preprogramed manner unbeknownst to the participants. After the completion of the task as a responder, the participant rated subjectively perceived fairness and emotional feelings about each split of offer. The statistical results showed that the unpleasant mood group rejected unfair offers more often compared to the pleasant mood group. Self-reported ratings of perceived fairness and emotional feelings did not statistically differ between the two groups. Interestingly, however, only in the unpleasant mood group, rejection rates of unfair offers were negatively correlated with perceived fairness. Both the pleasant and unpleasant mood groups showed a negative correlation between rejection rates of unfair offers and self-reported happiness. These results suggest a possibility that different decision strategies operate under different mood during a socioeconomic exchange. PMID:27065921

  9. Music-induced mood biases decision strategies during the ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanjun eChung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an increasing attempt has been made to understand the influence of mood on socioeconomic decision-making. We tested in this study whether an unpleasant mood would lead to unfavorable decisions more frequently than a pleasant mood, and whether decisions under different moods can be explained in different ways. Healthy volunteers were assigned to either a pleasant or unpleasant mood group and listened to musical excerpts to induce pleasant or unpleasant mood. Both groups completed the ultimatum game as a responder with an unacquainted partner who was actually a confederate. The proposer’s offers were made in six different ratios of split (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4 in a preprogramed manner unbeknownst to the participants. After the completion of the task as a responder, the participant rated subjectively perceived fairness and emotional feelings about each split of offer. The statistical results showed that the unpleasant mood group rejected unfair offers more often compared to the pleasant mood group. Self-reported ratings of perceived fairness and emotional feelings did not statistically differ between the two groups. Interestingly, however, only in the unpleasant mood group, rejection rates of unfair offers were negatively correlated with perceived fairness. Both the pleasant and unpleasant mood groups showed a negative correlation between rejection rates of unfair offers and self-reported happiness. These results suggest a possibility that different decision strategies operate under different mood during a socioeconomic exchange.

  10. The interplay between mood and language comprehension: evidence from P600 to semantic reversal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, Constance Th W M; Chwilla, Uli G; Egger, Jos I M; Chwilla, Dorothee J

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about the relationship between language and emotion. Vissers et al. (2010) investigated the effects of mood on the processing of syntactic violations, as indexed by P600. An interaction was observed between mood and syntactic correctness for which three explanations were offered: one in terms of syntactic processing, one in terms of heuristic processing, and one in terms of more general factors like attention and/or motivation. In this experiment, we further determined the locus of the effects of emotional state on language comprehension by investigating the effects of mood on the processing of semantic reversal anomalies (e.g., "the cat that fled from the mice"), in which heuristics play a key role. The main findings were as follows. The mood induction was effective: participants were happier after watching happy film clips and sadder after watching sad film clips compared to baseline. For P600, a mood by semantic plausibility interaction was obtained reflecting a broadly distributed P600 effect for the happy mood vs. absence of a P600 for the sad mood condition. Correlation analyses confirmed that changes in P600 in happy mood were accompanied by changes in emotional state. Given that semantic reversal anomalies are syntactically unambiguous, the P600 modulation by mood cannot be explained by syntactic factors. The semantic plausibility by mood interaction can be accounted for in terms of (1) heuristic processing (stronger reliance on a good enough representation of the input in happy mood than sad mood), and/or (2) more general factors like attention (e.g., more attention to semantic reversals in happy mood than sad mood). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadlinger, Heather A; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2006-03-01

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of positive emotions on visual attention within the context of Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model, eye tracking was used in two studies to measure visual attentional preferences of college students (n=58, n=26) to emotional pictures. Half of each sample experienced induced positive mood immediately before viewing slides of three similarly-valenced images, in varying central-peripheral arrays. Attentional breadth was determined by measuring the percentage viewing time to peripheral images as well as by the number of visual saccades participants made per slide. Consistent with Fredrickson's theory, the first study showed that individuals induced into positive mood fixated more on peripheral stimuli than did control participants; however, this only held true for highly-valenced positive stimuli. Participants under induced positive mood also made more frequent saccades for slides of neutral and positive valence. A second study showed that these effects were not simply due to differences in emotional arousal between stimuli. Selective attentional broadening to positive stimuli may act both to facilitate later building of resources as well as to maintain current positive affective states.

  12. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  13. Sad mood induction has an opposite effect on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, Jiri; Mikolas, Pavol; Tintera, Jaroslav; Novak, Tomas; Palenicek, Tomas; Brunovsky, Martin; Höschl, Cyril; Alda, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Aberrant amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli represents a candidate factor predisposing patients with bipolar disorder (BD) to relapse, but it is unclear to what extent amygdala reactivity is state-dependent. We evaluated the modulatory influence of mood on amygdala reactivity and functional connectivity in patients with remitted BD and healthy controls. Amygdala response to sad versus neutral faces was investigated using fMRI during periods of normal and sad mood induced by autobiographical scripts. We assessed the functional connectivity of the amygdala to characterize the influence of mood state on the network responsible for the amygdala response. We included 20 patients with remitted BD and 20 controls in our study. The sad and normal mood exerted opposite effects on the amygdala response to emotional faces in patients compared with controls (F1,38 = 5.85, p = 0.020). Sad mood amplified the amygdala response to sad facial stimuli in controls but attenuated the amygdala response in patients. The groups differed in functional connectivity between the amygdala and the inferior prefrontal gyrus (p ≤ 0.05, family-wise error-corrected) of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) corresponding to Brodmann area 47. The sad mood challenge increased connectivity during the period of processing sad faces in patients but decreased connectivity in controls. Limitations to our study included long-term medication use in the patient group and the fact that we mapped only depressive (not manic) reactivity. Our results support the role of the amygdala-vlPFC as the system of dysfunctional contextual affective processing in patients with BD. Opposite amygdala reactivity unmasked by the mood challenge paradigm could represent a trait marker of altered mood regulation in patients with BD.

  14. Are there age differences in attention to emotional images following a sad mood induction? Evidence from a free-viewing eye-tracking paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Calandra; Belchev, Zorry; Fernandez, Amanda; Korol, Stephanie; Sears, Christopher

    2017-10-30

    Two experiments examined age differences in the effect of a sad mood induction (MI) on attention to emotional images. Younger and older adults viewed sets of four images while their eye gaze was tracked throughout an 8-s presentation. Images were viewed before and after a sad MI to assess the effect of a sad mood on attention to positive and negative scenes. Younger and older adults exhibited positively biased attention after the sad MI, significantly increasing their attention to positive images, with no evidence of an age difference in either experiment. A test of participants' recognition memory for the images indicated that the sad MI reduced memory accuracy for sad images for younger and older adults. The results suggest that heightened attention to positive images following a sad MI reflects an affect regulation strategy related to mood repair. The implications for theories of the positivity effect are discussed.

  15. Experimental analysis of the relationship between depressed mood and compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrios, Michael; McQueen, Paul; Moulding, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Compulsive buying is a serious but understudied problem, where individuals are unable to resist or control their buying behaviour, leading to substantial social and financial problems. To date there has been a lack of experimental research into the disorder. The relationship between mood and compulsive buying was examined in compulsive buyers (N = 18) and non-clinical controls (N = 17), using experimental information-processing paradigms. In study 1, it was expected that, if buying behaviours function as a coping strategy for depressed mood, then an induction of depressed mood would lead to an enhanced memory for appealing consumer-objects in compulsive buyers, but not controls. In study 2, we examined the association between emotional and functional constructs and consumer items. It was expected that compulsive buyers would show stronger semantic relationships and thus better episodic memory for object-emotion pairs, relative to object-function pairs, for appealing items. Unexpectedly, in study 1 the memory-facilitating effect of depressed mood was evident among control participants and absent among compulsive buyers. In study 2, compulsive buyers showed a lesser association of undesirable objects with positive emotional concepts than did non-clinical controls, and compulsive buyers were found to more strongly associate all consumer items with emotional concepts than with concepts of function. Key limitations were low power and possible floor effects due to error frequency data. These findings provide insights into the processes underlying CB phenomena, in particular supporting the role of mood in compulsive buying. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Food-Induced Emotional Resonance Improves Emotion Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Pandolfi, Elisa; Sacripante, Riccardo; Cardini, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    The effect of food substances on emotional states has been widely investigated, showing, for example, that eating chocolate is able to reduce negative mood. Here, for the first time, we have shown that the consumption of specific food substances is not only able to induce particular emotional states, but more importantly, to facilitate recognition of corresponding emotional facial expressions in others. Participants were asked to perform an emotion recognition task before and after eating eit...

  17. Short- and long-term health consequences of sleep disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medic, Goran; Wille, Micheline; Hemels, Michiel Eh

    2017-01-01

    Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectively referred to as sleep disruptions. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption, ranging from lifestyle and environmental factors to sleep disorders and other medical conditions. Sleep disruptions have substantial adverse short- and long-term health consequences. A literature search was conducted to provide a nonsystematic review of these health consequences (this review was designed to be nonsystematic to better focus on the topics of interest due to the myriad parameters affected by sleep). Sleep disruption is associated with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, metabolic effects, changes in circadian rhythms, and proinflammatory responses. In otherwise healthy adults, short-term consequences of sleep disruption include increased stress responsivity, somatic pain, reduced quality of life, emotional distress and mood disorders, and cognitive, memory, and performance deficits. For adolescents, psychosocial health, school performance, and risk-taking behaviors are impacted by sleep disruption. Behavioral problems and cognitive functioning are associated with sleep disruption in children. Long-term consequences of sleep disruption in otherwise healthy individuals include hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, weight-related issues, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and colorectal cancer. All-cause mortality is also increased in men with sleep disturbances. For those with underlying medical conditions, sleep disruption may diminish the health-related quality of life of children and adolescents and may worsen the severity of common gastrointestinal disorders. As a result of the potential consequences of sleep disruption, health care

  18. Evidence of depression-associated circadian rhythm disruption and regret in prostate cancer patients after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Joanne; Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Christie, David

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between prostate cancer (PCa) patients' regret that their surgery harmed them, and their scores on the two key symptoms of major depressive disorder (depressed mood, anhedonia) and a symptom of melancholic depression (disruption to circadian rhythm). Forty PCa patients who had received surgery for their PCa completed a postal survey including background information, regret about surgery that 'did them a lot of harm' and three items drawn from the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale measuring depressed mood, anhedonia and circadian rhythm disruption. There were significant correlations between all three symptoms of depression (depressed mood, anhedonia, disruption to circadian rhythm) and between patients' regret that surgery did them a lot of harm and their circadian rhythm disruption, but not between depressed mood or anhedonia and regret about surgery doing harm. These findings suggest that PCa patients' post-surgery regrets about major harm may lead to a significant disruption in a central physiological function and raise the need to consider this side effect of surgery when planning supportive services for these men.

  19. Adverse mood symptoms with oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poromaa, Inger Sundström; Segebladh, Birgitta

    2012-04-01

    In spite of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) having been available for more than 50 years, surprisingly little is known about the prevalence of truly COC-related adverse mood symptoms and about the underlying biological mechanisms of proposed changes in mood and affect. Precise estimates of COC-related adverse mood symptoms are not available due to the lack of placebo-controlled trials. In prospective trials the frequency of women who report deteriorated mood or deteriorated emotional well-being varies between 4 and 10%, but it can be assumed that the causal relation in these prevalence rates is overestimated. Adverse mood symptoms and somatic symptoms are most pronounced during the pill-free interval of the treatment cycles, but whether extended COC regimens would be more favorable in this respect is not known. COCs with anti-androgenic progestagens, such as drospirenone and desogestrel, appear more favorable in terms of mood symptoms than progestagens with a more androgenic profile. Available data suggest that lower doses of ethinylestradiol could be beneficial. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Emotion regulation and its effects on mood improvement in response to an in vivo peer rejection challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijntjes, Albert; Stegge, Hedy; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Kamphuis, Jan H; Telch, Michael J

    2006-11-01

    This study examined children's spontaneous use of behavioral emotion regulation (ER) strategies and their effects on subsequent mood change in response to an in vivo peer rejection manipulation. Participants (N = 186), ranging between 10 and 13 years of age, played a computer game based on the television show Survivor and were randomized to either peer rejection (being voted out of the game) or nonrejection control. In response to rejection, more than one third of the participants (38%) displayed a marked worsening (i.e., reliable change) in state mood. After receiving feedback, time spent on several behavioral ER strategies during a 5-minute postfeedback period was assessed. At the end of the postfeedback period, children's cognitive activity was also assessed. More time spent on behavioral distraction was positively linked to subsequent increases in positive affect, whereas the reverse pattern was found for disengagement/passive behavior. Moreover, higher endorsement ratings for the strategy of "cognitive analysis" were associated with stronger increases in negative affect. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Athletes' precompetitive sleep behaviour and its relationship with subsequent precompetitive mood and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastella, Michele; Lovell, Geoff Peter; Sargent, Charli

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined precompetitive sleep behaviour of 103 athletes and how it relates to precompetitive mood and subsequent performance. Results revealed that on the night before competition athletes slept well under the recommended target of eight hours of sleep for healthy adults, with almost 70% of athletes experiencing poorer sleep than usual. It was found that anxiety, noise, the need to use the bathroom and early event times were amongst the most commonly reported causes of disrupted sleep in athletes on the night prior to competition. The negative moods of fatigue and tension were both significantly negatively correlated with precompetitive relative sleep quality (r = -0.28, P = 0.004, r = -0.21, P = 0.030, respectively) and total sleep time (r = -0.23, P = 0.023, r = -0.20, P = 0.044, respectively). Additionally, tension was positively correlated with number of awakenings (r = -0.20, P = 0.045). Vigour was seen to be significantly positively associated with relative sleep quality (r = 0.24, P=0.013). The relationships between relative sleep quality and fatigue, tension and vigour accounted for approximately 4 - 5% of the variance in mood scores. Disrupted sleep did not demonstrate any significant relationship with relative sporting performance. Conclusions from the present investigation are that athletes may be at particular risk of disrupted sleep on the night prior to competition, and this disruption can negatively relate to an athlete's precompetitive mood states.

  2. Low Mood Leads to Increased Empathic Distress at Seeing Others’ Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown changes in empathy in patients with depression, including an elevated level of trait personal distress. This study examined if low mood causes changes in self-reported empathic distress when seeing others in pain. To test this, we conducted an initial (n = 26 and close replication study (n = 46 in which sad mood was induced in healthy participants (overall mean age M = 21, SD = 5, range = 18–41 years. Participants viewed and rated video stimuli inferring pain experienced by other people. Results showed that participants perceived the videos depicting others’ pain (versus no-pain to be more distressing under a sad mood compared to a neutral mood condition, implying that sadness enhances one’s emotional reactivity toward others’ distress. This supports previous depression literature suggesting an impaired emotional processing ability, and could contribute to some of the unhelpful behaviors seen in depression such as social withdrawal and avoidance.

  3. Endocrine and mood responses to two working days in female teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Miguel Angel; Moya-Albiol, Luís; Salvador, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Currently, a considerable amount of work stress is present in school teachers, one of the occupational groups with the highest levels of job strain and burnout. As chronic stress produces significant modifications in emotional adjustment and neuroendocrine functioning, we aimed to investigate the role of these work stress constructs in the endocrine and mood responses of a group of female teachers during two working days (WD) at different moments in the academic year. We studied mood as well as levels of cortisol and testosterone, representative of a predominant catabolic or anabolic balance. Our results showed that higher "control" was associated with higher positive mood (p = .028 on WD1 and p = .057 on WD2) and salivary testosterone (Tsal) (p = .022 on WD1), whereas "demands" and "total job strain" were related to negative mood (p = .011 and p = .015, respectively). Participants with higher scores on "total burnout" and "emotional exhaustion" also had higher negative mood (p < .05 in all cases). Depersonalization correlated positively with negative mood (p = .019 and p = .006 on WD1 and WD2, respectively). Finally, personal accomplishment showed an inverse relationship with negative mood (p = .038 on WD2). These results are useful for job risk prevention and interventions that should focus on the control dimension of the job strain questionnaire and on personal accomplishment from the burnout scale.

  4. Appraisal of emotions in media use: Towards a process model of meta-emotion and emotion regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartsch, A.; Vorderer, P.A.; Mangold, R.; Viehoff, R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research on meta-emotion and related concepts such as meta-mood and need for affect has become fruitful and prominent across a variety of disciplines, including media psychology. This paper reviews the literature on meta-emotion and considers problems regarding the definition

  5. Stable prediction of mood and anxiety disorders based on behavioral and emotional problems in childhood: a 14-year follow-up during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Roza (Sabine); M.B. Hofstra (Marijke); J. van der Ende (Jan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to predict the onset of mood and anxiety disorders from parent-reported emotional and behavioral problems in childhood across a 14-year period from childhood into young adulthood. METHOD: In 1983, parent reports of behavioral and

  6. The association between perceived emotional support, maternal mood, salivary cortisol, salivary cortisone, and the ratio between the two compounds in response to acute stress in second trimester pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca-Ghaemmaghami, Pearl; La Marca, Roberto; Dainese, Sara M; Haller, Marina; Zimmermann, Roland; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the effect of social support on the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during pregnancy. Moreover, when investigating the HPA axis most studies do not consider the activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), an enzyme within the salivary glands that inactivates cortisol to cortisone. This study explores the association between perceived emotional support and the maternal psychobiological stress response to a standardized naturalistic stressor by assessing maternal mood and the reactivity of salivary cortisol (SalF), salivary cortisone (SalE), and the SalE/(E+F) ratio as a marker of 11β-HSD2 activity. Repeated saliva samples and measures of maternal mood were obtained from 34 healthy second trimester pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis which served as a psychological stressor. The pregnant women additionally responded to a questionnaire of perceived emotional support and provided sociodemographic (e.g., maternal educational degree) and pregnancy-specific data (e.g., planned versus unplanned pregnancy). Perceived emotional support neither showed a significant effect on mood nor on the SalF or SalE response to stress. However, a moderately strong positive association was found between perceived emotional support and SalE/(E+F) (r=.49). Additionally, the final regression analysis revealed a significant negative relationship between educational degree, planned/unplanned pregnancy and SalE/(E+F). Findings suggest a higher metabolization of cortisol to cortisone in pregnant women with higher emotional support. In contrast, higher maternal education and unplanned pregnancy appear to be associated with decreased salivary 11β-HSD2 activity. The current study emphasizes the importance of taking the activity of 11β-HSD2 into account when examining SalF. © 2013.

  7. Validation of a low-cost EEG device for mood induction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Rey, Beatriz; Alcañiz, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    New electroencephalography (EEG) devices, more portable and cheaper, are appearing on the market. Studying the reliability of these EEG devices for emotional studies would be interesting, as these devices could be more economical and compatible with Virtual Reality (VR) settings. Therefore, the aim in this work was to validate a low-cost EEG device (Emotiv Epoc) to monitor brain activity during a positive emotional induction procedure. Emotional pictures (IAPS) were used to induce a positive mood in sixteen participants. Changes in the brain activity of subjects were compared between positive induction and neutral conditions. Obtained results were in accordance with previous scientific literature regarding frontal EEG asymmetry, which supports the possibility of using this low-cost EEG device in future mood induction studies combined with VR.

  8. Mood States Associated with Induced Defensiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaderlund, Natasha Slesnick; Waldron, Holly Barrett

    1994-01-01

    Compared effects of neutral and defensive mood induction in 70 students reporting conflicted versus nonconflicted families for presence of hostility, aggression, fear, anxiety, and sadness. Found that defensive students from high-conflict families reported stronger negative emotions than did neutral high-conflict and defensive low-conflict…

  9. Cross cultural differences in mood regulation: An empirical comparison of individualistic and collectivistic cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luomala, Harri; Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine cross cultural differences in the ways people regulate their mood states with special emphasis put on the role of consumption. This issue is virtually unexplored in the extant literature. After briefly introducing the essence of mood regulation and culture we integrate...... these discussions in order to produce six research hypothesis for testing. These hypothesis concern the differences in the nature, perceived ease of initiating, and emotional outcomes of mood regulatory activities. The empirical evidence suggests that mood regulatory activities are less consumption oriented, have...... more socially based emotional consequences, and are more easily pursued and are more effective in collectivistic as opposed to individualistic cultures. The paper concludes by outlining the theoretical and managerial implications of the results and spelling out a few research suggestions....

  10. Systematic review of the neural basis of social cognition in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusi, Andrée M; Nazarov, Anthony; Holshausen, Katherine; Macqueen, Glenda M; McKinnon, Margaret C

    2012-05-01

    This review integrates neuroimaging studies of 2 domains of social cognition--emotion comprehension and theory of mind (ToM)--in patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. The influence of key clinical and method variables on patterns of neural activation during social cognitive processing is also examined. Studies were identified using PsycINFO and PubMed (January 1967 to May 2011). The search terms were "fMRI," "emotion comprehension," "emotion perception," "affect comprehension," "affect perception," "facial expression," "prosody," "theory of mind," "mentalizing" and "empathy" in combination with "major depressive disorder," "bipolar disorder," "major depression," "unipolar depression," "clinical depression" and "mania." Taken together, neuroimaging studies of social cognition in patients with mood disorders reveal enhanced activation in limbic and emotion-related structures and attenuated activity within frontal regions associated with emotion regulation and higher cognitive functions. These results reveal an overall lack of inhibition by higher-order cognitive structures on limbic and emotion-related structures during social cognitive processing in patients with mood disorders. Critically, key variables, including illness burden, symptom severity, comorbidity, medication status and cognitive load may moderate this pattern of neural activation. Studies that did not include control tasks or a comparator group were included in this review. Further work is needed to examine the contribution of key moderator variables and to further elucidate the neural networks underlying altered social cognition in patients with mood disorders. The neural networks under lying higher-order social cognitive processes, including empathy, remain unexplored in patients with mood disorders.

  11. Specificity of meta-emotion effects on moral decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koven, Nancy S

    2011-10-01

    A recently proposed dual process theory of moral decision-making posits that utilitarian reasoning (approving of harmful actions that maximize good consequences) is the result of cognitive control of emotion. This suggests that deficits in emotional awareness will contribute to increased utilitarianism. The present study explored the relative contributions of the different facets of alexithymia and the closely related constructs of emotional intelligence and mood awareness to utilitarian decision making. Participants (N = 86) completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Trait Meta Mood Scale, the Mood Awareness Scale, and a series of high-conflict, personal moral dilemmas validated by Greene et al. (2008). A brief neuropsychological battery was also administered to assess the possible confounds of verbal reasoning and abstract thinking ability. Principal components analysis revealed two latent factors-clarity of emotion and attention to emotion-which cut across all three meta-emotion instruments. Of these, low clarity of emotion-reflecting difficulty in reasoning thoughtfully about one's emotions-predicted utilitarian outcomes and provided unique variance beyond that of verbal and abstract reasoning abilities. Results are discussed in the context of individual differences in emotion regulation.

  12. Caffeine effects on mood and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, R S

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of the present research was to assess whether a psychoactive dose of caffeine would have differential affects on the mood dimensions of arousal versus feelings of pleasantness and whether these mood alterations would influence memory either by (1) the experience of arousal at learning and/or (2) altered and congruent mood states at learning and recall. To address these questions, the administration of 5 mg/kg caffeine or placebo at learning and retrieval sessions was manipulated and subjects' mood was evaluated by several different self-report measures. Sixteen words were incidentally studied during the learning session and memory was evaluated by the number of words correctly recalled at the retrieval session two days later. Results revealed that caffeine reliably increased arousal, but did not affect any emotion dimensions related to feelings of pleasure. Subjects who received caffeine at learning and retrieval were also in equivalent mood states at both sessions. Moreover, caffeine did not produce any effects on memory; thus, neither hypothesis concerning the influence of arousal on memory was supported. These data show that caffeine is a useful method for manipulating arousal in the laboratory without influencing feelings of pleasantness or learning and memory performance.

  13. What do YOUth feel? Understanding adolescents' momentary emotions and emotion regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennarz, H.K.

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents experience many different emotions and have to learn to regulate them effectively to prevent the development of mood disorders. This dissertation showed that experience of emotions differed between persons and situations. Jealousy was most intensely experienced when with peers and in

  14. Observer's Mood Manipulates Level of Visual Processing: Evidence from Face and Nonface Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Mokhtari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For investigating the effect of observer's mood on level of processing of visual stimuli, happy or sad mood was induced in two groups of participants through asking them to deliberate one of their sad or happy memories while listening to a congruent piece of music. This was followed by a computer-based task that required counting some features (arcs or lines of emotional schematic faces (with either sad or happy expressions for group 1, and counting same features of meaningless combined shapes for group 2. Reaction time analysis indicated there is a significant difference in RTs after listening to the sad music compared with happy music for group 1; participants with sad moods were significantly slower when they worked on local levels of schematic faces with sad expressions. Happy moods did not show any specific effect on reaction time of participants who were working on local details of emotionally expressive faces. Sad moods or happy moods had no significant effect on reaction time of working on parts of meaningless shapes. It seems that sad moods as a contextual factor elevate the ability of sad expression to grab the attention and block fast access to the local parts of the holistic meaningful shapes.

  15. Parametric modulation of neural activity by emotion in youth with bipolar disorder, youth with severe mood dysregulation, and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A; Brotman, Melissa A; Muhrer, Eli J; Rosen, Brooke H; Bones, Brian L; Reynolds, Richard C; Deveney, Christen M; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-12-01

    CONTEXT Youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with severe, nonepisodic irritability (severe mood dysregulation [SMD]) exhibit amygdala dysfunction during facial emotion processing. However, studies have not compared such patients with each other and with comparison individuals in neural responsiveness to subtle changes in facial emotion; the ability to process such changes is important for social cognition. To evaluate this, we used a novel, parametrically designed faces paradigm. OBJECTIVE To compare activation in the amygdala and across the brain in BD patients, SMD patients, and healthy volunteers (HVs). DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING Government research institute. PARTICIPANTS Fifty-seven youths (19 BD, 15 SMD, and 23 HVs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Blood oxygenation level-dependent data. Neutral faces were morphed with angry and happy faces in 25% intervals; static facial stimuli appeared for 3000 milliseconds. Participants performed hostility or nonemotional facial feature (ie, nose width) ratings. The slope of blood oxygenation level-dependent activity was calculated across neutral-to-angry and neutral-to-happy facial stimuli. RESULTS In HVs, but not BD or SMD participants, there was a positive association between left amygdala activity and anger on the face. In the neutral-to-happy whole-brain analysis, BD and SMD participants modulated parietal, temporal, and medial-frontal areas differently from each other and from that in HVs; with increasing facial happiness, SMD patients demonstrated increased, and BD patients decreased, activity in the parietal, temporal, and frontal regions. CONCLUSIONS Youth with BD or SMD differ from HVs in modulation of amygdala activity in response to small changes in facial anger displays. In contrast, individuals with BD or SMD show distinct perturbations in regions mediating attention and face processing in association with changes in the emotional intensity of facial happiness displays. These findings demonstrate

  16. Emotional Self-Disclosure and Emotional Avoidance: Relations with Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Garrison, Angela M.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals with heightened symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders engage in diminished emotional disclosure. On the basis of emotion regulation theories, the authors hypothesized that this symptom-disclosure relationship would be mediated by the avoidance of emotional experience and expression. In Study 1, college students…

  17. Contributions of emotional state and attention to the processing of syntactic agreement errors: evidence from P600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Wilhelmina Francina Teresia Verhees

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The classic account of language is that language processing occurs in isolation from other cognitive systems, like perception, motor action and emotion. The theme of this paper is the relationship between a participant’s emotional state and language comprehension. Does emotional context affect how we process neutral words? Recent studies showed that processing of word meaning –traditionally conceived as an automatic process– is affected by emotional state. The influence of emotional state on syntactic processing is less clear. One study reported a mood-related P600 modulation, while another study did not observe an effect of mood on syntactic processing. The goals of this study were: First, to clarify whether and if so how mood affects syntactic processing. Second, to shed light on the underlying mechanisms by separating possible effects of mood from those of attention on syntactic processing.ERPs were recorded while participants read syntactically correct or incorrect sentences. Mood (happy vs. sad was manipulated by presenting film clips. Attention was manipulated by directing attention to syntactic features vs. physical features. The mood induction was effective. Interactions between mood, attention and syntactic correctness were obtained, showing that mood and attention modulated P600. The mood manipulation led to a reduction in P600 for sad as compared to happy mood when attention was directed at syntactic features. The attention manipulation led to a reduction in P600 when attention was directed at physical features compared to syntactic features for happy mood. From this we draw two conclusions: First, emotional state does affect syntactic processing. We propose mood-related differences in the reliance on heuristics as the underlying mechanism. Second, attention can contribute to emotion-related ERP effects in syntactic language processing. Therefore, future studies on the relation between language and emotion will have to control

  18. Contributions of emotional state and attention to the processing of syntactic agreement errors: evidence from P600.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhees, Martine W F T; Chwilla, Dorothee J; Tromp, Johanne; Vissers, Constance T W M

    2015-01-01

    The classic account of language is that language processing occurs in isolation from other cognitive systems, like perception, motor action, and emotion. The central theme of this paper is the relationship between a participant's emotional state and language comprehension. Does emotional context affect how we process neutral words? Recent studies showed that processing of word meaning - traditionally conceived as an automatic process - is affected by emotional state. The influence of emotional state on syntactic processing is less clear. One study reported a mood-related P600 modulation, while another study did not observe an effect of mood on syntactic processing. The goals of this study were: First, to clarify whether and if so how mood affects syntactic processing. Second, to shed light on the underlying mechanisms by separating possible effects of mood from those of attention on syntactic processing. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read syntactically correct or incorrect sentences. Mood (happy vs. sad) was manipulated by presenting film clips. Attention was manipulated by directing attention to syntactic features vs. physical features. The mood induction was effective. Interactions between mood, attention and syntactic correctness were obtained, showing that mood and attention modulated P600. The mood manipulation led to a reduction in P600 for sad as compared to happy mood when attention was directed at syntactic features. The attention manipulation led to a reduction in P600 when attention was directed at physical features compared to syntactic features for happy mood. From this we draw two conclusions: First, emotional state does affect syntactic processing. We propose mood-related differences in the reliance on heuristics as the underlying mechanism. Second, attention can contribute to emotion-related ERP effects in syntactic language processing. Therefore, future studies on the relation between language and emotion will

  19. Female Emotional Eaters Show Abnormalities in Consummatory and Anticipatory Food Reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that emotional eaters show greater neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake than nonemotional eaters and whether these differences are amplified during a negative versus neutral mood state. Method Female emotional eaters and nonemotional eaters (N = 21) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless control solution while in a negative and neutral mood. Results Emotional eaters showed greater activation in the parahippocampal gyrus and anterior cingulate (ACC) in response to anticipated receipt of milkshake and greater activation in the pallidum, thalamus, and ACC in response to receipt of milkshake during a negative relative to a neutral mood. In contrast, nonemotional eaters showed decreased activation in reward regions during a negative versus a neutral mood. Discussion Results suggest that emotional eating is related to increased anticipatory and consummatory food reward, but only during negative mood. PMID:19040270

  20. Harnessing happiness? Uncontrollable positive emotion in bipolar disorder, major depression, and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoona; Gruber, June

    2013-04-01

    The ability to adaptively exert control over negative emotions is associated with beneficial mental health outcomes. Less is known about the associated emotional sequelae surrounding controllable versus uncontrollable positive emotional experiences. The ability to harness positive emotions is of particular importance in populations involving disrupted positive emotion functioning. In the present study, participants engaged in a relived memory task in which they recalled either a controllable or uncontrollable past positive emotional experience in counterbalanced order, while concurrent experiential and autonomic responses were measured. Participants included adults with bipolar I disorder (BD; n = 32), major depression (MDD; n = 32), and or nonpsychiatric controls (CTLs; n = 31). Across all participants, reliving a controllable positive emotion experience was associated with exhibited increased respiratory sinus arrhythmia, an autonomic marker of regulatory control. Interestingly, only the MDD group reported increased positive emotion and decreased cardiovascular arousal when reliving an event involving uncontrollable positive emotion, compared to the BD and CTL groups. No other group differences emerged. These findings suggest that although controllable positive emotion experiences may be adaptive for most, individuals with a history of restricted affect and depressed mood may actually derive more pleasure from times of unharnessed happiness. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Tracking Effects of Problematic Social Networking on Adolescent Psychopathology: The Mediating Role of Sleep Disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Lynette; Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L

    2017-01-01

    Concerns are growing about adolescents' problematic social networking and possible links to depressed mood and externalizing behavior. Yet there remains little understanding of underlying processes that may account for these associations, including the mediating role of sleep disruption. This study tests this putative mediating process and examines change in problematic social networking investment and disrupted sleep, in relation to change in depressed mood and externalizing behavior. A sample of 874 students (41% male; 57.2% Caucasian; baseline M age = 14.4 years) from 27 high schools were surveyed. Participants' problematic social networking, sleep disruption, and psychopathology (depressed mood, externalizing behaviors) were measured annually over 3 years. Longitudinal mediation was tested using latent trajectories of problematic social networking use, sleep disruption, and psychopathology. Both problematic social networking and sleep disruption underwent positive linear growth over time. Adolescents who increasingly invested in social networking reported increased depressed mood, with around 53% of this association explained by the indirect effect of increased sleep disruptions. Further, adolescents who increasingly invested in social networking also reported increased externalizing behavior; some of this relation was explained (13%) via increased sleep disruptions. However an alternative model in which increased externalizing was associated with increased social networking, mediated by sleep disruptions, indicated a reciprocal relation of similar magnitude. It is important for parents, teachers, and psychologists to minimize the negative effects of social networking on adolescents' psychopathology. Interventions should potentially target promoting healthy sleep habits through reductions in social networking investment and rescheduling usage away from bedtime.

  2. This mood is familiar and I don't deserve to feel better anyway: mechanisms underlying self-esteem differences in motivation to repair sad moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne V; Heimpel, Sara A; Manwell, Laurie A; Whittington, Elizabeth J

    2009-02-01

    Why are people with low self-esteem (LSE) less motivated than people with high self-esteem (HSE) to improve sad moods? The present research examined whether feelings of personal deservingness contribute to this difference. Four experiments with undergraduate participants involved a sad mood induction, a manipulation of personal deservingness, or both. Results suggested that (a) LSEs feel less deserving of positive outcomes and of positive moods than do HSEs, (b) feelings of personal deservingness can vary with the situation, and be lowered through reminders of social rejection and personal flaws, and (c) feeling relatively undeserving dampens LSEs', but not HSEs', motivation to repair sad moods. These results have implications for the emotion regulation, self-esteem, and social justice literatures.

  3. The emotional brain and sleep: an intimate relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, Marie; Cluydts, Raymond

    2010-08-01

    Research findings confirm our own experiences in life where daytime events and especially emotionally stressful events have an impact on sleep quality and well-being. Obviously, daytime emotional stress may have a differentiated effect on sleep by influencing sleep physiology and dream patterns, dream content and the emotion within a dream, although its exact role is still unclear. Other effects that have been found are the exaggerated startle response, decreased dream recall and elevated awakening thresholds from rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep, increased or decreased latency to REM-sleep, increased REM-density, REM-sleep duration and the occurrence of arousals in sleep as a marker of sleep disruption. However, not only do daytime events affect sleep, also the quality and amount of sleep influences the way we react to these events and may be an important determinant in general well-being. Sleep seems restorative in daily functioning, whereas deprivation of sleep makes us more sensitive to emotional and stressful stimuli and events in particular. The way sleep impacts next day mood/emotion is thought to be affected particularly via REM-sleep, where we observe a hyperlimbic and hypoactive dorsolateral prefrontal functioning in combination with a normal functioning of the medial prefrontal cortex, probably adaptive in coping with the continuous stream of emotional events we experience. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-11-01

    In this work two hypotheses were tested: (1) that eating a piece of chocolate immediately affects negative, but not positive or neutral mood, and (2) that this effect is due to palatability. Experiment 1 (48 normal-weight and healthy women and men) examined the effects of eating a piece of chocolate and drinking water on negative, positive and neutral mood states induced by film clips. Eating chocolate reduced negative mood compared to drinking water, whereas no or only marginal effects were found on neutral and positive moods. Experiment 2 (113 normal-weight and healthy women and men) compared effects of eating palatable and unpalatable chocolate on negative mood, and examined the duration of chocolate-induced mood change. Negative mood was improved after eating palatable chocolate as compared to unpalatable chocolate or nothing. This effect was short lived, i.e., it disappeared after 3 min. In both experiments, chocolate-induced mood improvement was associated with emotional eating. The present studies demonstrate that eating a small amount of sweet food improves an experimentally induced negative mood state immediately and selectively and that this effect of chocolate is due to palatability. It is hypothesized that immediate mood effects of palatable food contribute to the habit of eating to cope with stress.

  5. The relationship between coping strategies, quality of life, and mood in patients with incurable cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipp, Ryan D; El-Jawahri, Areej; Fishbein, Joel N; Eusebio, Justin; Stagl, Jamie M; Gallagher, Emily R; Park, Elyse R; Jackson, Vicki A; Pirl, William F; Greer, Joseph A; Temel, Jennifer S

    2016-07-01

    Patients with incurable cancer face many physical and emotional stressors, yet little is known about their coping strategies or the relationship between their coping strategies, quality of life (QOL), and mood. As part of a randomized trial of palliative care, this study assessed baseline QOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General), mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and coping (Brief COPE) in patients within 8 weeks of a diagnosis of incurable lung or gastrointestinal cancer and before randomization. To examine associations between coping strategies, QOL, and mood, we used linear regression, adjusting for patients' age, sex, marital status, and cancer type. There were 350 participants (mean age, 64.9 years), and the majority were male (54.0%), were married (70.0%), and had lung cancer (54.6%). Most reported high utilization of emotional support coping (77.0%), whereas fewer reported high utilization of acceptance (44.8%), self-blame (37.9%), and denial (28.2%). Emotional support (QOL: β = 2.65, P Patients with newly diagnosed, incurable cancer use a variety of coping strategies. The use of emotional support and acceptance coping strategies correlated with better QOL and mood, whereas the use of denial and self-blame negatively correlated with these outcomes. Interventions to improve patients' QOL and mood should seek to cultivate the use of adaptive coping strategies. Cancer 2016;122:2110-6. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  6. Attentional bias to threat in children at-risk for emotional disorders: role of gender and type of maternal emotional disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Rachel; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Pine, Daniel S; Czykiel, Marcelo S; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Rohde, Luis A; Manfro, Gisele G; Salum, Giovanni A

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies suggested that threat biases underlie familial risk for emotional disorders in children. However, major questions remain concerning the moderating role of the offspring gender and the type of parental emotional disorder on this association. This study addresses these questions in a large sample of boys and girls. Participants were 6-12 years old (at screening) typically developing children participating in the High Risk Cohort Study for Psychiatric Disorders (n = 1280; 606 girls, 674 boys). Children were stratified according to maternal emotional disorder (none; mood disorder; anxiety disorder; comorbid anxiety/mood disorder) and gender. Attention biases were assessed using a dot-probe paradigm with threat, happy and neutral faces. A significant gender-by-parental emotional disorder interaction predicted threat bias, independent of anxiety and depression symptoms in children. Daughters of mothers with an emotional disorder showed increased attention to threat compared with daughters of disorder-free mothers, irrespective of the type of maternal emotion disorder. In contrast, attention bias to threat in boys only occurred in mothers with a non-comorbid mood disorder. No group differences were found for biases for happy-face cues. Gender and type of maternal emotional disorder predict attention bias in disorder-free children. This highlights the need for longitudinal research to clarify whether this pattern of threat-attention bias in children relates to the risk of developing anxiety and mood disorders later in life.

  7. The neural basis of attaining conscious awareness of sad mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan; Braden, B Blair; Chen, Kewei; Ponce, Francisco A; Lane, Richard D; Baxter, Leslie C

    2015-09-01

    The neural processes associated with becoming aware of sad mood are not fully understood. We examined the dynamic process of becoming aware of sad mood and recovery from sad mood. Sixteen healthy subjects underwent fMRI while participating in a sadness induction task designed to allow for variable mood induction times. Individualized regressors linearly modeled the time periods during the attainment of self-reported sad and baseline "neutral" mood states, and the validity of the linearity assumption was further tested using independent component analysis. During sadness induction the dorsomedial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices, and anterior insula exhibited a linear increase in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal until subjects became aware of a sad mood and then a subsequent linear decrease as subjects transitioned from sadness back to the non-sadness baseline condition. These findings extend understanding of the neural basis of conscious emotional experience.

  8. Sensorimotor modulation of mood and depression: In search of an optimal mode of stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RESIT eCANBEYLI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Depression involves a dysfunction in an affective fronto-limbic circuitry including the prefrontal cortices, several limbic structures including the cingulate cortex, the amygdala and the hippocampus as well as the basal ganglia. A major emphasis of research on the etiology and treatment of mood disorders has been to assess the impact of centrally generated (top-down processes impacting the affective fronto-limbic circuitry. The present review shows that peripheral (bottom-up unipolar stimulation via the visual and the auditory modalities as well as by physical exercise modulates mood and depressive symptoms in humans and animals and activates the same central affective neurocircuitry involved in depression. It is proposed that the amygdala serves as a gateway by articulating the mood regulatory sensorimotor stimulation with the central affective circuitry by emotionally labeling and mediating the storage of such emotional events in long-term memory. Since both amelioration and aggravation of mood is shown to be possible by unipolar stimulation, the review suggests that a psychophysical assessment of mood modulation by multi-modal stimulation may uncover mood ameliorative synergisms and serve as adjunctive treatment for depression. Thus, the integrative review not only emphasizes the relevance of investigating the optimal levels of mood regulatory sensorimotor stimulation, but also provides a conceptual springboard for related future research.

  9. Listening to the Shepard-Risset Glissando: the Relationship between Emotional Response, Disruption of Equilibrium, and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernooij, Eveline; Orcalli, Angelo; Fabbro, Franco; Crescentini, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    The endless scale illusion, obtained by cyclically repeating a chromatic scale made up of Shepard tones, has been used in a variety of musical works. Music psychology and neuroscience has been interested in this particular psychoacoustic phenomenon mainly for studying the cognitive processes of pitch perception involved. In the present study, we investigated the emotional states induced by the Shepard-Risset glissando, a variant of the Shepard scale. For this purpose we chose three musical stimuli: a Matlab-generated Shepard Risset glissando, Jean-Claude Risset's Computer Suite from Little Boy, which presents a Shepard-Risset glissando integrated in the aesthetic context of a composition, and an ordinary orchestral glissando taken from the opening of Iannis Xenakis's Metastasis. Seventy-three volunteers completed a listening experiment during which they rated their emotional response to these stimuli on a seven-point Likert scale and indicated whether they had experienced a disruption of equilibrium. Personality was also measured with the Five-Factor Model of personality traits. The results show that negative emotions were most strongly evoked during listening to each of the stimuli. We also found that the Shepard-Risset glissando illusion, both within the aesthetic context of a musical composition and on its own, was capable of evoking disruption of equilibrium, frequently leading to the associated feeling of falling. Moreover, generally for the Shepard-Risset glissando illusion, higher negative emotional ratings were given by individuals who had experienced a feeling of disturbance of equilibrium relative to those who had not had this experience. Finally, we found a complex pattern of relationships between personality and the subjective experience of the glissando. Openness to experience correlated positively with positive emotion ratings for the Computer Suite, while agreeableness correlated negatively with positive emotion ratings for the Matlab stimulus

  10. Listening to the Shepard-Risset glissando: the relationship between emotional response, disruption of equilibrium and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline eVernooij

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The endless scale illusion, obtained by cyclically repeating a chromatic scale made up of Shepard tones, has been used in a variety of musical works. Music psychology and neuroscience has been interested in this particular psychoacoustic phenomenon mainly for studying the cognitive processes of pitch perception involved. In the present study, we investigated the emotional states induced by the Shepard-Risset glissando, a variant of the Shepard scale. For this purpose we chose three musical stimuli: a Matlab-generated Shepard Risset glissando, Jean-Claude Risset’s Computer Suite from Little Boy, which presents a Shepard-Risset glissando integrated in the aesthetic context of a composition, and an ordinary orchestral glissando taken from the opening of Iannis Xenakis’ Metastasis. Seventy-three volunteers completed a listening experiment during which they rated their emotional response to these stimuli on a 7-point Likert scale and indicated whether they had experienced a disruption of equilibrium. Personality was also measured with the Five-Factor Model of personality traits.The results show that negative emotions were most strongly evoked during listening to each of the stimuli. We also found that the Shepard-Risset glissando illusion, both within the aesthetic context of a musical composition and on its own, was capable of evoking disruption of equilibrium, frequently leading to the associated feeling of falling. Moreover, generally for the Shepard-Risset glissando illusion, higher negative emotional ratings were given by individuals who had experienced a feeling of disturbance of equilibrium relative to those who had not had this experience. Finally, we found a complex pattern of relationships between personality and the subjective experience of the glissando. Openness to experience correlated positively with positive emotion ratings for the Computer Suite, while agreeableness correlated negatively with positive emotion ratings for the

  11. Listening to the Shepard-Risset Glissando: the Relationship between Emotional Response, Disruption of Equilibrium, and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernooij, Eveline; Orcalli, Angelo; Fabbro, Franco; Crescentini, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    The endless scale illusion, obtained by cyclically repeating a chromatic scale made up of Shepard tones, has been used in a variety of musical works. Music psychology and neuroscience has been interested in this particular psychoacoustic phenomenon mainly for studying the cognitive processes of pitch perception involved. In the present study, we investigated the emotional states induced by the Shepard-Risset glissando, a variant of the Shepard scale. For this purpose we chose three musical stimuli: a Matlab-generated Shepard Risset glissando, Jean-Claude Risset's Computer Suite from Little Boy, which presents a Shepard-Risset glissando integrated in the aesthetic context of a composition, and an ordinary orchestral glissando taken from the opening of Iannis Xenakis's Metastasis. Seventy-three volunteers completed a listening experiment during which they rated their emotional response to these stimuli on a seven-point Likert scale and indicated whether they had experienced a disruption of equilibrium. Personality was also measured with the Five-Factor Model of personality traits. The results show that negative emotions were most strongly evoked during listening to each of the stimuli. We also found that the Shepard-Risset glissando illusion, both within the aesthetic context of a musical composition and on its own, was capable of evoking disruption of equilibrium, frequently leading to the associated feeling of falling. Moreover, generally for the Shepard-Risset glissando illusion, higher negative emotional ratings were given by individuals who had experienced a feeling of disturbance of equilibrium relative to those who had not had this experience. Finally, we found a complex pattern of relationships between personality and the subjective experience of the glissando. Openness to experience correlated positively with positive emotion ratings for the Computer Suite, while agreeableness correlated negatively with positive emotion ratings for the Matlab stimulus

  12. Examining the Proposed Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Diagnosis in Children in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, David; Findling, Robert L.; Fristad, Mary A.; Kowatch, Robert A.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Arnold, L. Eugene; Frazier, Thomas W.; Ryan, Neal; Demeter, Christine; Gill, Mary Kay; Hauser-Harrington, Jessica C.; Depew, Judith; Kennedy, Shawn M.; Gron, Brittany A.; Rowles, Brieana M.; Birmaher, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the proposed disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) diagnosis in a child psychiatric outpatient population. Evaluation of DMDD included 4 domains: clinical phenomenology, delimitation from other diagnoses, longitudinal stability, and association with parental psychiatric disorders. Method Data were obtained from 706 children aged 6–12 years who participated in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study (sample was accrued from November 2005 to November 2008). DSM-IV criteria were used, and assessments, which included diagnostic, symptomatic, and functional measures, were performed at intake and at 12 and 24 months of follow-up. For the current post hoc analyses, a retrospective diagnosis of DMDD was constructed using items from the K-SADS-PL-W, a version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, which resulted in criteria closely matching the proposed DSM-5 criteria for DMDD. Results At intake, 26% of participants met the operational DMDD criteria. DMDD+ vs DMDD– participants had higher rates of oppositional defiant disorder (relative risk [RR] = 3.9, P conduct disorder (RR = 4.5, P oppositional defiant disorder (rate and symptom severity P values conduct disorder (rate, P disorders or in severity of inattentive, hyperactive, manic, depressive, or anxiety symptoms. Most of the participants with oppositional defiant disorder (58%) or conduct disorder (61%) met DMDD criteria, but those who were DMDD+ vs DMDD– did not differ in diagnostic comorbidity, symptom severity, or functional impairment. Over 2-year follow-up, 40% of the LAMS sample met DMDD criteria at least once, but 52% of these participants met criteria at only 1 assessment. DMDD was not associated with new onset of mood or anxiety disorders or with parental psychiatric history. Conclusions In this clinical sample, DMDD could not be delimited from oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, had limited

  13. An application of belief-importance theory with reference to trait emotional intelligence, mood, and somatic complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, K V

    2011-04-01

    This article describes the basic principles of belief-importance (belimp) theory and tests them in two empirical studies. Belimp theory hypothesizes that personality traits confer a propensity to perceive convergences and divergences between our belief that we can attain goals and the importance that we place on these goals. Belief and importance are conceptualized as two coordinates, together defining the belimp plane. Four distinct quadrants can be identified within the belimp plane (Hubris, Motivation, Depression and Apathy), broadly corresponding to the personality dimensions of trait emotional intelligence, conscientiousness, neuroticism and introversion. Study 1 (N=365) defines the four quadrants in relation to goals about financial security and shows that they score differently on trait emotional intelligence, mood and somatic complaints. Study 2 (N=230) defines the quadrants in relation to goals about appearance and, separately, in relation to goals about popularity, and replicates the findings of the first study. Strategies and requirements for testing belimp theory are presented, as are a number of theoretical and practical advantages that it can potentially offer. © 2010 The Author. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  14. The effects of nutrients on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D; Donohoe, R T

    1999-09-01

    A recent major theory was that a meal high in carbohydrate increased the rate that tryptophan enters the brain, leading to an increase in the level of the neurotransmitter serotonin that modulates mood. Although such a mechanism may be important under laboratory conditions it is unlikely to be of significance following the eating of any typical meal. As little as 2-4% of the calories of a meal as protein will prevent an increased availability of tryptophan. Arguably the food with the greatest impact on mood is chocolate. Those who crave chocolate tend to do so when they feel emotionally low. There have been a series of suggestions that chocolate's mood elevating properties reflect 'drug-like' constituents including anandamines, caffeine, phenylethylamine and magnesium. However, the levels of these substances are so low as to preclude such influences. As all palatable foods stimulate endorphin release in the brain this is the most likely mechanism to account for the elevation of mood. A deficiency of many vitamins is associated with psychological symptoms. In some elderly patients folate deficiency is associated with depression. In four double-blind studies an improvement in thiamine status was associated with improved mood. Iron deficiency anaemia is common, particularly in women, and is associated with apathy, depression and rapid fatigue when exercising.

  15. Emotion and false memory: The context-content paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookbinder, S H; Brainerd, C J

    2016-12-01

    False memories are influenced by a variety of factors, but emotion is a variable of special significance, for theoretical and practical reasons. Interestingly, emotion's effects on false memory depend on whether it is embedded in the content of to-be-remembered events or in our moods, where mood is an aspect of the context in which events are encoded. We sketch the theoretical basis for this content-context dissociation and then review accumulated evidence that content and context effects are indeed different. Paradoxically, we find that in experiments on spontaneous and implanted false memories, negatively valenced content foments distortion, but negatively valenced moods protect against it. In addition, correlational data show that enduring negative natural moods (e.g., depression) foment false memory. Current opponent-process models of false memory, such as fuzzy-trace theory, are able to explain the content-context dissociation: Variations in emotional content primarily affect memory for the gist of events, whereas variations in emotional context primarily affect memory for events' exact verbatim form. Important questions remain about how these effects are modulated by variations in memory tests and in arousal. Promising methods of tackling those questions are outlined, especially designs that separate the gist and verbatim influences of emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Emotion has no impact on attention in a change detection flicker task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colin Alan Bendall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Past research provides conflicting findings regarding the influence of emotion on visual attention. Early studies suggested a broadening of attentional resources in relation to positive mood. However, more recent evidence indicates that positive emotions may not have a beneficial impact on attention, and that the relationship between emotion and attention may be mitigated by factors such as task demand or stimulus valence. The current study explored the effect of emotion on attention using the change detection flicker paradigm. Participants were induced into positive, neutral, and negative mood states and then completed a change detection task. A series of neutral scenes were presented and participants had to identify the location of a disappearing item in each scene. The change was made to the centre or the periphery of each scene and it was predicted that peripheral changes would be detected quicker in the positive mood condition and slower in the negative mood condition, compared to the neutral condition. In contrast to previous findings emotion had no influence on attention and whilst central changes were detected faster than peripheral changes, change blindness was not affected by mood. The findings suggest that the relationship between emotion and visual attention is influenced by the characteristics of a task, and any beneficial impact of positive emotion may be related to processing style rather than a broadening of attentional resources.

  17. Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James A

    2003-01-01

    At the heart of emotion, mood, and any other emotionally charged event are states experienced as simply feeling good or bad, energized or enervated. These states--called core affect--influence reflexes, perception, cognition, and behavior and are influenced by many causes internal and external, but people have no direct access to these causal connections. Core affect can therefore be experienced as free-floating (mood) or can be attributed to some cause (and thereby begin an emotional episode). These basic processes spawn a broad framework that includes perception of the core-affect-altering properties of stimuli, motives, empathy, emotional meta-experience, and affect versus emotion regulation; it accounts for prototypical emotional episodes, such as fear and anger, as core affect attributed to something plus various nonemotional processes.

  18. Mindfulness in mood and anxiety disorders: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele F. Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The objective of this study was to conduct a review of the literature covering the use of different mindfulness-based therapy approaches in treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, including mindfulness skills and mindfulness linked to emotional regulation and fear of negative appraisal. Methods A review was conducted of literature identified by searching the scientific databases PubMed and PsycINFO with the following keywords: mindfulness, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders. The search covered the past 10 years. The search returned 532 articles, 24 were selected, their full texts were read, and 16 were included in this review. Results Six articles about mindfulness-based stress reduction, four about mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and three about fear of negative appraisal and emotional regulation were reviewed. All of the articles covered mindfulness in relation to mood and anxiety disorders. Conclusions The literature in this field suggests that mindfulness is an effective strategy for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders and is effective in therapy protocols with different structures including virtual modalities. Use of mindfulness in scientific models continues to expand.

  19. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Krægpøth, Morten; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving school-cohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...

  20. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. Grøne; Krægpøth, Morten; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving school-cohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...

  1. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Krægpøth, Morten Visby; Skyt Nielsen, Helena

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving schoolcohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...

  2. Emotional Feeding and Emotional Eating: Reciprocal Processes and the Influence of Negative Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Barker, Edward D.; Llewellyn, Clare; Fildes, Alison; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Emotional eating, that is, eating more in response to negative mood, is often seen in children. But the origins of emotional eating remain unclear. In a representative community sample of Norwegian 4-year-olds followed up at ages 6, 8, and 10 years (analysis sample: n = 801), one potential developmental pathway was examined: a reciprocal relation between parental emotional feeding and child emotional eating. The results revealed that higher levels of emotional feeding predicted higher levels ...

  3. The Contribution of Parenting Practices and Parent Emotion Factors in Children at Risk for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Melissa E.; Havighurst, Sophie S.; Holland, Kerry A.; Frankling, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of different parenting characteristics on child disruptive behavior and emotional regulation among a sample of at-risk children. The sample consisted of 373 Australian 5- to 9-year-old children who were screened for serious behavior problems. Seven parenting variables based on self-report were…

  4. 音乐声的情感属性与听者的情绪反应%Emotional Attributes of the Musical Sound and Mood Reactions of the Listeners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨倩; 孟子厚

    2013-01-01

    以音乐声的情感为目标进行标注与分类,考察不同情感类别的音乐声对听者情绪的影响,分析听者情绪分量和音乐声情感属性之间的关联。%The musical sound was labelled and classified according to the different emotions, in the purpose of observation on the emotional influence that different types of music have on listeners, and analysis of the correlation between the mood components of the listeners and the emotional attributes of the musical sound.

  5. Cardiac Vagal Control and Depressive Symptoms in Response to Negative Emotional Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonhajzerova, I; Visnovcova, Z; Mestanikova, A; Jurko, A; Mestanik, M

    We aimed to study complex cardiovagal control using heart rate variability (HRV), linear and nonlinear analyses at rest and during negative emotional stress in healthy students with varying depressive symptoms. ECG recording in 20 students was performed at baseline, negative emotional stress, and recovery period. The HRV parameters evaluated were the following: RR interval, spectral power in high-frequency band (HF-HRV), and symbolic dynamics index 2LV%. The subjects were divided into two groups based on the score of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) - normal mood (BDI: 0.6 ± 0.2) and mild mood disturbance (BDI: 14.3 ± 1.4). We found significantly lower logHF-HRV during emotional stress in mild mood disturbance compared with normal mood (p = 0.047). No significant differences were found in the remaining parameters. We conclude that negative emotional stress attenuated the cardiovagal control during mood disturbance, which points to discrete abnormalities in the neurocardiac reflex system associated with depressive symptoms. Hampered cardiovagal control could represent a potential pathomechanism leading to depression-linked cardiovascular complications.

  6. Transient emotional events and individual affective traits affect emotion recognition in a perceptual decision-making task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao-Tasserit, Emilie; Garcia Quesada, Maria; Antico, Lia; Bavelier, Daphne; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Pichon, Swann

    2017-01-01

    Both affective states and personality traits shape how we perceive the social world and interpret emotions. The literature on affective priming has mostly focused on brief influences of emotional stimuli and emotional states on perceptual and cognitive processes. Yet this approach does not fully capture more dynamic processes at the root of emotional states, with such states lingering beyond the duration of the inducing external stimuli. Our goal was to put in perspective three different types of affective states (induced affective states, more sustained mood states and affective traits such as depression and anxiety) and investigate how they may interact and influence emotion perception. Here, we hypothesized that absorption into positive and negative emotional episodes generate sustained affective states that outlast the episode period and bias the interpretation of facial expressions in a perceptual decision-making task. We also investigated how such effects are influenced by more sustained mood states and by individual affect traits (depression and anxiety) and whether they interact. Transient emotional states were induced using movie-clips, after which participants performed a forced-choice emotion classification task with morphed facial expressions ranging from fear to happiness. Using a psychometric approach, we show that negative (vs. neutral) clips increased participants' propensity to classify ambiguous faces as fearful during several minutes. In contrast, positive movies biased classification toward happiness only for those clips perceived as most absorbing. Negative mood, anxiety and depression had a stronger effect than transient states and increased the propensity to classify ambiguous faces as fearful. These results provide the first evidence that absorption and different temporal dimensions of emotions have a significant effect on how we perceive facial expressions.

  7. Transient emotional events and individual affective traits affect emotion recognition in a perceptual decision-making task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Qiao-Tasserit

    Full Text Available Both affective states and personality traits shape how we perceive the social world and interpret emotions. The literature on affective priming has mostly focused on brief influences of emotional stimuli and emotional states on perceptual and cognitive processes. Yet this approach does not fully capture more dynamic processes at the root of emotional states, with such states lingering beyond the duration of the inducing external stimuli. Our goal was to put in perspective three different types of affective states (induced affective states, more sustained mood states and affective traits such as depression and anxiety and investigate how they may interact and influence emotion perception. Here, we hypothesized that absorption into positive and negative emotional episodes generate sustained affective states that outlast the episode period and bias the interpretation of facial expressions in a perceptual decision-making task. We also investigated how such effects are influenced by more sustained mood states and by individual affect traits (depression and anxiety and whether they interact. Transient emotional states were induced using movie-clips, after which participants performed a forced-choice emotion classification task with morphed facial expressions ranging from fear to happiness. Using a psychometric approach, we show that negative (vs. neutral clips increased participants' propensity to classify ambiguous faces as fearful during several minutes. In contrast, positive movies biased classification toward happiness only for those clips perceived as most absorbing. Negative mood, anxiety and depression had a stronger effect than transient states and increased the propensity to classify ambiguous faces as fearful. These results provide the first evidence that absorption and different temporal dimensions of emotions have a significant effect on how we perceive facial expressions.

  8. Transient emotional events and individual affective traits affect emotion recognition in a perceptual decision-making task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Quesada, Maria; Antico, Lia; Bavelier, Daphne; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Pichon, Swann

    2017-01-01

    Both affective states and personality traits shape how we perceive the social world and interpret emotions. The literature on affective priming has mostly focused on brief influences of emotional stimuli and emotional states on perceptual and cognitive processes. Yet this approach does not fully capture more dynamic processes at the root of emotional states, with such states lingering beyond the duration of the inducing external stimuli. Our goal was to put in perspective three different types of affective states (induced affective states, more sustained mood states and affective traits such as depression and anxiety) and investigate how they may interact and influence emotion perception. Here, we hypothesized that absorption into positive and negative emotional episodes generate sustained affective states that outlast the episode period and bias the interpretation of facial expressions in a perceptual decision-making task. We also investigated how such effects are influenced by more sustained mood states and by individual affect traits (depression and anxiety) and whether they interact. Transient emotional states were induced using movie-clips, after which participants performed a forced-choice emotion classification task with morphed facial expressions ranging from fear to happiness. Using a psychometric approach, we show that negative (vs. neutral) clips increased participants’ propensity to classify ambiguous faces as fearful during several minutes. In contrast, positive movies biased classification toward happiness only for those clips perceived as most absorbing. Negative mood, anxiety and depression had a stronger effect than transient states and increased the propensity to classify ambiguous faces as fearful. These results provide the first evidence that absorption and different temporal dimensions of emotions have a significant effect on how we perceive facial expressions. PMID:28151976

  9. Baboons' response speed is biased by their moods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousri Marzouki

    Full Text Available The affect-as-information hypothesis (e.g., Schwarz & Clore, 2003, predicts that the positive or negative valence of our mood differentially affects our processing of the details of the environment. However, this hypothesis has only been tested with mood induction procedures and fairly complex cognitive tasks in humans. Here, six baboons (Papio papio living in a social group had free access to a computerized visual search task on which they were over-trained. Trials that immediately followed a spontaneously expressed emotional behavior were analyzed, ruling out possible biases due to induction procedures. RTs following negatively valenced behaviors are slower than those following neutral and positively valenced behaviors, respectively. Thus, moods affect the performance of nonhuman primates tested in highly automatized tasks, as it does in humans during tasks with much higher cognitive demands. These findings reveal a presumably universal and adaptive mechanism by which moods influence performance in various ecological contexts.

  10. Latent negative self-schema and high emotionality in well adolescents at risk for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelvin, R G; Goodyer, I M; Teasdale, J D; Brechin, D

    1999-09-01

    Teasdale's (1988) differential activation hypothesis proposes that a tendency for negative mood to activate latent negative self-schemas characterises people at risk for depression. The current study tested predictions from this hypothesis in a community sample of 102 adolescents who were free from history of psychiatric illness, and who were subdivided according to level of emotionality, a temperamental style as assessed by parental questionnaire. A musical mood induction task was used to induce temporary mild dysphoria, and the effect of mood induction on self-schemas was assessed. There was no difference between high and low emotionality groups in the liability to sad mood induction. However, adolescents with high emotionality endorsed significantly more negative self-descriptors after dysphoric, but not after neutral, mood induction. This was not accounted for by level of self-reported depressive symptoms over the previous week. This suggests that a " dysphoric mood induction challenge" may provide important information about vulnerability to depression that is not identified by routine self-report of mood or cognitions.

  11. Further evidence of emotional allodynia in unmedicated young adults with major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ushinsky

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that sensitivity to the emotional sequela of experimental thermal pain(measured by emotional unpleasantness is heightened in individuals with major depressive disorder(MDD, a phenomenon we termed "emotional allodynia". The aim of this study was to examine whether acute happy and sad mood induction alters emotional allodynia in MDD. We hypothesized that emotional allodynia will be a robust characteristic of individuals with MDD compared to healthy controls. Thus, it would remain following acute mood induction, independent of valence.Twenty-one subjects with current MDD and 21 well-matched healthy subjects(HC received graded brief temperature stimuli following happy and sad mood inductions procedures(MIP. All subjects rated the intensity and affect(pleasantness/unpleasantness of each stimulus. Sensory(pain intensity and affective(pain unpleasantness thresholds were determined by methods of constant stimuli.The MIPs reliably induced happy and sad mood and the resulting induced mood and subjective arousal were not different between the groups at the time of temperature stimulation. Compared to HC, MDD individuals demonstrated emotional allodynia. We found significantly decreased affective pain thresholds whereby significantly lower temperatures became unpleasant in the MDD compared to the HC group. This was not observed for the sensory pain thresholds. Within the MDD, the affective pain thresholds were significantly lower than the corresponding pain intensity thresholds, whereby non-painful temperatures were already unpleasant for the MDD irrespective of the induced mood. This was not observed for the HC groups where the affective and pain intensity thresholds were comparable.These findings suggest that emotional allodynia may be a chronic characteristic of current MDD. Future studies should determine if emotional allodynia persists after psychological or pharmacological interventions. Finally, longitudinal work should

  12. Relationship between cardiac vagal activity and mood congruent memory bias in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ronald G; Valenza, Gaetano; Tomaz, Carlos A; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2016-01-15

    Previous studies suggest that autonomic reactivity during encoding of emotional information could modulate the neural processes mediating mood-congruent memory. In this study, we use a point-process model to determine dynamic autonomic tone in response to negative emotions and its influence on long-term memory of major depressed subjects. Forty-eight patients with major depression and 48 healthy controls were randomly assigned to either neutral or emotionally arousing audiovisual stimuli. An adaptive point-process algorithm was applied to compute instantaneous estimates of the spectral components of heart rate variability [Low frequency (LF), 0.04-0.15 Hz; High frequency (HF), 0.15-0.4 Hz]. Three days later subjects were submitted to a recall test. A significant increase in HF power was observed in depressed subjects in response to the emotionally arousing stimulus (p=0.03). The results of a multivariate analysis revealed that the HF power during the emotional segment of the stimulus was independently associated with the score of the recall test in depressed subjects, after adjusting for age, gender and educational level (Coef. 0.003, 95%CI, 0.0009-0.005, p=0.008). These results could only be interpreted as responses to elicitation of specific negative emotions, the relationship between HF changes and encoding/recall of positive stimuli should be further examined. Alterations on parasympathetic response to emotion are involved in the mood-congruent cognitive bias observed in major depression. These findings are clinically relevant because it could constitute the mechanism by which depressed patients maintain maladaptive patterns of negative information processing that trigger and sustain depressed mood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Childhood Maltreatment Exposure and Disruptions in Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Pathway to Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Jessica L.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology. PMID:27695145

  14. Childhood Maltreatment Exposure and Disruptions in Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Pathway to Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleniak, Charlotte; Jenness, Jessica L; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-06-01

    Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology.

  15. Short- and long-term health consequences of sleep disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medic G

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Goran Medic,1,2 Micheline Wille,1 Michiel EH Hemels1 1Market Access, Horizon Pharma B.V., Utrecht, 2Unit of Pharmacoepidemiology & Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Abstract: Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectively referred to as sleep disruptions. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption, ranging from lifestyle and environmental factors to sleep disorders and other medical conditions. Sleep disruptions have substantial adverse short- and long-term health consequences. A literature search was conducted to provide a nonsystematic review of these health consequences (this review was designed to be nonsystematic to better focus on the topics of interest due to the myriad parameters affected by sleep. Sleep disruption is associated with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, metabolic effects, changes in circadian rhythms, and proinflammatory responses. In otherwise healthy adults, short-term consequences of sleep disruption include increased stress responsivity, somatic pain, reduced quality of life, emotional distress and mood disorders, and cognitive, memory, and performance deficits. For adolescents, psychosocial health, school performance, and risk-taking behaviors are impacted by sleep disruption. Behavioral problems and cognitive functioning are associated with sleep disruption in children. Long-term consequences of sleep disruption in otherwise healthy individuals include hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, weight-related issues, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and colorectal cancer. All-cause mortality is also increased in men with sleep disturbances. For those with

  16. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms and Association with Oppositional Defiant and Other Disorders in a General Population Child Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan D; Waxmonsky, James D; Calhoun, Susan L; Bixler, Edward O

    2016-03-01

    The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) diagnosis, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), has generated appreciable controversy since its inception, primarily in regard to its validity as a distinct disorder from oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The goal of our study was to determine if the two DSM-5 DMDD symptoms (persistently irritable or angry mood and severe recurrent temper outbursts) occurred independently of other disorders, particularly ODD. Other DSM-5 DMDD criteria were not assessed. Maternal ratings of the two DMDD symptoms, clinical diagnosis of ODD using DSM-5 symptom criteria, and psychological problem scores (anxiety, depression, oppositional behavior, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) on the Pediatric Behavior Scale were analyzed in a population sample, 6-12 years of age (n = 665). The prevalence of DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts both rated by mothers as often or very often a problem) was 9%. In all, 92% of children with DMDD symptoms had ODD, and 66% of children with ODD had DMDD symptoms, indicating that it is very unlikely to have DMDD symptoms without ODD, but that ODD can occur without DMDD symptoms. Comorbid psychological problems (anxiety, depression, conduct disorder, and ADHD) in addition to ODD did not increase the risk of having DMDD symptoms beyond that for ODD alone. Only 3% of children with psychological problems other than ODD had DMDD symptoms. Our general population findings are similar to those for a psychiatric sample, suggesting that DMDD cannot be differentiated from ODD based on symptomatology. Therefore, it is important to assess all DSM criteria and to examine for comorbid psychopathology when considering a diagnosis of DMDD. Our results support the recommendation made by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision (ICD-11) panel of experts that DMDD symptoms may be

  17. CHESS improves cancer caregivers' burden and mood: results of an eHealth RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBenske, Lori L; Gustafson, David H; Namkoong, Kang; Hawkins, Robert P; Atwood, Amy K; Brown, Roger L; Chih, Ming-Yuan; McTavish, Fiona; Carmack, Cindy L; Buss, Mary K; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Cleary, James F

    2014-10-01

    Informal caregivers (family and friends) of people with cancer are often unprepared for their caregiving role, leading to increased burden or distress. Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (CHESS) is a Web-based lung cancer information, communication, and coaching system for caregivers. This randomized trial reports the impact on caregiver burden, disruptiveness, and mood of providing caregivers access to CHESS versus the Internet with a list of recommended lung cancer websites. A total of 285 informal caregivers of patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer were randomly assigned to a comparison group that received Internet or a treatment group that received Internet and CHESS. Caregivers were provided a computer and Internet service if needed. Written surveys were completed at pretest and during the intervention period bimonthly for up to 24 months. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) compared the intervention's effect on caregivers' disruptiveness and burden (CQOLI-C), and negative mood (combined Anxiety, Depression, and Anger scales of the POMS) at 6 months, controlling for blocking variables (site, caregiver's race, and relationship to patient) and the given outcome at pretest. Caregivers randomized to CHESS reported lower burden, t(84) = 2.36, p = .021, d = .39, and negative mood, t(86) = 2.82, p = .006, d = .44, than those in the Internet group. The effect on disruptiveness was not significant. Although caring for someone with a terminal illness will always exact a toll on caregivers, eHealth interventions like CHESS may improve caregivers' understanding and coping skills and, as a result, ease their burden and mood.

  18. CHESS Improves Cancer Caregivers’ Burden and Mood: Results of an eHealth RCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBenske, Lori L.; Gustafson, David H.; Namkoong, Kang; Hawkins, Robert P.; Atwood, Amy K.; Brown, Roger L.; Chih, Ming-Yuan; McTavish, Fiona; Carmack, Cindy L.; Buss, Mary K.; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Cleary, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Informal caregivers (family and friends) of people with cancer are often unprepared for their caregiving role, leading to increased burden or distress. CHESS (Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System) is a web-based lung cancer information, communication and coaching system for caregivers. This randomized trial reports the impact on caregiver burden, disruptiveness and mood of providing caregivers access to CHESS versus the Internet with a list of recommended lung cancer websites. Methods 285 informal caregivers of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were randomly assigned to a comparison group that received Internet or a treatment group that received Internet and CHESS. Caregivers were provided a computer and Internet service if needed. Written surveys were completed at pretest and during the intervention period bimonthly for up to 24 months. ANCOVA analyses compared the intervention’s effect on caregivers’ disruptiveness and burden (CQOLI-C), and negative mood (combined Anxiety, Depression, and Anger scales of the POMS) at six months, controlling for blocking variables (site, caregiver’s race, and relationship to patient) and the given outcome at pretest. Results Caregivers randomized to CHESS reported lower burden [t (84) = 2.36, p = .021, d= .39] and negative mood [t (86) = 2.82, p = .006, d= .44] than those in the Internet group. The effect on disruptiveness was not significant. Conclusions Although caring for someone with a terminal illness will always exact a toll on caregivers, eHealth interventions like CHESS may improve caregivers’ understanding and coping skills and, as a result, ease their burden and mood. PMID:24245838

  19. Discrete emotion-congruent false memories in the DRM paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Cassandra E; Howe, Mark L; Knott, Lauren

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that false-memory production is enhanced for material that is emotionally congruent with the mood of the participant at the time of encoding. So far this research has only been conducted to examine the influence of generic negative affective mood states and generic negative stimuli on false-memory production. In addition, much of the research is limited as it focuses on valence and arousal dimensions, and fails to take into account the more comprehensive nature of emotions. The current study demonstrates that this effect goes beyond general negative or positive moods and acts at a more discrete emotional level. Participants underwent a standard emotion-induction procedure before listening to negative emotional or neutral associative word lists. The emotions induced, negative word lists, and associated nonpresented critical lures, were related to either fear or anger, 2 negative valence emotions that are also both high in arousal. Results showed that when valence and arousal are controlled for, false memories are more likely to be produced for discrete emotionally congruent compared with incongruent materials. These results support spreading activation theories of false remembering and add to our understanding of the adaptive nature of false-memory production. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Effects of changes in water intake on mood of high and low drinkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Pross

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a change in water intake on mood and sensation in 22 habitual high-volume (HIGH; 2-4 L/d and 30 low-volume (LOW; <1.2 L/d drinkers who were asked to respectively decrease and increase their daily water intake. METHOD: During baseline HIGH consumed 2.5 L and LOW 1 L of water/day. During 3 controlled intervention days HIGH's water intake was restricted to 1 L/day whereas LOW's was increased to 2.5 L water/day. Several mood scales (Bond & Lader Visual Analog Scale (VAS, Profile of Mood States, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Thirst & Emotional VAS were administered at different time points during the study. ANOVA including intervention, time point and intervention by time point as fixed effects on mean values (i.e.; baseline data vs. mean of 3 intervention days for each mood scale was performed. RESULTS: At baseline HIGH and LOW were comparable in mood state, except for thirst scores (estimate = 17.16, p<0.001 and POMS depression-dejection scores (estimate = 0.55, p<0.05 which were both higher in the HIGH vs. LOW. In HIGH the restricted water intake resulted in a significant increase in thirst (p<0.001 and a decrease in contentedness (p<0.05, calmness (p<0.01, positive emotions (p<0.05 and vigor/activity (p<0.001. In LOW, increased water consumption resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue/inertia (p<0.001, confusion/bewilderment (p = 0.05 and thirst (p<0.001 and a trend to lower sleepiness (p = 0.07 compared to baseline. CONCLUSION: Increasing water intake has beneficial effects in LOW, especially sleep/wake feelings, whereas decreasing water intake has detrimental effects on HIGH's mood. These deleterious effects in HIGH were observed in some sleep/wake moods as well as calmness, satisfaction and positive emotions.

  1. Food-Induced Emotional Resonance Improves Emotion Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Elisa; Sacripante, Riccardo; Cardini, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    The effect of food substances on emotional states has been widely investigated, showing, for example, that eating chocolate is able to reduce negative mood. Here, for the first time, we have shown that the consumption of specific food substances is not only able to induce particular emotional states, but more importantly, to facilitate recognition of corresponding emotional facial expressions in others. Participants were asked to perform an emotion recognition task before and after eating either a piece of chocolate or a small amount of fish sauce-which we expected to induce happiness or disgust, respectively. Our results showed that being in a specific emotional state improves recognition of the corresponding emotional facial expression. Indeed, eating chocolate improved recognition of happy faces, while disgusted expressions were more readily recognized after eating fish sauce. In line with the embodied account of emotion understanding, we suggest that people are better at inferring the emotional state of others when their own emotional state resonates with the observed one.

  2. Food-Induced Emotional Resonance Improves Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Elisa; Sacripante, Riccardo; Cardini, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    The effect of food substances on emotional states has been widely investigated, showing, for example, that eating chocolate is able to reduce negative mood. Here, for the first time, we have shown that the consumption of specific food substances is not only able to induce particular emotional states, but more importantly, to facilitate recognition of corresponding emotional facial expressions in others. Participants were asked to perform an emotion recognition task before and after eating either a piece of chocolate or a small amount of fish sauce—which we expected to induce happiness or disgust, respectively. Our results showed that being in a specific emotional state improves recognition of the corresponding emotional facial expression. Indeed, eating chocolate improved recognition of happy faces, while disgusted expressions were more readily recognized after eating fish sauce. In line with the embodied account of emotion understanding, we suggest that people are better at inferring the emotional state of others when their own emotional state resonates with the observed one. PMID:27973559

  3. The interplay between mood and language comprehension: Evidence from P600 to semantic reversal anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, C.T.W.M.; Chwilla, U.G.; Egger, J.I.M.; Chwilla, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between language and emotion. Vissers et al. (2010) investigated the effects of mood on the processing of syntactic violations, as indexed by P600. An interaction was observed between mood and syntactic correctness for which three explanations were offered: one

  4. Psychometric properties of the French version of a scale measuring perceived emotional intelligence : the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdier, Léna; Duclos, Jeanne; Ringuenet, Damien; Berthoz, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS), a 30-item self-assessment questionnaire, has been developed to measure perceived emotional intelligence (EI) level in 3 dimensions: Attention, Clarity and Repair. This study aimed to explore the psychometric properties of the French version of this instrument. Method: The instrument factor structure, normality, internal consistency, stability and concurrent validity were assessed in a sample of 824 young adults (456 female). Besides TMMS, participants completed self-assessment questionnaires for affectivity (Shortened Beck Depression Inventory, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, Positive and Negative emotion scale), alexithymia (Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire-B) and interpersonal functioning (Empathy Quotient). Discriminant validity was tested in 64 female patients with anorexia nervosa, identified in literature as having difficulties with introspection, expression and emotional regulation. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis results replicate the 3-factor structure. Internal consistency and reliability indices are adequate. Direction and degree of correlation coefficients between TMMS dimensions and other questionnaires support the instrument concurrent validity. TMMS allows to highlight differences in perceived EI levels between men and women (Attention: p < 0.001 ; Clarity: p < 0.05) as well as between patients with anorexia nervosa and control subjects (p < 0.001 for all 3 dimensions). Conclusion: This first validation study shows satisfying psychometric properties for TMMS French version. PMID:27310229

  5. The effects of alcohol on mood induced by an emotional film. A study among women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilburg, M.A.L.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol on women's reactions to a negative mood-inducing stimulus. It is hypothesized that, like in men, alcohol also reduces tension or induces positive mood in women. In addition, we explored whether different mood states were

  6. The psychological costs and benefits of being highly persistent: personality profiles distinguish mood disorders from anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloninger, C Robert; Zohar, Ada H; Hirschmann, Schmuel; Dahan, Dana

    2012-02-01

    The personality trait of Persistence is highly valued by conscientious overachievers, but it has both psychological costs and benefits. The interactions among multiple personality factors influencing the development of mood and anxiety disorders have been confounded in prior clinical samples, but can be disentangled in terms of their underlying brain circuitry and influence on perception of emotional stimuli. 285 individuals who represented the full range of personality variation in a large sample of adult volunteers from the general community of Israel were selected for follow-up by psychiatric interviews, cognitive testing, and medical examinations. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) measured profiles of traits that distinguished individuals with diagnoses of mood and/or anxiety disorders using linear discriminant analysis and non-linear profile analysis. High Harm Avoidance and low Self-directedness strongly distinguished people with mood and/or anxiety disorders from those with neither. High Persistence distinguished people with only anxiety disorders from those with mood disorders. High Persistence was associated with greater health and happiness overall, but also led to more negative emotions than in people with low Persistence unless they were both unusually tolerant of frustration (i.e., low in Harm Avoidance) and self-accepting of personal limitations (i.e. high in Self-directedness). Subjects were volunteers over 40 years of age at assessment. People who are highly persistent (i.e., persevering, ambitious, perfectionistic) are more likely to have anxiety disorders than mood disorders, even when they have other traits increasing risk for both (i.e., high Harm Avoidance and low Self-directedness). High Persistence increases both positive and negative emotions in most people. However, high Persistence reduces negative emotions and increases positive emotions if a person is easy-going (i.e., "happy-go-lucky" when low in both Harm Avoidance and Self

  7. Anxiety and Mood Clinical Profile following Sport-related Concussion: From Risk Factors to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Natalie; Reynolds, Erin; Cohen, Paul E; Gillie, Brandon L; Kontos, Anthony P

    2017-08-01

    Conceptual models for assessing and treating sport-related concussion (SRC) have evolved from a homogenous approach to include different clinical profiles that reflect the heterogeneous nature of this injury and its effects. There are six identified clinical profiles, or subtypes from SRC, and one such clinical profile is the anxiety/mood profile. Athletes with this profile experience predominant emotional disturbance and anxiety following SRC. The purpose of this targeted review was to present an overview of the empirical evidence to support factors contributing to the anxiety/mood profile, along with methods of evaluation and treatment of this clinical profile following SRC. We discuss the potential underlying mechanisms and risk factors for this clinical profile, describe comprehensive assessments to evaluate concussed athletes with an anxiety/mood clinical profile, and explore behavioral and other interventions for treating these athletes. Although there is limited, but growing empirical evidence for the anxiety/mood clinical profile following SRC, understanding this clinical profile is germane for clinicians who are treating athletes with emotional sequelae after SRC.

  8. Schizophrenia-Related Microdeletion Impairs Emotional Memory through MicroRNA-Dependent Disruption of Thalamic Inputs to the Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Yeon Eom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS are at high risk of developing psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Individuals with 22q11DS and schizophrenia are impaired in emotional memory, anticipating, recalling, and assigning a correct context to emotions. The neuronal circuits responsible for these emotional memory deficits are unknown. Here, we show that 22q11DS mouse models have disrupted synaptic transmission at thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala (thalamo-LA projections. This synaptic deficit is caused by haploinsufficiency of the 22q11DS gene Dgcr8, which is involved in microRNA processing, and is mediated by the increased dopamine receptor Drd2 levels in the thalamus and by reduced probability of glutamate release from thalamic inputs. This deficit in thalamo-LA synaptic transmission is sufficient to cause fear memory deficits. Our results suggest that dysregulation of the Dgcr8–Drd2 mechanism at thalamic inputs to the amygdala underlies emotional memory deficits in 22q11DS.

  9. Schizophrenia-Related Microdeletion Impairs Emotional Memory through MicroRNA-Dependent Disruption of Thalamic Inputs to the Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae-Yeon; Bayazitov, Ildar T; Anderson, Kara; Yu, Jing; Zakharenko, Stanislav S

    2017-05-23

    Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at high risk of developing psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Individuals with 22q11DS and schizophrenia are impaired in emotional memory, anticipating, recalling, and assigning a correct context to emotions. The neuronal circuits responsible for these emotional memory deficits are unknown. Here, we show that 22q11DS mouse models have disrupted synaptic transmission at thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala (thalamo-LA projections). This synaptic deficit is caused by haploinsufficiency of the 22q11DS gene Dgcr8, which is involved in microRNA processing, and is mediated by the increased dopamine receptor Drd2 levels in the thalamus and by reduced probability of glutamate release from thalamic inputs. This deficit in thalamo-LA synaptic transmission is sufficient to cause fear memory deficits. Our results suggest that dysregulation of the Dgcr8-Drd2 mechanism at thalamic inputs to the amygdala underlies emotional memory deficits in 22q11DS. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Abnormal deactivation of the inferior frontal gyrus during implicit emotion processing in youth with bipolar disorder: attenuated by medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeman, Danella M; Bebko, Genna; Bertocci, Michele A; Fournier, Jay C; Bonar, Lisa; Perlman, Susan B; Travis, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Sunshine, Jeffrey L; Holland, Scott K; Kowatch, Robert A; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Horwitz, Sarah M; Arnold, L Eugene; Fristad, Mary A; Frazier, Thomas W; Youngstrom, Eric A; Findling, Robert L; Drevets, Wayne; Phillips, Mary L

    2014-11-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies of youth with bipolar disorder (BD) have identified abnormalities in emotion regulation circuitry. Using data from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms Cohort (a clinical sample recruited for behavioral and emotional dysregulation), we examined the impact of BD and medication on activation in these regions. Functional neuroimaging data were obtained from 15 youth with BD who currently were unmedicated with a mood stabilizer or antipsychotic (U-BD), 19 youth with medicated BD (M-BD), a non-bipolar clinical sample with high rates of disruptive behavioral disorders (non-BD, n = 59), and 29 healthy controls (HC) while they were shown task-irrelevant morphing emotional faces and shapes. Whole brain analysis was used to identify clusters that showed differential activation to emotion vs. shapes across group. To assess pair-wise comparisons and potential confounders, mean activation data were extracted only from clusters within regions previously implicated in emotion regulation (including amygdala and ventral prefrontal regions). A cluster in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) showed group differences to emotion vs. shapes (159 voxels, corrected p abnormally decreased right IFG activation to negative emotions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Emotional Mood States and the Recall of Childhood Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Kenneth P.; Haviland, Jeannette M.

    Recently some psychologists have shown a renewed interest in the relationship between cognition and emotion and have begun to examine the relationship between the representation and processing of factual and emotional information. To investigate the role of emotional state in personal memory retrieval, a study was undertaken to replicate and…

  12. Situated navigational working memory: the role of positive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Rogolino, Carmelo; D'Amico, Simonetta; Piccardi, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The perspective of situated cognition assumes that cognition is not separated from the context. In the present study, the issue if visuospatial memory and navigational working memory are situated was explored by manipulating participants' mood (positive, negative and neutral) while performing two different tasks. College students were randomly assigned to the group of positive, negative or neutral music. Participants filled out the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) before and after carrying out the Corsi Test and the Walking Corsi Test. Both tasks were performed forward and backward. Music was played throughout the memory tasks. Firstly, comparing pre-mood induction PANAS scores to post-mood induction PANAS scores, results showed that only positive affects were manipulated: After mood induction, the Positive Music Group produced higher scores, whereas the Negative Music Group produced lower scores than before mood induction; the Neutral Music Group produced no effect. Secondly, the Positive Music Group produced higher scores than Negative and Neutral Music Groups both at the Corsi Test and at the Walking Corsi Test. These results show that situational contexts that induce a specific mood can affect visuospatial memory and navigational working memory, and open to the idea that positive emotions may play a crucial role in enhancing navigational strategies.

  13. The Impact of Emotional Priming on MMPI-2 Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tayla T. C.; Forbey, Johnathan D.; Ritchey, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated potential emotional priming effects on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scale scores. Participants included 98 college students who completed a personal narrative intended to induce temporary mood states, the MMPI-2, and a mood rating inventory. Results of the mood manipulation indicated that…

  14. Predicting the emotions expressed in music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens

    With the ever-growing popularity and availability of digital music through streaming services and digital download, making sense of the millions of songs, is ever more pertinent. However the traditional approach of creating music systems has treated songs like items in a store, like books...... and movies. However music is special, having origins in a number of evolutionary adaptations. The fundamental needs and goals of a users use of music, was investigated to create the next generation of music systems. People listen to music to regulate their mood and emotions was found to be the most important...... fundamental reason. (Mis)matching peoples mood with the emotions expressed in music was found to be an essential underlying mechanism, people use to regulate their emotions. This formed the basis and overall goal of the thesis, to investigate how to create a predictive model of emotions expressed in music...

  15. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder in a Community Mental Health Clinic: Prevalence, Comorbidity and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew J; Youngstrom, Eric A; Youngstrom, Jennifer K; Findling, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    The revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) added a new diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) to depressive disorders. This study examines the prevalence, comorbidity, and correlates of the new disorder, with a particular focus on its overlap with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), with which DMDD shares core symptoms. Data were obtained from 597 youth 6-18 years of age who participated in a systematic assessment of symptoms offered to all intakes at a community mental health center (sample accrued from July 2003 to March 2008). Assessment included diagnostic, symptomatic, and functional measures. DMDD was diagnosed using a post-hoc definition from item-level ratings on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children that closely matches the DSM-5 definition. Caregivers rated youth on the Child Behavior Checklist. Approximately 31% of youth met the operational definition of DMDD, and 40% had Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) diagnoses of ODD. Youth with DMDD almost always had ODD (odds ratio [OR] = 53.84) and displayed higher rates of comorbidity with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder than youth without DMDD. Caregivers of youth with DMDD reported more symptoms of aggressive behavior, rule-breaking, social problems, anxiety/depression, attention problems, and thought problems than all other youth without DMDD. Compared with youth with ODD, youth with DMDD were not significantly different in terms of categorical or dimensional approaches to comorbidity and impairment. The new diagnosis of DMDD might be common in community mental health clinics. Youth with DMDD displayed more severe symptoms and poorer functioning than youth without DMDD. However, DMDD almost entirely overlaps with ODD and youth with DMDD were not significantly different than youth with ODD. These findings raise concerns

  16. Risky dieting amongst adolescent girls: Associations with family relationship problems and depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Gemma L M; Kelly, Adrian B; Chan, Gary C K; Patton, George C; Williams, Joanne

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the association of risky dieting amongst adolescent girls with depressed mood, family conflict, and parent-child emotional closeness. Grade 6 and 8 females (aged 11-14years, N=4031) were recruited from 231 schools in 30 communities, across three Australian States (Queensland, Victoria, and Western Australia). Key measures were based on the Adolescent Dieting Scale, Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and widely used short measures of family relationship quality. Controls included age, early pubertal onset, and socioeconomic status. Risky dieting was significantly related to family conflict and depressed mood, depressed mood mediated the association of family conflict and risky dieting, and these associations remained significant with controls in the model. Family conflict and adolescent depressed mood are associated with risky dieting. Prevention programs may benefit from a broadening of behavioural targets to include depressed mood and family problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mood migration: How enfacing a smile makes you happier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ke; Sellaro, Roberta; Lippelt, Dominique Patrick; Hommel, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    People tend to perceive the face of another person more as their own if own and other face are stroked in synchrony-the enfacement illusion. We conceptually replicated the enfacement illusion in a virtual reality environment, in which participants could control the movements of a virtual face by moving and touching their own face. We then used this virtual enfacement illusion to study whether enfacing a virtual face would also involve adopting the emotion that this face is expressing. As predicted, participants adopted the expressed emotion, as indicated by higher valence scores and better performance in a mood-sensitive divergent-thinking task when facing a happy virtual face, if the virtual face moved in synchrony with their own head movements. This suggests that impact on or control over another person's facial movements invite "mood migration" from the person one identifies with to oneself. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Appraisal of emotions in media use

    OpenAIRE

    Bartsch, Anne; Vorderer, Peter; Mangold, Roland; Reinhold, Viehoff

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research on meta-emotion and related concepts such as meta-mood and need for affect has become fruitful and prominent across a variety of disciplines, including media psychology. This paper reviews the literature on meta-emotion and considers problems regarding the definition and operationalization of this construct. We propose a process model of meta-emotion and emotion regulation to integrate and extend existing work. Drawing on appraisal theories of emotion, we unde...

  19. Circadian Rhythm Disturbances in Mood Disorders: Insights into the Role of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythm disturbances are a common symptom among individuals with mood disorders. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), in the ventral part of the anterior hypothalamus, orchestrates physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms. The SCN consists of self-sustaining oscillators and receives photic and nonphotic cues, which entrain the SCN to the external environment. In turn, through synaptic and hormonal mechanisms, the SCN can drive and synchronize circadian rhythms in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral tissues. Thus, genetic or environmental perturbations of SCN rhythms could disrupt brain regions more closely related to mood regulation and cause mood disturbances. Here, we review clinical and preclinical studies that provide evidence both for and against a causal role for the SCN in mood disorders. PMID:29230328

  20. Female emotional eaters show abnormalities in consummatory and anticipatory food reward: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja

    2009-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that emotional eaters show greater neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake than nonemotional eaters and whether these differences are amplified during a negative versus neutral mood state. Female emotional eaters and nonemotional eaters (N = 21) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless control solution while in a negative and neutral mood. Emotional eaters showed greater activation in the parahippocampal gyrus and anterior cingulate (ACC) in response to anticipated receipt of milkshake and greater activation in the pallidum, thalamus, and ACC in response to receipt of milkshake during a negative relative to a neutral mood. In contrast, nonemotional eaters showed decreased activation in reward regions during a negative versus a neutral mood. Results suggest that emotional eating is related to increased anticipatory and consummatory food reward, but only during negative mood. (c) 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Sadness and ruminative thinking independently depress people's moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanitabesh, Azra; Cardwell, Brittany A; Halberstadt, Jamin

    2017-11-02

    Depression and rumination often co-occur in clinical populations, but it is not clear which causes which, or if both are manifestations of an underlying pathology. Does rumination simply exacerbate whatever affect a person is experiencing, or is it a negative experience in and of itself? In two experiments we answer this question by independently manipulating emotion and rumination. Participants were allocated to sad or neutral (in Experiment 1), or sad, neutral or happy (Experiment 2) mood conditions, via a combination of emotionally evocative music and autobiographical recall. Afterwards, in both studies, participants either ruminated by thinking about self-relevant statements or, in a control group, thought about self-irrelevant statements. Taken together, our data show that, independent of participants' mood, ruminators reported more negative affect relative to controls. The findings are consistent with theories suggesting that self-focus is itself unpleasant, and illustrate that depressive rumination comprises both affective and ruminative components, which could be targeted independently in clinical samples. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Health and mood among HIV-positive outpatients attending an ART Clinic of a University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Dilar; Mendes, Aida; Abreu, Wilson

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate how individuals at different stages of infection with HIV perceive their health status and its association with mood states. With the introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in 1996, the quality of life of people living with HIV has improved. However, the literature emphasises the negative effects of the disease on the mental health of individuals suffering from this condition and the high incidence of depression among infected individuals. Although people diagnosed and living with HIV are overwhelmed by emotions, we found that various emotional manifestations are understudied within this group of patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an outpatient unit of a University Hospital (antiretroviral therapy clinic), with a consecutive sample composed of 152 patients. Data were collected through a questionnaire used to assess the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, the Short Form (36) Health Survey, and the Profile of Mood States scale. The health status negatively affects the role at the emotional and mental health dimensions. The participants showing a worse health condition than in the previous year had higher levels of tension/anxiety, depression/dejection, fatigue/inertia and confusion/bewilderment. The stage of disease and the profile of mood state emerged as independent phenomena. The results of this study indicate that nurses worldwide should be aware of the emotional aspects (negative emotions strongly impact health) related to the subjective perception of a worsening health status, regardless of the stage of the disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Disrupting reconsolidation: pharmacological and behavioral manipulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeter, M.; Kindt, M.

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited

  4. Virtual reality for the induction of positive emotions in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a pilot study over acceptability, satisfaction, and the effect of virtual reality on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Rocio; García-Palacios, Azucena; Castilla, Diana; Molinari, Guadalupe; Botella, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    One of the most important aspects of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is its impact on quality of life, increasing negative emotions and dysfunctional coping strategies. One of these strategies is to avoid activities, especially meaningful activities, which reduces positive reinforcement. Commencing significant daily activities could enable chronic patients to experience a more fulfilling life. However, the main difficulty found in FMS patients is their willingness to start those activities. Promoting positive emotions could enhance activity management. The aim of this paper is to present a description of a system along with data regarding the acceptability, satisfaction, and preliminary efficacy of a virtual reality (VR) environment for the promotion of positive emotions. The VR environment was especially designed for chronic pain patients. Results showed significant increases in general mood state, positive emotions, motivation, and self-efficacy. These preliminary findings show the potential of VR as an adjunct to the psychological treatment of such an important health problem as chronic pain.

  5. Mood-congruent memory in depression - the influence of personal relevance and emotional context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Charlotte E; Terfehr, Kirsten; Otte, Christian; Jelinek, Lena; Hinkelmann, Kim; Moritz, Steffen

    2014-03-30

    The investigation of veridical mood-congruent memory (MCM) in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been subject of many studies, whereas mood-congruent false memory has received comparatively little attention. The present study examined the influence of valence, personal relevance and the valence of the context of the learning material on true and false MCM in 20 inpatients with MDD and 20 healthy controls. Sixty positive, negative, neutral or personally relevant nouns were either combined with a positive, negative or neutral adjective. Word pairs were presented to participants in a learning trial. In a recognition task, participants had to identify the previously studied word pairs. A MCM effect could not be found for hits. However, in exploratory analyses, word pairs containing personally relevant nouns were more rated towards old by the patient relative to the control group. Furthermore, depressed patients tended to rate items more towards old than controls when the words were presented in a negative new context. Results are in line with previous findings in depression research emphasizing the role of mood-congruent false memories for mood disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relations of nostalgia with music to emotional response and recall of autobiographical memory

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 麻美; 岩永, 誠; 生和, 秀敏

    2002-01-01

    Previous researches suggest that musical mood and preferences affects on emotional response, and that context of music also affects on musical-dependent memory. We often feel 'nostalgia' when listening to old familiar tunes. Nostalgia is related to eliciting positive emotions, recall of autobiographical memory and positive evaluations for recall contents. The present study aimed to examine effects of musical mood, preference and nostalgia on emotional responses, the amounts of recall of autob...

  7. Memória, humor e emoção Memoria, humor y emoción Memory, mood and emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Kuckartz Pergher

    2006-04-01

    the past years, mainly due to their several practical implications, particularly for psychotherapy and the forensic field. The objective of this article is to present some of the possible interactions between affective processes and memory. Initially, definitions for the terms emotion, mood and affection are presented. Then, the relations between mood, emotion and memory are approached, describing the main phenomena investigated in such areas. For each phenomenon described, empirical foundations and explanatory theories are listed. Finally, the limitations and implications of the studies on relations between mood, emotion and memory are discussed, focusing on the need of a broader consensus among researchers in this area.

  8. Oral contraceptive use changes brain activity and mood in women with previous negative affect on the pill--a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial of a levonorgestrel-containing combined oral contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingnell, Malin; Engman, Jonas; Frick, Andreas; Moby, Lena; Wikström, Johan; Fredrikson, Mats; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2013-07-01

    Most women on combined oral contraceptives (COC) report high levels of satisfaction, but 4-10% complain of adverse mood effects. The aim of this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate if COC use would induce more pronounced mood symptoms than placebo in women with previous history of COC-induced adverse mood. A second aim was to determine if COC use is associated with changes in brain reactivity in regions previously associated with emotion processing. Thirty-four women with previous experience of mood deterioration during COC use were randomized to one treatment cycle with a levonorgestrel-containing COC or placebo. An emotional face matching task (vs. geometrical shapes) was administered during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to and during the COC treatment cycle. Throughout the trial, women recorded daily symptom ratings on the Cyclicity Diagnoser (CD) scale. During the last week of the treatment cycle COC users had higher scores of depressed mood, mood swings, and fatigue than placebo users. COC users also had lower emotion-induced reactivity in the left insula, left middle frontal gyrus, and bilateral inferior frontal gyri as compared to placebo users. In comparison with their pretreatment cycle, the COC group had decreased emotion-induced reactivity in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, whereas placebo users had decreased reactivity in the right amygdala. COC use in women who previously had experienced emotional side effects resulted in mood deterioration, and COC use was also accompanied by changes in emotional brain reactivity. These findings are of relevance for the understanding of how combined oral contraceptives may influence mood. Placebo-controlled fMRI studies in COC sensitive women could be of relevance for future testing of adverse mood effects in new oral contraceptives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Abnormal Facial Emotion Recognition in Depression: Serial Testing in an Ultra-Rapid-Cycling Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mark S.; Huggins, Teresa; McDermut, Wilson; Parekh, Priti I.; Rubinow, David; Post, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    Mood disorder subjects have a selective deficit in recognizing human facial emotion. Whether the facial emotion recognition errors persist during normal mood states (i.e., are state vs. trait dependent) was studied in one male bipolar II patient. Results of five sessions are presented and discussed. (Author/EMK)

  10. An Environmental Approach to Positive Emotion: Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Haviland-Jones

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than 5000 years, people have cultivated flowers although there is no known reward for this costly behavior. In three different studies we show that flowers are a powerful positive emotion “inducer”. In Study 1, flowers, upon presentation to women, always elicited the Duchenne or true smile. Women who received flowers reported more positive moods 3 days later. In Study 2, a flower given to men or women in an elevator elicited more positive social behavior than other stimuli. In Study 3, flowers presented to elderly participants (55+ age elicited positive mood reports and improved episodic memory. Flowers have immediate and long-term effects on emotional reactions, mood, social behaviors and even memory for both males and females. There is little existing theory in any discipline that explains these findings. We suggest that cultivated flowers are rewarding because they have evolved to rapidly induce positive emotion in humans, just as other plants have evolved to induce varying behavioral responses in a wide variety of species leading to the dispersal or propagation of the plants.

  11. Expectancies for Social Support and Negative Mood Regulation Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment and Self-Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Tresno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI is common among young people. A majority of individuals who injure themselves do so to alleviate negative affect, as most self-injurers report difficulties with mood regulation. Trauma in childhood is an important risk factor that may cause individuals to develop poor interpersonal relations and impaired emotion-regulation, leading to the use of non-adaptive coping strategies such as NSSI. This study examined factors contributing to self-injury, focusing on the link from childhood maltreatment, through mood regulation expectancies and expectancies for social support (father, mother, and friends, to self-injury. Understanding how these variables relate to NSSI is crucial for early identification of individuals at risk of NSSI. Participants were 377 Japanese university students. Lifetime prevalence of self-injury was 20% among the sample. Results showed childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor that increases the risk for NSSI. However, expectancies for social support and mood regulation seem to be potential protective factors. Mood regulation expectancies mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-injury. In addition, expectancies for social support were indirectly linked with NSSI through negative mood regulation expectancies. It appears that perceived support from father and friends increases one's confidence in regulating difficult emotions, which in turn reduces risk for NSSI. Results suggest that strong expectancies for social support, especially from friends, increase one's confidence in regulating emotion, which contributes as a protective factor against self-injury.

  12. Music, memory and emotion

    OpenAIRE

    J?ncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. Music has a prominent role in the everyday life of many people. Whether it is for recreation, distraction or mood enhancement, a lot of people listen to music from early in t...

  13. Sex differences in visuospatial and navigational working memory: the role of mood induced by background music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Rogolino, Carmelo; D'amico, Simonetta; Piccardi, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Sex differences in visuospatial abilities are long debated. Men generally outperform women, especially in wayfinding or learning a route or a sequence of places. These differences might depend on women's disadvantage in underlying spatial competences, such as mental rotation, and on the strategies used, as well as on emotions and on self-belief about navigational skills, not related to actual skill-levels. In the present study, sex differences in visuospatial and navigational working memory in emotional contexts were investigated. Participants' mood was manipulated by background music (positive, negative or neutral) while performing on the Corsi Block-tapping Task (CBT) and Walking Corsi (WalCT) test. In order to assess the effectiveness of mood manipulation, participants filled in the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule before and after carrying out the visuospatial tasks. Firstly, results showed that after mood induction, only the positive affect changed, whereas the negative affect remained unconfounded by mood and by sex. This finding is in line with the main effect of 'group' on all tests used: the positive music group scored significantly higher than other groups. Secondly, although men outperformed women in the CBT forward condition and in the WalCT forward and backward conditions, they scored higher than women only in the WalCT with the negative background music. This means that mood cannot fully explain sex differences in visuospatial and navigational working memory. Our results suggest that sex differences in the CBT and WalCT can be better explained by differences in spatial competences rather than by emotional contexts.

  14. Interaction With PC Tablets And Possible Emotional Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emy Agren

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable developments in mobile-based technologies have brought prominent impacts on human life style. Today life is running on mobile electronic devices smart phones tablets gaming devices and video-players. Generally the users acquaint with the features and properties of products after emotionally and physically interacting with the devices. The interaction in return influencing our moods depending on the feelings the technology creates. The focus of this study lays on the uses of tablets or also called PC tablets and its effects on its users emotional responses. To discover possible emotional responses with the tablets the data in this work were collected through a survey questionnaire from participants belongs to various backgrounds age groups and genders. The model of emotions was adopted in order to classify the emotional responses.The study has found that during or after the interaction with the tablets the users may get positive or negative emotional responses of a different kind. The users mood can also be affected by awakening such emotional feelings as happiness sadness frustration etc.

  15. Antenatal mood and fetal attachment after assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jane R W; Hammarberg, Karin; Baker, Gordon H W

    2008-05-01

    Australian women conceiving with ART are at fourfold risk of admission to early parenting treatment programs compared with those conceiving spontaneously. This study aimed to identify prevalence and determinants of antenatal mood disturbance and other risks for early parenting difficulties after assisted conception. A prospective longitudinal investigation from conception to 18 months postpartum using telephone interviews and self-report questionnaires. Melbourne IVF and Royal Women's Hospital Reproductive Services, Victoria, Australia. A consecutive cohort of English-speaking women with ultrasound-confirmed ART-conceived pregnancies. Standardized psychometric measures of mood, quality of marital relationship, mother-to-fetus emotional attachment, and personality. None. Of the 288 women with confirmed pregnancies, 239 were contactable, and 183 (77%) were recruited, 95% of whom completed both early and late pregnancy assessments. Participants were socioeconomically advantaged, had very good pregnancy health, exceptional marital relationships, normal personality styles, and intense affectionate attachment to the fetus. Very few (<5%) had clinically significant mood disturbance in late pregnancy. There were low rates of antenatal mood disturbance and other risk factors for postpartum depression. Pregnancy and motherhood might be idealized after ART conception, and preparation for the realities of infant care might then be insufficient.

  16. Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Self-Esteem and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents

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    Lourdes Rey

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence, selfesteem and life satisfaction in a sample of 316 Spanish adolescents (179 females and 137 males, ranging in age from 14 to 18. Demographic information was collected, along with data through the use of three self-report measures: the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. As expected, perceived emotional dimensions, particularly mood clarity and repair, showed positive associations with life satisfaction. Self-esteem also correlated significantly and positively with levels of adolescents´ satisfaction with life. More interestingly, results of structural equation modelling indicated that mood clarity and emotional repair had a significant direct and indirect link (via selfesteem with life satisfaction in adolescents. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the underlying process between perceived emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Our findings encourage moving beyond the examination of direct association between perceived emotional intelligence and life satisfaction and focusing on the role of potential mechanisms such as self-esteem involved in the link between perceived emotional intelligence and life satisfaction in adolescents. Implications of the present findings for future research are discussed, as well as potential interventions for increasing subjective well-being in adolescents.

  17. Discrete emotion-congruent false memories in the DRM paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, C.; Howe, M. L.; Knott, L.

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that false memory production is enhanced for material that is emotionally congruent with the mood of the participant at the time of encoding. So far this research has only examined the influence of generic negative affective mood states and generic negative stimuli on false memory production. In addition, much of the research is limited as it focuses on valence and arousal dimensions, and fails to take into account the more comprehensive nature of emotions. The current stud...

  18. Impact of fasting on food craving, mood and consumption in bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Domínguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen; Ortega-Roldán, Blanca; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Researchers have found that dietary restraint increases food cravings and may contribute to loss of control over eating. Negative mood states often precede food cravings and binge eating. In the present study, we tested the influence of a prolonged food deprivation period over emotional states and food cravings. Twenty-one bulimia nervosa participants and 20 healthy women participants were asked to refrain from any eating for 20 hours and reported, at baseline, after 6 hours and at the end of the fasting period, their mood and craving states. Food consumption was also measured. Fasting increased food cravings in both groups but increased negative mood in healthy women only. Bulimia nervosa participants reported improved mood following food deprivation. Whereas Bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants ate moderate and similar amounts of food following the 20-hour fasting period, food cravings were significantly associated with the number of calories ingested. These findings are congruent with self-regulation theories that predict that prolonged fasting may reduce negative emotions in women with bulimia nervosa. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  19. How robust is the language architecture? The case of mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkum, Jos J A; De Goede, Dieuwke; Van Alphen, Petra M; Mulder, Emma R; Kerstholt, José H

    2013-01-01

    In neurocognitive research on language, the processing principles of the system at hand are usually assumed to be relatively invariant. However, research on attention, memory, decision-making, and social judgment has shown that mood can substantially modulate how the brain processes information. For example, in a bad mood, people typically have a narrower focus of attention and rely less on heuristics. In the face of such pervasive mood effects elsewhere in the brain, it seems unlikely that language processing would remain untouched. In an EEG experiment, we manipulated the mood of participants just before they read texts that confirmed or disconfirmed verb-based expectations about who would be talked about next (e.g., that "David praised Linda because … " would continue about Linda, not David), or that respected or violated a syntactic agreement rule (e.g., "The boys turns"). ERPs showed that mood had little effect on syntactic parsing, but did substantially affect referential anticipation: whereas readers anticipated information about a specific person when they were in a good mood, a bad mood completely abolished such anticipation. A behavioral follow-up experiment suggested that a bad mood did not interfere with verb-based expectations per se, but prevented readers from using that information rapidly enough to predict upcoming reference on the fly, as the sentence unfolds. In all, our results reveal that background mood, a rather unobtrusive affective state, selectively changes a crucial aspect of real-time language processing. This observation fits well with other observed interactions between language processing and affect (emotions, preferences, attitudes, mood), and more generally testifies to the importance of studying "cold" cognitive functions in relation to "hot" aspects of the brain.

  20. Divorce: An Unreliable Predictor of Children's Emotional Predispositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Janine M.; Nesbitt, Sally

    1981-01-01

    Used the Children's Emotion Projection Instrument to investigate the emotional predispositions of children from divorce or disruption and children from intact families. Results indicated that children of divorce or disruption are not more hampered emotionally than children from intact families. Discusses implications for family therapists.…

  1. Oxytocin Modulates Meta-Mood as a Function of Age and Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie eEbner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attending to and understanding one’s own feelings are components of meta-mood and constitute important socio-affective skills across the entire lifespan. Growing evidence suggests a neuromodulatory role of the neuropeptide oxytocin on various socio-affective processes. Going beyond previous work that almost exclusively examined young men and perceptions of emotions in others, the current study investigated effects of intranasal oxytocin on meta-mood in young and older men and women. In a double-blind between-group design, participants were randomly assigned to self-administer either intranasal oxytocin or a placebo before responding to items from the Trait Meta-Mood Scale about attention to feelings and clarity of feelings. In contrast to older women, oxytocin relative to placebo increased attention to feelings in older men. Oxytocin relative to placebo enhanced meta-mood in young female participants but reduced it in older female participants. This pattern of findings supports an age- and sex-differential modulatory function of the neuropeptide oxytocin on meta-mood, possibly associated with neurobiological differences with age and sex.

  2. Psilocybin-Induced Decrease in Amygdala Reactivity Correlates with Enhanced Positive Mood in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehenmann, Rainer; Preller, Katrin H; Scheidegger, Milan; Pokorny, Thomas; Bosch, Oliver G; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2015-10-15

    The amygdala is a key structure in serotonergic emotion-processing circuits. In healthy volunteers, acute administration of the serotonin 1A/2A/2C receptor agonist psilocybin reduces neural responses to negative stimuli and induces mood changes toward positive states. However, it is little-known whether psilocybin reduces amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli and whether any change in amygdala reactivity is related to mood change. This study assessed the effects of acute administration of the hallucinogen psilocybin (.16 mg/kg) versus placebo on amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli in 25 healthy volunteers using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Mood changes were assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A double-blind, randomized, cross-over design was used with volunteers counterbalanced to receive psilocybin and placebo in two separate sessions at least 14 days apart. Amygdala reactivity to negative and neutral stimuli was lower after psilocybin administration than after placebo administration. The psilocybin-induced attenuation of right amygdala reactivity in response to negative stimuli was related to the psilocybin-induced increase in positive mood state. These results demonstrate that acute treatment with psilocybin decreased amygdala reactivity during emotion processing and that this was associated with an increase of positive mood in healthy volunteers. These findings may be relevant to the normalization of amygdala hyperactivity and negative mood states in patients with major depression. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Does alcohol affect memory for emotional and non-emotional experiences in different ways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, S K Z; Duka, T

    2004-03-01

    Alcohol has been shown to have both impairing and facilitating effects on memory, depending on the sequencing of learning and ingestion of the drug. Its effects on memory for emotional material, however, have not been shown reliably. The current experiment sought to investigate the effects of alcohol on later recall of emotional and neutral events experienced before and after alcohol drinking. Using an incidental-learning paradigm, alcohol (0.65 g/kg) or placebo was administered in a double-blind randomized design to 34 participants, between two learning phases in which they viewed and rated positive, negative and neutral images. The drug's effects on memory were assessed in a surprise test of free recall. In addition, impact of alcohol on ratings of mood states, and of valence and arousal that the pictures evoked, was examined. Alcohol facilitated memory for material seen before, and impaired memory for material seen after, its administration. Furthermore, under alcohol, emotional images in the first set were more recalled over neutral than in the second set, indicating a higher retrograde facilitation for emotional than for neutral material. Alcohol improved positive mood states but had no effect on negative mood states. Evaluation of pictures with regard to valence showed an increase of the ratings for the positive and neutral images after alcohol and a decrease after placebo. No drug effects were found for arousal ratings. Whether a picture was likely to be remembered or not (tested only for set 2) was dependent on the intensity of the arousal but not of the valence that the picture evoked in the participants. Pictures that were rated high in arousal were also remembered better, and this effect was irrespective of alcohol or placebo ingestion. These data have shown that alcohol elicits retrograde facilitation and anterograde impairment for emotional materials. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that alcohol selectively facilitates memories for emotional events

  4. Associations Between Daily Mood States and Brain Gray Matter Volume, Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Task-Based Activity in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Ismaylova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown differences in the functioning in the areas of the frontal-limbic circuitry between depressed patients and controls. However, current knowledge on frontal-limbic neural substrates of individual differences in mood states in everyday life in healthy individuals is scarce. The present study investigates anatomical, resting-state, and functional neural correlates of daily mood states in healthy individuals. We expected to observe associations between mood and the frontal-limbic circuitry and the default-mode network (DMN. A total of 42 healthy adults (19 men, 23 women; 34 ± 1.2 years regularly followed for behavior and psychosocial functioning since age of 6, underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, and completed a daily diary of mood states and related cognitions for 5 consecutive days. Results showed that individuals with smaller left hippocampal gray matter volumes experienced more negative mood and rumination in their daily life. Greater resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC within the DMN, namely between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and medial prefrontal cortex regions as well as between PCC and precuneus, was associated with both greater negative and positive mood states in daily life. These rsFC results could be indicative of the role of the DMN regional functioning in emotional arousal, irrespective of valence. Lastly, greater daily positive mood was associated with greater activation in response to negative emotional stimuli in the precentral gyri, previously linked to emotional interference on cognitive control. Altogether, present findings might reflect neural mechanisms underlying daily affect and cognition among healthy individuals.

  5. Associations Between Daily Mood States and Brain Gray Matter Volume, Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Task-Based Activity in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaylova, Elmira; Di Sante, Jessica; Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Pomares, Florence B; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Booij, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown differences in the functioning in the areas of the frontal-limbic circuitry between depressed patients and controls. However, current knowledge on frontal-limbic neural substrates of individual differences in mood states in everyday life in healthy individuals is scarce. The present study investigates anatomical, resting-state, and functional neural correlates of daily mood states in healthy individuals. We expected to observe associations between mood and the frontal-limbic circuitry and the default-mode network (DMN). A total of 42 healthy adults (19 men, 23 women; 34 ± 1.2 years) regularly followed for behavior and psychosocial functioning since age of 6, underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, and completed a daily diary of mood states and related cognitions for 5 consecutive days. Results showed that individuals with smaller left hippocampal gray matter volumes experienced more negative mood and rumination in their daily life. Greater resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) within the DMN, namely between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex regions as well as between PCC and precuneus, was associated with both greater negative and positive mood states in daily life. These rsFC results could be indicative of the role of the DMN regional functioning in emotional arousal, irrespective of valence. Lastly, greater daily positive mood was associated with greater activation in response to negative emotional stimuli in the precentral gyri, previously linked to emotional interference on cognitive control. Altogether, present findings might reflect neural mechanisms underlying daily affect and cognition among healthy individuals.

  6. Temperamental correlates of disruptive behavior disorders in young children: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V; Violette, Heather; Wrightsman, Jessica; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F

    2002-04-01

    Our objective was to test the hypothesis that temperamental behavioral disinhibition measured in early childhood would be associated with disruptive behavior disorders. We used variables from laboratory-based behavioral observations originally devised to assess behavioral inhibition to construct a theory-based a priori definition of "behavioral disinhibition" in 200 young children at-risk for panic disorder, depression, or both and 84 children of parents without anxiety or major depressive disorder. We then compared behaviorally disinhibited and nonbehaviorally disinhibited children on rates of DSM-III-R disorders and measures of academic and social dysfunction. Behavioral disinhibition was significantly associated with higher rates of disruptive behavior disorders and mood disorders. Children with behavioral disinhibition were significantly more likely than nondisinhibited, noninhibited children to have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to have comorbid mood and disruptive behavior disorders. Moreover, disinhibited children had lower Global Assessment of Functioning Scale scores and were more likely to have been in special classes and to have problems with school behavior and leisure activities. These results suggest that behavioral disinhibition may represent a temperamental precursor to disruptive behavior problems, particularly ADHD. Longitudinal studies using behavioral assessments of behavioral disinhibition are needed to confirm these findings.

  7. Emotional reasoning processes and dysphoric mood: cross-sectional and prospective relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Berle

    Full Text Available Emotional reasoning refers to the use of subjective emotions, rather than objective evidence, to form conclusions about oneself and the world. Emotional reasoning appears to characterise anxiety disorders. We aimed to determine whether elevated levels of emotional reasoning also characterise dysphoria. In Study 1, low dysphoric (BDI-II≤4; n = 28 and high dysphoric (BDI-II ≥14; n = 42 university students were administered an emotional reasoning task relevant for dysphoria. In Study 2, a larger university sample were administered the same task, with additional self-referent ratings, and were followed up 8 weeks later. In Study 1, both the low and high dysphoric participants demonstrated emotional reasoning and there were no significant differences in scores on the emotional reasoning task between the low and high dysphoric groups. In Study 2, self-referent emotional reasoning interpretations showed small-sized positive correlations with depression symptoms. Emotional reasoning tendencies were stable across an 8-week interval although not predictive of subsequent depressive symptoms. Further, anxiety symptoms were independently associated with emotional reasoning and emotional reasoning was not associated with anxiety sensitivity, alexithymia, or deductive reasoning tendencies. The implications of these findings are discussed, including the possibility that while all individuals may engage in emotional reasoning, self-referent emotional reasoning may be associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms.

  8. Emotional reasoning processes and dysphoric mood: cross-sectional and prospective relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berle, David; Moulds, Michelle L

    2013-01-01

    Emotional reasoning refers to the use of subjective emotions, rather than objective evidence, to form conclusions about oneself and the world. Emotional reasoning appears to characterise anxiety disorders. We aimed to determine whether elevated levels of emotional reasoning also characterise dysphoria. In Study 1, low dysphoric (BDI-II≤4; n = 28) and high dysphoric (BDI-II ≥14; n = 42) university students were administered an emotional reasoning task relevant for dysphoria. In Study 2, a larger university sample were administered the same task, with additional self-referent ratings, and were followed up 8 weeks later. In Study 1, both the low and high dysphoric participants demonstrated emotional reasoning and there were no significant differences in scores on the emotional reasoning task between the low and high dysphoric groups. In Study 2, self-referent emotional reasoning interpretations showed small-sized positive correlations with depression symptoms. Emotional reasoning tendencies were stable across an 8-week interval although not predictive of subsequent depressive symptoms. Further, anxiety symptoms were independently associated with emotional reasoning and emotional reasoning was not associated with anxiety sensitivity, alexithymia, or deductive reasoning tendencies. The implications of these findings are discussed, including the possibility that while all individuals may engage in emotional reasoning, self-referent emotional reasoning may be associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms.

  9. Emotional Reasoning Processes and Dysphoric Mood: Cross-Sectional and Prospective Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berle, David; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional reasoning refers to the use of subjective emotions, rather than objective evidence, to form conclusions about oneself and the world [1]. Emotional reasoning appears to characterise anxiety disorders. We aimed to determine whether elevated levels of emotional reasoning also characterise dysphoria. In Study 1, low dysphoric (BDI-II≤4; n = 28) and high dysphoric (BDI-II ≥14; n = 42) university students were administered an emotional reasoning task relevant for dysphoria. In Study 2, a larger university sample were administered the same task, with additional self-referent ratings, and were followed up 8 weeks later. In Study 1, both the low and high dysphoric participants demonstrated emotional reasoning and there were no significant differences in scores on the emotional reasoning task between the low and high dysphoric groups. In Study 2, self-referent emotional reasoning interpretations showed small-sized positive correlations with depression symptoms. Emotional reasoning tendencies were stable across an 8-week interval although not predictive of subsequent depressive symptoms. Further, anxiety symptoms were independently associated with emotional reasoning and emotional reasoning was not associated with anxiety sensitivity, alexithymia, or deductive reasoning tendencies. The implications of these findings are discussed, including the possibility that while all individuals may engage in emotional reasoning, self-referent emotional reasoning may be associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:23826276

  10. Minho Affective Sentences (MAS): Probing the roles of sex, mood, and empathy in affective ratings of verbal stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana P; Dias, Marcelo; Pedrosa, João; Soares, Ana P

    2017-04-01

    During social communication, words and sentences play a critical role in the expression of emotional meaning. The Minho Affective Sentences (MAS) were developed to respond to the lack of a standardized sentence battery with normative affective ratings: 192 neutral, positive, and negative declarative sentences were strictly controlled for psycholinguistic variables such as numbers of words and letters and per-million word frequency. The sentences were designed to represent examples of each of the five basic emotions (anger, sadness, disgust, fear, and happiness) and of neutral situations. These sentences were presented to 536 participants who rated the stimuli using both dimensional and categorical measures of emotions. Sex differences were also explored. Additionally, we probed how personality, empathy, and mood from a subset of 40 participants modulated the affective ratings. Our results confirmed that the MAS affective norms are valid measures to guide the selection of stimuli for experimental studies of emotion. The combination of dimensional and categorical ratings provided a more fine-grained characterization of the affective properties of the sentences. Moreover, the affective ratings of positive and negative sentences were not only modulated by participants' sex, but also by individual differences in empathy and mood state. Together, our results indicate that, in their quest to reveal the neurofunctional underpinnings of verbal emotional processing, researchers should consider not only the role of sex, but also of interindividual differences in empathy and mood states, in responses to the emotional meaning of sentences.

  11. Adipostatic regulation of motivation and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon F

    2010-05-01

    The proper maintenance of body weight and mood are two of the most prevalent health issues present in society today. Obese humans display higher levels of mood-related disorders and the causality of such an association is unknown. A common feature of obesity is the imbalance of regulatory hormones which normally act to maintain stable energy balance and body weight. The adiposity hormone leptin is one such signal elevated in obesity with the capacity to dampen feeding behavior through action on brain circuits which regulate appetite and metabolism. Recent evidence suggests that leptin may regulate motivation through its actions within brain reward circuitry. In addition, leptin signaling within central nervous system regions that regulate cognition and emotion elicits anti-depressant like effects. Together, these data indicate that leptin may regulate the decreased motivation and mood present in obesity and depression. This review describes the capacity of leptin to regulate motivation and depression through actions within brain circuits that modulate effort-based behavior and emotion, respectively.

  12. Basal salivary oxytocin level predicts extra- but not intra-personal dimensions of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koven, Nancy S; Max, Laura K

    2014-06-01

    A wealth of literature suggests that oxytocin is an important mediator of social cognition, but much of the research to date has relied on pharmaceutical administration methods that can raise oxytocin to artificially high levels. The present study builds upon previous work by examining whether basal oxytocin level predicts intra- and extra-personal (i.e., self- and other-focused) elements of emotional intelligence (EI), independent of shared variance with current mood. The sample included 71 healthy young adults (46 women). Assessment measures included the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test Version 2.0 (MSCEIT), the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, and the Profile of Mood States. Peripheral oxytocin levels were examined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from saliva after solid phase extraction. Oxytocin level was unrelated to TMMS scores but was positively associated with performance in the Experiential EI domain of the MSCEIT. However, total mood disturbance was positively related to MSCEIT scores. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that oxytocin level added unique variance to the prediction of MSCEIT performance beyond that of current mood. These results confirm an association between endogenous levels of oxytocin in healthy adults and a subset of EI abilities, including extra-personal emotion recognition and the channeling of emotions to enhance social proficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Weather and emotional state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  14. The Role of the Medical Students’ Emotional Mood in Information Retrieval from the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Yari Zanganeh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Online information retrieval is a process the result of which is influenced by the changes in the emotional moods of the user. It seems reasonable to include emotional aspects in developing information retrieval systems in order to optimize the experience of the users. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the role of positive and negative affects in the information seeking process on the web among students of medical sciences. Methods: From the methodological perspective, the present study was an experimental and applied research. According to the nature of the experimental method, observation and questionnaire were used. The participants were the students of various fields of Medical Sciences. The research sample included 50 students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences selected through purposeful sampling method; they regularly used World Wide Web and google engine for information retrieval in educational, Research, personal, or managerial activities. In order to collect the data, search tasks were characterized by the topic, sequence in a search process, difficulty level, and searcher’s interest (simple in a task. Face and content validity of the questionnaire were confirmed by the experts. Reliability of the questionnaire was tested by Alpha Cronbach. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (PA=0.777, NA=0.754 showed a high rate of reliability in a PANAS questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS, version 20.0; also, to test the research hypothesis, T-Test and pair Samples T-Test were used. The P0.05. Conclusion: Information retrieval systems in the Web should identify positive and negative affects in the information seeking process in a set of perceiving signs in human interaction with the computer. The automatic identification of the users’ affect opens new dimensions into users moderators and information retrieval systems for successful retrieval from the Web.

  15. Emotion Expression on Social Networking Sites: Exploring Mood Profiles and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    ELIZABETH MARY SEABROOK

    2018-01-01

    Depression can be detected from the language people use on social media. This thesis explored patterns in the way people express emotion online and how emotion patterns can be used to identify depression from status updates. Language is complex, and the emotion expressed in status updates did not clearly reflect experienced emotion at a daily level. Emotion patterns over time were more informative. For Facebook users, extreme fluctuations in the amount of negative emotion words between consec...

  16. The cost of empathy: Parent-adolescent conflict predicts emotion dysregulation for highly empathic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lissa, Caspar J; Hawk, Skyler T; Koot, Hans M; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim H J

    2017-09-01

    Empathy plays a key role in maintaining close relationships and promoting prosocial conflict resolution. However, research has not addressed the potential emotional cost of adolescents' high empathy, particularly when relationships are characterized by more frequent conflict. The present 6-year longitudinal study (N = 467) investigated whether conflict with parents predicted emotion dysregulation more strongly for high-empathy adolescents than for lower-empathy adolescents. Emotion dysregulation was operationalized at both the experiential level, using mood diary data collected for 3 weeks each year, and at the dispositional level, using annual self-report measures. In line with predictions, we found that more frequent adolescent-parent conflict predicted greater day-to-day mood variability and dispositional difficulties in emotion regulation for high-empathy adolescents, but not for average- and low-empathy adolescents. Mood variability and difficulties in emotion regulation, in turn, also predicted increased conflict with parents. These links were not moderated by empathy. Moreover, our research allowed for a novel investigation of the interplay between experiential and dispositional emotion dysregulation. Day-to-day mood variability predicted increasing dispositional difficulties in emotion regulation over time, which suggests that experiential dysregulation becomes consolidated into dispositional difficulties in emotion regulation. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that, for high-empathy adolescents, conflict was a driver of this dysregulation consolidation process. Finally, emotion dysregulation played a role in overtime conflict maintenance for high-empathy adolescents. This suggests that, through emotion dysregulation, high empathy may paradoxically also contribute to maintaining negative adolescent-parent interactions. Our research indicates that high empathy comes at a cost when adolescent-parent relationships are characterized by greater negativity

  17. The expression of emotions in 20th century books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerbi, Alberto; Lampos, Vasileios; Garnett, Philip; Bentley, R Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We report here trends in the usage of "mood" words, that is, words carrying emotional content, in 20th century English language books, using the data set provided by Google that includes word frequencies in roughly 4% of all books published up to the year 2008. We find evidence for distinct historical periods of positive and negative moods, underlain by a general decrease in the use of emotion-related words through time. Finally, we show that, in books, American English has become decidedly more "emotional" than British English in the last half-century, as a part of a more general increase of the stylistic divergence between the two variants of English language.

  18. How robust is the language architecture? The case of mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos J.A. Van Berkum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In neurocognitive research on language, the processing principles of the system at hand are usually assumed to be relatively invariant. However, research on attention, memory, decision-making, and social judgment has shown that mood can substantially modulate how the brain processes information. For example, in a bad mood, people typically have a narrower focus of attention and rely less on heuristics. In the face of such pervasive mood effects elsewhere in the brain, it seems unlikely that language processing would remain untouched. In an EEG experiment, we manipulated the mood of participants just before they read texts that confirmed or disconfirmed verb-based expectations about who would be talked about next (e.g., that "David praised Linda because..." would continue about Linda, not David, or that respected or violated a syntactic agreement rule (e.g., "The boys turns". ERPs showed that mood had little effect on syntactic parsing, but did substantially affect referential anticipation: whereas readers anticipated information about a specific person when they were in a good mood, a bad mood completely abolished such anticipation. A behavioral follow-up experiment suggested that a bad mood did not interfere with verb-based expectations per se, but prevented readers from using that information rapidly enough to predict upcoming reference on the fly, as the sentence unfolds. In all, our results reveal that background mood, a rather unobtrusive affective state, selectively changes a crucial aspect of real-time language processing. This observation fits well with other observed interactions between language processing and affect (emotions, preferences, attitudes, mood, and more generally testifies to the importance of studying ‘cold’ cognitive functions in relation to ‘hot’ aspects of the brain.

  19. Mediation of self-regulation and mood in the relationship of changes in high emotional eating and nutritional behaviors: Moderating effects of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Mareno, Nicole; McEwen, Kristin L

    2016-12-01

    High emotional eating (EE) is prevalent in women with obesity. A previous study's subsample of obese women classified as high emotional eaters participated in either a physical activity-focused experimental (n = 29) or an educationally focused comparison (n = 22) behavioral treatment and was assessed over phases of expected weight loss (baseline-month 6) and short- and long-term regain (months 6-12 and 6-24, respectively). The study's aim was to assess theory-based psychological and behavioral mediation and moderation of changes in nutritional behaviors via emotional eating change in order to inform behavioral weight-loss treatments. During the weight-loss phase, significant improvements in eating self-regulation and mood significantly mediated the relationship of reduced EE and intake of both fruits and vegetables (FV) and sweets. Self-regulation was a significant independent mediator. Physical activity significantly moderated the relationship between EE and self-regulation changes. All variables demonstrated large positive effects and significant time × group interactions favoring the experimental group. During the short and long-term phases of expected weight regain, there were no significant changes in FV intake, although consumption of sweets significantly increased during months 6-24. Change in FV and sweets significantly predicted weight change, which was significantly greater in the experimental vs. comparison group over both the initial 6 months (-6.1% vs. -2.6%) and full 24 months of the study (-7.6% vs. -1.3%). Findings suggest that behavioral treatments should address EE through improvements in self-regulation and mood, and supported physical activity will aid in that process. The need for an improved understanding of weight-loss maintenance remains. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Subacute effects of ecstasy on mood: an exploration of associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rebecca M; Hides, Leanne; Allen, J Sabura; Lubman, Dan I

    2013-01-01

    Ecstasy use may result in lowered mood, anxiety or aggression in the days following use. Yet, few studies have investigated what factors increase the risk of experiencing such symptoms. Ecstasy users (at least once in the last 12 months) who subsequently took ecstasy (n=35) over the period of one week, were compared on measures of mood, sleep, stress and drug use, with those who abstained from ecstasy (n=21) that week. Measures were administered the week prior to ecstasy use and one and three days following use, or the equivalent day for abstainers. Mood symptoms were assessed using the Kessler-10 self-report psychological distress scale, a subjective mood rating (1-10), and using the depression, anxiety and hostility items from the clinician-rated Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Timeline Followback methods were used to collect information on drug use and life stress in the past month. Self-reported sleep quality was also assessed. Ecstasy use was not associated with subacute depressive, anxiety or aggressive symptoms. Rather, lowered mood and increased psychological distress were associated with self-reported hours and quality of sleep obtained during the three-day follow-up. These findings highlight the importance of considering sleep disruption in understanding the short-term mood effects of ecstasy use.

  1. Emotional intelligence as predictor of mental, social, and physical health in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the association between emotional intelligence (EI), anxiety, depression, and mental, social, and physical health in university students. The sample was made up of 184 university students (38 men and 146 women). El was evaluated by the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey, and Palfai, 1995), which evaluates the three dimensions (Attention, Clarity, and Mood Repair). Anxiety was evaluated with the Trait Anxiety Questionnaire (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, and Jacobs, 1983) and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Rush, Shaw, and Emery, 1979). Mental, social, and physical health were evaluated with the SF-12 Health Survey (Ware, Kosinski, and Keller, 1996). Results showed that high Emotional Attention was positively and significantly related to high anxiety, depression, and to low levels of Role Emotional, Social Functioning, and Mental Health. However, high levels of emotional Clarity and Mood Repair were related to low levels of anxiety and depression, high Role Physical, Social Functioning, Mental Health, Vitality, and General Health. This study confirmed the predictive value of Attention, Clarity and Mood Repair regarding the levels of anxiety, depression, and areas related to mental, social, and physical health in university students.

  2. Emotional Eating (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for ... Interestingly, they may vary according to moods and gender. One study found ... differences between physical hunger and emotional hunger. Next time ...

  3. Assessment of Implicit Self-Esteem in Older Adults: The Role of Actual and Ideal Self-Esteem in Negative Mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeyer, Ineke; Romero, Nuria; De Raedt, Rudi

    2018-04-01

    The interplay between actual and ideal self-esteem may be a key component in emotional disorders. Since automatic self-evaluations are not always consciously accessible, assessment through implicit measures is necessary. Given the lack of implicit self-esteem measures in late life, we aimed to identify a reliable measure and to clarify the role of actual and ideal self-esteem in mood and depressive symptoms in older adults. Forty-nine older adults completed two adapted Go/No go Association tasks measuring implicit actual and ideal self-esteem and measures of mood and depressive symptoms. The two Go/No go Association tasks showed satisfactory internal consistency. Moderation analyses revealed that lower actual self-esteem in older adults is related to higher levels of sad mood when ideal self-esteem is high. Moreover, lower actual self-esteem is related to more anxious mood. Given the role of self-esteem in emotional well-being, a reliable measure for older adults is crucial to improve age-appropriate diagnostics and treatment.

  4. How is Workers' Mood Affected by Workplace Lighting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonello, Graciela

    The aim of the study was to investigate to what extent variations in natural daylight, as well as in indoor lighting and decoration, would affect the mood of people working indoor. It was assumed that such an impact would be moderated by the personality characteristics of the individuals. The study was carried out in northern Argentina in workplaces consisting mostly of open plan offices, but also some rooms for one or two persons, and a factory plant were included. About 20 per cent completely lacked windows. In spite of the considerable variations in day length, ranging from ten-and-a-half hours in June to fourteen hours in December, no overall seasonal variations in mood could be established. One obvious reason for this may have been the frequent use of shading devices which reduced the impact of the variations in natural daylight between summer and winter. On the other hand, the differences between the interior environments in terms of lighting and decoration did seem to have at least some impact. Both analyses of regression and variance showed interior decoration to be the most important from the emotional point of view. The participants throughout, reported a more positive mood in the colourful environments. The difference was consistent over the year but became significant only during autumn and winter. Individuals of type B (few signs of tension) reported a more positive emotional status throughout the year than those of type A, which is in line with previous results linking type A to anger and hostility.

  5. Mood effects on memory and executive control in a real-life situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagner, Prune; Kliegel, Matthias; Phillips, Louise H; Ihle, Andreas; Hering, Alexandra; Ballhausen, Nicola; Schnitzspahn, Katharina M

    2015-01-01

    In the laboratory, studies have shown an inconsistent pattern of whether, and how, mood may affect cognitive functions indicating both mood-related enhancement as well as decline. Surprisingly, little is known about whether there are similar effects in everyday life. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate possible mood effects on memory and executive control in a real-life situation. Mood effects were examined in the context of winning in a sports competition. Sixty-one male handball players were tested with an extensive cognitive test battery (comprising memory and executive control) both after winning a match and after training as neutral baseline. Mood differed significantly between the two testing situations, while physiological arousal and motivation were comparable. Results showed lowered performance after the win compared with training in selected cognitive measures. Specifically, short-term and episodic memory performance was poorer following a win, whereas executive control performance was unaffected by condition. Differences in memory disappeared when emotional states after the match were entered as covariates into the initial analyses. Thus, findings suggest mood-related impairments in memory, but not in executive control processes after a positive real-life event.

  6. A Kaleidoscopic View of Change: Bringing Emotional Literacy into the Library Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toben, Janice

    1997-01-01

    Discusses emotional literacy, which combines emotions, intelligence, and literacy, and suggests ways to increase emotional intelligence in school libraries and classrooms. Emotional literacy skills include self-awareness, empathy, social problem solving, mood management, and the understanding of motivation. (LRW)

  7. 音乐改善鸡情绪%Music Improves Chicken Moods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Larry O'Hanlon; 李斌

    2003-01-01

    @@ Clues to how some music can send chills down your spine are being sought in the moods of chickens. Austrian and U. S. researchers have found that in young domestic chicks, the effects of music can be seen in behavioral changes. The experiment reveals not so much chicks' musical appreciation, but hints(暗示,提示) at how the "language of emotions" might have evolved hand-in-hand with emotions.

  8. Emotions and family interactions in childhood: Associations with leukocyte telomere length emotions, family interactions, and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Theodore F; Carroll, Judith E; Bai, Sunhye; Reynolds, Bridget M; Esquivel, Stephanie; Repetti, Rena L

    2016-01-01

    Conceptualizations of links between stress and cellular aging in childhood suggest that accumulating stress predicts shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL). At the same time, several models suggest that emotional reactivity to stressors may play a key role in predicting cellular aging. Using intensive repeated measures, we tested whether exposure or emotional "reactivity" to conflict and warmth in the family were related to LTL. Children (N=39; 30 target children and 9 siblings) between 8 and 13 years of age completed daily diary questionnaires for 56 consecutive days assessing daily warmth and conflict in the marital and the parent-child dyad, and daily positive and negative mood. To assess exposure to conflict and warmth, diary scale scores were averaged over the 56 days. Mood "reactivity" was operationalized by using multilevel modeling to generate estimates of the slope of warmth or conflict scores (marital and parent-child, separately) predicting same-day mood for each individual child. After diary collection, a blood sample was collected to determine LTL. Among children aged 8-13 years, a stronger association between negative mood and marital conflict, suggesting greater negative mood reactivity to marital conflict, was related to shorter LTL (B=-1.51, pfamily and marital conflict and warmth, and positive and negative mood over a two-month period. To our knowledge, these findings, although cross-sectional, represent the first evidence showing that link between children's affective responses and daily family interactions may have implications for telomere length. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emotional Reasoning Processes and Dysphoric Mood: Cross-Sectional and Prospective Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Berle, David; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional reasoning refers to the use of subjective emotions, rather than objective evidence, to form conclusions about oneself and the world [1]. Emotional reasoning appears to characterise anxiety disorders. We aimed to determine whether elevated levels of emotional reasoning also characterise dysphoria. In Study 1, low dysphoric (BDI-II?4; n?=?28) and high dysphoric (BDI-II ?14; n?=?42) university students were administered an emotional reasoning task relevant for dysphoria. In Study 2, a ...

  10. Inducing preschool children's emotional eating: relations with parental feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Jackie; Haycraft, Emma; Farrow, Claire

    2010-08-01

    Children's emotional eating is related to greater body mass index and a less-healthy diet, but little is known about the early development of this behavior. This study aimed to examine the relations between preschool children's emotional eating and parental feeding practices by using experimental manipulation of child mood and food intake in a laboratory setting. Twenty-five 3-5-y-old children and their mothers sat together and ate a standard meal to satiety. Mothers completed questionnaires regarding their feeding practices. Children were assigned to a control or negative mood condition, and their consumption of snack foods in the absence of hunger was measured. Children whose mothers often used food to regulate emotions ate more cookies in the absence of hunger than did children whose mothers used this feeding practice infrequently, regardless of condition. Children whose mothers often used food for emotion regulation purposes ate more chocolate in the experimental condition than in the control condition. The pattern was reversed for children of mothers who did not tend to use food for emotion regulation. There were no significant effects of maternal use of restriction, pressure to eat, and use of foods as a reward on children's snack food consumption. Children of mothers who use food for emotion regulation consume more sweet palatable foods in the absence of hunger than do children of mothers who use this feeding practice infrequently. Emotional overeating behavior may occur in the context of negative mood in children whose mothers use food for emotion regulation purposes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01122290.

  11. Mood states determine the degree of task shielding in dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwosta, Katharina; Hommel, Bernhard; Goschke, Thomas; Fischer, Rico

    2013-01-01

    Current models of multitasking assume that dual-task performance and the degree of multitasking are affected by cognitive control strategies. In particular, cognitive control is assumed to regulate the amount of shielding of the prioritised task from crosstalk from the secondary task. We investigated whether and how task shielding is influenced by mood states. Participants were exposed to two short film clips, one inducing high and one inducing low arousal, of either negative or positive content. Negative mood led to stronger shielding of the prioritised task (i.e., less crosstalk) than positive mood, irrespective of arousal. These findings support the assumption that emotional states determine the parameters of cognitive control and play an important role in regulating dual-task performance.

  12. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Médhi; Deliens, Gaétane; Leproult, Rachel; Bodart, Alice; Nonclercq, Antoine; Ercek, Rudy; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-12-29

    Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24) listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min) morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min) morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term.

  13. The implicit influence of a negative mood on the subliminal mere exposure effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Naoaki

    2012-12-01

    Despite numerous studies on the mere exposure effect, it is still not clear why it occurs. The present study examined whether a negative mood would enhance or inhibit the effects. Fifty-two participants (30 men, 22 women; M age = 20.5 yr.) were assigned to one of two mood-induction groups (negative and neutral), and were exposed to a photograph 20 times after the mood induction. Thereafter, a single-category Implicit Association Test was conducted to measure their implicit attitudes toward the photograph. There was a significant interaction, with exposed stimuli evaluated more favorably than unexposed stimuli in the neutral condition, but not in the negative condition. This result suggests that a negative mood inhibited the mere exposure effect, implying that people could use their emotional states as cues to evaluate ambiguous objects that they have been repeatedly exposed to.

  14. Child behavior checklist dysregulation profile in children with disruptive behavior disorders: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Pisano, Simone; Milone, Annarita; Muratori, Pietro

    2015-11-01

    A Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profile defined as Dysregulation Profile (DP) (scores 2 standard deviations or more in anxiety/depression, aggression, attention subscales) has been correlated to poor emotional and behavioral self-regulation. The clinical meaning and the prognostic implications of CBCL-DP are still debated, although it seems associated with severe psychopathology and poor adjustment. In the present study, we used the CBCL-DP score to examine the adolescent outcomes (psychiatric diagnosis, substance use, psychiatric hospitalization) in 80 referred children with disruptive behavior disorders -DBD- (Oppositional Defiant Disorder or conduct disorder), aged 8-9 years, 72 males (90%) and 8 females (10%), followed-up until the age of 14-15 years. Children with higher score on the CBCL-DP profile were at increased risk for presenting ADHD and mood disorders in adolescence. While ADHD in adolescence was predicted also by an ADHD diagnosis during childhood, CBCL-DP score was the only significant predictor of a mood disorder at 14-15 years. On the contrary, CBCL-DP score was not associated with a higher risk of conduct disorder, substance use and hospitalizations in adolescence. A cost-effective and reliable diagnostic measure such as the CBCL may be a part of the diagnostic procedure aimed to capture these at-risk children, to monitor their natural history up to adolescence, and to prevent the risk of a full-blown mood disorder. The small sample size and a selection bias of severe patients with DBD limit the generalization of the findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Emotion experienced during encoding enhances odor retrieval cue effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, R S

    1997-01-01

    Emotional potentiation may be a key variable in the formation of odor-associated memory. Two experiments were conducted in which a distinctive ambient odor was present or absent during encoding and retrieval sessions and subjects were in an anxious or neutral mood during encoding. Subjects' mood at retrieval was not manipulated. The laboratory mood induction used in Experiment 1 suggested that anxiety might increase the effectiveness of an odor retrieval cue. This trend was confirmed in Experiment 2 by capturing a naturally stressful situation. Subjects who had an ambient odor cue available and were in a preexam state during encoding recalled more words than subjects in any other group. These data are evidence that heightened emotion experienced during encoding with an ambient odor can enhance the effectiveness of an odor as a cue to memory.

  16. Mood Predicts Response to Placebo CPAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J. Stepnowsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy is efficacious for treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, but recent studies with placebo CPAP (CPAP administered at subtherapeutic pressure have revealed nonspecific (or placebo responses to CPAP treatment. This study examined baseline psychological factors associated with beneficial effects from placebo CPAP treatment. Participants. Twenty-five participants were studied with polysomnography at baseline and after treatment with placebo CPAP. Design. Participants were randomized to either CPAP treatment or placebo CPAP. Baseline mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS. Total mood disturbance (POMS-Total was obtained by summing the six POMS subscale scores, with Vigor weighted negatively. The dependent variable was changed in apnea-hypopnea index (ΔAHI, calculated by subtracting pre- from post-CPAP AHI. Negative values implied improvement. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed, with pre-CPAP AHI added as a covariate to control for baseline OSA severity. Results. Baseline emotional distress predicted the drop in AHI in response to placebo CPAP. Highly distressed patients showed greater placebo response, with a 34% drop (i.e., improvement in AHI. Conclusion. These findings underscore the importance of placebo-controlled studies of CPAP treatment. Whereas such trials are routinely included in drug trials, this paper argues for their importance even in mechanical-oriented sleep interventions.

  17. Emotions and false memories: valence or arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Yves; Verrier, Nadège

    2007-03-01

    The effects of mood on false memories have not been studied systematically until recently. Some results seem to indicate that negative mood may reduce false recall and thus suggest an influence of emotional valence on false memory. The present research tested the effects of both valence and arousal on recall and recognition and indicates that the effect is actually due to arousal. In fact, whether participants' mood is positive, negative, or neutral, false memories are significantly more frequent under conditions of high arousal than under conditions of low arousal.

  18. Evidence for endogenous opioid release in the amygdala during positive emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepp, M J; Hammers, A; Lawrence, A D; Asselin, M C; Grasby, P M; Bench, C J

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous opioid release has been linked to relief from aversive emotional memories, thereby promoting a euphoric state and subsequent interactions towards social stimuli resulting in the formation of social preferences. However, this theory remains controversial. Using positron emission tomography and [(11)C]diprenorphine (DPN) in healthy volunteers, we found significantly reduced DPN binding to opioid receptor in the hippocampus during positive mood induction compared to neutral mood. Furthermore, the magnitude of positive mood change correlated negatively with DPN binding in the amygdala bilaterally. Our finding of reduced DPN binding is consistent with increased release of endogenous opioids, providing direct evidence that localised release of endogenous opioids is involved in the regulation of positive emotion in humans.

  19. Introduction: Analysing Emotion and Theorising Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peta Tait

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This discussion introduces ideas of emotion and affect for a volume of articles demonstrating the scope of approaches used in their study within the humanities and creative arts. The volume offers multiple perspectives on emotion and affect within 20th-century and 21st-century texts, arts and organisations and their histories. The discussion explains how emotion encompasses the emotions, emotional feeling, sensation and mood and how these can be analysed particularly in relation to literature, art and performance. It briefly summarises concepts of affect theory within recent approaches before introducing the articles.

  20. Emotion, philosophical issues about.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonna, Julien; Tappolet, Christine; Teroni, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    We start this overview by discussing the place of emotions within the broader affective domain-how different are emotions from moods, sensations, and affective dispositions? Next, we examine the way emotions relate to their objects, emphasizing in the process their intimate relations to values. We move from this inquiry into the nature of emotion to an inquiry into their epistemology. Do they provide reasons for evaluative judgments and, more generally, do they contribute to our knowledge of values? We then address the question of the social dimension of emotions, explaining how the traditional nature versus nurture contrast applies to them. We finish by exploring the relations between emotions, motivation and action, concluding this overview with a more specific focus on how these relations bear on some central ethical issues. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Happiness increases verbal and spatial working memory capacity where sadness does not: Emotion, working memory and executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Maswood, Raeya

    2016-08-01

    The effects of emotion on working memory and executive control are often studied in isolation. Positive mood enhances verbal and impairs spatial working memory, whereas negative mood enhances spatial and impairs verbal working memory. Moreover, positive mood enhances executive control, whereas negative mood has little influence. We examined how emotion influences verbal and spatial working memory capacity, which requires executive control to coordinate between holding information in working memory and completing a secondary task. We predicted that positive mood would improve both verbal and spatial working memory capacity because of its influence on executive control. Positive, negative and neutral moods were induced followed by completing a verbal (Experiment 1) or spatial (Experiment 2) working memory operation span task to assess working memory capacity. Positive mood enhanced working memory capacity irrespective of the working memory domain, whereas negative mood had no influence on performance. Thus, positive mood was more successful holding information in working memory while processing task-irrelevant information, suggesting that the influence mood has on executive control supersedes the independent effects mood has on domain-specific working memory.

  2. Inside-out: comparing internally generated and externally generated basic emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Christian E; Radovic, Darinka; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2012-06-01

    A considerable number of mood induction (MI) procedures have been developed to elicit emotion in normal and clinical populations. Although external procedures (e.g., film clips, pictures) are widely used, a number of experiments elicit emotion by using self-generated procedures (e.g., recalling an emotional personal episode). However, no study has directly compared the effectiveness of two types of internal versus external MI across multiple discrete emotions. In the present experiment, 40 undergraduate students watched film clips (external procedure) and recalled personal events (internal procedure) inducing 4 basic emotions (fear, anger, joy, sadness) and later completed a self-report questionnaire. Remarkably, both internal and external procedures elicited target emotions selectively, compared with nontarget emotions. When contrasting the intensity of target emotions, both techniques showed no significant differences, with the exception of Joy, which was more intensely elicited by the internal procedure. Importantly, when considering the overall level of intensity, it was always greater in the internal procedure, for each stimulus. A more detailed investigation of the data suggest that recalling personal events (a type of internal procedure) generates more negative and mixed blends of emotions, which might account for the overall higher intensity of the internal mood induction.

  3. Good mood food. Positive emotion as a neglected trigger for food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Witt Huberts, Jessie C

    2013-09-01

    Research on emotions as a trigger for food intake has mainly been focused on the role of negative emotions. In the present studies the role of positive emotions as a trigger for food intake is investigated in a sample of healthy participants with a normal weight. Two laboratory studies were conducted in which positive emotions or no emotions were induced (Study 1) or in addition negative emotions were induced (Study 2) after which unhealthy food intake was assessed by bogus taste tests. In Study 3, food intake was assessed by registering snack intake in a 7-day diary study together with the emotions accompanying each snacking episode to provide a more ecologically valid test of our hypothesis. Studies 1 and 2 showed that positive emotions, compared to the control conditions, evoked more caloric intake. Dietary restraint did not moderate this effect. Study 2 additionally showed that positive emotions evoked caloric intake to the same extent as negative emotions. Study 3 showed that snack intake in daily life was reported to result from positive emotions more frequently than from negative emotions. Positive emotions serve as an important but under-investigated trigger for unhealthy food intake that deserves further scrutiny. Future research should further investigate whether food intake results from emotional arousal in general, or from emotional valence in particular. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [The facets of creativity in the light of bipolar mood alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakács, Réka

    2018-01-30

    The link between creativity, as the highest expression form of human achievement, and bipolar disorder came into focus of scientific investigations and research. Accomplished writers, composers and visual artists show a substantially higher rate of affective disorders, prodominantly bipolar mood disorders, comparing to the general population. Then again, patients afflicted with bipolar II subtype (hypomania and depression), as well as persons presenting the mildest form of bipolar mood swings (cyclothymia) possess higher creative skills. It evokes therefore that certain forms and mood states of bipolar disorder, notably hypomania might convey cognitive, emotional/affective, and motivational benefits to creativity. The aim of this paper is to display expression forms of creativity (writing, visual art, scientific work) as well as productivity (literary and scientific work output, number of artworks and exhibitions, awards) in the light of clinically diagnosed mood states at an eminent creative individual, treated for bipolar II disorder. Analysing the affective states, we found a striking relation between hypomanic episodes and visual artistic creativity and achievement, as well as scientific performance, whereas mild-moderate depressed mood promoted literary work. Severe depression and mixed states were not associated with creative activities, and intriguingly, long-term stabilised euthymic mood, exempted from marked affective lability, is disadvantageous regarding creativity. It seems, thereby, that mood functions as a sluice of creativity. Nevertheless, it is likely that there is a complex interaction between bipolar mood disorder spectrum and psychological factors promoting creativity, influenced also by individual variability due to medication, comorbid conditions, and course of disorder.

  5. Food and Mood: Just-in-Time Support for Emotional Eating

    OpenAIRE

    Caroll, Erin; Czerwinski, Mary; Roseway, Asta; schraefel, m.c.

    2013-01-01

    Behavior modification in health is difficult, as habitual behaviors are extremely well-learned, by definition. This research is focused on building a persuasive system for behavior modification around emotional eating. In this paper, we make strides towards building a just-in-time support system for emotional eating in three user studies. The first two studies involved participants using a custom mobile phone application for tracking emotions, food, and receiving interventions. We found lots ...

  6. Attentional bias for emotional information in older adults: the role of emotion and future time perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeyer, Ineke; De Raedt, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that older adults display a positivity bias at the level of information processing. However, because studies investigating attentional bias for emotional information in older adults have produced mixed findings, research identifying inter-individual differences that may explain these inconsistent results is necessary. Therefore, we investigated whether mood, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and future time perspective are related to attentional bias in older adults. Thirty-seven healthy older adults and 25 healthy middle-aged adults completed questionnaires to assess mood, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and future time perspective. Attentional bias towards happy, sad and neutral information was measured using a modified exogenous cueing paradigm with long cue presentations, to measure maintained attention versus avoidance of emotional stimuli. Older adults showed attentional avoidance for all emotional faces, whereas no attentional biases were found in the middle-aged group. Moreover, in the older adult group, avoidance for negative information was related to anxiety. Future time perspective was unrelated to attentional bias. These findings suggest that anxiety may lead to inter-individual differences in attentional bias in older adults, and that avoidance from negative information may be an emotion regulation strategy.

  7. Fancy citrus, feel good: Positive judgment of citrus odor, but not the odor itself, is associated with elevated mood during experienced helplessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eHoenen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aromatherapy claims that citrus essential oils exert mood lifting effects. Controlled studies, however, have yielded inconsistent results. Notably, studies so far did not control for odor pleasantness, although pleasantness is a critical determinant of emotional responses to odors. This study investigates mood lifting effects of d-(+-limonene, the most prominent substance in citrus essential oils, with respect to odor quality judgments.Negative mood was induced within 78 participants using a helplessness paradigm (unsolvable social discrimination task. During this task, participants were continuously (mean duration: 19.5 min exposed to d-(+-limonene (n = 25, vanillin (n = 26, or diethyl phthalate (n = 27. Participants described their mood (Self-Assessment-Manikin, basic emotion ratings and judged the odors’ quality (intensity, pleasantness, unpleasantness, familiarity prior to and following the helplessness induction. The participants were in a less positive mood after the helplessness induction (p < .001, irrespective of the odor condition. Still, the more pleasant the participants judged the odors, the less effective the helplessness induction was in reducing happiness (p = .019.The results show no odor specific mood lifting effect of d-(+-limonene, but indicate a positive effect of odor pleasantness on mood. The study highlights the necessity to evaluate odor judgments in aromatherapy research.

  8. Gut microbes in correlation with mood: case study in a closed experimental human life support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Su, Q; Xie, B; Duan, L; Zhao, W; Hu, D; Wu, R; Liu, H

    2016-08-01

    Gut microbial community, which may influence our mood, can be shaped by modulating the gut ecosystem through dietary strategies. Understanding the gut-brain correlationship in healthy people is important for maintenance of mental health and prevention of mental illnesses. A case study on the correlation between gut microbial alternation and mood swing of healthy adults was conducted in a closed human life support system during a 105-day experiment. Gut microbial community structures were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing every 2 weeks. A profile of mood states questionnaire was used to record the mood swings. Correlation between gut microbes and mood were identified with partial least squares discrimination analysis. Microbial community structures in the three healthy adults were strongly correlated with mood states. Bacterial genera Roseburia, Phascolarctobacterium, Lachnospira, and Prevotella had potential positive correlation with positive mood, while genera Faecalibacterium, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, and Anaerostipes were correlated with negative mood. Among which, Faecalibacterium spp. had the highest abundance, and showed a significant negative correlation with mood. Our results indicated that the composition of microbial community could play a role in emotional change in mentally physically healthy adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sex Differences and Emotion Regulation: An Event-Related Potential Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gardener, Elyse K. T.; Carr, Andrea R.; MacGregor, Amy; Felmingham, Kim L.

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties in emotion regulation have been implicated as a potential mechanism underlying anxiety and mood disorders. It is possible that sex differences in emotion regulation may contribute towards the heightened female prevalence for these disorders. Previous fMRI studies of sex differences in emotion regulation have shown mixed results, possibly due to difficulties in discriminating the component processes of early emotional reactivity and emotion regulation. The present study used event...

  10. Negative emotions and emotional eating: the mediating role of experiential avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Rachel; Goldbacher, Edie M; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn; Gambrel, Laura Eubanks

    2017-03-01

    Emotional eating is a risk factor for eating pathology across the life- and weight-span. Research demonstrates that negative emotions are a precipitant of emotional eating, particularly among female college students. However, the underlying factors that explain this relationship are unclear. Experiential avoidance, a propensity toward being unwilling to remain in contact with aversive private experiences, may explain the association between negative emotions and emotional eating. The purpose of this study was to examine whether experiential avoidance would mediate the association between negative emotions and emotional eating. A sample of 132 women (17.4 % African American, 59.8 % White) completed measures of mood, experiential avoidance and emotional eating. Bias-corrected bootstrapping mediational analyses were conducted. Experiential avoidance mediated the relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating b = -0.21, 95 % BC CI [-0.43, -0.07]. The indirect effect through experiential avoidance accounted for 9 % of the variance, which represents a medium effect (k 2  = 0.09, 95 % BC CI [0.03, 0.18]). Results suggest that experiential avoidance is important for understanding the relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating and may inform potential strategies for prevention and treatment.

  11. Retro-active Emotion : Do Negative Emotional Stimuli Disrupt Consolidation in Working Memory?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandemir, Güven; Akyürek, Elkan G.; Nieuwenstein, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    While many studies have shown that a task-irrelevant emotionally arousing stimulus can interfere with the processing of a shortly following target, it remains unclear whether an emotional stimulus can also retro-actively interrupt the ongoing processing of an earlier target. In two experiments, we

  12. Are You Emotionally Intelligent? A Legitimate Question for the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawry, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses Daniel Goleman's concept of emotional intelligence as encompassing the characteristics of self-awareness, mood management, self-motivation, empathy, and relationship management. and his own consideration of whether emotional literacy can be taught.

  13. Mentalized affectivity: A new model and assessment of emotion regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Greenberg

    Full Text Available Here we introduce a new assessment of emotion regulation called the Mentalized Affectivity Scale (MAS. A large online adult sample (N = 2,840 completed the 60-item MAS along with a battery of psychological measures. Results revealed a robust three-component structure underlying mentalized affectivity, which we labeled: Identifying emotions (the ability to identify emotions and to reflect on the factors that influence them; Processing emotions (the ability to modulate and distinguish complex emotions; and Expressing emotions (the tendency to express emotions outwardly or inwardly. Hierarchical modeling suggested that Processing emotions delineates from Identifying them, and Expressing emotions delineates from Processing them. We then showed how these components are associated with personality traits, well-being, trauma, and 18 different psychological disorders (including mood, neurological, and personality disorders. Notably, those with anxiety, mood, and personality disorders showed a profile of high Identifying and low Processing compared to controls. Further, results showed how mentalized affectivity scores varied across psychological treatment modalities and years spent in therapy. Taken together, the model of mentalized affectivity advances prior theory and research on emotion regulation and the MAS is a useful and reliable instrument that can be used in both clinical and non-clinical settings in psychology, psychiatry, and neuroscience.

  14. Brain correlates of music-evoked emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Music is a universal feature of human societies, partly owing to its power to evoke strong emotions and influence moods. During the past decade, the investigation of the neural correlates of music-evoked emotions has been invaluable for the understanding of human emotion. Functional neuroimaging studies on music and emotion show that music can modulate activity in brain structures that are known to be crucially involved in emotion, such as the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, hippocampus, insula, cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. The potential of music to modulate activity in these structures has important implications for the use of music in the treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders.

  15. Effects of mood state on impulsivity in pathological buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Jennifer; Darancó, Stefaniá; Moshagen, Morten

    2016-10-30

    Pathological buying is characterized by irrepressible buying behaviour and its negative consequences. A possible mechanism contributing to its development and maintenance is that buying episodes act as a maladaptive strategy to cope with negative emotions. Accordingly, pathological buying has been repeatedly associated with impulsivity, in particular with the tendency to experience strong reactions under negative affect. Relying on an experimental mood induction procedure, the present study tested in a sample of 100 individuals (a) whether individuals with pathological buying symptoms respond more impulsively in the Go/No-Go Task (as a measure of the behavioural inhibition aspect of impulsivity) and (b) whether this association is more pronounced in a negative mood. While controlling for comorbidities, the results show that pathological buying is associated with faster responses and a larger number of commission errors. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that the association between pathological buying and performance the Go/No-Go Task was stronger in the negative mood condition. The present study thus shows that pathological buying is associated with deficits in the behavioural inhibition component of impulsivity. These deficits are most pronounced when mood is negative; in turn, this provides an explanation for the occurrence of excessive buying episodes following negative affect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Emotional Response to Everyday Involuntary and Voluntary Memories in Dysphoria and Non-Dysphoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Watson, Lynn; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Retrieving personal memories may cause emotional reactions and thus a need for emotion regulation. Past research indicates that involuntary memories have a greater effect on mood that the voluntary counterparts. However, different dimensions of the emotional response (i.e., intensity and regulation...... regulation strategies in response to both involuntary and voluntary memories. The between-group differences were not accounted for by the individuals’ mood preceding memory retrieval or the valence of the remembered events. The results suggest an important effect of retrieval mode in the emotion regulation......) upon retrieval of both involuntary and voluntary personal memories have not been thoroughly examined. We examined individuals’ emotional intensity and regulation of everyday involuntary and voluntary memories during dysphoria and non-depression. Twenty dysphoric individuals and 23 non...

  17. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Médhi Gilson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24 listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term.

  18. A flavour of emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Ana Patrícia

    2017-01-01

    Background

    Wine and beer are the most consumed alcoholic beverages worldwide and are known by the sensory pleasure and short terms effects such as relaxation and mood enhancement. However, it remains unclear what are the specific emotions evoked by wine or beer

  19. Indirect effects of exercise on emotional eating through psychological predictors of weight loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Mareno, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    An improved understanding of how weight-loss interventions might be tailored to improve emotional eating is required. This study aimed to assess mediation of the relationship between increased exercise and decreased emotional eating so that behavioral treatments might be optimized. After randomization, women with obesity (N = 108; mean age = 48 years) were assigned to either a previously tested treatment of manual-based self-help for nutrition and exercise plus brief phone follow-ups, or a new protocol of cognitive-behavioral methods of exercise support intended to carry-over psychological improvements to better controlled eating and weight loss. A community-based field setting was incorporated. Validated self-report measures were administered over 6 months. Significant overall improvements in exercise outputs, emotional eating, mood, and self-regulation and self-efficacy for controlled eating were found. The newly developed treatment protocol demonstrated significantly greater improvements in exercise outputs and self-regulation. In a multiple mediation analysis, changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood significantly mediated the relationship between changes in exercise and emotional eating. Changes in self-efficacy and mood were significant independent mediators. Within follow-up analyses, the substitution of emotional eating subscales that addressed specific moods, and a subscale of self-efficacy for controlled eating that addressed that factor specifically in the presence of negative emotions, yielded results generally consistent with those of the multiple mediation analysis. Results suggested a psychological pathway of exercise's association with emotional eating changes in women with obesity. Guided by the present findings, tailoring exercise support and leveraging it to induce specific psychological improvements might reduce emotional eating and improve weight-management outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mood-Congruent Memory and Natural Mood: New Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, John D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents new evidence that everyday mood does bring about a hypothesized effect on memory, termed mood-congruent memory (MCM). Results of three studies provided evidence for MCM among normal individuals (n=614). Findings support prior studies and bolster notions that mood and memory constantly covary in everyday experience. (RJM)

  1. Under-diagnosis of mood disorders in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, L; O'Donnell, S; Dykxhoorn, J; McRae, L; Patten, S B

    2017-08-01

    Under-diagnosis of mood disorders occurs worldwide. In this study, we characterized and compared Canadians with symptoms compatible with a mood disorder by diagnosis status; and described the associated health impacts, use of health services and perceived need for care. Respondents to the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health, a nationally representative sample of Canadians age ≥15 years were assessed for symptoms compatible with mood disorders based on a Canadian adaptation of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (n = 23 504). Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses were performed. In 2012, an estimated 5.4% (1.5 million) Canadians aged 15 years and older reported symptoms compatible with a mood disorder, of which only half reported having been professionally diagnosed. The undiagnosed individuals were more likely to be younger (mean age: 36.2 v. 41.8), to be single (49.5 v. 32.7%), to have less than a post-secondary graduation (49.8 v. 41.1%) and to have no physical co-morbidities (56.4 v. 35.7%), and less likely to be part of the two lower income quintiles (49.6 v. 62.7%) compared with those with a previous diagnosis. Upon controlling for all socio-demographic and health characteristics, the associations with age and marital status disappeared. While those with a previous diagnosis reported significantly greater health impacts and were more likely to have consulted a health professional for their emotional and mental health problems in the previous 12 months compared with those undiagnosed (79.4 v. 31.0%), about a third of both groups reported that their health care needs were only partially met or not met at all. Mood disorders are prevalent and can profoundly impact the life of those affected, however, their diagnosis remains suboptimal and health care use falls short of apparent needs. Improvements in mental health literacy, help-seeking behaviours and diagnosis are needed. In light of the

  2. Stress Related Overeating Among College Students: Development of a Mood Eating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda J.; Hawkins, Raymond C.

    The hypothesis that negative emotional life states accompanying life stresses are associated with overeating and weight gain cannot be adequately tested solely by laboratory analogue studies. Naturalistic, short-term longitudinal designs are needed in which individuals susceptible to mood eating can be identified prior to a stressful event and…

  3. Infants' Sensitivity to the Congruence of Others' Emotions and Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepach, Robert; Westermann, Gert

    2013-01-01

    As humans, we are attuned to the moods and emotions of others. This understanding of emotions enables us to interpret other people's actions on the basis of their emotional displays. However, the development of this capacity is not well understood. Here we show a developmental pattern in 10- and 14-month-old infants' sensitivity to others'…

  4. Idle minds are the devil's tools? Coping, depressed mood and divergent thinking in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélendez, Juan Carlos; Alfonso-Benlliure, Vicente; Mayordomo, Teresa

    2017-10-20

    The main aim was to test a causal relations model of the problem-focused and emotion-focused coping styles, depressed mood, and divergent thinking (DT) in older adults. It was hypothesized that both forms of coping would have a significant effect on predicting depressed mood, and that problem-focused coping and depressed mood would have a significant effect on DT. Participants were 135 subjects with ages ranging between 55 and 84 years old, who took part in a personal interview and filled out several questionnaires. The statistical analysis included structural equations models (SEM). The initial model led to a final model endorsed by the goodness of fit, composite reliability, and discriminant validity indexes. This model confirms a direct relationship between the two types of coping strategies and depressed mood (with the opposite sign), but not between rational coping and DT. Finally, depressed mood was also confirmed as a mediator variable between coping and DT. The type of coping is a clear predictor of mood in older adults. Advanced age decline is not necessarily translated into inefficacy in everyday problem solving especially in those who, through proble-focused coping, avoid depressed moods and maintain good levels of DT.

  5. Explicit versus implicit neural processing of musical emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Bogert, Brigitte; Numminen-Kontti, Taru; Gold, Benjamin; Sams, Mikko; Numminen, Jussi; Burunat, Iballa; Lampinen, Jouko; Brattico, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Music is often used to regulate emotions and mood. Typically, music conveys and induces emotions even when one does not attend to them. Studies on the neural substrates of musical emotions have, however, only examined brain activity when subjects have focused on the emotional content of the music. Here we address with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the neural processing of happy, sad, and fearful music with a paradigm in which 56 subjects were instructed to either classify the e...

  6. The tale of hearts and reason: the influence of mood on decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, Sylvain; Raab, Markus

    2013-08-01

    In decision-making research, one important aspect of real-life decisions has so far been neglected: the mood of the decision maker when generating options. The authors tested the use of the take-the-first (TTF) heuristic and extended the TTF model to understand how mood influences the option-generation process of individuals in two studies, the first using a between-subjects design (30 nonexperts, 30 near-experts, and 30 experts) and the second conceptually replicating the first using a within-subject design (30 nonexperts). Participants took part in an experimental option-generation task, with 31 three-dimensional videos of choices in team handball. Three moods were elicited: positive, neutral, and negative. The findings (a) replicate previous results concerning TTF and (b) show that the option-generation process was associated with the physiological component of mood, supporting the neurovisceral integration model. The extension of TTF to processing emotional factors is an important step forward in explaining fast choices in real-life situations.

  7. Mood Symptoms and Emotional Responsiveness to Threat in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Sbarra, David A.; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical accounts of depression underscore its relation to negative emotional experiences; yet few empirical studies examine emotional experiences in adults with depression, with even less work on depression and emotion in children. Using a nonclinical sample of school-aged children (n = 89) ages 8 to 12, this study evaluated whether greater mood…

  8. The effects of drugs on human models of emotional processing: an account of antidepressant drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Abbie; Harmer, Catherine J

    2015-12-01

    Human models of emotional processing suggest that the direct effect of successful antidepressant drug treatment may be to modify biases in the processing of emotional information. Negative biases in emotional processing are documented in depression, and single or short-term dosing with conventional antidepressant drugs reverses these biases in depressed patients prior to any subjective change in mood. Antidepressant drug treatments also modulate emotional processing in healthy volunteers, which allows the consideration of the psychological effects of these drugs without the confound of changes in mood. As such, human models of emotional processing may prove to be useful for testing the efficacy of novel treatments and for matching treatments to individual patients or subgroups of patients.

  9. Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Traits in Different Career Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Aikaterini; Zammuner, Vanda L.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Vouzas, Fotios

    2009-01-01

    Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities…

  10. Ironic processes in the mental control of mood and mood-related thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, D M; Erber, R; Zanakos, S

    1993-12-01

    The mental control of mood and mood-related thought was investigated. In Experiment 1, Ss reminiscing about a happy or sad event were asked to make their mood positive, were given no instructions, or were asked to make their mood negative. Ss attempting mood control without an imposed cognitive load were successful, whereas those who attempted control while rehearsing a 9-digit number not only failed to control their moods but also showed self-reported mood change opposite the mood they intended to create. In Experiment 2, Ss attempting to control mood-related thoughts under cognitive load showed increased accessibility of those thoughts contrary to the direction of intended control in a Stroop-type color-naming task.

  11. Assessment of emotion processing skills in acquired brain injury using an ability-based test of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah E; Wrench, Joanne M; Wilson, Sarah J

    2018-04-01

    Social and emotional problems are commonly reported after moderate to severe acquired brain injury (ABI) and pose a significant barrier to rehabilitation. However, progress in assessment of emotional skills has been limited by a lack of validated measurement approaches. This study represents the first formal psychometric evaluation of the use of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) V2.0 as a tool for assessing skills in perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions following ABI. The sample consisted of 82 participants aged 18-80 years in the postacute phase of recovery (2 months-7 years) after moderate to severe ABI. Participants completed the MSCEIT V2.0 and measures of cognition and mood. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collated from participant interview and medical files. Results revealed deficits across all MSCEIT subscales (approximately 1 SD below the normative mean). Internal consistency was adequate at overall, area, and branch levels, and MSCEIT scores correlated in expected ways with key demographic, clinical, cognitive, and mood variables. MSCEIT performance was related to injury severity and clinician-rated functioning after ABI. Confirmatory factor analysis favored a 3-factor model of EI due to statistical redundancy of the Using Emotions branch. Overall, these findings suggest that the MSCEIT V2.0 is sensitive to emotion processing deficits after moderate to severe ABI, and can yield valid and reliable scores in an ABI sample. In terms of theoretical contributions, our findings support a domain-based, 3-factor approach for characterizing emotion-related abilities in brain-injured individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire for screening children and adolescents for plastic surgery: cross-cultural validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucupira, Eduardo; Sabino, Miguel; Lima, Edson Luiz de; Dini, Gal Moreira; Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2017-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome measurements assessing the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery are important for determining whether the intervention is indicated or not. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions) for Brazilian Portuguese, test its psychometric properties and assess the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic at a public university hospital. A total of 124 consecutive patients of both sexes were selected between September 2013 and February 2014. Forty-seven patients participated in the cultural adaptation of the questionnaire. The final version was tested for reliability on 20 patients. Construct validity was tested on 57 patients by correlating the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions) with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale. The child/adolescent and parent versions of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.768 and 0.874, respectively, and had good inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.757 and ICC = 0.853, respectively) and intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.738 and ICC = 0.796, respectively). The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire is a reproducible instrument with face, content and construct validity.The mood state and feelings among children and adolescents seeking cosmetic surgery were healthy.

  13. Emotion, self and psychopathology : Neural correlates of emotion regulation and self-reflection in mood disorders and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation is the ability to deal with emotional experiences in response to emotional events, which we encounter in our daily life continuously. Self-reflection is the ability to form a proper mental concept of oneself. Both these processes are important for social functioning and quality of

  14. Emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, J; Schotte, D E; McNally, R J

    1992-05-01

    We tested the effects of 3 mood inductions (neutral, positive, and negative) on food intake in 91 women of varying degrees of dietary restraint. Mood induction was accomplished by exposure to 1 of 3 film segments: a travelogue (neutral affect), a comedy film (positive affect), and a horror film (negative affect). In subjects exposed to the neutral film, food intake decreased with increasing levels of dietary restraint. Among subjects who viewed either the comedy film or the horror film, however, food intake increased with increasing restraint. Although the horror film appeared to be more disinhibiting than the comedy film, this effect may have resulted from a difference in the intensity of the emotions induced rather than from their valence. These results suggest that emotional arousal, regardless of valence, may trigger overeating among restrained eaters.

  15. Effects of mood induction on consumers with vs. without compulsive buying propensity: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Sinje; Hunger, Antje; Türpe, Tina; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2014-12-15

    Compulsive buying (CB) is excessive and leads to impairment and distress. Several studies aimed to explore the phenomenology and antecedents of CB, especially affective states. However, these studies mostly used retrospective self-report and mostly focused on compulsive buyers only. Therefore, this study aims to directly compare consumers with CB propensity and controls on experimental proxies of buying behavior and to investigate 1) effects of neutral vs. negative mood inductions and 2) whether mood effects on buying behavior are specific to CB. Forty female consumers with CB propensity and 40 female controls were randomly assigned to a neutral or negative mood induction. Buying related behavior (likelihood to expose oneself to a shopping situation, urge and probability to buy, willingness to pay) was assessed. Consumers with CB propensity differed from controls in all buying behavior aspects except for willingness to pay. Neither main effects of mood nor group×mood interaction effects on buying behavior were found. However, consumers with CB propensity were emotionally more strongly affected by a negative mood induction. Although negative affect has previously been reported to precede buying episodes in CB, our findings do not indicate specific negative mood effects on buying, neither in CB nor in controls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Childhood trauma exposure disrupts the automatic regulation of emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusak, Hilary A; Martin, Kayla R; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E

    2015-03-13

    Early-life trauma is one of the strongest risk factors for later emotional psychopathology. Although research in adults highlights that childhood trauma predicts deficits in emotion regulation that persist decades later, it is unknown whether neural and behavioral changes that may precipitate illness are evident during formative, developmental years. This study examined whether automatic regulation of emotional conflict is perturbed in a high-risk urban sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents. A total of 14 trauma-exposed and 16 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched comparison youth underwent functional MRI while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring an overlying emotion word. Engagement of the conflict regulation system was evaluated at neural and behavioral levels. Results showed that trauma-exposed youth failed to dampen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and engage amygdala-pregenual cingulate inhibitory circuitry during the regulation of emotional conflict, and were less able to regulate emotional conflict. In addition, trauma-exposed youth showed greater conflict-related amygdala reactivity that was associated with diminished levels of trait reward sensitivity. These data point to a trauma-related deficit in automatic regulation of emotional processing, and increase in sensitivity to emotional conflict in neural systems implicated in threat detection. Aberrant amygdala response to emotional conflict was related to diminished reward sensitivity that is emerging as a critical stress-susceptibility trait that may contribute to the emergence of mental illness during adolescence. These results suggest that deficits in conflict regulation for emotional material may underlie heightened risk for psychopathology in individuals that endure early-life trauma.

  17. The Implementation of a Video-Enhanced Aikido-Based School Violence Prevention Training Program To Reduce Disruptive and Assaultive Behaviors among Severely Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Andrew J.

    The martial art of Aikido was used as an intervention with 15 middle and high school students with severe emotional disturbances in an alternative educational setting. Students with an extensive history of violently disruptive and assaultive behaviors were trained for 12 weeks in this nonviolent Japanese martial art in order to achieve the…

  18. Emotion regulation and substance use frequency in women with substance dependence and borderline personality disorder receiving dialectical behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Seth R; Perepletchikova, Francheska; Holtzman, Kevin; Sinha, Rajita

    2011-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) identifies emotion dysregulation as central to the dangerous impulsivity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) including substance use disorders, and DBT targets improved emotion regulation as a primary mechanism of change. However, improved emotion regulation with DBT and associations between such improvement and behavioral outcomes such as substance use has not been previously reported. Thus, the goal of this study was to assess for improvement in emotion regulation and to examine the relationship between improvements in the emotion regulation and substance use problems following DBT treatment. Emotion regulation as assessed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, depressed mood as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory, and their associations with substance use frequency were investigated in 27 women with substance dependence and BPD receiving 20 weeks of DBT in an academic community outpatient substance abuse treatment program. Results indicated improved emotion regulation, improved mood, and decreased substance use frequency. Further, emotion regulation improvement, but not improved mood, explained the variance of decreased substance use frequency. This is the first study to demonstrate improved emotion regulation in BPD patients treated with DBT and to show that improved emotion regulation can account for increased behavioral control in BPD patients. SIGNIFICANCE AND FUTURE RESEARCH: Emotion regulation assessment is recommended for future studies to further clarify the etiology and maintenance of disorders associated with emotional dysregulation such as BPD and substance dependence and to further explore emotion regulation as a potential mechanism of change for clinical interventions.

  19. Acute Bouts of Exercising Improved Mood, Rumination and Social Interaction in Inpatients With Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Colledge, Flora; Ludyga, Sebastian; Emmenegger, Raphael; Kalak, Nadeem; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2018-01-01

    Background: Studies at the macro level (such as longer-term interventions) showed that physical activity impacts positively on cognitive-emotional processes of patients with mental disorders. However, research focusing on the immediate impact of acute bouts of exercise (micro level) are missing. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether and to what extent single bouts of moderately intense exercise can influence dimensions of psychological functioning in inpatients with mental disorders. Method: 129 inpatients (mean age: 38.16 years; 50.4% females) took part and completed a questionnaire both immediately before and immediately after exercising. Thirty inpatients completed the questionnaires a second time in the same week. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic and illness-related information. Further, the questionnaire asked about current psychological states such as mood, rumination, social interactions, and attention, tiredness, and physical strengths as a proxy of physiological states. Results: Psychological states improved from pre- to post-session. Improvements were observed for mood, social interactions, attention, and physical strengths. Likewise, rumination and tiredness decreased. Mood, rumination, and tiredness further improved, when patients completed the questionnaires the second time in the same week. Conclusion: At micro level, single bouts of exercise impacted positively on cognitive-emotional processes such as mood, rumination, attention and social interactions, and physiological states of tiredness and physical strengths among inpatients with mental disorders. In addition, further improvements were observed, if patients participated in physical activities a second time. PMID:29593592

  20. Acute Bouts of Exercising Improved Mood, Rumination and Social Interaction in Inpatients With Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Brand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies at the macro level (such as longer-term interventions showed that physical activity impacts positively on cognitive-emotional processes of patients with mental disorders. However, research focusing on the immediate impact of acute bouts of exercise (micro level are missing. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether and to what extent single bouts of moderately intense exercise can influence dimensions of psychological functioning in inpatients with mental disorders.Method: 129 inpatients (mean age: 38.16 years; 50.4% females took part and completed a questionnaire both immediately before and immediately after exercising. Thirty inpatients completed the questionnaires a second time in the same week. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic and illness-related information. Further, the questionnaire asked about current psychological states such as mood, rumination, social interactions, and attention, tiredness, and physical strengths as a proxy of physiological states.Results: Psychological states improved from pre- to post-session. Improvements were observed for mood, social interactions, attention, and physical strengths. Likewise, rumination and tiredness decreased. Mood, rumination, and tiredness further improved, when patients completed the questionnaires the second time in the same week.Conclusion: At micro level, single bouts of exercise impacted positively on cognitive-emotional processes such as mood, rumination, attention and social interactions, and physiological states of tiredness and physical strengths among inpatients with mental disorders. In addition, further improvements were observed, if patients participated in physical activities a second time.

  1. Acute Bouts of Exercising Improved Mood, Rumination and Social Interaction in Inpatients With Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Colledge, Flora; Ludyga, Sebastian; Emmenegger, Raphael; Kalak, Nadeem; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2018-01-01

    Background: Studies at the macro level (such as longer-term interventions) showed that physical activity impacts positively on cognitive-emotional processes of patients with mental disorders. However, research focusing on the immediate impact of acute bouts of exercise (micro level) are missing. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether and to what extent single bouts of moderately intense exercise can influence dimensions of psychological functioning in inpatients with mental disorders. Method: 129 inpatients (mean age: 38.16 years; 50.4% females) took part and completed a questionnaire both immediately before and immediately after exercising. Thirty inpatients completed the questionnaires a second time in the same week. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic and illness-related information. Further, the questionnaire asked about current psychological states such as mood, rumination, social interactions, and attention, tiredness, and physical strengths as a proxy of physiological states. Results: Psychological states improved from pre- to post-session. Improvements were observed for mood, social interactions, attention, and physical strengths. Likewise, rumination and tiredness decreased. Mood, rumination, and tiredness further improved, when patients completed the questionnaires the second time in the same week. Conclusion: At micro level, single bouts of exercise impacted positively on cognitive-emotional processes such as mood, rumination, attention and social interactions, and physiological states of tiredness and physical strengths among inpatients with mental disorders. In addition, further improvements were observed, if patients participated in physical activities a second time.

  2. Food and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, C

    A number of specific nutrients and other active substances in foods are thought to have a direct impact on mood. Carol Ottley explores the evidence linking food with aspects of mood and behaviour. Areas covered include premenstrual syndrome, chocolate craving, mood swings, and how we eat in relation to specific mood states such as fear, happiness and anxiety.

  3. Recalling happy memories in remitted depression: a neuroimaging investigation of the repair of sad mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foland-Ross, Lara C; Cooney, Rebecca E; Joormann, Jutta; Henry, Melissa L; Gotlib, Ian H

    2014-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a recurrent mood disorder. The high rate of recurrence of MDD suggests the presence of stable vulnerability factors that place individuals with a history of major depression at an increased risk for the onset of another episode. Previous research has linked the remitted state, and therefore increased vulnerability for depressive relapse, with difficulties in the use of pleasant autobiographical memories to repair sad mood. In the present study, we examined the neural correlates of these difficulties. Groups of 16 currently euthymic, remitted depressed individuals and 16 healthy (control) women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during sad mood induction and during recovery from a sad mood state through recall of mood-incongruent positive autobiographical memories. Sad mood was induced in participants by using film clips; participants then recalled positive autobiographical memories, a procedure previously shown to repair negative affect. During both the sad mood induction and automatic mood regulation, control participants exhibited activation in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and cuneus; in contrast, remitted participants exhibited a decrease in activation in these regions. Furthermore, exploratory analyses revealed that reduced activation levels during mood regulation predicted a worsening of depressive symptoms at a 20-month follow-up assessment. These findings highlight a dynamic role of the vlPFC and cuneus in the experience and modulation of emotional states and suggest that functional anomalies of these brain regions are associated with a history of, and vulnerability to, depression.

  4. Affective privilege: Asymmetric interference by emotional distracters

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    Crystal eReeck

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous theories posit that affectively salient stimuli are privileged in their capacity to capture attention and disrupt ongoing cognition. Two underlying assumptions in this theoretical position are that the potency of affective stimuli transcends task boundaries (i.e., emotional distracters do not have to belong to a current task-set to disrupt processing and that there is an asymmetry between emotional and cognitive processing (i.e., emotional distracters disrupt cognitive processing, but not vice versa. These assumptions have remained largely untested, as common experimental probes of emotion-cognition interaction rarely manipulate task-relevance and only examine one side of the presumed asymmetry of interference. To test these propositions directly, a face-word Stroop protocol was adapted to independently manipulate (a the congruency between target and distracter stimulus features, (b the affective salience of distracter features, and (c the task-relevance of emotional compared to non-emotional target features. A three-way interaction revealed interdependent effects of distracter relevance, congruence, and affective salience. Compared to task-irrelevant distracters, task-relevant congruent distracters facilitated performance and task-relevant incongruent distracters impaired performance, but the latter effect depended on the nature of the target feature and task. Specifically, task-irrelevant emotional distracters resulted in equivalent performance costs as task-relevant non-emotional distracters, whereas task-irrelevant non-emotional distracters did not produce performance costs comparable to those generated by task-relevant emotional distracters. These results document asymmetric cross-task interference effects for affectively salient stimuli, supporting the notion of affective prioritization in human information processing.

  5. Naturalistic Effects of Five Days of Bedtime Caffeine Use on Sleep, Next-Day Cognitive Performance, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiplady, Brian; Priestley, Caroline M.; Rogers, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disruptive effects of caffeine on sleep have previously been reported, although measures of next-day mood and performance have rarely been included. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of caffeine on sleep and associated next-day effects in a naturalistic field setting. Methods: Nineteen participants (daily caffeine intake 0–141 mg), assessed as good sleepers, took part in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 2-week crossover study to assess the effects of bedtime caffeine use (250 mg) on sleep and next-day cognitive performance and mood, which were assessed on a mobile phone in the morning and afternoon. Sleep was assessed objectively (actiwatch) and subjectively (sleep diary). Results: Caffeine's effects on sleep were largely restricted to the first day of administration, with actigraphically measured reduced sleep efficiency, increased activity score and fragmentation index, decreased self-rated sleep quality, and an increased occurrence of participants waking early; only decreased sleep efficiency remained over the week. Effects on next-day performance and mood were evident over the whole week, although despite disrupting sleep, accuracy on a working memory task was higher after caffeine than placebo administration. Conclusions: Caffeine disrupted sleep, although when assessing next-day performance, which may have been affected by the presence of residual caffeine, performance appeared better after caffeine compared to placebo, although this was most likely due to prevention of the effects of overnight withdrawal from caffeine rather than representing a net benefit. Furthermore, partial tolerance developed to the effects of caffeine on sleep. PMID:24868491

  6. Lifetime suicidal ideation and attempt in adults with full major depressive disorder versus sustained depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a well-known risk factor for suicidality, but depressed mood has been used non-specifically to describe the emotional state. We sought to compare influence of MDD versus sustained depressed mood on suicidality. A total of 12,532 adults, randomly selected through the one-person-per-household method, completed a face-to-face interview using the Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI) and a questionnaire for lifetime suicidal ideation (LSI) and lifetime suicidal attempt (LSA). Of 12,361 adults, 565 were assessed as 'sustained depressed mood group' having depressed mood for more than two weeks without MDD (4.6%), and 810 adults were assessed as having full MDD (6.55%) which consisted of 'MDD with depressed mood group' (6.0%) and 'MDD without depressed mood group' (0.5%). The MDD with depressed mood group showed higher odds ratios for LSI and LSA than the sustained depressed mood group. Contrarily, no significant differences were found in LSI and LSA between the MDD group with and without depressed mood. MDD showed significant associations with LSI (AOR=2.83, 95%CI 2.12-3.78) and LSA (AOR=2.17, 95%CI 1.34-3.52), whereas sustained depressed mood showed significant associations with neither LSI nor LSA after adjusting for MDD and other psychiatric comorbidities. Interaction effect of sustained depressed mood with MDD was significant for LSI but not for LSA. Sustained depressed mood was not related to LSI and LSA after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities, whereas MDD was significantly associated with both LSI and LSA regardless of the presence of sustained depressed mood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Smiling is fun: a Coping with Stress and Emotion Regulation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Cristina; Mira, Adriana; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Quero, Soledad; Navarro, Ma Vicenta; Riera López Del Amo, Antonio; Molinari, Guadalupe; Castilla, Diana; Moragrega, Inés; Soler, Carla; Alcañiz, Mariano; Baños, Rosa Maria

    2012-01-01

    Emotional disorders (Anxiety disorders and Mood disorders) are one of the most common health problems worldwide, and their economic costs are very high. People suffering from emotional disorders often use maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and have low coping behaviour that contributes to the presence of clinical symptoms. For this reason, it is important to develop strategies to monitor coping and promote emotion regulation in people exposed to high levels of stress. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) can help us in this task. Recent systematic reviews of literature on evidence-based CBT treatments delivered via the Internet show that these approaches are effective. We have developed an intervention program ICT based: Coping with Stress and Emotion Regulation Program (Smiling is Fun), a self-applied program via the Internet. Smiling is Fun follows a transdiagnostic perspective, and it is based on CBT techniques. However, it also includes other psychological strategies to improve positive mood. The aim of the present work is to describe Smiling is Fun and the study designed to test its efficacy.

  8. Lateral prefrontal cortex activity during cognitive control of emotion predicts response to social stress in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Tully, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LPFC dysfunction is a well-established neural impairment in schizophrenia and is associated with worse symptoms. However, how LPFC activation influences symptoms is unclear. Previous findings in healthy individuals demonstrate that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC activation during cognitive control of emotional information predicts mood and behavior in response to interpersonal conflict, thus impairments in these processes may contribute to symptom exacerbation in schizophrenia. We investigated whether schizophrenia participants show LPFC deficits during cognitive control of emotional information, and whether these LPFC deficits prospectively predict changes in mood and symptoms following real-world interpersonal conflict. During fMRI, 23 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 24 healthy controls completed the Multi-Source Interference Task superimposed on neutral and negative pictures. Afterwards, schizophrenia participants completed a 21-day online daily-diary in which they rated the extent to which they experienced mood and schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, as well as the occurrence and response to interpersonal conflict. Schizophrenia participants had lower dorsal LPFC activity (BA9 during cognitive control of task-irrelevant negative emotional information. Within schizophrenia participants, DLPFC activity during cognitive control of emotional information predicted changes in positive and negative mood on days following highly distressing interpersonal conflicts. Results have implications for understanding the specific role of LPFC in response to social stress in schizophrenia, and suggest that treatments targeting LPFC-mediated cognitive control of emotion could promote adaptive response to social stress in schizophrenia.

  9. Music listening enhances cognitive recovery and mood after middle cerebral artery stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Mikkonen, Mikko; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Erkkilä, Jaakko; Laine, Matti; Peretz, Isabelle; Hietanen, Marja

    2008-03-01

    We know from animal studies that a stimulating and enriched environment can enhance recovery after stroke, but little is known about the effects of an enriched sound environment on recovery from neural damage in humans. In humans, music listening activates a wide-spread bilateral network of brain regions related to attention, semantic processing, memory, motor functions, and emotional processing. Music exposure also enhances emotional and cognitive functioning in healthy subjects and in various clinical patient groups. The potential role of music in neurological rehabilitation, however, has not been systematically investigated. This single-blind, randomized, and controlled trial was designed to determine whether everyday music listening can facilitate the recovery of cognitive functions and mood after stroke. In the acute recovery phase, 60 patients with a left or right hemisphere middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke were randomly assigned to a music group, a language group, or a control group. During the following two months, the music and language groups listened daily to self-selected music or audio books, respectively, while the control group received no listening material. In addition, all patients received standard medical care and rehabilitation. All patients underwent an extensive neuropsychological assessment, which included a wide range of cognitive tests as well as mood and quality of life questionnaires, one week (baseline), 3 months, and 6 months after the stroke. Fifty-four patients completed the study. Results showed that recovery in the domains of verbal memory and focused attention improved significantly more in the music group than in the language and control groups. The music group also experienced less depressed and confused mood than the control group. These findings demonstrate for the first time that music listening during the early post-stroke stage can enhance cognitive recovery and prevent negative mood. The neural mechanisms potentially

  10. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus enhances emotional processing in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Volkmann, Jens; Regel, Sabine; Kornischka, Jürgen; Sturm, Volker; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2003-03-01

    High-frequency electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is a new and highly effective therapy for complications of long-term levodopa therapy and motor symptoms in advanced Parkinson disease (PD). Clinical observations indicate additional influence on emotional behavior. Electrical stimulation of deep brain nuclei with pulse rates above 100 Hz provokes a reversible, lesioning-like effect. Here, the effect of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on emotional, cognitive, and motor performance in patients with PD (n = 12) was examined. The results were compared with the effects of a suprathreshold dose of levodopa intended to transiently restore striatal dopamine deficiency. Patients were tested during medication off/stimulation off (STIM OFF), medication off/stimulation on (STIM ON), and during the best motor state after taking levodopa without deep brain stimulation (MED). More positive self-reported mood and an enhanced mood induction effect as well as improvement in emotional memory during STIM ON were observed, while during STIM OFF, patients revealed reduced emotional performance. Comparable effects were revealed by STIM ON and MED. Cognitive performance was not affected by the different conditions and treatments. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus selectively enhanced affective processing and subjective well-being and seemed to be antidepressive. Levodopa and deep brain stimulation had similar effects on emotion. This finding may provide new clues about the neurobiologic bases of emotion and mood disorders, and it illustrates the important role of the basal ganglia and the dopaminergic system in emotional processing in addition to the well-known motor and cognitive functions.

  11. Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire for screening children and adolescents for plastic surgery: cross-cultural validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sucupira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported outcome measurements assessing the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery are important for determining whether the intervention is indicated or not. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions for Brazilian Portuguese, test its psychometric properties and assess the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic at a public university hospital. METHODS: A total of 124 consecutive patients of both sexes were selected between September 2013 and February 2014. Forty-seven patients participated in the cultural adaptation of the questionnaire. The final version was tested for reliability on 20 patients. Construct validity was tested on 57 patients by correlating the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale. RESULTS: The child/adolescent and parent versions of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire showed Cronbach’s alpha of 0.768 and 0.874, respectively, and had good inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.757 and ICC = 0.853, respectively and intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.738 and ICC = 0.796, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire is a reproducible instrument with face, content and construct validity.The mood state and feelings among children and adolescents seeking cosmetic surgery were healthy.

  12. AFFECTIVE GUIDANCE OF INTELLIGENT AGENTS: How Emotion Controls Cognition1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L.; Palmer, Janet E.

    2008-01-01

    Emotions and moods color cognition. In this article, we outline how emotions affect judgments and cognitive performance of human agents. We argue that affective influences are due, not to the affective reactions themselves, but to the information they carry about value, a potentially useful finding for creators of artificial agents. The kind of influence that occurs depends on the focus of the agent at the time. When making evaluative judgments, for example, agents may experience positive affect as a positive attitude toward a person or object. But when an agent focuses on a cognitive task, positive affect may act like performance feedback, with positive affect giving a green light to cognitive, relational processes. By contrast, negative affect tends to inhibit relational processing, resulting in a more perceptual, stimulus-specific processing. One result is that many textbook phenomena from cognitive psychology occur readily in happy moods, but are inhibited in sad moods. PMID:19255620

  13. Patients with Parkinson's disease display a dopamine therapy related negative bias and an enlarged range in emotional responses to facial emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Daniel; Svärd, Joakim; Michelgård Palmquist, Åsa; Fischer, Håkan; Svenningsson, Per

    2017-09-01

    The literature on emotional processing in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients shows mixed results. This may be because of various methodological and/or patient-related differences, such as failing to adjust for cognitive functioning, depression, and/or mood. In the current study, we tested PD patients and healthy controls (HCs) using emotional stimuli across a variety of tasks, including visual search, short-term memory (STM), categorical perception, and emotional stimulus rating. The PD and HC groups were matched on cognitive ability, depression, and mood. We also explored possible relationships between task results and antiparkinsonian treatment effects, as measured by levodopa equivalent dosages (LED), in the PD group. The results show that PD patients use a larger emotional range compared with HCs when reporting their impression of emotional faces on rated emotional valence, arousal, and potency. The results also show that dopaminergic therapy was correlated with stimulus rating results such that PD patients with higher LED scores rated negative faces as less arousing, less negative, and less powerful. Finally, results also show that PD patients display a general slowing effect in the visual search tasks compared with HCs, indicating overall slowed responses. There were no group differences observed in the STM or categorical perception tasks. Our results indicate a relationship between emotional responses, PD, and dopaminergic therapy, in which PD per se is associated with stronger emotional responses, whereas LED levels are negatively correlated with the strength of emotional responses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Assessing brain activations associated with emotional regulation during virtual reality mood induction procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, A.; Rey, B.; Clemente, M.; Wrzesien, M.; Alcañiz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional regulation strategies are used by people to influence their emotional responses to external or internal emotional stimuli. The aim of this study is to evaluate the brain activations that are associated with the application of two different emotional regulation strategies (cognitive

  15. Latent Classes of Symptoms related to Clinically Depressed Mood in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Eva Henje; Forsman, Mats; Yang, Tony T; Serlachius, Eva; Larsson, Jan-Olov

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , is based only on adult symptomatology of depression and not adapted for age and gender. This may contribute to the low diagnostic specificity and validity of adolescent MDD. In this study, we investigated whether latent classes based on symptoms associated with depressed mood could be identified in a sample of adolescents seeking psychiatric care, regardless of traditionally defined diagnostic categories. Self-reports of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Development and Well-Being Assessment were collected consecutively from all new patients between the ages of 13 and 17 years at two psychiatric outpatient clinics in Stockholm, Sweden. Those who reported depressed mood at intake yielded a sample of 21 boys and 156 girls. Latent class analyses were performed for all screening items and for the depression-specific items of the Development and Well-Being Assessment. The symptoms that were reported in association with depressed mood differentiated the adolescents into two classes. One class had moderate emotional severity scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and mainly symptoms that were congruent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for MDD. The other class had higher emotional severity scores and similar symptoms to those reported in the first class. However, in addition, this group demonstrated more diverse symptomatology, including vegetative symptoms, suicidal ideation, anxiety, conduct problems, body dysmorphic symptoms, and deliberate vomiting. The classes predicted functional impairment in that the members of the second class showed more functional impairment. The relatively small sample size limited the generalizability of the results of this study, and the amount of items included in the analysis was restricted by the rules of latent class analysis. No conclusions

  16. Head position and spinal position as determinants of perceived emotional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouwstra, S J; Hoogstraten, J

    1995-10-01

    A sample of 60 first-year psychology students judged the emotional state of 21 drawn figures and completed the Adjective Checklist and a mood questionnaire. The judgments were affected by the interaction between head position and spinal position of the figure. Each figure was associated with a unique pattern of emotions, and the judgments given were not influenced by the subjects' own emotional state.

  17. How children use drawing to regulate their emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer E; Winner, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    We examined two ways in which drawing may function to elevate mood in children-venting (expressing negative feelings) and distraction (expressing something unrelated to the negative feelings). We examined the effectiveness of drawing as an emotion regulator when drawing is used to vent versus distract (Study 1) and tested whether the effects found are specific to the activity of creating one's own drawing or generalisable to a drawing activity in which children had to copy another's drawing (Study 2). To induce a negative mood, we asked children to think of a disappointing event. Mood was assessed before and after the assigned activity. In both studies, mood improved significantly more in the distract than in the vent or copy condition. Study 1 demonstrates that drawing improves mood in children via distraction and not via venting. Study 2 demonstrates that this effect is specific to a drawing task in which an image is freely constructed. When a copying task is used, the effect disappears.

  18. Affective and cognitive reactivity to mood induction in chronic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhn, Anne; Sterzer, Philipp; Haack, Friderike H; Köhler, Stephan

    2018-03-15

    Chronic depression (CD) is strongly associated with childhood maltreatment, which has been proposed to lead to inefficient coping styles that are characterized by abnormal affective responsiveness and dysfunctional cognitive attitudes. However, while this notion forms an important basis for psychotherapeutic strategies in the treatment of CD, there is still little direct empirical evidence for a role of altered affective and cognitive reactivity in CD. The present study therefore experimentally investigated affective and cognitive reactivity to two forms of negative mood induction in CD patients versus a healthy control sample (HC). For the general mood induction procedure, a combination of sad pictures and sad music was used, while for individualized mood induction, negative mood was induced by individualized scripts with autobiographical content. Both experiments included n = 15 CD patients versus n = 15 HC, respectively. Interactions between affective or cognitive reactivity and group were analyzed by repeated measurements ANOVAs. General mood induction neither revealed affective nor cognitive reactivity in the patient group while the control group reported the expected decrease of positive affect [interaction (IA) affective reactivity x group: p = .011, cognitive reactivity x group: n.s.]. In contrast, individualized mood induction specifically increased affective reactivity (IA: p = .037) as well as the amount of dysfunctional cognitions in patients versus controls (IA: p = .014). The experiments were not balanced in a crossover design, causal conclusions are thus limited. Additionally, the differences to non-chronic forms of depression are still outstanding. The results suggest that in patients with CD, specific emotional activation through autobiographical memories is a key factor in dysfunctional coping styles. Psychotherapeutic interventions aimed at modifying affective and cognitive reactivity are thus of high relevance in the treatment of CD. Copyright

  19. Design for mood : Twenty activity-based opportunities to design for mood regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a theory-based approach to design for mood regulation. The main proposition is that design can best influence mood by enabling and stimulating people to engage in a broad range of mood-regulating activities. The first part of the manuscript reviews state-of-the art mood-focused

  20. Differences and similarities in the serotonergic diathesis for suicide attempts and mood disorders: a 22-year longitudinal gene-environment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezo, J; Bureau, A; Mérette, C; Jomphe, V; Barker, E D; Vitaro, F; Hébert, M; Carbonneau, R; Tremblay, R E; Turecki, G

    2010-08-01

    To investigate similarities and differences in the serotonergic diathesis for mood disorders and suicide attempts, we conducted a study in a cohort followed longitudinally for 22 years. A total of 1255 members of this cohort, which is representative of the French-speaking population of Quebec, were investigated. Main outcome measures included (1) mood disorders (bipolar disorder and major depression) and suicide attempts by early adulthood; (2) odds ratios and probabilities associated with 143 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 serotonergic genes, acting directly or as moderators in gene-environment interactions with childhood sexual or childhood physical abuse (CPA), and in gene-gene interactions; (3) regression coefficients for putative endophenotypes for mood disorders (childhood anxiousness) and suicide attempts (childhood disruptiveness). Five genes showed significant adjusted effects (HTR2A, TPH1, HTR5A, SLC6A4 and HTR1A). Of these, HTR2A variation influenced both suicide attempts and mood disorders, although through different mechanisms. In suicide attempts, HTR2A variants (rs6561333, rs7997012 and rs1885884) were involved through interactions with histories of sexual and physical abuse whereas in mood disorders through one main effect (rs9316235). In terms of phenotype-specific contributions, TPH1 variation (rs10488683) was relevant only in the diathesis for suicide attempts. Three genes contributed exclusively to mood disorders, one through a main effect (HTR5A (rs1657268)) and two through gene-environment interactions with CPA (HTR1A (rs878567) and SLC6A4 (rs3794808)). Childhood anxiousness did not mediate the effects of HTR2A and HTR5A on mood disorders, nor did childhood disruptiveness mediate the effects of TPH1 on suicide attempts. Of the serotonergic genes implicated in mood disorders and suicidal behaviors, four exhibited phenotype-specific effects, suggesting that despite their high concordance and common genetic determinants, suicide attempts

  1. Stop feeling: inhibition of emotional interference following stop-signal trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Cohen, Noga; Henik, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    Although a great deal of literature has been dedicated to the mutual links between emotion and the selective attention component of executive control, there is very little data regarding the links between emotion and the inhibitory component of executive control. In the current study we employed an emotional stop-signal task in order to examine whether emotion modulates and is modulated by inhibitory control. Results replicated previous findings showing reduced inhibitory control [longer stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)] following negative, compared to neutral pictures. Most importantly, results show decreased emotional interference following stop-signal trials. These results show that the inhibitory control component of executive control can serve to decrease emotional effects. We suggest that inhibitory control and emotion have a two-way connection in which emotion disrupts inhibitory control and activation of inhibitory control disrupts emotion.

  2. Stop feeling: Inhibition of emotional interference following stop-signal trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal eKalanthroff

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although a great deal of literature has been dedicated to the mutual links between emotion and the selective attention component of executive control, there is very little data regarding the links between emotion and the inhibitory component of executive control. In the current study we employed an emotional stop-signal task in order to examine whether emotion modulates and is modulated by inhibitory control. Results replicated previous findings showing reduced inhibitory control (longer stop-signal reaction time following negative, compared to neutral pictures. Most importantly, results show decreased emotional interference following stop-signal trials. These results show that the inhibitory control component of executive control can serve to decrease emotional effects. We suggest that inhibitory control and emotion have a two-way connection in which emotion disrupts inhibitory control and activation of inhibitory control disrupts emotion.

  3. Measurement of Negativity Bias in Personal Narratives Using Corpus-Based Emotion Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shuki J.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a novel methodology for the measurement of negativity bias using positive and negative dictionaries of emotion words applied to autobiographical narratives. At odds with the cognitive theory of mood dysregulation, previous text-analytical studies have failed to find significant correlation between emotion dictionaries and…

  4. On the interaction between sad mood and cognitive control: the effect of induced sadness on electrophysiological modulations underlying Stroop conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Elena; Liddle, Peter F; Nixon, Neil L; Liotti, Mario

    2013-03-01

    The present study employed high-density ERPs to examine the effect of induced sad mood on the spatiotemporal correlates of conflict monitoring and resolution in a colour-word Stroop interference task. Neuroimaging evidence and dipole modelling implicates the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regions in conflict-laden interference control. On the basis that these structures have been found to mediate emotion-cognition interactions in negative mood states, it was predicted that Stroop-related cognitive control, which relies heavily on anterior neural sources, would be affected by effective sad mood provocation. Healthy participants (N=14) were induced into transient sadness via use of autobiographical sad scripts, a well-validated mood induction technique (Liotti et al., 2000a, 2002). In accord with previous research, interference effects were shown at both baseline and sad states while Stroop conflict was associated with early (N450) and late (Late Positive Component; LPC) electrophysiological modulations at both states. Sad mood induction attenuated the N450 effect in line with our expectation that it would be susceptible to modulation by mood, given its purported anterior limbic source. The LPC effect was displayed at the typical posterior lateral sites but, as predicted, was not affected by sad mood. However, frontocentral LPC activity-presumably generated from an additional anterior limbic source-was affected at sad state, hinting a role in conflict monitoring. Although the neurophysiological underpinnings of interference control are yet to be clarified, this study provided further insight into emotion-cognition interactions as indexed by Stroop conflict-laden processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Therapeutic Potential of Exercise to Improve Mood, Cognition, and Sleep in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gretchen O.; Otto, Michael W.; Ellis, Terry D.; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the classic motor symptoms, Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with a variety of non-motor symptoms that significantly reduce quality of life, even in the early stages of the disease. There is an urgent need to develop evidence-based treatments for these symptoms, which include mood disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and sleep disruption. We focus here on exercise interventions, which have been used to improve mood, cognition, and sleep in healthy older adults and clinical populations, but to date have primarily targeted motor symptoms in PD. We synthesize the existing literature on the benefits of aerobic exercise and strength training on mood, sleep, and cognition as demonstrated in healthy older adults and adults with PD, and suggest that these types of exercise offer a feasible and promising adjunct treatment for mood, cognition, and sleep difficulties in PD. Across stages of the disease, exercise interventions represent a treatment strategy with the unique ability to improve a range of non-motor symptoms while also alleviating the classic motor symptoms of the disease. Future research in PD should include non-motor outcomes in exercise trials with the goal of developing evidence-based exercise interventions as a safe, broad-spectrum treatment approach to improve mood, cognition, and sleep for individuals with PD. PMID:26715466

  6. UEffect of acute sleep deprivation on concentration and mood states with a controlled effect of experienced stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kajtna

    2011-05-01

    Conclusions: As previous studies have shown, mood changes rather than decreased concentration occur after acute sleep deprivation – cognitive abilities seem to be more resistant to sleep deprivation. Further studies with longer sleep deprivation should show how long it takes to disrupt our concentration and higher cognitive abilities.

  7. Assessing the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and academic performance of medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasingam, Uma; Suat-Cheng, Peh; Aung, Thidar; Dipolog-Ubanan, Genevieve; Wei, Wee Kok

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the association between emotional intelligence and its influence on academic performance on medical students to see if emotional intelligence emerges as a significant influencer of academic achievement. The instrument used is the Trait-Meta Mood Scale (TMMS), a 30-item self-report questionnaire designed to measure an individual's perceived emotional intelligence (PEI). Participants are required to rate the extent to which they agree with each item on a 5-point Likert scale. The TMMS consists of three subscales - Attention to Feelings (which measures the extent to which individuals notice and think about their feelings, Clarity (which measures the extent to which an individual is able to discriminate among different moods) and Mood Repair (related to an individual's ability to repair/terminate negative moods or maintain pleasant ones). Of special interest is whether high scores in the Clarity and Repair subscales correlate positively with academic performance, and whether high scores on the Attention subscale, without correspondingly high scores in the Clarity and Mood Repair subscales, correlates negatively with academic performance. Sample population includes all medical students (Years 1-5) of the MD program in UCSI University, Malaysia. Preliminary analysis indicates no significant relationship between overall TMMS scores and academic performance; however, the Attention subscale is significantly correlated to academic performance. Therefore even though PEI has to be ruled out as an influencer on academic performance for this particular sample, the fact that Attention has a significant relationship with academic performance may give some insight into the factors that possibly influence medical students' academic performance.

  8. Anxiety promotes memory for mood-congruent faces but does not alter loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Caroline J; Hindocha, Chandni; Roiser, Jonathan P; Robinson, Oliver J

    2016-04-21

    Pathological anxiety is associated with disrupted cognitive processing, including working memory and decision-making. In healthy individuals, experimentally-induced state anxiety or high trait anxiety often results in the deployment of adaptive harm-avoidant behaviours. However, how these processes affect cognition is largely unknown. To investigate this question, we implemented a translational within-subjects anxiety induction, threat of shock, in healthy participants reporting a wide range of trait anxiety scores. Participants completed a gambling task, embedded within an emotional working memory task, with some blocks under unpredictable threat and others safe from shock. Relative to the safe condition, threat of shock improved recall of threat-congruent (fearful) face location, especially in highly trait anxious participants. This suggests that threat boosts working memory for mood-congruent stimuli in vulnerable individuals, mirroring memory biases in clinical anxiety. By contrast, Bayesian analysis indicated that gambling decisions were better explained by models that did not include threat or treat anxiety, suggesting that: (i) higher-level executive functions are robust to these anxiety manipulations; and (ii) decreased risk-taking may be specific to pathological anxiety. These findings provide insight into the complex interactions between trait anxiety, acute state anxiety and cognition, and may help understand the cognitive mechanisms underlying adaptive anxiety.

  9. State-Dependent Differences in Emotion Regulation Between Unmedicated Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, M.M.; Mocking, R.J.T.; Koeter, M.W.; Wingen, G. van; Wit, S.J. de; Heuvel, O.A. van den; Veltman, D.J.; Ruhe, H.G.; Schene, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are difficult to distinguish clinically during the depressed or remitted states. Both mood disorders are characterized by emotion regulation disturbances; however, little is known about emotion regulation differences between MDD

  10. State-Dependent Differences in Emotion Regulation Between Unmedicated Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, Maria M.; Mocking, Roel J. T.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; van Wingen, Guido; de Wit, Stella J.; van den Heuvel, Odile A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Schene, Aart H.

    IMPORTANCE Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are difficult to distinguish clinically during the depressed or remitted states. Both mood disorders are characterized by emotion regulation disturbances; however, little is known about emotion regulation differences between MDD

  11. State-Dependent Differences in Emotion Regulation Between Unmedicated Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, M.M.; Mocking, R.J.T.; Koeter, M.W.J.; van Wingen, G.; de Wit, S.J.; van den Heuvel, O.A.; Veltman, D.J.; Ruhe, H.G.; Schene, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are difficult to distinguish clinically during the depressed or remitted states. Both mood disorders are characterized by emotion regulation disturbances; however, little is known about emotion regulation differences between MDD

  12. Towards a neural basis of music-evoked emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    Music is capable of evoking exceptionally strong emotions and of reliably affecting the mood of individuals. Functional neuroimaging and lesion studies show that music-evoked emotions can modulate activity in virtually all limbic and paralimbic brain structures. These structures are crucially involved in the initiation, generation, detection, maintenance, regulation and termination of emotions that have survival value for the individual and the species. Therefore, at least some music-evoked emotions involve the very core of evolutionarily adaptive neuroaffective mechanisms. Because dysfunctions in these structures are related to emotional disorders, a better understanding of music-evoked emotions and their neural correlates can lead to a more systematic and effective use of music in therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aesthetic Emotions Across Arts: A Comparison Between Painting and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miu, Andrei C.; Pițur, Simina; Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Emotional responses to art have long been subject of debate, but only recently have they started to be investigated in affective science. The aim of this study was to compare perceptions regarding frequency of aesthetic emotions, contributing factors, and motivation which characterize the experiences of looking at painting and listening to music. Parallel surveys were filled in online by participants (N = 971) interested in music and painting. By comparing self-reported characteristics of these experiences, this study found that compared to listening to music, looking at painting was associated with increased frequency of wonder and decreased frequencies of joyful activation and power. In addition to increased vitality, as reflected by the latter two emotions, listening to music was also more frequently associated with emotions such as tenderness, nostalgia, peacefulness, and sadness. Compared to painting-related emotions, music-related emotions were perceived as more similar to emotions in other everyday life situations. Participants reported that stimulus features and previous knowledge made more important contributions to emotional responses to painting, whereas prior mood, physical context and the presence of other people were considered more important in relation to emotional responses to music. Self-education motivation was more frequently associated with looking at painting, whereas mood repair and keeping company motivations were reported more frequently in relation to listening to music. Participants with visual arts education reported increased vitality-related emotions in their experience of looking at painting. In contrast, no relation was found between music education and emotional responses to music. These findings offer a more general perspective on aesthetic emotions and encourage integrative research linking different types of aesthetic experience. PMID:26779072

  14. Aesthetic Emotions Across Arts: A Comparison Between Painting and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miu, Andrei C; Pițur, Simina; Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    Emotional responses to art have long been subject of debate, but only recently have they started to be investigated in affective science. The aim of this study was to compare perceptions regarding frequency of aesthetic emotions, contributing factors, and motivation which characterize the experiences of looking at painting and listening to music. Parallel surveys were filled in online by participants (N = 971) interested in music and painting. By comparing self-reported characteristics of these experiences, this study found that compared to listening to music, looking at painting was associated with increased frequency of wonder and decreased frequencies of joyful activation and power. In addition to increased vitality, as reflected by the latter two emotions, listening to music was also more frequently associated with emotions such as tenderness, nostalgia, peacefulness, and sadness. Compared to painting-related emotions, music-related emotions were perceived as more similar to emotions in other everyday life situations. Participants reported that stimulus features and previous knowledge made more important contributions to emotional responses to painting, whereas prior mood, physical context and the presence of other people were considered more important in relation to emotional responses to music. Self-education motivation was more frequently associated with looking at painting, whereas mood repair and keeping company motivations were reported more frequently in relation to listening to music. Participants with visual arts education reported increased vitality-related emotions in their experience of looking at painting. In contrast, no relation was found between music education and emotional responses to music. These findings offer a more general perspective on aesthetic emotions and encourage integrative research linking different types of aesthetic experience.

  15. Aesthetic emotions across arts: A comparison between painting and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei C. Miu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional responses to art have long been subject of debate, but only recently have they started to be investigated in affective science. The aim of this study was to compare perceptions regarding frequency of aesthetic emotions, contributing factors and motivation which characterize the experiences of looking at painting and listening to music. Parallel surveys were filled in online by participants (N = 971 interested in music and painting. By comparing self-reported characteristics of these experiences, this study found that compared to listening to music, looking at painting was associated with increased frequency of wonder and decreased frequencies of joyful activation and power. In addition to increased vitality, as reflected by the latter two emotions, listening to music was also more frequently associated with emotions such as tenderness, nostalgia, peacefulness and sadness. Compared to painting-related emotions, music-related emotions were perceived as more similar to emotions in other everyday life situations. Participants reported that stimulus features and previous knowledge made more important contributions to emotional responses to painting, whereas prior mood, physical context and the presence of other people were considered more important in relation to emotional responses to music. Self-education motivation was more frequently associated with looking at painting, whereas mood repair and keeping company motivations were reported more frequently in relation to listening to music. Participants with visual arts education reported increased vitality-related emotions in their experience of looking at painting. In contrast, no relation was found between music education and emotional responses to music. These findings offer a more general perspective on aesthetic emotions and encourage integrative research linking different types of aesthetic experience.

  16. Effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on emotional working memory capacity and mood in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkl A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela Merkl,1,2 Eva Röck,1 Tanja Schmitz-Hübsch,1,3 Gerd-Helge Schneider,4 Andrea A Kühn1,3,5 1Department of Neurology, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, 3NeuroCure, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, 5Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Background: In Parkinson’s disease (PD, cognitive symptoms and mood changes may be even more distressing for the patient than motor symptoms.Objective: Our aim was to determine the effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS on working memory (WM and mood.Methods: Sixteen patients with PD were assessed with STN-DBS switched on (DBS-ON and with dopaminergic treatment (Med-ON compared to switched off (DBS-OFF and without dopaminergic treatment (Med-OFF. The primary outcome measures were a Visual Analog Mood Scale (VAMS and an emotional 2-back WM task at 12 months after DBS in the optimal DBS-ON/Med-ON setting compared to DBS-OFF/Med-OFF.Results: Comparison of DBS-OFF/Med-OFF to DBS-ON/Med-ON revealed a significant increase in alertness (meanoff/off =51.59±24.54; meanon/on =72.75; P=0.016 and contentedness (meanoff/off =38.73±24.41; meanon/on =79.01±17.66; P=0.001, n=16, and a trend for reduction in sedation (P=0.060, which was related to stimulation as shown in a subgroup of seven patients. The N-back task revealed a significant increase in accuracy with DBS-ON/Med-ON compared to DBS-OFF/Med-OFF (82.0% vs 76.0%, respectively (P=0.044, regardless of stimulus valence.Conclusion: In line with previous studies, we found that patients rated themselves subjectively as more alert, content, and less sedated during short-term DBS-ON. Accuracy in the WM task increased with the combination of

  17. Acute changes in mood induced by subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease are modulated by psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Sarah A; Dewispelaere, William B; Campbell, Meghan C; Lugar, Heather M; Perlmutter, Joel S; Black, Kevin J; Hershey, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) reduces Parkinson disease (PD) motor symptoms but has unexplained, variable effects on mood. The study tested the hypothesis that pre-existing mood and/or anxiety disorders or increased symptom severity negatively affects mood response to STN DBS. Thirty-eight PD participants with bilateral STN DBS and on PD medications were interviewed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID) and completed Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (SSAI) self-reports. Subsequently, during OFF and optimal ON (clinical settings) STN DBS conditions and while off PD medications, motor function was assessed with the United Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, part III), and participants rated their mood with Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), and again completed SSAI. VAS mood variables included anxiety, apathy, valence and emotional arousal. STN DBS improved UPDRS scores and mood. Unexpectedly, PD participants diagnosed with current anxiety or mood disorders experienced greater STN DBS-induced improvement in mood than those diagnosed with remitted disorders or who were deemed as having never met threshold criteria for diagnosis. BDI and SSAI scores did not modulate mood response to STN DBS, indicating that clinical categorical diagnosis better differentiates mood response to STN DBS than self-rated symptom severity. SCID diagnosis, BDI and SSAI scores did not modulate motor response to STN DBS. PD participants diagnosed with current mood or anxiety disorders are more sensitive to STN DBS-induced effects on mood, possibly indicating altered basal ganglia circuitry in this group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Longitudinal functional connectivity changes correlate with mood improvement after regular exercise in a dose-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Leonardo; Carballedo, Angela; Lavelle, Grace; Doolin, Kelly; Doyle, Myles; Amico, Francesco; McCarthy, Hazel; Gormley, John; Lord, Anton; O'Keane, Veronica; Frodl, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Exercise increases wellbeing and improves mood. It is however unclear how these mood changes relate to brain function. We conducted a randomized controlled trial investigating resting-state modifications in healthy adults after an extended period of aerobic physical exercise and their relationship with mood improvements. We aimed to identify novel functional networks whose activity could provide a physiological counterpart to the mood-related benefits of exercise. Thirty-eight healthy sedentary volunteers were randomised to either the aerobic exercise group of the study or a control group. Participants in the exercise group attended aerobic sessions with a physiotherapist twice a week for 16 weeks. Resting-state modifications using magnetic resonance imaging were assessed before and after the programme and related to mood changes. An unbiased approach using graph metrics and network-based statistics was adopted. Exercise reduced mood disturbance and improved emotional wellbeing. It also induced a decrease in local efficiency in the parahippocampal lobe through strengthening of the functional connections from this structure to the supramarginal gyrus, precentral area, superior temporal gyrus and temporal pole. Changes in mood disturbance following exercise were correlated with those in connectivity between parahippocampal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus as well as with the amount of training. No changes were detected in the control group. In conclusion, connectivity from the parahippocampal gyrus to motor, sensory integration and mood regulation areas was strengthened through exercise. These functional changes might be related to the benefits of regular physical activity on mood. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Family enmeshment, adolescent emotional dysregulation, and the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Katherine Little; Welsh, Deborah P; Darling, Nancy; Culpepper, Christi L

    2015-08-01

    Enmeshment plays a key role in many families' dysfunctional interactions and may be especially detrimental for adolescents. Sixty-four adolescents completed ratings of family enmeshment, perceived distress tolerance, an interpersonal challenge task, and mood ratings before and immediately after the task. Before and during the challenge task, adolescents' respiratory sinus arrhythmia (an indicator of cardiac vagal tone) was recorded. Associations were tested between adolescents' perceptions of family enmeshment and 3 aspects of adolescent emotional dysregulation. Adolescents who perceived higher family enmeshment also demonstrated greater emotional dysregulation in several domains: negative global appraisals of distress tolerance, stronger increase in subjective negative mood from baseline to postchallenge, lower baseline vagal tone, and vagal augmentation during the challenge task. Gender differences also emerged, such that girls reported more negative distress appraisals overall and enmeshed boys showed greater emotional dysregulation across analyses. Findings are discussed in terms of how clinicians may dynamically assess and treat enmeshment and emotional dysregulation in families with male and female adolescents. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Determinants of emotional problems and mood disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowińska, Aleksandra; Zielona-Jenek, Monika; Pawelczyk, Adam; Banaszewska, Beata E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and severity of emotional problems among Polish women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and seek factors which increase the risk of their occurrence. The study group consisted of 82 women (aged 18-48), who were diagnosed with PCOS based on the Rotterdam criteria. During hospitalization, the patients completed a number of questionnaires, providing their sociodemographic data and information concerning the inconvenience of disease-associated symptoms. The question-naires included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory (MSEI). Data obtained during medical examinations (blood tests, transvaginal ultrasound, height and body mass measurements) were analyzed. Out of 82 women, the results detected risk for depression in 42 (51.22%), mild depressive disorders in 32, moderate disorders in 8, and severe disorder in 2 patients. No statistically significant correlation between BDI or state anxiety and the level of the analyzed hormones, insulin resistance, or infertility treatment, was found. General self-esteem, trait anxi-ety, and marital status were associated with the occurrence of depression symptoms. BMI was associated with the level of state anxiety during hospitalization. Women with PCOS are at risk for mood and anxiety disorders. Disease-related somatic factors are not directly associated with the risk for disorder occurrence. However, severity of depression symptoms has been shown to be influenced by permanent psychological characteristics of the studied women, i.e. self-esteem, trait anxiety, and life situation (marital status). Therefore, it is recommended to include interviews about patient life situation and screening questionnaires for assessing depression into the diagnostic procedures in PCOS patients. Patients should be referred for a psychological or psychiatric consultation, if needed.

  1. Emotion Processing by ERP Combined with Development and Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Emotions important for survival and social interaction have received wide and deep investigations. The application of the fMRI technique into emotion processing has obtained overwhelming achievements with respect to the localization of emotion processes. The ERP method, which possesses highly temporal resolution compared to fMRI, can be employed to investigate the time course of emotion processing. The emotional modulation of the ERP component has been verified across numerous researches. Emotions, described as dynamically developing along with the growing age, have the possibility to be enhanced through learning (or training) or to be damaged due to disturbances in growth, which is underlain by the neural plasticity of emotion-relevant nervous systems. And mood disorders with typical symptoms of emotion discordance probably have been caused by the dysfunctional neural plasticity. PMID:28831313

  2. Mood, music, and caffeine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2014-01-01

    What we see is affected by how we feel: in positive moods, we are more sensitive to positive stimuli, such as happy faces, but in negative moods we are more sensitive to negative stimuli, such as sad faces. Caffeine is known to affect mood - a cup of coffee results in a more positive mood, but also

  3. Relationship Between Reward and Emotional Intelligence of Academic Staff at Malaysian Public Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Ma’rof Bin Redzuan Haslinda Abdullah, Aida Mehrad Hanina Halimatussadiah

    2015-01-01

    One of the great positive behavioral factors among staff at university is emotional intelligence. In reality, emotional intelligence is cause of different reaction at workplace that was appeared by staff and also controlled most of moods in various situations. Moreover, knowing factors that impact on emotional intelligence is very vital and lead to different positive and negative behavior among staff. Reward is one of these external effective factors that influence on emotional intelligence. ...

  4. Erythropoietin improves mood and modulates the cognitive and neural processing of emotion 3 days post administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla; Inkster, Becky; Selvaraj, Sudhakar

    2008-01-01

    the reliability of the rapid mood improvement and its neuropsychological basis. Neuronal responses during the processing of happy and fearful faces were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); facial expression recognition performance was assessed after the fMRI scan. Daily ratings...... of mood were obtained for 3 days after Epo/saline administration. During faces processing Epo enhanced activation in the left amygdala and right precuneus to happy and fearful expressions. This was paired with improved recognition of all facial expressions, in particular of low intensity happiness...

  5. Emotional aspects of hyperprolactinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, L G

    1998-01-01

    Patients with hyperprolactinemia often present with emotional difficulties. These occasionally persist even after successful treatment. Insight into the roots of their diseased state makes a difference in the handling of all cases, but becomes crucial in the not-so-rare situations in which the normalization of hormonal levels is not followed by a feeling of cure. This chapter attempts to provide details, discuss and situate in context the following blocks of pertinent information: (1) prolactin acts upon the central nervous system and variations in its concentrations do affect mood, emotions and behavior; (2) most actions of prolactin are directed to metabolical and behavioral adaptation to pregnancy and the care of the young; (3) even in the absence of pregnancy prolactin secretion responds to environmental stimuli under specific conditions. Whether adaptive, as in the case of surrogate maternity, or pathological, as in the case of pseudopregnancy, prolactin responds to a perceived need to take care of a child; (4) the facts that the clinical onset of prolactinomas often follows life-events and that these tumors occur preferentially in women brought up under specific conditions suggest the possibility that psychological factors may predispose to prolactinomas; (5) dealing with individual cases requires the perception that the relations between prolactin, emotions and feelings are circular, i.e., prolactin affects the brain and mood but, on the other hand, personality traits and environmental factors may stimulate the secretion of prolactin and may play a role in the genesis of the disease.

  6. Fatty acid-induced gut-brain signaling attenuates neural and behavioral effects of sad emotion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oudenhove, Lukas; McKie, Shane; Lassman, Daniel; Uddin, Bilal; Paine, Peter; Coen, Steven; Gregory, Lloyd; Tack, Jan; Aziz, Qasim

    2011-08-01

    Although a relationship between emotional state and feeding behavior is known to exist, the interactions between signaling initiated by stimuli in the gut and exteroceptively generated emotions remain incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the interaction between nutrient-induced gut-brain signaling and sad emotion induced by musical and visual cues at the behavioral and neural level in healthy nonobese subjects undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects received an intragastric infusion of fatty acid solution or saline during neutral or sad emotion induction and rated sensations of hunger, fullness, and mood. We found an interaction between fatty acid infusion and emotion induction both in the behavioral readouts (hunger, mood) and at the level of neural activity in multiple pre-hypothesized regions of interest. Specifically, the behavioral and neural responses to sad emotion induction were attenuated by fatty acid infusion. These findings increase our understanding of the interplay among emotions, hunger, food intake, and meal-induced sensations in health, which may have important implications for a wide range of disorders, including obesity, eating disorders, and depression.

  7. The Effect of Mastectomy on Mood and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Esmaily

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast cancer with 22.6% is the most common cancer in Iranian women and mastectomy is the treatment of choice in 81% of cases posted for surgery. Mastectomy can evoke feelings of mutilation, altered body image and decreased sexual attractiveness and function leading to mood disorders. In the last decades, final purpose of treatment strategies in breast cancer is creation of a life with good quality. In this regards, concern is rising about the impact of surgical treatments, especially mastectomy on patient`s quality of life. This study was conducted to determine the relationship of mastectomy with mood and quality of life in breast cancer patients. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was done in 2005.Case group included mastectomy patients referring to the oncology clinics (n=50.The comparison group consisted of mammography candidates referring to women clinics in Imam Reza and Ghaeem Hospitals. Data collected was based on non-probability and purposeful sampling. The information collected included: demographic and medical information, social support questionnaire, POMS survey for measurement of mood. Quality of life was assessed with FPQOLI. Results: Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant converse statistical relation between mood and quality of life score in mastectomy women (P<0.001. Independence T test showed that mood and quality of life in mastectomy group were lower than mammography candidate women (P=0.001, P<0.049. The general linear model test showed that group variable had the most effect on women`s mood (P<0.001. Also , mood was the most important factor that predicted level of quality of life in these women (P<0.001. Conclusion: Lack of attention to psychological and spiritual status of the patients after mastectomy may provide conditions for unstable mood and can finally disrupt their quality of life. But, nurses can identify patients with psychological tensions and introduce them to consultancy

  8. Measurement of temperament and character in mood disorders: a model of fundamental states as personality types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloninger, C R; Bayon, C; Svrakic, D M

    1998-10-01

    Personality assessment may allow reliable measurement of risk of mood disorders. A group of adults (804) representative of the general population were assessed by questionnaire. Personality types were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Specific TCI configurations define personality types that can be described as hyperthymic, cyclothymic, irritable, and depressive. Each type had a unique profile of emotions, suicide attempts, and hospitalization. TCI traits are associated with mood disorders. Different ways of measuring Kraepelinean subtypes may disagree. Whether differences in personality cause psychopathology, or vice versa, remains uncertain. Personality profiles help in assessing suicidality and planning treatment.

  9. Death attitudes and emotional intelligence in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Tomás-Sabado, Joaquin; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    The aims of this study were to analyze the relationships between death attitudes and perceived emotional intelligence in a sample of nursing students, and to determine whether there are differences between different academic years with regard to both emotional intelligence and death attitudes. The participants were 243 nursing students. They all responded voluntarily and anonymously to a questionnaire that assessed the following constructs: fear of death, death anxiety, death depression, death obsession, and emotional intelligence (attention, clarity, and mood repair). Students' scores on fear of death of others subscale (p nursing degree program and increased significantly on emotional clarity (p death of others. The importance of including emotional skills training and death-education programs as part of professional nursing curricula are discussed.

  10. Beliefs about emotional residue: the idea that emotions leave a trace in the physical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Krishna; Kumar, Satishchandra; Naidu, N V R; Dweck, Carol S

    2011-10-01

    Drawing upon the literatures on beliefs about magical contagion and property transmission, we examined people's belief in a novel mechanism of human-to-human contagion, emotional residue. This is the lay belief that people's emotions leave traces in the physical environment, which can later influence others or be sensed by others. Studies 1-4 demonstrated that Indians are more likely than Americans to endorse a lay theory of emotions as substances that move in and out of the body, and to claim that they can sense emotional residue. However, when the belief in emotional residue is measured implicitly, both Indians and American believe to a similar extent that emotional residue influences the moods and behaviors of those who come into contact with it (Studies 5-7). Both Indians and Americans also believe that closer relationships and a larger number of people yield more detectable residue (Study 8). Finally, Study 9 demonstrated that beliefs about emotional residue can influence people's behaviors. Together, these finding suggest that emotional residue is likely to be an intuitive concept, one that people in different cultures acquire even without explicit instruction. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia is associated with tonic positive emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oveis, Christopher; Cohen, Adam B; Gruber, June; Shiota, Michelle N; Haidt, Jonathan; Keltner, Dacher

    2009-04-01

    Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSAREST) indexes important aspects of individual differences in emotionality. In the present investigation, the authors address whether RSAREST is associated with tonic positive or negative emotionality, and whether RSAREST relates to phasic emotional responding to discrete positive emotion-eliciting stimuli. Across an 8-month, multiassessment study of first-year university students (n = 80), individual differences in RSAREST were associated with positive but not negative tonic emotionality, assessed at the level of personality traits, long-term moods, the disposition toward optimism, and baseline reports of current emotional states. RSAREST was not related to increased positive emotion, or stimulus-specific emotion, in response to compassion-, awe-, or pride-inducing stimuli. These findings suggest that resting RSA indexes aspects of a person's tonic positive emotionality. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Chronobiology and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selvi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Living organizms show cyclic rhythmicity in a variety of physiological, hormonal, behavioral, and psychological processes. Sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone levels, mood and cognition display a circadian rhythm in humans. Delays, advances or desynchronizations of circadian rhythm are known to be strongly associated with mental illness especially mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depression and seasonal affective disorder. Furthermore, some of the mood stabilizers, sleep deprivation and light treatment are employed to treat mood disorders by shifting circadian rhythm. This paper reviews the relationship between mood disorders and circadian rhythm, and describes treatment options by altering circadian rhythm.

  13. The Effects of Gender Differences in Patients with Depression on Their Emotional Working Memory and Emotional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of research has been conducted on the effects of sex hormones on gender differences in patients with depression, yet research on cognitive differences between male and female patients with depression is insufficient. This study uses emotion pictures to investigate the differences of the emotional working memory ability and emotional experience in male and female patients with depression. Despite identifying that the working memory of patients with depression is impaired, our study found no significant gender differences in emotional working memory. Moreover, the research results revealed that memory effects of mood congruence are produced in both men and women, which may explain why the depression state can be maintained. Furthermore, female patients have more emotional experiences than male patients, which is particularly significant in terms of negative emotional experiences. This result provides cognitive evidence to explain why women suffer from longer terms of depression, are more susceptible to relapse, and can more easily suffer from major depressive disorder in the future.

  14. Religiousness and mood in the last week of life: an explorative approach based on after-death proxy interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, Arjan W; Klinkenberg, Marianne; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2011-01-01

    Although religiousness may, to a certain extent, be expected to alleviate emotional suffering in the last week of life, some religious beliefs might also provoke emotional distress. For the current study, after-death interviews with proxy respondents of deceased sample members of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam provided information on depressive mood and anxiety in the last week of life, as well as on the presence of a sense of peace at the approaching end of life. Proxy respondents also were asked about serious physical symptoms in the last week of life of the respondent, the respondent's cognitive decline, and their estimate of the salience of religion for the sample member. Other characteristics were derived from the last interviews with the sample members when still alive: depressive symptoms, chronic diseases, religious affiliation, church attendance, belief in Heaven, belief in Hell, and salience of religion. None of the characteristics of religiousness was significantly associated with depressive mood or anxiety, as estimated by the proxy respondent. A sense of peace, however, was predicted by higher church attendance, belief in Hell (among church-members), and the proxy's estimate of the salience of religion. It can be concluded that religiousness did not affect depressive mood or anxiety in the last week of life in the current sample. It is possible that religiousness supports a sense of peace, which may be a more-existential facet of mood and is discussed as relevant in the last phase of life and in palliative care.

  15. Reciprocal Markov Modeling of Feedback Mechanisms Between Emotion and Dietary Choice Using Experience-Sampling Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ji; Pan, Junhao; Zhang, Qiang; Dubé, Laurette; Ip, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    With intensively collected longitudinal data, recent advances in the experience-sampling method (ESM) benefit social science empirical research, but also pose important methodological challenges. As traditional statistical models are not generally well equipped to analyze a system of variables that contain feedback loops, this paper proposes the utility of an extended hidden Markov model to model reciprocal the relationship between momentary emotion and eating behavior. This paper revisited an ESM data set (Lu, Huet, & Dube, 2011) that observed 160 participants' food consumption and momentary emotions 6 times per day in 10 days. Focusing on the analyses on feedback loop between mood and meal-healthiness decision, the proposed reciprocal Markov model (RMM) can accommodate both hidden ("general" emotional states: positive vs. negative state) and observed states (meal: healthier, same or less healthy than usual) without presuming independence between observations and smooth trajectories of mood or behavior changes. The results of RMM analyses illustrated the reciprocal chains of meal consumption and mood as well as the effect of contextual factors that moderate the interrelationship between eating and emotion. A simulation experiment that generated data consistent with the empirical study further demonstrated that the procedure is promising in terms of recovering the parameters.

  16. Context matters: How macroeconomic forces may alter the reception of negative emotions in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershfield, Hal Ersner; Alter, Adam Lee

    2017-01-01

    Menninghaus et al. offer a comprehensive model to explain why people pursue darker emotions in art, but we believe they underplay the considerable role of situational factors in driving these preferences. In particular, changing mood states are likely to shape artistic preferences, in large part because positive mood states act as a protective buffer against otherwise aversive experiences.

  17. [Psychological aspects of emotional regulation in smoking dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, S

    2001-04-01

    We reviewed the literature on the relationships between smoking and affect regulation. There is strong evidence that vulnerability to smoking dependence is a function of a high initial sensitivity to nicotine, which produces reinforcing consequences that lead to chronic use. These strong reinforcers of tobacco dependence include regulation of mood and modulation of arousal. We focused on studies concerned with the subjective component of arousal and emotional experience. We discuss first the models and classifications used to differentiate types of smoking as related to the management of emotions and studies evaluating the stimulant and subjective effects of smoking behavior, questioning the paradoxical tranquilizing and anxiety-reducing effects of nicotine. We also looked into the mood regulation effects that may explain the strong relationships observed between depression and smoking and finally focus on some of the personality risk factors that may make individuals more susceptible to these rewarding properties of smoking.

  18. Recall dynamics reveal the retrieval of emotional context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nicole M; Danoff, Michelle S; Kahana, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Memory is often better for emotional rather than neutral stimuli. The benefit for emotional items could be the result of an associative mechanism whereby items are associated to a slowly updating context. Through this process, emotional features are integrated with context during study, and are reactivated during test. The presence of emotion in context would both provide a stronger retrieval cue, enhancing memory of emotional items, as well as lead to emotional clustering, whereby emotionally similar items are recalled consecutively. To measure whether associative mechanisms can explain the enhancement for emotional items, we conducted a free recall study in which most items were emotionally neutral to minimize effects of mood induction and to more closely reflect naturalistic settings. We found that emotional items were significantly more likely to be recalled than neutral items and that participants were more likely to transition between emotional items rather than between emotional and neutral items. Together, these results suggest that contextual encoding and retrieval mechanisms may drive the benefit for emotional items both within and outside the laboratory.

  19. Emotional regulation, attachment to possessions and hoarding symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Philip J; Moulding, Richard; Taylor, Jasmine K; Nedeljkovic, Maja

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to test which particular facets of emotion regulation (ER) are most linked to symptoms of hoarding disorder, and whether beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions (EA) mediate this relationship. A non-clinical sample of 150 participants (108 females) completed questionnaires of emotional tolerance (distress tolerance, anxiety sensitivity, negative urgency - impulsivity when experiencing negative emotions), depressed mood, hoarding, and beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions. While all emotional tolerance measures related to hoarding, when considered together and controlling for depression and age, anxiety sensitivity and urgency were the significant predictors. Anxiety sensitivity was fully mediated, and urgency partially mediated, via beliefs regarding emotional attachment to possessions. These findings provide further support for (1) the importance of anxiety sensitivity and negative urgency for hoarding symptoms, and (2) the view that individuals with HD symptoms may rely on items for emotion regulation, leading to stronger beliefs that items are integral to emotional wellbeing. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Psychosocial predictors of emotional eating and their weight-loss treatment-induced changes in women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Mareno, Nicole; McEwen, Kristin

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed at assessing whether psychosocial predictors of controlled eating and weight loss also predict emotional eating, and how differing weight-loss treatment methods affect those variables. Women with obesity (M = 47.8 ± 7.9 years; BMI = 35.4 ± 3.3 kg/m(2)) were randomized into groups of either phone-supported self-help (Self-Help; n = 50) or in-person contact (Personal Contact; n = 53) intended to increase exercise, improve eating behaviors, and reduce weight over 6 months. A multiple regression analysis indicated that at baseline mood, self-regulating eating, body satisfaction, and eating-related self-efficacy significantly predicted emotional eating (R (2) = 0.35), with mood and self-efficacy as independent predictors. Improvements over 6 months on each psychosocial measure were significantly greater in the Personal Contact group. Changes in mood, self-regulation, body satisfaction, and self-efficacy significantly predicted emotional eating change (R (2) = 0.38), with all variables except self-regulation change being an independent predictor. Decreased emotional eating was significantly associated with weight loss. Findings suggest that weight-loss interventions should target specific psychosocial factors to improve emotional eating. The administration of cognitive-behavioral methods through personal contact might be more beneficial for those improvements than self-help formats.

  1. Perceived relational evaluation as a predictor of self-esteem and mood in people with a psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ross M G; Windell, Deborah; Lynch, Jill; Manchanda, Rahul

    2012-05-01

    There is evidence that social support predicts self-esteem and related moods for people with psychotic disorders. However, there has been little investigation of relative importance of specific components of social support. Evidence from social psychology suggests that perceived relational evaluation (PRE) or the extent to which people see others as valuing them, is a particularly important determinant of self-esteem and mood. Our study compared the importance of PRE and other types of social support, in predicting self-esteem and depressive mood, anxiety, and anger-hostility in a sample of patients in an early intervention program for psychotic disorders. One hundred and two patients of the Prevention and Early Intervention Program for Psychoses in London, Ontario, completed measures of PRE, appraisal, tangible and general emotional social support, self-esteem, and mood. In addition, ratings of positive and negative symptoms were completed for all participants. In general, perceived relational value was the most important predictor of self-esteem and mood. These relations were not a result of confounding with positive or negative symptoms. PRE appears to be a particularly important aspect of social support in predicting self-esteem and mood states. Possible implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed.

  2. Mood disorders: neurocognitive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Byrow, Yulisha; Fritz, Kristina; Das, Pritha; Baune, Bernhard T; Porter, Richard J; Outhred, Tim

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, a number of neurocognitive models stemming from psychiatry and psychology schools of thought have conceptualized the pathophysiology of mood disorders in terms of dysfunctional neural mechanisms that underpin and drive neurocognitive processes. Though these models have been useful for advancing our theoretical understanding and facilitating important lines of research, translation of these models and their application within the clinical arena have been limited-partly because of lack of integration and synthesis. Cognitive neuroscience provides a novel perspective for understanding and modeling mood disorders. This selective review of influential neurocognitive models develops an integrative approach that can serve as a template for future research and the development of a clinically meaningful framework for investigating, diagnosing, and treating mood disorders. A selective literature search was conducted using PubMed and PsychINFO to identify prominent neurobiological and neurocognitive models of mood disorders. Most models identify similar neural networks and brain regions and neuropsychological processes in the neurocognition of mood, however, they differ in terms of specific functions attached to neural processes and how these interact. Furthermore, cognitive biases, reward processing and motivation, rumination, and mood stability, which play significant roles in the manner in which attention, appraisal, and response processes are deployed in mood disorders, are not sufficiently integrated. The inclusion of interactions between these additional components enhances our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of mood disorders. Through integration of key cognitive functions and understanding of how these interface with neural functioning within neurocognitive models of mood disorders, a framework for research can be created for translation to diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John

  3. The impact of abuse and mood on bowel symptoms and health-related quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuri, N; Cassell, B; Bruce, S E; White, K S; Gott, B M; Gyawali, C P; Sayuk, G S

    2016-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common abdominal pain disorder without an organic explanation. Abuse histories (physical, sexual, emotional) are prevalent in IBS. While abuse relates to mood disorders (depression and anxiety) also common in IBS, the influence of abuse on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its independence from psychological symptom comorbidity has not been studied. Consecutive GI outpatients completed the ROME III Research Diagnostic Questionnaire and questionnaires on trauma (Life-Stress Questionnaire), mood (Beck Depression/Anxiety Inventories), somatic symptoms (PHQ-12), and HRQOL (SF-36). Current GI symptom severity and bother were assessed using 10-cm Visual Analog Scales. 272 ROME-defined IBS (47.6 ± 0.9 years, 81% female) and 246 non-FGID (51.6 ± 1.0 years, 65% female) subjects participated. IBS patients reported greater rates of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse (p IBS with abuse. Abuse effects were additive, with greater IBS symptom severity and poorer HRQOL noted in cases with multiple forms of abuse. Mediation analyses suggested that abuse effects on GI symptoms and HRQOL were partially mediated by mood. Abuse experiences common among IBS sufferers are associated with reports of greater GI symptoms and poorer HRQOL, particularly in those with multiple forms of abuse; this relationship may be partially mediated by concomitant mood disturbances. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effects of nicotine and nicotine expectancy on attentional bias for emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sally; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine's effects on mood are thought to enhance its addictive potential. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of nicotine on affect regulation have not been reliably demonstrated in human laboratory studies. We investigated the effects of nicotine abstinence (Experiment 1), and nicotine challenge and expectancy (Experiment 2) on attentional bias towards facial emotional stimuli differing in emotional valence. In Experiment 1, 46 nicotine-deprived smokers were randomized to either continue to abstain from smoking or to smoke immediately before testing. In Experiment 2, 96 nicotine-deprived smokers were randomized to smoke a nicotinized or denicotinized cigarette and to be told that the cigarette did or did not contain nicotine. In both experiments participants completed a visual probe task, where positively valenced (happy) and negatively valenced (sad) facial expressions were presented, together with neutral facial expressions. In Experiment 1, there was evidence of an interaction between probe location and abstinence on reaction time, indicating that abstinent smokers showed an attentional bias for neutral stimuli. In Experiment 2, there was evidence of an interaction between probe location, nicotine challenge and expectation on reaction time, indicating that smokers receiving nicotine, but told that they did not receive nicotine, showed an attentional bias for emotional stimuli. Our data suggest that nicotine abstinence appears to disrupt attentional bias towards emotional facial stimuli. These data provide support for nicotine's modulation of attentional bias as a central mechanism for maintaining affect regulation in cigarette smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Smart environment architecture for emotion detection and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Martínez-Rodrigo, Arturo; Pastor, José Manuel; Castillo, José Carlos; Lozano-Monasor, Elena; López, María T; Zangróniz, Roberto; Latorre, José Miguel; Fernández-Sotos, Alicia

    2016-12-01

    This paper introduces an architecture as a proof-of-concept for emotion detection and regulation in smart health environments. The aim of the proposal is to detect the patient's emotional state by analysing his/her physiological signals, facial expression and behaviour. Then, the system provides the best-tailored actions in the environment to regulate these emotions towards a positive mood when possible. The current state-of-the-art in emotion regulation through music and colour/light is implemented with the final goal of enhancing the quality of life and care of the subject. The paper describes the three main parts of the architecture, namely "Emotion Detection", "Emotion Regulation" and "Emotion Feedback Control". "Emotion Detection" works with the data captured from the patient, whereas "Emotion Regulation" offers him/her different musical pieces and colour/light settings. "Emotion Feedback Control" performs as a feedback control loop to assess the effect of emotion regulation over emotion detection. We are currently testing the overall architecture and the intervention in real environments to achieve our final goal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Modes and Moods of Mobility: Tourists and Commuters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orvar Löfgren

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available What can we learn from comparing different modes and moods of travel, among, for example, tourists and commuters? This paper contrasts these two very different kinds of mobility, and the ways in which they organise both motion and emotion. It is not only a question about how people interact with various systems of transport, but also how materialities and affects work together. An important topic is the question of how people acquire travelling skills. How do they learn to be a tourist or a commuter, to handle a train ride, navigate a transit space, or interact with strangers? A good reason to contrast commuters and tourists is also because they have often been studied within very different research paradigms. How can these different research traditions be put into a dialogue with each other, and help to develop methods for capturing the often elusive ways in which motion and emotion work together?

  7. The conceptualization of terms: 'Mood' and 'affect' in academic trainees of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, Narayana; Khess, Christoday Raja Jayant; Ram, Dushad

    2009-01-01

    The management of psychiatric disorders should ideally be carried out by a multidisciplinary team that consists of mental health professionals from different disciplines. All mental health professionals are expected to learn similar basic clinical skills during their training, despite the difference in their graduation. To compare the conceptualization of the terms 'mood' and 'affect' in all academic trainees of mental health in the Central Institute of Psychiatry (CIP), Ranchi, India. The 'modified mood and affect questionnaire' administered to all mental health trainees of CIP, Ranchi, India, in this study. The participants were requested to mark one response (either 'true', 'false' or 'not sure') for each item. The completed questionnaire was collected on the spot. The statistical analysis was done for the data from psychiatric residents and trainees of clinical psychology. The statistical differences were observed between these two groups in response to the items-'Mood is the moment to moment emotional tone' and items of 'sign/symptom dimension'. The observed statistical difference in items could be the reflection of the differences in the description of 'mood' and 'affect' in textbooks of psychopathology, as well as, the difference in their graduation. The trainees of clinical psychology may be benefitted with more exposure in medical knowledge during their training.

  8. Mapping the emotional landscape: The role of specific emotions in conceptual categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Nan; Cai, Yong-hua; Sun, Fa-wei; Yang-yang, Yi-fan

    2015-07-01

    Although researchers generally subscribe to the opinion that emotions play a critical role in cognition, very few (see Niedenthal, Halberstadt, & Innes-Ker, 1999) have examined the specific interaction between the emotional state of the perceiver and the emotional meaning of stimuli in conceptual categorization - an important aspect of "higher-level" cognition. Niedenthal et al. (1999) advanced a fine-grained theory of emotional response categorization, arguing that emotional states increase the tendency to categorize concepts into a predictable set of emotional response categories characterized by the common, distinct emotional responses elicited by the concepts. Based on the pioneering work of Niedenthal et al., we further argued that (1) the specific emotion experienced by the individual should selectively facilitate the categorization of concepts associated with the same emotion, (2) both in terms of category inclusion and category exclusion, and (3) this facilitation effect should not be contingent on the awareness of the emotional state. In three experiments, participants were induced to experience different emotional states through movies or a facial-feedback manipulation. They judged whether or not a target concept belonged to the same category as the two comparison concepts. Some of the concept triads shared emotional associations, while others didn't. Results showed that emotive participants had a greater tendency than those in a neutral mood to group concepts according to their emotional associations, and to distinguish concepts with different emotional associations. They were also more efficient in categorizing concepts that had specific emotional meaning corresponding to their own emotional state than to other emotional concepts. Furthermore, participants posing a disgust expression without their knowledge showed higher tendency to categorize concepts according to their relevance to disgust. Implications and potential applications of the findings were

  9. Hoarding and emotional reactivity: The link between negative emotional reactions and hoarding symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A.M.; Timpano, K.R.; Steketee, G.; Tolin, D. F.; Frost, R.O.

    2015-01-01

    Hoarding disorder (HD) is characterized by difficulty discarding, clutter, and frequently excessive acquiring. Theories have pointed to intense negative emotional reactions (e.g., sadness) as one factor that may play a critical role in HD’s etiology. Preliminary work with an analogue sample indicated that more intense negative emotions following emotional films were linked with greater hoarding symptoms. Symptom provocation imaging studies with HD patients have also found evidence for excessive activation in brain regions implicated in processing emotions. The current study utilized a sample with self-reported serious hoarding difficulties to examine how hoarding symptoms related to both general and hoarding-related emotional reactivity, taking into account the specificity of these relationships. We also examined how two cognitive factors, fear of decision-making and confidence in memory, modified this relationship. 628 participants with self-identified hoarding difficulties completed questionnaires about general emotional reactivity, depression, anxiety, decision-making, and confidence in memory. To assess hoarding-related emotional reactivity, participants reported their emotional reactions when imagining discarding various items. Heightened general emotional reactivity and more intense emotional reactions to imagined discarding were associated with both difficulty discarding and acquisition, but not clutter, controlling for age, gender, and co-occurring mood and anxiety symptoms. Fear of decision-making and confidence in memory interacted with general emotional reactivity to predict hoarding symptoms. These findings provide support for cognitive-behavioral models of hoarding. Experimental research should be conducted to discover whether emotional reactivity increases vulnerability for HD. Future work should also examine whether emotional reactivity should be targeted in interventions for hoarding. PMID:25732668

  10. Functional magnetic resonances imaging of psychological functions with experimentally induced emotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodd, W.; Schneider, F.; Klose, U.; Naegele, T.

    1995-01-01

    In this study a T 2 * FLASH sequence (TR 240 ms, TE 60 ms, slice thickness 4 mm, α=40 , matrix 64x128) was used to investigate changes in signal intensity within the temporal lobe and the amygdala during experimentally induced emotions. Visual stimuli of happy [sad] facial portraits were presented to volunteers to induce changes in the subjects' mood while lying in the tomograph. In agreement with a previous PET study, a significant increase in signal intensity in the left amygdala was found during induction of a sad mood, while no comparable effect was visible during induction of a happy mood. (orig.) [de

  11. Sleep loss as a trigger of mood episodes in bipolar disorder: individual differences based on diagnostic subtype and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katie Swaden; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Forty, Liz; Di Florio, Arianna; Craddock, Nick; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian

    2017-09-01

    Background Sleep loss may trigger mood episodes in people with bipolar disorder but individual differences could influence vulnerability to this trigger. Aims To determine whether bipolar subtype (bipolar disorder type I (BP-I) or II (BD-II)) and gender were associated with vulnerability to the sleep loss trigger. Method During a semi-structured interview, 3140 individuals (68% women) with bipolar disorder (66% BD-I) reported whether sleep loss had triggered episodes of high or low mood. DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar subtype was derived from case notes and interview data. Results Sleep loss triggering episodes of high mood was associated with female gender (odds ratio (OR) = 1.43, 95% CI 1.17-1.75, P < 0.001) and BD-I subtype (OR = 2.81, 95% CI 2.26-3.50, P < 0.001). Analyses on sleep loss triggering low mood were not significant following adjustment for confounders. Conclusions Gender and bipolar subtype may increase vulnerability to high mood following sleep deprivation. This should be considered in situations where patients encounter sleep disruption, such as shift work and international travel. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  12. Mood Components in Cocoa and Chocolate: The Mood Pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuenter, Emmy; Foubert, Kenn; Pieters, Luc

    2018-03-14

    Cocoa and chocolate, prepared from cocoa beans that originate from the fruits of the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao , have a long-standing reputation as healthy food, including mood-enhancing effects. In spite of many clinical trials with chocolate, cocoa, or its constituents, the mechanisms of action on mood and cognition remain unclear. More in particular, it is still controversial which constituents may contribute to the psychopharmacological activities, ranging from the major cacao flavanols and methylxanthines to the minor amines, amides, and alkaloids. In this review a critical appraisal is made of recent studies on mood and cognition, with a special emphasis on analytical characterization of the test samples. It is concluded that the mood and cognition-enhancing effects of cocoa and chocolate can be ranked from more general activities associated with flavanols and methylxanthines, to more specific activities related to minor constituents such as salsolinol, with on top the orosensory properties of chocolate. Therefore, the "mood pyramid" of cocoa and chocolate is proposed as a new concept. To understand the role and interactions of the different major and minor constituents of cocoa, it is recommended that all test samples used in future in vitro, in vivo , or human studies should be phytochemically characterized in much more detail than is common practice today. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Teachers' Emotional and Behavioral Support and Preschoolers' Self-Regulation: Relations with Social and Emotional Skills during Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Slot, Pauline L.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Dubas, Judith S.

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Drawing from a Dutch sample of 113 Dutch children (M age = 37 months, SD = 3.5) from 37 early care and education classrooms (19 child care centers and 18 preschools), this study examined whether the relation between classroom emotional and behavioral support and children's observed social integration and positive mood in a play…

  14. Gender differences in regional cerebral activity during the perception of emotion: a functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Alex; Siedentopf, Christian M; Ischebeck, Anja; Rettenbacher, Maria A; Verius, Michael; Felber, Stephan; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang

    2006-08-15

    Whether men activate different brain regions during various emotions compared to women or whether gender differences exist in transient emotional states has been the subject of only few studies. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate gender differences during the perception of positive or negative emotions. The experiment comprised two emotional conditions (pleasant/unpleasant visual stimuli) during which fMRI data were acquired. Altogether, 38 healthy volunteers (19 males, 19 females) were investigated. When subtracting the activation values of men from those of women, suprathreshold positive signal changes were detected in the right posterior cingulate, the left putamen and the left cerebellum during positive mood induction, and in bilateral superior temporal gyri and cerebellar vermis during negative mood induction. The subtraction of activation values of women from those of men yielded no significant differences. Our findings suggest gender-related neural responses to emotional stimuli and could contribute to the understanding of mechanisms underlying gender-related vulnerability of the prevalence and severity of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  15. Effects of short-term quetiapine treatment on emotional processing, sleep and circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Philippa L; Goodwin, Guy M; Wulff, Katharina; McTavish, Sarah F B; Harmer, Catherine J

    2016-03-01

    Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic that can stabilise mood from any index episode of bipolar disorder. This study investigated the effects of seven-day quetiapine administration on sleep, circadian rhythms and emotional processing in healthy volunteers. Twenty healthy volunteers received 150 mg quetiapine XL for seven nights and 20 matched controls received placebo. Sleep-wake actigraphy was completed for one week both pre-dose and during drug treatment. On Day 8, participants completed emotional processing tasks. Actigraphy revealed that quetiapine treatment increased sleep duration and efficiency, delayed final wake time and had a tendency to reduce within-day variability. There were no effects of quetiapine on subjective ratings of mood or energy. Quetiapine-treated participants showed diminished bias towards positive words and away from negative words during recognition memory. Quetiapine did not significantly affect facial expression recognition, emotional word categorisation, emotion-potentiated startle or emotional word/faces dot-probe vigilance reaction times. These changes in sleep timing and circadian rhythmicity in healthy volunteers may be relevant to quetiapine's therapeutic actions. Effects on emotional processing did not emulate the effects of antidepressants. The effects of quetiapine on sleep and circadian rhythms in patients with bipolar disorder merit further investigation to elucidate its mechanisms of action. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Opioid system and human emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Tuominen, Lauri

    2017-04-10

    Emotions are states of vigilant readiness that guide human and animal behaviour during survival-salient situations. Categorical models of emotions posit neurally and physiologically distinct basic human emotions (anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness and surprise) that govern different survival functions. Opioid receptors are expressed abundantly in the mammalian emotion circuit, and the opioid system modulates a variety of functions related to arousal and motivation. Yet, its specific contribution to different basic emotions has remained poorly understood. Here, we review how the endogenous opioid system and particularly the μ receptor contribute to emotional processing in humans. Activation of the endogenous opioid system is consistently associated with both pleasant and unpleasant emotions. In general, exogenous opioid agonists facilitate approach-oriented emotions (anger, pleasure) and inhibit avoidance-oriented emotions (fear, sadness). Opioids also modulate social bonding and affiliative behaviour, and prolonged opioid abuse may render both social bonding and emotion recognition circuits dysfunctional. However, there is no clear evidence that the opioid system is able to affect the emotions associated with surprise and disgust. Taken together, the opioid systems contribute to a wide array of positive and negative emotions through their general ability to modulate the approach versus avoidance motivation associated with specific emotions. Because of the protective effects of opioid system-mediated prosociality and positive mood, the opioid system may constitute an important factor contributing to psychological and psychosomatic resilience. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reliving emotional personal memories: affective biases linked to personality and sex-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkova, Ekaterina; Dolcos, Sanda; Dolcos, Florin

    2012-06-01

    Although available evidence suggests that the emotional valence and recollective properties of autobiographical memories (AMs) may be influenced by personality- and sex-related differences, overall these relationships remain poorly understood. The present study investigated these issues by comparing the effect of general personality traits (extraversion and neuroticism) and specific traits linked to emotion regulation (ER) strategies (reappraisal and suppression) on the retrieval of emotional AMs and on the associated postretrieval emotional states, in men and women. First, extraversion predicted recollection of positive AMs in both men and women, whereas neuroticism predicted the proportion of negative AMs in men and the frequency of rehearsing negative AMs in women. Second, reappraisal predicted positive AMs in men, and suppression predicted negative AMs in women. Third, while reliving of positive memories had an overall indirect effect on postretrieval positive mood through extraversion, reliving of negative AMs had a direct effect on postretrieval negative mood, which was linked to inefficient engagement of suppression in women. Our findings suggest that personality traits associated with positive affect predict recollection of positive AMs and maintenance of a positive mood, whereas personality traits associated with negative affect, along with differential engagement of habitual ER strategies in men and women, predict sex-related differences in the recollection and experiencing of negative AMs. These findings provide insight into the factors that influence affective biases in reliving AMs, and into their possible link to sex-related differences in the susceptibility to affective disorders.

  19. A TOOL FOR EMOTIONAL USER EXPERIENCE ASSESSMENT OF WEB-BASED MEDICAL SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Nikov; Tramaine Alaina Gumaia

    2016-01-01

    Emotional User Experience Design (eUXD) has become increasingly important for web-based services. The primary objective of this study is to enable users to use websites that are easy to understand and operate and pleasing to use. A checklist tool for an emotional user experience (eUX) assessment that supports web-based medical services is proposed. This tool measures user moods while using medical services’ websites. The tool allocates emotive design-oriented problems and thus defines relevan...

  20. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Marijn C W; van Wingen, Guido A; Wittwer, Jonas; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Kloek, Joris; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, tryptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport across the blood-brain-barrier, a limitation that can be mitigated by increasing the tryptophan/LNAA ratio. We therefore tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study (N=32) whether a drink with a favourable tryptophan/LNAA ratio improves mood and modulates specific brain processes as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We show that one serving of this drink increases the tryptophan/LNAA ratio in blood plasma, lifts mood in healthy young women and alters task-specific and resting-state processing in brain regions implicated in mood regulation. Specifically, Test-drink consumption reduced neural responses of the dorsal caudate nucleus during reward anticipation, increased neural responses in the dorsal cingulate cortex during fear processing, and increased ventromedial prefrontal-lateral prefrontal connectivity under resting-state conditions. Our results suggest that increasing tryptophan/LNAA ratios can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Normalization of emotion control scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatoolah Tahmasebian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion control skill teaches the individuals how to identify their emotions and how to express and control them in various situations. The aim of this study was to normalize and measure the internal and external validity and reliability of emotion control test. Methods: This standardization study was carried out on a statistical society, including all pupils, students, teachers, nurses and university professors in Kermanshah in 2012, using Williams’ emotion control scale. The subjects included 1,500 (810 females and 690 males people who were selected by stratified random sampling. Williams (1997 emotion control scale, was used to collect the required data. Emotional Control Scale is a tool for measuring the degree of control people have over their emotions. This scale has four subscales, including anger, depressed mood, anxiety and positive affect. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using correlation and Cronbach's alpha tests. Results: The results of internal consistency of the questionnaire reported by Cronbach's alpha indicated an acceptable internal consistency for emotional control scale, and the correlation between the subscales of the test and between the items of the questionnaire was significant at 0.01 confidence level. Conclusion: The validity of emotion control scale among the pupils, students, teachers, nurses and teachers in Iran has an acceptable range, and the test itemswere correlated with each other, thereby making them appropriate for measuring emotion control.

  2. Do you remember your sad face? The roles of negative cognitive style and sad mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudek, Corrado; Monni, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of negative cognitive style, sad mood, and facial affect on the self-face advantage in a sample of 66 healthy individuals (mean age 26.5 years, range 19-47 years). The sample was subdivided into four groups according to inferential style and responsivity to sad mood induction. Following a sad mood induction, we examined the effect on working memory of an incidental association between facial affect, facial identity, and head-pose orientation. Overall, head-pose recognition was more accurate for the self-face than for nonself face (self-face advantage, SFA). However, participants high in negative cognitive style who experienced higher levels of sadness displayed a stronger SFA for sad expressions than happy expressions. The remaining participants displayed an opposite bias (a stronger SFA for happy expressions than sad expressions), or no bias. These findings highlight the importance of trait-vulnerability status in the working memory biases related to emotional facial expressions.

  3. Positive mood can increase or decrease message scrutiny: the hedonic contingency view of mood and message processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, D T; Petty, R E; Smith, S M

    1995-07-01

    Currently dominant explanations of mood effects on persuasive message processing (i.e., cognitive capacity and feelings as information) predict that happy moods lead to less message scrutiny than neutral or sad moods. The hedonic contingency view (D. T. Wegener & R. E. Petty, 1994) predicts that happy moods can sometimes be associated with greater message processing activity because people in a happy mood are more attentive than neutral or sad people to the hedonic consequences of their actions. Consistent with this view, Experiment 1 finds that a happy mood can lead to greater message scrutiny than a neutral mood when the message is not mood threatening. Experiment 2 finds that a happy mood leads to greater message scrutiny than a sad mood when an uplifting message is encountered, but to less message scrutiny when a depressing message is encountered.

  4. Mood repair via attention refocusing or recall of positive autobiographical memories by adolescents with pediatric-onset major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Maria; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Rottenberg, Jonathan; George, Charles J; Baji, Ildikó; Benák, István; Dochnal, Roberta; Halas, Kitti; Kiss, Enikő; Vetró, Ágnes; Kapornai, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Impaired emotion regulation is increasingly recognized as a core feature of depressive disorders. Indeed, currently and previously depressed adults both report greater problems in attenuating sadness (mood repair) in daily life than healthy controls. In contrast, studies of various strategies to attenuate sad affect have mostly found that currently or previously depressed adults and controls were similarly successful at mood repair in the laboratory. But few studies have examined mood repair among depression-prone youths or the effects of trait characteristics on mood repair outcomes in the laboratory. Adolescents, whose first episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) had onset at age 9, on average (probands), and were either in remission or depressed, and control peers, watched a sad film clip. Then, they were instructed to engage in refocusing attention (distraction) or recalling happy memories. Using affect ratings provided by the youths, we tested two developmentally informed hypotheses about whether the subject groups would be similarly able to attenuate sadness via the two mood repair strategies. We also explored if self-reported habitual (trait) mood repair influenced laboratory performance. Contrary to expectations, attention refocusing and recall of happy memories led to comparable mood benefits across subjects. Control adolescents reported significantly greater reductions in sadness than did depressed (Cohen's d = .48) or remitted (Cohen's d = .32) probands, regardless of mood repair strategy, while currently depressed probands remained the saddest after mood repair. Habitual mood repair styles moderated the effects of instructed (state) mood repair in the laboratory. Whether depressed or in remission, adolescents with MDD histories are not as efficient at mood repair in the laboratory as controls. But proband-control group differences in mood repair outcomes were modest in scope, suggesting that the abilities that subserve affect regulation have been

  5. Mood repair via attention refocusing or recall of positive autobiographical memories by adolescents with pediatric onset major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Maria; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Rottenberg, Jonathan; George, Charles J.; Baji, Ildikó; Benák, István; Dochnal, Roberta; Halas, Kitti; Kiss, Enikő; Vetró, Ágnes; Kapornai, Krisztina

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired emotion regulation is increasingly recognized as a core feature of depressive disorders. Indeed, currently and previously depressed adults both report greater problems in attenuating sadness (mood repair) in daily life than healthy controls. In contrast, studies of various strategies to attenuate sad affect have mostly found that currently or previously depressed adults and controls were similarly successful at mood repair in the laboratory. But few studies have examined mood repair among depression-prone youths or the effects of trait characteristics on mood repair outcomes in the laboratory. Methods Adolescents, whose first episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) had onset at age 9, on average (probands), and were either in remission or depressed, and control peers, watched a sad film clip. Then, they were instructed to engage in re-focusing attention (distraction) or recalling happy memories. Using affect ratings provided by the youths, we tested two developmentally informed hypotheses about whether the subject groups would be similarly able to attenuate sadness via the two mood repair strategies. We also explored if self-reported habitual (trait) mood repair influenced laboratory performance. Results Contrary to expectations, attention re-focusing and recall of happy memories led to comparable mood benefits across subjects. Control adolescents reported significantly greater reductions in sadness than did depressed (Cohen’s d=.48) or remitted (Cohen’s d=.32) probands, regardless of mood repair strategy, while currently depressed probands remained the saddest after mood repair. Habitual mood repair styles moderated the effects of instructed (state) mood repair in the laboratory. Conclusions Whether depressed or in remission, adolescents with MDD histories are not as efficient at mood repair in the laboratory as controls. But proband-control group differences in mood repair outcomes were modest in scope, suggesting that the abilities

  6. The Benefits of Merging Leadership Research and Emotions Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Ronald H; Burch, Gerald F; Adams, Laural L

    2016-01-01

    A closer merging of the literature on emotions with the research on leadership may prove advantageous to both fields. Leadership researchers will benefit by incorporating the research on emotional labor, emotional regulation, and happiness. Emotions researchers will be able to more fully consider how leadership demands influence emotional processes. In particular, researchers can better understand how the workplace context and leadership demands influence affective events. The leadership literature on charisma, transformational leadership, leader-member exchange, and other theories have the potential to shed light on how rhetorical techniques and other leadership techniques influence emotional labor, emotional contagion, moods, and overall morale. Conversely, the literature on emotional labor and emotional contagion stands to provide insights into what makes leaders charismatic, transformational, or capable of developing high quality leader-follower relationships. This review examines emotions and leadership at five levels: within person, between persons, interpersonal, groups and teams, and organizational wide and integrates research on emotions, emotional contagion, and leadership to identify opportunities for future research for both emotions researchers and leadership researchers.

  7. The Benefits of Merging Leadership Research and Emotions Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Ronald H.; Burch, Gerald F.; Adams, Laural L.

    2016-01-01

    A closer merging of the literature on emotions with the research on leadership may prove advantageous to both fields. Leadership researchers will benefit by incorporating the research on emotional labor, emotional regulation, and happiness. Emotions researchers will be able to more fully consider how leadership demands influence emotional processes. In particular, researchers can better understand how the workplace context and leadership demands influence affective events. The leadership literature on charisma, transformational leadership, leader-member exchange, and other theories have the potential to shed light on how rhetorical techniques and other leadership techniques influence emotional labor, emotional contagion, moods, and overall morale. Conversely, the literature on emotional labor and emotional contagion stands to provide insights into what makes leaders charismatic, transformational, or capable of developing high quality leader–follower relationships. This review examines emotions and leadership at five levels: within person, between persons, interpersonal, groups and teams, and organizational wide and integrates research on emotions, emotional contagion, and leadership to identify opportunities for future research for both emotions researchers and leadership researchers. PMID:27458415

  8. Mood, media experiences and advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; van Velthoven, S.; Costa Pereira, F.; Veríssimo, J.; Neijens, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Studying moods and the effects that a mood has is an important topic in research into advertising. But nearly all data on mood effects are gathered in a forced exposure and lab context. In a real-life study we relate in this contribution mood to moments of media consumption. So we analyze at the

  9. Behavioral and Neural Sustained Attention Deficits in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Adleman, Nancy E; Curhan, Alexa; Zhang, Susan; Towbin, Kenneth E; Brotman, Melissa A; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2017-05-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), characterized by severe irritability, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid. This is the first study to characterize neural and behavioral similarities and differences in attentional functioning across these disorders. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers, 31 patients with DMDD, and 25 patients with ADHD (8 to 18 years old) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging attention task. Group differences in intra-subject variability in reaction time (RT) were examined. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging analytic approach precisely quantified trial-wise associations between RT and brain activity. Group differences manifested in the relation between RT and brain activity (all regions: p  2.54, partial eta-squared [η p 2 ] > 0.06). Patients with DMDD showed specific alterations in the right paracentral lobule, superior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus, and cerebellar culmen. In contrast, patients with DMDD and those with ADHD exhibited blunted compensatory increases in activity on long RT trials. In addition, youth with DMDD exhibited increased activity in the postcentral gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, and cerebellar tonsil and declive (all regions: p  2.46, η p 2 > 0.06). Groups in the imaging sample did not differ significantly in intra-subject variability in RT (F 2,79  = 2.664, p = .076, η p 2  = 0.063), although intra-subject variability in RT was significantly increased in youth with DMDD and ADHD when including those not meeting strict motion and accuracy criteria for imaging analysis (F 2,96  = 4.283, p = .017, η p 2  = 0.083). Patients with DMDD exhibited specific alterations in the relation between pre-stimulus brain activity and RT. Patients with DMDD and those with ADHD exhibited similar blunting of compensatory neural activity in frontal, parietal, and other regions. In addition, patients with DMDD showed increased RT variability compared with healthy

  10. Gender-specific disruptions in emotion processing in younger adults with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sara L; Langenecker, Scott A; Deldin, Patricia J; Rapport, Lisa J; Nielson, Kristy A; Kade, Allison M; Own, Lawrence S; Akil, Huda; Young, Elizabeth A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2009-01-01

    One of the principal theories regarding the biological basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) implicates a dysregulation of emotion-processing circuitry. Gender differences in how emotions are processed and relative experience with emotion processing might help to explain some of the disparities in the prevalence of MDD between women and men. This study sought to explore how gender and depression status relate to emotion processing. This study employed a 2 (MDD status) x 2 (gender) factorial design to explore differences in classifications of posed facial emotional expressions (N=151). For errors, there was an interaction between gender and depression status. Women with MDD made more errors than did nondepressed women and men with MDD, particularly for fearful and sad stimuli (Ps women with MDD compared to nondepressed women (P=.01). Men with MDD, conversely, performed similarly to control men (P=.61). These results provide novel and intriguing evidence that depression in younger adults (emotion processing in women as compared to men. This interaction could be driven by neurobiological and social learning mechanisms, or interactions between them, and may underlie differences in the prevalence of depression in women and men. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. A sad mood increases attention to unhealthy food images in women with food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayn, Mallory; Sears, Christopher R; von Ranson, Kristin M

    2016-05-01

    Food addiction and emotional eating both influence eating and weight, but little is known of how negative mood affects the attentional processes that may contribute to food addiction. The purpose of this study was to compare attention to food images in adult women (N = 66) with versus without food addiction, before and after a sad mood induction (MI). Participants' eye fixations were tracked and recorded throughout 8-s presentations of displays with healthy food, unhealthy food, and non-food images. Food addiction was self-reported using the Yale Food Addiction Scale. The sad MI involved watching an 8-min video about a young child who passed away from cancer. It was predicted that: (1) participants in the food addiction group would attend to unhealthy food significantly more than participants in the control group, and (2) participants in the food addiction group would increase their attention to unhealthy food images following the sad MI, due to increased emotional reactivity and poorer emotional regulation. As predicted, the sad MI had a different effect for those with versus without food addiction: for participants with food addiction, attention to unhealthy images increased following the sad MI and attention to healthy images decreased, whereas for participants without food addiction the sad MI did not alter attention to food. These findings contribute to researchers' understanding of the cognitive factors underlying food addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Negative Feelings as Emotional Enhancement in Cinema: The Case of Ulrich Seidl's Paradise Trilogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, T.; Hauskeller, M.; Philbeck, T.D.; Carbonell, C.D.; Carbonell, CD

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life, negative feelings such as shame, horror and disgust, are emotions one rather wants to discard than to cherish. Just think of the way in which people aspire at ‘improving’ their emotional makeup by means of Prozac and other mood enhancers in order to get rid of their undesirable

  13. How functional connectivity between emotion regulation structures can be disrupted: preliminary evidence from adolescents with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Mary R; Scheibel, Randall S; Mayer, Andrew R; Chu, Zili D; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Hanten, Gerri; Steinberg, Joel L; Lin, Xiaodi; Li, Xiaoqi; Merkley, Tricia L; Hunter, Jill V; Vasquez, Ana C; Cook, Lori; Lu, Hanzhang; Vinton, Kami; Levin, Harvey S

    2013-09-01

    Outcome of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) includes impaired emotion regulation. Emotion regulation has been associated with amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate (rACC). However, functional connectivity between the two structures after injury has not been reported. A preliminary examination of functional connectivity of rACC and right amygdala was conducted in adolescents 2 to 3 years after moderate to severe TBI and in typically developing (TD)control adolescents, with the hypothesis that the TBI adolescents would demonstrate altered functional connectivity in the two regions. Functional connectivity was determined by correlating fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent(BOLD) signal of the rACC and right amygdala with that of other brain regions. In the TBI adolescents, the rACC was found to be significantly less functionally connected to medial prefrontal cortices and to right temporal regions near the amygdala (height threshold T = 2.5, cluster level p functional connectivity with the rACC (height threshold T = 2.5, cluster level p = .06, FDR corrected). Data suggest disrupted functional connectivity in emotion regulation regions. Limitations include small sample sizes. Studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to characterize the persistent neural damage resulting from moderate to severe TBI during development.

  14. A multimodal investigation of contextual effects on alcohol's emotional rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Catharine E; Bresin, Konrad; Kang, Dahyeon; Rosen, I Gary; Ariss, Talia; Luczak, Susan E; Barnett, Nancy P; Eckland, Nathaniel S

    2018-05-01

    Regular alcohol consumption in unfamiliar social settings has been linked to problematic drinking. A large body of indirect evidence has accumulated to suggest that alcohol's rewarding emotional effects-both negative-mood relieving and positive-mood enhancing-will be magnified when alcohol is consumed within unfamiliar versus familiar social contexts. But empirical research has never directly examined links between contextual familiarity and alcohol reward. In the current study, we mobilized novel ambulatory technology to examine the effect of social familiarity on alcohol reward in everyday drinking contexts while also examining how alcohol reward observed in these field contexts corresponds to reward observed in the laboratory. Heavy social drinking participants (N = 48, 50% male) engaged in an intensive week of ambulatory assessment. Participants wore transdermal alcohol sensors while they reported on their mood and took photographs of their social contexts in response to random prompts. Participants also attended 2 laboratory beverage-administration sessions, during which their emotional responses were assessed and transdermal sensors were calibrated to estimate breathalyzer readings (eBrACs). Results indicated a significant interaction between social familiarity and alcohol episode in everyday drinking settings, with alcohol enhancing mood to a greater extent in relatively unfamiliar versus familiar social contexts. Findings also indicated that drinking in relatively unfamiliar social settings was associated with higher eBrACs. Finally, results indicated a correspondence between some mood effects of alcohol experienced inside and outside the laboratory. This study presents a novel methodology for examining alcohol reward and indicates social familiarity as a promising direction for research seeking to explain problematic drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Consensus Paper: Cerebellum and Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamaszek, M; D'Agata, F; Ferrucci, R; Habas, C; Keulen, S; Kirkby, K C; Leggio, M; Mariën, P; Molinari, M; Moulton, E; Orsi, L; Van Overwalle, F; Papadelis, C; Priori, A; Sacchetti, B; Schutter, D J; Styliadis, C; Verhoeven, J

    2017-04-01

    Over the past three decades, insights into the role of the cerebellum in emotional processing have substantially increased. Indeed, methodological refinements in cerebellar lesion studies and major technological advancements in the field of neuroscience are in particular responsible to an exponential growth of knowledge on the topic. It is timely to review the available data and to critically evaluate the current status of the role of the cerebellum in emotion and related domains. The main aim of this article is to present an overview of current facts and ongoing debates relating to clinical, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological findings on the role of the cerebellum in key aspects of emotion. Experts in the field of cerebellar research discuss the range of cerebellar contributions to emotion in nine topics. Topics include the role of the cerebellum in perception and recognition, forwarding and encoding of emotional information, and the experience and regulation of emotional states in relation to motor, cognitive, and social behaviors. In addition, perspectives including cerebellar involvement in emotional learning, pain, emotional aspects of speech, and neuropsychiatric aspects of the cerebellum in mood disorders are briefly discussed. Results of this consensus paper illustrate how theory and empirical research have converged to produce a composite picture of brain topography, physiology, and function that establishes the role of the cerebellum in many aspects of emotional processing.

  16. Emotional intelligence and the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Race, Mary-Clare; Rosen, Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the Bar-on EQ-I and the Occupational Personality Questionnaire OPQ32i to determine if there is a link between self- and other-reported Emotional Intelligence and personality traits. Data was obtained from 329 managers working in the IT and Finance sectors and included multi-source (360°) measures of Emotional Intelligence. Results indicated construct overlap and correlations between some elements of Emotional Intelligence and the OPQ32i with a stronger relationship between 360 measures of Emotional Intelligence and personality. On both the self-report measure of EQ-I and the 360 measure the mood scale showed a strongest link with personality factors. Measures of Emotional Intelligence which include a 360 component may thus provide a more useful indicator of an individual's ability to manage their own feelings and those of others.

  17. Emotional control in Chinese female cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Ho, Samuel M Y

    2004-11-01

    Chinese persons are not known as strong in expressing emotions, especially negative ones. However, being diagnosed with cancer and going through treatment can be an emotionally traumatic experience and cancer patients are supposed to have a stronger need to express these negative feelings. The control of expression of negative emotions such as anger, anxiety and depression in Chinese female cancer survivors (n=139) was examined in the present study using the Chinese version of the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS). The reliability, internal consistency and validity of the Chinese CECS were comparable to the original English scale. Correlation analyses suggested that cancer survivors with higher emotional control tended to have higher stress, anxiety and depression levels and to adopt negative coping with cancer. Regression analysis showed that emotional control would positively predict stress level even after the effect of depressed mood was under control. Further investigations are suggested in order to elucidate the causal relationships and specific cultural factors affecting emotional control in Chinese cancer survivors and, most importantly, its effect on health outcomes. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Associations between emotional intelligence, depression and suicide risk in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2014-04-01

    The most important factor which predisposes young people to suicide is depression, although protective factors such as self-esteem, emotional adaptation and social support may reduce the probability of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Several studies have indicated an elevated risk of suicide for health-related professions. Little is known, however, about the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and suicide risk among nursing students. The main goals were to determine the prevalence of suicide risk in a sample of nursing students, to examine the relationship between suicide risk and perceived emotional intelligence, depression, trait anxiety and self-esteem, and to identify any gender differences in relation to these variables. Cross-sectional study of nursing students (n=93) who completed self-report measures of perceived emotional intelligence (Trait Meta-Mood Scale, which evaluates three dimensions: emotional attention, clarity and repair), suicide risk (Plutchik Suicide Risk Scale), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale), depression (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale) and anxiety (Trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Linear regression analysis confirmed that depression and emotional attention are significant predictors of suicidal ideation. Moreover, suicide risk showed a significant negative association with self-esteem and with emotional clarity and repair. Gender differences were only observed in relation to depression, on which women scored significantly higher. Overall, 14% of the students were considered to present a substantial suicide risk. The findings suggest that interventions to prevent suicidal ideation among nursing students should include strategies to detect mood disorders (especially depression) and to improve emotional coping skills. In line with previous research the results indicate that high scores on emotional attention are linked to heightened emotional susceptibility and an increased risk of

  19. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate enhances mood and prosocial behavior without affecting plasma oxytocin and testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Oliver G; Eisenegger, Christoph; Gertsch, Jürg; von Rotz, Robin; Dornbierer, Dario; Gachet, M Salomé; Heinrichs, Markus; Wetter, Thomas C; Seifritz, Erich; Quednow, Boris B

    2015-12-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABAB-receptor agonist. Reports from GHB abusers indicate euphoric, prosocial, and empathogenic effects of the drug. We measured the effects of GHB on mood, prosocial behavior, social and non-social cognition and assessed potential underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. GHB (20mg/kg) was tested in 16 healthy males, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Subjective effects on mood were assessed by visual-analogue-scales and the GHB-Specific-Questionnaire. Prosocial behavior was examined by the Charity Donation Task, the Social Value Orientation test, and the Reciprocity Task. Reaction time, memory, empathy, and theory-of-mind were also tested. Blood plasma levels of GHB, oxytocin, testosterone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenocorticotropic-hormone (ACTH) were determined. GHB showed stimulating and sedating effects, and elicited euphoria, disinhibition, and enhanced vitality. In participants with low prosociality, the drug increased donations and prosocial money distributions. In contrast, social cognitive abilities such as emotion recognition, empathy, and theory-of-mind, and basal cognitive functions were not affected. GHB increased plasma progesterone, while oxytocin and testosterone, cortisol, aldosterone, DHEA, and ACTH levels remained unaffected. GHB has mood-enhancing and prosocial effects without affecting social hormones such as oxytocin and testosterone. These data suggest a potential involvement of GHB-/GABAB-receptors and progesterone in mood and prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The clinical obesity maintenance model: an integration of psychological constructs including mood, emotional regulation, disordered overeating, habitual cluster behaviours, health literacy and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Jayanthi; Smith, Evelyn; Hay, Phillipa

    2013-01-01

    Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM). It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder characteristics: II. Clinical correlates of irritable mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Paul J.; Bennett, David S.; Elia, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    Background This study describes the relationship of irritable mood (IRR) with affective disorders in youths with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Five hundred ADHD subjects were assessed with the childhood version of the Schedule for Affective Disorder & Schizophrenia. Subjects were in a genetic ADHD protocol and limited to those of Caucasian/European descent. Results The most prevalent concurrent diagnoses were oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (43.6%), minor depression/dysthymic disorder (MDDD) (18.8%), and generalized anxiety (13.2%)/overanxious disorder (12.4%). IRR subjects (21.0%) compared to the non-IRR (NIRR) group had higher rates of all affective disorders (76.2% vs. 9.6%) and ODD (83.8% vs. 32.9%) but lower rates of hyperactive ADHD (1.9% vs. 8.9%). Among those without comorbidities, 98.3% were NIRR. Logistic regression found IRR mood significantly associated with major depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR]: 33.4), MDDD (OR: 11.2), ODD (OR: 11.6), and combined ADHD (OR: 1.7) but not with anxiety disorders. Among symptoms, it associated IRR mood with a pattern of dysthymic and ODD symptoms but with fewer separation anxiety symptoms. Diagnostic and symptomatic parameters were unaffected by demographic variables. Limitations Potential confounders influencing these results include patient recruitment from only one clinical service; a cohort specific sample effect because some presumed affective disorders and non-Caucasians were excluded; and the young mean age (10.2 years) limiting comorbid patterns. Conclusions The prominence of an MDDD pattern suggests this IRR group is appropriate in the DSM V's proposed chronic depressive disorder, possibly with or without temper dysregulation. A new diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder may be unwarranted. PMID:22868057

  2. Mechanisms of attentional selection bias for threatening emotions of anger and disgust in individuals with high-trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Luyao; Cui, Lixia; Zhang, Qin; Dong, Xiaofei; Shi, Guangyuan

    2018-03-07

    There are still some controversies that attentional bias to negative emotions in individuals with high-trait anxiety (HTA), as compare with those with low-trait anxiety (LTA), occurs in the engagement or disengagement facet of attentional selectivity and whether this attentional bias is affected by negative emotional types. In this study, we explored the different attentional selectivity mechanisms for threatening emotions of anger and disgust between individuals with HTA and LTA using the variant attentional-probe paradigm. The results showed that under the engagement condition, the HTA group's attentional bias index of the anger mood was negative and was significantly less than the disgusting mood (positive) and that the P1 was smaller with angry faces as compared with neutral faces, which was separate from the results of the disgusted faces, having a significant difference with neutral faces on P1 component. In the LTA group, under the disengagement condition, the attentional bias index of the disgusting mood was significantly bigger than the attentional bias index of the anger mood. Moreover, the P1 of the disgusted faces was significantly bigger than the P1 of the angry faces. The topographical maps were also made to reveal the different neural underpinnings. The results suggested that there were different mechanisms of selective attentional bias for threatening emotions of anger and disgust in individuals with HTA. HTA individuals were characterized by facilitated attentional engagement with angry faces and impaired attentional engagement with disgusted faces. LTA individuals had different neural underpinnings and had impaired attentional disengagement with disgusted faces.

  3. Practical implications of Procedural and Emotional Religion Activity Therapy for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, David E; Eaves, Yvonne D; Keltner, Norman L; Struzick, Thomas S

    2010-08-01

    Procedural and Emotional Religious Activity Therapy encapsulates an approach to engaging older adults with Alzheimer's disease in meaningful activities that can be performed within the parameters of their cognitive functioning. Alzheimer's disease disrupts some brain structures more than others, resulting in a disproportionate loss of certain cognitive abilities. Explicit (conscious) memory skills are disrupted first, followed by implicit (unconscious) memory skills, and lastly emotional memory. Activities relying more on implicit and emotional memory, such as specially selected religious activities, are more likely to be used by patients. Steps and caveats of using this approach are provided.

  4. Emotion, emotion regulation and sleep: An intimate relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vandekerckhove

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research has witnessed an increasing interest in the bidirectional relationship between emotion and sleep. Sleep seems important for restoring daily functioning, whereas deprivation of sleep makes us more emotionally aroused and sensitive to stressful stimuli and events. Sleep appears to be essential to our ability to cope with emotional stress in everyday life. However, when daily stress is insufficiently regulated, it may result in mental health problems and sleep disturbances too. Not only does emotion impact sleep, but there is also evidence that sleep plays a key role in regulating emotion. Emotional events during waking hours affect sleep, and the quality and amount of sleep influences the way we react to these events impacting our general well-being. Although we know that daytime emotional stress affects sleep by influencing sleep physiology, dream patterns, dream content and the emotion within a dream, its exact role is still unclear. Other effects that have been found are the exaggeration of the startle response, decrease in dream recall and elevation of awakening thresholds from rapid eye movement (REM, REM-sleep, increased or decreased latency to REM-sleep, increase in percentage of REM-density, REM-sleep duration, as well as the occurrence of arousals in sleep as a marker of sleep disruption. Equally, the way an individual copes with emotional stress, or the way in which an individual regulates emotion may modulate the effects of emotional stress on sleep. The research presented here supports the idea that adaptive emotion regulation benefits our follow-up sleep. We thus conclude the current review with a call for future research in order to clarify further the precise relationship between sleep, emotion and emotion regulation, as well as to explain further how sleep dissolves our emotional stress.

  5. Mindfulness meditation improves emotion regulation and reduces drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Tang, Rongxiang; Posner, Michael I

    2016-06-01

    The core clinical symptoms of addiction include an enhanced incentive for drug taking (craving), impaired self-control (impulsivity and compulsivity), emotional dysregulation (negative mood) and increased stress reactivity. Symptoms related to impaired self-control involve reduced activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), adjacent prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain areas. Behavioral training such as mindfulness meditation can increase the function of control networks including those leading to improved emotion regulation and thus may be a promising approach for the treatment of addiction. In a series of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we tested whether increased ACC/mPFC activity is related to better self-control abilities in executive functions, emotion regulation and stress response in healthy and addicted populations. After a brief mindfulness training (Integrative Body-Mind Training, IBMT), we used the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Profile of Mood States (POMS) to measure emotion regulation, salivary cortisol for the stress response and fMRI for brain functional and DTI structural changes. Relaxation training was used to serve as an active control. In both smokers and nonsmokers, improved self-control abilities in emotion regulation and stress reduction were found after training and these changes were related to increased ACC/mPFC activity following training. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers showed reduced ACC/mPFC activity in the self-control network before training, and these deficits were ameliorated after training. These results indicate that promoting emotion regulation and improving ACC/mPFC brain activity can help for addiction prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Disrupted functional connectivity in adolescent obesity

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    Laura Moreno-Lopez

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that adolescent obesity is linked to disrupted functional connectivity in brain networks relevant to maintaining balance between reward, emotional memories and cognitive control. Our findings may contribute to reconceptualization of obesity as a multi-layered brain disorder leading to compromised motivation and control, and provide a biological account to target prevention strategies for adolescent obesity.

  7. Obesity, body dissatisfaction, and emotional well-being in early and late adolescence : findings from the project EAT Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mond, J.; van den Berg, P.; Boutelle, K.; Hannan, P.; Neumark-Sztainer, D.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that, at two different stages of adolescence, impairment in emotional well-being associated with obesity is mediated by body dissatisfaction (BD). METHODS: Self-reported measures of BD, emotional well-being (self-esteem, depressive mood), height and weight, and

  8. The influence of negative urgency, attentional bias, and emotional dimensions on palatable food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kendra Davis; Fischer, Sarah; Smith, Gregory T; Miller, Joshua D

    2016-05-01

    We tested a theoretical model concerning the role of attentional bias and negative affect in food consumption that offers important advances. We hypothesized that the effects of negative affect manipulations on food consumption vary as a function of trait levels of negative urgency (NU; tendency to act impulsively when distressed), and attentional bias and that the roles of emotional arousal and negative emotional valence differ and should be studied separately. 190 undergraduate women were randomly assigned to either an anger or neutral mood condition. Women in both conditions completed the Food Stroop, in which the presentation of food and neutral words were counterbalanced. After the task, participants were given the opportunity to eat mandarin oranges and/or chocolate candy while the experimenter was out of the room. The type and quantity of food consumed was counted after the participant departed. As hypothesized, the roles of emotional arousal and valence differed and the effect of the induced emotion was moderated by NU. Women high in NU who experienced emotional arousal were more likely to eat candy and consumed more candy than other women. Emotional valence had no effect on candy consumption. Neither increases in emotional arousal or emotional valence influenced attentional bias to food cues. Attentional bias was also unrelated to food consumption. The impact of negative mood inductions on palatable food consumption appears to operate through emotional arousal and not negative emotional valence, and it may operate primarily for women high in NU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emotion-focused group therapy for women with symptoms of bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnuk, Susan M; Greenberg, Les; Dolhanty, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    This study provides outcome pilot data for an outpatient emotion-focused therapy group for 12 women with DSM-IV diagnoses of binge-eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder not otherwise specified. The emotion-focused therapy group involved 16 weekly sessions that targeted problematic emotions connected to eating disorder symptoms. Semi-structured clinical interviews were conducted pre- and post-treatment and self-report questionnaires were administered. From pre- to post-treatment, changes in binge eating and scores on self-report measures were statistically significant. Participants reported a decrease in the frequency of binge episodes, improvements in mood, and improvements in emotion regulation and self-efficacy.

  10. Emotional Eating Is Not What You Think It Is and Emotional Eating Scales Do Not Measure What You Think They Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita

    2016-01-01

    In eating research, it is common practice to group people into different eater types, such as emotional, external and restrained eaters. This categorization is generally based on scores on self-report questionnaires. However, recent studies have started to raise questions about the validity of such questionnaires. In the realm of emotional eating, a considerable number of studies, both in the lab and in naturalistic settings, fail to demonstrate increased food intake in emotional situations in self-described emotional eaters. The current paper provides a review of experimental and naturalistic studies investigating the relationships between self-reported emotional eater status, mood, and food consumption. It is concluded that emotional eating scales lack predictive and discriminative validity; they cannot be assumed to measure accurately what they intend to measure, namely increased food intake in response to negative emotions. The review is followed by a discussion of alternative interpretations of emotional eating scores that have been suggested in the past few years, i.e., concerned eating, uncontrolled eating, a tendency to attribute overeating to negative affect, and cue-reactive eating. PMID:28008323

  11. Mood and threat to attitudinal freedom: delineating the role of mood congruency and hedonic contingency in counterattitudinal message processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Rene; Schlett, Christian; Aydinli, Arzu

    2013-08-01

    The present research examined when happy individuals' processing of a counterattitudinal message is guided by mood-congruent expectancies versus hedonic considerations. Recipients in positive, neutral, or negative mood read a strong or weak counterattitudinal message which either contained a threat to attitudinal freedom or did not contain such a threat. As expected, a freedom-threatening counterattitudinal message was more mood threatening than a counterattitudinal message not threatening freedom. Furthermore, as predicted by the mood-congruent expectancies approach, people in positive mood processed a nonthreatening counterattitudinal message more thoroughly than people in negative mood. Message processing in neutral mood lay in between. In contrast, as predicted by the hedonic-contingency view, a threatening counterattitudinal message was processed less thoroughly in positive mood than in neutral mood. In negative mood, processing of a threatening counterattitudinal message was as low as in positive mood. These findings suggest that message processing is determined by mood congruency unless hedonic considerations override expectancy-based processing inclinations.

  12. Acute effects of exercise on mood and EEG activity in healthy young subjects: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattari, Eduardo; Portugal, Eduardo; Moraes, Helena; Machado, Sérgio; Santos, Tony M; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography has been used to establish the relationship among cortical activity, exercise and mood, such as asymmetry, absolute and relative power. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the influence of cortical activity on mood state induced by exercise. The Preferred Reporting Items in Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses was followed in this study. The studies were retrieved from MEDLINE/PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and SciELO. Search was conducted in all databases using the following terms: EEG asymmetry, sLORETA, exercise, with affect, mood and emotions. Based on the defined criteria, a total of 727 articles were found in the search conducted in the literature (666 in Pubmed, 54 in ISI Web of Science, 2 in SciELO and 5 in other data sources). Total of 11 studies were selected which properly met the criteria for this review. Nine out of 11 studies used the frontal asymmetry, four used absolute and relative power and one used sLORETA. With regard to changes in cortical activity and mood induced by exercise, six studies attributed this result to different intensities, one to duration, one to type of exercise and one to fitness level. In general, EEG measures showed contradictory evidence of its ability to predict or modulate psychological mood states through exercise intervention.

  13. Music Mood Player Implementation Applied in Daycare Using Self Organizing Map Method

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Kadek Cahya; Putri, Luh Arida Ayu Rahning

    2011-01-01

    . Music is an art, entertainment and human activity that involve some organized sounds. Music is closely related to human psychology. A piece of music often associated with certain adjectives such as happy, sad, romantic and many more. The linkage between the music with a certain mood has been widely used in various occasions by people, there for music classification based on relevance to a particular emotion is important. Daycare is one example of an institution that used music as therapy or...

  14. Major depressive disorder alters perception of emotional body movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten eKaletsch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Much recent research has shown an association between mood disorders and an altered emotion perception. However, these studies were conducted mainly with stimuli such as faces. This is the first study to examine possible differences in how people with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy controls perceive emotions expressed via body movements. 30 patients with MDD and 30 healthy controls observed video scenes of human interactions conveyed by point–light displays (PLDs. They rated the depicted emotions and judged their confidence in their rating. Results showed that patients with MDD rated the depicted interactions more negatively than healthy controls. They also rated interactions with negative emotionality as being more intense and were more confident in their ratings. It is concluded that patients with MDD exhibit an altered emotion perception compared to healthy controls when rating emotions expressed via body movements depicted in PLDs.

  15. Food specific inhibitory control under negative mood in binge-eating disorder: Evidence from a multimethod approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leehr, Elisabeth J; Schag, Kathrin; Dresler, Thomas; Grosse-Wentrup, Moritz; Hautzinger, Martin; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2018-02-01

    Inhibitory control has been discussed as a developmental and maintenance factor in binge-eating disorder (BED). The current study is the first aimed at investigating inhibitory control in a negative mood condition on a psychophysiological and behavioral level in BED with a combination of electroencephalography (EEG) and eye tracking (ET). We conducted a combined EEG and ET study with overweight individuals with BED (BED+, n = 24, mean age = 31, mean BMI = 35 kg/m 2 ) and without BED (BED-, n = 23, mean age = 28, mean BMI = 35 kg/m 2 ) and a normal-weight (NWC, n = 26, mean age 28, mean BMI = 22 kg/m 2 ) control group. We assessed self-report data regarding impulsivity and emotion regulation as well as the processing of food stimuli under negative mood in an antisaccade task. Main outcome variables comprise event-related potentials (ERP) regarding conflict processing (N2) and performance monitoring (error-related negativity [ERN/Ne]) assessed by EEG and inhibitory control (errors in the first and second saccade) assessed by ET. BED+ patients reported increased impulsivity and higher emotion regulation difficulties compared with the other groups. The eye tracking data revealed impaired inhibitory control in BED+ compared with both control groups. Further, we found preliminary evidence from EEG recordings that conflict processing might be less thorough in the BED+ sample as well as in the NWC sample. In the BED+ sample this might be connected to the inhibitory control deficits on behavioral level. While the BED- sample showed increased conflict processing latencies (N2 latencies), which might indicate a compensation mechanism, the BED+ sample did not show such a mechanism. Performance monitoring (ERN/Ne latencies and amplitudes) was not impaired in the BED+ sample compared with both control samples. Participants with BED reported higher impulsivity and lower emotion regulation capacities. The combined investigation of electrocortical processes and

  16. Perceived emotional intelligence, achievement motivation and school performance in conservatory students

    OpenAIRE

    Laura López Bernad

    2013-01-01

    The present research inspects the relationship between Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI) and achievement motivation in a sample of students (N=57) belonging to the string department at the Conservatorio Profesional de Música and specializing in violin, viola, violoncello and bass violoncello. The evaluation methods were: the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24), to test Perceived Emotional Intelligence, and the Escala Atribucional de Motivación de Logro (EAML, Attributive Motivation Scale) to...

  17. The Relationship between the Emotional Quotient and Emotional Maturity in Students of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayegh Yousefi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional quotient is the ability to manage and control the anxiety, tension, hope and optimism in the face of obstacles on the way of achieving the purpose. The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between the emotional quotient and emotional maturity in the students of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in 2016. Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study carried out on 396 students with mean age of (M = 22.14, SD = 21.14. Data was collected through two questionnaires including Bar-On Emotional quotient Inventory (EQ-i and Emotional Maturity Scale (EMS. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 22 and linear regression and Pearson's correlation tests. Results: The results showed that there's a significant relationship (P≤0.001 between emotional quotient and emotional maturity, also, between the emotional maturity with the Interpersonal Component (P≤0.001, Intrapersonal Component (P≤0.001, Adaptability Component (P≤0.001, and Stress Management Component (P ≤0.001 And General Mood Component (P≤0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is proposed that researchers carry out greater studies in students, identify factors associated with emotional maturity and develop precise plans in order to strengthen these factors and increase the rate of emotional quotient in students.

  18. Cognition-emotion dysinteraction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevic, Alan; Corlett, Philip R

    2012-01-01

    Evolving theories of schizophrenia emphasize a "disconnection" in distributed fronto-striatal-limbic neural systems, which may give rise to breakdowns in cognition and emotional function. We discuss these diverse domains of function from the perspective of disrupted neural circuits involved in "cold" cognitive vs. "hot" affective operations and the interplay between these processes. We focus on three research areas that highlight cognition-emotion dysinteractions in schizophrenia: First, we discuss the role of cognitive deficits in the "maintenance" of emotional information. We review recent evidence suggesting that motivational abnormalities in schizophrenia may in part arise due to a disrupted ability to "maintain" affective information over time. Here, dysfunction in a prototypical "cold" cognitive operation may result in "affective" deficits in schizophrenia. Second, we discuss abnormalities in the detection and ascription of salience, manifest as excessive processing of non-emotional stimuli and inappropriate distractibility. We review emerging evidence suggesting deficits in some, but not other, specific emotional processes in schizophrenia - namely an intact ability to perceive emotion "in-the-moment" but poor prospective valuation of stimuli and heightened reactivity to stimuli that ought to be filtered. Third, we discuss abnormalities in learning mechanisms that may give rise to delusions, the fixed, false, and often emotionally charged beliefs that accompany psychosis. We highlight the role of affect in aberrant belief formation, mostly ignored by current theoretical models. Together, we attempt to provide a consilient overview for how breakdowns in neural systems underlying affect and cognition in psychosis interact across symptom domains. We conclude with a brief treatment of the neurobiology of schizophrenia and the need to close our explanatory gap between cellular-level hypotheses and complex behavioral symptoms observed in this illness.

  19. Emotion suppression, emotional eating, and eating behavior among parent-adolescent dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Green, Paige A; Oh, April Y; Hennessy, Erin; Dwyer, Laura A

    2017-10-01

    Emotion suppression may lead to ironic increases in emotional experience. More important, suppression is a transactional process, creating stress and disrupting interactions for the suppressor and those in social interactions with individuals who are suppressing emotion. However, no research has examined the behavioral consequences of emotion suppression in close relationships. We examine the possibility that emotion suppression will predict eating behaviors as a secondary emotion regulatory strategy among 1,556 parent-adolescent dyads (N = 3,112), consistent with evidence suggesting that suppression influences eating at the individual-level. Actor-partner interdependence models and structural equation modeling demonstrate that one's own emotion suppression was associated with emotional eating; greater consumption of hedonic-low nutrient, high energy dense-foods; and lower consumption of fruits and vegetables (actor effects). One's partner's emotion suppression was also independently associated with one's own emotional eating; lower consumption of fruits and vegetables; and greater consumption of hedonic foods (partner effects), although this association was most consistent for adolescents' suppression and parents' eating (compared with the converse). These analyses suggest that dyadic emotion regulatory processes have implications on eating behavior. Moreover, analyses suggest that emotion suppression has potential implications on eating behaviors of others within close relationships with a suppressor, consistent with the notion that emotion regulation is a transactional process. These findings suggest that interventions to improve eating habits of parents and their adolescent children should consider dyadic emotion regulatory processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Emotional Expression at Work and at Home: Domain, Status, or Individual Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Kathryn J.; Powell, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Using the emotions module of the 1996 General Social Survey, we examine strategies that individuals use to express emotion. We focus on anger, one of the emotions most problematic or potentially disruptive to human interaction. Relying on insights from three theoretical approaches to emotion--the cultural perspective, the structural perspective,…

  1. The measurement of perceived Emotional Intelligence for Spanish adolescents with social anxiety disorder symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª del Mar Diaz-Castela

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Emotional Intelligence (EI is a concept that has been discussed for decades in Psychology but has received very little empirical study until recently. And with this growing interest, its accompanying concept, Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI, has also received more attention. It is due to this growing interest in PEI that this paper explores two important aspects of the PEI: the measurement of PEI and the implications PEI may have for adolescent anxiety disorder symptomology. This study explores a well-known questionnaire of PEI, namely the Trait Meta-Mood Scale questionnaire (TMMS. The Spanish shortened version of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale questionnaire (TMMS-24 and a series of well-known questionnaires of Social Anxiety Disorder symptomology were administrated to 425 Spanish high-school adolescents. The results of this study corroborated that the TMMS-24 has good psychometric properties in adolescents, and that one of its three scales (Emotional Repair appears to be involved in adolescent SAD symptomology.

  2. Smartphone-based psychotherapeutic micro-interventions to improve mood in a real-world setting

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    Gunther Meinlschmidt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using mobile communication technology as new personalized approach to treat mental disorders or to more generally improve quality of life is highly promising. Knowledge about intervention components that target key psychopathological processes in terms of transdiagnostic psychotherapy approaches is urgently needed. We explored the use of smartphone-based micro-interventions based on psychotherapeutic techniques, guided by short video-clips, to elicit mood changes.Method: As part of a larger neurofeedback study, all subjects – after being randomly assigned to an experimental or control neurofeedback condition – underwent daily smartphone-based micro-interventions for 13 consecutive days. They were free to choose out of provided techniques, including viscerosensory attention, emotional imagery, facial expression, and contemplative repetition. Changes in mood were assessed in real world using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (scales: good–bad, GB; awake–tired, AT; and calm–nervous, CN. Results: Twenty-seven men participated on at least eleven days and were thus included in the analyses. Altogether, they underwent 335, generally well-tolerated, micro-intervention sessions, with viscerosensory attention (178 sessions, 53.13% and contemplative repetition (68 sessions, 20.30% being the most frequently applied techniques. Mixed models indicated that subjects showed better mood (GB: b=0.464, 95%confidence interval (CI [0.068, 0.860], t(613.3=2.298, p=0.022 and became more awake (AT: b=0.514, 95%CI [0.103, 0.925], t(612.4=2.456, p=0.014 and calmer (CN: b=0.685, 95%CI [0.360, 1.010], t(612.3=4.137, p<0.001 from pre- to post-micro-intervention. These mood improvements from pre- to post-micro-intervention were associated with changes in mood from the first day until the last day with regard to GB mood (r=0.614, 95%CI [0.297, 0.809], p<0.001, but not AT mood (r=0.279, 95%CI [-0.122, 0.602], p=0.167 and CN mood (r=0.277, 95

  3. Effects of Multimodal Mandala Yoga on Social and Emotional Skills for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchke, Lyn Gorbett; Liu, Ting; Castro, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    Youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrates impairment in the ability to socially and emotionally relate to others that can limit participation in groups, interaction with peers, and building successful life relationships. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the effects of a novel multimodal Mandala yoga program on social and emotional skills for youth with ASD. Five males with ASD attended 1 h yoga sessions, twice a week for 4 weeks. Multimodal Mandala yoga comprised 26 circular partner/group poses, color and tracing sheets, rhythmic chanting, yoga cards, and games. Treatment and Research Institute for ASD Social Skills Assessment (TSSA) scores were collected before and after the eight yoga sessions. The Modified Facial Mood Scale (MFMS) was used to observe mood changes before and after each yoga class. Paired sample t -tests were conducted on TSSA and MFMS scores to compare social and emotional differences post the 4-week camp. Narrative field notes were documented after each of the eight yoga sessions. A significant improvement from pre- to post-test was found in overall TSSA ( t (4) = -5.744, P = 0.005) and on respondent to initiation ( t (4) = -3.726, P = 0.020), initiating interaction ( t (4) = -8.5, P = 0.039), and affective understanding and perspective taking subscales ( t (4) = -5.171 P = 0.007). Youth's MFMS scores increased from 80% to 100% at the end of eight yoga sessions demonstrating a pleasant or positive mood. Thematic analysis of the narrative notes identified three key factors associated with the yoga experience: (a) enhanced mood and emotional expression, (b) increased empathy toward others, and (c) improved teamwork skills. This multimodal Mandala yoga training has implication for developing positive social and emotional skills for youth with ASD.

  4. Effects of multimodal mandala yoga on social and emotional skills for youth with autism spectrum disorder: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Gorbett Litchke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD demonstrates impairment in the ability to socially and emotionally relate to others that can limit participation in groups, interaction with peers, and building successful life relationships. Aims: The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the effects of a novel multimodal Mandala yoga program on social and emotional skills for youth with ASD. Subjects and Methods: Five males with ASD attended 1 h yoga sessions, twice a week for 4 weeks. Multimodal Mandala yoga comprised 26 circular partner/group poses, color and tracing sheets, rhythmic chanting, yoga cards, and games. Treatment and Research Institute for ASD Social Skills Assessment (TSSA scores were collected before and after the eight yoga sessions. The Modified Facial Mood Scale (MFMS was used to observe mood changes before and after each yoga class. Paired sample t-tests were conducted on TSSA and MFMS scores to compare social and emotional differences post the 4-week camp. Narrative field notes were documented after each of the eight yoga sessions. Results: A significant improvement from pre- to post-test was found in overall TSSA (t(4 = −5.744, P = 0.005 and on respondent to initiation (t(4 = −3.726, P = 0.020, initiating interaction (t(4 = −8.5, P = 0.039, and affective understanding and perspective taking subscales (t(4 = −5.171 P = 0.007. Youth's MFMS scores increased from 80% to 100% at the end of eight yoga sessions demonstrating a pleasant or positive mood. Thematic analysis of the narrative notes identified three key factors associated with the yoga experience: (a enhanced mood and emotional expression, (b increased empathy toward others, and (c improved teamwork skills. Conclusion: This multimodal Mandala yoga training has implication for developing positive social and emotional skills for youth with ASD.

  5. Ecological momentary assessment of acute alcohol use disorder symptoms: associations with mood, motives, and use on planned drinking days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Pearson, Matthew R; Day, Anne M

    2014-08-01

    Several theories posit that alcohol is consumed both in relation to one's mood and in relation to different motives for drinking. However, there are mixed findings regarding the role of mood and motives in predicting drinking. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods provide an opportunity to evaluate near real-time changes in mood and motives within individuals to predict alcohol use. In addition, endorsement of criteria of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may also be sensitive to changes within subjects. The current study used EMA with 74 moderate drinkers who responded to fixed and random mood, motive, alcohol use, and AUD criteria prompts over a 21-day assessment period. A temporal pattern of daytime mood, evening drinking motivation, and nighttime alcohol use and acute AUD symptoms on planned drinking days was modeled to examine how these associations unfold throughout the day. The results suggest considerable heterogeneity in drinking motivation across drinking days. Additionally, an affect regulation model of drinking to cope with negative mood was observed. Specifically, on planned drinking days, the temporal association between daytime negative mood and the experience of acute AUD symptoms was mediated via coping motives and alcohol use. The current study found that motives are dynamic, and that changes in motives may predict differential drinking patterns across days. Further, the study provides evidence that emotion-regulation-driven alcohol involvement may need to be examined at the event level to fully capture the ebb and flow of negative affect motivated drinking.

  6. Association of Irritability and Anxiety With the Neural Mechanisms of Implicit Face Emotion Processing in Youths With Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Joel; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kim, Pilyoung; Chen, Gang; Yi, Jennifer; Donahue, Laura; Brotman, Melissa A; Towbin, Kenneth E; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity complicates clinical care and confounds efforts to elucidate the pathophysiology of commonly occurring symptoms in youths. To our knowledge, few studies have simultaneously assessed the effect of 2 continuously distributed traits on brain-behavior relationships in children with psychopathology. To determine shared and unique effects of 2 major dimensions of child psychopathology, irritability and anxiety, on neural responses to facial emotions during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging study in a large, well-characterized clinical sample at a research clinic at the National Institute of Mental Health. The referred sample included youths ages 8 to 17 years, 93 youths with anxiety, disruptive mood dysregulation, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders and 22 healthy youths. The child's irritability and anxiety were rated by both parent and child on the Affective Reactivity Index and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, respectively. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, neural response was measured across the brain during gender labeling of varying intensities of angry, happy, or fearful face emotions. In mixed-effects analyses, the shared and unique effects of irritability and anxiety were tested on amygdala functional connectivity and activation to face emotions. The mean (SD) age of participants was 13.2 (2.6) years; of the 115 included, 64 were male. Irritability and/or anxiety influenced amygdala connectivity to the prefrontal and temporal cortex. Specifically, irritability and anxiety jointly influenced left amygdala to left medial prefrontal cortex connectivity during face emotion viewing (F4,888 = 9.20; P differences in neural response to face emotions in several areas (F2, 888 ≥ 13.45; all P emotion dysregulation when very anxious and irritable youth process threat-related faces. Activation in the ventral visual circuitry suggests a mechanism

  7. Winning and losing: an evolutionary approach to mood disorders and their therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Leon; Sturman, Edward D; Price, John S

    2011-06-01

    To advance a new evolutionary model that examines the effects of winning and losing on mood and physiological variables. Previous studies have focused on the involuntary defeat strategy in de-escalating conflict. Here, we propose that there also exists an involuntary winning strategy (IWS) that is triggered by success and characterized by euphoria and increased self-confidence. It motivates efforts to challenge, and promotes reconciliation. Previous studies are presented, including data on student athletes, demonstrating the impact of winning and losing on mood. Winning is consistently shown to be related to physiological changes such as increased testosterone and serotonin levels in primates. It reliably leads to mood changes that serve to motivate winners to continue their competitive efforts. When the IWS functions optimally, success leads to success in an adaptive cycle. Over time, the initial differences between the winners and losers of agonistic encounters become magnified in a process known as difference amplification. As a result of assortative mating, the children of people who have entered into an adaptive cycle will inherit traits from both parents that will, in turn, give them an increased competitive advantage. In this manner, difference amplification could have accelerated human evolution by natural selection. Vignettes of clinical interventions are also used to illustrate therapeutic strategies designed to disrupt maladaptive cycles and promote adaptive behaviour.

  8. Effects of Auricular Acupressure on Sleep Quality, Anxiety, and Depressed Mood in RN-BSN Students With Sleep Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Ke-Hsin; Chang, Chia-Chuan; Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2018-02-01

    Students in 2-year registered nurse to Bachelor of Science in nursing (RN-BSN) programs usually work full-time and study part-time. Sleep disturbance, anxiety, and depression are known to be common health problems among these students.Prior research has described the effectiveness of auricular acupressure (AA) in reducing sleep disturbance and improving mood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using a 4-week AA program that adheres to a magnetic pellet on the shenmen acupoint on sleep quality, anxiousness, and depressed moods in nursing students with sleep disturbance. This study used a one-group, quasi-experimental design with repeated measures. Eligible students were recruited from an RN-BSN program offered by a university in northern Taiwan, and all were currently experiencing sleep disturbance. A 4-week AA intervention that applied a magnetic pellet on the shenmen acupoint was used. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-II were used to measure sleep quality and mood outcomes each week during the 4-week intervention. Improvements in sleep quality, anxiety, and depressed moods were analyzed using the generalized estimating equation. Thirty-six participants with a mean age of 32 years were enrolled as participants. After adjusting for confounding factors, continuous and significant improvements in sleep quality, anxiety, and depressed mood (p anxiousness, and depressed mood in RN-BSN students experiencing sleep disturbances. Especially, the emotional mood of participants improved significantly as early as the first week. The 4-week AA for reducing sleep disturbance, and improving students' anxiety, and depressed moods may be applied on primary healthcare.

  9. Overcoming the Social Stigma on Mood Disorders with Dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavormina, Romina; Tavormina, Maurilio Giuseppe Maria

    2017-09-01

    In our society, the social stigma against people who suffer from mood disorders is a very powerful factor that negatively affects the healing of patient. He is often isolated from the others for the fear of being judged "fool, crazy or dangerous" or discriminated and emarginated for his mental health problem. For this reason, a cornerstone of mood disorder rehabilitation is the bringing out of the patient from his isolation, the reintegration of the user in the social context with the increase and the improvement in the quality of interpersonal relationships in the family and in the external context. The method used in our project is the dance-therapy one. In particular dancing the "Bachata" becomes a rehabilitation tool to express emotions through the body and to open to the world, on the territory, overcoming the fear of being judged by others, and of the prejudice and the social stigma about mental illness. The strength and cohesion of the rehabilitation group has given to the patients the opportunity to believe in their own abilities, to accept themselves with their difficulties and to improve the relationship with their body in relation to each other.

  10. The Clinical Obesity Maintenance Model: An Integration of Psychological Constructs including Mood, Emotional Regulation, Disordered Overeating, Habitual Cluster Behaviours, Health Literacy and Cognitive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Raman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM. It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.

  11. Mapping the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scales Onto Mood Markers in an Israeli Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkalim, Eleanor; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Almagor, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    This study cross-culturally evaluated the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2/MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF) emotion-focused Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales to examine whether their patterns of associations with positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) are as expected based on Tellegen, Watson, and Clark's ( 1999a , 1999b ) mood model. The sample was composed of 100 men and 133 women from psychiatric settings in Israel who completed the MMPI-2 and the Mood Check List (MCL; Zevon & Tellegen, 1982 ). Results indicated that RCd was substantially correlated with both PA and NA in opposite directions, and that RC2 and RC7 were more highly correlated with PA and NA, respectively. Further, when compared with their Clinical Scale counterparts, RC2 and RC7 exhibited comparable convergent validities and improved discriminant properties. Findings provide support for Tellegen et al.'s ( 2003 ) goal to link the RC scales to contemporary conceptualizations of mood.

  12. Acute fluoxetine modulates emotional processing in young adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitão, L P; Murphy, S E; Browning, M; Cowen, P J; Harmer, C J

    2015-08-01

    Fluoxetine is generally regarded as the first-line pharmacological treatment for young people, as it is believed to show a more favourable benefit:risk ratio than other antidepressants. However, the mechanisms through which fluoxetine influences symptoms in youth have been little investigated. This study examined whether acute administration of fluoxetine in a sample of young healthy adults altered the processing of affective information, including positive, sad and anger cues. A total of 35 male and female volunteers aged between 18 and 21 years old were randomized to receive a single 20 mg dose of fluoxetine or placebo. At 6 h after administration, participants completed a facial expression recognition task, an emotion-potentiated startle task, an attentional dot-probe task and the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation. Subjective ratings of mood, anxiety and side effects were also taken pre- and post-fluoxetine/placebo administration. Relative to placebo-treated participants, participants receiving fluoxetine were less accurate at identifying anger and sadness and did not show the emotion-potentiated startle effect. There were no overall significant effects of fluoxetine on subjective ratings of mood. Fluoxetine can modulate emotional processing after a single dose in young adults. This pattern of effects suggests a potential cognitive mechanism for the greater benefit:risk ratio of fluoxetine in adolescent patients.

  13. PERCEIVED EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AS A MODERATOR VARIABLE BETWEEN CYBERVICTIMIZATION AND ITS EMOTIONAL IMPACT

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    Paz eElipe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The negative effects of traditional bullying and, recently, cyberbullying on victims are well documented, and abundant empirical evidence for it exists. Cybervictimization affects areas such as academic performance, social integration and self-esteem, and causes emotions ranging from anger and sadness to more complex problems such as depression. However, not all victims are equally affected, and the differences seem to be due to certain situational and personal characteristics. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and the emotional impact of cybervictimization. We hypothesize that emotional intelligence, which has previously been found to play a role in traditional bullying and cyberbullying, may also affect the emotional impact of cyberbullying.The participants in our study were 636 university students from two universities in the south of Spain. Three self-report questionnaires were used: the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, the Cyberbullying Emotional Impact Scale; and Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24. Structural Equation Models were used to test the relationships between the analyzed variables.The results support the idea that perceived emotional intelligence, by way of a moderator effect, affects the relationship between cybervictimization and emotional impact. Taken together, cybervictimization and perceived emotional intelligence explain much of the variance observed in the emotional impact in general and in the negative dimensions of that impact in particular. Attention and Repair were found to be inversely related to Annoyance and Dejection, and positively related to Invigoration. Clarity has the opposite pattern; a positive relationship with Annoyance and Dejection and an inverse relationship with Invigoration. Various hypothetical explanations of these patterns are discussed.

  14. Air ions and mood outcomes: a review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological effects of air ions have been reported for more than 80 years in the media and scientific literature. This study summarizes a qualitative literature review and quantitative meta-analysis, where applicable, that examines the potential effects of exposure to negative and positive air ions on psychological measures of mood and emotional state. Methods A structured literature review was conducted to identify human experimental studies published through August, 2012. Thirty-three studies (1957–2012) evaluating the effects of air ionization on depression, anxiety, mood states, and subjective feelings of mental well-being in humans were included. Five studies on negative ionization and depression (measured using a structured interview guide) were evaluated by level of exposure intensity (high vs. low) using meta-analysis. Results Consistent ionization effects were not observed for anxiety, mood, relaxation/sleep, and personal comfort. In contrast, meta-analysis results showed that negative ionization, overall, was significantly associated with lower depression ratings, with a stronger association observed at high levels of negative ion exposure (mean summary effect and 95% confidence interval (CI) following high- and low-density exposure: 14.28 (95% CI: 12.93-15.62) and 7.23 (95% CI: 2.62-11.83), respectively). The response to high-density ionization was observed in patients with seasonal or chronic depression, but an effect of low-density ionization was observed only in patients with seasonal depression. However, no relationship between the duration or frequency of ionization treatment on depression ratings was evident. Conclusions No consistent influence of positive or negative air ionization on anxiety, mood, relaxation, sleep, and personal comfort measures was observed. Negative air ionization was associated with lower depression scores particularly at the highest exposure level. Future research is needed to evaluate the biological

  15. Playing with fire: effects of negative mood induction and working memory on vocabulary acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Zachary F; Fox, Jessica K; Moser, Jason S; Godfroid, Aline

    2017-08-03

    We investigated the impact of emotions on learning vocabulary in an unfamiliar language to better understand affective influences in foreign language acquisition. Seventy native English speakers learned new vocabulary in either a negative or a neutral emotional state. Participants also completed two sets of working memory tasks to examine the potential mediating role of working memory. Results revealed that participants exposed to negative stimuli exhibited difficulty in retrieving and correctly pairing English words with Indonesian words, as reflected in a lower performance on the prompted recall tests and the free recall measure. Emotional induction did not change working memory scores from pre to post manipulation. This suggests working memory could not explain the reduced vocabulary learning in the negative group. We argue that negative mood can adversely affect language learning by suppressing aspects of native-language processing and impeding form-meaning mapping with second language words.

  16. Background for Community-Level Work on Emotional Well-Being in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Lisa J.; Margie, Nancy Geyelin; Zaff, Jonathan F.

    This paper reviews the research literature on factors contributing to adolescent emotional well-being, focusing on generalized mood/affective states, emotion regulation and coping, and feelings about self, including self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control. Each construct is defined and evidence from research is presented to indicate the…

  17. Emotions in aristotle: animic faculties in the formation of opinions and judgments

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    Luis Fernando Garcés Giraldo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Emotions for Aristotle are emotional faculties in human beings, which can generate susceptibility and cause at some point that judgments be changed and other types of impressions be generated; they are accompanied by pleasure and pain, depending on the moods (that are present at the moment of feeling some emotion. In this article, in addition to developing a reflection on emotions from the Stagirita, there are described some of them and their opposites, which are the most common in all his writings, such as anger and calmness; love and hate; fear and trust; shame and shamelessness; compassion and indignation; and finally, envy and emulation.

  18. Extraction Of Audio Features For Emotion Recognition System Based On Music

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    Kee Moe Han

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Music is the combination of melody linguistic information and the vocalists emotion. Since music is a work of art analyzing emotion in music by computer is a difficult task. Many approaches have been developed to detect the emotions included in music but the results are not satisfactory because emotion is very complex. In this paper the evaluations of audio features from the music files are presented. The extracted features are used to classify the different emotion classes of the vocalists. Musical features extraction is done by using Music Information Retrieval MIR tool box in this paper. The database of 100 music clips are used to classify the emotions perceived in music clips. Music may contain many emotions according to the vocalists mood such as happy sad nervous bored peace etc. In this paper the audio features related to the emotions of the vocalists are extracted to use in emotion recognition system based on music.

  19. Depressive Mood Among Within-Country Migrants in Periurban Shantytowns of Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bennett, Ian M; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-12-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, migration to urban settings has reshaped the sprawl and socio demographic profiles of major cities. Depressive episodes make up a large portion of the burden of disease worldwide and are related to socio-demographic disruptions. As a result of terrorism, political upheaval, followed by economic development, Peru has undergone major demographic transitions over the previous three decades including large migrations within the country. We aimed to determine the prevalence of current depressive mood and its relationship with parameters of internal migration, i.e. region of origin, age at migration, and years since migration. A community-wide census was carried out between January and June 2010 within a shantytown immigrant receiving community in Lima, Peru. One male or female adult per household completed a survey. Depressive mood was assessed with a 2-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale. Migration-related variables included place of birth, duration of residence in Lima, and age at migration. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. A total of 8,551 out of 9,561 participants, response rate 89%, participated in the census. Of these, 8,091 records were analyzed: 71.8% were women [average age 39.4 (SD 13.9 years)] and 59.3% were immigrants. The overall prevalence of individuals with current depressive mood was 17.1% (95% CI 16.2-17.9%) and varied significantly by all socio-demographic and migration variables assessed. On unadjusted analyses, immigrants to Lima had higher prevalence of depressive mood if they originated in other costal or Andean areas, had lived in Lima for more than 20 years, or were <30 years of age when they out-migrated. When controlling for age, gender and socio-demographic variables the association was no longer significant, the only exception being a 20% lower prevalence of current depressive mood among those who out-migrated aged ≥30 years old (PR

  20. Depressed Mood and Drinking Occasions across High School: Comparing the Reciprocal Causal Structures of a Panel of Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Timothy J.; Shippee, Nathan D.

    2009-01-01

    Does adolescent depressed mood portend increased or decreased drinking? Is frequent drinking positively or negatively associated with emotional well-being? Do the dynamic relations between depression and drinking differ by gender? Using block-recursive structural equation models, we explore the reciprocal short-term effects (within time, "t") and…

  1. The effects of sad mood on memory in older adults: a test of the mood congruence effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Bob G; Maines, Michele L; Robinson, Gia S

    2002-12-01

    Mood congruence effects have long been studied in younger adults, but not in older adults. Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) suggests that mood congruence could operate differently in older adults. One hundred and nineteen younger and 78 older adults were randomly assigned to sad or neutral mood inductions, using combined Velten and music induction procedures. Results indicated that during sad mood induction both older and younger adults showed enhanced recall of sad words on delayed word list recall task and in autobiographical memory. However, only older adults displayed mood congruence effects on lexical ambiguity and lower recall of positive words in the word list task. Results provided partial support for developmental effects on mood congruence derived from SST.

  2. Amygdala functional disconnection with the prefrontal-cingulate-temporal circuit in chronic tinnitus patients with depressive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chen; Bo, Fan; Xia, Wenqing; Liu, Shenghua; Wang, Peng; Su, Wen; Xu, Jin-Jing; Xiong, Zhenyu; Yin, Xindao

    2017-10-03

    Chronic tinnitus is often accompanied with depressive symptom, which may arise from aberrant functional coupling between the amygdala and cerebral cortex. To explore this hypothesis, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the disrupted amygdala-cortical functional connectivity (FC) in chronic tinnitus patients with depressive mood. Chronic tinnitus patients with depressive mood (n=20), without depressive mood (n=20), and well-matched healthy controls (n=23) underwent resting-state fMRI scanning. Amygdala-cortical FC was characterized using a seed-based whole-brain correlation method. The bilateral amygdala FC was compared among the three groups. Compared to non-depressed patients, depressive tinnitus patients showed decreased amygdala FC with the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex as well as increased amygdala FC with the postcentral gyrus and lingual gyrus. Relative to healthy controls, depressive tinnitus patients revealed decreased amygdala FC with the superior and middle temporal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and prefrontal cortex, as well as increased amygdala FC with the postcentral gyrus and lingual gyrus. The current study identified for the first time abnormal resting-state amygdala-cortical FC with the prefrontal-cingulate-temporal circuit in chronic tinnitus patients with depressive mood, which will provide novel insight into the underlying neuropathological mechanisms of tinnitus-induced depressive disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Emotional conflict and neuroticism: personality-dependent activation in the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate.

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    Haas, Brian W; Omura, Kazufumi; Constable, R Todd; Canli, Turhan

    2007-04-01

    The amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate (AC) have been associated with anxiety and mood disorders, for which trait neuroticism is a risk factor. Prior work has not related individual differences in amygdala or subgenual AC activation with neuroticism. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate changes in blood oxygen level-dependent signal within the amygdala and subgenual AC associated with trait neuroticism in a nonclinical sample of 36 volunteers during an emotional conflict task. Neuroticism correlated positively with amygdala and subgenual AC activation during trials of high emotional conflict, compared with trials of low emotional conflict. The subscale of neuroticism that reflected the anxious form of neuroticism (N1) explained a greater proportion of variance within the observed clusters than the subscale of neuroticism that reflected the depressive form of neuroticism (N3). Using a task that is sensitive to individual differences in the detection of emotional conflict, the authors have provided a neural correlate of the link between neuroticism and anxiety and mood disorders. This effect was driven to a greater extent by the anxious relative to the depressive characteristics of neuroticism and may constitute vulnerability markers for anxiety-related disorders. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Individual Differences in the Effects of Mood on Sexuality: The Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R)

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    Janssen, Erick; Macapagal, Kathryn R.; Mustanski, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Previous research using the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ) has revealed substantial variability in how negative mood impacts sexual response and behavior. However, the MSQ does not address differences between desire for solo or partnered sexual activity, examine the effects of sexual activity on mood, or assess the effects of positive mood. This paper presents the development and factor structure of the Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R). An exploratory factor analysis in a sample of heterosexual men, homosexual men, and heterosexual women (N = 1983) produced 8 factors. Considerable variability was found in how moods influence sexual desire and arousal, in the effects of mood on sexual behavior, and in the reciprocal effects of sexual activity on mood. Among other findings, heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual and homosexual men to experience increased sexual desire and arousal when anxious or stressed, whereas homosexual men and heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual men to experience increased desire when sad or depressed. Heterosexual men and women were more likely than homosexual men to report increased desire when in a positive mood. Intercorrelations and correlations with various sexual behaviors varied by group. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22963331

  5. Biased emotional recognition in depression: perception of emotions in music by depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punkanen, Marko; Eerola, Tuomas; Erkkilä, Jaakko

    2011-04-01

    Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder, that impairs a person's social skills and also their quality of life. Populations affected with depression also suffer from a higher mortality rate. Depression affects person's ability to recognize emotions. We designed a novel experiment to test the hypothesis that depressed patients show a judgment bias towards negative emotions. To investigate how depressed patients differ in their perception of emotions conveyed by musical examples, both healthy (n=30) and depressed (n=79) participants were presented with a set of 30 musical excerpts, representing one of five basic target emotions, and asked to rate each excerpt using five Likert scales that represented the amount of each one of those same emotions perceived in the example. Depressed patients showed moderate but consistent negative self-report biases both in the overall use of the scales and their particular application to certain target emotions, when compared to healthy controls. Also, the severity of the clinical state (depression, anxiety and alexithymia) had an effect on the self-report biases for both positive and negative emotion ratings, particularly depression and alexithymia. Only musical stimuli were used, and they were all clear examples of one of the basic emotions of happiness, sadness, fear, anger and tenderness. No neutral or ambiguous excerpts were included. Depressed patients' negative emotional bias was demonstrated using musical stimuli. This suggests that the evaluation of emotional qualities in music could become a means to discriminate between depressed and non-depressed subjects. The practical implications of the present study relate both to diagnostic uses of such perceptual evaluations, as well as a better understanding of the emotional regulation strategies of the patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. How stable is activation in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex in adolescence? A study of emotional face processing across three measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bulk, B.G.; Koolschijn, P.C.M.P.; Meens, P.H.F.; van Lang, N.D.J.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Crone, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior developmental functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated elevated activation patterns in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC) in response to viewing emotional faces. As adolescence is a time of substantial variability in mood and emotional responsiveness, the

  7. Acute effects of heroin on emotions in heroin-dependent patients.

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    Blum, Julia; Gerber, Hana; Gerhard, Urs; Schmid, Otto; Petitjean, Sylvie; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Borgwardt, Stefan J; Walter, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Euphoria has been described in heroin-dependent individuals after heroin administration. However, affective disturbances and disorders are common in heroin dependence. The present study examined the acute effects of heroin on emotions in heroin-dependent patients. This randomized controlled crossover trial included 28 heroin-dependent patients (67.9% male, n = 19) in stable heroin-assisted treatment and 20 healthy controls. The patients were administered heroin or saline (placebo), the controls were administered saline. Data measuring mood, affects and heroin craving (BDI, AMRS, STAI, STAXI, and HCQ) were assessed before and 60 minutes after substance injection. Before substance injection, heroin-dependent patients showed significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression than healthy controls (p emotions, including craving, and a significant increase in emotional well-being (p emotions, once they had received heroin. Heroin dampens craving, negative emotions, and increases positive emotions. These findings indicate that heroin regulates emotions and underscore the clinical benefit of opioid substitution treatment for heroin-dependent patients. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  8. Why bad Moods Matter. William James on Melancholy, Mystic Emotion, and the Meaning of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Pott (Heleen J.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWilliam James’s reputation in the field of emotion research is based on his early psychological writings where he defines emotions as ‘feelings of bodily changes’. In his later work, particularly in his study of mystic emotion (1902), James comes up with what looks like a completely

  9. Childhood trajectories of anxiousness and disruptiveness as predictors of suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezo, Jelena; Barker, Edward D; Paris, Joel; Hébert, Martine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Turecki, Gustavo

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the association of childhood trajectories of anxiousness and disruptiveness with suicide attempts in early adulthood. Prospective cohort study. Public francophone schools in Quebec, Canada, from the 1986 to 1988 school years. Of 4,488 French Canadian children attending kindergarten, a representative group of 1,001 boys and 999 girls was chosen for follow-up. Of these, 1,144 individuals participated in the study during early adulthood. Suicide attempt histories by early adulthood, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) associated with membership in high- vs low-risk trajectories of anxiousness and disruptiveness, moderation (by sex), and mediation (by adolescent Axis I disorders). We observed 4 distinct developmental profiles of anxiousness and disruptiveness and a frequent co-occurrence of similar levels of these traits. In contrast to anxiousness trajectories (OR = 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.65), disruptiveness (OR = 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-3.13) and joint (OR = 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.37) trajectories made statistically significant contributions to suicide attempts. We found no support for mediation by adolescent anxiety/mood or disruptive disorders. Sex, however, moderated the effect of joint trajectories, increasing the risk of suicide attempts in women (OR = 3.60; Wald chi(2) = 10.93; P anxious and disruptive traits as children. Anxious-disruptive girls and disruptive boys appear to be more likely than their peers to attempt suicide by early adulthood. Preventive efforts will require more research into the possible mechanisms behind this early sex difference, ie, gene-environment interplays and nonpsychiatric mediators.

  10. Mirror neuron system based therapy for emotional disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Hoff, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Mirror neuron system (MNS) represents one of the most important discoveries in the area of neuropsychology of past decades. More than 500 papers have been published in this area (PubMed), and the major functions of MNS include action understanding, imitation, empathy, all of which are critical for an individual to be social. Recent studies suggested that MNS can modulate emotion states possibly through the empathy mechanism. Here we propose that MNS-based therapies provide a non-invasive approach in treatments to emotional disorders that were observed in autism patients, post-stroke patients with depression as well as other mood dysregulation conditions.

  11. Cognition-Emotion Dysinteraction in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eAnticevic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Evolving theories of schizophrenia emphasize a ‘disconnection’ in distributed fronto-striatal-limbic neural systems, which may give rise to breakdowns in cognition and emotional function. We discuss these diverse domains of function from the perspective of disrupted neural circuits involved in ‘cold’ cognitive vs. ‘hot’ affective operations and the interplay between these processes. We focus on three research areas that highlight cognition-emotion dysinteractions in schizophrenia: First, we discuss the role of cognitive deficits in the ‘maintenance’ of emotional information. We review recent evidence suggesting that motivational abnormalities in schizophrenia may in part arise due to a disrupted ability to ‘maintain’ affective information over time. Here, dysfunction in a prototypical ‘cold’ cognitive operation may result in ‘affective’ deficits in schizophrenia. Second, we discuss abnormalities in the detection and ascription of salience, manifest as excessive processing of non-emotional stimuli and inappropriate distractibility. We review emerging evidence suggesting deficits in some, but not other, specific emotional processes in schizophrenia – namely an intact ability to perceive emotion ‘in the moment’ but poor prospective valuation of stimuli and heightened reactivity to stimuli that ought to be filtered. Third, we discuss abnormalities in learning mechanisms that may give rise to delusions, the fixed, false and often emotionally charged beliefs that accompany psychosis. We discuss the role of affect in aberrant belief formation, mostly ignored by current theoretical models. Together, we attempt to provide a consilient overview for how breakdowns in neural systems underlying affect and cognition in psychosis interact across symptom domains. We conclude with a brief treatment of the neurobiology of schizophrenia and the need to close our explanatory gap between cellular-level hypotheses and complex

  12. Physical Abuse, Cognitive and Emotional Processes, and Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…

  13. Emotional eating and Pavlovian learning: evidence for conditioned appetitive responding to negative emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita

    2017-02-01

    Appetitive learning has been demonstrated several times using neutral cues or contexts as a predictor of food intake and it has been shown that humans easily learn cued desires for foods. It has, however, never been studied whether internal cues are also capable of appetitive conditioning. In this study, we tested whether humans can learn cued eating desires to negative moods as conditioned stimuli (CS), thereby offering a potential explanation of emotional eating (EE). Female participants were randomly presented with 10 different stimuli eliciting either negative or neutral emotional states, with one of these states paired with eating chocolate. Expectancy to eat, desire to eat, salivation, and unpleasantness of experiencing negative emotions were assessed. After conditioning, participants were brought into a negative emotional state and were asked to choose between money and chocolate. Data showed differential conditioned responding on the expectancy and desire measures, but not on salivation. Specific conditioned effects were obtained for participants with a higher BMI (body mass index) on the choice task, and for participants high on EE on the unpleasantness ratings. These findings provide the first experimental evidence for the idea that negative emotions can act as conditioned stimuli, and might suggest that classical conditioning is involved in EE.

  14. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Adolescent Problems, Coping Efficacy, and Mood States Using a Mobile Phone App: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda

    2016-11-29

    Mobile technologies have the potential to be used as innovative tools for conducting research on the mental health and well-being of young people. In particular, they have utility for carrying out ecological momentary assessment (EMA) research by capturing data from participants in real time as they go about their daily lives. The aim of this study was to explore the utility of a mobile phone app as a means of collecting EMA data pertaining to mood, problems, and coping efficacy in a school-based sample of Irish young people. The study included a total of 208 participants who were aged 15-18 years, 64% female (113/208), recruited from second-level schools in Ireland, and who downloaded the CopeSmart mobile phone app as part of a randomized controlled trial. On the app, participants initially responded to 5 single-item measures of key protective factors in youth mental health (formal help-seeking, informal help-seeking, sleep, exercise, and sense of belonging). They were then encouraged to use the app daily to input data relating to mood states (happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and worry), daily problems, and coping self-efficacy. The app automatically collected data pertaining to user engagement over the course of the 28-day intervention period. Students also completed pen and paper questionnaires containing standardized measures of emotional distress (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale; DASS-21), well-being (World Health Organization Well-Being Index; WHO-5), and coping (Coping Strategies Inventory; CSI). On average the participants completed 18% (5/28) of daily ratings, and engagement levels did not differ across gender, age, school, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, or nationality. On a scale of 1 to 10, happiness was consistently the highest rated mood state (overall mean 6.56), and anger was consistently the lowest (overall mean 2.11). Pearson correlations revealed that average daily ratings of emotional states were associated with standardized measures of

  15. Acute exercise attenuates negative affect following repeated sad mood inductions in persons who have recovered from depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Jutta; Hogan, Candice L; Joormann, Jutta; Waugh, Christian E; Gotlib, Ian H

    2013-02-01

    Identifying factors that may protect individuals from developing Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in the face of stress is critical. In the current study we experimentally tested whether such a potentially protective factor, engaging in acute exercise, reduces the adverse effects of repeated sad mood inductions in individuals who have recovered from depression. We hypothesized that recovered depressed participants who engage in acute exercise report a smaller increase in negative affect (NA) and a smaller decrease in positive affect (PA) when exposed to a repeated sad mood induction (i.e., habituation), whereas participants who do not exercise show sensitization (i.e., increased NA and decreased PA in response to a repeated adverse stimulus). Forty-one women recovered from MDD and 40 healthy control women were randomly assigned to either exercise for 15 minutes or quiet rest. Afterward, participants were exposed to two sad mood inductions and reported their levels of affect throughout the study. Recovered depressed participants who had not exercised exhibited higher NA after the second sad mood induction, a finding consistent with sensitization. In contrast, both recovered depressed participants who had engaged in acute exercise and healthy control participants showed no increase in NA in response to the repeated sad mood induction. Participants who exercised reported higher PA after the exercise bout; however, our hypothesis concerning reported PA trajectories following the sad mood inductions was not supported. Results suggest that exercise can serve as a protective factor in the face of exposure to repeated emotional stressors, particularly concerning NA in individuals who have recovered from depression. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Interaction between physiological and cognitive determinants of emotions: experimental studies on Schachter's theory of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, G; Janke, W

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the interaction between physiological arousal and situation-derived cognitions in the determination of feeling states that is proposed in Schachter's theory of emotions. The degree of bodily arousal was varied by disguised oral administration of a placebo or the sympathicomimetic agent ephedrine. The situational circumstances were varied by instructions offering cues for (a) no emotions ('neutral' control), or the feeling states called (b) 'anger', (c) 'happiness', and (d) anxiety'. The subjects were 72 male students. The dependent variables were blood pressure, heart rate, a list of bodily symptoms, and an adjective check list. The results within the 'anger' and 'happiness' condition were in accordance with Schachter's theory: depending on the type of situation, ephedrine-induced arousal either decreased or increased positive descriptions of mood. The emotional effects of the 'anxiety' condition, however, were independent of the drug-induced arousal level. Contrary to Schachter's theory, anxiety reactions occured also in a state of low physiological arousal and did not increase with increasing arousal.

  17. Small Acute Benefits of 4 Weeks Processing Speed Training Games on Processing Speed and Inhibition Performance and Depressive Mood in the Healthy Elderly People: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Saito, Toshiki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing speed training using a 1-year intervention period improves cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term processing speed training such as 4 weeks can benefit elderly people. This study was designed to investigate effects of 4 weeks of processing speed training on cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Methods: We used a single-blinded randomized control trial (RCT). Seventy-two older adults were assigned randomly to two groups: a processing speed training game (PSTG) group and knowledge quiz training game (KQTG) group, an active control group. In PSTG, participants were asked to play PSTG (12 processing speed games) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. In the KQTG group, participants were asked to play KQTG (four knowledge quizzes) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. We measured several cognitive functions and emotional states before and after the 4 week intervention period. Results: Our results revealed that PSTG improved performances in processing speed and inhibition compared to KQTG, but did not improve performance in reasoning, shifting, short term/working memory, and episodic memory. Moreover, PSTG reduced the depressive mood score as measured by the Profile of Mood State compared to KQTG during the 4 week intervention period, but did not change other emotional measures. Discussion: This RCT first provided scientific evidence related to small acute benefits of 4 week PSTG on processing speed, inhibition, and depressive mood in healthy elderly people. We discuss possible mechanisms for improvements in processing speed and inhibition and reduction of the depressive mood. Trial registration: This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000022250).

  18. Stress-related clinical pain and mood in women with chronic pain: moderating effects of depression and positive mood induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary C; Thummala, Kirti; Zautra, Alex J

    2014-08-01

    Chronic pain with comorbid depression is characterized by poor mood regulation and stress-related pain. This study aims to compare depressed and non-depressed pain patients in mood and pain stress reactivity and recovery, and test whether a post-stress positive mood induction moderates pain recovery. Women with fibromyalgia and/or osteoarthritis (N = 110) underwent interpersonal stress and were then randomly assigned by pain condition and depression status, assessed via the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, to positive versus neutral mood induction. Depression did not predict stress-related reactivity in despondency, joviality, or clinical pain. However, depression × mood condition predicted recovery in joviality and clinical pain; depressed women recovered only in the positive mood condition, whereas non-depressed women recovered in both mood conditions. Depression does not alter pain and mood stress reactivity, but does impair recovery. Boosting post-stress jovial mood ameliorates pain recovery deficits in depressed patients, a finding relevant to chronic pain interventions.

  19. Mood-dependent integration in discourse comprehension: happy and sad moods affect consistency processing via different brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidi, Giovanna; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2014-12-01

    According to recent research on language comprehension, the semantic features of a text are not the only determinants of whether incoming information is understood as consistent. Listeners' pre-existing affective states play a crucial role as well. The current fMRI experiment examines the effects of happy and sad moods during comprehension of consistent and inconsistent story endings, focusing on brain regions previously linked to two integration processes: inconsistency detection, evident in stronger responses to inconsistent endings, and fluent processing (accumulation), evident in stronger responses to consistent endings. The analysis evaluated whether differences in the BOLD response for consistent and inconsistent story endings correlated with self-reported mood scores after a mood induction procedure. Mood strongly affected regions previously associated with inconsistency detection. Happy mood increased sensitivity to inconsistency in regions specific for inconsistency detection (e.g., left IFG, left STS), whereas sad mood increased sensitivity to inconsistency in regions less specific for language processing (e.g., right med FG, right SFG). Mood affected more weakly regions involved in accumulation of information. These results show that mood can influence activity in areas mediating well-defined language processes, and highlight that integration is the result of context-dependent mechanisms. The finding that language comprehension can involve different networks depending on people's mood highlights the brain's ability to reorganize its functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Allopregnanolone and mood disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bäckström, T.; Bixo, M.; Johansson, M.; Nyberg, S.; Ossewaarde, L.; Ragagnin, G.; Savic, I.; Strömberg, J.; Timby, E.; van Broekhoven, F.; van Wingen, G.

    2014-01-01

    Certain women experience negative mood symptoms during the menstrual cycle and progesterone addition in estrogen treatments. In women with PMDD increased negative mood symptoms related to allopregnanolone increase during the luteal phase of ovulatory menstrual cycles. In anovulatory cycles no

  1. Do We Really Know How to Treat a Child with Bipolar Disorder or One with Severe Mood Dysregulation? Is There a Magic Bullet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Jairam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite controversy, bipolar disorder (BD is being increasingly diagnosed in under 18s. There is scant information regarding its treatment and uncertainty regarding the status of “severe mood dysregulation (SMD” and how it overlaps with BD. This article collates available research on treatment of BD in under 18s and explores the status of SMD. Methods. Literature on treatment of BD in under 18s and on SMD were identified using major search engines; these were then collated and reviewed. Results. Some markers have been proposed to differentiate BD from disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD in children. Pharmacotherapy restricted to short-term trials of mood-stabilizers and atypical-antipsychotics show mixed results. Data on maintenance treatment and non-pharmacological interventions are scant. It is unclear whether SMD is an independent disorder or an early manifestation of another disorder. Conclusions. Valproate, lithium, risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole and quetiapine remain first line treatments for acute episodes in the under 18s with BD. Their efficacy in maintenance treatment remains unclear. There is no validated treatment for SMD. It is likely that some children who are currently diagnosed with BD and DBD and possibly most children currently diagnosed with SMD will be subsumed under the proposed category in the DSM V of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder with dysphoria.

  2. Public Trauma after the Sewol Ferry Disaster: The Role of Social Media in Understanding the Public Mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyekyung; Cho, Youngtae; Shim, Eunyoung; Lee, Kihwang; Song, Gilyoung

    2015-09-03

    The Sewol ferry disaster severely shocked Korean society. The objective of this study was to explore how the public mood in Korea changed following the Sewol disaster using Twitter data. Data were collected from daily Twitter posts from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013 and from 1 March 2014 to 30 June 2014 using natural language-processing and text-mining technologies. We investigated the emotional utterances in reaction to the disaster by analyzing the appearance of keywords, the human-made disaster-related keywords and suicide-related keywords. This disaster elicited immediate emotional reactions from the public, including anger directed at various social and political events occurring in the aftermath of the disaster. We also found that although the frequency of Twitter keywords fluctuated greatly during the month after the Sewol disaster, keywords associated with suicide were common in the general population. Policy makers should recognize that both those directly affected and the general public still suffers from the effects of this traumatic event and its aftermath. The mood changes experienced by the general population should be monitored after a disaster, and social media data can be useful for this purpose.

  3. Public Trauma after the Sewol Ferry Disaster: The Role of Social Media in Understanding the Public Mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyekyung Woo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sewol ferry disaster severely shocked Korean society. The objective of this study was to explore how the public mood in Korea changed following the Sewol disaster using Twitter data. Data were collected from daily Twitter posts from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013 and from 1 March 2014 to 30 June 2014 using natural language-processing and text-mining technologies. We investigated the emotional utterances in reaction to the disaster by analyzing the appearance of keywords, the human-made disaster-related keywords and suicide-related keywords. This disaster elicited immediate emotional reactions from the public, including anger directed at various social and political events occurring in the aftermath of the disaster. We also found that although the frequency of Twitter keywords fluctuated greatly during the month after the Sewol disaster, keywords associated with suicide were common in the general population. Policy makers should recognize that both those directly affected and the general public still suffers from the effects of this traumatic event and its aftermath. The mood changes experienced by the general population should be monitored after a disaster, and social media data can be useful for this purpose.

  4. Premenstrual mood symptoms: study of familiality and personality correlates in mood disorder pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jennifer L; Klein, Sarah R; Zamoiski, Rachel B; Zandi, Peter P; Bienvenu, Oscar J; Mackinnon, Dean F; Mondimore, Francis M; Schweizer, Barbara; Swartz, Karen L; Crowe, Raymond P; Scheftner, William A; Weissman, Myrna M; Levinson, Douglas F; DePaulo, J Raymond; Potash, James B

    2009-02-01

    We sought to determine whether premenstrual mood symptoms exhibit familial aggregation in bipolar disorder or major depression pedigrees. Two thousand eight hundred seventy-six women were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies as part of either the NIMH Genetics Initiative Bipolar Disorder Collaborative study or the Genetics of Early Onset Major Depression (GenRED) study and asked whether they had experienced severe mood symptoms premenstrually. In families with two or more female siblings with bipolar disorder (BP) or major depressive disorder (MDD), we examined the odds of having premenstrual mood symptoms given one or more siblings with these symptoms. For the GenRED MDD sample we also assessed the impact of personality as measured by the NEO-FFI. Premenstrual mood symptoms did not exhibit familial aggregation in families with BP or MDD. We unexpectedly found an association between high NEO openness scores and premenstrual mood symptoms, but neither this factor, nor NEO neuroticism influenced evidence for familial aggregation of symptoms. Limitations include the retrospective interview, the lack of data on premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and the inability to control for factors such as medication use.

  5. People with chronic facial pain perform worse than controls at a facial emotion recognition task, but it is not all about the emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Piekartz, H; Wallwork, S B; Mohr, G; Butler, D S; Moseley, G L

    2015-04-01

    Alexithymia, or a lack of emotional awareness, is prevalent in some chronic pain conditions and has been linked to poor recognition of others' emotions. Recognising others' emotions from their facial expression involves both emotional and motor processing, but the possible contribution of motor disruption has not been considered. It is possible that poor performance on emotional recognition tasks could reflect problems with emotional processing, motor processing or both. We hypothesised that people with chronic facial pain would be less accurate in recognising others' emotions from facial expressions, would be less accurate in a motor imagery task involving the face, and that performance on both tasks would be positively related. A convenience sample of 19 people (15 females) with chronic facial pain and 19 gender-matched controls participated. They undertook two tasks; in the first task, they identified the facial emotion presented in a photograph. In the second, they identified whether the person in the image had a facial feature pointed towards their left or right side, a well-recognised paradigm to induce implicit motor imagery. People with chronic facial pain performed worse than controls at both tasks (Facially Expressed Emotion Labelling (FEEL) task P facial pain were worse than controls at both the FEEL emotion recognition task and the left/right facial expression task and performance covaried within participants. We propose that disrupted motor processing may underpin or at least contribute to the difficulty that facial pain patients have in emotion recognition and that further research that tests this proposal is warranted. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Dynamic Analysis of Emotions through Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Mejía M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Emotions have been demonstrated to be an important aspect of human intelligence and to play a significant role in human decision-making processes. Emotions are not only feelings but also processes of establishing, maintaining or disrupting the relation between the organism and the environment. In the present paper, several features of social and developmental Psychology are introduced, especially concepts that are related to Theories of Emotions and the Mathematical Tools applied in psychology (i.e., Dynamic Systems and Fuzzy Logic. Later, five models that infer emotions from a single event, in AV-Space, are presented and discussed along with the finding that fuzzy logic can measure human emotional states

  7. Pick-a-mood; development and application of a pictorial mood-reporting instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.M.A.; Vastenburg, M.H.; Van Bel, D.; Romero Herrera, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents ‘Pick-A-Mood’ (PAM), a cartoon-based pictorial instrument for reporting and expressing moods. The use of cartoon characters enables people to unambiguously and visually express or report their mood in a rich and easy-to-use way. PAM consists of three characters that each express

  8. Effects of emotional acceptance and rumination on media-induced body dissatisfaction in anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Eva; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Schäfer, Johanna; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2016-11-01

    Body dissatisfaction is an important risk and maintaining factor for eating disorders. The aim of the present study was to experimentally test the effects of two emotion regulation strategies - acceptance and rumination - on media-induced body dissatisfaction in eating disorders. After watching pictures of thin models, women with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 39) and bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 39) were encouraged to either use emotional acceptance or rumination to cope with their feelings. Body dissatisfaction and mood were repeatedly assessed. Acceptance significantly improved body dissatisfaction in women with BN. Rumination led to a significant increase of body dissatisfaction in both eating disorder groups. Results were independent from mood changes. Findings highlight the importance ruminative thinking may have in the aggravation of dissatisfaction with the own body in AN and BN. Results suggest that emotional acceptance is a useful strategy to regulate body dissatisfaction after exposure to thin-ideal media in BN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perceived emotional intelligence as a moderator variable between cybervictimization and its emotional impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elipe, Paz; Mora-Merchán, Joaquín A; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario; Casas, José A

    2015-01-01

    The negative effects of traditional bullying and, recently, cyberbullying on victims are well-documented, and abundant empirical evidence for it exists. Cybervictimization affects areas such as academic performance, social integration and self-esteem, and causes emotions ranging from anger and sadness to more complex problems such as depression. However, not all victims are equally affected, and the differences seem to be due to certain situational and personal characteristics. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) and the emotional impact of cybervictimization. We hypothesize that EI, which has previously been found to play a role in traditional bullying and cyberbullying, may also affect the emotional impact of cyberbullying. The participants in our study were 636 university students from two universities in the south of Spain. Three self-report questionnaires were used: the "European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire," the "Cyberbullying Emotional Impact Scale"; and "Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24." Structural Equation Models were used to test the relationships between the analyzed variables. The results support the idea that PEI, by way of a moderator effect, affects the relationship between cybervictimization and emotional impact. Taken together, cybervictimization and PEI explain much of the variance observed in the emotional impact in general and in the negative dimensions of that impact in particular. Attention and Repair were found to be inversely related to Annoyance and Dejection, and positively related to Invigoration. Clarity has the opposite pattern; a positive relationship with Annoyance and Dejection and an inverse relationship with Invigoration. Various hypothetical explanations of these patterns are discussed.

  10. Genetic Disruption of Circadian Rhythms in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Causes Helplessness, Behavioral Despair, and Anxiety-like Behavior in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Dominic; Long, Jaimie E.; Proulx, Christophe D.; Barandas, Rita; Malinow, Roberto; Welsh, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder is associated with disturbed circadian rhythms. To investigate the causal relationship between mood disorders and circadian clock disruption, previous studies in animal models have employed light/dark manipulations, global mutations of clock genes, or brain area lesions. However, light can impact mood by noncircadian mechanisms; clock genes have pleiotropic, clock-independent functions; and brain lesions not only disrupt cellular circadian rhythms but also destroy cells and eliminate important neuronal connections, including light reception pathways. Thus, a definitive causal role for functioning circadian clocks in mood regulation has not been established. Methods We stereotactically injected viral vectors encoding short hairpin RNA to knock down expression of the essential clock gene Bmal1 into the brain's master circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Results In these SCN-specific Bmal1-knockdown (SCN-Bmal1-KD) mice, circadian rhythms were greatly attenuated in the SCN, while the mice were maintained in a standard light/dark cycle, SCN neurons remained intact, and neuronal connections were undisturbed, including photic inputs. In the learned helplessness paradigm, the SCN-Bmal1-KD mice were slower to escape, even before exposure to inescapable stress. They also spent more time immobile in the tail suspension test and less time in the lighted s