WorldWideScience

Sample records for monthly regional averages

  1. Monthly snow/ice averages (ISCCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — September Arctic sea ice is now declining at a rate of 11.5 percent per decade, relative to the 1979 to 2000 average. Data from NASA show that the land ice sheets in...

  2. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing average monthly compensation. 226... Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation is computed by first determining the employee's highest 60 months of railroad compensation...

  3. 20 CFR 404.220 - Average-monthly-wage method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Average-monthly-wage method. 404.220 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.220 Average-monthly-wage method. (a) Who is eligible for this method. You...

  4. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage. 404.221... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.221 Computing your average monthly wage. (a) General. Under the...

  5. Average monthly and annual climate maps for Bolivia

    KAUST Repository

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.

    2015-02-24

    This study presents monthly and annual climate maps for relevant hydroclimatic variables in Bolivia. We used the most complete network of precipitation and temperature stations available in Bolivia, which passed a careful quality control and temporal homogenization procedure. Monthly average maps at the spatial resolution of 1 km were modeled by means of a regression-based approach using topographic and geographic variables as predictors. The monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and potential exoatmospheric solar radiation under clear sky conditions are used to estimate the monthly average atmospheric evaporative demand by means of the Hargreaves model. Finally, the average water balance is estimated on a monthly and annual scale for each 1 km cell by means of the difference between precipitation and atmospheric evaporative demand. The digital layers used to create the maps are available in the digital repository of the Spanish National Research Council.

  6. The monthly-averaged and yearly-averaged cosine effect factor of a heliostat field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rabghi, O.M.; Elsayed, M.M. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Thermal Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Calculations are carried out to determine the dependence of the monthly-averaged and the yearly-averaged daily cosine effect factor on the pertinent parameters. The results are plotted on charts for each month and for the full year. These results cover latitude angles between 0 and 45[sup o]N, for fields with radii up to 50 tower height. In addition, the results are expressed in mathematical correlations to facilitate using them in computer applications. A procedure is outlined to use the present results to preliminary layout the heliostat field, and to predict the rated MW[sub th] reflected by the heliostat field during a period of a month, several months, or a year. (author)

  7. Monthly streamflow forecasting with auto-regressive integrated moving average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Najah; Samsudin, Ruhaidah; Shabri, Ani

    2017-09-01

    Forecasting of streamflow is one of the many ways that can contribute to better decision making for water resource management. The auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was selected in this research for monthly streamflow forecasting with enhancement made by pre-processing the data using singular spectrum analysis (SSA). This study also proposed an extension of the SSA technique to include a step where clustering was performed on the eigenvector pairs before reconstruction of the time series. The monthly streamflow data of Sungai Muda at Jeniang, Sungai Muda at Jambatan Syed Omar and Sungai Ketil at Kuala Pegang was gathered from the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia. A ratio of 9:1 was used to divide the data into training and testing sets. The ARIMA, SSA-ARIMA and Clustered SSA-ARIMA models were all developed in R software. Results from the proposed model are then compared to a conventional auto-regressive integrated moving average model using the root-mean-square error and mean absolute error values. It was found that the proposed model can outperform the conventional model.

  8. Ocean tides in GRACE monthly averaged gravity fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per

    2003-01-01

    aims at. In this analysis the results of Knudsen and Andersen (2002) have been verified using actual post-launch orbit parameter of the GRACE mission. The current ocean tide models are not accurate enough to correct GRACE data at harmonic degrees lower than 47. The accumulated tidal errors may affect......The GRACE mission will map the Earth's gravity fields and its variations with unprecedented accuracy during its 5-year lifetime. Unless ocean tide signals and their load upon the solid earth are removed from the GRACE data, their long period aliases obscure more subtle climate signals which GRACE...... the GRACE data up to harmonic degree 60. A study of the revised alias frequencies confirm that the ocean tide errors will not cancel in the GRACE monthly averaged temporal gravity fields. The S-2 and the K-2 terms have alias frequencies much longer than 30 days, so they remain almost unreduced...

  9. MONTHLY AVERAGE FLOW IN RÂUL NEGRU HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIGH MELINDA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Râul Negru hydrographic basin represents a well individualised and relatively homogenous physical-geographical unity from Braşov Depression. The flow is controlled by six hydrometric stations placed on the main collector and on two of the most powerful tributaries. Our analysis period is represented by the last 25 years (1988 - 2012 and it’s acceptable for make pertinent conclusions. The maximum discharge month is April, that it’s placed in the high flow period: March – June. Minimum discharges appear in November - because of the lack of pluvial precipitations; in January because of high solid precipitations and because of water volume retention in ice. Extreme discharge frequencies vary according to their position: in the mountain area – small basin surface; into a depression – high basin surface. Variation coefficients point out very similar variation principles, showing a relative homogeneity of flow processes.

  10. 20 CFR 404.210 - Average-indexed-monthly-earnings method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Average-indexed-monthly-earnings method. 404... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Indexed-Monthly-Earnings Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.210 Average-indexed-monthly-earnings method. (a) Who is...

  11. AVERAGE FLUXES FROM HETEROGENEOUS VEGETATED REGIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KLAASSEN, W

    Using a surface-layer model, fluxes of heat and momentum have been calculated for flat regions with regularly spaced step changes in surface roughness and stomatal resistance. The distance between successive step changes is limited to 10 km in order to fill the gap between micro-meteorological

  12. Average Wait Time Until Hearing Held Report (By Month), September 2016 (53rd week)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A presentation of the average time (in months) from the hearing request date until a hearing is held for claims pending in the Office of Disability Adjudication and...

  13. Using of rank distributions in the study of perennial changes for monthly average temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovskiy, V. B.; Stoyanov, A. K.; Tartakovsky, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    The possibility of comparing the climatic data of various years with using rank distributions is considered in this paper. As a climatic data, the annual variation of temperature on the spatial areas of meteorological observations with high variability in average temperatures is considered. The results of clustering of the monthly average temperatures values by means of a recurrent neural network were used as the basis of comparing. For a given space of weather observations the rank distribution of the clusters cardinality identified for each year of observation, is being constructed. The resulting rank distributions allow you to compare the spatial temperature distributions of various years. An experimental comparison for rank distributions of the annual variation of monthly average temperatures has confirmed the presence of scatter for various years, associated with different spatio-temporal distribution of temperature. An experimental comparison of rank distributions revealed a difference in the integral annual variation of monthly average temperatures of various years for the Northern Hemisphere.

  14. Age-specific average head template for typically developing 6-month-old infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa F Akiyama

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid anatomical changes that occur within the brain structure in early human development and the significant differences between infant brains and the widely used standard adult templates, it becomes increasingly important to utilize appropriate age- and population-specific average templates when analyzing infant neuroimaging data. In this study we created a new and highly detailed age-specific unbiased average head template in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system for healthy, typically developing 6-month-old infants by performing linear normalization, diffeomorphic normalization and iterative averaging processing on 60 subjects' structural images. The resulting age-specific average templates in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system demonstrate sharper anatomical detail and clarity compared to existing infant average templates and successfully retains the average head size of the 6-month-old infant. An example usage of the average infant templates transforms magnetoencephalography (MEG estimated activity locations from MEG's subject-specific head coordinate space to the standard MNI152-like infant coordinate space. We also created a new atlas that reflects the true 6-month-old infant brain anatomy. Average templates and atlas are publicly available on our website (http://ilabs.washington.edu/6-m-templates-atlas.

  15. CHAMP climate data based on inversion of monthly average bending angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Danzer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available GNSS Radio Occultation (RO refractivity climatologies for the stratosphere can be obtained from the Abel inversion of monthly average bending-angle profiles. The averaging of large numbers of profiles suppresses random noise and this, in combination with simple exponential extrapolation above an altitude of 80 km, circumvents the need for a "statistical optimization" step in the processing. Using data from the US-Taiwanese COSMIC mission, which provides ~ 1500–2000 occultations per day, it has been shown that this Average-Profile Inversion (API technique provides a robust method for generating stratospheric refractivity climatologies. Prior to the launch of COSMIC in mid-2006, the data records rely on data from the CHAMP mission. In order to exploit the full range of available RO data, the usage of CHAMP data is also required. CHAMP only provided ~ 200 profiles per day, and the measurements were noisier than COSMIC. As a consequence, the main research question in this study was to see if the average bending angle approach is also applicable to CHAMP data. Different methods for suppression of random noise – statistical and through data quality pre-screening – were tested. The API retrievals were compared with the more conventional approach of averaging individual refractivity profiles, produced with the implementation of statistical optimization used in the EUMETSAT Radio Occultation Meteorology Satellite Application Facility (ROM SAF operational processing. In this study it is demonstrated that the API retrieval technique works well for CHAMP data, enabling the generation of long-term stratospheric RO climate data records from August 2001 and onward. The resulting CHAMP refractivity climatologies are found to be practically identical to the standard retrieval at the DMI below altitudes of 35 km. Between 35 km to 50 km the differences between the two retrieval methods started to increase, showing largest differences at high latitudes and

  16. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2004-05-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  17. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2003-02-28] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  18. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  19. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2004-05-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  20. Seasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Kolarik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air quality in dwellings is largely determined by the air change rate (ACR) and the magnitude of indoor air pollution sources. Concurrently, great efforts are made to make buildings energy efficient, which may result in low ACRs. In the present study, the monthly ACR averages were measured...

  1. Monthly average daily global solar radiation in P. D. R. Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadhi, S.M.B.; Megdad, R.S.; Albakri, S.A.A. (Aden Univ. (Yemen). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a study has been made to estimate average global radiation using hours of bright sunshine and measured solar radiation data available for six locations in P.D.R. Yemen. For Aden, data were obtained from Aden Airport. For other locations in P.D.R. Yemen data were obtained from Agricultural Research Center's meteorological sections. Linear regression analysis of the monthly average global radiation and the sunshine duration data of six locations has been performed using the least squares technique. All the above mentioned data have been used in Angstrom's correlation to find the monthly average daily global solar radiation. Results obtained are useful for any solar energy system application in P.D.R. Yemen. (author).

  2. 20 CFR 404.222 - Use of benefit table in finding your primary insurance amount from your average monthly wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance amount from your average monthly wage. 404.222 Section 404.222 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.222 Use of benefit table in finding your primary insurance amount from your average monthly wage. (a) General. We find your...

  3. Estimation of the diffuse radiation fraction for hourly, daily and monthly-average global radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbs, D. G.; Klein, S. A.; Duffie, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Hourly pyrheliometer and pyranometer data from four U.S. locations are used to establish a relationship between the hourly diffuse fraction and the hourly clearness index. This relationship is compared to the relationship established by Orgill and Hollands (1977) and to a set of data from Highett, Australia, and agreement is within a few percent in both cases. The transient simulation program TRNSYS is used to calculate the annual performance of solar energy systems using several correlations. For the systems investigated, the effect of simulating the random distribution of the hourly diffuse fraction is negligible. A seasonally dependent daily diffuse correlation is developed from the data, and this daily relationship is used to derive a correlation for the monthly-average diffuse fraction.

  4. Estimation of monthly average daily global solar irradiation using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubiru, J.; Banda, E.J.K.B. [Department of Physics, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala (Uganda)

    2008-02-15

    This study explores the possibility of developing a prediction model using artificial neural networks (ANN), which could be used to estimate monthly average daily global solar irradiation on a horizontal surface for locations in Uganda based on weather station data: sunshine duration, maximum temperature, cloud cover and location parameters: latitude, longitude, altitude. Results have shown good agreement between the estimated and measured values of global solar irradiation. A correlation coefficient of 0.974 was obtained with mean bias error of 0.059 MJ/m{sup 2} and root mean square error of 0.385 MJ/m{sup 2}. The comparison between the ANN and empirical method emphasized the superiority of the proposed ANN prediction model. (author)

  5. Monthly-averaged anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative forcing over the Mediterranean based on AERONET aerosol properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bergamo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The all-sky direct radiative effect by anthropogenic aerosol (DREa is calculated in the solar (0.3–4 μm and infrared (4–200 μm spectral ranges for six Mediterranean sites. The sites are differently affected by pollution and together reflect typical aerosol impacts that are expected over land and coastal sites of the central Mediterranean basin. Central to the simulations are aerosol optical properties from AERONET sun-/sky-photometer statistics for the year 2003. A discussion on the variability of the overall (natural + anthropogenic aerosol properties with site location is provided. Supplementary data include MODIS satellite sensor based solar surface albedos, ISCCP products for high- mid- and low cloud cover and estimates for the anthropogenic aerosol fraction from global aerosol models. Since anthropogenic aerosol particles are considered to be smaller than 1 μm in size, mainly the solar radiation transfer is affected with impacts only during sun-light hours. At all sites the (daily average solar DREa is negative all year round at the top of the atmosphere (ToA. Hence, anthropogenic particles produce over coastal and land sites of the central Mediterranean a significant cooling effect. Monthly DREa values vary from site to site and are seasonally dependent as a consequence of the seasonal dependence of available sun-light and microphysical aerosol properties. At the ToA the monthly average DREa is −(4±1 W m−2 during spring-summer (SS, April–September and −(2±1 W m−2 during autumn-winter (AW, October–March at the polluted sites. In contrast, it varies between −(3±1 W m−2 and −(1±1 W m−2 on SS and AW, respectively at the less polluted site. Due to atmospheric absorption the DREa at the surface is larger than at the ToA. At the surface the monthly average DREa varies between the most and the least polluted

  6. Two-dimensional monthly average ozone balance from limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere and stratospheric and mesospheric sounder data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, C. H.; Stolarski, R. S.; Kaye, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    For many years, atmospheric scientists have been concerned with the balance of ozone production and loss terms in the upper stratosphere. Crutzen and Schmailzl (1983) found that the ozone loss was higher than the ozone production in the upper stratosphere. In the present investigation, previous studies are used as a basis in the conduction of a two-dimensional calculation of the production and loss of ozone. The monthly and zonally averaged loss and production rates for ozone are computed using recent Nimbus 7 satellite measurements of stratospheric constituents and accepted reaction and photodissociation rates. It is found that ozone has a loss rate which is about 40-60 percent higher than the production in the photochemical region.

  7. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Average Monthly Precipitation, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the average monthly precipitation in millimeters multiplied by 100 for 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous...

  8. 20 CFR 404.211 - Computing your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., recompute Ms. M.'s DIB beginning with July 1981 to give her the advantage of the child care dropout. To do... and you exercise, or have the right to exercise, parental control. See § 404.366(c) for a further... period of 3 months, or one-half the time after the child's birth or before the child attained age 3. (iii...

  9. A preliminary study of the linear relationship between monthly averaged daily solar radiation and daily thermal amplitude in the north of Buenos Aires provence

    CERN Document Server

    Cionco, R; Rodriguez, R

    2012-01-01

    Using irradiance and temperature measurements obtained at the Facultad Regional San Nicol\\'as of UTN, we performed a preliminary study of the linear relationship between monthly averaged daily solar radiation and daily thermal amplitude. The results show a very satisfactory adjustment (R = 0.848, RMS = 0.066, RMS% = 9.690 %), even taking into account the limited number of months (36). Thus, we have a formula of predictive nature, capable of estimating mean monthly solar radiation for various applications. We expect to have new data sets to expand and improve the statistical significance of these results.

  10. Assessing monthly average solar radiation models: a comparative case study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmete, Mehmet H; Ertekin, Can; Menges, Hakan O; Hacıseferoğullari, Haydar; Evrendilek, Fatih

    2011-04-01

    Solar radiation data are required by solar engineers, architects, agriculturists, and hydrologists for many applications such as solar heating, cooking, drying, and interior illumination of buildings. In order to achieve this, numerous empirical models have been developed all over the world to predict solar radiation. The main objective of this study is to examine and compare 147 solar radiation models available in the literature for the prediction of monthly solar radiation at Ankara (Turkey) based on selected statistical measures such as percentage error, mean percentage error, root mean square error, mean bias error, and correlation coefficient. Our results showed that Ball et al. (Agron J 96:391-397, 2004) model and Chen et al. (Energy Convers Manag 47:2859-2866, 2006) model performed best in the estimation of solar radiation on a horizontal surface for Ankara.

  11. CHAMP climate data based on the inversion of monthly average bending angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Danzer

    2014-12-01

    Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites Radio Occultation Meteorology Satellite Application Facility (ROM SAF operational processing. In this study it is demonstrated that the API retrieval technique works well for CHAMP data, enabling the generation of long-term stratospheric RO climate data records from August 2001 and onward. The resulting CHAMP refractivity climatologies are found to be practically identical to the standard retrieval at the DMI (Danish Meteorological Institute below altitudes of 35 km. Between 35 and 50 km, the differences between the two retrieval methods started to increase, showing largest differences at high latitudes and high altitudes. Furthermore, in the winter hemisphere high-latitude region, the biases relative to ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts were generally smaller for the new approach than for the standard retrieval.

  12. The impact of orbital sampling, monthly averaging and vertical resolution on climate chemistry model evaluation with satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aghedo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble climate model simulations used for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC assessments have become important tools for exploring the response of the Earth System to changes in anthropogenic and natural forcings. The systematic evaluation of these models through global satellite observations is a critical step in assessing the uncertainty of climate change projections. This paper presents the technical steps required for using nadir sun-synchronous infrared satellite observations for multi-model evaluation and the uncertainties associated with each step. This is motivated by need to use satellite observations to evaluate climate models. We quantified the implications of the effect of satellite orbit and spatial coverage, the effect of variations in vertical sensitivity as quantified by the observation operator and the impact of averaging the operators for use with monthly-mean model output. We calculated these biases in ozone, carbon monoxide, atmospheric temperature and water vapour by using the output from two global chemistry climate models (ECHAM5-MOZ and GISS-PUCCINI and the observations from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES instrument on board the NASA-Aura satellite from January 2005 to December 2008.

    The results show that sampling and monthly averaging of the observation operators produce zonal-mean biases of less than ±3 % for ozone and carbon monoxide throughout the entire troposphere in both models. Water vapour sampling zonal-mean biases were also within the insignificant range of ±3 % (that is ±0.14 g kg−1 in both models. Sampling led to a temperature zonal-mean bias of ±0.3 K over the tropical and mid-latitudes in both models, and up to −1.4 K over the boundary layer in the higher latitudes. Using the monthly average of temperature and water vapour operators lead to large biases over the boundary layer in the southern-hemispheric higher latitudes and in the upper

  13. The impact of orbital sampling, monthly averaging and vertical resolution on climate chemistry model evaluation with satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aghedo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble climate model simulations used for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC assessments have become important tools for exploring the response of the Earth System to changes in anthropogenic and natural forcings. The systematic evaluation of these models through global satellite observations is a critical step in assessing the uncertainty of climate change projections. This paper presents the technical steps required for using nadir sun-synchronous infrared satellite observations for multi-model evaluation and the uncertainties associated with each step. This is motivated by need to use satellite observations to evaluate climate models. We quantified the implications of the effect of satellite orbit and spatial coverage, the effect of variations in vertical sensitivity as quantified by the observation operator and the impact of averaging the operators for use with monthly-mean model output. We calculated these biases in ozone, carbon monoxide, atmospheric temperature and water vapour by using the output from two global chemistry climate models (ECHAM5-MOZ and GISS-PUCCINI and the observations from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES satellite from January 2005 to December 2008.

    The results show that sampling and monthly averaging of the observation operators produce biases of less than ±3% for ozone and carbon monoxide throughout the entire troposphere in both models. Water vapour sampling biases were also within the insignificant range of ±3% (that is ±0.14 g kg−1 in both models. Sampling led to a temperature bias of ±0.3 K over the tropical and mid-latitudes in both models, and up to −1.4 K over the boundary layer in the higher latitudes. Using the monthly average of temperature and water vapour operators lead to large biases over the boundary layer in the southern-hemispheric higher latitudes and in the upper troposphere, respectively. Up to 8% bias was calculated in the upper

  14. Estimation of the monthly average daily solar radiation using geographic information system and advanced case-based reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Lee, Minhyun; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-05-07

    The photovoltaic (PV) system is considered an unlimited source of clean energy, whose amount of electricity generation changes according to the monthly average daily solar radiation (MADSR). It is revealed that the MADSR distribution in South Korea has very diverse patterns due to the country's climatic and geographical characteristics. This study aimed to develop a MADSR estimation model for the location without the measured MADSR data, using an advanced case based reasoning (CBR) model, which is a hybrid methodology combining CBR with artificial neural network, multiregression analysis, and genetic algorithm. The average prediction accuracy of the advanced CBR model was very high at 95.69%, and the standard deviation of the prediction accuracy was 3.67%, showing a significant improvement in prediction accuracy and consistency. A case study was conducted to verify the proposed model. The proposed model could be useful for owner or construction manager in charge of determining whether or not to introduce the PV system and where to install it. Also, it would benefit contractors in a competitive bidding process to accurately estimate the electricity generation of the PV system in advance and to conduct an economic and environmental feasibility study from the life cycle perspective.

  15. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  16. Statistical comparison of models for estimating the monthly average daily diffuse radiation at a subtropical African site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashahu, M. [University of Burundi, Bujumbura (Burundi). Institute of Applied Pedagogy, Department of Physics and Technology

    2003-07-01

    Nine correlations have been developed in this paper to estimate the monthly average diffuse radiation for Dakar, Senegal. A 16-year period data on the global (H) and diffuse (H{sub d}) radiation, together with data on the bright sunshine hours (N), the fraction of the sky's (Ne/8), the water vapour pressure in the air (e) and the ambient temperature (T) have been used for that purpose. A model inter-comparison based on the MBE, RMSE and t statistical tests has shown that estimates in any of the obtained correlations are not significantly different from their measured counterparts, thus all the nine models are recommended for the aforesaid location. Three of them should be particularly selected for their simplicity, universal applicability and high accuracy. Those are simple linear correlations between K{sub d} and N/N{sub d}, Ne/8 or K{sub t}. Even presenting adequate performance, the remaining correlations are either simple but less accurate, or multiple or nonlinear regressions needing one or two input variables. (author)

  17. Monthly Rainfall Erosivity: Conversion Factors for Different Time Resolutions and Regional Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos Panagos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a follow up and an advancement of the recently published Rainfall Erosivity Database at European Scale (REDES and the respective mean annual R-factor map, the monthly aspect of rainfall erosivity has been added to REDES. Rainfall erosivity is crucial to be considered at a monthly resolution, for the optimization of land management (seasonal variation of vegetation cover and agricultural support practices as well as natural hazard protection (landslides and flood prediction. We expanded REDES by 140 rainfall stations, thus covering areas where monthly R-factor values were missing (Slovakia, Poland or former data density was not satisfactory (Austria, France, and Spain. The different time resolutions (from 5 to 60 min of high temporal data require a conversion of monthly R-factor based on a pool of stations with available data at all time resolutions. Because the conversion factors show smaller monthly variability in winter (January: 1.54 than in summer (August: 2.13, applying conversion factors on a monthly basis is suggested. The estimated monthly conversion factors allow transferring the R-factor to the desired time resolution at a European scale. The June to September period contributes to 53% of the annual rainfall erosivity in Europe, with different spatial and temporal patterns depending on the region. The study also investigated the heterogeneous seasonal patterns in different regions of Europe: on average, the Northern and Central European countries exhibit the largest R-factor values in summer, while the Southern European countries do so from October to January. In almost all countries (excluding Ireland, United Kingdom and North France, the seasonal variability of rainfall erosivity is high. Very few areas (mainly located in Spain and France show the largest from February to April. The average monthly erosivity density is very large in August (1.67 and July (1.63, while very small in January and February (0.37. This study addresses

  18. 4 km AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 Global Day-Night Sea Surface Temperature Monthly and Yearly Averages, 1985-2009 (NODC Accession 0077816)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains a set of monthly and yearly global day-night sea surface temperature averages, derived from the AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5 sea surface...

  19. Statistical theory for estimating sampling errors of regional radiation averages based on satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. L.; Bess, T. D.; Minnis, P.

    1983-01-01

    The processes which determine the weather and climate are driven by the radiation received by the earth and the radiation subsequently emitted. A knowledge of the absorbed and emitted components of radiation is thus fundamental for the study of these processes. In connection with the desire to improve the quality of long-range forecasting, NASA is developing the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), consisting of a three-channel scanning radiometer and a package of nonscanning radiometers. A set of these instruments is to be flown on both the NOAA-F and NOAA-G spacecraft, in sun-synchronous orbits, and on an Earth Radiation Budget Satellite. The purpose of the scanning radiometer is to obtain measurements from which the average reflected solar radiant exitance and the average earth-emitted radiant exitance at a reference level can be established. The estimate of regional average exitance obtained will not exactly equal the true value of the regional average exitance, but will differ due to spatial sampling. A method is presented for evaluating this spatial sampling error.

  20. Changes in Average Annual Precipitation in Argentina’s Pampa Region and Their Possible Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in annual rainfall in five sub-regions of the Argentine Pampa Region (Rolling, Central, Mesopotamian, Flooding and Southern were examined for the period 1941 to 2010 using data from representative locations in each sub-region. Dubious series were adjusted by means of a homogeneity test and changes in mean value were evaluated using a hydrometeorological time series segmentation method. In addition, an association was sought between shifts in mean annual rainfall and changes in large-scale atmospheric pressure systems, as measured by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI. The results indicate that the Western Pampas (Central and Southern are more vulnerable to abrupt changes in average annual rainfall than the Eastern Pampas (Mesopotamian, Rolling and Flooding. Their vulnerability is further increased by their having the lowest average rainfall. The AMO showed significant negative correlations with all sub-regions, while the PDO and SOI showed significant positive and negative correlations respectively with the Central, Flooding and Southern Pampa. The fact that the PDO and AMO are going through the phases of their cycles that tend to reduce rainfall in much of the Pampas helps explain the lower rainfall recorded in the Western Pampas sub-regions in recent years. This has had a significant impact on agriculture and the environment.

  1. Quantification of non-linearities as a function of time averaging in regional air quality modeling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunis, P.; Clappier, A.; Pisoni, E.; Degraeuwe, B.

    2015-02-01

    Air quality models which are nowadays used for a wide range of scopes (i.e. assessment, forecast, planning) see their intrinsic complexity progressively increasing as better knowledge of the atmospheric chemistry processes is gained. As a result of this increased complexity potential non-linearities are implicitly and/or explicitly incorporated in the system. These non-linearities represent a key and challenging aspect of air quality modeling, especially to assess the robustness of the model responses. In this work the importance of non-linear effects in air quality modeling is quantified, especially as a function of time averaging. A methodology is proposed to decompose the concentration change resulting from an emission reduction over a given domain into its linear and non-linear contributions for each precursor as well as in the contribution resulting from the interactions among precursors. Simulations with the LOTOS-EUROS model have been performed by TNO over three regional geographical areas in Europe for this analysis. In all three regions the non-linear effects for PM10 and PM2.5 are shown to be relatively minor for yearly and monthly averages whereas they become significant for daily average values. For Ozone non-linearities become important already for monthly averages in some regions. An approach which explicitly deals with monthly variations seems therefore more appropriate for O3. In general non-linearities are more important at locations where concentrations are the lowest, i.e. at urban locations for O3 and at rural locations for PM10 and PM2.5. Finally the impact of spatial resolution (tested by comparing coarse and fine resolution simulations) on the degree of non-linearity has been shown to be minor as well. The conclusions developed here are model dependent and runs should be repeated with the particular model of interest but the proposed methodology allows with a limited number of runs to identify where efforts should be focused in order to

  2. Inferring regional vertical crustal velocities from averaged relative sea level trends: A proof of concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bâki Iz, H.; Shum, C. K.; Zhang, C.; Kuo, C. Y.

    2017-02-01

    This study demonstrates that relative sea level trends calculated from long-term tide gauge records can be used to estimate relative vertical crustal velocities in a region with high accuracy. A comparison of the weighted averages of the relative sea level trends estimated at six tide gauge stations in two clusters along the Eastern coast of United States, in Florida and in Maryland, reveals a statistically significant regional vertical crustal motion of Maryland with respect to Florida with a subsidence rate of -1.15±0.15 mm/yr identified predominantly due to the ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment process. The estimate is a consilience value to validate vertical crustal velocities calculated from GPS time series as well as towards constraining predictive GIA models in these regions.

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE STATISTICAL BEHAVIOUR OF DAILY MAXIMUM AND MONTHLY AVERAGE RAINFALL ALONG WITH RAINY DAYS VARIATION IN SYLHET, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. J. HASAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate, one of the major controlling factors for well-being of the inhabitants in the world, has been changing in accordance with the natural forcing and manmade activities. Bangladesh, the most densely populated countries in the world is under threat due to climate change caused by excessive use or abuse of ecology and natural resources. This study checks the rainfall patterns and their associated changes in the north-eastern part of Bangladesh mainly Sylhet city through statistical analysis of daily rainfall data during the period of 1957 - 2006. It has been observed that a good correlation exists between the monthly mean and daily maximum rainfall. A linear regression analysis of the data is found to be significant for all the months. Some key statistical parameters like the mean values of Coefficient of Variability (CV, Relative Variability (RV and Percentage Inter-annual Variability (PIV have been studied and found to be at variance. Monthly, yearly and seasonal variation of rainy days also analysed to check for any significant changes.

  4. On the Relationship between Solar Wind Speed, Earthward-Directed Coronal Mass Ejections, Geomagnetic Activity, and the Sunspot Cycle Using 12-Month Moving Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    For 1996 .2006 (cycle 23), 12-month moving averages of the aa geomagnetic index strongly correlate (r = 0.92) with 12-month moving averages of solar wind speed, and 12-month moving averages of the number of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) (halo and partial halo events) strongly correlate (r = 0.87) with 12-month moving averages of sunspot number. In particular, the minimum (15.8, September/October 1997) and maximum (38.0, August 2003) values of the aa geomagnetic index occur simultaneously with the minimum (376 km/s) and maximum (547 km/s) solar wind speeds, both being strongly correlated with the following recurrent component (due to high-speed streams). The large peak of aa geomagnetic activity in cycle 23, the largest on record, spans the interval late 2002 to mid 2004 and is associated with a decreased number of halo and partial halo CMEs, whereas the smaller secondary peak of early 2005 seems to be associated with a slight rebound in the number of halo and partial halo CMEs. Based on the observed aaM during the declining portion of cycle 23, RM for cycle 24 is predicted to be larger than average, being about 168+/-60 (the 90% prediction interval), whereas based on the expected aam for cycle 24 (greater than or equal to 14.6), RM for cycle 24 should measure greater than or equal to 118+/-30, yielding an overlap of about 128+/-20.

  5. Comparison of region-of-interest-averaged and pixel-averaged analysis of DCE-MRI data based on simulations and pre-clinical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dianning; Zamora, Marta; Oto, Aytekin; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Fan, Xiaobing

    2017-09-01

    Differences between region-of-interest (ROI) and pixel-by-pixel analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI data were investigated in this study with computer simulations and pre-clinical experiments. ROIs were simulated with 10, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 different pixels. For each pixel, a contrast agent concentration as a function of time, C(t), was calculated using the Tofts DCE-MRI model with randomly generated physiological parameters (K trans and v e) and the Parker population arterial input function. The average C(t) for each ROI was calculated and then K trans and v e for the ROI was extracted. The simulations were run 100 times for each ROI with new K trans and v e generated. In addition, white Gaussian noise was added to C(t) with 3, 6, and 12 dB signal-to-noise ratios to each C(t). For pre-clinical experiments, Copenhagen rats (n  =  6) with implanted prostate tumors in the hind limb were used in this study. The DCE-MRI data were acquired with a temporal resolution of ~5 s in a 4.7 T animal scanner, before, during, and after a bolus injection (over the entire ROI, and (ii) by averaging C(t) over the entire ROI, and then fitting averaged C(t) to extract K trans and v e. The simulation results showed that in heterogeneous ROIs, the pixel-by-pixel averaged K trans was ~25% to ~50% larger (p  <  0.01) than the ROI-averaged K trans. At higher noise levels, the pixel-averaged K trans was greater than the ‘true’ K trans, but the ROI-averaged K trans was lower than the ‘true’ K trans. The ROI-averaged K trans was closer to the true K trans than pixel-averaged K trans for high noise levels. In pre-clinical experiments, the pixel-by-pixel averaged K trans was ~15% larger than the ROI-averaged K trans. Overall, with the Tofts model, the extracted physiological parameters from the pixel-by-pixel averages were larger than the ROI averages. These differences were dependent on the heterogeneity of the ROI.

  6. Reprioritizing genetic associations in hit regions using LASSO-based resample model averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdar, William; Sabourin, Jeremy; Nobel, Andrew; Holmes, Christopher C

    2012-07-01

    Significance testing one SNP at a time has proven useful for identifying genomic regions that harbor variants affecting human disease. But after an initial genome scan has identified a "hit region" of association, single-locus approaches can falter. Local linkage disequilibrium (LD) can make both the number of underlying true signals and their identities ambiguous. Simultaneous modeling of multiple loci should help. However, it is typically applied ad hoc: conditioning on the top SNPs, with limited exploration of the model space and no assessment of how sensitive model choice was to sampling variability. Formal alternatives exist but are seldom used. Bayesian variable selection is coherent but requires specifying a full joint model, including priors on parameters and the model space. Penalized regression methods (e.g., LASSO) appear promising but require calibration, and, once calibrated, lead to a choice of SNPs that can be misleadingly decisive. We present a general method for characterizing uncertainty in model choice that is tailored to reprioritizing SNPs within a hit region under strong LD. Our method, LASSO local automatic regularization resample model averaging (LLARRMA), combines LASSO shrinkage with resample model averaging and multiple imputation, estimating for each SNP the probability that it would be included in a multi-SNP model in alternative realizations of the data. We apply LLARRMA to simulations based on case-control genome-wide association studies data, and find that when there are several causal loci and strong LD, LLARRMA identifies a set of candidates that is enriched for true signals relative to single locus analysis and to the recently proposed method of Stability Selection.

  7. Reducing biases in regional climate downscaling by applying Bayesian model averaging on large-scale forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hongwei [APEC Climate Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Bin [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States); University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Wang, Bin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China)

    2012-11-15

    Reduction of uncertainty in large-scale lateral-boundary forcing in regional climate modeling is a critical issue for improving the performance of regional climate downscaling. Numerical simulations of 1998 East Asian summer monsoon were conducted using the Weather Research and Forecast model forced by four different reanalysis datasets, their equal-weight ensemble, and Bayesian model averaging (BMA) ensemble means. Large discrepancies were found among experiments forced by the four individual reanalysis datasets mainly due to the uncertainties in the moisture field of large-scale forcing over ocean. We used satellite water-vapor-path data as observed truth-and-training data to determine the posterior probability (weight) for each forcing dataset using the BMA method. The experiment forced by the equal-weight ensemble reduced the circulation biases significantly but reduced the precipitation biases only moderately. However, the experiment forced by the BMA ensemble outperformed not only the experiments forced by individual reanalysis datasets but also the equal-weight ensemble experiment in simulating the seasonal mean circulation and precipitation. These results suggest that the BMA ensemble method is an effective method for reducing the uncertainties in lateral-boundary forcing and improving model performance in regional climate downscaling. (orig.)

  8. Adaptive polarization image fusion based on regional energy dynamic weighted average

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-qiang; PAN Quan; ZHANG Hong-cai

    2005-01-01

    According to the principle of polarization imaging and the relation between Stokes parameters and the degree of linear polarization, there are much redundant and complementary information in polarized images. Since man-made objects and natural objects can be easily distinguished in images of degree of linear polarization and images of Stokes parameters contain rich detailed information of the scene, the clutters in the images can be removed efficiently while the detailed information can be maintained by combining these images. An algorithm of adaptive polarization image fusion based on regional energy dynamic weighted average is proposed in this paper to combine these images. Through an experiment and simulations,most clutters are removed by this algorithm. The fusion method is used for different light conditions in simulation, and the influence of lighting conditions on the fusion results is analyzed.

  9. ACDF Using the Solis Cage with Iliac Bone Graft in Single Level: Clinical and Radiological Outcomes in Average 36 months Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Si-Hyuck; Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Kim, Young-Jin; Lee, Sang-Koo

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the utility of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage and autograft through long term(average 36 months) follow-up. Thirty selected patients (male:20/female:10) who suffered from cervical radiculopathy, myelopathy or radiculomyelopathy underwent a single level ACDF with PEEK cage and autograft from iliac crest from March 2006 to July 2008 in single institute. We followed patients for an average 36.4±8.1 months (ranged from 23 to 49 months). The Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score for evaluation of myelopathy and visual analogue scale (VAS) for radiating pain was used to estimate postoperative clinical outcome. Plain x-ray on true lateral standing flexion, extension and neutral position view and 3D CT scan were used every 6 months after surgery during follow-up period. The mean VAS and JOA scoring improved significantly after the surgery and radiological fusion rate was accomplished by 100% 36 months after the surgery. We had no complication related with the surgery except one case of osteomyelitis. There was one case of Grade I fusion, four cases of grade II, and 25 cases of grade III by radiologic evaluation. This long term follow-up study for ACDF with PEEK cage shows that this surgical method is comparable with other anterior cervical fusion methods in terms of clinical outcomes and radiologic fusion rate.

  10. Statistical downscaling of general-circulation-model- simulated average monthly air temperature to the beginning of flowering of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergant, Klemen; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka; Črepinšek, Zalika

    2002-02-01

    Phenological observations are a valuable source of information for investigating the relationship between climate variation and plant development. Potential climate change in the future will shift the occurrence of phenological phases. Information about future climate conditions is needed in order to estimate this shift. General circulation models (GCM) provide the best information about future climate change. They are able to simulate reliably the most important mean features on a large scale, but they fail on a regional scale because of their low spatial resolution. A common approach to bridging the scale gap is statistical downscaling, which was used to relate the beginning of flowering of Taraxacum officinale in Slovenia with the monthly mean near-surface air temperature for January, February and March in Central Europe. Statistical models were developed and tested with NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis predictor data and EARS predictand data for the period 1960-1999. Prior to developing statistical models, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was employed on the predictor data. Multiple linear regression was used to relate the beginning of flowering with expansion coefficients of the first three EOF for the Janauary, Febrauary and March air temperatures, and a strong correlation was found between them. Developed statistical models were employed on the results of two GCM (HadCM3 and ECHAM4/OPYC3) to estimate the potential shifts in the beginning of flowering for the periods 1990-2019 and 2020-2049 in comparison with the period 1960-1989. The HadCM3 model predicts, on average, 4 days earlier occurrence and ECHAM4/OPYC3 5 days earlier occurrence of flowering in the period 1990-2019. The analogous results for the period 2020-2049 are a 10- and 11-day earlier occurrence.

  11. Average thermospheric wind patterns over the polar regions, as observed by CHAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the CHAMP accelerometer are utilized to investigate the average thermospheric wind distribution in the polar regions at altitudes around 400 km. This study puts special emphasis on the seasonal differences in the wind patterns. For this purpose 131 days centered on the June solstice of 2003 are considered. Within that period CHAMP's orbit is precessing once through all local times. The cross-track wind estimates of all 2030 passes are used to construct mean wind vectors for 918 equal-area cells. These bin averages are presented in corrected geomagnetic coordinates. Both hemispheres are considered simultaneously providing summer and winter responses for the same prevailing geophysical conditions. The period under study is characterized by high magnetic activity (Kp=4− but moderate solar flux level (F10.7=124. Our analysis reveals clear wind features in the summer (Northern Hemisphere. Over the polar cap there is a fast day-to-night flow with mean speeds surpassing 600 m/s in the dawn sector. At auroral latitudes we find strong westward zonal winds on the dawn side. On the dusk side, however, an anti-cyclonic vortex is forming. The dawn/dusk asymmetry is attributed to the combined action of Coriolis and centrifugal forces. Along the auroral oval the sunward streaming plasma causes a stagnation of the day-to-night wind. This effect is particularly clear on the dusk side. On the dawn side it is evident only from midnight to 06:00 MLT. The winter (Southern Hemisphere reveals similar wind features, but they are less well ordered. The mean day-to-night wind over the polar cap is weaker by about 35%. Otherwise, the seasonal differences are mainly confined to the dayside (06:00–18:00 MLT. In addition, the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic pole in the south also causes hemispheric differences of the thermospheric wind distribution.

  12. Quantifying the effects of different post-processing quality filters on regionally and temporally averaged ACOS XCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B.; O'Dell, C.; Mandrake, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space (ACOS) group has been producing and distributing total column CO2 (XCO2) products using JAXA/NIES/MOE Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) spectra and has accumulated almost 4 years of data with version 3.3. While the ACOS team strives to only process soundings that the retrieval algorithm can handle well, we are conservative in what we reject from processing. Consequently, some soundings get processed which do not yield reliable results. We have developed post-processing filters based on comparisons to a few truth proxies (model means, TCCON, and the southern hemisphere approximation) to flag the less reliable soundings. Here we compare regionally (using TRANSCOM spatial bins) and monthly averaged XCO2 that have been filtered by our normal method (described in the ACOS Level 2 Data User's Guide) and a newer method, which we have named warn levels. Mean XCO2 differences are quantified spatially and temporally to inform possible biases in carbon cycle studies that could potentially be introduced by the application of differing post-processing screening methodologies to the ACOS products.

  13. STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF REDUCING SYSTEMATIC ERRORS ON MONTHLY REGIONAL CLIMATE DYNAMICAL FORECAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xin-min; XI Chao-li

    2009-01-01

    A nested-model system is constructed by embedding the regional climate model RegCM3 into a general circulation model tbr monthly-scale regional climate forecast over East China. The systematic errors are formulated for the region on the basis of 10-yr (1991-2000) results of the nested-model system,and of the datasets of the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) and the temperature analysis of the National Meteorological Center (NMC),U.S.A.,which are then used for correcting the original forecast by the system for the period 2001-2005. After the assessment of the original and corrected forecasts for monthly precipitation and surthce air temperature,it is found that the corrected forecast is apparently better than the original,suggesting that the approach can be applied for improving monthly-scale regional climate dynamical lbrecast.

  14. Generation of Natural Runoff Monthly Series at Ungauged Sites Using a Regional Regressive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pumo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many hydrologic applications require reliable estimates of runoff in river basins to face the widespread lack of data, both in time and in space. A regional method for the reconstruction of monthly runoff series is here developed and applied to Sicily (Italy. A simple modeling structure is adopted, consisting of a regression-based rainfall–runoff model with four model parameters, calibrated through a two-step procedure. Monthly runoff estimates are based on precipitation, temperature, and exploiting the autocorrelation with runoff at the previous month. Model parameters are assessed by specific regional equations as a function of easily measurable physical and climate basin descriptors. The first calibration step is aimed at the identification of a set of parameters optimizing model performances at the level of single basin. Such “optimal” sets are used at the second step, part of a regional regression analysis, to establish the regional equations for model parameters assessment as a function of basin attributes. All the gauged watersheds across the region have been analyzed, selecting 53 basins for model calibration and using the other six basins exclusively for validation. Performances, quantitatively evaluated by different statistical indexes, demonstrate relevant model ability in reproducing the observed hydrological time-series at both the monthly and coarser time resolutions. The methodology, which is easily transferable to other arid and semi-arid areas, provides a reliable tool for filling/reconstructing runoff time series at any gauged or ungauged basin of a region.

  15. Reduction of variance in measurements of average metabolite concentration in anatomically-defined brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ryan J.; Newman, Michael; Nikolaidis, Aki

    2016-11-01

    Multiple methods have been proposed for using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging (MRSI) to measure representative metabolite concentrations of anatomically-defined brain regions. Generally these methods require spectral analysis, quantitation of the signal, and reconciliation with anatomical brain regions. However, to simplify processing pipelines, it is practical to only include those corrections that significantly improve data quality. Of particular importance for cross-sectional studies is knowledge about how much each correction lowers the inter-subject variance of the measurement, thereby increasing statistical power. Here we use a data set of 72 subjects to calculate the reduction in inter-subject variance produced by several corrections that are commonly used to process MRSI data. Our results demonstrate that significant reductions of variance can be achieved by performing water scaling, accounting for tissue type, and integrating MRSI data over anatomical regions rather than simply assigning MRSI voxels with anatomical region labels.

  16. A regional GIS-based model for reconstructing natural monthly streamflow series at ungauged sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumo, Dario; Lo Conti, Francesco; Viola, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2016-04-01

    Several hydrologic applications require reliable estimates of monthly runoff in river basins to face the widespread lack of data, both in time and in space. The main aim of this work is to propose a regional model for the estimation of monthly natural runoff series at ungauged sites, analyzing its applicability, reliability and limitations. A GIS (Geographic Information System) based model is here developed and applied to the entire region of Sicily (Italy). The core of this tool is a regional model for the estimation of monthly natural runoff series, based on a simple modelling structure, consisting of a regression based rainfall-runoff model with only four parameters. The monthly runoff is obtained as a function of precipitation and mean temperature at the same month and runoff at the previous month. For a given basin, the four model parameters are assessed by specific regional equations as a function of some easily measurable geomorphic and climate basins' descriptors. The model is calibrated by a "two-step" procedure applied to a number of gauged basins over the region. The first step is aimed at the identification of a set of parameters optimizing model performances at the level of single basin. Such "optimal" parameters sets, derived for each calibration basin, are successively used inside a regional regression analysis, performed at the second step, by which the regional equations for model parameters assessment are defined and calibrated. All the gauged watersheds across the Sicily have been analyzed, selecting 53 basins for model calibration and using other 6 basins exclusively for validation purposes. Model performances, quantitatively evaluated considering different statistical indexes, demonstrate a relevant model ability in capturing the observed hydrological response at both the monthly level and higher time scales (seasonal and annual). One of the key features related to the proposed methodology is its easy transferability to other arid and semiarid

  17. Prediction of monthly regional groundwater levels through hybrid soft-computing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fi-John; Chang, Li-Chiu; Huang, Chien-Wei; Kao, I.-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Groundwater systems are intrinsically heterogeneous with dynamic temporal-spatial patterns, which cause great difficulty in quantifying their complex processes, while reliable predictions of regional groundwater levels are commonly needed for managing water resources to ensure proper service of water demands within a region. In this study, we proposed a novel and flexible soft-computing technique that could effectively extract the complex high-dimensional input-output patterns of basin-wide groundwater-aquifer systems in an adaptive manner. The soft-computing models combined the Self Organized Map (SOM) and the Nonlinear Autoregressive with Exogenous Inputs (NARX) network for predicting monthly regional groundwater levels based on hydrologic forcing data. The SOM could effectively classify the temporal-spatial patterns of regional groundwater levels, the NARX could accurately predict the mean of regional groundwater levels for adjusting the selected SOM, the Kriging was used to interpolate the predictions of the adjusted SOM into finer grids of locations, and consequently the prediction of a monthly regional groundwater level map could be obtained. The Zhuoshui River basin in Taiwan was the study case, and its monthly data sets collected from 203 groundwater stations, 32 rainfall stations and 6 flow stations during 2000 and 2013 were used for modelling purpose. The results demonstrated that the hybrid SOM-NARX model could reliably and suitably predict monthly basin-wide groundwater levels with high correlations (R2 > 0.9 in both training and testing cases). The proposed methodology presents a milestone in modelling regional environmental issues and offers an insightful and promising way to predict monthly basin-wide groundwater levels, which is beneficial to authorities for sustainable water resources management.

  18. Retrieval of Layer Averaged Relative Humidity Profiles from MHS Observations over Tropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Gangwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the retrieval of the atmospheric layer averaged relative humidity profiles using data from the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS onboard the MetOp satellite. The retrieval has been innovatively performed by firstly retrieving humidity for pairs of thick overlapping layers (TOLs used subsequently to derive humidity for associated thin isolated layer (TIL. A water vapour dependent (WVD algorithm has been developed and applied to infer the humidity of TOLs. Thus, the retrieved profiles have been finally compared with standard algorithm (NORM. These algorithms have been developed based on radiative transfer simulations and study of sensitivities of MHS channels on humidity of various types of layers (TOL, TIL. The algorithm has been tested with MHS data and validated using concurrent radiosonde as well as NCEP reanalysis data indicating profile errors of ~15% and ~19%, respectively.

  19. Estimated fluoride intake of 6-month-old infants in four dietary regions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophaug, R H; Singer, L; Harland, B F

    1980-02-01

    Eleven composite food groups comprising the infant "market basket" food collections for 1977 or 1978 from each of four dietary regions of the United States were analyzed for their fluoride content. Based upon the determined fluoride content of each composite and Food and Drug Administration estimates of food consumption the daily fluoride intake of an average 6-month-old infant residing in each of the dietary regions was calculated. The daily fluoride intake varied from 0.207 mg/day in Grand Rapids, Mich. (north central dietary region) to 0.541 mg/day in Orlando, Fla. (south dietary region). Flouride intakes of 0.272 and 0.354 mg/day were calculated for Philadelphia, Pa. (northeast dietary region) and Los Angeles, Calif. (west dietary region), respectively. The fluoride content of the water supplies ranged from 0.37 ppm (Los Angeles) to 1.04 ppm (Grand Rapids). Drinking water, dairy products and substitutes (other than milk), and grain and cereal products contributed 44 to 80% of the daily fluoride intake. In three of the four dietary regions the daily fluoride intake was less than the optimum level of 0.05 mg/kg body weight.

  20. Mechanisms Controlling the Interannual Variation of Mixed Layer Temperature Averaged over the Nino-3 Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Bum; Lee, Tong; Fukumori, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines processes governing the interannual variation of MLT in the eastern equatorial Pacific.Processes controlling the interannual variation of mixed layer temperature (MLT) averaged over the Nino-3 domain (5 deg N-5 deg S, 150 deg-90 deg W) are studied using an ocean data assimilation product that covers the period of 1993-2003. The overall balance is such that surface heat flux opposes the MLT change but horizontal advection and subsurface processes assist the change. Advective tendencies are estimated here as the temperature fluxes through the domain's boundaries, with the boundary temperature referenced to the domain-averaged temperature to remove the dependence on temperature scale. This allows the authors to characterize external advective processes that warm or cool the water within the domain as a whole. The zonal advective tendency is caused primarily by large-scale advection of warm-pool water through the western boundary of the domain. The meridional advective tendency is contributed to mostly by Ekman current advecting large-scale temperature anomalies through the southern boundary of the domain. Unlike many previous studies, the subsurface processes that consist of vertical mixing and entrainment are explicitly evaluated. In particular, a rigorous method to estimate entrainment allows an exact budget closure. The vertical mixing across the mixed layer (ML) base has a contribution in phase with the MLT change. The entrainment tendency due to the temporal change in ML depth is negligible compared to other subsurface processes. The entrainment tendency by vertical advection across the ML base is dominated by large-scale changes in upwelling and the temperature of upwelling water. Tropical instability waves (TIWs) result in smaller-scale vertical advection that warms the domain during La Nina cooling events. However, such a warming tendency is overwhelmed by the cooling tendency associated with the large-scale upwelling by a factor of

  1. Frequency Analysis of the Monthly Rainfall Data at Sulaimania Region, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Rafa H Al-Suhili

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Different frequency distributions models were fitted to the monthly rainfall data in Sulaimania region, north Iraq. Three rainfall gauging stations data were used, Sulaimania city, Dokan Dam, and Derbendikhan Dam metrological stations, for the period (1984-2010. The distributions models fitted are of Normal, Log-normal, Wiebull, Exponential and Two parameters Gamma type. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate the goodness of fit. The fittings were done for the overall data and for each month separately. The Gamma, Exponential and Weibull distributions were found as the best fits for the three stations respectively for the overall models, while for the monthly models different distribution type was found as the best fit for each month and each station, however the Gamma distributions was found to have the highest percent of best fit. The best fitted distributions were used to forecast three sets of monthly rainfall data for each station and compared to the observed ones for the last 7- years of data. The t-test,F-test and KolmogorovSmirnov test indicate the capability of these models to produce data that has the same frequency distribution of the observed one. Comparison between the performances of the overall and periodic models reveals that there no distinguishable improvement of the monthly model over the overall one.

  2. [Comparison on the methods for spatial interpolation of the annual average precipitation in the Loess Plateau region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Wei, Wei; Chen, Li-ding; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Han-dan

    2015-04-01

    Based on 57 years (1957-2013) daily precipitation datasets of the 85 meteorological stations in the Loess Plateau region, different spatial interpolation methods, including ordinary kriging (OK), inverse distance weighting (IDW) and radial-based function (RBF), were conducted to analyze the spatial variation of annual average precipitation regionally. Meanwhile, the mean absolute error (MAE), the root mean square error (RMSE), the accuracy (AC) and the Pearson correlation coefficient (R) were compared among the interpolation results in order to quantify the effects of different interpolation methods on spatial variation of the annual average precipitation. The results showed that the Moran's I index was 0.67 for the 57 years annual average precipitation in the Loess Plateau region. Meteorological stations exhibited strong spatial correlation. The validation results of the 63 training stations and 22 test stations indicated that there were significant correlations between the training and test values among different interpolation methods. However, the RMSE (IDW = 51.49, RBF = 43.79) and MAE (IDW = 38.98, RBF = 34.61) of the IDW and the RBF showed higher values than the OK. In addition, the comparison of the four semi-variagram models (Circular, Spherical, Exponential and Gaussian) for the OK indicated that the circular model had the lowest MAE (32.34) and the highest accuracy (0.976), while the MAE of the exponential model was the highest (33.24). In conclusion, comparing the validation between the training data and test results of the different spatial interpolation methods, the circular model of the OK method was the best one for obtaining accurate spatial interpolation of annual average precipitation in the Loess Plateau region.

  3. A Comprehensive Modeling Study on Regional Climate Model (RCM Application — Regional Warming Projections in Monthly Resolutions under IPCC A1B Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mujibur Rahman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the major dimensions of climate change include increase in surface temperature, longer spells of droughts in significant portions of the world, associated higher evapotranspiration rates, and so on. It is therefore essential to comprehend the future possible scenario of climate change in terms of global warming. A high resolution limited area Regional Climate Model (RCM can produce reasonably appropriate projections to be used for climate-scenario generation in country-scale. This paper features the development of future surface temperature projections for Bangladesh on monthly resolution for each year from 2011 to 2100 applying Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS, and it explains in detail the modeling processes including the model features, domain size selection, bias identification as well as construction of change field for the concerned climatic variable, in this case, surface temperature. PRECIS was run on a 50 km horizontal grid-spacing under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC A1B scenario and it was found to perform reasonably well in simulating future surface temperature of Bangladesh. The linear regression between observed and model simulated results of monthly average temperatures, within the 30-year period from 1971 to 2000, gives a high correlation of 0.93. The applied change field in average annual temperature shows only 0.5 °C–1 °C deviation from the observed values over the period from 2005 to 2008. Eventually, from the projected average temperature change during the years 1971–2000, it is apparent that warming in Bangladesh prevails invariably every month, which might eventually result in an average annual increase of 4 °C by the year 2100. Calculated anomalies in country-average annual temperature mostly remain on the positive side throughout the period of 2071–2100 indicating an overall up-shift. Apart from these quantitative analyses of temporal changes of temperature

  4. Development of phonological constancy: 19-month-olds, but not 15-month-olds, identify words in a non-native regional accent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Karen E; Best, Catherine T; Tyler, Michael D; Kitamura, Christine; Irwin, Julia R

    2013-01-01

    By 12 months, children grasp that a phonetic change to a word can change its identity (phonological distinctiveness). However, they must also grasp that some phonetic changes do not (phonological constancy). To test development of phonological constancy, sixteen 15-month-olds and sixteen 19-month-olds completed an eye-tracking task that tracked their gaze to named versus unnamed images for familiar words spoken in their native (Australian) and an unfamiliar non-native (Jamaican) regional accent of English. Both groups looked longer at named than unnamed images for Australian pronunciations, but only 19-month-olds did so for Jamaican pronunciations, indicating that phonological constancy emerges by 19 months. Vocabulary size predicted 15-month-olds' identifications for the Jamaican pronunciations, suggesting vocabulary growth is a viable predictor for phonological constancy development.

  5. Contribution of Monthly and Regional Rainfall to the Strength of Indian Summer Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Ali, M.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR: June-September) has both temporal and spatial variability causing floods/droughts in different seasons/locations leading to a strong or weak monsoon. Here, we present the contribution of all-India monthly, seasonal and regional rainfall to the ISMR, with special reference to the strong and weak monsoons. For this purpose, rainfall data provided by the India Meteorological Department (IMD: http://www.imd.gov.in/section/nhac/dynamic/Monsoon_frame.htm) for 1901-2013 have been used. The IMD divided the Indian sub-continent into four homogeneous regions of northwest India (NWI), northeast India (NEI), central India (CI), and south peninsula India (SPIN). Rainfall during July-August contributes the most to the total seasonal rainfall, whether it is a strong or weak monsoon. Although the NEI has the maximum area-weighted rainfall, its contribution is the least toward a strong or weak monsoon. The rainfall in the remaining three regions (NWI, CI, and SPIN) controls whether an ISMR is strong or weak. Compared to the monthly rainfall, the regional rainfall dominates the strong or weak rainfall periods.

  6. A satellite snow depth multi-year average derived from SSM/I for the high latitude regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancamaria, S.; Mognard, N.M.; Boone, A.; Grippa, M.; Josberger, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    The hydrological cycle for high latitude regions is inherently linked with the seasonal snowpack. Thus, accurately monitoring the snow depth and the associated aerial coverage are critical issues for monitoring the global climate system. Passive microwave satellite measurements provide an optimal means to monitor the snowpack over the arctic region. While the temporal evolution of snow extent can be observed globally from microwave radiometers, the determination of the corresponding snow depth is more difficult. A dynamic algorithm that accounts for the dependence of the microwave scattering on the snow grain size has been developed to estimate snow depth from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperatures and was validated over the U.S. Great Plains and Western Siberia. The purpose of this study is to assess the dynamic algorithm performance over the entire high latitude (land) region by computing a snow depth multi-year field for the time period 1987-1995. This multi-year average is compared to the Global Soil Wetness Project-Phase2 (GSWP2) snow depth computed from several state-of-the-art land surface schemes and averaged over the same time period. The multi-year average obtained by the dynamic algorithm is in good agreement with the GSWP2 snow depth field (the correlation coefficient for January is 0.55). The static algorithm, which assumes a constant snow grain size in space and time does not correlate with the GSWP2 snow depth field (the correlation coefficient with GSWP2 data for January is - 0.03), but exhibits a very high anti-correlation with the NCEP average January air temperature field (correlation coefficient - 0.77), the deepest satellite snow pack being located in the coldest regions, where the snow grain size may be significantly larger than the average value used in the static algorithm. The dynamic algorithm performs better over Eurasia (with a correlation coefficient with GSWP2 snow depth equal to 0.65) than over North America

  7. Regional infant brain development: an MRI-based morphometric analysis in 3 to 13 month olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Myong-Sun; Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Makris, Nikos; Gregas, Matt; Bacic, Janine; Haehn, Daniel; Kennedy, David; Pienaar, Rudolph; Caviness, Verne S; Benasich, April A; Grant, P Ellen

    2013-09-01

    Elucidation of infant brain development is a critically important goal given the enduring impact of these early processes on various domains including later cognition and language. Although infants' whole-brain growth rates have long been available, regional growth rates have not been reported systematically. Accordingly, relatively less is known about the dynamics and organization of typically developing infant brains. Here we report global and regional volumetric growth of cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem with gender dimorphism, in 33 cross-sectional scans, over 3 to 13 months, using T1-weighted 3-dimensional spoiled gradient echo images and detailed semi-automated brain segmentation. Except for the midbrain and lateral ventricles, all absolute volumes of brain regions showed significant growth, with 6 different patterns of volumetric change. When normalized to the whole brain, the regional increase was characterized by 5 differential patterns. The putamen, cerebellar hemispheres, and total cerebellum were the only regions that showed positive growth in the normalized brain. Our results show region-specific patterns of volumetric change and contribute to the systematic understanding of infant brain development. This study greatly expands our knowledge of normal development and in future may provide a basis for identifying early deviation above and beyond normative variation that might signal higher risk for neurological disorders.

  8. Numerical analysis of the average MHD flow within a cylindrical region on the basis of applicable hypotheses about turbulent stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikel' son, Yu.Ya.; Yakovich, A.T.; Pavlov, S.I.

    1978-01-01

    Turbulent stresses are considered in an incompressible fluid due to MHD flow induced within an axisymmetric region by electromagnetic forces on the basis of the linearized equation of motion as well as on the basis of the stress tensor in terms of average velocities and turbulent viscosity. The turbulent viscosity is treated according to the Boussinesq hypothesis (constant turbulent viscosity), according to the generalized Karman hypothesis (turbulent viscosity a function of the derivatives of the velocity components with respect to the respective coordinates), or as the product of its coordinate functions. The results of numerical calculations indicate a close agreement between all these formulas for an average MHD flow and experimental data. Calculations including this additional turbulent force, appropriately related to the flow parameters, are applicable to the design of liquid-metal devices. 7 references, 3 figures.

  9. Homogeneity of monthly precipitation series from 1932 to 2010 in the Souss Massa Region-Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abahous, Houria; Ronchail, Josyane; Sifeddine, Abdelfattah; Kenny, Lahcen; Bouchaou, Lhoussaine

    2017-04-01

    Water resources are vulnerable to precipitation fluctuations, especially in arid area such as the Souss-Massa region. Therefore, the analysis and the simulation of the regional rainfall characteristics at decadal scale are of great importance. The availability of long-term time series is often limited by their quality. A network of local meteorological stations recording monthly precipitations from 1932 to 2010 is provided by the Hydraulic basin of Souss Massa Agency. A dataset of 19 selected stations is undergoing an interative process of quality control and homogeneity assessment using ProclimDB/Anclim and Homer softwares. Suspicious monthly data are identified with a combination of criterions. We analyse the standardized precipitation index to better distinguish real climate events from erroneous data in the analyzed series. Statistically significant annual change-points are detected with both absolute and relative methods by using a criterion of validation. The temporal distribution of outliers shows an annual cycle and a decrease of their occurence since the eighties. We also assess the year of 1973 as a change point related to climate in Western High Atlas Mountains stations.

  10. Parameter regionalization of a monthly water balance model for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Andrew R.; Hay, Lauren E.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Atkinson, R. Dwight

    2016-07-01

    A parameter regionalization scheme to transfer parameter values from gaged to ungaged areas for a monthly water balance model (MWBM) was developed and tested for the conterminous United States (CONUS). The Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test, a global-sensitivity algorithm, was implemented on a MWBM to generate parameter sensitivities on a set of 109 951 hydrologic response units (HRUs) across the CONUS. The HRUs were grouped into 110 calibration regions based on similar parameter sensitivities. Subsequently, measured runoff from 1575 streamgages within the calibration regions were used to calibrate the MWBM parameters to produce parameter sets for each calibration region. Measured and simulated runoff at the 1575 streamgages showed good correspondence for the majority of the CONUS, with a median computed Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of 0.76 over all streamgages. These methods maximize the use of available runoff information, resulting in a calibrated CONUS-wide application of the MWBM suitable for providing estimates of water availability at the HRU resolution for both gaged and ungaged areas of the CONUS.

  11. The Baryon Cycle at High Redshifts: Effects of Galactic Winds on Galaxy Evolution in Overdense and Average Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Sadoun, Raphael; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Romano-Díaz, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    We use high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations in order to analyze galaxy evolution at redshifts z~6-12 in highly-overdense 5 sigma density peaks. Strong stellar feedback, in the form of galactic winds, is expected to play an important role in the evolution of these regions. We investigate the effects of these winds by comparing different galactic outflow prescriptions, including (i) a constant velocity model (CW), (ii) a variable velocity model scaling with galaxy properties (VW), and (iii) a model with no outflows (NW). The CW model is also applied to a simulation of an average density region to study the impact of environment on galaxy evolution. A direct consequence of the overdensity is a shallow galaxy mass function slope at the low-mass end and an accelerated evolution of dark matter and baryonic structures. The overdensity hosts massive haloes, up to ~10^{12} Msun, with embedded galaxies up to ~10^{11} Msun in stellar mass by z~6, which are absent in the "normal" region. The CW model leads to...

  12. DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND AVERAGE BUSINESS OF THE TAMBOV REGION IN MODERN CONDITIONS OF AN ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Bespalov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the second half of the year 2008 developing world financial crisis has strengthened negative influence on economic development of Russia. Special importance in the conditions of financial crisis is represented by development and support of small forms of the enterprises, as alternatives to large business. In article presented the complex of the development small and average business in the Tambov region, including: creation of business incubators, development of exhibition activity, crediting by commercial banks of a small-scale business, the help in production certification, development of personnel potential of enterprise structures, external accounting service, assistance in equipment acquisition in leasing, rendering of financial support to the innovative enterprises of area etc.

  13. Local cytokine changes in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) resolve after 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Melanie; Uçeyler, Nurcan; Frettlöh, Jule; Höffken, Oliver; Krumova, Elena K; Lissek, Silke; Reinersmann, Annika; Sommer, Claudia; Stude, Philipp; Waaga-Gasser, Ana M; Tegenthoff, Martin; Maier, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that inflammatory processes are involved in at least the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We compared a panel of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in skin blister fluids and serum from patients with CRPS and patients with upper-limb pain of other origin (non-CRPS) in the early stage (< 1 year) and after 6 months of pain treatment. Blister fluid was collected from the affected and contralateral nonaffected side. We used a multiplex-10 bead array cytokine assay and Luminex technology to measure protein concentrations of the cytokines interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and the chemokines eotaxin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β). We found bilaterally increased proinflammatory TNF-α and MIP-1β and decreased antiinflammatory IL-1RA protein levels in CRPS patients compared to non-CRPS patients. Neither group showed side differences. After 6 months under analgesic treatment, protein levels of all measured cytokines in CRPS patients, except for IL-6, significantly changed bilaterally to the level of non-CRPS patients. These changes were not related to treatment outcome. In serum, only IL-8, TNF-α, eotaxin, MCP-1, and MIP-1β were detectable without intergroup differences. Blister fluid of CRPS patients showed a bilateral proinflammatory cytokine profile. This profile seems to be relevant only at the early stage of CRPS. Almost all measured cytokine levels were comparable to those of non-CRPS patients after 6 months of analgesic treatment and were not related to treatment outcome.

  14. MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...

  15. MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Polygon

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...

  16. The Baryon Cycle at High Redshifts: Effects of Galactic Winds on Galaxy Evolution in Overdense and Average Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoun, Raphael; Shlosman, Isaac; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Romano-Díaz, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    We employ high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations focusing on a high-sigma peak and an average cosmological field at z ˜ 6-12 in order to investigate the influence of environment and baryonic feedback on galaxy evolution in the reionization epoch. Strong feedback, e.g., galactic winds, caused by elevated star formation rates (SFRs) is expected to play an important role in this evolution. We compare different outflow prescriptions: (i) constant wind velocity (CW), (ii) variable wind scaling with galaxy properties (VW), and (iii) no outflows (NW). The overdensity leads to accelerated evolution of dark matter and baryonic structures, absent from the “normal” region, and to shallow galaxy stellar mass functions at the low-mass end. Although CW shows little dependence on the environment, the more physically motivated VW model does exhibit this effect. In addition, VW can reproduce the observed specific SFR (sSFR) and the sSFR-stellar mass relation, which CW and NW fail to satisfy simultaneously. Winds also differ substantially in affecting the state of the intergalactic medium (IGM). The difference lies in the volume-filling factor of hot, high-metallicity gas, which is near unity for CW, while such gas remains confined in massive filaments for VW, and locked up in galaxies for NW. Such gas is nearly absent from the normal region. Although all wind models suffer from deficiencies, the VW model seems to be promising in correlating the outflow properties with those of host galaxies. Further constraints on the state of the IGM at high z are needed to separate different wind models.

  17. Effect of Home-Based Complementary Food Fortification on Prevalence of Anemia Among Infants and Young Children Aged 6 to 23 Months in Poor Rural Regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Junsheng; Sun, Jing; Fang, Zheng; Chang, Suying; Zhao, Liyun; Fu, Ping; Wang, Jie; Huang, Jian; Wang, Lijuan; Begin, France; Hipgrave, David B; Ma, Guansheng

    2015-12-01

    Following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the Chinese government instituted an infant and young and child nutrition program that included promotion of in-home fortification of complementary food with ying yang bao (YYB), a soy-based powder containing iron, 2.5 mg as iron-EDTA and 5 mg as ferrous fumarate, and other micronutrients. Ying yang bao was provided to participating families in 8 poor rural counties in Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu provinces by the Ministry of Health. We assessed hemoglobin levels among infants and young children (IYC) aged 6 to 23 months at baseline in May 2010 (n = 1290) and during follow-up in November 2010 (n = 1142), May 2011 (n = 1118), and November 2011 (n = 1040), using the Hemocue method. Interviewers collected basic demographic information and child feeding practices from the children's caretakers. Altitude-adjusted hemoglobin level averaged 10.8 g/dL, and total anemia prevalence was 49.5% at baseline. Average hemoglobin was 11.3 g/dL at 6 months, 11.6 g/dL at 12 months, and 11.7 g/dL at 18 months after introduction of YYB. Moderate anemia (hemoglobin: 70-99 g/dL) decreased from 20.3% at baseline to 7.5%, 5.8%, and 7.3% after 6, 12, and 18 months of home fortification, respectively (P regions of China.

  18. Estimation of monthly global solar radiation in the eastern Mediterranean region in Turkey by using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahan Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN model was used to estimate monthly average global solar radiation on a horizontal surface for selected 5 locations in Mediterranean region for period of 18 years (1993-2010. Meteorological and geographical data were taken from Turkish State Meteorological Service. The ANN architecture designed is a feed-forward back-propagation model with one-hidden layer containing 21 neurons with hyperbolic tangent sigmoid as the transfer function and one output layer utilized a linear transfer function (purelin. The training algorithm used in ANN model was the Levenberg Marquand back propagation algorith (trainlm. Results obtained from ANN model were compared with measured meteorological values by using statistical methods. A correlation coefficient of 97.97 (~98% was obtained with root mean square error (RMSE of 0.852 MJ/m2, mean square error (MSE of 0.725 MJ/m2, mean absolute bias error (MABE 10.659MJ/m2, and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of 4.8%. Results show good agreement between the estimated and measured values of global solar radiation. We suggest that the developed ANN model can be used to predict solar radiation another location and conditions.

  19. Estimation of monthly global solar radiation in the eastern Mediterranean region in Turkey by using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahan, Muhittin; Yakut, Emre

    2016-11-01

    In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was used to estimate monthly average global solar radiation on a horizontal surface for selected 5 locations in Mediterranean region for period of 18 years (1993-2010). Meteorological and geographical data were taken from Turkish State Meteorological Service. The ANN architecture designed is a feed-forward back-propagation model with one-hidden layer containing 21 neurons with hyperbolic tangent sigmoid as the transfer function and one output layer utilized a linear transfer function (purelin). The training algorithm used in ANN model was the Levenberg Marquand back propagation algorith (trainlm). Results obtained from ANN model were compared with measured meteorological values by using statistical methods. A correlation coefficient of 97.97 ( 98%) was obtained with root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.852 MJ/m2, mean square error (MSE) of 0.725 MJ/m2, mean absolute bias error (MABE) 10.659MJ/m2, and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 4.8%. Results show good agreement between the estimated and measured values of global solar radiation. We suggest that the developed ANN model can be used to predict solar radiation another location and conditions.

  20. AVERAGE BIOLOGICAL INDICES OF THE MAJOR FISH SPECIES OF THE ZAPORIZHZHIA RESERVOIR AND OTHER FISHERY WATER BODIES OF DNEPROPETROVSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fedonenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate, analyze and summarize the biological indices of commercial fish species in the main fishery water bodies of Dnіpropetrovsk region for the last 10 years. Methodology. Field data were collected in the Zaporizhzhia reservoir during 2003 – 2013 using a standard set of monitoring fishing gears (gill nets with mesh size a=30–120 mm. Juvenile fish were caught in third decade of June - first decade of August using the juvenile fish beach seine with a length of 10 m. Processing of ichthyological materials was conducted according to generally accepted methods. Findings. When comparing the biological indices of fish in the Zaporіzhzhia reservoir with the data for the past decade reflected in the normative documents, we found significant changes in the population of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca and gibel carp (Carassius gibelio, which concern the average fish weight, fertility and the relative proportion of females in the spawning stock. Roach (Rutilus rutilus, perch (Perca fluviatilis, and gibel carp are characterized a reduced number of spawning events. The biological indices of bream (Abramis brama, common carp (Cyprinus, pike (Esox lucius and catfish (Silurus glanis populations remain virtually unchanged during the study period. As for biological indices of Black and Caspian Sea sprat, rudd, gobies and crayfish, the information on these species in the relevant regulatory documents is missing, so it is not possible to assess the dynamics of their changes. Due to an inventory of small fishery water bodies we received the information on the biological indicators of major species, which can also be used for updating the normative database. Originality. For the first time we summarized the characteristic of fish fauna in major fishery water bodies of Dnepropetrovsk region and analyzed main indices, which define the conditions of fish stock development and exploitation of aquatic living aquatic resources in fishery water bodies

  1. The ScaLIng Macroweather Model (SLIMM) and monthly and inter annual regional forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, S.; Del Rio Amador, L.; Sloman, L.

    2015-12-01

    By exploiting the sensitive dependence on initial conditions, GCM's can generate a statistical ensemble of future states in which the high frequency "weather" is treated as a driving noise. Following Hasselman, 1976, this has lead to stochastic models that directly generate the noise, and model the low frequencies using systems of integer ordered linear ordinary differential equations, the most well known are the linear inverse models (LIM). These have been presented as a benchmark for decadal surface temperature forecast. Using the LIM, hindcast skills comparable to and sometimes even better than the skill of (coupled) Global Circulation Models (GCM's) from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Nevertheless, the short range exponential temporal decorrelations implicit in the LIM models are unrealistic (the true decorrelations are closer to long range power laws), and - as a consequence - the useful limit to the forecast horizon is roughly one year: it enormously underestimates the memory of the system. In presentation, we make a scaling analogue of the LIM: ScaLIng Macroweather Model (SLIMM) that exploits the power law (scaling) behavior in time of the temperature field and consequently, make use of the long history dependence of the data to improve the skill. The results predicted analytically by the model have been tested by performing actual hindcasts in different 5º x 5º regions on the planet using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis as a reference datasets. As a first step, we removed the anthropogenic component of each time series based on its sensitivity to equivalent CO2 concentration for the last 130 years, the residues are our estimates of the natural variability that SLIMM predicts. This residues were treated as fractional Gaussian noise processes with scaling exponent H between -0.5 and 0. The value of H for each grid-point can be obtained directly from the data. We report maps of theoretical skill predicted by the model and we

  2. State Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...

  3. Monthly Near-Surface Air Temperature Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global surface temperatures in 2010 tied 2005 as the warmest on record. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) was established in 1982 as part...

  4. Role of sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region in the northeast Asia severe drought in summer 2014: month-to-month perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqing; Fan, Ke; Wang, HuiJun

    2017-09-01

    The severe drought over northeast Asia in summer 2014 and the contribution to it by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region were investigated from the month-to-month perspective. The severe drought was accompanied by weak lower-level summer monsoon flow and featured an obvious northward movement during summer. The mid-latitude Asian summer (MAS) pattern and East Asia/Pacific teleconnection (EAP) pattern, induced by the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM) rainfall anomalies respectively, were two main bridges between the SST anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region and the severe drought. Warming in the Arabian Sea induced reduced rainfall over northeast India and then triggered a negative MAS pattern favoring the severe drought in June 2014. In July 2014, warming in the tropical western North Pacific led to a strong WNPSM and increased rainfall over the Philippine Sea, triggering a positive EAP pattern. The equatorial eastern Pacific and local warming resulted in increased rainfall over the off-equatorial western Pacific and triggered an EAP-like pattern. The EAP pattern and EAP-like pattern contributed to the severe drought in July 2014. A negative Indian Ocean dipole induced an anomalous meridional circulation, and warming in the equatorial eastern Pacific induced an anomalous zonal circulation, in August 2014. The two anomalous cells led to a weak ISM and WNPSM, triggering the negative MAS and EAP patterns responsible for the severe drought. Two possible reasons for the northward movement of the drought were also proposed.

  5. Metallurgical source-contribution analysis of PM10 annual average concentration: A dispersion modeling approach in moravian-silesian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jančík

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to present analysis of metallurgical industry contribution to annual average PM10 concentrations in Moravian-Silesian based on means of the air pollution modelling in accord with the Czech reference methodology SYMOS´97.

  6. Monthly Rainfall Erosivity: Conversion Factors for Different Time Resolutions and Regional Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagos, Panos; Borrelli, Pasquale; Spinoni, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    , for the optimization of land management (seasonal variation of vegetation cover and agricultural support practices) as well as natural hazard protection (landslides and flood prediction). We expanded REDES by 140 rainfall stations, thus covering areas where monthly R-factor values were missing (Slovakia, Poland...

  7. Monthly errors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2006 monthly average statistical metrics for 2m Q (g kg-1) domain-wide for the base and MODIS WRF simulations against MADIS observations. This dataset is...

  8. Crown lengthening in the maxillary anterior region: a 6-month prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deas, David E; Mackey, Scott A; Sagun, Ruben S; Hancock, Raymond H; Gruwell, Scott F; Campbell, Casey M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess osseous parameters and stability of maxillary anterior teeth following crown lengthening surgery. Thirty-six patients requiring facial crown lengthening of 277 maxillary anterior and first premolar teeth were included. Presurgical and intraoperative clinical measurements were recorded at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months postsurgery at midfacial, mesiofacial, and distofacial line angles. The data presented here suggest that when crown lengthening anterior maxillary teeth, the distance between the desired gingival margin and alveolar crest is usually insufficient to allow for biologic width. In addition, there is significant tissue rebound that may stabilize by 6 months. Tissue rebound appears related to flap position relative to the alveolar crest at suturing. These findings suggest that clinicians should establish proper anterior crown length with osseous resection.

  9. Monthly Extended Predicting Experiments with Nonlinear Regional Prediction. Part Ⅱ: Improvement of Wave Component Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bomin; JI Liren; YANG Peicai; ZHANG Daomin

    2006-01-01

    Based on Chen et al. (2006), the scheme of the combination of the pentad-mean zonal height departure nonlinear prediction with the T42L9 model prediction was designed, in which the pentad zonal heights at all the 12-initial-value-input isobar levels from 50 hPa to 1000 hPa except 200, 300, 500, and 700 hPa were derived from nonlinear forecasts of the four levels by means of a good correlation between neighboring levels.Then the above pentad zonal heights at 12 isobar-levels were transformed to the spectrum coefficients of the temperature at each integration step of T42L9 model. At last, the nudging was made. On account of a variety of error accumulation, the pentad zonal components of the monthly height at isobar levels output by T42L9 model were replaced by the corresponding nonlinear results once more when integration was over.Multiple case experiments showed that such combination of two kinds of prediction made an improvement in the wave component as a result of wave-flow nonlinear interaction while reducing the systematical forecast errors. Namely the monthly-mean height anomaly correlation coefficients over the high- and mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, over the Southern Hemisphere and over the globe increased respectively from 0.249 to 0.347, from 0.286 to 0.387, and from 0.343 to 0.414 (relative changes of 31.5%, 41.0%, and 18.3%).The monthly-mean root-mean-square error (RMSE) of T42L9 model over the three areas was considerably decreased, the relative change over the globe reached 44.2%. The monthly-mean anomaly correlation coefficients of wave 4-9 over the areas were up to 0.392, 0.200, and 0.295, with the relative change of 53.8%, 94.1%,and 61.2%, and correspondingly their RMSEs were decreased respectively with the rate of 8.5%, 6.3%, and 8.1%. At the same time the monthly-mean pattern of parts of cases were presented better.

  10. Prediction of Monthly Mean Surface Air Temperature in a Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong-Hyeong LEE; Keon-Tae SOHN

    2007-01-01

    In conventional time series analysis, a process is often modeled as three additive components: linear trend, seasonal effect, and random noise. In this paper, we perform an analysis of surface air temperature in a region of China using a decomposition method in time series analysis. Applications to the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) Collaborative Reanalysis data in this region of China are discussed. The main finding was that the surface air temperature trend estimated for January 1948 to February 2006 was not statistically significant at 0.5904℃ (100 yr)-1.Forecasting aspects are also considered.

  11. An exploratory study of spatial annual maximum of monthly precipitation in the northern region of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata Gomes, D.; Neves, M. M.; Moreira, E.

    2016-08-01

    Adequately analyzing and modeling the extreme rainfall events is of great importance because of the effects that their magnitude and frequency can have on human life, agricultural productivity and economic aspects, among others. A single extreme event may affect several locations, and their spatial dependence has to be appropriately taken into account. Classical geostatistics is a well-developed field for dealing with location referenced data, but it is largely based on Gaussian processes and distributions, that are not appropriate for extremes. In this paper, an exploratory study of the annual maximum of monthly precipitation recorded in the northern area of Portugal from 1941 to 2006 at 32 locations is performed. The aim of this paper is to apply max-stable processes, a natural extension of multivariate extremes to the spatial set-up, to briefly describe the models considered and to estimate the required parameters to simulate prediction maps.

  12. Processing and Monthly Summaries of Downscaled Climate Data for Knoxville, Tennessee and Surrounding Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester, Linda M [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Allen, Melissa R [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the City of Knoxville, Tennessee have partnered to work on a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project towards investigating climate change, mitigation, and adaptation measures in mid-sized cities. ORNL has statistically and dynamically downscaled ten Global Climate Models (GCMs) to both 1 km and 4 km resolutions. The processing and summary of those ten gridded datasets for use in a web-based tool is described. The summaries of each model are shown individually to assist in determining the similarities and differences between the model scenarios. The variables of minimum and maximum daily temperature and total monthly precipitation are summarized for the area of Knoxville, Tennessee for the periods of 1980-2005 and 2025-2050.

  13. THE CALCULATION OF THE PROFILE-LINEAR AVERAGE VELOCITY IN THE TRANSITION REGION FOR ULTRASONIC HEAT METER BASED ON THE METHOD OF LES*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-hui; DU Guang-sheng; TAO Li-li; SHEN Fang

    2011-01-01

    The measurement accuracy of an ultrasonic heat meter depends on the relationship of the profile-linear average velocity.There are various methods for the calculation of the laminar and turbulence flow regions, but few methods for the transition region.At present, the traditional method to deal with the transition region is to adopt the relationship for the turbulent flow region. In this article, a simplified model of the pipe is used to study the characteristics of the transition flow with specific Reynolds number. The k-ε model and the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are, respectively, used to calculate the flow field of the transition region,and a comparison with the experiment results shows that the LES model is more effective than the k- ε model, it is also shown that there will be a large error if the relationship based on the turbulence flow is used to calculate the profile-linear average velocity relationship of the transition flow. The profile-linear average velocity for the Reynolds number ranging from 5 300 to 10 000 are calculated, and the relationship curve is obtained. The results of this article can be used to improve the measurement accuracy of ultrasonic heat meter and provide a theoretical basis for the research of the whole transition flow.

  14. The importance of climatic factors and outliers in predicting regional monthly campylobacteriosis risk in Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisent, J; Seaver, W; Odoi, A; Rohrbach, B

    2014-11-01

    Incidence of Campylobacter infection exhibits a strong seasonal component and regional variations in temperate climate zones. Forecasting the risk of infection regionally may provide clues to identify sources of transmission affected by temperature and precipitation. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess temporal patterns and differences in campylobacteriosis risk among nine climatic divisions of Georgia, USA, (2) compare univariate forecasting models that analyze campylobacteriosis risk over time with those that incorporate temperature and/or precipitation, and (3) investigate alternatives to supposedly random walk series and non-random occurrences that could be outliers. Temporal patterns of campylobacteriosis risk in Georgia were visually and statistically assessed. Univariate and multivariable forecasting models were used to predict the risk of campylobacteriosis and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) was used for evaluating training (1999-2007) and holdout (2008) samples. Statistical control charting and rolling holdout periods were investigated to better understand the effect of outliers and improve forecasts. State and division level campylobacteriosis risk exhibited seasonal patterns with peaks occurring between June and August, and there were significant associations between campylobacteriosis risk, precipitation, and temperature. State and combined division forecasts were better than divisions alone, and models that included climate variables were comparable to univariate models. While rolling holdout techniques did not improve predictive ability, control charting identified high-risk time periods that require further investigation. These findings are important in (1) determining how climatic factors affect environmental sources and reservoirs of Campylobacter spp. and (2) identifying regional spikes in the risk of human Campylobacter infection and their underlying causes.

  15. Damping scaling factors for elastic response spectra for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions: "average" horizontal component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Idriss, I.M.; Abrahamson, Norman; Campbell, Kenneth; Silva, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for elastic response spectra are typically developed at a 5% viscous damping ratio. In reality, however, structural and nonstructural systems can have other damping ratios. This paper develops a new model for a damping scaling factor (DSF) that can be used to adjust the 5% damped spectral ordinates predicted by a GMPE for damping ratios between 0.5% to 30%. The model is developed based on empirical data from worldwide shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions. Dependencies of the DSF on potential predictor variables, such as the damping ratio, spectral period, ground motion duration, moment magnitude, source-to-site distance, and site conditions, are examined. The strong influence of duration is captured by the inclusion of both magnitude and distance in the DSF model. Site conditions show weak influence on the DSF. The proposed damping scaling model provides functional forms for the median and logarithmic standard deviation of DSF, and is developed for both RotD50 and GMRotI50 horizontal components. A follow-up paper develops a DSF model for vertical ground motion.

  16. An assessment of the case notification system 16 months after Typhoon Haiyan in Region 8, the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor D' Lyn Gallardo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Philippines Department of Health uses the Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR system to monitor 25 diseases and syndromes that have the potential to cause outbreaks. The focus of this system is to strengthen the capacity of local government units for early detection and response to outbreaks. After Typhoon Haiyan, routine disease surveillance activities were suspended at the Epidemiology and Surveillance Units (ESUs at the city and provincial levels, as well as laboratory services; surveillance resumed as soon as local conditions allowed. Method: We conducted an assessment of PIDSR in March 2015, 16 months post-Haiyan, in Region 8, the most heavily affected region. We used key informant interviews and a review of data from the system to assess the core surveillance and support functions. Results: All ESUs reported they were performing all surveillance core functions, although laboratory confirmation needed to be strengthened at the regional reference laboratory. Access to working communication equipment also needed improvement as did timeliness and completeness of reporting. Discussion: Assessment of surveillance activities, resources and quality should be conducted post-disaster. The strength and operations of the disease surveillance system usually requires support from the local, regional and national governments, especially if there are legal mandates and legislation that includes the system in disaster planning. Regular monitoring of the system is recommended to ensure stability, system development, increased outbreak detection and fewer morbidities and fatalities.

  17. Regional regression equations for the estimation of selected monthly low-flow duration and frequency statistics at ungaged sites on streams in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kara M.; McHugh, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    Regional regression equations were developed for estimating monthly flow-duration and monthly low-flow frequency statistics for ungaged streams in Coastal Plain and non-coastal regions of New Jersey for baseline and current land- and water-use conditions. The equations were developed to estimate 87 different streamflow statistics, which include the monthly 99-, 90-, 85-, 75-, 50-, and 25-percentile flow-durations of the minimum 1-day daily flow; the August–September 99-, 90-, and 75-percentile minimum 1-day daily flow; and the monthly 7-day, 10-year (M7D10Y) low-flow frequency. These 87 streamflow statistics were computed for 41 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (streamgages) with 20 or more years of record and 167 low-flow partial-record stations in New Jersey with 10 or more streamflow measurements. The regression analyses used to develop equations to estimate selected streamflow statistics were performed by testing the relation between flow-duration statistics and low-flow frequency statistics for 32 basin characteristics (physical characteristics, land use, surficial geology, and climate) at the 41 streamgages and 167 low-flow partial-record stations. The regression analyses determined drainage area, soil permeability, average April precipitation, average June precipitation, and percent storage (water bodies and wetlands) were the significant explanatory variables for estimating the selected flow-duration and low-flow frequency statistics. Streamflow estimates were computed for two land- and water-use conditions in New Jersey—land- and water-use during the baseline period of record (defined as the years a streamgage had little to no change in development and water use) and current land- and water-use conditions (1989–2008)—for each selected station using data collected through water year 2008. The baseline period of record is representative of a period when the basin was unaffected by change in development. The current period is

  18. Population average T2 MRI maps reveal quantitative regional transformations in the degenerating rabbit intervertebral disc that vary by lumbar level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John T; Collins, Christopher M; Ikuta, Kensuke; Mauck, Robert L; Elliott, Dawn M; Zhang, Yeija; Anderson, D Greg; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Albert, Todd J; Arlet, Vincent; Smith, Harvey E

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with T2-weighting is routinely performed to assess intervertebral disc degeneration. Standard clinical evaluations of MR images are qualitative, however, and do not focus on region-specific alterations in the disc. Utilizing a rabbit needle puncture model, T2 mapping was performed on injured discs to develop a quantitative description of the degenerative process following puncture. To do so, an 18G needle was inserted into four discs per rabbit (L3/L4 to L6/L7) and T2 maps were generated pre- and 4 weeks post-injury. Individual T2 maps were normalized to a disc-specific coordinate system and then averaged for pre- and post-injury population composite T2 maps. We also developed a method to automatically segment the nucleus pulposus by fitting the NP region of the T2 maps with modified 2-D and 3-D Gaussian distribution functions. Puncture injury produced alterations in MR signal intensity in a region-specific manner mirroring human degeneration. Population average T2 maps provided a quantitative representation of the injury response, and identified deviations of individual degenerate discs from the pre-injury population. We found that the response to standardized injury was modest at lower lumbar levels, likely as a result of increased disc dimensions. These tools will be valuable for the quantitative characterization of disc degeneration in future clinical and pre-clinical studies. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Bayes统计模型在出山月均径流极小值研究中的应用%A Bayesian Analysis of Monthly Average Runoff Minima in Mountain Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘友存; 霍雪丽; 郝永红; 崔玉环; 韩添丁; 沈永平; 王建

    2015-01-01

    Global warming has intensified hydrological extreme events and resulted in disasters around the world. For disaster management and adaption of extreme events,it is essential to improve the accuracy of extreme value statistical models. In this study,Bayes’Theorem is introduced to estimate parameters in the Generalized Pareto Distribution( GPD)model which is applied to simulate the distribution of monthly average runoff minima during dry periods in mountain areas of Ürümqi River. Bayes’Theorem treats parameters as random variables and provides machinery way to convert the prior distribution of parameters into a posterior distribution. Statistical inferences based on posterior distribution can provide a more comprehensive representation of the parameters. An improved Markov Chain Monte Carlo( MCMC)method,which can solve high-dimensional integral computation in the Bayes equation,is used to generate parameter simulations from the posterior distribution. Model diagnosis plots are made to guarantee the fitted GPD model is appropriate. Then based on the GPD model with Bayesian parameter esti-mates,monthly average minima corresponding to different return periods can be calculated. The results show that the improved MCMC method is able to make Markov chains converge at a high speed. Compared with the GPD model based on maximum likelihood parameter estimates,the GPD model based on Bayesian parameter estimates obtain more accurate estimations of minimum monthly average runoff. Moreover,the monthly average runoff minima in dry periods corresponding to 10 a,25 a,50 a and 100 a return periods are 0. 60 m3/s,0. 44 m3/s,0. 32 m3/s and 0. 20 m3/s respectively. The lower boundary of 95% confidence interval of 100a return level is -0. 238 m3/s,which implies that Ürümqi River is likely to cease when 100 a return level occurs in dry periods.%数理统计方法在解决全球气候变化引起的洪水、干旱等极端水文事件中获得了越来越广泛的

  20. Satellite Sampling and Retrieval Errors in Regional Monthly Rain Estimates from TMI AMSR-E, SSM/I, AMSU-B and the TRMM PR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Brad; Wolff, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Passive and active microwave rain sensors onboard earth-orbiting satellites estimate monthly rainfall from the instantaneous rain statistics collected during satellite overpasses. It is well known that climate-scale rain estimates from meteorological satellites incur sampling errors resulting from the process of discrete temporal sampling and statistical averaging. Sampling and retrieval errors ultimately become entangled in the estimation of the mean monthly rain rate. The sampling component of the error budget effectively introduces statistical noise into climate-scale rain estimates that obscure the error component associated with the instantaneous rain retrieval. Estimating the accuracy of the retrievals on monthly scales therefore necessitates a decomposition of the total error budget into sampling and retrieval error quantities. This paper presents results from a statistical evaluation of the sampling and retrieval errors for five different space-borne rain sensors on board nine orbiting satellites. Using an error decomposition methodology developed by one of the authors, sampling and retrieval errors were estimated at 0.25 resolution within 150 km of ground-based weather radars located at Kwajalein, Marshall Islands and Melbourne, Florida. Error and bias statistics were calculated according to the land, ocean and coast classifications of the surface terrain mask developed for the Goddard Profiling (GPROF) rain algorithm. Variations in the comparative error statistics are attributed to various factors related to differences in the swath geometry of each rain sensor, the orbital and instrument characteristics of the satellite and the regional climatology. The most significant result from this study found that each of the satellites incurred negative longterm oceanic retrieval biases of 10 to 30%.

  1. An ensemble average method to estimate absolute TEC using radio beacon-based differential phase measurements: Applicability to regions of large latitudinal gradients in plasma density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, Smitha V.; Bagiya, Mala S.; Chakrabarty, D.; Acharya, Y. B.; Yamamoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    A GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) system for total electron content (TEC) measurements using 150 and 400 MHz transmissions from Low-Earth Orbiting Satellites (LEOS) is fabricated in house and made operational at Ahmedabad (23.04°N, 72.54°E geographic, dip latitude 17°N) since May 2013. This system receives the 150 and 400 MHz transmissions from high-inclination LEOS. The first few days of observations are presented in this work to bring out the efficacy of an ensemble average method to convert the relative TECs to absolute TECs. This method is a modified version of the differential Doppler-based method proposed by de Mendonca (1962) and suitable even for ionospheric regions with large spatial gradients. Comparison of TECs derived from a collocated GPS receiver shows that the absolute TECs estimated by this method are reliable estimates over regions with large spatial gradient. This method is useful even when only one receiving station is available. The differences between these observations are discussed to bring out the importance of the spatial differences between the ionospheric pierce points of these satellites. A few examples of the latitudinal variation of TEC during different local times using GRBR measurements are also presented, which demonstrates the potential of radio beacon measurements in capturing the large-scale plasma transport processes in the low-latitude ionosphere.

  2. Theory of dielectric relaxation in non-crystalline solids: from a set of micromotions to the averaged collective motion in the mesoscale region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigmatullin, R.R. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Kazan State University, Kremlevskaya str., 18, Kazan, 420008, Tatarstan (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: nigmat@knet.ru

    2005-04-15

    Based on the rather general decoupling procedure that reduces a set of micromotions to the averaged collective motion in the mesoscale region, a consistent and general theory of dielectric relaxation describing a wide set of dielectric spectroscopy (DS) data measured in a certain frequency/temperature range can be developed. The new theory explains and generalizes the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation and leads to the new type of kinetic equation, containing non-integer operators of differentiation and integration combined in the specific triads. Each triad combines three operators: the first non-integer operator has a real exponent, the other two form a pair of non-integer operators having the complex conjugate power-law exponents. This approach explains naturally the 'universal response' (UR) phenomenon discovered by Jonscher in a wide class of heterogeneous materials and confirms the justified data-curve fitting approach developed previously as a phenomenological tool for the analysis of raw complex permittivity data. It explains and generalizes some well-established experimental facts and contains also new predictions that can be verified in the experiment. This general approach helps to find the proper place for the DS as a science studying the different types of the 'reduced' collective motions and their various interactions with each other in the mesoscale region. This new theory explains also the fact why kinetic equations containing non-integer operators are realized in reality. They are necessary for description of slow collective motions which are probably realized in the intermediate range of scales not only in DS. Reology and mechanical relaxation represent also interesting and not well-understood phenomena, where the 'fractional' kinetics will find its proper place.

  3. Theory of dielectric relaxation in non-crystalline solids: from a set of micromotions to the averaged collective motion in the mesoscale region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatullin, R. R.

    2005-04-01

    Based on the rather general decoupling procedure that reduces a set of micromotions to the averaged collective motion in the mesoscale region, a consistent and general theory of dielectric relaxation describing a wide set of dielectric spectroscopy (DS) data measured in a certain frequency/temperature range can be developed. The new theory explains and generalizes the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation and leads to the new type of kinetic equation, containing non-integer operators of differentiation and integration combined in the specific triads. Each triad combines three operators: the first non-integer operator has a real exponent, the other two form a pair of non-integer operators having the complex conjugate power-law exponents. This approach explains naturally the ‘universal response’ (UR) phenomenon discovered by Jonscher in a wide class of heterogeneous materials and confirms the justified data-curve fitting approach developed previously as a phenomenological tool for the analysis of raw complex permittivity data. It explains and generalizes some well-established experimental facts and contains also new predictions that can be verified in the experiment. This general approach helps to find the proper place for the DS as a science studying the different types of the ‘reduced’ collective motions and their various interactions with each other in the mesoscale region. This new theory explains also the fact why kinetic equations containing non-integer operators are realized in reality. They are necessary for description of slow collective motions which are probably realized in the intermediate range of scales not only in DS. Reology and mechanical relaxation represent also interesting and not well-understood phenomena, where the ‘fractional’ kinetics will find its proper place.

  4. Regional and monthly and clear-sky aerosol direct radiative effect (and forcing derived from the GlobAEROSOL-AATSR satellite aerosol product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the GlobAEROSOL-AATSR dataset, estimates of the instantaneous, clear-sky, direct aerosol radiative effect and radiative forcing have been produced for the year 2006. Aerosol Robotic Network sun-photometer measurements have been used to characterise the random and systematic error in the GlobAEROSOL product for 22 regions covering the globe. Representative aerosol properties for each region were derived from the results of a wide range of literature sources and, along with the de-biased GlobAEROSOL AODs, were used to drive an offline version of the Met Office unified model radiation scheme. In addition to the mean AOD, best-estimate run of the radiation scheme, a range of additional calculations were done to propagate uncertainty estimates in the AOD, optical properties, surface albedo and errors due to the temporal and spatial averaging of the AOD fields. This analysis produced monthly, regional estimates of the clear-sky aerosol radiative effect and its uncertainty, which were combined to produce annual, global mean values of (−6.7 ± 3.9 W m−2 at the top of atmosphere (TOA and (−12 ± 6 W m−2 at the surface. These results were then used to give estimates of regional, clear-sky aerosol direct radiative forcing, using modelled pre-industrial AOD fields for the year 1750 calculated for the AEROCOM PRE experiment. However, as it was not possible to quantify the uncertainty in the pre-industrial aerosol loading, these figures can only be taken as indicative and their uncertainties as lower bounds on the likely errors. Although the uncertainty on aerosol radiative effect presented here is considerably larger than most previous estimates, the explicit inclusion of the major sources of error in the calculations suggest that they are closer to the true constraint on this figure from similar methodologies, and point to the need for more, improved estimates of both global aerosol loading and aerosol optical properties.

  5. Regional and monthly and clear-sky aerosol direct radiative effect (and forcing derived from the GlobAEROSOL-AATSR satellite aerosol product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the GlobAEROSOL-AATSR dataset, estimates of the instantaneous, clear-sky, direct aerosol radiative effect and radiative forcing have been produced for the year 2006. Aerosol Robotic Network sun-photometer measurements have been used to characterise the random and systematic error in the GlobAEROSOL product for 22 regions covering the globe. Representative aerosol properties for each region have been derived from the results of a wide range of literature sources and, along with the de-biased GlobAEROSOL AODs, were used to drive an offline version of the Met Office unified model radiation scheme. In addition to the mean AOD, best-estimate run of the radiation scheme, a range of additional calculations were done to propagate uncertainty estimates in the AOD, optical properties, surface albedo and errors due to the temporal and spatial averaging of the AOD fields. This analysis produced monthly, regional estimates of the clear-sky aerosol radiative effect and its uncertainty, which produce annual, global mean values of (−6.7 ± 3.9 W m−2 at the top of atmosphere (TOA and (−12 ± 6 W m−2 at the surface. These results were then used to produce estimates of regional, clear-sky aerosol direct radiative forcing, using modelled pre-industrial AOD fields for 1750 calculated for the AEROCOM PRE experiment. However, as it was not possible to quantify the uncertainty in the pre-industrial aerosol loading, these figures can only be taken as indicative and their uncertainties as lower bounds on the likely errors. Although the uncertainty on aerosol radiative effect presented here is considerably larger than most previous estimates, the explicit inclusion of the major sources of error in the calculations suggest that they are closer to the true constraint on this figure from similar methodologies, and point to the need for more, improved estimates of both global aerosol loading and aerosol optical properties.

  6. 鄱阳湖干旱多尺度特征及其与月均水位的相关性%Multi-scale characteristics of drought of Poyang Lake and its association to monthly average water level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启旺; 张吉; 周涛

    2016-01-01

    以鄱阳湖13个气象站1957~2013年的逐月降水量、平均气温、各站点纬度和同期水位站逐月平均水位为实验数据,分别计算1、3、6、12、24、48个月尺度下标准降水指数( SPI)和标准降水蒸散指数( SPEI)时间序列,并利用Morlet小波分析理论,分析了该序列多时间尺度变化特征。基于Mann-Kendall检验,分析了鄱阳湖气象干旱趋势特征;利用Spearman秩相关系数,研究了不同时间尺度SPI和SPEI序列与月平均水位的相关关系。研究表明,鄱阳湖流域SPI和SPEI序列存在约68个月变化的主周期,两个主要特征时间尺度变化的强分布;气象干旱与湖水位的相关关系随时间尺度的增大而减弱。%The different 1-month, 3-month, 6-month, 12-month, 24-month and 48-month standardized precipitation index ( SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index ( SPEI) time series are calculated based on the monthly precipitation, mean temperature and respective latitudes of 13 meteorological gauging stations from 1957 to 2013 and the simulta-neous monthly mean water level data in Poyang lake;the multi-scale features for these two time series are analyzed based on the wavelet theory with the Morlet function. The trend of meteorological drought of Poyang Lake is tested by the Mann -Kendall method. The correlation between the different scales of SPI and SPEI time series and the mean monthly water level is analyzed by Spearman coefficient. The results show that the SPI and SPEI time series have a cycle of 68-month period and two strong distri-butions with varied temporal scale. The relationship of meteorological drought of Poyang Lake and the water level decreases with the increase of time scale.

  7. Representing regional P/S discriminants for event indentification: a comparison of distance corrections, path parameter regressions, cap-averaging and kriging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, S C; Rodgers, A J; Schultz, C A; Walter, W R

    1998-06-18

    Short-period regional P/S amplitude ratios hold much promise for discriminating low magnitude explosions from earthquakes in a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty monitoring context. However, propagation effects lead to variability in regional phase amplitudes that if not accounted for can reduce or eliminate the ability of P/S ratios to discriminate the seismic source. lo this study, several representations of short-period regional P/S amplitude ratios are compared in order to determine which methodology best accounts for the effect of heterogeneous structure on P/S amplitudes. These methodologies are: I) distance corrections, including azimuthal subdivision of the data; 2) path specific crustal waveguide parameter regressions; 3) cap-averaging (running mean smoothing); and 4) kriging. The "predictability" of each method is established by cross-validation (leave-one-out) analysis. We apply these techniques to represent Pn/Lg, Pg/Lg and Pn/Sn observations in three frequency bands (0.75-6.0 Hz) at station ABKT (Alibek, Turkmenistan), site of a primary seismic station of the It~temational Monitoring System (IMS). Paths to ABKT sample diverse crustal stmctores (e.g. various topographic, sedimentary and geologic structures), leading to great variability in the observed P/S amplitude ratios. Subdivision of the data be back-azimuth leads to stronger distance trends than that for the entire data set. This observation alone indicates that path propagation effects due to laterally varying shucture are important for the P/S ratios recorded at ABKT. For these data to be useful for isolating source characteristics, the scatter needs to be reduced by accounting for the path effects and the resulting P/S ratio distribution needs to Gaussian for spatial interpolation and discrimination strategies to be most effective. Each method reduces the scatter of the P/S ratios with varying degrees of success, however kriging has the distinct advantages of providing the greatest variance

  8. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  9. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  10. Occurrence of 102 cases of paracoccidioidomycosis in 18 months in the Itaipu Lake region, Western Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alexandre Loth

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The study investigated the incidence of disease and death events among patients with paracoccidioidomycosis who were residents in the Itaipu Lake region from 2008 to 2009. METHODS: A review of patient records was conducted at the Department of Tuberculosis of the Epidemiology Center of the City of Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná. RESULTS: The results identified 102 new cases of paracoccidioidomycosis in the period described, 72 men and 30 women, and 15 deaths were recorded during the study. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the Itaipu Lake region is an endemic region.

  11. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  12. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  13. Environmental surveillance monitoring in the Alligator Rivers Region. Report for the six months period ending 30 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report outlines the activities of the Northern Territory Supervising Authorities in meeting their responsibilities for environmental management and surveillance, occupational safety, relating to uranium mining and environment protection in the Alligator Rivers Region. Environmental monitoring was carried out at the Nabarlek Mine, which site has now been rehabilitated and revegetated, and at Ranger, the only mine currently operating in the region. Other uranium projects such as Jabiluka and Koongarra have been delayed due to the former Commonwealth Government`s `three mines policy`. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  14. Annual and average estimates of water-budget components based on hydrograph separation and PRISM precipitation for gaged basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, David L.; Messinger, Terence; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2015-07-14

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, annual and average estimates of water-budget components based on hydrograph separation and precipitation data from parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) were determined at 849 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations from Mississippi to New York and covered the period of 1900 to 2011. Only complete calendar years (January to December) of streamflow record at each gage were used to determine estimates of base flow, which is that part of streamflow attributed to groundwater discharge; such estimates can serve as a proxy for annual recharge. For each year, estimates of annual base flow, runoff, and base-flow index were determined using computer programs—PART, HYSEP, and BFI—that have automated the separation procedures. These streamflow-hydrograph analysis methods are provided with version 1.0 of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Toolbox, which is a new program that provides graphing, mapping, and analysis capabilities in a Windows environment. Annual values of precipitation were estimated by calculating the average of cell values intercepted by basin boundaries where previously defined in the GAGES–II dataset. Estimates of annual evapotranspiration were then calculated from the difference between precipitation and streamflow.

  15. Assessment of compliance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine 18 months after phasing out chloroquine in Mkuranga District, Coast region-Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen ED Nsimba; Phare G Mujinja

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To observe and assess the compliance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) one and a half years after phasing out chloroquine (CQ) in Mkuranga District, Coast region, Tanzania. Methods:A randomly controlled baseline community study was conducted in rural areas of Mkuranga district, Tanzania. Semi-structured questionnaire consisted of open-and closed-ended questions including home stocking, home use, last fever episodes and treatment of underfives with malaria using CQ or SP. Results:The prevalence of fever or reported fever rate during the last 48 hours by their mothers or guardians was high (70%). Of all 117 blood samples, only 8 children after drug analysis were found to have CQ and 13 had SP concentrations within their blood respectively. None of these blood drug levels were above therapeutic ranges. Conclusions:Community interventions are urgently needed in rural communities and should specifically target households nucleus on early malaria fever recognition and provision of recommended antimalarials for the sick underfive children. However, sadly, there was an increase in underweight and undernourishment in the study areas, probably because of malaria in the area and poverty which are associated with poor nutrition in these youngsters.

  16. The effect of ambient air temperature and precipitation on monthly counts of salmonellosis in four regions of Kazakhstan, Central Asia, in 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grjibovski, A M; Kosbayeva, A; Menne, B

    2014-03-01

    We studied associations between monthly counts of laboratory-confirmed cases of salmonellosis, ambient air temperature and precipitation in four settings in Kazakhstan. We observed a linear association between the number of cases of salmonellosis and mean monthly temperature during the same months only in Astana: an increase of 1°C was associated with a 5·5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·2-8·8] increase in the number of cases. A similar association, although not reaching the level of significance was observed in the Southern Kazakhstan region (3·5%, 95% CI -2·1 to 9·1). Positive association with precipitation with lag 2 was found in Astana: an increase of 1 mm was associated with a 0·5% (95% CI 0·1-1·0) increase in the number of cases. A similar association, but with lag 0 was observed in Southern Kazakhstan region (0·6%, 95% CI 0·1-1·1). The results may have implications for the future patterns of salmonellosis in Kazakhstan with regard to climate change.

  17. Averaged Electroencephalic Audiometry in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, William E.; McCandless, Geary A.

    1971-01-01

    Normal, preterm, and high-risk infants were tested at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of age using averaged electroencephalic audiometry (AEA) to determine the usefulness of AEA as a measurement technique for assessing auditory acuity in infants, and to delineate some of the procedural and technical problems often encountered. (KW)

  18. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  19. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  20. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  1. A COMPARISON OF WINTER SHORT-TERM AND ANNUAL AVERAGE RADON MEASUREMENTS IN BASEMENTS OF A RADON-PRONE REGION AND EVALUATION OF FURTHER RADON TESTING INDICATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nirmalla G.; Steck, Daniel J.; Field, R. William

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the temporal variability between basement winter short-term (7 to 10 days) and basement annual radon measurements. Other objectives were to test the short-term measurement’s diagnostic performance at two reference levels and to evaluate its ability to predict annual average basement radon concentrations. Electret ion chamber (short-term) and alpha track (annual) radon measurements were obtained by trained personnel in Iowa residences. Overall, the geometric mean of the short-term radon concentrations (199 Bq m−3) was slightly greater than the geometric mean of the annual radon concentrations (181 Bq m−3). Short-term tests incorrectly predicted that the basement annual radon concentrations would be below 148 Bq m−3 12% of the time and 2% of the time at 74 Bq m−3. The short-term and annual radon concentrations were strongly correlated (r=0.87, pradon potential when the reference level is lowered to 74 Bq m−3. PMID:24670901

  2. 2002 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  3. 2003 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  4. 1996 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  5. 2000 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  6. Automatic reconstruction of 3D urban landscape by computing connected regions and assigning them an average altitude from LiDAR point cloud image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Kohei

    2014-10-01

    The demand of 3D city modeling has been increasing in many applications such as urban planing, computer gaming with realistic city environment, car navigation system with showing 3D city map, virtual city tourism inviting future visitors to a virtual city walkthrough and others. We proposed a simple method for reconstructing a 3D urban landscape from airborne LiDAR point cloud data. The automatic reconstruction method of a 3D urban landscape was implemented by the integration of all connected regions, which were extracted and extruded from the altitude mask images. These mask images were generated from the gray scale LiDAR image by the altitude threshold ranges. In this study we demonstrated successfully in the case of Kanazawa city center scene by applying the proposed method to the airborne LiDAR point cloud data.

  7. Electric Power Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-12

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost in fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 12 refs., 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  8. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. C. Venema

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  9. Global solar irradiation in Italy during 1994 : monthly average daily values for 1614 sites estimated from Meteosat images; Radiazione solare globale al suolo in Italia nel 1994 : valori medi mensili per 1.614 localita` italiane stimate a partire dalle immagini fornite dal satellite Meteosat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliani, E.; Mancini, M.; Petrarca, S.; Spinelli, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-10-01

    The global solar radiation over Italy is estimated from Meteosat secondary images in the visible band. The stimation method relies on the fact that the cloud cover on a given area of the Earth`s surface statistically determines the amount of solar radiation falling on that area. Estimated values of the monthly average daily global radiation on a horizontal surface for the 1994 have been compared with values computed from data measured by the stations of the two Italian radiation networks: the Meteorological Service of the Italian Air Force and the National Agrometeorological Network (a total of 36 stations have been considered). The mean percentage difference between estimated and computed values over the year is 6 per cent. In the present report, the monthly maps of radiation over Italy and the estimated monthly average daily values for over 1600 sites (having more than 10,000 inhabitants) are given. In the yearly reports to be issued in the years to come, maps and mean values over the period starting with 1994 will be given as well.

  10. Exploiting an ensemble of regional climate models to provide robust estimates of projected changes in monthly temperature and precipitation probability distribution functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapiador, Francisco J.; Sanchez, Enrique; Romera, Raquel (Inst. of Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), 45071 Toledo (Spain)). e-mail: francisco.tapiador@uclm.es

    2009-07-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) are dynamical downscaling tools aimed to improve the modelling of local physical processes. Ensembles of RCMs are widely used to improve the coarse-grain estimates of global climate models (GCMs) since the use of several RCMs helps to palliate uncertainties arising from different dynamical cores and numerical schemes methods. In this paper, we analyse the differences and similarities in the climate change response for an ensemble of heterogeneous RCMs forced by one GCM (HadAM3H), and one emissions scenario (IPCC's SRES-A2 scenario). As a difference with previous approaches using PRUDENCE database, the statistical description of climate characteristics is made through the spatial and temporal aggregation of the RCMs outputs into probability distribution functions (PDF) of monthly values. This procedure is a complementary approach to conventional seasonal analyses. Our results provide new, stronger evidence on expected marked regional differences in Europe in the A2 scenario in terms of precipitation and temperature changes. While we found an overall increase in the mean temperature and extreme values, we also found mixed regional differences for precipitation

  11. Oceanographic Monthly Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Monthly Summary contains sea surface temperature (SST) analyses on both regional and ocean basin scales for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans....

  12. A 4-D Climatology (1979-2009) of the Monthly Tropospheric Aerosol Optical Depth Distribution over the Mediterranean Region from a Comparative Evaluation and Blending of Remote Sensing and Model Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabat, P.; Somot, S.; Mallet, M.; Chiapello, I; Morcrette, J. J.; Solomon, F.; Szopa, S.; Dulac, F; Collins, W.; Ghan, S.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lamarque, J. F.; Lee, Y. H.; Naik, V.; Nagashima, T.; Shindell, D.; Skeie, R.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s several spaceborne sensors have been used to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Mediterranean region. In parallel, AOD climatologies coming from different numerical model simulations are now also available, permitting to distinguish the contribution of several aerosol types to the total AOD. In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of this unique multiyear database in terms of total AOD and of its apportionment by the five main aerosol types (soil dust, seasalt, sulfate, black and organic carbon). We use 9 different satellite-derived monthly AOD products: NOAA/AVHRR, SeaWiFS (2 products), TERRA/MISR, TERRA/MODIS, AQUA/MODIS, ENVISAT/MERIS, PARASOL/POLDER and MSG/SEVIRI, as well as 3 more historical datasets: NIMBUS7/CZCS, TOMS (onboard NIMBUS7 and Earth- Probe) and METEOSAT/MVIRI. Monthly model datasets include the aerosol climatology from Tegen et al. (1997), the climate-chemistry models LMDz-OR-INCA and RegCM-4, the multi-model mean coming from the ACCMIP exercise, and the reanalyses GEMS and MACC. Ground-based Level- 2 AERONET AOD observations from 47 stations around the basin are used here to evaluate the model and satellite data. The sensor MODIS (on AQUA and TERRA) has the best average AOD scores over this region, showing a relevant spatio-temporal variability and highlighting high dust loads over Northern Africa and the sea (spring and summer), and sulfate aerosols over continental Europe (summer). The comparison also shows limitations of certain datasets (especially MERIS and SeaWiFS standard products). Models reproduce the main patterns of the AOD variability over the basin. The MACC reanalysis is the closest to AERONET data, but appears to underestimate dust over Northern Africa, where RegCM-4 is found closer to MODIS thanks to its interactive scheme for dust emissions. The vertical dimension is also investigated using the CALIOP instrument. This study confirms differences of vertical distribution between dust

  13. A 4-D climatology (1979–2009 of the monthly aerosol optical depth distribution over the Mediterranean region from a comparative evaluation and blending of remote sensing and model products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nabat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s several spaceborne sensors have been used to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD over the Mediterranean region. In parallel, AOD climatologies coming from different numerical model simulations are now also available, permitting to distinguish the contribution of several aerosol types to the total AOD. In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of this unique multi-year database in terms of total AOD and of its apportionment by the five main aerosol types (soil dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black and organic carbon. We use 8 different satellite-derived monthly AOD products: NOAA/AVHRR, SeaWiFS, TERRA/MISR, TERRA/MODIS, AQUA/MODIS, ENVISAT/MERIS, PARASOL/POLDER and MSG/SEVIRI, as well as 3 more historical data sets: NIMBUS7/CZCS, NIMBUS7/TOMS and METEOSAT/MVIRI. Monthly model datasets include the aerosol climatology from Tegen et al. (1997, the climate-chemistry models LMDz-OR-INCA and RegCM-4, and the reanalyses GEMS and MACC. Ground-based Level-2 AERONET AOD observations from 47 stations around the basin are used here to evaluate the model and satellite data. The sensor MODIS (on AQUA and TERRA has the best average AOD scores over this region, showing a relevant spatio-temporal variability and highlighting high dust loads over Northern Africa and the sea (spring and summer, and sulfate aerosols over continental Europe (summer. The comparison also shows limitations of certain data sets (especially MERIS and SeaWiFS standard products. Models reproduce the main patterns of the AOD variability over the basin. The MACC reanalysis is the closest to AERONET data but appears to underestimate dust over Northern Africa, where RegCM-4 is found closer to MODIS thanks to its interactive scheme for dust emissions. The vertical dimension is also investigated using the CALIOP instrument. This study confirms differences between dust aerosols which can be lifted up to 5000 m, and other continental and marine aerosols which are confined in the

  14. A 4-D climatology (1979–2009 of the monthly tropospheric aerosol optical depth distribution over the Mediterranean region from a comparative evaluation and blending of remote sensing and model products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nabat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s several spaceborne sensors have been used to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD over the Mediterranean region. In parallel, AOD climatologies coming from different numerical model simulations are now also available, permitting to distinguish the contribution of several aerosol types to the total AOD. In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of this unique multi-year database in terms of total AOD and of its apportionment by the five main aerosol types (soil dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black and organic carbon. We use 9 different satellite-derived monthly AOD products: NOAA/AVHRR, SeaWiFS (2 products, TERRA/MISR, TERRA/MODIS, AQUA/MODIS, ENVISAT/MERIS, PARASOL/POLDER and MSG/SEVIRI, as well as 3 more historical datasets: NIMBUS7/CZCS, TOMS (onboard NIMBUS7 and Earth-Probe and METEOSAT/MVIRI. Monthly model datasets include the aerosol climatology from Tegen et al. (1997, the climate-chemistry models LMDz-OR-INCA and RegCM-4, the multi-model mean coming from the ACCMIP exercise, and the reanalyses GEMS and MACC. Ground-based Level-2 AERONET AOD observations from 47 stations around the basin are used here to evaluate the model and satellite data. The sensor MODIS (on AQUA and TERRA has the best average AOD scores over this region, showing a relevant spatio-temporal variability and highlighting high dust loads over Northern Africa and the sea (spring and summer, and sulfate aerosols over continental Europe (summer. The comparison also shows limitations of certain datasets (especially MERIS and SeaWiFS standard products. Models reproduce the main patterns of the AOD variability over the basin. The MACC reanalysis is the closest to AERONET data, but appears to underestimate dust over Northern Africa, where RegCM-4 is found closer to MODIS thanks to its interactive scheme for dust emissions. The vertical dimension is also investigated using the CALIOP instrument. This study confirms differences of vertical distribution between

  15. Electric Power Monthly, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-13

    The EPM is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 40 tabs.

  16. Geomagnetic effects on the average surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballatore, P.

    Several results have previously shown as the solar activity can be related to the cloudiness and the surface solar radiation intensity (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 59, 1225, 1997; Veretenenkoand Pudovkin, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 61, 521, 1999). Here, the possible relationships between the averaged surface temperature and the solar wind parameters or geomagnetic activity indices are investigated. The temperature data used are the monthly SST maps (generated at RAL and available from the related ESRIN/ESA database) that represent the averaged surface temperature with a spatial resolution of 0.5°x0.5° and cover the entire globe. The interplanetary data and the geomagnetic data are from the USA National Space Science Data Center. The time interval considered is 1995-2000. Specifically, possible associations and/or correlations of the average temperature with the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component and with the Kp index are considered and differentiated taking into account separate geographic and geomagnetic planetary regions.

  17. Electric power monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels. Data on quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels lag data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the US, Census division, and State level tables. However, for purposes of comparison, plant-level data are presented for the earlier month.

  18. Aggregation and Averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Irving H.

    The arithmetic processes of aggregation and averaging are basic to quantitative investigations of employment, unemployment, and related concepts. In explaining these concepts, this report stresses need for accuracy and consistency in measurements, and describes tools for analyzing alternative measures. (BH)

  19. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  20. Your Average Nigga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Vershawn Ashanti

    2004-01-01

    "Your Average Nigga" contends that just as exaggerating the differences between black and white language leaves some black speakers, especially those from the ghetto, at an impasse, so exaggerating and reifying the differences between the races leaves blacks in the impossible position of either having to try to be white or forever struggling to…

  1. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

  2. Covariant approximation averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shintani, Eigo; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

  3. Electric power monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-20

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  4. Electric power monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EMP) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  5. Electric power monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-26

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  6. Electric power monthly, March 1998 with data for December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 63 tabs.

  7. 新疆岩石.岩屑.水系沉积物元素背景平均值%AVERAGE BACKGROUND VALUES OF ELEMENTS IN ROCKS, DEBRIS AND STREAM SEDIMENTS OF XINJIANG REGION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜佩轩; 田素荣

    2001-01-01

    This paper has expounded and proved the necessity and importanceof the investigation into element abundances and composition of the crustal surficial materials and, based on strict statistical analysis and calculation of the high-precision data provided by regional geochemical exploration, presented average background values of 39 sorts of elements in rocks, debris and stream sediments in Xinjiang region and its first-order tectonic units.%论证了中国丰度及地壳表层物质成分研究的必要性和重要性,利用区域地球化学勘查所提供的高精度分析数据,经严格统计计算,发表新疆地区及其一级构造单元表层岩石、岩屑、水系沉积物的39种元素背景平均值。

  8. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  9. Model for forecasting of monthly average insulation at ground level taking into account the radiation absorption losses crossing atmosphere in the thermal solar applications; Modelo de previsao da insolacao media mensal ao nivel do solo levando em conta a perda por absorcao na atmosfera em aplicacoes solares termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, J.C.; Apolinario, F.R.; Silva, E.P. da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Hidrogenio]. E-mails: joaoc@fem.unicamp.br; rezende@ifi.unicamp.br; lh2ennio@ifi.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    The use of the solar energy, for thermal or photovoltaic ends, depends basically on the amount of radiation that reaches the ground in the place where desires to carry through this use, defining the necessary area of the collectors, or panels, that in turn are the main components of the final cost of the system and, therefore, of the viability or not on its use. The incident radiation in the terrestrial surface is minor that one reaches the top of the atmosphere due to the absorption and dispersion factors. The objective of this work is to present a model of forecast the monthly average radiation for ends of use in systems of flat solar collectors for heating water, in the city of Campinas - Sao Paulo, Brazil. This work has been developed by the Hydrogen Laboratory of the Institute of Physics of the UNICAMP, being also used for other applications with solar energy. Based in the radiation data, taken from a local station, a theoretical study was developed to calculate a parameter of loss of radiation when this cross the atmosphere. This Kt loss factor, has basic importance for the knowledge of the effective available energy for use. With this data it is possible to determine, on the basis of the incident radiation in the top of the atmosphere, the value of the radiation on a surface. (author)

  10. Determinants of Acute Malnutrition among Children Aged 6–59 Months in Public Health Facilities of Pastoralist Community, Afar Region, Northeast Ethiopia: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Seid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In low income countries, acute malnutrition continues to be the most important risk factor for illnesses and deaths. The aim of this study was to assess the determinants of acute malnutrition among children aged 6–59 months. Methods. A facility based unmatched case control study was employed on 420 (140 cases and 280 controls children aged 6–59 months with their caregivers between January 20 and February 20, 2014. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Children aged 12–23 months [AOR = 10.51, 95% CI = 4.93, 22.34], rural residence [AOR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.22, 4.79], illiterate father [AOR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.32, 4.61], Monthly income of less than 1000 birr [AOR = 3.98, 95% CI 2.05, 7.69], and food served together with family [AOR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.10, 4.30] were associated with acute malnutrition. Conclusion. Rural residence, illiterate father, monthly income of less than 1000 birr, and food served together with family are statistically associated with acute malnutrition. Improving practices of parents on appropriate child feeding and creating awareness related to key risk factors of acute malnutrition should be further strengthened.

  11. Sea Surface Temperature Average_SST_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature collected via satellite imagery from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.noaa.ersst.html and averaged for each region using ArcGIS...

  12. Record keeping, genetic selection, educational experience and farm management effects on average milk yield per cow, milk fat percentage, bacterial score and bulk tank somatic cell count of dairy farms in the Central region of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhone, J A; Koonawootrittriron, S; Elzo, M A

    2008-12-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the record keeping, genetic selection, educational, and farm management effects on average milk yield per cow (AYC), milk fat percentage, bacterial score, and bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) of dairy farms in the central region of Thailand. Farms were located in the provinces of Saraburi and Nakhon Ratchisima and were members of the Muaklek dairy cooperative. Records from individual animals were unavailable. Thus, farm records of milk yield, milk fat percentage, bacterial score, and BTCCC were collected from July 1, 2003 through June 30, 2006. Additional record keeping, genetic selection, education, and farm management information was collected through a questionnaire in May of 2006. Data from the Muaklek dairy cooperative and the questionnaire were then merged by a farm identification number. A single trait mixed model was used to analyze AYC, milk fat percentage, and BTSCC, while a log linear model was used to analyze bacterial score. Results showed that farms that kept records on individual animals had higher (P personal opinion. Farms milking cows with a single unit milking machine and by hand, had higher (P < 0.05) bacterial scores and BTSCC than farms using only a single or multi unit machine. Overall farms that kept individual animal records, used EBV when selecting sires, used a single method for collecting milk, and used family labor achieved higher performance from their herds than farms that did not.

  13. Adiponectin, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and regional fat mass during 12-month randomized treatment with metformin and/or oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Mumm, Hanne; Altinok, Magda Lambaa

    2014-01-01

    with changes in circulating adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Ninety patients with PCOS were randomized to 12-month treatment with M (2 g/day), M + OCP (150 mg desogestrel + 30 microgram ethinylestradiol) or OCP. Adiponectin, IL-6, MCP-1...

  14. Ensemble Averaged Gravity Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Khosravi, Nima

    2016-01-01

    We put forward the idea that all the theoretically consistent models of gravity have a contribution to the observed gravity interaction. In this formulation each model comes with its own Euclidean path integral weight where general relativity (GR) automatically has the maximum weight in high-curvature regions. We employ this idea in the framework of Lovelock models and show that in four dimensions the result is a specific form of $f(R,G)$ model. This specific $f(R,G)$ satisfies the stability conditions and has self-accelerating solution. Our model is consistent with the local tests of gravity since its behavior is same as GR for high-curvature regimes. In low-curvature regime the gravity force is weaker than GR which can interpret as existence of a repulsive fifth force for very large scales. Interestingly there is an intermediate-curvature regime where the gravity force is stronger in our model than GR. The different behavior of our model in comparison with GR in both low- and intermediate-curvature regimes ...

  15. Correction factors for determination of annual average radon concentration in dwellings of Poland resulting from seasonal variability of indoor radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, K., E-mail: Krzysztof.Kozak@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Mazur, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); KozLowska, B. [University of Silesia, Bankowa 12, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Karpinska, M. [Medical University of Bialystok, Jana Kilinskiego 1, 15-089 BiaLystok (Poland); Przylibski, T.A. [WrocLaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze S. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 WrocLaw (Poland); Mamont-Ciesla, K. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warszawa (Poland); Grzadziel, D. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Stawarz, O. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warszawa (Poland); Wysocka, M. [Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarkow1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Dorda, J. [University of Silesia, Bankowa 12, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zebrowski, A. [WrocLaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze S. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 WrocLaw (Poland); Olszewski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Sw.Teresy od Dzieciatka Jezus 8, 91-348 lodz (Poland); Hovhannisyan, H. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Dohojda, M. [Institute of Building Technology (ITB), Filtrowa 1, 00-611 Warszawa (Poland); KapaLa, J. [Medical University of Bialystok, Jana Kilinskiego 1, 15-089 BiaLystok (Poland); Chmielewska, I. [Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarkow1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); KLos, B. [University of Silesia, Bankowa 12, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Sw.Teresy od Dzieciatka Jezus 8, 91-348 lodz (Poland); Mnich, S. [Medical University of Bialystok, Jana Kilinskiego 1, 15-089 BiaLystok (Poland); KoLodziej, R. [Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarkow1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    The method for the calculation of correction factors is presented, which can be used for the assessment of the mean annual radon concentration on the basis of 1-month or 3-month indoor measurements. Annual radon concentration is an essential value for the determination of the annual dose due to radon inhalation. The measurements have been carried out in 132 houses in Poland over a period of one year. The passive method of track detectors with CR-39 foil was applied. Four thermal-precipitation regions in Poland were established and correction factors were calculated for each region, separately for houses with and without basements. - Highlights: > Using radon concentration results in houses we calculated the correction factors. > Factors were calculated for each month, 2 house types in different regions in Poland. > They enable the evaluation of average annual radon concentration in the house. > Annual average radon concentration basing on 1 or 3 months detector exposure.

  16. Electric power monthly, January 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-17

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and state levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  17. Electric power monthly, October 1991. [CONTAINS GLOSSARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-11

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, statistics at the company and plant level are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 4 figs., 63 tabs.

  18. Electric Power Monthly, September 1991. [CONTAINS GLOSSARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-12

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and state levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, statistics at the company and plant level are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 4 figs., 63 tabs.

  19. Variation in stable isotope ratios of monthly rainfall in the Douala and Yaounde cities, Cameroon: local meteoric lines and relationship to regional precipitation cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirmvem, Mengnjo Jude; Ohba, Takeshi; Kamtchueng, Brice Tchakam; Taylor, Eldred Tunde; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh; Ako, Ako Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Hydrogen (D) and oxygen (18O) stable isotopes in precipitation are useful tools in groundwater recharge and climatological investigations. This study investigated the isotopes in rainfall during the 2013 and 2014 hydrological years in the Douala and Yaounde urban cities. The objectives were to generate local meteoric water lines (LMWLs), define the spatial-temporal variations of the isotopes in rainwater and their relationship to the regional precipitation cycle, and determine the factors controlling the isotopic variation. The LWMLs in Douala and Yaounde were δD = 7.92δ18O + 12.99 and δD = 8.35δ18O + 15.29, respectively. The slopes indicate isotopic equilibrium conditions during rain formation and negligible evaporation effect during rainfall. Precipitation showed similar wide ranges in δ18O values from -5.26 to -0.75 ‰ in Douala and -5.8 to +1.81 ‰ in Yaounde suggesting a common moisture source from the Atlantic Ocean. Enriched weighted mean δ18O (wδ18O) values during the low pre- and post-monsoon showers coincided with low convective activity across the entire region. Enriched isotopic signatures also marked the West African monsoon transition phase during each hydrological year. Abrupt wδ18O depletion after the transition coincided with the monsoon onset in the region. Peak periods of monsoonal rainfall, associated with high convective activities, were characterised by the most depleted wδ18O values. Controls on isotopic variations are the amount effect and moisture recycling. The stable isotope data provide a tool for groundwater recharge studies while the isotopic correlation with regional rainfall cycle demonstrate their use as markers of moisture circulation and detecting climatic changes in precipitation.

  20. Variation in stable isotope ratios of monthly rainfall in the Douala and Yaounde cities, Cameroon: local meteoric lines and relationship to regional precipitation cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirmvem, Mengnjo Jude; Ohba, Takeshi; Kamtchueng, Brice Tchakam; Taylor, Eldred Tunde; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh; Ako, Ako Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen (D) and oxygen (18O) stable isotopes in precipitation are useful tools in groundwater recharge and climatological investigations. This study investigated the isotopes in rainfall during the 2013 and 2014 hydrological years in the Douala and Yaounde urban cities. The objectives were to generate local meteoric water lines (LMWLs), define the spatial-temporal variations of the isotopes in rainwater and their relationship to the regional precipitation cycle, and determine the factors controlling the isotopic variation. The LWMLs in Douala and Yaounde were δD = 7.92δ18O + 12.99 and δD = 8.35δ18O + 15.29, respectively. The slopes indicate isotopic equilibrium conditions during rain formation and negligible evaporation effect during rainfall. Precipitation showed similar wide ranges in δ18O values from -5.26 to -0.75 ‰ in Douala and -5.8 to +1.81 ‰ in Yaounde suggesting a common moisture source from the Atlantic Ocean. Enriched weighted mean δ18O (wδ18O) values during the low pre- and post-monsoon showers coincided with low convective activity across the entire region. Enriched isotopic signatures also marked the West African monsoon transition phase during each hydrological year. Abrupt wδ18O depletion after the transition coincided with the monsoon onset in the region. Peak periods of monsoonal rainfall, associated with high convective activities, were characterised by the most depleted wδ18O values. Controls on isotopic variations are the amount effect and moisture recycling. The stable isotope data provide a tool for groundwater recharge studies while the isotopic correlation with regional rainfall cycle demonstrate their use as markers of moisture circulation and detecting climatic changes in precipitation.

  1. Parotid gland-recovery after radiotherapy in the head and neck region - 36 months follow-up of a prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vordermark Dirk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the recovery potential of the parotid glands after using either 3D-conformal-radiotherapy (3D-CRT or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT by sparing one single parotid gland. Methods Between 06/2002 and 10/2008, 117 patients with head and neck cancer were included in this prospective, non-randomised clinical study. All patients were treated with curative intent. Salivary gland function was assessed by measuring stimulated salivary flow at the beginning, during and at the end of radiotherapy as well as 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after treatment. Measurements were converted to flow rates and normalized relative to rates before treatment. Mean doses (Dmean were calculated from dose-volume histograms based on computed tomographies of the parotid glands. Results Patients were grouped according to the Dmean of the spared parotid gland having the lowest radiation exposure: Group I - Dmean mean 26-40 Gy (n = 45, and group III - Dmean > 40 Gy (n = 36. 15/117 (13% patients received IMRT. By using IMRT as compared to 3D-CRT the Dmean of the spared parotid gland could be significantly reduced (Dmean IMRT vs. 3D-CRT: 21.7 vs. 34.4 Gy, p Conclusions If a Dmean mean of the parotids, and thus on the saliva flow and recovery of parotid gland.

  2. A Monthly-Step Water Balance Model to Evaluate the Hydrological Effects of Climate Change on a Regional Scale for Irrigation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, A.; Kalicz, P.; Kisfaludi, B.; Gribovszki, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Current and ongoing changes in the climate are typified by a rise in global temperatures. Climate change can have a dramatic impact on the water cycle. The aim of this paper was to develop a model based on Thornthwaite-type monthly water balance estimations. The main goals were to calibrate the model parameters using a remote sensing-based evapotranspiration dataset. The calibrated model was used for projection on the basis of four climate model datasets (remo, dmihirham5, smhirca.bcm, knmiracmo2). The four main projection periods were: 1980-2010, 2010-2040, 2040-2070, and 2070-2100. The advantage of this model is its robust structure. It can be applied if temperature and precipitation time series are available. The key parameter is the water storage capacity of the soil (SOILMAX), which can be calibrated using the actual evapotranspiration data available. If the physical properties of the soil are known, the maximal rooting depth is also projectable. The model can be primarily used at the catchment level or for areas without additional amounts of water from below. For testing the model, a mixed parcel of land that is used as a cornfield near Mosonmagyaróvár and a small, forest-covered catchment near Sopron were successfully used as the datasets. Furthermore, we determined the water stress with the calculation of the relative extractable water (REW), soil water deficit (SWD), and the water stress index (IS).

  3. Assessing bovine babesiosis in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks and 3 to 9-month-old cattle in the middle Magdalena region, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ríos-Tobón

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Babesia sp. is a protozoan hemoparasite that affects livestock worldwide. The Colombian Middle Magdalena is an enzootic region for babesiosis, but there is no previous research providing detail on its transmission cycle. This study aims to assess some Babesia sp. infection indicators in cattle and ticks from the area, by using direct microscopic and molecular techniques to detect the infection. In the cattle, 59.9% and 3.4 % positivity values for B. bigemina and mixed infection (B. bovis + B. bigemina were found respectively. In ticks, the positivity of B. bigemina reached 79.2% and 9.4% for the mixed infection. The degree of infestation in the region was 3.2 ticks per bovine. There was positive correlation between tick control acaricide frequencies and infestation in bovines. This leads us to infer that control periodicity greater than 90 days, in stable zones, is an abiotic factor that benefits the acquisition of protective immunity in calves, the natural control of the infection and eventual disease absence. It is necessary to monitor the disease by applying new entomological and parasitological indicators showing the complexity of this phenomenon.

  4. Physical Theories with Average Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Alamino, Roberto C.

    2013-01-01

    This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violat...

  5. Average Convexity in Communication Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we study inheritance properties of average convexity in communication situations. We show that the underlying graph ensures that the graphrestricted game originating from an average convex game is average convex if and only if every subgraph associated with a component of the underlyin

  6. 基于区域信息融合的风电场平均年发电量预测∗%Average Annual Energy Output Prediction Based on Regional Information Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 邵霞; 高云鹏; 万全

    2015-01-01

    Annual energy output of a candidate site in its life span is an important reference criterion of wind farm macro siting.A regional information fusion method,which allows the use of multiple reference wheather stations with a long history of wind speed and wind direction measurements,was proposed to im-prove the annual energy output prediction accuracy.Firstly,the correlation model was established between the short-term wind data of a single reference wheather station and the candidate wind farm,and the multi-ple long-term wind speeds of candidate site based on different reference stations were predicted by using the model.Then,the multiple prediction results were integrated by neural network to obtain the final long-term hourly wind speed data,and the annual energy output was subsequently determined on the basis of the knowledge of these wind speeds.The simulation results show that,by using the proposed method, the error reduction up to 1 1.32% has been achieved in the relative error of the average annual power out-put,with respect to the case of using a single reference wheather station method.%备选风电场在寿命周期内的平均年发电量是风电场宏观选址的一个重要参考判据.为了提高风电场平均年发电量的预测精度,提出了一种基于风电场附近多个气象站长期测风数据的区域信息融合的平均年发电量预测方法.首先分别建立各气象站与风电场同期小时风速之间的相关模型,应用相关模型得到多个长期小时风速预测值,再用神经网络对长期小时风速预测值进行融合处理得出最终的小时风速预测值,在此基础上进行风电场平均年发电量的估算.仿真结果表明:本文提出的区域信息融合方法对年平均发电量的预测误差比采用单一气象站数据的预测误差最高可降低11.32%.

  7. Mallows statistic in the selection of models to predict the monthly and annual average rainfall in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. = Estatística de Mallows na seleção de modelos de predição da precipitação média mensal e anual no Rio Grande do Sul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fernanda Almeida Teixeira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mallows Cp statistic can be used in the selection of the best subsets in hydrological modeling, especially in cases where many variables are used. Besause there are, in many cases, the interest in estimating the monthly and annual average rainfall based on geographic coordinates of latitude and longitude, and altitude. Consequently, the aim of this study was to verify the information gain when applied to statistical Cp Mallows in the selection of the best subsets of multiple linear regression to predict the precipitation of some municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Daily precipitation data from 26 meteorological stations, in addition to seven others, used to validation of the proposed linear models, belonging to seven mesoregions of Rio Grande do Sul were collected and analyzed. After the formation of the series, precipitation values were adjusted from linear models, using multiple linear regression in which the dependent variable was the precipitation and independent variables, the geographic coordinates of latitude and longitude, and altitude. The Cp statistic was used in the selection of sets and, subsequently applied statistical indexes mean square error, standard error of prediction bias factor wereused to obtain the accuracy factor for comparison between observed versus predicted precipitation. From the results obtained itcan be concluded that, from the point of view of parsimony, the statistic proposed by Mallows proved adequate in the selectionof models for prediction of monthly and annual rainfall of the stations analyzed. = A estatística Cp de Mallows pode ser utilizada na seleção de melhores subconjuntos na modelagem hidrológica,principalmente nos casos em que são utilizadas muitas variáveis. Com base no fato de que há, em muitos casos, o interesse em estimar a precipitação média mensal e anual baseada nas coordenadas geográficas latitude e longitude, e altitude, objetivouse com este trabalho verificar o

  8. Sampling Based Average Classifier Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2014-01-01

    fusion algorithms have been proposed in literature, average fusion is almost always selected as the baseline for comparison. Little is done on exploring the potential of average fusion and proposing a better baseline. In this paper we empirically investigate the behavior of soft labels and classifiers in average fusion. As a result, we find that; by proper sampling of soft labels and classifiers, the average fusion performance can be evidently improved. This result presents sampling based average fusion as a better baseline; that is, a newly proposed classifier fusion algorithm should at least perform better than this baseline in order to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  9. Natural gas monthly, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This analysis presents the most recent data on natural gas prices, supply, and consumption from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The presentation of the latest monthly data is followed by an update on natural gas markets. The markets section examines the behavior of daily spot and futures prices based on information from trade press, as well as regional, weekly data on natural gas storage from the American Gas Association (AGA). This {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} closes with a special section comparing and contrasting EIA and AGA storage data on a monthly and regional basis. The regions used are those defined by the AGA for their weekly data collection effort: the Producing Region, the Consuming Region East, and the Consuming Region West. While data on working gas levels have tracked fairly closely between the two data sources, differences have developed recently. The largest difference is in estimates of working gas levels in the East consuming region during the heating season.

  10. Electric power monthly, February 1998 with data for November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 63 tabs.

  11. Electric Power Monthly with data for July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the state, census division, and U.S. levels for net generation; fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity, and quality of fossil fuels; cost of fossil fuels; electricity retail sales; associated revenue; and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council regions. Statistics on net generation are published by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The monthly update is summarized, and industry developments are briefly described. 57 tabs.

  12. Physical Theories with Average Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Alamino, Roberto C

    2013-01-01

    This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violations of physical symmetries, as for instance Lorentz invariance in some quantum gravity theories, is briefly commented.

  13. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) Cosmological Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2014-01-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmolo...

  14. Modeling of the Monthly Rainfall-Runoff Process Through Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Aranda Daniel Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problems associated with the assessment of water resources of a river, the modeling of the rainfall-runoff process (RRP allows the deduction of runoff missing data and to extend its record, since generally the information available on precipitation is larger. It also enables the estimation of inputs to reservoirs, when their building led to the suppression of the gauging station. The simplest mathematical model that can be set for the RRP is the linear regression or curve on a monthly basis. Such a model is described in detail and is calibrated with the simultaneous record of monthly rainfall and runoff in Ballesmi hydrometric station, which covers 35 years. Since the runoff of this station has an important contribution from the spring discharge, the record is corrected first by removing that contribution. In order to do this a procedure was developed based either on the monthly average regional runoff coefficients or on nearby and similar watershed; in this case the Tancuilín gauging station was used. Both stations belong to the Partial Hydrologic Region No. 26 (Lower Rio Panuco and are located within the state of San Luis Potosi, México. The study performed indicates that the monthly regression model, due to its conceptual approach, faithfully reproduces monthly average runoff volumes and achieves an excellent approximation in relation to the dispersion, proved by calculation of the means and standard deviations.

  15. The Burden of Cryptosporidium Diarrheal Disease among Children < 24 Months of Age in Moderate/High Mortality Regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, Utilizing Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samba O Sow

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Cryptosporidium as a pediatric enteropathogen in developing countries is recognized.Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS, a 3-year, 7-site, case-control study of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD and GEMS-1A (1-year study of MSD and less-severe diarrhea [LSD] were analyzed. Stools from 12,110 MSD and 3,174 LSD cases among children aged <60 months and from 21,527 randomly-selected controls matched by age, sex and community were immunoassay-tested for Cryptosporidium. Species of a subset of Cryptosporidium-positive specimens were identified by PCR; GP60 sequencing identified anthroponotic C. parvum. Combined annual Cryptosporidium-attributable diarrhea incidences among children aged <24 months for African and Asian GEMS sites were extrapolated to sub-Saharan Africa and South Asian regions to estimate region-wide MSD and LSD burdens. Attributable and excess mortality due to Cryptosporidium diarrhea were estimated.Cryptosporidium was significantly associated with MSD and LSD below age 24 months. Among Cryptosporidium-positive MSD cases, C. hominis was detected in 77.8% (95% CI, 73.0%-81.9% and C. parvum in 9.9% (95% CI, 7.1%-13.6%; 92% of C. parvum tested were anthroponotic genotypes. Annual Cryptosporidium-attributable MSD incidence was 3.48 (95% CI, 2.27-4.67 and 3.18 (95% CI, 1.85-4.52 per 100 child-years in African and Asian infants, respectively, and 1.41 (95% CI, 0.73-2.08 and 1.36 (95% CI, 0.66-2.05 per 100 child-years in toddlers. Corresponding Cryptosporidium-attributable LSD incidences per 100 child-years were 2.52 (95% CI, 0.33-5.01 and 4.88 (95% CI, 0.82-8.92 in infants and 4.04 (95% CI, 0.56-7.51 and 4.71 (95% CI, 0.24-9.18 in toddlers. We estimate 2.9 and 4.7 million Cryptosporidium-attributable cases annually in children aged <24 months in the sub-Saharan Africa and India/Pakistan/Bangladesh/Nepal/Afghanistan regions, respectively, and ~202,000 Cryptosporidium-attributable deaths (regions combined. ~59

  16. Quantized average consensus with delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafarian, Matin; De Persis, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Average consensus problem is a special case of cooperative control in which the agents of the network asymptotically converge to the average state (i.e., position) of the network by transferring information via a communication topology. One of the issues of the large scale networks is the cost of co

  17. Gaussian moving averages and semimartingales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper we study moving averages (also known as stochastic convolutions) driven by a Wiener process and with a deterministic kernel. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the kernel are provided for the moving average to be a semimartingale in its natural filtration. Our results...... are constructive - meaning that they provide a simple method to obtain kernels for which the moving average is a semimartingale or a Wiener process. Several examples are considered. In the last part of the paper we study general Gaussian processes with stationary increments. We provide necessary and sufficient...

  18. Monthly Meteorological Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly forms that do not fit into any regular submission. Tabulation sheets and generic monthly forms designed to capture miscellaneous monthly observations.

  19. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.

  20. Ergodic averages via dominating processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2006-01-01

    We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary ...

  1. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  2. Electric power monthly, May 1995 with data for February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisiommakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuel, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  3. Electric Power Monthly, September 1995: With data for June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  4. Electric power monthly, August 1998, with data for May 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 9 refs., 57 tabs.

  5. Electric power monthly, March 1999 with data for December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be sued in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 63 tabs.

  6. Electric power monthly, December 1997 with data for September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 63 tabs.

  7. Electric power monthly: April 1996, with data for January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 64 tabs.

  8. Electric power monthly, May 1998, with data for February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974. The EPM provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 30 refs., 58 tabs.

  9. High average power supercontinuum sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J C Travers

    2010-11-01

    The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium. The most common experimental arrangements are described, including both continuous wave fibre laser systems with over 100 W pump power, and picosecond mode-locked, master oscillator power fibre amplifier systems, with over 10 kW peak pump power. These systems can produce broadband supercontinua with over 50 and 1 mW/nm average spectral power, respectively. Techniques for numerical modelling of the supercontinuum sources are presented and used to illustrate some supercontinuum dynamics. Some recent experimental results are presented.

  10. Dependability in Aggregation by Averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jesus, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo Sérgio

    2010-01-01

    Aggregation is an important building block of modern distributed applications, allowing the determination of meaningful properties (e.g. network size, total storage capacity, average load, majorities, etc.) that are used to direct the execution of the system. However, the majority of the existing aggregation algorithms exhibit relevant dependability issues, when prospecting their use in real application environments. In this paper, we reveal some dependability issues of aggregation algorithms based on iterative averaging techniques, giving some directions to solve them. This class of algorithms is considered robust (when compared to common tree-based approaches), being independent from the used routing topology and providing an aggregation result at all nodes. However, their robustness is strongly challenged and their correctness often compromised, when changing the assumptions of their working environment to more realistic ones. The correctness of this class of algorithms relies on the maintenance of a funda...

  11. Variability of maximum and mean average temperature across Libya (1945-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageena, I.; Macdonald, N.; Morse, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Spatial and temporal variability in daily maximum and mean average daily temperature, monthly maximum and mean average monthly temperature for nine coastal stations during the period 1956-2009 (54 years), and annual maximum and mean average temperature for coastal and inland stations for the period 1945-2009 (65 years) across Libya are analysed. During the period 1945-2009, significant increases in maximum temperature (0.017 °C/year) and mean average temperature (0.021 °C/year) are identified at most stations. Significantly, warming in annual maximum temperature (0.038 °C/year) and mean average annual temperatures (0.049 °C/year) are observed at almost all study stations during the last 32 years (1978-2009). The results show that Libya has witnessed a significant warming since the middle of the twentieth century, which will have a considerable impact on societies and the ecology of the North Africa region, if increases continue at current rates.

  12. Measuring Complexity through Average Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Alamino, Roberto C.

    2015-01-01

    This work introduces a complexity measure which addresses some conflicting issues between existing ones by using a new principle - measuring the average amount of symmetry broken by an object. It attributes low (although different) complexity to either deterministic or random homogeneous densities and higher complexity to the intermediate cases. This new measure is easily computable, breaks the coarse graining paradigm and can be straightforwardly generalised, including to continuous cases an...

  13. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  14. Proposing Chinese Pharmacists Month

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Pharmacists: Today I would like to share with you about the American Pharmacists Month which is celebrated in October every year.This month-long observance is promoted by American Pharmacist Association.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  16. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. Mirror averaging with sparsity priors

    CERN Document Server

    Dalalyan, Arnak

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of aggregating the elements of a (possibly infinite) dictionary for building a decision procedure, that aims at minimizing a given criterion. Along with the dictionary, an independent identically distributed training sample is available, on which the performance of a given procedure can be tested. In a fairly general set-up, we establish an oracle inequality for the Mirror Averaging aggregate based on any prior distribution. This oracle inequality is applied in the context of sparse coding for different problems of statistics and machine learning such as regression, density estimation and binary classification.

  18. Benchmarking homogenization algorithms for monthly data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. C. Venema

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random independent break-type inhomogeneities with normally distributed breakpoint sizes were added to the simulated datasets. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study. After the deadline at which details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed, 22 additional solutions were submitted. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  19. Averaging and sampling for magnetic-observatory hourly data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Love

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A time and frequency-domain analysis is made of the effects of averaging and sampling methods used for constructing magnetic-observatory hourly data values. Using 1-min data as a proxy for continuous, geomagnetic variation, we construct synthetic hourly values of two standard types: instantaneous "spot" measurements and simple 1-h "boxcar" averages. We compare these average-sample types with others: 2-h average, Gaussian, and "brick-wall" low-frequency-pass. Hourly spot measurements provide a statistically unbiased representation of the amplitude range of geomagnetic-field variation, but as a representation of continuous field variation over time, they are significantly affected by aliasing, especially at high latitudes. The 1-h, 2-h, and Gaussian average-samples are affected by a combination of amplitude distortion and aliasing. Brick-wall values are not affected by either amplitude distortion or aliasing, but constructing them is, in an operational setting, relatively more difficult than it is for other average-sample types. It is noteworthy that 1-h average-samples, the present standard for observatory hourly data, have properties similar to Gaussian average-samples that have been optimized for a minimum residual sum of amplitude distortion and aliasing. For 1-h average-samples from medium and low-latitude observatories, the average of the combination of amplitude distortion and aliasing is less than the 5.0 nT accuracy standard established by Intermagnet for modern 1-min data. For medium and low-latitude observatories, average differences between monthly means constructed from 1-min data and monthly means constructed from any of the hourly average-sample types considered here are less than the 1.0 nT resolution of standard databases. We recommend that observatories and World Data Centers continue the standard practice of reporting simple 1-h-average hourly values.

  20. Electric power monthly with data for June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the state, census division, and U.S. levels for net generation; fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity, and quality of fossil fuels; cost of fossil fuels; electricity retail sales; associated revenue; and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity, and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council regions. Statistics on net generation by energy source and capability of new generating units by company and plant are also included. A section is included in the report which summarizes major industry developments. 1 fig., 64 tabs.

  1. Prediction of Malaysian monthly GDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hin, Pooi Ah; Ching, Soo Huei; Yeing, Pan Wei

    2015-12-01

    The paper attempts to use a method based on multivariate power-normal distribution to predict the Malaysian Gross Domestic Product next month. Letting r(t) be the vector consisting of the month-t values on m selected macroeconomic variables, and GDP, we model the month-(t+1) GDP to be dependent on the present and l-1 past values r(t), r(t-1),…,r(t-l+1) via a conditional distribution which is derived from a [(m+1)l+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. The 100(α/2)% and 100(1-α/2)% points of the conditional distribution may be used to form an out-of sample prediction interval. This interval together with the mean of the conditional distribution may be used to predict the month-(t+1) GDP. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), estimated coverage probability and average length of the prediction interval are used as the criterions for selecting the suitable lag value l-1 and the subset from a pool of 17 macroeconomic variables. It is found that the relatively better models would be those of which 2 ≤ l ≤ 3, and involving one or two of the macroeconomic variables given by Market Indicative Yield, Oil Prices, Exchange Rate and Import Trade.

  2. Towards combined global monthly gravity field solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Beutler, Gerhard; Weigelt, Matthias; van Dam, Tonie; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Flury, Jakob; Flechtner, Frank; Dahle, Christoph; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Bruinsma, Sean

    2014-05-01

    Currently, official GRACE Science Data System (SDS) monthly gravity field solutions are generated independently by the Centre for Space Research (CSR) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Additional GRACE SDS monthly fields are provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for validation and outside the SDS by a number of other institutions worldwide. Although the adopted background models and processing standards have been harmonized more and more by the various processing centers during the past years, notable differences still exist and the users are more or less left alone with a decision which model to choose for their individual applications. This procedure seriously limits the accessibility of these valuable data. Combinations are well established in the area of other space geodetic techniques, such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Regularly comparing and combining space-geodetic products has tremendously increased the usefulness of the products in a wide range of disciplines and scientific applications. Therefore, we propose in a first step to mutually compare the large variety of available monthly GRACE gravity field solutions, e.g., by assessing the signal content over selected regions, by estimating the noise over the oceans, and by performing significance tests. We make the attempt to assign different solution characteristics to different processing strategies in order to identify subsets of solutions, which are based on similar processing strategies. Using these subsets we will in a second step explore ways to generate combined solutions, e.g., based on a weighted average of the individual solutions using empirical weights derived from pair-wise comparisons. We will also assess the quality of such a combined solution and discuss the potential benefits for the GRACE and GRACE-FO user community, but also address minimum processing

  3. Bias Corrected Spatially Downscaled Monthly CMIP5 Climate Projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains 234 projections of monthly BCSD CMIP5 projections of precipitation and monthly means of daily-average, daily maximum and daily minimum...

  4. Hispanic Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    Hispanic heritage month is from September 15 to October 15. One problem that arises when grouping people into categories such as Hispanic or Latino is stereotyping, stereotypes can be promoted or used in this Hispanic month to promote a greater understanding of Latino cultures.

  5. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  6. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  7. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  8. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  9. Relationship between monthly temperature anomalies and drought frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, E.; Naumann, G.

    2012-04-01

    to avoid bias, only bins with more than 20 observations were considered. The results showed that 64% of the stations had a significant inverse relation between average SPI and rising temperature anomalies (at a significance level of 0.05%). All the stations with a significant relation presented a negative slope in the regression, meaning that SPI values declined in average at a rate of 0.185degC^-1. A large increase on the frequency of months with SPI lower than -1 was also observed in these stations. While the average frequency of dry months for temperatures anomalies close to zero (-0.5 degC 0.5 degC) was about 14% (stdev=2.7), months with temperature anomalies higher than 2degC showed an average incidence of dry months of about 40% (stdev= 12). Therefore, this study shows clear evidences of a direct relation between temperature anomalies (mostly related to heat waves) and the occurrence of meteorological drought events. Nevertheless, the results also indicate that, in some regions, the occurrence of dry events is not necessarily coupled with the variability of air temperature. Further studies are necessary in order to understand the discrepant results among these regions. Additional effects, such as sea surface temperature fluctuations and specific humidity need to be analyzed in order to isolate the effects of surface temperature.

  10. Natural gas monthly, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  11. Ensemble average theory of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Nima

    2016-12-01

    We put forward the idea that all the theoretically consistent models of gravity have contributions to the observed gravity interaction. In this formulation, each model comes with its own Euclidean path-integral weight where general relativity (GR) has automatically the maximum weight in high-curvature regions. We employ this idea in the framework of Lovelock models and show that in four dimensions the result is a specific form of the f (R ,G ) model. This specific f (R ,G ) satisfies the stability conditions and possesses self-accelerating solutions. Our model is consistent with the local tests of gravity since its behavior is the same as in GR for the high-curvature regime. In the low-curvature regime the gravitational force is weaker than in GR, which can be interpreted as the existence of a repulsive fifth force for very large scales. Interestingly, there is an intermediate-curvature regime where the gravitational force is stronger in our model compared to GR. The different behavior of our model in comparison with GR in both low- and intermediate-curvature regimes makes it observationally distinguishable from Λ CDM .

  12. Electric power monthly with data for October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council regions. Statistics are published on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. A monthly utility update and summary of industry developments are also included. 63 tabs., 1 fig.

  13. Electric power monthly, July 1999, with data for April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Electric Power Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM). This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 1 fig., 64 tabs.

  14. Electric power monthly, December 1996 with data for September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The report presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 57 tabs.

  15. Electric power monthly with data for August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the state, census division, and U.S. levels for net generation; fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity, and quality of fossil fuels; cost of fossil fuels; electricity retail sales; associated revenue; and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council regions. Statistics on net generation are published by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The monthly update is summarized, and industry developments are briefly described. 1 fig., 63 tabs.

  16. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  17. Lightship Monthly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Weather Observations (Monthly Form 1001) from lightship stations in the United States. Please see the 'Surface Weather Observations (1001)' library for more...

  18. Natural gas monthly, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates for March 1999 for many natural gas data series at the national level. Estimates of national natural gas prices are available through December 1998 for most series. Highlights of the data contained in this issue are listed below. Preliminary data indicate that the national average wellhead price for 1998 declined to 16% from the previous year ($1.96 compared to $2.32 per thousand cubic feet). At the end of March, the end of the 1998--1999 heating season, the level of working gas in underground natural gas storage facilities is estimated to be 1,354 billion cubic feet, 169 billion cubic feet higher than at the end of March 1998. Gas consumption during the first 3 months of 1999 is estimated to have been 179 billion cubic feet higher than in the same period in 1998. Most of this increase (133 billion cubic feet) occurred in the residential sector due to the cooler temperatures in January and February compared to the same months last year. According to the National Weather Service, heating degree days in January 1999 were 15% greater than the previous year while February recorded a 5% increase.

  19. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Zonally Average 500 MB Temperature Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It is the 500-hPa temperature anomalies averaged over the latitude band 20oN ? 20oS. The anomalies are...

  20. Intensity contrast of the average supergranule

    CERN Document Server

    Langfellner, J; Gizon, L

    2016-01-01

    While the velocity fluctuations of supergranulation dominate the spectrum of solar convection at the solar surface, very little is known about the fluctuations in other physical quantities like temperature or density at supergranulation scale. Using SDO/HMI observations, we characterize the intensity contrast of solar supergranulation at the solar surface. We identify the positions of ${\\sim}10^4$ outflow and inflow regions at supergranulation scales, from which we construct average flow maps and co-aligned intensity and magnetic field maps. In the average outflow center, the maximum intensity contrast is $(7.8\\pm0.6)\\times10^{-4}$ (there is no corresponding feature in the line-of-sight magnetic field). This corresponds to a temperature perturbation of about $1.1\\pm0.1$ K, in agreement with previous studies. We discover an east-west anisotropy, with a slightly deeper intensity minimum east of the outflow center. The evolution is asymmetric in time: the intensity excess is larger 8 hours before the reference t...

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  5. 7 CFR 1209.12 - On average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false On average. 1209.12 Section 1209.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS....12 On average. On average means a rolling average of production or imports during the last two...

  6. Monthly energy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  7. Photos of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Congratulations to Adele Rimoldi, ATLAS physicist from Pavia, who ran her first marathon in New York last month. Adele completed the 42.2 km in a time of 4:49:19. She sure makes it look easy!!! The ATLAS pixel service quarter panel in SR1

  8. Monthly Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  9. P Division monthly report, January 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E.P.

    1950-02-06

    This progress report discusses the activities of the P Division for the month of January 1950. The B, D, F and H pilan operated throughout the month except for outages listed under Area Activities. Power levels were as follow: B pile -- 275 megawatts (MW) D pile -- 305 MW, F pile -- 275 MW increased to 305 MW during the month, and H pile -- 275 MW increased to 330 MW during the month. The piles operated with a time operated'' efficiency of 88.8%. A total of 53.07 tons of metal at an average of 91.2% of the current goal concentration was discharged from the piles during the month. A new record canning yield of 93.9% for 4 inch canned slugs was established during January.

  10. A procedure to average 3D anatomical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, K; Dean, D

    2000-12-01

    Creating a feature-preserving average of three dimensional anatomical surfaces extracted from volume image data is a complex task. Unlike individual images, averages present right-left symmetry and smooth surfaces which give insight into typical proportions. Averaging multiple biological surface images requires careful superimposition and sampling of homologous regions. Our approach to biological surface image averaging grows out of a wireframe surface tessellation approach by Cutting et al. (1993). The surface delineating wires represent high curvature crestlines. By adding tile boundaries in flatter areas the 3D image surface is parametrized into anatomically labeled (homology mapped) grids. We extend the Cutting et al. wireframe approach by encoding the entire surface as a series of B-spline space curves. The crestline averaging algorithm developed by Cutting et al. may then be used for the entire surface. Shape preserving averaging of multiple surfaces requires careful positioning of homologous surface regions such as these B-spline space curves. We test the precision of this new procedure and its ability to appropriately position groups of surfaces in order to produce a shape-preserving average. Our result provides an average that well represents the source images and may be useful clinically as a deformable model or for animation.

  11. A prospective multi-country observational trial to compare the incidences of diabetic ketoacidosis in the month of Ramadan, the preceding month, and the following month (DKAR international)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelgadir, Elamin I. E.; Hassanein, Mohamed M.; Bashier, Alaaeldin M. K.; Abdelaziz, Sulaf; Baki, Salwa; Chadli, Asma; Askaoui, Sara; Nawal, El Ansari; Slim, Ines S.; Ghizlane, El Mghari; Hafidh, Khadija; Alawadi, Fatheya

    2016-01-01

    Background 1.7 billion Muslims worldwide obey divine commands of fasting for a month. This may increase the probability of the acute complications of diabetes during the fasting period. Design and methods We primarily aimed to compare the incidences and duration of Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) admissions during Ramadan compared to the month before (Shaaban) and the month after (Shawal) as well as the average pre-Ramadan six months' admissions. Our secondary objective was to assess the differen...

  12. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Baby's Growth: 9 Months Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 9 Months Your Child's Checkup: 9 Months Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Contact ...

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  15. Variabilidad mensual de la velocidad de surgencia y clorofila a en la región del Panama Bight (Monthly rate variation upwelling and chlorophyll a in the region of Panama Bight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Villegas

    2016-09-01

    N, the third between 82-83° W and 2° 30’-3° 30’ N. Upwelling coastal zone was located on 6° 30’ and 2° N. This work showed that while the ITCZ is far from the CPO, the upwelling is favored. It was determined that, when the ITCZ is on the region, the upwelling is attenuated due to weak winds. It was corroborated that chlorophyll a concentration is high in every month throughout coastal upwelling and around three upwelling focuses.

  16. Growth and development and its related factors among rural children aged 6 - 24 months in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region%广西农村6~24月龄婴幼儿生长发育及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐轶群; 王惠珊; 宫丽敏; 韦萍; 赵晶; 张丽晋; 许慧琼

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the growth and development and its related factors among the rural children aged 6-24 months in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and to provide reference for the improvement of the children's health. Methods A questionaire survey was conducted among the parents of 1 198 children aged 6-24 months selected randomly with stratified cluster sampling form eight towns in two counties of Guangxi. The height and weight of the children were measured by nuiformly trained personnel and were evaluated based on the study of nine cities in China,2005. Results The prevalence of malnutrition was 21. 9% among the children and was lower than the average level of the nine cities. The prevalences of underweight and stunting were 16. 2% and 13. 5% ,and increased with the age among the children. There were significant differences in malnutrition and stunting among the young children of different month of age. The results of multivariate logistic regression indicated that aged 12 months or more, second or late parity, and drinking unboiled water were the risk factors and normal delivery was a protective factor for malnutrition among the children. Conclusion The prevalences of low weight and stunting are relative high and preterm infants and children of second or late parity are at a high risk of malnutrition among the children in rural areas of Guangxi.%目的 了解广西壮族自治区农村地区6~24月龄婴幼儿的生长发育现状及其影响因素,为改善当地儿童生长发育水平提供参考依据.方法 采用分层整群随机抽样方法,抽取广西横县、宾阳县和灵山县8个乡的1 198名6 ~ 24月龄婴幼儿家长进行问卷调查,并由经过统一培训的人员测量婴幼儿的身长、体重.结果 广西壮族自治区农村地区6~24月龄婴幼儿体重和身长均低于中国9市标准人群,且随年龄增加,儿童身长、体重差距逐渐增大;广西农村地区6~24月龄婴幼儿营养不良发生率为21.9

  17. 20 CFR 226.63 - Determining monthly compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining monthly compensation. 226.63... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.63 Determining monthly compensation. (a) Based on yearly compensation. If Board records do...

  18. Forecasting Monthly Prices of Japanese Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Michinaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Forecasts of prices can help industries in their risk management. This is especially true for Japanese logs, which experience sharp fluctuations in price. In this research, the authors used an exponential smoothing method (ETS and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models to forecast the monthly prices of domestic logs of three of the most important species in Japan: sugi (Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, hinoki (Japanese cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc. Endl., and karamatsu (Japanese larch, Larix kaempferi (Lamb. Carr.. For the 12-month forecasting periods, forecasting intervals of 80% and 95% were given. By measuring the accuracy of forecasts of 12- and 6-month forecasting periods, it was found that ARIMA gave better results than did the ETS in the majority of cases. However, the combined method of averaging ETS and ARIMA forecasts gave the best results for hinoki in several cases.

  19. Do Diurnal Aerosol Changes Affect Daily Average Radiative Forcing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

    2013-06-17

    Strong diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF, when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.

  20. Effect of supplementation with a lipid-based nutrient supplement on the micronutrient status of children aged 6–18 months living in the rural region of Intibucá, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) have been effective in the treatment of acute malnutrition among children. We evaluated the use of LNS supplementation for improving the micronutrient status of young children. Methods: A 12-month randomised controlled trial was conducted among chil...

  1. Influência regional no consumo precoce de alimentos diferentes do leite materno em menores de seis meses residentes nas capitais brasileiras e Distrito Federal Regional influence on early consumption of foods other than breast milk in infants less than 6 months of age in Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Dias Medici Saldiva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência regional no consumo precoce de alimentos diferentes do leite materno em menores de seis meses residentes nas capitais brasileiras. Analisaram-se dados de 18.929 crianças da II Pesquisa de Prevalência de Aleitamento Materno nas Capitais Brasileiras - 2008. As frequências do consumo de chá, sucos, leite artificial e mingau/papa foram calculadas para as capitais das cinco regiões brasileiras. Curvas do consumo foram obtidas pela análise de logitos e estimativas das razões de prevalência (RP por modelos de Poisson. O consumo de leite artificial foi maior quando comparado aos demais alimentos em todas as capitais. As capitais do Sul apresentaram a maior razão de prevalência para o consumo de chá (RP = 2,37 e as do Nordeste e Sudeste, para o consumo de outros tipos de leite (RP = 1,50 e 1,47 e de suco (RP = 1,57 e 1,55. Nas capitais do Nordeste, o consumo precoce de mingau/papa foi maior (RP = 3,0. A região tem influência no consumo precoce de alimentos, o que deve ser levado em consideração na elaboração de políticas públicas.The aim was to assess regional influences on food consumption in infants less than six months of age. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 18,929 infants participating in the Second Survey on Breastfeeding Prevalence in Brazilian State Capitals and the Federal District in 2008. Consumption rates for tea, fruit juices, formula milk, and porridge were calculated for the State capitals from the five geographic regions of the country. Food consumption was estimated by logit analyses and Poisson models. Differences in food consumption profile were observed between the different regions: tea was more common in State capitals in the South (RP = 2.37, while non-maternal milk (RP = 1.50 and 1.47 and juices (RP = 1.57 and 1.55 were more frequent in the Northeast and Southeast, respectively. Porridge was more common in the Northeast (RP = 3.0. Brazil's geographic regions

  2. Level sets of multiple ergodic averages

    CERN Document Server

    Ai-Hua, Fan; Ma, Ji-Hua

    2011-01-01

    We propose to study multiple ergodic averages from multifractal analysis point of view. In some special cases in the symbolic dynamics, Hausdorff dimensions of the level sets of multiple ergodic average limit are determined by using Riesz products.

  3. Accurate Switched-Voltage voltage averaging circuit

    OpenAIRE

    金光, 一幸; 松本, 寛樹

    2006-01-01

    Abstract ###This paper proposes an accurate Switched-Voltage (SV) voltage averaging circuit. It is presented ###to compensated for NMOS missmatch error at MOS differential type voltage averaging circuit. ###The proposed circuit consists of a voltage averaging and a SV sample/hold (S/H) circuit. It can ###operate using nonoverlapping three phase clocks. Performance of this circuit is verified by PSpice ###simulations.

  4. Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices

    CERN Document Server

    del Rio, Rafael; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    Spectral averaging techniques for one-dimensional discrete Schroedinger operators are revisited and extended. In particular, simultaneous averaging over several parameters is discussed. Special focus is put on proving lower bounds on the density of the averaged spectral measures. These Wegner type estimates are used to analyze stability properties for the spectral types of Jacobi matrices under local perturbations.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  6. 20 CFR 416.974a - When and how we will average your earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When and how we will average your earnings... Activity § 416.974a When and how we will average your earnings. (a) To determine your initial eligibility for benefits, we will average any earnings you make during the month you file for benefits and...

  7. Average-Time Games on Timed Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Jurdzinski, Marcin; Trivedi, Ashutosh

    2009-01-01

    An average-time game is played on the infinite graph of configurations of a finite timed automaton. The two players, Min and Max, construct an infinite run of the automaton by taking turns to perform a timed transition. Player Min wants to minimise the average time per transition and player Max wants to maximise it. A solution of average-time games is presented using a reduction to average-price game on a finite graph. A direct consequence is an elementary proof of determinacy for average-tim...

  8. A database of age-appropriate average MRI templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John E; Sanchez, Carmen; Phillips-Meek, Michelle; Xie, Wanze

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes a life-span neurodevelopmental MRI database. The study of neurostructural development or neurofunctional development has been hampered by the lack of age-appropriate MRI reference volumes. This causes misspecification of segmented data, irregular registrations, and the absence of appropriate stereotaxic volumes. We have created the "Neurodevelopmental MRI Database" that provides age-specific reference data from 2 weeks through 89 years of age. The data are presented in fine-grained ages (e.g., 3 months intervals through 1 year; 6 months intervals through 19.5 years; 5 year intervals from 20 through 89 years). The base component of the database at each age is an age-specific average MRI template. The average MRI templates are accompanied by segmented partial volume estimates for segmenting priors, and a common stereotaxic atlas for infant, pediatric, and adult participants. The database is available online (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/).

  9. Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo in an Atlantic Coastal Area: Estimation from Ground-Based Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgueni Kassianov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tower-based data combined with high-resolution satellite products have been used to produce surface albedo at various spatial scales over land. Because tower-based albedo data are available at only a few sites, surface albedos using these combined data are spatially limited. Moreover, tower-based albedo data are not representative of highly heterogeneous regions. To produce areal-averaged and spectrally-resolved surface albedo for regions with various degrees of surface heterogeneity, we have developed a transmission-based retrieval and demonstrated its feasibility for relatively homogeneous land surfaces. Here, we demonstrate its feasibility for a highly heterogeneous coastal region. We use the atmospheric transmission measured during a 19-month period (June 2009–December 2010 by a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR at five wavelengths (0.415, 0.5, 0.615, 0.673 and 0.87 µm at the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Mobile Facility (AMF site located on Graciosa Island. We compare the MFRSR-retrieved areal-averaged surface albedo with albedo derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS observations, and also a composite-based albedo. We demonstrate that these three methods produce similar spectral signatures of surface albedo; however, the MFRSR-retrieved albedo, is higher on average (≤0.04 than the MODIS-based areal-averaged surface albedo and the largest difference occurs in winter.

  10. Commissioners' Monthly Case Activity Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission — Total cases pending at the beginning of the month, total cases added to the docket during the month, total cases disposed of during the month, and total cases...

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  16. Electric power monthly, November 1998, with data for August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 57 tabs.

  17. Electric power monthly, May 1999, with data for February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 64 tabs.

  18. Electric power monthly: October 1995, with data for July 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-19

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  19. Electric power monthly, June 1999, with data for March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 57 tabs.

  20. Electric power monthly: October 1996, with data for July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. This report contains approximately 60 tables.

  1. Electric power monthly, October 1998, with data for July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 57 tabs.

  2. Electric power monthly, September 1998, with data for June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  3. Electric power monthly, April 1999 with data for January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  4. WIDTHS AND AVERAGE WIDTHS OF SOBOLEV CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永平; 许贵桥

    2003-01-01

    This paper concerns the problem of the Kolmogorov n-width, the linear n-width, the Gel'fand n-width and the Bernstein n-width of Sobolev classes of the periodicmultivariate functions in the space Lp(Td) and the average Bernstein σ-width, averageKolmogorov σ-widths, the average linear σ-widths of Sobolev classes of the multivariatequantities.

  5. Stochastic averaging of quasi-Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱位秋

    1996-01-01

    A stochastic averaging method is proposed for quasi-Hamiltonian systems (Hamiltonian systems with light dampings subject to weakly stochastic excitations). Various versions of the method, depending on whether the associated Hamiltonian systems are integrable or nonintegrable, resonant or nonresonant, are discussed. It is pointed out that the standard stochastic averaging method and the stochastic averaging method of energy envelope are special cases of the stochastic averaging method of quasi-Hamiltonian systems and that the results obtained by this method for several examples prove its effectiveness.

  6. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  7. Analysis on Change Characteristics of the Average Temperature in Sichuan in 50 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to analyze change characteristics of the average temperature in Sichuan in 50 years.[Method] By using average temperature data at 156 stations of Sichuan from 1961 to 2010,interannual and interdecadal evolution characteristics,regional and seasonal differences of the average temperature in Sichuan in 50 years were analyzed.[Result] Variations of the average temperatures in the whole province and each climatic region in 50 years all presented rise trends.Rise amplitude of the a...

  8. COSMIC monthly progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  9. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical

  10. Electric power monthly with data for January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  11. Electric power monthly with data for October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  12. Electric power monthly, September 1996, with data for June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  13. Electric power monthly with data for December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  14. Electric power monthly, June 1998, with data for March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and Us levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 5 refs., 57 tabs.

  15. Electric power monthly, June 1995 with data for March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-19

    The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 68 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

  17. Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-01-01

    The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

  18. Average sampling theorems for shift invariant subspaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The sampling theorem is one of the most powerful results in signal analysis. In this paper, we study the average sampling on shift invariant subspaces, e.g. wavelet subspaces. We show that if a subspace satisfies certain conditions, then every function in the subspace is uniquely determined and can be reconstructed by its local averages near certain sampling points. Examples are given.

  19. Testing linearity against nonlinear moving average models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gooijer, J.G.; Brännäs, K.; Teräsvirta, T.

    1998-01-01

    Lagrange multiplier (LM) test statistics are derived for testing a linear moving average model against an additive smooth transition moving average model. The latter model is introduced in the paper. The small sample performance of the proposed tests are evaluated in a Monte Carlo study and compared

  20. Averaging Einstein's equations : The linearized case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoeger, William R.; Helmi, Amina; Torres, Diego F.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a simple and straightforward averaging procedure, which is a generalization of one which is commonly used in electrodynamics, and show that it possesses all the characteristics we require for linearized averaging in general relativity and cosmology for weak-field and perturbed FLRW situ

  1. Averaging Einstein's equations : The linearized case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoeger, William R.; Helmi, Amina; Torres, Diego F.

    We introduce a simple and straightforward averaging procedure, which is a generalization of one which is commonly used in electrodynamics, and show that it possesses all the characteristics we require for linearized averaging in general relativity and cosmology for weak-field and perturbed FLRW

  2. Average excitation potentials of air and aluminium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaardt, M.; Koudijs, B.

    1951-01-01

    By means of a graphical method the average excitation potential I may be derived from experimental data. Average values for Iair and IAl have been obtained. It is shown that in representing range/energy relations by means of Bethe's well known formula, I has to be taken as a continuously changing fu

  3. Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-01-01

    The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

  4. Photograph of the month

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Sigmoid (σ-type) structure in mylonite exposed along the wall of the Blue Nile Canyon in Bure, Ethiopian Plateau, Ethiopia. The Blue Nile River carved a 1.6 km deep and extensive canyon on the Ethiopian Plateau and exposed Neoproterozoic to Quaternary rocks. The lenticular-shaped sigmoid is a deformed feldspar aggregate with elongated wings at both ends. The wings of the clast step up in the direction of movement of the upper part of shear zone, thus showing a dextral (right-lateral) sense of shear. This Neoproteozoic-Early Paleozoic shear zone might have formed by dynamic metamorphism during the East African Orogeny, which is related to the collision between East and West Gondwanaland. The horizontal scale bar in the photograph is 5 cm. Outcrop location Bure region (10° 20.326' N, 037°1.305 E, 1580 m altitude). Photograph © Nahid D. Gani, WKU, Bowling Green, USA (nahid.gani@wku.edu).

  5. New results on averaging theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândido, Murilo R.; Llibre, Jaume

    2016-08-01

    The usual averaging theory reduces the computation of some periodic solutions of a system of ordinary differential equations, to find the simple zeros of an associated averaged function. When one of these zeros is not simple, i.e., the Jacobian of the averaged function in it is zero, the classical averaging theory does not provide information about the periodic solution associated to a non-simple zero. Here we provide sufficient conditions in order that the averaging theory can be applied also to non-simple zeros for studying their associated periodic solutions. Additionally, we do two applications of this new result for studying the zero-Hopf bifurcation in the Lorenz system and in the Fitzhugh-Nagumo system.

  6. Analogue Divider by Averaging a Triangular Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Krishnagiri Chinnathambi

    2017-08-01

    A new analogue divider circuit by averaging a triangular wave using operational amplifiers is explained in this paper. The triangle wave averaging analog divider using operational amplifiers is explained here. The reference triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level up towards positive power supply voltage level. Its positive portion is obtained by a positive rectifier and its average value is obtained by a low pass filter. The same triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level to down towards negative power supply voltage level. Its negative portion is obtained by a negative rectifier and its average value is obtained by another low pass filter. Both the averaged voltages are combined in a summing amplifier and the summed voltage is given to an op-amp as negative input. This op-amp is configured to work in a negative closed environment. The op-amp output is the divider output.

  7. GPM, GMI Level 3 Monthly GPROF Profiling VV03B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  8. GPM, GMI Level 3 Monthly GPROF Profiling VV03C

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  9. GPM, GMI Level 3 Monthly GPROF Profiling VV03A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  10. TES/Aura L3 CO Monthly Gridded V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monthly averages of atmospheric temperature and VMR for atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard...

  11. TES/Aura L3 CO Monthly Gridded V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monthly averages of atmospheric temperature and VMR for atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard...

  12. Monthly SST images of Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Average monthy Sea Surfact Temperature http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/ Naming Convention: XXXX_YYYYMM_SST.tif XXXX=location (Stell) YYYY=year MM=month Example filename:...

  13. TES/Aura L3 HDO Monthly Gridded V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monthly averages of atmospheric temperature and VMR for atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard...

  14. TES/Aura L3 CO Monthly Gridded V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monthly averages of atmospheric temperature and VMR for atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard...

  15. TES/Aura L3 HDO Monthly Gridded V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monthly averages of atmospheric temperature and VMR for atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard...

  16. U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1981-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Monthly Climate Normals for 1981 to 2010 are 30-year averages of meteorological parameters for thousands of U.S. stations located across the 50 states, as...

  17. TES/Aura L3 HDO Monthly Gridded V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monthly averages of atmospheric temperature and VMR for atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard...

  18. 76 FR 32857 - Great Outdoors Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ..., bolstered our economy, and fueled our national spirit of adventure and independence. The United States holds... life and our health, rejuvenate local and regional economies, spur job creation, protect wildlife and... healthy, active, and energized, while reconnecting with their natural heritage. This month, let each of us...

  19. Heat-Stress Regions in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, S.

    The data of 20 climatic stations have been examined to determine heat-stress regions in Israel. The data was interpolated and a model was developed for the calculation of direct and diffuse solar radiation. Thermal perception was calculated according to the energy-balance model of man which considers all relevant energy fluxes affecting the human thermo-regulatory system. It is based on the `Comfort Equation' of Fanger (1972) and the `Klima-Michel-Modell' of Jendritzky et al. (1990). Earlier approaches for the assessment of thermal environmental conditions have been done by Sohar (1980), based on the discomfort index. The average daily duration of severe heat stress which a person is exposed to during various activities in summer months has been analyzed in order to classify the thermal environmental conditions in Israel. Statistical evaluations have led to six heat-stress clusters and regions, respectively. A model calculating the spatial development of climatic data between two measuring stations was set up and served to determine the location of the distinctions between the regions. The resulting heat-stress map shows the different heat-stress regions in Israel. The regions are characterized by graphs that show the average monthly duration of light, medium and severe heat-stress. The average duration of severe heat-stress varies in July from approximately 3 hours along the coastal strip and in the higher mountain regions to approximately 13 hours in the Arava.

  20. Simple Moving Average: A Method of Reporting Evolving Complication Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Samuel M; Chang, Yu-Hui H; Hattrup, Steven J

    2016-09-01

    Surgeons often cite published complication rates when discussing surgery with patients. However, these rates may not truly represent current results or an individual surgeon's experience with a given procedure. This study proposes a novel method to more accurately report current complication trends that may better represent the patient's potential experience: simple moving average. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is an increasingly popular and rapidly evolving procedure with highly variable reported complication rates. The authors used an RSA model to test and evaluate the usefulness of simple moving average. This study reviewed 297 consecutive RSA procedures performed by a single surgeon and noted complications in 50 patients (16.8%). Simple moving average for total complications as well as minor, major, acute, and chronic complications was then calculated using various lag intervals. These findings showed trends toward fewer total, major, and chronic complications over time, and these trends were represented best with a lag of 75 patients. Average follow-up within this lag was 26.2 months. Rates for total complications decreased from 17.3% to 8% at the most recent simple moving average. The authors' traditional complication rate with RSA (16.8%) is consistent with reported rates. However, the use of simple moving average shows that this complication rate decreased over time, with current trends (8%) markedly lower, giving the senior author a more accurate picture of his evolving complication trends with RSA. Compared with traditional methods, simple moving average can be used to better reflect current trends in complication rates associated with a surgical procedure and may better represent the patient's potential experience. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e869-e876.].

  1. Averaged Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Isidro, Eddy G Chirinos; Piattella, Oliver F; Zimdahl, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    We consider cosmological backreaction effects in Buchert's averaging formalism on the basis of an explicit solution of the Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dynamics which is linear in the LTB curvature parameter and has an inhomogeneous bang time. The volume Hubble rate is found in terms of the volume scale factor which represents a derivation of the simplest phenomenological solution of Buchert's equations in which the fractional densities corresponding to average curvature and kinematic backreaction are explicitly determined by the parameters of the underlying LTB solution at the boundary of the averaging volume. This configuration represents an exactly solvable toy model but it does not adequately describe our "real" Universe.

  2. Average-passage flow model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark

    1989-01-01

    A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.

  3. FREQUENTIST MODEL AVERAGING ESTIMATION: A REVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiying WANG; Xinyu ZHANG; Guohua ZOU

    2009-01-01

    In applications, the traditional estimation procedure generally begins with model selection.Once a specific model is selected, subsequent estimation is conducted under the selected model without consideration of the uncertainty from the selection process. This often leads to the underreporting of variability and too optimistic confidence sets. Model averaging estimation is an alternative to this procedure, which incorporates model uncertainty into the estimation process. In recent years, there has been a rising interest in model averaging from the frequentist perspective, and some important progresses have been made. In this paper, the theory and methods on frequentist model averaging estimation are surveyed. Some future research topics are also discussed.

  4. Averaging of Backscatter Intensities in Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, John J.; Pingitore, Nicholas E.; Westphal, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Low uncertainty measurements on pure element stable isotope pairs demonstrate that mass has no influence on the backscattering of electrons at typical electron microprobe energies. The traditional prediction of average backscatter intensities in compounds using elemental mass fractions is improperly grounded in mass and thus has no physical basis. We propose an alternative model to mass fraction averaging, based of the number of electrons or protons, termed “electron fraction,” which predicts backscatter yield better than mass fraction averaging. PMID:27446752

  5. Experimental Demonstration of Squeezed State Quantum Averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lassen, Mikael; Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, Radim; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2010-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a universal quantum averaging process implementing the harmonic mean of quadrature variances. The harmonic mean protocol can be used to efficiently stabilize a set of fragile squeezed light sources with statistically fluctuating noise levels. The averaged variances are prepared probabilistically by means of linear optical interference and measurement induced conditioning. We verify that the implemented harmonic mean outperforms the standard arithmetic mean strategy. The effect of quantum averaging is experimentally tested both for uncorrelated and partially correlated noise sources with sub-Poissonian shot noise or super-Poissonian shot noise characteristics.

  6. The Average Lower Connectivity of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Aslan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For a vertex v of a graph G, the lower connectivity, denoted by sv(G, is the smallest number of vertices that contains v and those vertices whose deletion from G produces a disconnected or a trivial graph. The average lower connectivity denoted by κav(G is the value (∑v∈VGsvG/VG. It is shown that this parameter can be used to measure the vulnerability of networks. This paper contains results on bounds for the average lower connectivity and obtains the average lower connectivity of some graphs.

  7. Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P

    2008-10-31

    If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics.

  8. Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoen, Robert; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL) has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure......, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE), to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate...

  9. MAIN STAGES SCIENTIFIC AND PRODUCTION MASTERING THE TERRITORY AVERAGE URAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Bochko

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Questions of the shaping Average Ural, as industrial territory, on base her scientific study and production mastering are considered in the article. It is shown that studies of Ural resources and particularities of the vital activity of its population were concerned by Russian and foreign scientist in XVIII-XIX centuries. It is noted that in XX century there was a transition to systematic organizing-economic study of production power, society and natures of Average Ural. More attention addressed on new problems of region and on needs of their scientific solving.

  10. Appeals Council Requests - Average Processing Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual data from 1989 through 2015 for the average processing time (elapsed time in days) for dispositions by the Appeals Council (AC) (both...

  11. Average Vegetation Growth 1990 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1990 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  12. Average Vegetation Growth 1997 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1997 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  13. Average Vegetation Growth 1992 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1992 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  14. Average Vegetation Growth 2001 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2001 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  15. Average Vegetation Growth 1995 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1995 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  16. Average Vegetation Growth 2000 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2000 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  17. Average Vegetation Growth 1998 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1998 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  18. Average Vegetation Growth 1994 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1994 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  19. Average Vegetation Growth 1996 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1996 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  20. Average Vegetation Growth 2005 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2005 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  1. Average Vegetation Growth 1993 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1993 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  2. A practical guide to averaging functions

    CERN Document Server

    Beliakov, Gleb; Calvo Sánchez, Tomasa

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an easy-to-use and practice-oriented reference guide to mathematical averages. It presents different ways of aggregating input values given on a numerical scale, and of choosing and/or constructing aggregating functions for specific applications. Building on a previous monograph by Beliakov et al. published by Springer in 2007, it outlines new aggregation methods developed in the interim, with a special focus on the topic of averaging aggregation functions. It examines recent advances in the field, such as aggregation on lattices, penalty-based aggregation and weakly monotone averaging, and extends many of the already existing methods, such as: ordered weighted averaging (OWA), fuzzy integrals and mixture functions. A substantial mathematical background is not called for, as all the relevant mathematical notions are explained here and reported on together with a wealth of graphical illustrations of distinct families of aggregation functions. The authors mainly focus on practical applications ...

  3. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.h.friese@uit.no; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  4. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Daniel H.; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  5. Average Annual Precipitation (PRISM model) 1961 - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1961-1990. Parameter-elevation...

  6. Symmetric Euler orientation representations for orientational averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G

    2005-09-01

    A new kind of orientation representation called symmetric Euler orientation representation (SEOR) is presented. It is based on a combination of the conventional Euler orientation representations (Euler angles) and Hamilton's quaternions. The properties of the SEORs concerning orientational averaging are explored and compared to those of averaging schemes that are based on conventional Euler orientation representations. To that aim, the reflectance of a hypothetical polycrystalline material with orthorhombic crystal symmetry was calculated. The calculation was carried out according to the average refractive index theory (ARIT [T.G. Mayerhöfer, Appl. Spectrosc. 56 (2002) 1194]). It is shown that the use of averaging schemes based on conventional Euler orientation representations leads to a dependence of the result from the specific Euler orientation representation that was utilized and from the initial position of the crystal. The latter problem can be overcome partly by the introduction of a weighing factor, but only for two-axes-type Euler orientation representations. In case of a numerical evaluation of the average, a residual difference remains also if a two-axes type Euler orientation representation is used despite of the utilization of a weighing factor. In contrast, this problem does not occur if a symmetric Euler orientation representation is used as a matter of principle, while the result of the averaging for both types of orientation representations converges with increasing number of orientations considered in the numerical evaluation. Additionally, the use of a weighing factor and/or non-equally spaced steps in the numerical evaluation of the average is not necessary. The symmetrical Euler orientation representations are therefore ideally suited for the use in orientational averaging procedures.

  7. Cosmic Inhomogeneities and the Average Cosmological Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a `dark energy'. However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the \\emph{in}homogeneous Universe, the averaged \\emph{homogeneous} Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic ini...

  8. Average Bandwidth Allocation Model of WFQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Balogh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new iterative method for the calculation of average bandwidth assignment to traffic flows using a WFQ scheduler in IP based NGN networks. The bandwidth assignment calculation is based on the link speed, assigned weights, arrival rate, and average packet length or input rate of the traffic flows. We prove the model outcome with examples and simulation results using NS2 simulator.

  9. An assessment of El Niño and La Niña impacts focused on monthly and seasonal rainfall and extreme dry/precipitation events in mountain regions of Colombia and México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla Herrera, María Carolina; Andrés Pinzón Correa, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    The influence of El Niño and La Niña on monthly and seasonal rainfall over mountain landscapes in Colombia and México was assessed based on the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI). A statistical analysis was develop to compare the extreme dry/precipitation events between El Niño, La Niña and Neutral episodes. For both areas, it was observed that El Niño and La Niña episodes are associated with important increases or decreases in rainfall. However, Neutral episodes showed the highest occurrence of extreme precipitation/dry events. For a better understanding of the impact of El Niño and La Niña on seasonal precipitation, we did a compound and a GIS analyses to define the high/low probability of above, below or normal seasonal precipitation under El Niño, La Niña and cold/warm Neutral episodes. In San Vicente, Colombia the below-normal seasonal rainfall was identified during El Niño and Neutral episodes in the dry season JJA. In this same municipality we also found above-normal seasonal rainfall during La Niña and Neutral episodes, especially in the dry season DJF. In Tancítaro México the below-normal seasonal rainfall was identified during La Niña winters (DJF) and El Niño summers (JJA), the above-normal seasonal rainfall was found during La Niña summers (JJA) and El Niño winters (DJF).

  10. Electronic Services Monthly MI Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This electronic services monthly MI report contains monthly MI data for most public facing online online applications such as iClaim, electronic access, Mobile wage...

  11. Comparison of seasonal and yearly average indoor radon levels using CR-39 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Said [Space Applications Division, SPAS Dte, Sparcent, SUPARCO, Karachi-75270 (Pakistan); Matiullah, E-mail: matiullah@pinstech.org.p [Physics Division, PINSTECH, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ghauri, B.M. [Space Applications Division, SPAS Dte, Sparcent, SUPARCO, Karachi-75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-02-15

    In order to assess the effect of long term exposure, CR-39 based radon dosimeters were exposed to indoor radon in the drawing rooms (living room) of 200 selected houses of the districts of Swabi, Mardan and Charsadda in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) as well as in the Mohmand and Bajuar Agencies of the federally administered tribal areas (FATA), Pakistan. Dosimeters were exposed to the indoor radon during each season as well as throughout the year. From the measured indoor radon data it was observed that seasonal yearly average value were higher than that of the 12 months average indoor radon concentration values. The overall seasonal average was found to be 13% higher than that of the 12 months exposed CR-39 based dosimeters. However after the removal of the worst differences, seasonal average remains only 8 % higher than the 12 months averaged value.

  12. Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months Print A A A What's in ... months of life are a period of rapid growth. Your baby will gain about 1 to 1½ ...

  13. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  14. A case of Dravet syndrome with cortical myoclonus indicated by jerk-locked back-averaging of electroencephalogram data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Hanaoka, Yoshiyuki; Akiayma, Tomoyuki; Ohmori, Iori; Ouchida, Mamoru; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Oka, Makio; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    We report a female patient with Dravet syndrome (DS) with erratic segmental myoclonus, the origin of which was first identified in the cerebral cortex by the detection of myoclonus-associated cortical discharges. The discharges were disclosed through jerk-locked back-averaging of electroencephalogram (EEG) data using the muscle activity of myoclonus as triggers. The detected spikes on the contralateral parieto-central region preceded myoclonic muscle activity in the forearms by 28-46ms. The patient was six months old at the time of examination, and was developing normally before seizure onset at two months of age. She suffered from recurrent afebrile or febrile generalized tonic-clonic seizures that often developed into status epilepticus. Interictal EEG and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no significant findings. The amplitudes of the somatosensory-evoked potentials were not extremely large. She has a chromosomal microdeletion involving SCN1A and adjacent genes.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  1. Averaged controllability of parameter dependent conservative semigroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohéac, Jérôme; Zuazua, Enrique

    2017-02-01

    We consider the problem of averaged controllability for parameter depending (either in a discrete or continuous fashion) control systems, the aim being to find a control, independent of the unknown parameters, so that the average of the states is controlled. We do it in the context of conservative models, both in an abstract setting and also analysing the specific examples of the wave and Schrödinger equations. Our first result is of perturbative nature. Assuming the averaging probability measure to be a small parameter-dependent perturbation (in a sense that we make precise) of an atomic measure given by a Dirac mass corresponding to a specific realisation of the system, we show that the averaged controllability property is achieved whenever the system corresponding to the support of the Dirac is controllable. Similar tools can be employed to obtain averaged versions of the so-called Ingham inequalities. Particular attention is devoted to the 1d wave equation in which the time-periodicity of solutions can be exploited to obtain more precise results, provided the parameters involved satisfy Diophantine conditions ensuring the lack of resonances.

  2. ANTINOMY OF THE MODERN AVERAGE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Listvin

    2017-01-01

    of ways of their decision and options of the valid upgrade of the SPE system answering to the requirements of economy. The inefficiency of the concept of one-leveled SPE and its non-competitiveness against the background of development of an applied bachelor degree at the higher school is shown. It is offered to differentiate programs of basic level for training of skilled workers and the program of the increased level for training of specialists of an average link (technicians, technologists on the basis of basic level for forming of a single system of continuous professional training and effective functioning of regional systems of professional education. Such system will help to eliminate disproportions in a triad «a worker – a technician – an engineer», and will increase the quality of professional education. Furthermore, it is indicated the need of polyprofessional education wherein the integrated educational structures differing in degree of formation of split-level educational institutions on the basis of network interaction, convergence and integration are required. According to the author, in the regions it is necessary to develop two types of organizations and SPE organizations: territorial multi-profile colleges with flexible variable programs and the organizations realizing educational programs of applied qualifications in specific industries (metallurgical, chemical, construction, etc. according to the specifics of economy of territorial subjects.Practical significance. The results of the research can be useful to specialists of management of education, heads and pedagogical staff of SPE institutions, and also representatives of regional administrations and employers while organizing the multilevel network system of training of skilled workers and experts of middle ranking.

  3. Average Temperatures in the Southwestern United States, 2000-2015 Versus Long-Term Average

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This indicator shows how the average air temperature from 2000 to 2015 has differed from the long-term average (1895–2015). To provide more detailed information,...

  4. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  5. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  6. Cosmic structure, averaging and dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Wiltshire, David L

    2013-01-01

    These lecture notes review the theoretical problems associated with coarse-graining the observed inhomogeneous structure of the universe at late epochs, of describing average cosmic evolution in the presence of growing inhomogeneity, and of relating average quantities to physical observables. In particular, a detailed discussion of the timescape scenario is presented. In this scenario, dark energy is realized as a misidentification of gravitational energy gradients which result from gradients in the kinetic energy of expansion of space, in the presence of density and spatial curvature gradients that grow large with the growth of structure. The phenomenology and observational tests of the timescape model are discussed in detail, with updated constraints from Planck satellite data. In addition, recent results on the variation of the Hubble expansion on < 100/h Mpc scales are discussed. The spherically averaged Hubble law is significantly more uniform in the rest frame of the Local Group of galaxies than in t...

  7. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alexander Bentley

    Full Text Available For the 20(th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  8. Benchmarking statistical averaging of spectra with HULLAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

    2008-11-01

    Knowledge of radiative properties of hot plasmas is important for ICF, astrophysics, etc When mid-Z or high-Z elements are present, the spectra are so complex that one commonly uses statistically averaged description of atomic systems [1]. In a recent experiment on Fe[2], performed under controlled conditions, high resolution transmission spectra were obtained. The new version of HULLAC [3] allows the use of the same model with different levels of details/averaging. We will take advantage of this feature to check the effect of averaging with comparison with experiment. [1] A Bar-Shalom, J Oreg, and M Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectros. Rad. Transf. 65, 43 (2000). [2] J. E. Bailey, G. A. Rochau, C. A. Iglesias et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 265002-4 (2007). [3]. M. Klapisch, M. Busquet, and A. Bar-Shalom, AIP Conference Proceedings 926, 206-15 (2007).

  9. Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shu-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking develops methods of mathematical analysis inspired by the interest in reverse engineering  and analysis of bacterial  convergence by chemotaxis and to apply similar stochastic optimization techniques in other environments. The first half of the text presents significant advances in stochastic averaging theory, necessitated by the fact that existing theorems are restricted to systems with linear growth, globally exponentially stable average models, vanishing stochastic perturbations, and prevent analysis over infinite time horizon. The second half of the text introduces stochastic extremum seeking algorithms for model-free optimization of systems in real time using stochastic perturbations for estimation of their gradients. Both gradient- and Newton-based algorithms are presented, offering the user the choice between the simplicity of implementation (gradient) and the ability to achieve a known, arbitrary convergence rate (Newton). The design of algorithms...

  10. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  11. High Average Power Yb:YAG Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, L E; Beach, R J; Payne, S A

    2001-05-23

    We are working on a composite thin-disk laser design that can be scaled as a source of high brightness laser power for tactical engagement and other high average power applications. The key component is a diffusion-bonded composite comprising a thin gain-medium and thicker cladding that is strikingly robust and resolves prior difficulties with high average power pumping/cooling and the rejection of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). In contrast to high power rods or slabs, the one-dimensional nature of the cooling geometry and the edge-pump geometry scale gracefully to very high average power. The crucial design ideas have been verified experimentally. Progress this last year included: extraction with high beam quality using a telescopic resonator, a heterogeneous thin film coating prescription that meets the unusual requirements demanded by this laser architecture, thermal management with our first generation cooler. Progress was also made in design of a second-generation laser.

  12. Model selection for global and diffuse radiation over the Central Black Sea (CBS) region of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarhan, Sefa [Gaziosmanpasa Univ., Dept. of Farm Machinery, Tokat (Turkey); Sari, Ahmet [Gaziosmanpasa Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Tokat (Turkey)

    2005-03-01

    Solar radiation over the Central Black Sea Region of Turkey, covering the five provinces (Amasya, Corum, Ordu, Samsun and Tokat), was analyzed to guide future projects. The maximum monthly average global solar radiation ranged from 20.05 (for Ordu) to 23.71 MJ m{sup -2} (for Tokat). The maximum monthly average daily measured sunshine duration ranged from 6.89 (for Ordu) to 11 h (for Corum). A quadratic polynomial equation was empirically developed to predict the monthly average daily global radiation. A hybrid model was also developed based on the predictions of six existing models to predict the monthly average daily diffuse and beam radiation. Various statistical tests (analysis of variance for model adequacy and t-test for significance of model parameter etc.) have shown that the models developed in this study are adequate for solar radiation prediction. (Author)

  13. The modulated average structure of mullite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenstock, Johannes; Petříček, Václav; Pedersen, Bjoern; Schneider, Hartmut; Fischer, Reinhard X

    2015-06-01

    Homogeneous and inclusion-free single crystals of 2:1 mullite (Al(4.8)Si(1.2)O(9.6)) grown by the Czochralski technique were examined by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. The observed diffuse scattering together with the pattern of satellite reflections confirm previously published data and are thus inherent features of the mullite structure. The ideal composition was closely met as confirmed by microprobe analysis (Al(4.82 (3))Si(1.18 (1))O(9.59 (5))) and by average structure refinements. 8 (5) to 20 (13)% of the available Si was found in the T* position of the tetrahedra triclusters. The strong tendencey for disorder in mullite may be understood from considerations of hypothetical superstructures which would have to be n-fivefold with respect to the three-dimensional average unit cell of 2:1 mullite and n-fourfold in case of 3:2 mullite. In any of these the possible arrangements of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral units would inevitably be unfavorable. Three directions of incommensurate modulations were determined: q1 = [0.3137 (2) 0 ½], q2 = [0 0.4021 (5) 0.1834 (2)] and q3 = [0 0.4009 (5) -0.1834 (2)]. The one-dimensional incommensurately modulated crystal structure associated with q1 was refined for the first time using the superspace approach. The modulation is dominated by harmonic occupational modulations of the atoms in the di- and the triclusters of the tetrahedral units in mullite. The modulation amplitudes are small and the harmonic character implies that the modulated structure still represents an average structure in the overall disordered arrangement of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral structural units. In other words, when projecting the local assemblies at the scale of a few tens of average mullite cells into cells determined by either one of the modulation vectors q1, q2 or q3 a weak average modulation results with slightly varying average occupation factors for the tetrahedral units. As a result, the real

  14. A singularity theorem based on spatial averages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J M M Senovilla

    2007-07-01

    Inspired by Raychaudhuri's work, and using the equation named after him as a basic ingredient, a new singularity theorem is proved. Open non-rotating Universes, expanding everywhere with a non-vanishing spatial average of the matter variables, show severe geodesic incompletness in the past. Another way of stating the result is that, under the same conditions, any singularity-free model must have a vanishing spatial average of the energy density (and other physical variables). This is very satisfactory and provides a clear decisive difference between singular and non-singular cosmologies.

  15. Average: the juxtaposition of procedure and context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen; Callingham, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents recent data on the performance of 247 middle school students on questions concerning average in three contexts. Analysis includes considering levels of understanding linking definition and context, performance across contexts, the relative difficulty of tasks, and difference in performance for male and female students. The outcomes lead to a discussion of the expectations of the curriculum and its implementation, as well as assessment, in relation to students' skills in carrying out procedures and their understanding about the meaning of average in context.

  16. SOURCE TERMS FOR AVERAGE DOE SNF CANISTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Goluoglu

    2000-06-09

    The objective of this calculation is to generate source terms for each type of Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister that may be disposed of at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope of this calculation is limited to generating source terms for average DOE SNF canisters, and is not intended to be used for subsequent calculations requiring bounding source terms. This calculation is to be used in future Performance Assessment calculations, or other shielding or thermal calculations requiring average source terms.

  17. An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach for appr......Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach...

  18. Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Feragen, Aasa; Black, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    As the collection of large datasets becomes increasingly automated, the occurrence of outliers will increase—“big data” implies “big outliers”. While principal component analysis (PCA) is often used to reduce the size of data, and scalable solutions exist, it is well-known that outliers can...... to vectors (subspaces) or elements of vectors; we focus on the latter and use a trimmed average. The resulting Trimmed Grassmann Average (TGA) is particularly appropriate for computer vision because it is robust to pixel outliers. The algorithm has low computational complexity and minimal memory requirements...

  19. Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Brian S

    2015-09-01

    Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the t

  20. Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the

  1. First experiences with the Fitmore® hip stem: Early results of the 16-month monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Marko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Fitmore® hip stem belongs to the group of short stem prostheses with the metaphysar stabilization, with its shape and form that protects the bone mass in the greater trochanter region and the distal part of the femur. The aim of this paper was to present the early postoperative results in patients with implanted Fitmore® hip stem and point out some of the advantages. Methods. A series of 10 patients with implanted Fitmore® hip stem, was included in this study. The average age of the patients was 54.5 (48–65 years. There were 5 women and 5 men. The total monitoring time was 16 months. To rate the condition of the hip joint we used The Western Ontario and Mc Master Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC score. We also monitored the degree of hip pain, hip flexion, heterotopic ossification and indentation in the stem of the prosthesis. Results. After 12 months of monitoring 9 (90% of the patients had no pain in the thigh region, and only 1 (10% experienced mild pain. The hip flexion rose from the average 89° to postoperative 114°. WOMAC score rose as well, from 49 to 94 average points. Indentation in the stem was registered 3 months after the operation in 2 (20% of the patients – in one of the patients the indentation was 3 mm and in the other patient 5 mm. After the 16-month monitoring, the results were excellent. The monitoring period was short though it should be continued and the results should be presented after 5 and then after 10 years. Conclusion. Early results of the implantation Fitmore stem showed good bone ingrowth with excellent functional result.

  2. Trends in monthly precipitation over the northwest of Iran (NWI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakereh, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Increasing global temperatures during the last century have had their own effects on other climatic conditions, particularly on precipitation characteristics. This study was meant to investigate the spatial and temporal monthly trends of precipitation using the least square error (LSE) approach for the northwest of Iran (NWI). To this end, a database was obtained from 250 measuring stations uniformly scattered all over NWI from 1961 to 2010. The spatial average of annual precipitation in NWI during the period of study was approximately 220.9-726.7 mm. The annual precipitation decreased from southwest to northeast, while the large amount of precipitation was concentrated in the south-west and in the mountainous areas. All over NWI, the maximum and minimum precipitation records occurred from March to May and July to September, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) is greater than 44 % in all of NWI and may reach over 76 % in many places. The greatest range of CV, for instance, occurred during July. The spatial variability of precipitation was consistent with a tempo-spatial pattern of precipitation trends. There was a considerable difference between the amounts of change during the months, and the negative trends were mainly attributed to areas concentrated in eastern and southern parts of NWI far from the western mountain ranges. Moreover, limited areas with positive precipitation trends can be found in very small and isolated regions. This is observable particularly in the eastern half of NWI, which is mostly located far from Westerlies. On the other hand, seasonal precipitation trends indicated a slight decrease during winter and spring and a slight increase during summer and autumn. Consequently, there were major changes in average precipitation that occurred negatively in the area under study during the observation period. This finding is in agreement with those findings by recent studies which revealed a decreasing trend of around 2 mm/year over NWI

  3. Parameterized Traveling Salesman Problem: Beating the Average

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutin, G.; Patel, V.

    2016-01-01

    In the traveling salesman problem (TSP), we are given a complete graph Kn together with an integer weighting w on the edges of Kn, and we are asked to find a Hamilton cycle of Kn of minimum weight. Let h(w) denote the average weight of a Hamilton cycle of Kn for the weighting w. Vizing in 1973 asked

  4. On averaging methods for partial differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, F.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of weakly nonlinear partial differential equations both qualitatively and quantitatively is emerging as an exciting eld of investigation In this report we consider specic results related to averaging but we do not aim at completeness The sections and contain important material which

  5. Discontinuities and hysteresis in quantized average consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceragioli, Francesca; Persis, Claudio De; Frasca, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    We consider continuous-time average consensus dynamics in which the agents’ states are communicated through uniform quantizers. Solutions to the resulting system are defined in the Krasowskii sense and are proven to converge to conditions of ‘‘practical consensus’’. To cope with undesired chattering

  6. Bayesian Averaging is Well-Temperated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    2000-01-01

    Bayesian predictions are stochastic just like predictions of any other inference scheme that generalize from a finite sample. While a simple variational argument shows that Bayes averaging is generalization optimal given that the prior matches the teacher parameter distribution the situation...

  7. A Functional Measurement Study on Averaging Numerosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tira, Michael D.; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Vidotto, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, participants judged the average numerosity between two sequentially presented dot patterns to perform an approximate arithmetic task. In Experiment 1, the response was given on a 0-20 numerical scale (categorical scaling), and in Experiment 2, the response was given by the production of a dot pattern of the desired numerosity…

  8. Generalized Jackknife Estimators of Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    With the aim of improving the quality of asymptotic distributional approximations for nonlinear functionals of nonparametric estimators, this paper revisits the large-sample properties of an important member of that class, namely a kernel-based weighted average derivative estimator. Asymptotic li...

  9. Bootstrapping Density-Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    Employing the "small bandwidth" asymptotic framework of Cattaneo, Crump, and Jansson (2009), this paper studies the properties of a variety of bootstrap-based inference procedures associated with the kernel-based density-weighted averaged derivative estimator proposed by Powell, Stock, and Stoker...

  10. Quantum Averaging of Squeezed States of Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squeezing has been recognized as the main resource for quantum information processing and an important resource for beating classical detection strategies. It is therefore of high importance to reliably generate stable squeezing over longer periods of time. The averaging procedure for a single qu...

  11. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore Bayesian model averaging in the propensity score context. Previous research on Bayesian propensity score analysis does not take into account model uncertainty. In this regard, an internally consistent Bayesian framework for model building and estimation must also account for model uncertainty. The…

  12. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Hommes, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type

  13. Average utility maximization: A preference foundation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.V. Kothiyal (Amit); V. Spinu (Vitalie); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides necessary and sufficient preference conditions for average utility maximization over sequences of variable length. We obtain full generality by using a new algebraic technique that exploits the richness structure naturally provided by the variable length of the sequen

  14. High average-power induction linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prono, D.S.; Barrett, D.; Bowles, E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Clark, J.C.; Coffield, F.; Newton, M.A.; Nexsen, W.; Ravenscroft, D.

    1989-03-15

    Induction linear accelerators (LIAs) are inherently capable of accelerating several thousand amperes of /approximately/ 50-ns duration pulses to > 100 MeV. In this paper we report progress and status in the areas of duty factor and stray power management. These technologies are vital if LIAs are to attain high average power operation. 13 figs.

  15. High Average Power Optical FEL Amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, I; Litvinenko, V

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the first demonstration of the FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL amplifier and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance a 100 kW average power FEL. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting energy recovery linacs combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs with some advantages. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Li...

  16. Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter;

    2011-01-01

      We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...

  17. Full averaging of fuzzy impulsive differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Skripnik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the substantiation of the method of full averaging for fuzzy impulsive differential inclusions is studied. We extend the similar results for impulsive differential inclusions with Hukuhara derivative (Skripnik, 2007, for fuzzy impulsive differential equations (Plotnikov and Skripnik, 2009, and for fuzzy differential inclusions (Skripnik, 2009.

  18. Materials for high average power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, J.E.; Pertica, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Unique materials properties requirements for solid state high average power (HAP) lasers dictate a materials development research program. A review of the desirable laser, optical and thermo-mechanical properties for HAP lasers precedes an assessment of the development status for crystalline and glass hosts optimized for HAP lasers. 24 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Chiarella; X.Z. He; C.H. Hommes

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type use

  20. Forecast of Frost Days Based on Monthly Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, M. T.; Tarquis, A. M.; Morató, M. C.; Saa-Requejo, A.

    2009-04-01

    Although frost can cause considerable crop damage and mitigation practices against forecasted frost exist, frost forecasting technologies have not changed for many years. The paper reports a new method to forecast the monthly number of frost days (FD) for several meteorological stations at Community of Madrid (Spain) based on successive application of two models. The first one is a stochastic model, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), that forecasts monthly minimum absolute temperature (tmin) and monthly average of minimum temperature (tminav) following Box-Jenkins methodology. The second model relates these monthly temperatures to minimum daily temperature distribution during one month. Three ARIMA models were identified for the time series analyzed with a stational period correspondent to one year. They present the same stational behavior (moving average differenced model) and different non-stational part: autoregressive model (Model 1), moving average differenced model (Model 2) and autoregressive and moving average model (Model 3). At the same time, the results point out that minimum daily temperature (tdmin), for the meteorological stations studied, followed a normal distribution each month with a very similar standard deviation through years. This standard deviation obtained for each station and each month could be used as a risk index for cold months. The application of Model 1 to predict minimum monthly temperatures showed the best FD forecast. This procedure provides a tool for crop managers and crop insurance companies to asses the risk of frost frequency and intensity, so that they can take steps to mitigate against frost damage and estimated the damage that frost would cost. This research was supported by Comunidad de Madrid Research Project 076/92. The cooperation of the Spanish National Meteorological Institute and the Spanish Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentation (MAPA) is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  2. Natural gas monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

  3. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  4. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR) replaces the Cost Distribution Report (CDR). The MPCR provides summary information about Veterans Affairs operational costs,...

  6. Visualizing the uncertainty in the relationship between seasonal average climate and malaria risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, D. A.; Morse, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Around $1.6 billion per year is spent financing anti-malaria initiatives, and though malaria morbidity is falling, the impact of annual epidemics remains significant. Whilst malaria risk may increase with climate change, projections are highly uncertain and to sidestep this intractable uncertainty, adaptation efforts should improve societal ability to anticipate and mitigate individual events. Anticipation of climate-related events is made possible by seasonal climate forecasting, from which warnings of anomalous seasonal average temperature and rainfall, months in advance are possible. Seasonal climate hindcasts have been used to drive climate-based models for malaria, showing significant skill for observed malaria incidence. However, the relationship between seasonal average climate and malaria risk remains unquantified. Here we explore this relationship, using a dynamic weather-driven malaria model. We also quantify key uncertainty in the malaria model, by introducing variability in one of the first order uncertainties in model formulation. Results are visualized as location-specific impact surfaces: easily integrated with ensemble seasonal climate forecasts, and intuitively communicating quantified uncertainty. Methods are demonstrated for two epidemic regions, and are not limited to malaria modeling; the visualization method could be applied to any climate impact.

  7. Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Meehan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new general purpose classifier named Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (AETAN, which is based on combining the advantageous characteristics of Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (ETAN and Averaged One-Dependence Estimator (AODE classifiers. We describe the main properties of the approach and algorithms for learning it, along with an analysis of its computational time complexity. Empirical results with numerous data sets indicate that the new approach is superior to ETAN and AODE in terms of both zero-one classification accuracy and log loss. It also compares favourably against weighted AODE and hidden Naive Bayes. The learning phase of the new approach is slower than that of its competitors, while the time complexity for the testing phase is similar. Such characteristics suggest that the new classifier is ideal in scenarios where online learning is not required.

  8. Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Faming

    2010-01-01

    The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400--407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305--320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE al...

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  10. Time-average dynamic speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    For the study of microscopic processes occurring at structural level in solids and thin biological objects, a method of dynamic speckle interferometry successfully applied. However, the method has disadvantages. The purpose of the report is to acquaint colleagues with the method of averaging in time in dynamic speckle - interferometry of microscopic processes, allowing eliminating shortcomings. The main idea of the method is the choice the averaging time, which exceeds the characteristic time correlation (relaxation) the most rapid process. The method theory for a thin phase and the reflecting object is given. The results of the experiment on the high-cycle fatigue of steel and experiment to estimate the biological activity of a monolayer of cells, cultivated on a transparent substrate is given. It is shown that the method allows real-time visualize the accumulation of fatigue damages and reliably estimate the activity of cells with viruses and without viruses.

  11. Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

  12. Endogenous average cost based access pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Fjell, Kenneth; Foros, Øystein; Pal, Debashis

    2006-01-01

    We consider an industry where a downstream competitor requires access to an upstream facility controlled by a vertically integrated and regulated incumbent. The literature on access pricing assumes the access price to be exogenously fixed ex-ante. We analyze an endogenous average cost based access pricing rule, where both firms realize the interdependence among their quantities and the regulated access price. Endogenous access pricing neutralizes the artificial cost advantag...

  13. The Ghirlanda-Guerra identities without averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2009-01-01

    The Ghirlanda-Guerra identities are one of the most mysterious features of spin glasses. We prove the GG identities in a large class of models that includes the Edwards-Anderson model, the random field Ising model, and the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in the presence of a random external field. Previously, the GG identities were rigorously proved only `on average' over a range of temperatures or under small perturbations.

  14. Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

  15. Average Light Intensity Inside a Photobioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herby Jean

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For energy production, microalgae are one of the few alternatives with high potential. Similar to plants, algae require energy acquired from light sources to grow. This project uses calculus to determine the light intensity inside of a photobioreactor filled with algae. Under preset conditions along with estimated values, we applied Lambert-Beer's law to formulate an equation to calculate how much light intensity escapes a photobioreactor and determine the average light intensity that was present inside the reactor.

  16. Unscrambling The "Average User" Of Habbo Hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The “user” is an ambiguous concept in human-computer interaction and information systems. Analyses of users as social actors, participants, or configured users delineate approaches to studying design-use relationships. Here, a developer’s reference to a figure of speech, termed the “average user,” is contrasted with design guidelines. The aim is to create an understanding about categorization practices in design through a case study about the virtual community, Habbo Hotel. A qualitative analysis highlighted not only the meaning of the “average user,” but also the work that both the developer and the category contribute to this meaning. The average user a represents the unknown, b influences the boundaries of the target user groups, c legitimizes the designer to disregard marginal user feedback, and d keeps the design space open, thus allowing for creativity. The analysis shows how design and use are intertwined and highlights the developers’ role in governing different users’ interests.

  17. On Backus average for generally anisotropic layers

    CERN Document Server

    Bos, Len; Slawinski, Michael A; Stanoev, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, following the Backus (1962) approach, we examine expressions for elasticity parameters of a homogeneous generally anisotropic medium that is long-wave-equivalent to a stack of thin generally anisotropic layers. These expressions reduce to the results of Backus (1962) for the case of isotropic and transversely isotropic layers. In over half-a-century since the publications of Backus (1962) there have been numerous publications applying and extending that formulation. However, neither George Backus nor the authors of the present paper are aware of further examinations of mathematical underpinnings of the original formulation; hence, this paper. We prove that---within the long-wave approximation---if the thin layers obey stability conditions then so does the equivalent medium. We examine---within the Backus-average context---the approximation of the average of a product as the product of averages, and express it as a proposition in terms of an upper bound. In the presented examination we use the e...

  18. A simple algorithm for averaging spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julienne, Hannah; Houghton, Conor

    2013-02-25

    Although spike trains are the principal channel of communication between neurons, a single stimulus will elicit different spike trains from trial to trial. This variability, in both spike timings and spike number can obscure the temporal structure of spike trains and often means that computations need to be run on numerous spike trains in order to extract features common across all the responses to a particular stimulus. This can increase the computational burden and obscure analytical results. As a consequence, it is useful to consider how to calculate a central spike train that summarizes a set of trials. Indeed, averaging responses over trials is routine for other signal types. Here, a simple method for finding a central spike train is described. The spike trains are first mapped to functions, these functions are averaged, and a greedy algorithm is then used to map the average function back to a spike train. The central spike trains are tested for a large data set. Their performance on a classification-based test is considerably better than the performance of the medoid spike trains.

  19. Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schoen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Period life expectancy varies with changes in mortality, and should not be confused with the life expectancy of those alive during that period. Given past and likely future mortality changes, a recent debate has arisen on the usefulness of the period life expectancy as the leading measure of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE, to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate measures of mortality are calculated for England and Wales, Norway, and Switzerland for the years 1880 to 2000. CAL is found to be sensitive to past and present changes in death rates. ACLE requires the most data, but gives the best representation of the survivorship of cohorts present at a given time.

  20. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  1. Spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU HePing; YANG ZhiYong; TIAN FuQiang

    2009-01-01

    To quantify the influences of soil heterogeneity on infiltration, a spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil (SAI model) is developed by coupling the spatial averaging approach proposed by Chen et al. and the Generalized Green-Ampt model proposed by Jia et al. In the SAI model, the spatial heterogeneity along the horizontal direction is described by a probability distribution function, while that along the vertical direction is represented by the layered soils. The SAI model is tested on a typical soil using Monte Carlo simulations as the base model. The results show that the SAI model can directly incorporate the influence of spatial heterogeneity on infiltration on the macro scale. It is also found that the homogeneous assumption of soil hydraulic conductivity along the horizontal direction will overestimate the infiltration rate, while that along the vertical direction will underestimate the infiltration rate significantly during rainstorm periods. The SAI model is adopted in the spatial averaging hydrological model developed by the authors, and the results prove that it can be applied in the macro-scale hydrological and land surface process modeling in a promising way.

  2. Spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    To quantify the influences of soil heterogeneity on infiltration, a spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil (SAI model) is developed by coupling the spatial averaging approach proposed by Chen et al. and the Generalized Green-Ampt model proposed by Jia et al. In the SAI model, the spatial hetero- geneity along the horizontal direction is described by a probability distribution function, while that along the vertical direction is represented by the layered soils. The SAI model is tested on a typical soil using Monte Carlo simulations as the base model. The results show that the SAI model can directly incorporate the influence of spatial heterogeneity on infiltration on the macro scale. It is also found that the homogeneous assumption of soil hydraulic conductivity along the horizontal direction will overes- timate the infiltration rate, while that along the vertical direction will underestimate the infiltration rate significantly during rainstorm periods. The SAI model is adopted in the spatial averaging hydrological model developed by the authors, and the results prove that it can be applied in the macro-scale hy- drological and land surface process modeling in a promising way.

  3. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Tinetti, G; Fong, W; Meadows, V S; Snively, H; Velusamy, T; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Meadows, Victoria S.; Snively, Heather; Tinetti, Giovanna; Velusamy, Thangasamy

    2004-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earth-sized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of the planet Mars to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPF-C) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model which uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially-resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions (phase angles) and viewing geometries. Results presented here include disk averaged synthetic spectra, light-cur...

  4. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  5. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. Monthly energy review: April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This monthly report presents an overview of energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. A section is also included on international energy. The feature paper which is included each month is entitled ``Energy equipment choices: Fuel costs and other determinants.`` 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  8. ULTRAPLATE 30 month management report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    2003-01-01

    In the period from month 24 to month 30 focus has been on the work-package 3 activities concerning optimisation of the newly developed ULTRAPLATE technology towards specific industrial applications. Three main application areas have been pursued: 1) High- speed plating of lead free solder contact...

  9. Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months Print A A A What's in ... your child's birth, the doctor has been recording growth in weight, length, and head size (circumference) during ...

  10. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  13. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  14. Monthly energy review, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 36 figs., 61 tabs.

  15. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  16. Monthly energy review, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  17. Monthly energy review, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  18. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  20. Left behind by Birth Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Ingeborg Foldøy

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing comprehensive administrative data from Norway I investigate long-term birth month effects. I demonstrate that the oldest children in class have a substantially higher GPA than their younger peers. The birth month differences are larger for low-SES children. Furthermore, I find that the youngest children in class are lagging significantly…

  1. Monthly Energy Review, February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    This monthly publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics, covering the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief descriptions (`energy plugs`) on two EIA publications are presented at the start.

  2. Haida Months of the Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Robert

    Students are introduced to Haida vocabulary in this booklet which briefly describes the seasons and traditional seasonal activities of Southeastern Alaska Natives. The first section lists the months in English and Haida; e.g., January is "Taan Kungaay," or "Bear Hunting Month." The second section contains seasonal names in…

  3. Monthly energy review, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 75 tabs.

  4. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  5. Runoff and leaching of metolachlor from Mississippi River alluvial soil during seasons of average and below-average rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Lloyd M; Appelboom, Timothy W; Fouss, James L

    2009-02-25

    The movement of the herbicide metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] via runoff and leaching from 0.21 ha plots planted to corn on Mississippi River alluvial soil (Commerce silt loam) was measured for a 6-year period, 1995-2000. The first three years received normal rainfall (30 year average); the second three years experienced reduced rainfall. The 4-month periods prior to application plus the following 4 months after application were characterized by 1039 +/- 148 mm of rainfall for 1995-1997 and by 674 +/- 108 mm for 1998-2000. During the normal rainfall years 216 +/- 150 mm of runoff occurred during the study seasons (4 months following herbicide application), accompanied by 76.9 +/- 38.9 mm of leachate. For the low-rainfall years these amounts were 16.2 +/- 18.2 mm of runoff (92% less than the normal years) and 45.1 +/- 25.5 mm of leachate (41% less than the normal seasons). Runoff of metolachlor during the normal-rainfall seasons was 4.5-6.1% of application, whereas leaching was 0.10-0.18%. For the below-normal periods, these losses were 0.07-0.37% of application in runoff and 0.22-0.27% in leachate. When averages over the three normal and the three less-than-normal seasons were taken, a 35% reduction in rainfall was characterized by a 97% reduction in runoff loss and a 71% increase in leachate loss of metolachlor on a percent of application basis. The data indicate an increase in preferential flow in the leaching movement of metolachlor from the surface soil layer during the reduced rainfall periods. Even with increased preferential flow through the soil during the below-average rainfall seasons, leachate loss (percent of application) of the herbicide remained below 0.3%. Compared to the average rainfall seasons of 1995-1997, the below-normal seasons of 1998-2000 were characterized by a 79% reduction in total runoff and leachate flow and by a 93% reduction in corresponding metolachlor movement via these routes

  6. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, R.J.; Gregg, Jay Sterling; Losey, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950–2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80...... reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined...... with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models....

  7. Predicting monthly precipitation along coastal Ecuador: ENSO and transfer function models

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guenni, Lelys B.; García, Mariangel; Muñoz, Ángel G.; Santos, José L.; Cedeño, Alexandra; Perugachi, Carlos; Castillo, José

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modifies precipitation patterns in several parts of the world. One of the most impacted areas is the western coast of South America, where Ecuador is located. El Niño events that occurred in 1982-1983, 1987-1988, 1991-1992, and 1997-1998 produced important positive rainfall anomalies in the coastal zone of Ecuador, bringing considerable damage to livelihoods, agriculture, and infrastructure. Operational climate forecasts in the region provide only seasonal scale (e.g., 3-month averages) information, but during ENSO events it is key for decision-makers to use reliable sub-seasonal scale forecasts, which at the present time are still non-existent in most parts of the world. This study analyzes the potential predictability of coastal Ecuador rainfall at monthly scale. Instead of the discrete approach that considers training models using only particular seasons, continuous (i.e., all available months are used) transfer function models are built using standard ENSO indices to explore rainfall forecast skill along the Ecuadorian coast and Galápagos Islands. The modeling approach considers a large-scale contribution, represented by the role of a sea-surface temperature index, and a local-scale contribution represented here via the use of previous precipitation observed in the same station. The study found that the Niño3 index is the best ENSO predictor of monthly coastal rainfall, with a lagged response varying from 0 months (simultaneous) for Galápagos up to 3 months for the continental locations considered. Model validation indicates that the skill is similar to the one obtained using principal component regression models for the same kind of experiments. It is suggested that the proposed approach could provide skillful rainfall forecasts at monthly scale for up to a few months in advance.

  8. Bayesian Model Averaging and Weighted Average Least Squares : Equivariance, Stability, and Numerical Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Luca, G.; Magnus, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    This article is concerned with the estimation of linear regression models with uncertainty about the choice of the explanatory variables. We introduce the Stata commands bma and wals which implement, respectively, the exact Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) estimator and the Weighted Average Least Squa

  9. A sixth order averaged vector field method

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haochen; Wang, Yushun; Qin, Mengzhao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on the theory of rooted trees and B-series, we propose the concrete formulas of the substitution law for the trees of order =5. With the help of the new substitution law, we derive a B-series integrator extending the averaged vector field (AVF) method to high order. The new integrator turns out to be of order six and exactly preserves energy for Hamiltonian systems. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and the energy-preserving property of the s...

  10. Phase-averaged transport for quasiperiodic Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Bellissard, J; Schulz-Baldes, H

    2002-01-01

    For a class of discrete quasi-periodic Schroedinger operators defined by covariant re- presentations of the rotation algebra, a lower bound on phase-averaged transport in terms of the multifractal dimensions of the density of states is proven. This result is established under a Diophantine condition on the incommensuration parameter. The relevant class of operators is distinguished by invariance with respect to symmetry automorphisms of the rotation algebra. It includes the critical Harper (almost-Mathieu) operator. As a by-product, a new solution of the frame problem associated with Weyl-Heisenberg-Gabor lattices of coherent states is given.

  11. Sparsity averaging for radio-interferometric imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Carrillo, Rafael E; Wiaux, Yves

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel regularization method for compressive imaging in the context of the compressed sensing (CS) theory with coherent and redundant dictionaries. Natural images are often complicated and several types of structures can be present at once. It is well known that piecewise smooth images exhibit gradient sparsity, and that images with extended structures are better encapsulated in wavelet frames. Therefore, we here conjecture that promoting average sparsity or compressibility over multiple frames rather than single frames is an extremely powerful regularization prior.

  12. Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benet, L [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Flores, J [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Hernandez-Saldana, H [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Izrailev, F M [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Leyvraz, F [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Seligman, T H [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2003-02-07

    Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics.

  13. The average free volume model for liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the molar volume thermal expansion coefficient of 59 room temperature ionic liquids is compared with their van der Waals volume Vw. Regular correlation can be discerned between the two quantities. An average free volume model, that considers the particles as hard core with attractive force, is proposed to explain the correlation in this study. A combination between free volume and Lennard-Jones potential is applied to explain the physical phenomena of liquids. Some typical simple liquids (inorganic, organic, metallic and salt) are introduced to verify this hypothesis. Good agreement from the theory prediction and experimental data can be obtained.

  14. Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average

    CERN Document Server

    Bénet, L; Hernandez-Saldana, H; Izrailev, F M; Leyvraz, F; Seligman, T H

    2003-01-01

    Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics.

  15. Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    As the collection of large datasets becomes increasingly automated, the occurrence of outliers will increase—“big data” implies “big outliers”. While principal component analysis (PCA) is often used to reduce the size of data, and scalable solutions exist, it is well-known that outliers can arbitrarily corrupt the results. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art approaches for robust PCA do not scale beyond small-to-medium sized datasets. To address this, we introduce the Grassmann Average (GA), whic...

  16. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  18. Natural gas monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

  19. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. Detrending moving average algorithm for multifractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Gao-Feng; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-07-01

    The detrending moving average (DMA) algorithm is a widely used technique to quantify the long-term correlations of nonstationary time series and the long-range correlations of fractal surfaces, which contains a parameter θ determining the position of the detrending window. We develop multifractal detrending moving average (MFDMA) algorithms for the analysis of one-dimensional multifractal measures and higher-dimensional multifractals, which is a generalization of the DMA method. The performance of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional MFDMA methods is investigated using synthetic multifractal measures with analytical solutions for backward (θ=0) , centered (θ=0.5) , and forward (θ=1) detrending windows. We find that the estimated multifractal scaling exponent τ(q) and the singularity spectrum f(α) are in good agreement with the theoretical values. In addition, the backward MFDMA method has the best performance, which provides the most accurate estimates of the scaling exponents with lowest error bars, while the centered MFDMA method has the worse performance. It is found that the backward MFDMA algorithm also outperforms the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. The one-dimensional backward MFDMA method is applied to analyzing the time series of Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index and its multifractal nature is confirmed.

  1. Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2010-10-01

    The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400-407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305-320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximationMCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE algorithm for missing data problems, is also considered in the paper. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2010.

  2. Averaged null energy condition from causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Thomas; Kundu, Sandipan; Tajdini, Amirhossein

    2017-07-01

    Unitary, Lorentz-invariant quantum field theories in flat spacetime obey mi-crocausality: commutators vanish at spacelike separation. For interacting theories in more than two dimensions, we show that this implies that the averaged null energy, ∫ duT uu , must be non-negative. This non-local operator appears in the operator product expansion of local operators in the lightcone limit, and therefore contributes to n-point functions. We derive a sum rule that isolates this contribution and is manifestly positive. The argument also applies to certain higher spin operators other than the stress tensor, generating an infinite family of new constraints of the form ∫ duX uuu··· u ≥ 0. These lead to new inequalities for the coupling constants of spinning operators in conformal field theory, which include as special cases (but are generally stronger than) the existing constraints from the lightcone bootstrap, deep inelastic scattering, conformal collider methods, and relative entropy. We also comment on the relation to the recent derivation of the averaged null energy condition from relative entropy, and suggest a more general connection between causality and information-theoretic inequalities in QFT.

  3. MACHINE PROTECTION FOR HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LINACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Kevin; Allison, Trent; Evans, Richard; Coleman, James; Grippo, Albert

    2003-05-01

    A fully integrated Machine Protection System (MPS) is critical to efficient commissioning and safe operation of all high current accelerators. The Jefferson Lab FEL [1,2] has multiple electron beam paths and many different types of diagnostic insertion devices. The MPS [3] needs to monitor both the status of these devices and the magnet settings which define the beam path. The matrix of these devices and beam paths are programmed into gate arrays, the output of the matrix is an allowable maximum average power limit. This power limit is enforced by the drive laser for the photocathode gun. The Beam Loss Monitors (BLMs), RF status, and laser safety system status are also inputs to the control matrix. There are 8 Machine Modes (electron path) and 8 Beam Modes (average power limits) that define the safe operating limits for the FEL. Combinations outside of this matrix are unsafe and the beam is inhibited. The power limits range from no beam to 2 megawatts of electron beam power.

  4. Local average height distribution of fluctuating interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Naftali R.; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.

    2017-01-01

    Height fluctuations of growing surfaces can be characterized by the probability distribution of height in a spatial point at a finite time. Recently there has been spectacular progress in the studies of this quantity for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in 1 +1 dimensions. Here we notice that, at or above a critical dimension, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in a broad class of linear surface growth models unless the model is regularized at small scales. The regularization via a system-dependent small-scale cutoff leads to a partial loss of universality. As a possible alternative, we introduce a local average height. For the linear models, the probability density of this quantity is well defined in any dimension. The weak-noise theory for these models yields the "optimal path" of the interface conditioned on a nonequilibrium fluctuation of the local average height. As an illustration, we consider the conserved Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation, where, without regularization, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in all physical dimensions. We also determine the optimal path of the interface in a closely related problem of the finite-time height-difference distribution for the nonconserved EW equation in 1 +1 dimension. Finally, we discuss a UV catastrophe in the finite-time one-point distribution of height in the (nonregularized) KPZ equation in 2 +1 dimensions.

  5. Asymptotic Time Averages and Frequency Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad El-Taha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider an arbitrary nonnegative deterministic process (in a stochastic setting {X(t,  t≥0} is a fixed realization, i.e., sample-path of the underlying stochastic process with state space S=(-∞,∞. Using a sample-path approach, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the long-run time average of a measurable function of process to be equal to the expectation taken with respect to the same measurable function of its long-run frequency distribution. The results are further extended to allow unrestricted parameter (time space. Examples are provided to show that our condition is not superfluous and that it is weaker than uniform integrability. The case of discrete-time processes is also considered. The relationship to previously known sufficient conditions, usually given in stochastic settings, will also be discussed. Our approach is applied to regenerative processes and an extension of a well-known result is given. For researchers interested in sample-path analysis, our results will give them the choice to work with the time average of a process or its frequency distribution function and go back and forth between the two under a mild condition.

  6. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  7. Normalised monthly shortage curves: a contribution for a better understanding of monthly rain deficit in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M. D.; Lana, X.; Burgueño, A.; Serra, C.

    2012-05-01

    A new approach to the statistics of rainfall shortage at monthly scale in Western Europe is obtained from precipitation records of 115 gauges over the twentieth century. In this paper, a month is considered to have rainfall deficit when its rain amount is below the 50th percentile of the respective calendar month. The monthly shortage, MS, for every month with deficit is then computed as the absolute value of the difference between its monthly amount and the corresponding truncation level. The cumulative distributions of monthly shortage, CMS, and number of shortage months, CNM, constitute a new description of the monthly rainfall deficit. Both CMS and CNM distributions fit well to a Weibull model. Using the analogy to the normalised daily rainfall curves formulation, NRC, the relationship between CMS and CNM, named as normalised shortage curve, NSC, is modelled by the same function applied to NRCs. Similarly to NRCs, the behaviour of the NSCs strongly depends on the coefficient of variation of the monthly shortage, CVMS. Four coordinates characterising every NSC are then introduced: the CMS percentile associated with the median of CNM; the CNM percentile related to the median of CMS; and the percentiles of CMS and CNM for the average monthly shortage. In this way, the degree of asymmetric distribution of the monthly deficit is quantified. With the aim of performing a clustering process based on these four coordinates, a principal component analysis, is previously applied to remove redundancies, being obtained two uncorrelated principal components, PCs, characterising every NSC. An average linkage algorithm is then applied to these two PCs, leading to obtain spatially coherent groups of gauges with very similar NSC patterns. This clustering process permits to discard latitude and vicinity to the Atlantic Ocean or the Mediterranean Sea as main factors conditioning the monthly shortage regime.

  8. US Monthly Pilot Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly winds aloft summary forms summarizing Pilot Balloon observational data for the United States. Generally labeled as Form 1114, and then transitioning to Form...

  9. Monthly energy review, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-26

    This publication presents information for the month of August, 1993 on the following: Energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices, and international energy.

  10. Monthly Energy Review, July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-07-27

    The Monthly Energy Review is prepared by the Energy Information Administration. Topics discussed include: Energy Overview, Energy Consumption, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Oil and Gas Resource Development, Coal, Electricity, Nuclear Energy, Energy Prices, International Energy. (VC)

  11. Monthly energy review, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Activities covered include: U.S. production, consumption, trade, stock, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  12. Monthly energy review, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  13. Monthly energy review, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-26

    This publication presents information for the month of August, 1993 on the following: Energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices, and international energy.

  14. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 15 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  15. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 6 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  16. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 2 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  17. Edgeworth expansion for the pre-averaging estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolskij, Mark; Veliyev, Bezirgen; Yoshida, Nakahiro

    In this paper, we study the Edgeworth expansion for a pre-averaging estimator of quadratic variation in the framework of continuous diffusion models observed with noise. More specifically, we obtain a second order expansion for the joint density of the estimators of quadratic variation and its...... asymptotic variance. Our approach is based on martingale embedding, Malliavin calculus and stable central limit theorems for continuous diffusions. Moreover, we derive the density expansion for the studentized statistic, which might be applied to construct asymptotic confidence regions....

  18. Average radiation widths of levels in natural xenon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguere, G., E-mail: gilles.noguere@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul les Durance (France); Litaize, O.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul les Durance (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    2011-11-15

    Average radiation widths <{Gamma}{sub {gamma}>} for the stable xenon isotopes have been estimated using neutron resonance spectroscopic information deduced from high-resolution capture and transmission data measured at the electron linear accelerator GELINA of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) in Geel, Belgium. The combination of conventional Neutron Resonance Shape Analysis techniques (NRSA) with high-energy model calculations in a simple Bayesian learning method permit to calculate a consistent local systematic in the xenon's mass region (Z=54) from A=124 to A=136.

  19. Monthly energy review, August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  1. Natural gas monthly, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  2. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  3. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-26

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Natural gas monthly, September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  8. Monthly energy review, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy data. A brief summary of the monthly and historical comparison data is provided in Section 1 of the report. A highlight section of the report provides an assessment of summer 1997 motor gasoline price increases.

  9. Monthly energy review, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  10. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  12. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  14. Natural gas monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-20

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  15. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-29

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  16. Natural gas monthly, October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-23

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

  17. The study of time series of monthly averaged values of F10.7 from 1950 to 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Bruevich, E A; Yakunina, G V

    2014-01-01

    Prior to 1947, the activity of the Sun was assessed by the relative numbers of sunspots (W). The 10.7 cm radio emission (frequency of 2.8 GHz) for observations of the variability of radiation of chromosphere and the lower corona (F10.7) became used from 1947. For the F10,7 are available more detailed observational archive data, so this activity index more often than the other indices is used in the prediction and monitoring of the solar activity. We have made the analysis of time series of F10.7 with the use of different mother wavelets: Daubechies 10, Symlet 8, Meyer, Gauss 8 and Morlet. Wavelet spectrum allows us not only to identify cycles, but analyze their change in time. Each wavelet has its own characteristic features, so sometimes with the help of different wavelets it can be better identify and highlight the different properties of the analyzed signal. We intended to choose the mother wavelet, which is more fully gives information about the analyzed index F10.7. We have received, that all these wavel...

  18. Moving toward climate-informed agricultural decision support - can we use PRISM data for more than just monthly averages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decision support systems/models for agriculture are varied in target application and complexity, ranging from simple worksheets to near real-time forecast systems requiring significant computational and manpower resources. Until recently, most such decision support systems have been constructed with...

  19. Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-02-01

    We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.

  20. Averaged Null Energy Condition from Causality

    CERN Document Server

    Hartman, Thomas; Tajdini, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Unitary, Lorentz-invariant quantum field theories in flat spacetime obey microcausality: commutators vanish at spacelike separation. For interacting theories in more than two dimensions, we show that this implies that the averaged null energy, $\\int du T_{uu}$, must be positive. This non-local operator appears in the operator product expansion of local operators in the lightcone limit, and therefore contributes to $n$-point functions. We derive a sum rule that isolates this contribution and is manifestly positive. The argument also applies to certain higher spin operators other than the stress tensor, generating an infinite family of new constraints of the form $\\int du X_{uuu\\cdots u} \\geq 0$. These lead to new inequalities for the coupling constants of spinning operators in conformal field theory, which include as special cases (but are generally stronger than) the existing constraints from the lightcone bootstrap, deep inelastic scattering, conformal collider methods, and relative entropy. We also comment ...

  1. Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI, AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition.

  2. Geographic Gossip: Efficient Averaging for Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dimakis, Alexandros G; Wainwright, Martin J

    2007-01-01

    Gossip algorithms for distributed computation are attractive due to their simplicity, distributed nature, and robustness in noisy and uncertain environments. However, using standard gossip algorithms can lead to a significant waste in energy by repeatedly recirculating redundant information. For realistic sensor network model topologies like grids and random geometric graphs, the inefficiency of gossip schemes is related to the slow mixing times of random walks on the communication graph. We propose and analyze an alternative gossiping scheme that exploits geographic information. By utilizing geographic routing combined with a simple resampling method, we demonstrate substantial gains over previously proposed gossip protocols. For regular graphs such as the ring or grid, our algorithm improves standard gossip by factors of $n$ and $\\sqrt{n}$ respectively. For the more challenging case of random geometric graphs, our algorithm computes the true average to accuracy $\\epsilon$ using $O(\\frac{n^{1.5}}{\\sqrt{\\log ...

  3. Bivariate phase-rectified signal averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Schumann, Aicko Y; Bauer, Axel; Schmidt, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Phase-Rectified Signal Averaging (PRSA) was shown to be a powerful tool for the study of quasi-periodic oscillations and nonlinear effects in non-stationary signals. Here we present a bivariate PRSA technique for the study of the inter-relationship between two simultaneous data recordings. Its performance is compared with traditional cross-correlation analysis, which, however, does not work well for non-stationary data and cannot distinguish the coupling directions in complex nonlinear situations. We show that bivariate PRSA allows the analysis of events in one signal at times where the other signal is in a certain phase or state; it is stable in the presence of noise and impassible to non-stationarities.

  4. Average resonance parameters evaluation for actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    New evaluated <{Gamma}{sub n}{sup 0}> and values for {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 243}Cm, {sup 245}Cm, {sup 246}Cm and {sup 241}Am nuclei in the resolved resonance region are presented. The applied method based on the idea that experimental resonance missing results in correlated changes of reduced neutron widths and level spacings distributions is discussed. (author)

  5. Average resonance parameters evaluation for actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    New evaluated <{Gamma}{sub n}{sup 0}> and values for {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 243}Cm, {sup 245}Cm, {sup 246}Cm and {sup 241}Am nuclei in the resolved resonance region are presented. The applied method based on the idea that experimental resonance missing results in correlated changes of reduced neutron widths and level spacings distributions is discussed. (author)

  6. Prognostic impact of average iodine density assessed by dual-energy spectral imaging for predicting lung tumor recurrence after stereotactic body radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Masahiko; Hirose, Katsumi; Sato, Mariko; Akimoto, Hiroyoshi; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Hatayama, Yoshiomi; Fujioka, Ichitaro; Tanaka, Mitsuki; Ono, Shuichi; Takai, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of average iodine density as assessed by dual-energy computed tomography (DE-CT) for lung tumors treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). From March 2011 to August 2014, 93 medically inoperable patients with 74 primary lung cancers and 19 lung metastases underwent DE-CT prior to SBRT of a total dose of 45-60 Gy in 5-10 fractions. Of these 93 patients, nine patients had two lung tumors. Thus, 102 lung tumors were included in this study. DE-CT was performed for pretreatment evaluation. Regions of interest were set for the entire tumor, and average iodine density was obtained using a dedicated imaging software and evaluated with regard to local control. The median follow-up period was 23.4 months (range, 1.5-54.5 months). The median value of the average iodine density was 1.86 mg/cm(3) (range, 0.40-9.27 mg/cm(3)). Two-year local control rates for the high and low average iodine density groups divided by the median value of the average iodine density were 96.9% and 75.7% (P = 0.006), respectively. Tumors with lower average iodine density showed a worse prognosis, possibly reflecting a hypoxic cell population in the tumor. The average iodine density exhibited a significant impact on local control. Our preliminary results indicate that iodine density evaluated using dual-energy spectral CT may be a useful, noninvasive and quantitative assessment of radio-resistance caused by presumably hypoxic cell populations in tumors.

  7. Cortical evoked potentials recorded from the guinea pig without averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walloch, R A

    1975-01-01

    Potentials evoked by tonal pulses and recorded with a monopolar electrode on the pial surface over the auditory cortex of the guinea pig are presented. These potentials are compared with average potentials recorded in previous studies with an electrode on the dura. The potentials recorded by these two techniques have similar waveforms, peak latencies and thresholds. They appear to be generated within the same region of the cerebral cortex. As can be expected, the amplitude of the evoked potentials recorded from the pial surface is larger than that recorded from the dura. Consequently, averaging is not needed to extract the evoked potential once the dura is removed. The thresholds for the evoked cortical potential are similar to behavioral thresholds for the guinea pig at high frequencies; however, evoked potential thresholds are eleveate over behavioral thresholds at low frequencies. The removal of the dura and the direct recording of the evoked potential appears most appropriate for acute experiments. The recording of an evoked potential with dura electrodes empploying averaging procedures appears most appropriate for chronic studies.

  8. Role of spatial averaging in multicellular gradient sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tyler; Fancher, Sean; Levchenko, Andre; Nemenman, Ilya; Mugler, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Gradient sensing underlies important biological processes including morphogenesis, polarization, and cell migration. The precision of gradient sensing increases with the length of a detector (a cell or group of cells) in the gradient direction, since a longer detector spans a larger range of concentration values. Intuition from studies of concentration sensing suggests that precision should also increase with detector length in the direction transverse to the gradient, since then spatial averaging should reduce the noise. However, here we show that, unlike for concentration sensing, the precision of gradient sensing decreases with transverse length for the simplest gradient sensing model, local excitation-global inhibition. The reason is that gradient sensing ultimately relies on a subtraction of measured concentration values. While spatial averaging indeed reduces the noise in these measurements, which increases precision, it also reduces the covariance between the measurements, which results in the net decrease in precision. We demonstrate how a recently introduced gradient sensing mechanism, regional excitation-global inhibition (REGI), overcomes this effect and recovers the benefit of transverse averaging. Using a REGI-based model, we compute the optimal two- and three-dimensional detector shapes, and argue that they are consistent with the shapes of naturally occurring gradient-sensing cell populations.

  9. Study about chest width average performances in Romanian Hucul horse breed – Goral bloodline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Maftei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Study of average performances in a population have a huge importance because, regarding a population, the average of phenotypic value is equal with average of genotypic value. So, the studies of the average value of characters offer us an idea about the population genetic level. The biological material is represented by 87 hucul horse from Goral bloodline divided in 5 stallion families analyzed at 18, 30 and 42 months old, owned by Lucina hucul stood farm. The average performances for chest width are presented in paper. We can observe a good growth from one age to another and a small differences between sexes. The average performances of the character are between characteristic limits of the breed.

  10. Declining average daily census. Part 2: Possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, T P

    1986-01-01

    Several possible solutions are available to hospitals experiencing a declining average daily census, including: Closure of some U.S. hospitals; Joint ventures between physicians and hospitals; Development of integrated and coordinated medical-fiscal-management information systems; Improvements in the hospital's short-term marketing strategy; Reduction of the facility's internal operation expenses; Vertical more than horizontal diversification to develop a multilevel (acute through home care) regional health care system with an alternative health care payment system that is a joint venture with the medical staff(s); Acquisition or management by a not-for-profit or investor-owned multihospital system (emphasis on horizontal versus vertical integration). Many reasons exist for an institution to choose the solution of developing a regional multilevel health care system rather than being part of a large, geographically scattered, multihospital system. Geographic proximity, lenders' preferences, service integration, management recruitment, and local remedies to a declining census all favor the regional system. More answers lie in emphasizing the basics of health care regionalization and focusing on vertical integration, including a prepayment plan, rather than stressing large multihospital systems with institutions in several states or selling out to the investor-owned groups.

  11. Natural gas monthly, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Industrial Applications of High Average Power FELS

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Michelle D

    2005-01-01

    The use of lasers for material processing continues to expand, and the annual sales of such lasers exceeds $1 B (US). Large scale (many m2) processing of materials require the economical production of laser powers of the tens of kilowatts, and therefore are not yet commercial processes, although they have been demonstrated. The development of FELs based on superconducting RF (SRF) linac technology provides a scaleable path to laser outputs above 50 kW in the IR, rendering these applications economically viable, since the cost/photon drops as the output power increases. This approach also enables high average power ~ 1 kW output in the UV spectrum. Such FELs will provide quasi-cw (PRFs in the tens of MHz), of ultrafast (pulsewidth ~ 1 ps) output with very high beam quality. This talk will provide an overview of applications tests by our facility's users such as pulsed laser deposition, laser ablation, and laser surface modification, as well as present plans that will be tested with our upgraded FELs. These upg...

  13. A new approach for Bayesian model averaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN XiangJun; XIE ZhengHui; WANG AiHui; YANG XiaoChun

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a recently proposed statistical method for calibrating forecast ensembles from numerical weather models.However,successful implementation of BMA requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble.Two methods,namely the Expectation-Maximization (EM) and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms,are widely used for BMA model training.Both methods have their own respective strengths and weaknesses.In this paper,we first modify the BMA log-likelihood function with the aim of removing the additional limitation that requires that the BMA weights add to one,and then use a limited memory quasi-Newtonian algorithm for solving the nonlinear optimization problem,thereby formulating a new approach for BMA (referred to as BMA-BFGS).Several groups of multi-model soil moisture simulation experiments from three land surface models show that the performance of BMA-BFGS is similar to the MCMC method in terms of simulation accuracy,and that both are superior to the EM algorithm.On the other hand,the computational cost of the BMA-BFGS algorithm is substantially less than for MCMC and is almost equivalent to that for EM.

  14. Calculating Free Energies Using Average Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darve, Eric; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new, general formula that connects the derivatives of the free energy along the selected, generalized coordinates of the system with the instantaneous force acting on these coordinates is derived. The instantaneous force is defined as the force acting on the coordinate of interest so that when it is subtracted from the equations of motion the acceleration along this coordinate is zero. The formula applies to simulations in which the selected coordinates are either unconstrained or constrained to fixed values. It is shown that in the latter case the formula reduces to the expression previously derived by den Otter and Briels. If simulations are carried out without constraining the coordinates of interest, the formula leads to a new method for calculating the free energy changes along these coordinates. This method is tested in two examples - rotation around the C-C bond of 1,2-dichloroethane immersed in water and transfer of fluoromethane across the water-hexane interface. The calculated free energies are compared with those obtained by two commonly used methods. One of them relies on determining the probability density function of finding the system at different values of the selected coordinate and the other requires calculating the average force at discrete locations along this coordinate in a series of constrained simulations. The free energies calculated by these three methods are in excellent agreement. The relative advantages of each method are discussed.

  15. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  16. Natural gas monthly, March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas analysis and geographic information systems.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  20. Monthly energy review, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 61 tabs.