WorldWideScience

Sample records for monthly record meteorological

  1. Monthly Meteorological Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly forms that do not fit into any regular submission. Tabulation sheets and generic monthly forms designed to capture miscellaneous monthly observations.

  2. The Dust Storm Index (DSI): A method for monitoring broadscale wind erosion using meteorological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loingsigh, T.; McTainsh, G. H.; Tews, E. K.; Strong, C. L.; Leys, J. F.; Shinkfield, P.; Tapper, N. J.

    2014-03-01

    Wind erosion of soils is a natural process that has shaped the semi-arid and arid landscapes for millennia. This paper describes the Dust Storm Index (DSI); a methodology for monitoring wind erosion using Australian Bureau of Meteorology (ABM) meteorological observational data since the mid-1960s (long-term), at continental scale. While the 46 year length of the DSI record is its greatest strength from a wind erosion monitoring perspective, there are a number of technical challenges to its use because when the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) recording protocols were established the use of the data for wind erosion monitoring was never intended. Data recording and storage protocols are examined, including the effects of changes to the definition of how observers should interpret and record dust events. A method is described for selecting the 180 long-term ABM stations used in this study and the limitations of variable observation frequencies between stations are in part resolved. The rationale behind the DSI equation is explained and the examples of temporal and spatial data visualisation products presented include; a long term national wind erosion record (1965-2011), continental DSI maps, and maps of the erosion event types that are factored into the DSI equation. The DSI is tested against dust concentration data and found to provide an accurate representation of wind erosion activity. As the ABM observational records used here were collected according to WMO protocols, the DSI methodology could be used in all countries with WMO-compatible meteorological observation and recording systems.

  3. WMO questionnaire on recording precipitation gauges: state-of-the-art. World Meteorological Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevruk, B

    2002-01-01

    To receive information on recording precipitation gauges used operationally by national meteorological services the World Meteorological Organization started a worldwide inquiry. This included the type of recording precipitation gauge (RPG), their manufacturer, measuring system applied, number of RPGs used, methods of recording and data transmission, orifice area size and installation heights, heating and windshield application as well as the question on the need to organising global intercomparisons of RPG measurements. The results of the 118 responses received (out of 180 countries) are presented and discussed. They show that there is a great variety in instruments and methods of observation of precipitation intensity used not only worldwide but also in the same country. This variety exceeds by far the variety in manual standard precipitation gauges.

  4. Fundamental statistical relationships between monthly and daily meteorological variables: Temporal downscaling of weather based on a global observational dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Philipp; Kaplan, Jed

    2016-04-01

    Accurate modelling of large-scale vegetation dynamics, hydrology, and other environmental processes requires meteorological forcing on daily timescales. While meteorological data with high temporal resolution is becoming increasingly available, simulations for the future or distant past are limited by lack of data and poor performance of climate models, e.g., in simulating daily precipitation. To overcome these limitations, we may temporally downscale monthly summary data to a daily time step using a weather generator. Parameterization of such statistical models has traditionally been based on a limited number of observations. Recent developments in the archiving, distribution, and analysis of "big data" datasets provide new opportunities for the parameterization of a temporal downscaling model that is applicable over a wide range of climates. Here we parameterize a WGEN-type weather generator using more than 50 million individual daily meteorological observations, from over 10'000 stations covering all continents, based on the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) and Synoptic Cloud Reports (EECRA) databases. Using the resulting "universal" parameterization and driven by monthly summaries, we downscale mean temperature (minimum and maximum), cloud cover, and total precipitation, to daily estimates. We apply a hybrid gamma-generalized Pareto distribution to calculate daily precipitation amounts, which overcomes much of the inability of earlier weather generators to simulate high amounts of daily precipitation. Our globally parameterized weather generator has numerous applications, including vegetation and crop modelling for paleoenvironmental studies.

  5. Meteorological fields variability over the Indian seas in pre and summer monsoon months during extreme monsoon seasons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U C Mohanty; R Bhatla; P V S Raju; O P Madan; A Sarkar

    2002-09-01

    In this study, the possible linkage between summer monsoon rainfall over India and surface meteorological fields (basic fields and heat budget components) over monsoon region (30° E-120°E, 30°S-30°N) during the pre-monsoon month of May and summer monsoon season (June to September) are examined. For this purpose, monthly surface meteorological fields anomaly are analyzed for 42 years (1958-1999) using reanalysis data of NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research). The statistical significance of the anomaly (difference) between the surplus and deficient monsoon years in the surface meteorological fields are also examined by Student's t-test at 95% confidence level. Significant negative anomalies of mean sea level pressure are observed over India, Arabian Sea and Arabian Peninsular in the pre-monsoon month of May and monsoon season. Significant positive anomalies in the zonal and meridional wind (at 2m) in the month of May are observed in the west Arabian Sea off Somali coast and for monsoon season it is in the central Arabian Sea that extends up to Somalia. Significant positive anomalies of the surface temperature and air temperature (at 2m) in the month of May are observed over north India and adjoining Pakistan and Afghanistan region. During monsoon season this region is replaced by significant negative anomalies. In the month of May, significant positive anomalies of cloud amount are observed over Somali coast, north Bay of Bengal and adjoining West Bengal and Bangladesh. During monsoon season, cloud amount shows positive anomalies over NW India and north Arabian Sea. There is overall reduction in the incoming shortwave radiation flux during surplus monsoon years. A higher magnitude of latent heat flux is also found in surplus monsoon years for the month of May as well as the monsoon season. The significant positive anomaly of latent heat flux in May, observed over southwest Arabian Sea, may be considered

  6. Convective and radiative components of wind chill in sheep: Estimation from meteorological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D.; Mount, L. E.

    1987-06-01

    Wind chill is defined as the excess of sensible heat loss over what would occur at zero wind speed with other conditions unchanged. Wind chill can be broken down into a part that is determined by air temperature and a radiative part that comprises wind-dependent effects on additional long-wave radiative exchange and on solar radiation (by reducing solar warming). Radiative exchange and gain from solar radiation are affected by changes that are produced by wind in both surface and fleece insulations. Coefficients are derived for (a) converting the components of sensible heat exchange (air-temperature-dependent including both convective and associated long-wave radiative, additional long-wave radiative and solar) into the components of the total heat loss that are associated with wind and (b) for calculating equivalent air temperature changes. The coefficients contain terms only in wind speed, wetting of the fleece and fleece depth; these determine the external insulation. Calculation from standard meteorological records, using Plymouth and Aberdeen in 1973 as examples, indicate that in April September 1973 at Plymouth reduction in effective solar warming constituted 28% of the 24-h total wind chill, and 7% in the other months of the year combined; at Aberdeen the corresponding percentages were 25% and 6%. Mean hour-of-day estimates for the months of April and October showed that at midday reduction in solar warming due to wind rose to the order of half the air-temperature-dependent component of wind chill, with a much smaller effect in January. For about six hours at midday in July reduction in solar warming due to wind was similar in magnitude to the air-temperature-dependent component. It is concluded that realistic estimates of wind chill cannot be obtained unless the effect of solar radiation is taken into account. Failure to include solar radiation results not only in omitting solar warming but also in omitting the effects of wind in reducing that warming. The

  7. Crop weather models of corn and soybeans for Agrophysical Units (APU's) in Iowa using monthly meteorological predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate corn and soybean yield from weather data for agrophysical units (APU) in Iowa. The predictor variables are derived from monthly average temperature and monthly total precipitation data at meteorological stations in the cooperative network. The models are similar in form to the previous models developed for crop reporting districts (CRD). The trends and derived variables were the same and the approach to select the significant predictors was similar to that used in developing the CRD models. The APU's were selected to be more homogeneous with respect crop to production than the CRDs. The APU models are quite similar to the CRD models, similar explained variation and number of predictor variables. The APU models are to be independently evaluated and compared to the previously evaluated CRD models. That comparison should indicate the preferred model area for this application, i.e., APU or CRD.

  8. Long-term runoff forecasting by combining hydrological models and meteorological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao-Chang; Yu, Pao-Shan; Chen, Chiang-Chi

    2005-06-01

    Reservoir operation is generally based on the inflows of the upstream catchment of the reservoir. If the arriving inflows can be forecasted, that can benefit reservoir operation and management. This study attempts to construct a long-term inflow-forecasting model by combining a continuous rainfall-runoff model with the long-term weather outlook from the Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan. The analytical results demonstrate that the continuous rainfall-runoff model has good inflow simulation performance by using 10-day meteorological and inflow records over a 33-year period for model calibration and verification. The long-term inflow forecasting during the dry season was further conducted by combining the continuous rainfall-runoff model and the long-term weather outlook, which was found to have good performance.

  9. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, September 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-10-21

    This report details activities of the irradiation department during the month of September, 1957. The report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operations; Employee Relations Operations; and Financial Operation.

  10. Global meteorological influences on the record UK rainfall of winter 2013-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jeff R.; Maidens, Anna; Watson, Peter A. G.; Andrews, Martin; Belcher, Stephen; Brunet, Gilbert; Fereday, David; Folland, Chris K.; Scaife, Adam A.; Slingo, Julia

    2017-07-01

    The UK experienced record average rainfall in winter 2013-14, leading to widespread and prolonged flooding. The immediate cause of this exceptional rainfall was a very strong and persistent cyclonic atmospheric circulation over the North East Atlantic Ocean. This was related to a very strong North Atlantic jet stream which resulted in numerous damaging wind storms. These exceptional meteorological conditions have led to renewed questions about whether anthropogenic climate change is noticeably influencing extreme weather. The regional weather pattern responsible for the extreme UK winter coincided with highly anomalous conditions across the globe. We assess the contributions from various possible remote forcing regions using sets of ocean-atmosphere model relaxation experiments, where winds and temperatures are constrained to be similar to those observed in winter 2013-14 within specified atmospheric domains. We find that influences from the tropics were likely to have played a significant role in the development of the unusual extra-tropical circulation, including a role for the tropical Atlantic sector. Additionally, a stronger and more stable stratospheric polar vortex, likely associated with a strong westerly phase of the stratospheric Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), appears to have contributed to the extreme conditions. While intrinsic climatic variability clearly has the largest effect on the generation of extremes, results from an analysis which segregates circulation-related and residual rainfall variability suggest that emerging climate change signals made a secondary contribution to extreme rainfall in winter 2013-14.

  11. Observed diurnal variation changes of Jakarta precipitation from 144 available meteorological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Siswanto; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; van den Hurk, Bart; Jilderda, Rudmer

    2013-04-01

    Using a long available meteorological observation for almost 114 years hourly and daily record from Jakarta Observatory, the temporal heterogeneity of climate trends and its variability over Jakarta, Indonesia has been studied. The analyses showed that the number of wet days has decreased between 1880 and 2010, while the precipitation exceeding 50 mm is observed to be slightly increased. An increased trend of heavy rainfall in the 80% and 95% percentile between April and September was detected. Diurnal variation of Jakarta precipitation and temperature changed markedly. In the wet season (DJF), the morning rainfall has increased in intensity, while in other seasons; delayed amplitude of late afternoon rainfall peak is observed. The diurnal variation of night time temperature considerably increased while daytime temperature remains similar. Changes in temporal characteristics of light and heavy precipitation, as well as the diurnal variation of precipitation and temperature lead to hypotheses concerning anthropogenic influence. Some theoretical arguments on Urban Heat Island and aerosol effect precipitation could be linked to our results. Jakarta is a metropolitan city where its development is characterized by mixing of many different land uses and economic activities, including large-scale housing projects, industrial estates, and agricultural activities. In the future, the separation of local response to large scale and local changes will be investigated.

  12. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, May 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-06-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of May 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operation; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  13. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, September 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-10-23

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of September 1956. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operations; and financial operation.

  14. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, July 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-08-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of July, 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  15. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, March 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1958-04-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of March, 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  16. Irradiation Processing Department, monthly record report, January 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1958-02-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of January, 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  17. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, November 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-12-19

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of November 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operation; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operations; and financial operation.

  18. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, March 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-04-19

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of March, 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  19. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, May 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-06-20

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of May 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  20. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, August 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-09-19

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of August, 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  1. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, June 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-07-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of June 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  2. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, April 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-05-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of April, 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  3. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, October 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-11-20

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of October, 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor operations; Facilities Engineering operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial operation.

  4. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, February 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-03-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of February 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operations; employee relations operation; and, financial operation.

  5. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, September 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1959-10-22

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of September, 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  6. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, August 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-09-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of August 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  7. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, July 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-08-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of July 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  8. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, October 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-11-20

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of November, 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  9. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, July 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-08-20

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of July, 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations: Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  10. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, October 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-11-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of October, 1956. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  11. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, January 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1959-02-20

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of January 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  12. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, June 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-07-19

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of June 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  13. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, April 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-05-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of April 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  14. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, March 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-04-21

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of March, 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  15. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, December 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1960-01-22

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of December, 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  16. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, June 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-07-19

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of June 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  17. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, August 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1957-09-20

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of August, 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and engineering; operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  18. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, January 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-02-19

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of January 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  19. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, July 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-08-20

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of July, 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations: Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  20. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, October 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-11-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of October, 1956. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  1. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, December 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-19

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of December 1956. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  2. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, March 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1959-04-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of March, 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  3. Irradiation Processing Department, monthly record report, February, 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-03-22

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department at the Hanford Reservation during the month of February, 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operation; Manufacturing Operation; Facilities Engineering Operation; Relations Practices Operation; Financial Operation; and NPR operation.

  4. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, November 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-11-20

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of November 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided int the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  5. 10-Month characterization of the aerosol number size distribution and related air quality and meteorology at the Bondville, IL Midwestern background site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Robert L.; Singh, Ashish; Anderson, Sybil M.; Lehmann, Christopher M. B.; Stanier, Charles O.

    2017-04-01

    The aerosol size distribution was measured at a rural continental U.S. location (Bondville, Illinois 40.05∘N and 88.37∘W) for the period July 2013-June 2014. The dehumidified size distribution in the range 3 nm to 2.5 μm was continuously recorded by two scanning mobility particle sizers and an aerodynamic particle sizer. The Illinois measurement site is significant because it is home to one of the longest records (20+ years) in North America of atmospheric aerosol, meteorology, and gas phase variables. It is a common site for model-measurement comparison of both chemical and aerosol microphysical variables. However, while the measurement record has aerosol number concentration and optical properties, the number size distribution has not been well-constrained. Measurement highlights include means in number concentration (3-2500 nm), aerosol optical depth, SO2 , NH3 , and PM2.5 of 6500 cm-3, 0.18, 0.87 ppb, 1.6 ppb, and 8.8 μg m-3, respectively. The mode in the mean size distribution was 31 nm (number) and 287 nm (volume). The mean size distribution was heavily influenced by nuclei mode particles, with 46% of particles smaller than 20 nm. New particle formation and growth events increase midday concentrations of 3-50 nm particles substantially, with the highest activity in spring months and lower activity in summer and winter. Short term elevations in particle number and mass associated with local agricultural burning in April are reported as well.

  6. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Monthly Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Version 2.2-1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Climate Data Record (CDR) of monthly mean High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) flux at the top of the atmosphere...

  7. 78 FR 6850 - Agency Information Collection (Monthly Record of Training and Wages) Activities Under OMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... OMB Desk Officer, OMB Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Monthly Record of Training and Wages) Activities Under OMB AGENCY... Record of Training and Wages, VA Form 28-1905c. OMB Control Number: 2900-0176. Type of Review:...

  8. Meteorological Support of the Helios World Record High Altitude Flight to 96,863 Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Edward H., Jr.; Donohue, Casey J.; Wright, Patrick T.; DelFrate, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In characterizing and understanding atmospheric behavior when conducting high altitude solar powered flight research flight planning engineers and meteorologists are able to maximize the use of available airspace and coordinate aircraft maneuvers with pilots to make the best use of changing sun elevation angles. The result of this cooperative research produced a new world record for absolute altitude of a non-rocket powered aircraft of 96,863 ft (29,531.4 m). The Helios prototype solar powered aircraft, with a wingspan of 247 ft (75.0m), reached this altitude on August 13, 2001, off the coast of Kauai, Hawaii. The analyses of the weather characterization, the planning efforts, and the weather-of-the-day summary that led to at record flight are described in this paper.

  9. Jens Esmark's Christiania (Oslo) meteorological observations 1816-1838: the first long-term continuous temperature record from the Norwegian capital homogenized and analysed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestmark, Geir; Nordli, Øyvind

    2016-11-01

    In 2010 we rediscovered the complete set of meteorological observation protocols made by Jens Esmark (1762-1839) during his years of residence in the Norwegian capital of Oslo (then Christiania). From 1 January 1816 to 25 January 1839, Esmark at his house in Øvre Voldgate in the morning, early afternoon and late evening recorded air temperature with state-of-the-art thermometers. He also noted air pressure, cloud cover, precipitation and wind directions, and experimented with rain gauges and hygrometers. From 1818 to the end of 1838 he twice a month provided weather tables to the official newspaper Den Norske Rigstidende, and thus acquired a semi-official status as the first Norwegian state meteorologist. This paper evaluates the quality of Esmark's temperature observations and presents new metadata, new homogenization and analysis of monthly means. Three significant shifts in the measurement series were detected, and suitable corrections are proposed. The air temperature in Oslo during this period is shown to exhibit a slow rise from 1816 towards 1825, followed by a slighter fall again towards 1838.

  10. ACCURACY OF MILK YIELD ESTIMATION IN DAIRY CATTLE FROM MONTHLY RECORD BY REGRESSION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Kuswahyuni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to estimate the actual milk yield and to compare the estimation accuracyof cumulative monthly record to actual milk yield by regression method. Materials used in this experimentwere records relating to milk yield and pedigree. The obtained data were categorized into 2 groups i.e. AgeGroup I (AG I that was cow calving at < 36 months old as many as 33 cows with 33 lactation records andAG II that cows calving e” 36 months old as many as 44 cows with 105 lactation records. The first three toseven months data were used to estimate actual milk yield. Results showed that mean of milk yield/ head/lactation at AG I (2479.5 ± 461.5 kg was lower than that of AG II (2989,7 ± 526,8 kg. Estimated milk yieldsfor three to seven months at AG I were 2455.6±419.7; 2455.7±432.9; 2455.5±446.4; 2455.6±450.8; 2455,64± 450,8; 2455,5 ± 459,3 kg respectively, meanwhile at AG II was 2972.3±479.8; 2972.0±497.2; 2972.4±509.6;2972.5±523.6 and 2972.5±535.1 respectively. Correlation coefficients between estimated and actual milkyield at AG I were 0.79; 0.82; 0.86; 0.86 and 0.88, respectively, meanwhile at AG II were 0.65; 0.66; 0.67;0.69 and 0.72 respectively. In conclusion, the mean of estimated milk yield at AG I was lower than AG II.The best record to estimate actual milk yield both at AG I and AG II were the seven cumulative months.

  11. Detecting drought trends with expanded meteorological records based on Reanalysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, F. J.; Morales, D.

    2013-12-01

    In Mediterranean regions, droughts are a recurrent phenomenon that cause significant economic losses and affect ecosystem functioning. The need to better monitor drought and study changes in their main properties is important for disaster risk management. An objective identification of drought and dry spell sequences depends on consistent, reliable and readily derived indicators. The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) corresponds to one of these indicators as it is based in a water balance approach, facilitating drought analysis and monitoring since it allows the user to examine wet and dry periods over different time scales. SPEI has been used to characterize recent drought in the arid regions that experienced significant warming over the last century. Thus it becomes an effective tool to assess whether trends in drought events are present. The main objective of this work is to apply the SPEI and study trends of droughts of different magnitude as well as to describe their association with El Niño phenomenon in the Maipo Region (Central Chile). To circumvent problems of insufficient record length we applied a novel method for record expansion based on Reanalysis data. This method was used for data filling as well as to produce a regionally consistent database that started in 1950. Data shows that the occurrence of dry conditions of different magnitude has increased over the last decades, and the duration of extreme climatic events has slightly increased as well. These results are consistent with future climatic projections and represent a major challenge for water resources management.

  12. 17 CFR 1.34 - Monthly record, “point balance”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Recordkeeping § 1.34 Monthly record, “point balance”. (a) Each... statement commonly known as a “point balance,” which accrues or brings to the official closing price, or... contracts long and short in the customers' accounts are in balance with those in the carrying...

  13. The early development of human mirror mechanisms: evidence from electromyographic recordings at 3 and 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Chiara; Natale, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Picozzi, Marta; Longhi, Elena; Cassia, Viola Macchi

    2013-11-01

    In primates and adult humans direct understanding of others' action is provided by mirror mechanisms matching action observation and action execution (e.g. Casile, Caggiano & Ferrari, 2011). Despite the growing body of evidence detailing the existence of these mechanisms in the adult human brain, their origins and early development are largely unknown. In this study, for the first time, electromyographic (EMG) measures were used to shed light on the emergence of mirror motor mechanisms in infancy. EMG activity was recorded while 6- and 3-month-old infants watched two videos displaying an agent reaching for, grasping and bringing an object either to the mouth or to the head. Results indicate that the motor system of 6-month-olds, but not 3-month-olds, was recruited and selectively modulated during observation of the goal-directed actions, favoring the idea that mirror mechanisms driving action understanding gradually emerge during early development.

  14. Assessment of BSRN radiation records for the computation of monthly means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Roesch

    2011-02-01

    within less than 1 W m−2 in most cases. The authors suggest using a standardized method for the computation of monthly means which addresses diurnal variations in the missing data in order to avoid a mismatch of future published monthly mean radiation fluxes from BSRN.

    The application of robust statistics would probably lead to less biased results for data records with frequent gaps and/or flagged data and outliers. The currently applied empirical methods should, therefore, be completed by the development of robust methods.

  15. Month of Conception and Learning Disabilities: A Record-Linkage Study of 801,592 Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Daniel F; Smith, Gordon C S; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Wood, Rachael; King, Albert; Clark, David N; Pell, Jill P

    2016-10-01

    Learning disabilities have profound, long-lasting health sequelae. Affected children born over the course of 1 year in the United States of America generated an estimated lifetime cost of $51.2 billion. Results from some studies have suggested that autistic spectrum disorder may vary by season of birth, but there have been few studies in which investigators examined whether this is also true of other causes of learning disabilities. We undertook Scotland-wide record linkage of education (annual pupil census) and maternity (Scottish Morbidity Record 02) databases for 801,592 singleton children attending Scottish schools in 2006-2011. We modeled monthly rates using principal sine and cosine transformations of the month number and demonstrated cyclicity in the percentage of children with special educational needs. Rates were highest among children conceived in the first quarter of the year (January-March) and lowest among those conceived in the third (July-September) (8.9% vs 7.6%; P disabilities, and learning difficulties (e.g., dyslexia) and were absent for sensory or motor/physical impairments and mental, physical, or communication problems. Seasonality accounted for 11.4% (95% confidence interval: 9.0, 13.7) of all cases. Some biologically plausible causes of this variation, such as infection and maternal vitamin D levels, are potentially amendable to intervention.

  16. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  17. Impacts of the solar eclipse of 11 August 1999 on routinely recorded meteorological and air quality data in south-west Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Ahrens

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The total solar eclipse of 11 August 1999 over Central Europe was also visible in Baden-Wuerttemberg, a state in south-west Germany. To investigate the impact of the total solar eclipse on the lower planetary boundary layer, meteorological and air quality data extracted from routine measurements at six sites in Baden-Wuerttemberg were examined. The meteorological data were recorded at the Plittersdorf meteorological station (in the path of totality of the total solar eclipse and at the Forest meteorological Site Hartheim (outside the path of totality of the total solar eclipse. The air quality data were obtained from four official air quality monitoring stations located at Freudenstadt, Karlsruhe-West, Rastatt and Welzheimer Wald, all of which lie within the path of totality of the total solar eclipse. Due to cloudiness, weather conditions on 11 August 1999 were not optimal in south-west Germany. However, the transient reduction (followed by a rise induced by the total solar eclipse on meteorological variables including global solar radiation, upward longwave radiation, net radiation, air temperature, horizontal wind speed, elevation angle of the three-dimensional wind vector as well as turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes was quite obvious. Despite unfavourable weather conditions, half-hourly mean values of ozone routinely measured at the above-mentioned standard official air quality monitoring stations showed a varying decline up to 27% at the urban station Rastatt and 37% at the background station Welzheimer Wald. This decline was owing mainly to the fall in global radiation during the total solar eclipse. However, additional influences by advection and deposition can not be precluded.

  18. 17 CFR 1.18 - Records for and relating to financial reporting and monthly computation by futures commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financial reporting and monthly computation by futures commission merchants and introducing brokers. 1.18... UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Minimum Financial and Related Reporting Requirements § 1.18 Records for and relating to financial reporting and monthly computation by futures commission merchants...

  19. Motivational Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Describes an introductory meteorology course for nonacademic high school students. The course is made hands-on by the use of an educational software program offered by Accu-Weather. The program contains a meteorology database and instructional modules. (PR)

  20. Association of monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during 1999-2004 with meteorological variables and seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to study associations between monthly averages of meteorological variables and monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public ambulance emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during the years 1999-2004. Throughout this time period no changes were made in the classification codes of the illnesses. Heart disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiopulmonary arrest, angina pectoris, psychiatric diseases, stroke, transient ischemic attack, syncope and the total number of calls were analyzed against 11 weather variables and the four seasons. All illnesses exhibited some seasonal behavior, except cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris. The largest frequencies of illnesses that exhibited some association with the meteorological variables used to occur in winter, except the psychiatric cases. Heart failure, stroke, psychiatric diseases and the total number of calls showed significant correlations with the 11 meteorological variables considered, and the largest indices (absolute values above 0.6) were found for the former two pathologies. On the other side, cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris revealed no significant correlations and nearly null indices. Variables associated with temperature were the meteorological proxies with the largest correlations against diseases. Pressure and humidity mostly exhibited positive correlations, which is the opposite of variables related to temperature. Contrary to all other diseases, psychiatric pathologies showed a clear predominance of positive correlations. Finally, the association degree of the medical dataset with recurrent patterns was further evaluated through Fourier analysis, to assess the presence of statistically significant behavior. In the Northern Hemisphere high morbidity and mortality rates in December are usually assigned to diverse factors in relation to the holidays, but such an effect is not observed in the present analysis. There seems to be no clearly preferred

  1. Pre-instrumental seismicity in Central Africa using felt seisms recorded mainly at the meteorological stations of DRC, Rwanda and Burundi during the colonial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulumba, J.-L.; Delvaux, D.

    2012-04-01

    Seismic hazard assessment and mitigation of catastrophes are primarily based on the identification and characterization of seismically active zones. These tasks still rely heavily on the existing knowledge of the seismic activity over the longest possible time period. The first seismic network in Equatorial Africa (IRSAC network) was operated from the Lwiro scientific base on the western shores of Lake Kivu between 1953 and 1963. Before this installation, the historical record of seismic activity in Central Africa is sparse. Even for the relatively short period concerned, spanning only 50-60 years, the historical record is far from being complete. A first attempt has been made by Herrinckx (1959) who compiled a list 960 felt seisms recorded at the meteorological stations between 1915 and 1954 in Congo, Rwanda and Burundi. They were used to draw a density map of felt seisms per square degree. We completed this data base by exploiting the meteorological archives and any available historical report to enlarge the database which now reaches 1513 entries between 1900 and 1959. These entries have been exanimate in order to identify possible historical seismic events. Those are defined by 3 or more quasi-simultaneous records observed over a relatively short distance (a few degrees of latitude/longitude) within a short time difference (few hours). A preliminary list of 115 possible historical seisms has been obtained, identified by 3 to 15 different stations. The proposed location is taken as the average latitude and longitude of the stations where the felt seisms were recorded. Some of the most important ones are associated to aftershocks that have been felt at some stations after the main shocks. The most recent felt seisms have been also recorded instrumentally, which helps to validate the procedure followed. The main difficulties are the magnitude estimation and the possible spatial incompleteness of the recording of felt seism evidence at the margin of the observation

  2. Assessment of BSRN radiation records for the computation of monthly means

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, Andreas; Wild, Martin F.; Ohmura, Atsumu; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Long, Charles N.; Zhang, Taiping

    2011-02-23

    The accuracy of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) radiation monthly averages are assessed by investigating data gap frequency due to missing or discarded high time resolution data. The monthly statistics, especially means are considered to be important and useful values for climate research, model performance evaluations and for assessing the quality of satellite computations. The study investigates the spread in different algorithms that have been applied for the computation of monthly means from minute values. We found that a substantial fraction of the radiation fluxes observed at BSRN sites is either missing or flagged as questionable. The percentage of missing data is 4.4%, 13.0%, and 6.5% for global radiation, direct shortwave radiation, and downwelling longwave radiation, respectively. Most flagged data in the shortwave are due to nighttime instrumental noise and can reasonably be set to zero after correcting for thermal offsets in the daytime data. The paper reveals that the computation of monthly means from 1-minute observations distinctly depends on the selected method. The intra-method difference generally increases with an increasing fraction of missing data. The study demonstrates that the handling of flagged data clearly impacts on monthly mean estimates obtained with different methods. We showed that the spread of monthly shortwave fluxes are generally clearly higher than for downwelling longwave radiation. Overall, BSRN observation provide sufficient accuracy and completeness for reliable estimates of monthly mean values. However, we should aim at further increasing the data quality by reducing the data gap frequency and the number of outliers. The authors suggest using a standardized method for the computation of monthly means in order to avoid a mismatch of published monthly mean radiation fluxes from BSRN.

  3. Gasoline records the lowest price in last two months; Gasorin, 2kagetsu buri ni saiyasune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    National gasoline average price of the May of 10 date and time points the petroleum information center arranging, dropped for 1 yen at the ratio 90 yen /l the previous month, and the lowest price was renewed in last two months. Past petroleum each sale company raised the wholesale price for stand, and it fell in 'effect of the sale competition in the golden week'. Only risen prefecture became April with 9 Prefecture of abounding comparison of 6 Prefecture, and it was lowered and began to also see the omen of the rest. Falling decreased from the investigation in the previous month at 13 Prefecture in 9 Prefecture. That Okinawa where the underselling competition revived drops for 5 yen, etc. are mainly conspicuous China and Shikoku, fall in price in Kyushu. Domestic price difference is 16 yen equal to the previous month on the prefectural lowest price on 83 yen and highest value of Okayama at 99 yen of Nagasaki and Kagoshima. (translated by NEDO)

  4. Meteorology Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity to learn about meteorology and weather using the internet. Discusses the National Weather Service (NWS) internet site www.weather.gov. Students examine maximum and minimum daily temperatures, wind speed, and direction. (SAH)

  5. Meteorological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multi-year summaries of one or more meteorological elements at a station or in a state. Primarily includes Form 1078, a United States Weather Bureau form designed...

  6. Malaria in infants below six months of age: retrospective surveillance of hospital admission records in Blantyre, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Kuile Feiko O

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the burden of malaria in early infancy is scarce. Young infants are relatively protected against clinical malaria during the first six months of life due to the presence of maternal antibodies and foetal haemoglobin, and have received relatively little attention with respect to research and treatment guidelines. The World Health Organization provides treatment guidelines for children from six months onwards, without specific treatment guidelines for the younger infants. A number of recent reports however suggest that the burden in this young age group may be underestimated. Methods A retrospective review of paediatric hospital records at the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre from 1998 to 2008 from three data sources was carried out. The number of admitted infants Results Retrospective analysis of hospital records showed that over the course of these years, the average annual proportion of paediatric admissions in children ≤ 15 years with confirmed malaria aged Conclusions These findings are consistent with recent reports suggesting that the burden of malaria during the six first months of life may be substantial, and highlight that more research is needed on dose-optimization, safety and efficacy of anti-malarials that are currently used off-label in this vulnerable patient group.

  7. Reliability and Reproducibility of Advanced ECG Parameters in Month-to-Month and Year-to-Year Recordings in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starc, Vito; Abughazaleh, Ahmed S.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced resting ECG parameters such the spatial mean QRS-T angle and the QT variability index (QTVI) have important diagnostic and prognostic utility, but their reliability and reproducibility (R&R) are not well characterized. We hypothesized that the spatial QRS-T angle would have relatively higher R&R than parameters such as QTVI that are more responsive to transient changes in the autonomic nervous system. The R&R of several conventional and advanced ECG para-meters were studied via intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation (CVs) in: (1) 15 supine healthy subjects from month-to-month; (2) 27 supine healthy subjects from year-to-year; and (3) 25 subjects after transition from the supine to the seated posture. As hypothesized, for the spatial mean QRS-T angle and many conventional ECG parameters, ICCs we-re higher, and CVs lower than QTVI, suggesting that the former parameters are more reliable and reproducible.

  8. Controls of Caribbean surface hydrology during the mid- to late Holocene: insights from monthly resolved coral records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Giry

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we reconstruct seasonality and interannual to multidecadal variability of sea surface hydrology of the southern Caribbean Sea by applying paired coral Sr/Ca and δ18O measurements on fossil annually-banded Diploria strigosa corals from Bonaire. This allows for better understanding short-term (i.e., seasonal to multidecadal variability of the Caribbean hydrological cycle during the mid- to late Holocene. The monthly-resolved coral Δ δ18O records are used as a proxy for the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater (δ18Osw of the southern Caribbean Sea. Consistent with modern day conditions, annual δ18Osw cycles reconstructed from three modern corals reveal that freshwater budget at the study site is influenced by both the evaporation/precipitation ratio and the seasonal advection of tropical freshwater brought by wind-driven surface currents. In contrast, the annual δ18Osw cycle reconstructed from a mid-Holocene coral indicates sharp peaks towards more negative values in summer suggesting intense summer precipitation at 6 ka before present (BP. In line with this our model simulations indicate that increased seasonality of the hydrological cycle at 6 ka BP results from enhanced precipitation in summertime. On interannual to multidecadal timescales, the systematic positive correlation observed between reconstructed sea surface temperature and salinity suggests that freshwater discharged from the Orinoco and Amazon rivers and transported into the Caribbean by wind-driven surface currents is a critical component influencing sea surface hydrology on these timescales.

  9. LANL Meteorology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewart, Jean Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-09

    The goal of the Meteorology Program is to provide all routine meteorology measurements for LANL operational requirements. This report discusses the program, its routine operations, and other services.

  10. Southern Caribbean Sea temperature and salinity variability since the mid-Holocene from monthly resolved coral records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felis, Thomas; Giry, Cyril; Kölling, Martin; Scholz, Denis; Wei, Wei; Lohmann, Gerrit; Scheffers, Sander

    2013-04-01

    In the tropical Atlantic, proxy reconstructions of Holocene sea surface temperature and salinity that resolve seasonality and interannual to decadal variability are sparse. However, ocean-atmosphere interactions on these timescales play a critical role for climate extremes such as droughts, floods and hurricanes. Consequently, a better understanding of the natural range of sea surface variability on these timescales is important for projections of future tropical Atlantic climate change. Here we present monthly resolved reconstructions of sea surface temperature (SST) and δ18Oseawater (used as proxy for sea surface salinity, SSS) in the southern Caribbean Sea for snapshots throughout the mid- to late Holocene, derived from Sr/Ca and δ18O analyses of fossil shallow-water corals (Diploria strigosa) from Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles). The corals were dated by the 230Th/U-method and provide a total of ~300 years of record, with individual time windows reaching up to 68 years in length. Our coral records indicate that mid- to late Holocene SST and SSS were characterized by persistent quasi-biennial and prominent interannual to multidecadal variability. However, the amplitude of variability on individual timescales has varied over the last 6200 years. We find that on interannual to multidecadal timescales, warmer conditions were accompanied by more saline conditions at the sea surface, and vice versa. Potential forcing mechanisms of this observed pattern are discussed, including the wind-induced advection of surface waters from the South and the variations in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Compared to the late Holocene, SST variability on inter- to multidecadal timescales was more pronounced during the mid- Holocene, and accompanied by enhanced SSS variability. Moreover, an increased amplitude of the SSS annual cycle is reconstructed for the mid- Holocene, very likely resulting from increased summer precipitation at that time, which

  11. The 2015-2016 Arctic winter: Perspectives on extremes in polar processing and meteorological variability from the 12-year record of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santee, Michelle; Manney, Gloria; Lambert, Alyn; Livesey, Nathaniel; Lawrence, Zachary

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, the Arctic lower stratosphere has seen some of the most dynamically disturbed winters, with stratospheric sudden warmings that curtailed polar processing early in the season and limited chemical ozone loss, as well as several winters marked by exceptionally cold conditions and severe chemical ozone loss. The occurrence in recent winters of different combinations of extreme meteorological conditions, and their impact on polar chemical processes, has underscored the Arctic stratosphere's sensitivity to a spectrum of dynamical variability. Launched as part of NASA's Aura satellite in July 2004, the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) provides an extensive suite of measurements enabling quantification of polar processing and chemical ozone loss. Here we use MLS observations in conjunction with meteorological analyses in a comprehensive analysis of the Arctic winter of 2015-2016. An unusually large volume of low temperatures in the early winter led to strong depletion in gas-phase HNO3 and H2O associated with polar stratospheric cloud formation. As a consequence of this early-winter processing and an elongated vortex with significant portions exposed to sunlight, substantial chlorine activation (enhanced abundances of ClO, depressed abundances of HCl) was evident far earlier than is typical in Arctic winter. The degree of polar processing and chemical ozone loss in this winter will be placed in the context of the previous 11 Arctic winters observed by Aura MLS.

  12. Delayed XBT Data assembled by US NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the months of September and October 2004 (NODC Accession 0001881)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected by the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory...

  13. Delayed XBT Data assembled by US NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the months of July and August 2005 (NODC Accession 0002386)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected by the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory...

  14. Delayed XBT Data assembled by US NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the month of October 2003 (NODC Accession 0001234)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected by the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory...

  15. Delayed XBT Data assembled by US NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the months of March and April 2005 (NODC Accession 0002181)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected by the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory...

  16. Delayed XBT Data assembled by US NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the month of May 2004 (NODC Accession 0001504)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected by the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory...

  17. Delayed XBT Data assembled by US NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the month of June 2001 (NCEI Accession 0000478)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected by the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory...

  18. Delayed XBT Data assembled by US NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the months of January and February 2005 (NODC Accession 0002104)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected by the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory...

  19. Delayed XBT Data assembled by US NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the month of August 2004 (NODC Accession 0001713)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected by the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory...

  20. Delayed XBT Data assembled by US NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the month of September 2005 (NODC Accession 0002399)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected by the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory...

  1. Delayed XBT Data assembled by US NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the month of June 2005 (NODC Accession 0002276)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected by the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory...

  2. Delayed XBT Data assembled by US NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the month of December 2003 (NODC Accession 0001320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected by the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory...

  3. Delayed XBT Data assembled by US NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the month of February 2004 (NODC Accession 0001382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected by the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory...

  4. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Daily and Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness over Global Oceans, Version 2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) is derived from data taken over global oceans from the PATMOS-x AVHRR level-2b channel 1 (0.63...

  5. Japanese Advanced Meteorological Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschell, Jeffery J.; Lowe, Howard A.; Jeter, James W.; Kus, Steven M.; Osgood, Roderic; Hurt, W. Todd; Gilman, David; Rogers, David L.; Hoelter, Roger L.; Kamel, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    The Japanese Advanced Meteorological Imager (JAMI) was developed by Raytheon and delivered to Space Systems/Loral as the Imager Subsystem for Japan's MTSAT-1R satellite. Due to Japan's urgent need to replace MTSAT-1, which was destroyed in a launch failure in 1999, JAMI was developed on an expeditious 39-month schedule. Raytheon's success in responding to the needs of MTSAT-1R and delivering an excellent operational geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) imager was enabled by an elegant instrument architecture and use of newer but proven technology that simplified design, assembly and test of the Imager while simultaneously supplying superior performance. JAMI breaks through limitations of earlier three-axis stabilized GEO instruments with significant improvements in many areas, including spatial sampling, radiometric sensitivity, calibration and performance around local midnight.

  6. Recurrence of atrial fibrillation within three months after pulmonary vein isolation for patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: Analysis using external loop recorder with auto-trigger function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Shiro; Tanno, Kaoru; Ochi, Akinori; Inokuchi, Koichiro; Chiba, Yuta; Onishi, Yoshimi; Onuma, Yoshimasa; Munetsugu, Yumi; Kikuchi, Miwa; Ito, Hiroyuki; Onuki, Tatsuya; Miyoshi, Fumito; Minoura, Yoshino; Watanabe, Norikazu; Adachi, Taro; Asano, Taku; Kobayashi, Youichi

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) via catheter ablation has been shown to be a highly effective treatment option for patients with symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). The recurrence of AF within 3 months after PVI is not considered to be the result of ablation procedure failure, because early recurrence of AF is not always associated with late recurrence. We examined the usefulness of an external loop recorder with an auto-trigger function (ELR-AUTO) for the detection of atrial fibrillation following PVI to characterize early recurrence and to determine the implications of AF occurrence within 3 months after PVI. Fifty-three consecutive symptomatic patients with paroxysmal AF (age 61.6±12.6 years, 77% male) who underwent PVI and were fitted with ELR-AUTO for 7±2.0 days within 3 months after PVI were enrolled in this study. Of the 33 (62.2%) patients who did not have AF recurrence within 3 months after PVI, only 1 patient experienced AF recurrence at 12 months. Seven (35%) of the 20 patients who experienced AF within 3 months of PVI experienced symptomatic AF recurrence at 12 months. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of early AF recurrence for late recurrence were 87.5%, 71.1%, 35.0%, and 96.9%, respectively. AF recurrence measured by ELR-AUTO within 3 months after PVI can predict the late recurrence of AF. Freedom from AF in the first 3 months following ablation significantly predicts long-term AF freedom. ELR-AUTO is useful for the detection of symptomatic and asymptomatic AF.

  7. Recurrence of atrial fibrillation within three months after pulmonary vein isolation for patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: Analysis using external loop recorder with auto-trigger function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Shiro; Tanno, Kaoru; Ochi, Akinori; Inokuchi, Koichiro; Chiba, Yuta; Onishi, Yoshimi; Onuma, Yoshimasa; Munetsugu, Yumi; Kikuchi, Miwa; Ito, Hiroyuki; Onuki, Tatsuya; Miyoshi, Fumito; Minoura, Yoshino; Watanabe, Norikazu; Adachi, Taro; Asano, Taku; Kobayashi, Youichi

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) via catheter ablation has been shown to be a highly effective treatment option for patients with symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). The recurrence of AF within 3 months after PVI is not considered to be the result of ablation procedure failure, because early recurrence of AF is not always associated with late recurrence. We examined the usefulness of an external loop recorder with an auto-trigger function (ELR-AUTO) for the detection of atrial fibrillation following PVI to characterize early recurrence and to determine the implications of AF occurrence within 3 months after PVI. Methods Fifty-three consecutive symptomatic patients with paroxysmal AF (age 61.6±12.6 years, 77% male) who underwent PVI and were fitted with ELR-AUTO for 7±2.0 days within 3 months after PVI were enrolled in this study. Results Of the 33 (62.2%) patients who did not have AF recurrence within 3 months after PVI, only 1 patient experienced AF recurrence at 12 months. Seven (35%) of the 20 patients who experienced AF within 3 months of PVI experienced symptomatic AF recurrence at 12 months. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of early AF recurrence for late recurrence were 87.5%, 71.1%, 35.0%, and 96.9%, respectively. Conclusions AF recurrence measured by ELR-AUTO within 3 months after PVI can predict the late recurrence of AF. Freedom from AF in the first 3 months following ablation significantly predicts long-term AF freedom. ELR-AUTO is useful for the detection of symptomatic and asymptomatic AF. PMID:26336538

  8. New Meteorological and Geological Study of Taviano (LE)

    CERN Document Server

    Tasselli, D; Bianchi, P

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains the result of the elaboration of informations about Solar Irradiation, Geological, Meteorological and Climatic from the point of view of the quantitative data and social interaction recorded in Taviano (LE) over 24 years. These data are compared to check local variations, long term trends, and correlation with mean annual temperature. The ultimate goal of this work is to understand long term climatic changes in this geographic area. The classes of event considerated are hydrogeological phenomena, sun irradiation, seismic, volcanic, meteorological and climatological event. Only event occurred between 1990 and 2014 are considerated. The analysis is performed using a statistical approach. A particular care is used to minimize any effect due to prejudices in case of lack of data. Finally, we calculate the annual average from the monthly ones. Data on this paper don't come from a complete census of phenomena; they are considered enough representative of the accepted vulnerability level at the b...

  9. Seasonality of human leptospirosis in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean and its association with meteorological data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Desvars

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a disease which occurs worldwide but particularly affects tropical areas. Transmission of the disease is dependent on its excretion by reservoir animals and the presence of moist environment which allows the survival of the bacteria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A retrospective study was undertaken to describe seasonal patterns of human leptospirosis cases reported by the Centre National de Références des Leptospiroses (CNRL, Pasteur Institute, Paris between 1998 and 2008, to determine if there was an association between the occurrence of diagnosed cases and rainfall, temperature and global solar radiation (GSR. Meteorological data were recorded in the town of Saint-Benoît (Météo France "Beaufonds-Miria" station, located on the windward (East coast. Time-series analysis was used to identify the variables that best described and predicted the occurrence of cases of leptospirosis on the island. Six hundred and thirteen cases were reported during the 11-year study period, and 359 cases (58.56% were diagnosed between February and May. A significant correlation was identified between the number of cases in a given month and the associated cumulated rainfall as well as the mean monthly temperature recorded 2 months prior to diagnosis (r = 0.28 and r = 0.23 respectively. The predictive model includes the number of cases of leptospirosis recorded 1 month prior to diagnosis (b = 0.193, the cumulated monthly rainfall recorded 2 months prior to diagnosis (b = 0.145, the average monthly temperature recorded 0 month prior to diagnosis (b = 3.836, and the average monthly GSR recorded 0 month prior to diagnosis (b = -1.293. CONCLUSIONS: Leptospirosis has a seasonal distribution in Reunion Island. Meteorological data can be used to predict the occurrence of the disease and our statistical model can help to implement seasonal prevention measures.

  10. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  11. Monthly sea surface temperature records reconstructed by δ18O of reef-building coral in the east of Hainan Island,South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Xuexian(何学贤); LIU; Dunyi(刘敦一); PENG; Zicheng(彭子成); LIU; Weiguo(刘卫国)

    2002-01-01

    Stable oxygen isotopic compositions of a coral colony of Porites lutea obtained on a core allowed the reconstruction of a 56-a (1943-1998) proxy record of the sea surface temperatures. This coral δ18O data are from the east of Hainan Island water (22°20′N, 110°39′E), South China Sea. The relationship between δ18O in the skeletal aragonite carbonate and the sea surface temperature (SST) is SST = -5.36 δ18OPDB-3.51 (r = 0.73, n = 470), dδ18O/d(SST) = -0.187‰/ ℃; and the thermometer was set at monthly resolution. The 56-a (1943-1998) proxy record of the sea surface temperatures reflected the same change trend in the northern part of South China Sea as the air temperature change trend in China.

  12. Meteorological Factors Affecting Evaporation Duct Height Climatologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    this present study’s central tendency statistics (monthly means, modes, and medians). The exceptions are OWS ALFA and BRAVO, and to some degree CHARLIE...Seattle 98762 Commanding Officer Superintendent Office of Naval Research U.S. Naval Academy Eastern/ Central Regional Office Library Acquisitions Bldg. 114...Italy Maritime Meteorology Division Japan Meteorological Agency Ote-Machi 1-3-4 Chiyoda-Ku Tokyo, Japan Instituto De Geofisica U.N.A.M. Biblioteca

  13. Magnitude-frequency relations of debris-flows on cones: evidence from tree-ring records, field surveys and meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Debris-flow activity in a watershed is usually defined in terms of magnitude and frequency. While magnitude-frequency (M-F) relations have long formed the basis for risk assessment and engineering design in hydrology and fluvial hydraulics, only fragmentary and insufficiently specified data for debris flows exists. This paper reconstructs M-F relationships of 62 debris flows for an aggradational cone of a small (Swiss Alps since A.D. 1863. The frequency of debris flows is obtained from tree-ring records. The magnitude of individual events is given as S, M, L, XL, and derived from volumetric data of deposits, grain size distributions of boulders, and a series of surrogates (snout elevations, tree survival, lateral spread of surges). Class S and M debris flows ( 50 mm) in August and September, when the active layer of the rock glacier in the source area of debris flows is largest. Over the past ~150 years, climate has exerted control on material released from the source area and prevented triggering of class XL events before 1922. With the projected climatic change, permafrost degradation and the potential increase in storm intensity are likely to produce "class XXL" events in the future with volumes surpassing 5 × 104 m3 at the level of the debris-flow cone.

  14. Influence of rainfalls on heat and steam fluxes of fumarolic zones: Six months records along the Ty fault (Soufrière of Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Damien; Finizola, Anthony; Delcher, Eric; Beauducel, François; Allemand, Pascal; Delacourt, Christophe; Brothelande, Elodie; Peltier, Aline; Di Gangi, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Fumarolic zones are permeable areas where both steam and heat are expelled to the atmosphere. Surface fluxes and flows, which are representative of the intensity of the hydrothermal circulation in depth, can be monitored by thermometers, thermal infrared cameras, spectrometers, or condensers. However, the superficial activity of fumarolic zones can be modified by the meteorological conditions, in particular the rainfalls, which might result in erroneous estimations. From this perspective, we developed a set of physical equations to quantify the effects of rainfalls on the thermal behavior of fumarolic zones. Results were faced to continuous measurements achieved at the Ty fault fumarolic zone (La Soufrière volcano, Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles) during six months in 2010, using six vertical series of thermometers measuring the heat transfer in the ground and one condenser measuring the rising steam flux. Results demonstrate that in the absence of rainfalls, heat and steam flux reach an equilibrium that is representative of the geothermal flux in depth. Conversely, after the rainfalls, the cooling of the ground provokes a deepening of the condensation level. The related soil temperature drop can be estimated by computing the heat required to warm the infiltrated water up to boiling temperature while the recovery rate is directly linked to the geothermal flux. Our observations allow defining in which conditions flux are at steady state, but also to build a first-order numerical model allowing estimating both the physical parameters of the ground (thermal conductivity, precipitation efficiency coefficient and surface flux constant) and the long-term thermal behavior of the hydrothermal system. In particular, our results predict that the hydrothermal activity must vanish on the zones where the geothermal flux drops under a certain threshold (60 W/m2 at La Soufrière). The existence of this limit may have strong implications for the precipitation rate of minerals and the

  15. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr. [ed.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  16. Statistical Physics in Meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2004-01-01

    Various aspects of modern statistical physics and meteorology can be tied together. The historical importance of the University of Wroclaw in the field of meteorology is first pointed out. Next, some basic difference about time and space scales between meteorology and climatology is outlined. The nature and role of clouds both from a geometric and thermal point of view are recalled. Recent studies of scaling laws for atmospheric variables are mentioned, like studies on cirrus ice content, bri...

  17. Lectures in Micro Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling

    This report contains the notes from my lectures on Micro scale meteorology at the Geophysics Department of the Niels Bohr Institute of Copenhagen University. In the period 1993-2012, I was responsible for this course at the University. At the start of the course, I decided that the text books...... available in meteorology at that time did not include enough of the special flavor of micro meteorology that characterized the work of the meteorology group at Risø (presently of the Institute of wind energy of the Danish Technical University). This work was focused on Boundary layer flows and turbulence...

  18. Meteorological Archival Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Bergen Data Center (BDC) provides data archival capability for meteorological and oceanographic data. DESCRIPTION: The BDC operates as a resource for...

  19. Developmental milestones record - 18 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 11. ... Normal development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials ... . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  20. Developmental milestones record - 12 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 10. ... Normal development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials ... . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  1. Developmental milestones record - 9 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 10. ... Normal development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  2. Developmental milestones record - 4 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 10. ... Normal development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials ... . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  3. Classification of Meteorological Drought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiang; Zou Xukai; Xiao Fengjin; Lu Houquan; Liu Haibo; Zhu Changhan; An Shunqing

    2011-01-01

    Background The national standard of the Classification of Meteorological Drought (GB/T 20481-2006) was developed by the National Climate Center in cooperation with Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences,National Meteorological Centre and Department of Forecasting and Disaster Mitigation under the China Meteorological Administration (CMA),and was formally released and implemented in November 2006.In 2008,this Standard won the second prize of the China Standard Innovation and Contribution Awards issued by SAC.Developed through independent innovation,it is the first national standard published to monitor meteorological drought disaster and the first standard in China and around the world specifying the classification of drought.Since its release in 2006,the national standard of Classification of Meteorological Drought has been used by CMA as the operational index to monitor and drought assess,and gradually used by provincial meteorological sureaus,and applied to the drought early warning release standard in the Methods of Release and Propagation of Meteorological Disaster Early Warning Signal.

  4. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  5. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    : wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed......Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed...

  6. New Meteorological and Geological Study of Acquapendente (VT)

    CERN Document Server

    Tasselli, D; Bianchi, P

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the geological, meteorological and climatic data recorded in Acquapendente (VT) over 24 years. These data are compared to check local variations,long term trends, and correlation with maen annual temperature. The ultimate goal of this work is to understand logn term climatic changes in this geographic area. The analysis is performed using a statistical approach. From each long series of data calculate the hourly averages and that the monthly averages in order to reduce the fluctuations in the short time due to the day / night cycle. A particular care is used to minimize any effect due to prejudices in case of lack of data. Finally, we calculate the annual average from the monthly ones.

  7. Non-linear relationship of hydrological drought responding to meteorological drought and impact of a large reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiefeng; Chen, Xingwei; Yao, Huaxia; Gao, Lu; Chen, Ying; Liu, Meibing

    2017-08-01

    Exploring the relationship between hydrological and meteorological droughts under influence of large reservoirs is crucial for early warning of hydrological drought. This study took Jinjiang River basin in the southeast coastal region of China as an example, where the Shilong hydrometric station is influenced by a large reservoir (Shanmei), and the Anxi hydrological station is not. Based on monthly data of streamflow with precipitation and historical drought records from 1960 to 2010, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI) series (representing meteorological drought and hydrological drought, respectively) were each calculated with a 3-month timescale. Run theory was then used to identify the characteristics of meteorological and hydrological drought, including duration and magnitude. The relationship with which hydrological drought responds to meteorological drought was established by a non-linear function model at the Anxi station and Shilong station which reflected the periods of natural condition without reservoir and reservoir-influence condition, respectively. The results indicate that (1) there was a clear non-linear relationship of hydrological drought and meteorological drought, and the threshold within which hydrological drought started to respond to meteorological drought was obtained according to the non-linear function model; (2) the operational activities of the Shanmei reservoir during 1983-2010 have significantly reduced the duration and magnitude of hydrological drought at the Shilong station compared to the natural-influence period of 1960-1982, which, in turn, altered the relationship between the hydrological drought and meteorological drought. The propagation process from meteorological to hydrological droughts was shortened because of the changed relationship.

  8. US Marine Meteorological Journals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This series consists of volumes entitled 'Meteorological Journal' (a regulation Navy-issue publication) which were to be completed by masters of merchant vessels...

  9. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  10. Climate and meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations.

  11. Patient-Reported Safety Events in Chronic Kidney Disease Recorded With an Interactive Voice-Inquiry Dial-Response System: Monthly Report Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, Rebecca M; Yoffe, Marni R; Diamantidis, Clarissa J; Blumenthal, Jacob B; Siddiqui, Tariq; Gardner, James F; Snitker, Soren; Zhan, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring patient-reported outcomes (PROs) may improve safety of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Objective Evaluate the performance of an interactive voice-inquiry dial-response system (IVRDS) in detecting CKD-pertinent adverse safety events outside of the clinical environment and compare the incidence of events using the IVDRS to that detected by paper diary. Methods This was a 6-month study of Stage III-V CKD patients in the Safe Kidney Care (SKC) study. Participants crossed over from a paper diary to the IVDRS for recording patient-reported safety events defined as symptoms or events attributable to medications or care. The IVDRS was adapted from the SKC paper diary to record event frequency and remediation. Participants were auto-called weekly and permitted to self-initiate calls. Monthly reports were reviewed by two physician adjudicators for their clinical significance. Results 52 participants were followed over a total of 1384 weeks. 28 out of 52 participants (54%) reported events using the IVDRS versus 8 out of 52 (15%) with the paper diary; hypoglycemia was the most common event for both methods. All IVDRS menu options were selected at least once except for confusion and rash. Events were reported on 121 calls, with 8 calls reporting event remediation by ambulance or emergency room (ER) visit. The event rate with the IVDRS and paper diary, with and without hypoglycemia, was 26.7 versus 4.7 and 18.3 versus 0.8 per 100 person weeks, respectively (P=.002 and P10 events) largely differed by method, and event rates excluding the most frequent user of each were 16.9 versus 2.5 per 100 person weeks, respectively (P<.001). Adjudicators found approximately half the 80 reports clinically significant, with about a quarter judged as actionable. Hypoglycemia was often associated with additional reports of fatigue and falling. Participants expressed favorable satisfaction with the IVDRS. Conclusions Use of the IVDRS among CKD patients reveals a high

  12. Diagnostic hearing testing of infants aged 0-36 months in 3 South African provinces - Comparison of audiology records to HPCSA guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Selvarani; Störbeck, Claudine

    2016-12-01

    Within the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) pathway, which includes the processes of screening, diagnosis and intervention for paediatric hearing loss, paediatric diagnostic audiology involves a battery of specific tests and procedures. International studies have highlighted a golden standard for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss as based on the Joint Committee of Infant Hearing (2007) diagnostic guidelines, closely resembling the HPCSA diagnostic guidelines. There are limited South African studies on the processes and protocols followed in diagnostic paediatric audiology. This study aims to provide a comparison for how the tests used for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in South Africa (within both the public and private healthcare sectors) compare to the HPCSA recommended diagnostic guidelines. A retrospective record review of paediatric clients with hearing loss (recruited through nonprobability convenience sampling) was conducted. This study is part of a longitudinal study of 711 deaf or hard of hearing children referred to the HI HOPES early intervention programme from September 2006 to December 2011. Diagnostic data from audiology reports of 117 children between 0 and 36 months were coded and analysed. Large variation was found in the tests included in the diagnostic audiology reports. For 22 children (19%) a comprehensive test battery was used. Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) recommended guidelines for diagnostic testing were not followed in any of the records analysed. Components of the HPCSA recommended test battery most frequently omitted was bone conduction testing. For both electrophysiology and behavioural testing, there was limited frequency specificity information. This exclusion of information is evidence of deficiencies in data recording and management, as well as having an effect on accuracy of classification of degree and type of hearing loss. There are gaps in age-appropriate assessment protocols, which

  13. METRODOS: Meteorological preprocessor chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.

    2001-01-01

    The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain combines measured tower data and coarse grid numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with local scale flow models and similarity scaling to give high resolution approximations of the meteorological situation. Based on available wind velocity...... and direction measurements/NWP predictions, the LINCOM or the MCF flow model determines the wind field on a 1/2 to 1 km grid over the area of interest, taking the influence of orography and mixed roughness into consideration. For each grid point the obtained wind and the most appropriate - normally the nearest...... - heat flux related measurement, e.g. a temperature gradient, are used to give local values of friction velocity and Monin-Obukhov length plus an estimate of the mixing height. The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain is an integral part of the RODOS - Real Time On Line Decision Support - program...

  14. Arctic Sea Ice Charts from Danish Meteorological Institute, 1893 - 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1893 to 1956, the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) created charts of observed and inferred sea ice extent for each summer month. These charts are based on...

  15. Meteorological Data from the Russian Arctic, 1961-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains monthly means of meteorological observation data from Russian stations from 1961-2000 (for most stations). The Russian station observations...

  16. Women Working in Meteorology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IN June of 1997, the Fengynn No. 2 meteorological satellite fixed itself in a synchronous orbit 35,800 kilometers above the Earth. Domestically designed and produced, this satellite filled an important gap in China’s space-based weather equipment: the Fengyun No. 2 can provide cloud charts about one third the area of the Earth with the longitude of central China as its center. It has already begun to play an important role in medium- and short-range forecasting, as well as tracking disastrous weather patterns. The Moving Control Division under the State Satellite Meteorological Center is the headquarters for the gronnd

  17. The connecting health and technology study: a 6-month randomized controlled trial to improve nutrition behaviours using a mobile food record and text messaging support in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Deborah A; Harray, Amelia J; Pollard, Christina M; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Delp, Edward J; Howat, Peter A; Pickering, Mark R; Ahmad, Ziad; Meng, Xingqiong; Pratt, Iain S; Wright, Janine L; Kerr, Katherine R; Boushey, Carol J

    2016-04-21

    Early adulthood represents the transition to independent living which is a period when changes in diet and body weight are likely to occur. This presents an ideal time for health interventions to reduce the effect of health problems and risk factors for chronic disease in later life. As young adults are high users of mobile devices, interventions that use this technology may improve engagement. The Connecting Health and Technology study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of tailored dietary feedback and weekly text messaging to improve dietary intake of fruit, vegetables and junk food over 6 months among a population-based sample of men and women (aged 18-30 years). A three-arm, parallel, randomized control trial was conducted. After baseline assessments, participants were randomized to one of three groups: A) dietary feedback and weekly text messages, B) dietary feedback only or C) control group. Dietary intake was assessed using a mobile food record App (mFR) where participants captured images of foods and beverages consumed over 4-days at baseline and post-intervention. The primary outcomes were changes in serves of fruits, vegetables, energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). The intervention effects were assessed using linear mixed effect models for change in food group serves. Young adults (n = 247) were randomized to group A (n = 82), group B (n = 83), or group C (n = 82). Overall, no changes in food group serves for either intervention groups were observed. An unanticipated outcome was a mean weight reduction of 1.7 kg (P = .02) among the dietary feedback only. Men who received dietary feedback only, significantly reduced their serves of EDNP foods by a mean of 1.4 serves/day (P = .02). Women who received dietary feedback only significantly reduced their intake of SSB (P = .04) by an average of 0.2 serves/day compared with controls. Tailored dietary feedback only resulted in a decrease in EDNP

  18. A Miniature Robotic Plane Meteorological Sounding System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马舒庆; 陈洪滨; 汪改; 潘毅; 李强

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a miniature robotic plane meteorological sounding system RPMSS), which consists of three major subsystems: a miniature robotic plane, an air-borne meteorological sounding and flight control system, and a ground-based system. Take-off and landing of the miniature aircraft are guided by radio control, and the flight of the robotic plane along a pre-designed trajectory is automatically piloted by an onboard navigation system. The observed meteorological data as well as all flight information are sent back in real time to the ground, then displayed and recorded by the ground-based computer. The ground-based subsystem can also transmit instructions to the air-borne control subsystem. Good system performance has been demonstrated by more than 300 hours of flight for atmospheric sounding.

  19. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  20. Observed and blended gauge-satellite precipitation estimates perspective on meteorological drought intensity over South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, A. M.; Koesmaryono, Y.; Faqih, A.; Gunawan, D.

    2017-01-01

    South Sulawesi province as one of the rice production center for national food security are highly influenced by climate phenomenon that lead to drought condition. This paper quantifies meteorological drought based on Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and Consecutive Dry Days (CDD) as one of the extreme indices recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). The indices were calculated by using (i) quality controlled daily and monthly observational precipitation data from 23 weather stations of various record lengths within 1967-2015 periods, and (ii) 0.05o x 0.05o blended gauge-satellite of daily and monthly precipitation estimates of the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) dataset. Meteorological drought intensity represented by Average Duration of Drought Intensity (ADI) from three-monthly SPI (SPI3) show spatial differences characteristic between eastern and western region. Observed and CHIRPS have relatively similar perspective on meteorological drought intensity over South Sulawesi. Relatively high values of ADI and longest CDD observed mainly over south western part of study area.

  1. BOREAS AFM-07 SRC Surface Meteorological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Heather; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Young, Kim; Wittrock, Virginia; Shewchuck, Stan; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC) collected surface meteorological and radiation data from December 1993 until December 1996. The data set comprises Suite A (meteorological and energy balance measurements) and Suite B (diffuse solar and longwave measurements) components. Suite A measurements were taken at each of ten sites, and Suite B measurements were made at five of the Suite A sites. The data cover an approximate area of 500 km (North-South) by 1000 km (East-West) (a large portion of northern Manitoba and northern Saskatchewan). The measurement network was designed to provide researchers with a sufficient record of near-surface meteorological and radiation measurements. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and were collected by Aircraft Flux and Meteorology (AFM)-7. The surface meteorological and radiation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  2. Neural-Based Pattern Matching for Selection of Biophysical Model Meteorological Forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, A. M.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Li, H.; Venteris, E. R.; Skaggs, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    The current interest and demand for developing renewable and sustainable bio-based energies has brought microalgae and other terrestrial feedstocks into the active research domain where different components and strategies of the lifecycle are evaluated for economic and resource efficiency. To understand the potential energy returns and resource requirements of large-scale open- and closed-pond microalgae cultivation facilities and terrestrial feedstock growth on marginal lands, a spatial modeling and biophysical modeling suite, referred to as the Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT), has been developed. BAT is in part comprised of (1) a high spatial resolution multi-criteria land suitability model; (2) a coupled, high-temporal resolution, full mass and energy balance hydrodynamic pond temperature and microalgae growth model; (3) a terrestrial water demand and biomass growth model; and (4) an spatially-based energy, land, and water use optimization routine. Depending on the criteria used, our national spatial land suitability model yields tens of thousands of potential large-scale bioenergy sites for modeling and evaluation of production and resource demand. The fundamental driver of water use and bioenergy production rates in pond-based cultivation systems and traditional terrestrial crop growth is the meteorology; however, a major obstacle in the use of high spatiotemporal resolution biophysical models is the lack of sufficient and readily available meteorological data at the appropriate scale. To address this issue, firstly, the daily meteorology data from 2,522 USDA CLIGEN stations within the conterminous United States were disaggregated to an hourly time-step using the physics-based approach of Waichler and Wigmosta (2003), yielding a high-temporal resolution 30-year meteorological record. Secondly, in order to best describe the meteorological model forcings for a given site and significantly increase modeling efficiency, we developed a novel multi-scale pattern

  3. SPI Based Meteorological Drought Assessment over a Humid Basin: Effects of Processing Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological drought monitoring is important for drought early warning and disaster prevention. Regional meteorological drought can be evaluated and analyzed with standardized precipitation index (SPI. Two main processing schemes are frequently adopted: (1 mean of all SPI calculated from precipitation at individual stations (SPI-mean; and (2 SPI calculated from all-station averaged precipitation (precipitation-mean. It yet remains unclear if two processing schemes could make difference in drought assessment, which is of significance to reliable drought monitoring. Taking the Poyang Lake Basin with monthly precipitation recorded by 13 national stations for 1957–2014, this study examined two processing schemes. The precipitation mean and SPI mean were respectively calculated with the Thiessen Polygon weighting approach. Our results showed that the two SPI series individually constructed from two schemes had similar features and monitoring trends of regional meteorological droughts. Both SPI series had a significantly positive correlation (p < 0.005 with the number of precipitation stations. The precipitation-mean scheme reduced the extent of precipitation extremes and made the precipitation data more clustered in some certain, it made less precipitation deviate from the precipitation-mean series farther when less precipitation occurred universally, which would probably change the drought levels. Alternatively, the SPI-mean scheme accurately highlighted the extremes especially for those with wide spatial distribution over the region. Therefore, for regional meteorological drought monitoring, the SPI-mean scheme is recommended for its more suitable assessment of historical droughts.

  4. Recurrence of atrial fibrillation within three months after pulmonary vein isolation for patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: Analysis using external loop recorder with auto-trigger function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Kawasaki

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: AF recurrence measured by ELR-AUTO within 3 months after PVI can predict the late recurrence of AF. Freedom from AF in the first 3 months following ablation significantly predicts long-term AF freedom. ELR-AUTO is useful for the detection of symptomatic and asymptomatic AF.

  5. Meteorological Support in Scientific Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes, Chris; Mullenax, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The weather affects every portion of a scientific balloon mission, from payload integration to launch, float, and impact and recovery. Forecasting for these missions is very specialized and unique in many aspects. CSBF Meteorology incorporates data from NWSNCEP, as well as several international meteorological organizations, and NCAR. This presentation will detail the tools used and specifics on how CSBF Meteorology produces its forecasts.

  6. Mutual Coupling Between Meteorological Parameters and Secondary Microseisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Holub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic scientific question of this study was: do other mechanisms exist for excitation of secondary microseisms aside from the widely accepted mechanism by non-linear interactions of respective ocean waves. Here we use continuous broadband data from secondary microseisms recorded at the Ostrava-Krásné Pole, Czech Republic (OKC seismic station to create a massive seismological database. Except for seismological data, various meteorological features and their mutual relations were analysed: temperature, the so called ¡§shifted¡¨ temperature, air density, changes of atmospheric pressure, and synoptic situations. These analyses prove that maximum amplitudes of microseisms were observed during winter, while minimum amplitudes occured in summer months. The annual variations of microseisms amplitudes could not be explained by annual variations of storm activity above the North Atlantic. In addition, current analyses also aim at quantitative and quantitative evaluation of synoptic situations for triggering individual microseismic anomalies. Some of the meteorological features, namely the distribution of low pressures above northern Europe and high-pressure areas in Central Europe make it easy to explain most of the microseismic extremes. Here we pay special attention to the influence of large earthquakes, which usually induce slow deformation waves. We conclude that at least three mechanisms of microseism generation are possible: (1 the function of atmospheric pressure at sea level in the North Atlantic, (2 the effects of spreading of thermoelastic waves in the rock mass and (3 deformation waves induced by large earthquakes.

  7. Literary Fiction or Ancient Astronomical and Meteorological Observations in the Work of Maria Valtorta?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Matricciani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In The Gospel as revealed to me, Maria Valtorta reports a lot of information on the Holy Land at the time of Jesus: historical, archaeological, astronomical, geographical, meteorological. She states she has written what seen “in vision”. By a detailed astronomical analysis of explicit and implicit calendar information reported while she narrates detailed episodes concerning the three years of Jesus’ public life—possible because of many references to lunar phases, constellations, planets visible in the night sky in her writings—it is ascertained that every event described implies a precise date—day, month, year—without being explicitly reported by her. For example, Jesus’ crucifixion should have occurred on Friday April 23 of the year 34, a date proposed by Isaac Newton. She has also recorded the occurrence of rain so that the number of rainy days reported can be compared to the current meteorological data, supposing random observations and no important changes in rainfall daily frequency in the last 2000 years, the latter issue discussed in the paper. Unexpectedly, both the annual and monthly averages of rainy days deduced from the data available from the Israel Meteorological Service and similar averages deduced from her writings agree very well.

  8. Non-linear modelling of monthly mean vorticity time changes: an application to the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Finizio

    Full Text Available Starting from a number of observables in the form of time-series of meteorological elements in various areas of the northern hemisphere, a model capable of fitting past records and predicting monthly vorticity time changes in the western Mediterranean is implemented. A new powerful statistical methodology is introduced (MARS in order to capture the non-linear dynamics of time-series representing the available 40-year history of the hemispheric circulation. The developed model is tested on a suitable independent data set. An ensemble forecast exercise is also carried out to check model stability in reference to the uncertainty of input quantities.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics · General circulation ocean-atmosphere interactions · Synoptic-scale meteorology

  9. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    During 1990, we have continued our meteorological and hydrologic data collection in support of our process-oriented research. The six years of data collected to data is unique in its scope and continuity in a North Hemisphere Arctic setting. This valuable data base has allowed us to further our understanding of the interconnections and interactions between the atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere. The increased understanding of the heat and mass transfer processes has allowed us to increase our model-oriented research efforts.

  10. Old Romanian Meteorological Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Liviu-Ioan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the evolution of the meteorological terminology, from the 17th century Grigore Ureche’s chronicle and bishop Amfilohie Hotiniul's manuscript on Physics (Moldavia, late 18th Century to the mid 19th century writings of Teodor Stamati (Moldova and Julius Barasch (Wallachia, also considering pop science literature, newspapers, such as “Albina Românească” and weather superstitions published in various calendars, and disputed by intelectuals like Mihail Kogălniceanu.

  11. The meteorology of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, A. P.

    1976-01-01

    From the point of view of meteorology the most important differences between Jupiter and the earth are related to the fact that Jupiter has an appreciable internal energy source and probably lacks a solid surface. The composition and vertical structure of the Jovian atmosphere is considered along with the composition of Jovian cloud particles, turbulence in Jupiter's atmosphere, data on the horizontal structure and motions of the atmosphere, and questions related to the longevity of Jupiter's clouds. Attention is given to the barotropic characteristics of Jupiter's atmosphere, the radiation balance in the atmosphere of the earth and of Jupiter, and studies of the Great Red Spot.

  12. Wavelets in meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram Chandra; Bhatla, Rajeev

    2012-07-01

    This paper deals with the meteorological applications of wavelets and fuzzy logics and a hybrid of wavelets and fuzzy logics. The wavelet transform has emerged over recent years as a powerful time-frequency analysis and signal coding tool favoured for the interrogation of complex non-stationary signals. It has been shown that the wavelet transform is a flexible time-frequency decomposition tool which can form the basis of useful time series analysis. It is expected to see an increased amount of research and technology development work in the coming years employing wavelets for various scientific and engineering applications.

  13. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M.; Ross, J. D.; Solomon, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6microb level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Spatial interpolation of monthly mean air temperature data for Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniskevich, Svetlana

    2016-04-01

    Temperature data with high spatial resolution are essential for appropriate and qualitative local characteristics analysis. Nowadays the surface observation station network in Latvia consists of 22 stations recording daily air temperature, thus in order to analyze very specific and local features in the spatial distribution of temperature values in the whole Latvia, a high quality spatial interpolation method is required. Until now inverse distance weighted interpolation was used for the interpolation of air temperature data at the meteorological and climatological service of the Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre, and no additional topographical information was taken into account. This method made it almost impossible to reasonably assess the actual temperature gradient and distribution between the observation points. During this project a new interpolation method was applied and tested, considering auxiliary explanatory parameters. In order to spatially interpolate monthly mean temperature values, kriging with external drift was used over a grid of 1 km resolution, which contains parameters such as 5 km mean elevation, continentality, distance from the Gulf of Riga and the Baltic Sea, biggest lakes and rivers, population density. As the most appropriate of these parameters, based on a complex situation analysis, mean elevation and continentality was chosen. In order to validate interpolation results, several statistical indicators of the differences between predicted values and the values actually observed were used. Overall, the introduced model visually and statistically outperforms the previous interpolation method and provides a meteorologically reasonable result, taking into account factors that influence the spatial distribution of the monthly mean temperature.

  15. China's FY-3 Polar Orbit Meteorological Satellite And Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen; Fang Meng; Sun Anlai

    2009-01-01

    @@ FY-3 is China's second generation of polar orbit meteorological satellite. FY-3A,the first of the FY-3 series,was launched on May 27,2008 from Taiyuan Satellite Launeh Center. After 5 months of in-orbit test,the satellite and its ground application system were put into trial operation on November 18,2008,marking the successful technical upgrading of China's polar-orbit meteorological satellite.

  16. Exploratory analysis of textual data from the Mother and Child Handbook using a text mining method (II): Monthly changes in the words recorded by mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Miki; Matsuda, Yoshio; Manaka, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Makiko; Ohwada, Michitaka; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the possibility of converting subjective textual data written in the free column space of the Mother and Child Handbook (MCH) into objective information using text mining and to compare any monthly changes in the words written by the mothers. Pregnant women without complications (n = 60) were divided into two groups according to State-Trait Anxiety Inventory grade: low trait anxiety (group I, n = 39) and high trait anxiety (group II, n = 21). Exploratory analysis of the textual data from the MCH was conducted by text mining using the Word Miner software program. Using 1203 structural elements extracted after processing, a comparison of monthly changes in the words used in the mothers' comments was made between the two groups. The data was mainly analyzed by a correspondence analysis. The structural elements in groups I and II were divided into seven and six clusters, respectively, by cluster analysis. Correspondence analysis revealed clear monthly changes in the words used in the mothers' comments as the pregnancy progressed in group I, whereas the association was not clear in group II. The text mining method was useful for exploratory analysis of the textual data obtained from pregnant women, and the monthly change in the words used in the mothers' comments as pregnancy progressed differed according to their degree of unease. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Analysis of relationship between meteorological and agricultural drought using standardized precipitation index and vegetation health index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma’rufah, U.; Hidayat, R.; Prasasti, I.

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural drought is closely related to meteorological drought in which the agricultural drought is an impact of meteorological drought. This study aim to understand the duration, spatial extent, severity and lag time of meteorological and agricultural drought during El Niño years. The data used in this study are monthly data of CHIPRS and MODIS. Meteorological drought and agricultural drought are intensified in the El Niño years. The duration of meteorological drought is different in each region but generally occurs during June to November. Agricultural drought mostly occurs from August to November. Spatially, meteorological drought and agricultural drought in 2015 has wider extent and higher severity (SPI VHI VHI is significantly correlated with SPI-3 reach 58% of the total area of Indonesia. It means rainfall deficit during three months has a significant impact on agricultural drought in Indonesia. In general, SPI-3 and VHI clearly explain the relationship between meteorological drought and agricultural drought in Indonesia.

  18. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  19. Meteorological Services Annual Data Report for 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-21

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2014. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  20. Meteorological services annual data report for 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, S.

    2017-01-18

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2016. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  1. Meteorological services annual data report for 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-25

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2015. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  2. Meteorology as an infratechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. A.; Smith, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    From an economists perspective, meteorology is an underpinning or infratechnology in the sense that in general it does not of its own accord lead to actual products. Its value added comes from the application of its results to the activities of other forms of economic and technological activity. This contribution discusses both the potential applications of meteorology as an ininfratechnology, and quantifying its socio-economic impact. Large economic and social benefits are both likely in theory and can be identified in practice. Case studies of particular weather dependent industries or particular episodes are suggested, based on the methodology developed by NIST to analyze the social impact of technological innovation in US industries (see www.nist.gov/director/planning/strategicplanning.htm ). Infratechnologies can provide economic benefits in the support of markets. Incomplete information is a major cause of market failure because it inhibits the proper design of contracts. The performance of markets in general can be influenced by strategies adopted by different firms within a market to regulate the performance of others especially suppliers or purchasers. This contribution will focus on benefits to society from mechanisms which enhance and enforce mitigating actions. When the market mechanism fails, who might social benefits be gained, for example, by widening the scope of authorities to ensure that those who could have taken mitigating action, given prior warning, cover the costs. This goes beyond the design and implementation of civil responses to severe weather warnings to include the design of legislative recourse in the event of negligence given prior knowledge, or the modification of insurance contracts. The aim here, for example, would be to avoid the loss of an oil tanker in heavy seas at a location where a high probability of heavy seas had been forecast for some time.

  3. Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kyrouac, Jenni A [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) is a surface meteorological station, manufactured by Vaisala, Inc., dedicated to the balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS), providing surface measurements of the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere and the wind speed and direction for each radiosonde profile. These data are automatically provided to the BBSS during the launch procedure and included in the radiosonde profile as the surface measurements of record for the sounding. The MAWS core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (hPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable: • Temperature and relative humidity: 2 meters • Barometric pressure: 1 meter • Winds: 10 meters.

  4. Relationship between monthly temperature anomalies and drought frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, E.; Naumann, G.

    2012-04-01

    Meteorological droughts are extreme climate events characterized by a period, of months or years, with below-normal precipitation. The economical and ecological impacts of such events can be catastrophic, having profound effects for agricultural production, water resources, biodiversity, tourism and many other aspects. It is recognized that the cause of meteorological droughts are largely associated with fluctuations on sea surface temperature and atmospheric dynamic processes. Nevertheless, the influence of surface air temperature on the frequency of meteorological droughts is still unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between temperature anomalies and drought frequency. Records from 50 stations from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) were analyzed at monthly time scale. The criterion used to select the stations was solely the length of the time series recorded in the stations. Namely, only stations with more than 100 years records, for both precipitation and temperature, were used in this study. In general, the selected stations were distributed along Australia, European countries, Unites States and Canada. Standardized temperature anomalies were calculated taking as baseline the entire dataset recorded at the station. The precipitation anomalies for each month were assessed through the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) according to the empirical cumulative distribution at each location. Therefore, both temperature anomalies and precipitation deficits were normalized, allowing a direct comparison of the entire dataset in each station, independent of the season of the year. Next, the monthly SPI were associated with the respective monthly temperatures anomalies. The SPI values were binned based on the temperature anomaly values. The used bin width was 0.5 degC. Finally, for each temperature anomaly bin, the average SPI and the frequency of months with SPI lower than -1 (moderated drought) were calculated. In order

  5. On meteorological observations at Leh during winter(1960-61

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Sharma

    1964-04-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological data recorded at Leh (3520 metres during the winter (60-61has been presented. January is the coldest month with lowest maximum and minimum air temperatures, the mean values being -2.4 degree celsius and -13.7 degree celsius respectively. The relative humidity is 48%. The hours of sunshine are also minimum,16 hrs in four days. The solar radiation thermometer reads 20 degree celsius indicating a high solar energy flux on clear days. The sky remains mostly overcast from mid December to mid February. The average wind speed is quite low (range 0.43-5.12 km/hrwith occasional high velocity gusts for short duration. The readings of the solar radiation thermometer are always higher than the ground temperature. The globe thermometer also records a higher temperature except when higher wind speeds affect its readings . A steep temperature gradient is observed beneath the ground surface. rains are scanty and rare. The data provides A basis for working out clothing requirement for comfort

  6. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    To date, five years of hydrologic and meteorologic data have been collected at Imnavait Creek near Toolik Lake, Alaska. This is the most complete set of field data of this type collected in the Arctic of North America. These data have been used in process-oriented research to increase our understanding of atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere interactions. Basically, we are monitoring heat and mass transfer between various spheres to quantify rates. These could be rates of mass movement such as hillslope flow or rates of heat transfer for active layer thawing or combined heat and mass processes such as evapotranspiration. We have utilized a conceptual model to predict hydrologic processes. To test the success of this model, we are comparing our predicted rates of runoff and snowmelt to measured valves. We have also used a surface energy model to simulate active layer temperatures. The final step in this modeling effort to date was to predict what impact climatic warming would have on active layer thicknesses and how this will influence the hydrology of our research watershed by examining several streambeds.

  7. Monthly errors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2006 monthly average statistical metrics for 2m Q (g kg-1) domain-wide for the base and MODIS WRF simulations against MADIS observations. This dataset is...

  8. SU-D-204-05: Fitting Four NTCP Models to Treatment Outcome Data of Salivary Glands Recorded Six Months After Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavroidis, P; Price, A; Kostich, M; Green, R; Das, S; Marks, L; Chera, B [University North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Amdur, R; Mendenhall, W [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sheets, N [University of North Carolina, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate the radiobiological parameters of four popular NTCP models that describe the dose-response relations of salivary glands to the severity of patient reported dry mouth 6 months post chemo-radiotherapy. To identify the glands, which best correlate with the manifestation of those clinical endpoints. Finally, to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the NTCP models. Methods: Forty-three patients were treated on a prospective multiinstitutional phase II study for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. All the patients received 60 Gy IMRT and they reported symptoms using the novel patient reported outcome version of the CTCAE. We derived the individual patient dosimetric data of the parotid and submandibular glands (SMG) as separate structures as well as combinations. The Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB), Relative Seriality (RS), Logit and Relative Logit (RL) NTCP models were used to fit the patients data. The fitting of the different models was assessed through the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the Odds Ratio methods. Results: The AUC values were highest for the contralateral parotid for Grade ≥ 2 (0.762 for the LKB, RS, Logit and 0.753 for the RL). For the salivary glands the AUC values were: 0.725 for the LKB, RS, Logit and 0.721 for the RL. For the contralateral SMG the AUC values were: 0.721 for LKB, 0.714 for Logit and 0.712 for RS and RL. The Odds Ratio for the contralateral parotid was 5.8 (1.3–25.5) for all the four NTCP models for the radiobiological dose threshold of 21Gy. Conclusion: It was shown that all the examined NTCP models could fit the clinical data well with very similar accuracy. The contralateral parotid gland appears to correlated best with the clinical endpoints of severe/very severe dry mouth. An EQD2Gy dose of 21Gy appears to be a safe threshold to be used as a constraint in treatment planning.

  9. NDBC Standard Meteorological Buoy Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) distributes meteorological data from moored buoys maintained by NDBC and others. Moored buoys are the weather sentinels of the...

  10. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  11. Mathematical problems in meteorological modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Csomós, Petra; Faragó, István; Horányi, András; Szépszó, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with mathematical problems arising in the context of meteorological modelling. It gathers and presents some of the most interesting and important issues from the interaction of mathematics and meteorology. It is unique in that it features contributions on topics like data assimilation, ensemble prediction, numerical methods, and transport modelling, from both mathematical and meteorological perspectives. The derivation and solution of all kinds of numerical prediction models require the application of results from various mathematical fields. The present volume is divided into three parts, moving from mathematical and numerical problems through air quality modelling, to advanced applications in data assimilation and probabilistic forecasting. The book arose from the workshop “Mathematical Problems in Meteorological Modelling” held in Budapest in May 2014 and organized by the ECMI Special Interest Group on Numerical Weather Prediction. Its main objective is to highlight the beauty of the de...

  12. Combined use of meteorological drought indices at multi-time scales for improving hydrological drought detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ye; Wang, Wen; Singh, Vijay P; Liu, Yi

    2016-11-15

    Prediction of hydrological drought in the absence of hydrological records is of great significance for water resources management and risk assessment. In this study, two meteorological drought indices, including standardized precipitation index (SPI) and standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) calculated at different time scales (1 to 12months), were analyzed for their capabilities in detecting hydrological droughts. The predictive skills of meteorological drought indices were assessed through correlation analysis, and two skill scores, i.e. probability of detection (POD) and false alarm rate (FAR). When used independently, indices of short time scales generally performed better than did those of long time scales. However, at least 31% of hydrological droughts were still missed in view of the peak POD score (0.69) of a single meteorological drought index. Considering the distinguished roles of different time scales in explaining hydrological droughts with disparate features, an optimization approach of blending SPI/SPEI at multiple time scales was proposed. To examine the robustness of the proposed method, data of 1964-1990 was used to establish the multiscalar index, then validate during 2000-2010. Results showed that POD exhibited a significant increase when more than two time scales were used, and the best performances were found when blending 8 time scales of SPI and 9 for SPEI, with the corresponding values of 0.82 and 0.85 for POD, 0.205 and 0.21 for FAR, in the calibration period, and even better performance in the validation period. These results far exceeded the performance of any single meteorological drought index. This suggests that when there is lack of streamflow measurements, blending climatic information of multiple time scales to jointly monitor hydrological droughts could be an alternative solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Does a more skilful meteorological input lead to a more skilful flood forecast at seasonal timescales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Jessica; Arnal, Louise; Magnusson, Linus; Cloke, Hannah

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal river flow forecasts are important for many aspects of the water sector including flood forecasting, water supply, hydropower generation and navigation. In addition to short term predictions, seasonal forecasts have the potential to realise higher benefits through more optimal and consistent decisions. Their operational use however, remains a challenge due to uncertainties posed by the initial hydrologic conditions (e.g. soil moisture, groundwater levels) and seasonal climate forcings (mainly forecasts of precipitation and temperature), leading to a decrease in skill with increasing lead times. Here we present a stakeholder-led case study for the Thames catchment (UK), currently being undertaken as part of the H2020 IMPREX project. The winter of 2013-14 was the wettest on record in the UK; driven by 12 major Atlantic depressions, the Thames catchment was subject to compound (concurrent) flooding from fluvial and groundwater sources. Focusing on the 2013-14 floods, this study aims to see whether increased skill in meteorological input translates through to more accurate forecasting of compound flood events at seasonal timescales in the Thames catchment. An earlier analysis of the ECMWF System 4 (S4) seasonal meteorological forecasts revealed that it did not skilfully forecast the extreme event of winter 2013-14. This motivated the implementation of an atmospheric experiment by the ECMWF to force the S4 to more accurately represent the low-pressure weather conditions prevailing in winter 2013-14 [1]. Here, we used both the standard and the "improved" S4 seasonal meteorological forecasts to force the EFAS (European Flood Awareness System) LISFLOOD hydrological model. Both hydrological forecasts were started on the 1st of November 2013 and run for 4 months of lead time to capture the peak of the 2013-14 flood event. Comparing the seasonal hydrological forecasts produced with both meteorological forcing data will enable us to assess how the improved meteorology

  14. A comparative high-altitude meteorological analysis from three catchments in the Nepalese Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shea, J. M.; Wagnon, P.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Biron, R.; Brun, F.; Pellicciotti, F.

    2015-01-01

    Meteorological studies in high-mountain environments form the basis of our understanding of catchment hydrology and glacier accumulation and melt processes, yet high-altitude (>4000 m above sea level, asl) observatories are rare. This research presents meteorological data recorded between December 2

  15. World War II Weather Record Transmittances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  16. The U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Andrew R.; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Emmerich, Christopher; Talbert, Marian

    2017-05-03

    The U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal (https://my.usgs.gov/mows/) is a user-friendly interface that summarizes monthly historical and simulated future conditions for seven hydrologic and meteorological variables (actual evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration, precipitation, runoff, snow water equivalent, atmospheric temperature, and streamflow) at locations across the conterminous United States (CONUS).The estimates of these hydrologic and meteorological variables were derived using a Monthly Water Balance Model (MWBM), a modular system that simulates monthly estimates of components of the hydrologic cycle using monthly precipitation and atmospheric temperature inputs. Precipitation and atmospheric temperature from 222 climate datasets spanning historical conditions (1952 through 2005) and simulated future conditions (2020 through 2099) were summarized for hydrographic features and used to drive the MWBM for the CONUS. The MWBM input and output variables were organized into an open-access database. An Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc., Web Feature Service allows the querying and identification of hydrographic features across the CONUS. To connect the Web Feature Service to the open-access database, a user interface—the Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal—was developed to allow the dynamic generation of summary files and plots  based on plot type, geographic location, specific climate datasets, period of record, MWBM variable, and other options. Both the plots and the data files are made available to the user for download 

  17. The use of artificial neural networks for forecasting the monthly mean soil temperatures in Adana, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    BİLGİLİ, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) model in order to predict monthly mean soil temperature for the present month by using various previous monthly mean meteorological variables. For this purpose, the measured soil temperature and other meteorological data between the years of 2000 and 2007 at Adana meteorological station were used. The soil temperatures were measured at depths of 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 cm below the ground level by the Turkish State M...

  18. Evaluation of PERSIANN-CDR for Meteorological Drought Monitoring over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks–Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR is analyzed for the assessment of meteorological drought. The evaluation is conducted over China at 0.5° spatial resolution against a ground-based gridded China monthly Precipitation Analysis Product (CPAP from 1983 to 2014 (32 years. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI at various time scales (1 month to 12 months is calculated for detecting drought events. The results show that PERSIANN-CDR depicts similar drought behavior as the ground-based CPAP in terms of capturing the spatial and temporal patterns of drought events over eastern China, where the intensity of gauge networks and the frequency of droughts are high. 6-month SPI shows the best agreement with CPAP in identifying drought months. However, large differences between PERSIANN-CDR and CPAP in depicting drought patterns and identifying specific drought events are found over northwestern China, particularly in Xinjiang and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region. Factors behind this may be due to the relatively sparse gauge networks, the complicated terrain and the performance of PERSIANN algorithm.

  19. Preliminary results of a meteorological payload being developed by IITM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernekar, K. G.; Mohan, B.; Srivastava, S.

    A meteorological rocket payload developed at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) using thermistor as a temperature sensor was flight tested on RH-200 rocket at Thumba (08° 32'N, 76° 52'E), India, during February/April 1982 on four occasions. The corrected data obtained with this payload are compared with Russian rocket, M-100, data. The temperature profile obtained with IITM payload is warmer above 45-km, as compared with M-100 temperature profile, on all occasions. Meridional and zonal winds also agree up to 45-km level. Temperature records show a wave pattern varying in amplitude and frequency in the 20 to 45-km range.

  20. On the spectra and coherence of some surface meteorological parameters in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Fernandes, A.A.

    Spectra and cross-spectra of monthly time series of the surface meteorological parameters, sea surface temperature, air temperature, cloudiness, wind speed and sea level pressure were computed for the period 1948-1972 over the Arabian Sea...

  1. Global Summary of the Month, version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global summaries data set contains a monthly (GSOM) resolution of meteorological elements (max temp, snow, etc) from 1763 to present with updates weekly. The...

  2. Bias Corrected Spatially Downscaled (BCSD) Monthly CMIP5 Hydrology Projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — This archive contains 97 projections of monthly BCSD CMIP5 projections of hydrology over the contiguous United States. This archive includes meteorological variables...

  3. U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1981-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Monthly Climate Normals for 1981 to 2010 are 30-year averages of meteorological parameters for thousands of U.S. stations located across the 50 states, as...

  4. China's Meteorological Satellite Application System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen

    2008-01-01

    @@ (Continued) Applications In Global Environment And Natural Disaster Monitoring 1) Application in world crop yield estimation China is now one of the few nations in the world that can provide operational service with both GEO and polar-orbit meteorological satellites.

  5. Meteorological Test Reference Case - Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Mikkel Kristian

    1997-01-01

    The report describes a case study. Actual weather data is converted into input for hygrothermal calculations. A survey of the literature on calculation of driving rain is reported and a ‘driving rain potential’ is generated on the basis of hourly meteorological data for selected years. The study...

  6. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the

  7. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the th

  8. Generation of hourly solar radiation for inclined surfaces using monthly mean sunshine duration in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mefti, A.; Bouroubi, M.Y. [Centre of Development of Renewable Energy, Lab. of Energy Resources, Algiers (Algeria); Adane, A. [Univ. of Science and Technology of Algiers (U.S.T.H.B.), Lab. of Image Processing and Radiation, Algiers (Algeria)

    2003-11-01

    Hourly global solar radiation flux incident on an inclined surface is evaluated in any site of Algeria using monthly mean daily sunshine duration measurements. The methodology used consists of successive transformations of solar data, respectively, based on the exponential probability distribution of daily sunshine duration, Angstrom equation, beta probability distribution of hourly global solar radiation flux, polynomial correlations of hourly direct and diffuse radiation with global solar radiation and the Klucher model. Monthly mean values of daily sunshine duration data recorded in 54 meteorological stations of Algeria and hourly solar radiation data collected in Algiers, Bechar and Tamanrasset are available for this study. Knowing the monthly mean daily sunshine duration measurements, the hourly global solar radiation data are then obtained on a tilted surface for the locations of Algiers, Tamanrasset and Bechar. The monthly mean hourly global solar radiation data estimated for Algiers are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental ones. Associated with the principal component analysis, the above method has been extended to all the other meteorological stations, and monthly mean values of hourly global solar radiation flux incident on an inclined surface have been simulated for every site of Algeria. This yields an important database useful for solar energy applications. (Author)

  9. The relationship of meteorological patterns with changes in floristic richness along a large elevational gradient in a seasonally dry region of southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Morales, Silvia H.; Meave, Jorge A.; Trejo, Irma

    2015-12-01

    Globally, climate is a fundamental driver of plant species' geographical distributions, yet we still lack a good understanding of climatic variation on tropical mountains and its consequences for elevational floristic patterns. In a seasonally dry region of southern Mexico, we analysed meteorological patterns along a large elevational gradient (0-3670 m a.s.l.) and examined their relationship with changes in floristic richness. Meteorological patterns were characterised using two data sources. First, climatic information was extracted from cartography and records from a few existing meteorological stations. Additionally, air temperature and humidity were recorded hourly during 1 year with data loggers, at sites representing 200-m elevation increments. Floristic information was extracted from a database containing 10,124 records of plant collections, and organized in 200-m elevational belts. Climatic charts distinguished three climate types along the gradient, all with marked rainfall seasonality, but these bore little correspondence with the information obtained with the data loggers. Mean annual air temperature decreased with increasing elevation (lapse rate of 0.542 °C 100 m-1). Thermal oscillation was minimum around 1400 m and increased towards both extremes of the gradient. Relative humidity opposed this pattern, with maxima between 800 and 1800 m, decreasing towards the highest elevations. An analysis of temperature frequency distributions revealed meteorological features undetectable from the annual or monthly means of this variable; despite an overall gradual transition of the proportions of time recorded at different temperatures, some changes did not conform to this pattern. The first discontinuity occurred between 1000-1200 m, where dominant temperatures shifted abruptly; also noticeable was an abrupt increase of the proportion of time elapsed at 0.1-10 °C between 2400 and 2600 m. Air temperature appears to be the most influential climatic factor

  10. The impact of meteorology on ozone in Houston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, B.K. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Davis, J.M.; Nychka, D. [National Institute of Statistical Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper compares the results from both a one-stage hierarchical clustering technique (average linkage) and a two-stage technique (average linkage then k-means) as part of an objective meteorological Classification scheme designed to better elucidate ozone`s dependence on meteorology in the Houston, Texas, area. When applied to twelve years of meteorological data (1981-1992), each technique identified seven statistically distinct meteorological regimes, the majority of which exhibited significantly different daily 1-hour maximum ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations. While both clustering approaches proved successful, the two-stage approach did appear superior in terms of better segregation of the mean O{sub 3}, concentrations. Both approaches indicated that the largest mean daily one-hour maximum concentrations are associated with migrating anticyclones and not with the quasi-permanent Bermuda High that often dominates the southeastern United States during the summer. As a result, maximum ozone concentrations are just as likely during the months of April, May, September and October as they are during the summer months. These findings support and help explain the unique O{sub 3}, climatology experienced by the Houston area.

  11. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Film

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) is a polar orbiting meteorological sensor with two...

  12. Space Environment Deteation of Chinese Meteorological Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ying; WANG Shijin; ZHU Guangwu; LIANG Jinbao

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the space environment detection of Chinese geosynchronous and sun-synchronous meteorological satellites and gives a short perspective of space environment observations on board meteorological satellites.

  13. Using routine meteorological data to derive sky conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagès

    Full Text Available Sky condition is a matter of interest for public and weather predictors as part of weather analyses. In this study, we apply a method that uses total solar radiation and other meteorological data recorded by an automatic station for deriving an estimation of the sky condition. The impetus of this work is the intention of the Catalan Meteorological Service (SMC to provide the public with real-time information about the sky condition. The methodology for deriving sky conditions from meteorological records is based on a supervised classification technique called maximum likelihood method. In this technique we first need to define features which are derived from measured variables. Second, we must decide which sky conditions are intended to be distinguished. Some analyses have led us to use four sky conditions: (a cloudless or almost cloudless sky, (b scattered clouds, (c mostly cloudy – high clouds, (d overcast – low clouds. An additional case, which may be treated separately, corresponds to precipitation (rain or snow. The main features for estimating sky conditions are, as expected, solar radiation and its temporal variability. The accuracy of this method of guessing sky conditions compared with human observations is around 70% when applied to four sites in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula. The agreement increases if we take into account the uncertainty both in the automatic classifier and in visual observations.

    Key words. Meteorological and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques; radiative processes – Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry

  14. Editorial: Special issue on meteorological instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LYU; Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    The earth we live in is a wonderful and complicated system,meteorology is a science of researching the earth and serving the public,so every country in the world is putting its attention on meteorological observation,and World Meteorological Organization always putting its emphasis on weather,climate and

  15. Meteorological and Environmental Research Welcomes Your Papers!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Meteorological and Environmental Research (ISSN 2152-3940) is a comprehensive meteorological and environmental scientific journal founded by Wu Chu (USA-China) Science Culture Media Co. in January, 2010, in Rhode Island, USA. The journal covers main research and application areas of meteorology and environment, such as

  16. Technology and Meteorology. An Action Research Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Raymond F.

    Meteorology, the science of weather and weather conditions, has traditionally been taught via textbook and rote demonstration. This study was intended to determine to what degree utilizing technology in the study of meteorology improves students' attitudes towards science and to measure to what extent technology in meteorology increases…

  17. Meteorological and Environmental Research Welcomes Your Papers!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Meteorological and Environmental Research (ISSN 2152-3940) is a comprehensive meteorological and environmental scientific journal founded by Wu Chu (USA-China) Science & Culture Media Co. in January, 2010, in Rhode Island, USA. The journal covers main research and application areas of meteorology and environment, such as

  18. Syllabi for Instruction in Agricultural Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Villiers, G. D. B.; And Others

    A working group of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology has prepared this report to fill a need for detailed syllabi for instruction in agricultural meteorology required by different levels of personnel. Agrometeorological personnel are classified in three categories: (1) professional meteorological personnel (graduates with basic training…

  19. China's Meteorological Satellite Application System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's meteorological satellite program consists of five systems,namely the satellite system,the launch vehicle system,the launch center system,TT&C and the ground application system.The satellite system consists of FengYun (FY) polar orbiting series and FY geostationary series,which are launched by LM launch vehicles from Taiyan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) and Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) respectively.

  20. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the theory. Further, special conditions in evaporation are considered, followed by a fotmulation of the difficulties in determining evaporation, The last part of the paper gives a short discussion about ...

  1. Student Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Another topic involving privacy has attracted considerable attention in recent months--the "student unit record" issue. The U.S. Department of Education concluded in March that it would be feasible to help address lawmakers' concerns about accountability in higher education by constructing a database capable of tracking students from institution…

  2. Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months Print A A A What's in ... your child's birth, the doctor has been recording growth in weight, length, and head size (circumference) during ...

  3. Research on Standardization of Basic Meteorological Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chunhu

    2011-01-01

    Current Development of National Meteorological Information Network The national meteorological information network (NMIN) is one of the most important information systems in China's basic meteorological business.Through the construction and development for more than 60 years,the national meteorological information network is beginning to take shape now.The core network in national level has been basically formed,which combines ground wideband network with aerospace satellite communications network all over the country,and the local networks of meteorological departments in different levels have also been developed.

  4. Monthly shortage trends for Central and Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Md; Lana, X.; Burgueño, A.; Serra, C.

    2009-09-01

    Monthly shortage time trends are analysed for Central and Western Europe by considering more than 100 rain records (European Climate Assessment, ECA, and the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, AEMET) covering the whole 20th century. Spells of monthly shortage are defined as consecutive months with amounts lowering the corresponding monthly median. Three annual variables are analysed: the average,, the largest, SM, and the cumulative, CS, monthly shortage. Due to the quite irregular annual evolution of these three variables, the Kendall-tau algorithm instead of a simple linear regression of the series has been applied to evaluate time trends. Positive and negative trends, never exceeding ±4.0 mm/decade, have been obtained for the three variables within the area delimited by 10°W-25°E longitude and 35°N-65°N latitude. The statistical significance at 95% level of local time trends has been assessed with the Mann-Kendall test. Additionally, the field significance of time trends is assessed by Monte Carlo simulations, randomly reproducing magnitudes and signs of time trends. The low number of empirical significant trends induces lack of field significance. A relatively high number of significant local trends (25) is only detected for CS, 6 of them are positive and 19 negative. Given that local significant trends are scattered throughout Central and Western Europe, a single spatial pattern for the monthly shortage should be discarded. Nevertheless, a close revision of local trends (statistically significant or not) manifests that positive values (increasing monthly shortage) are observed in France, a great part of the Iberian Peninsula, Central Europe and Italy.

  5. Airborne Alternaria and Cladosporium species and relationship with meteorological conditions in Eskisehir City, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkara, Ismuhan Potoglu; Asan, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Veysel; Pehlivan, Sevil; Okten, Suzan Sarica

    2008-09-01

    Alternaria and Cladosporium, known as the most allergenic spores were first collected by means of Durham gravimetric sampler from Eskisehir atmosphere from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001. The daily, monthly and annual variations in spores/cm(2) of Cladosporium and Alternaria were recorded. During this period, a total of 10.231 spores belonging to Cladosporium and Alternaria genera were recorded. Of these spores, 5,103 were identified in 2000 and 5,128 in 2001. While 63.09% of the total spores were those of Cladosporium, 36.91% were of Alternaria. Relationships between airborne fungal spore presence and meteorological conditions were statistically investigated. A Shapiro-Wilk test revealed that the airborne Cladosporium and Alternaria spores differed from a normal distribution. Thus, a Friedmann test was performed followed by a Pearson Correlation Analysis. The effects of rainfall, temperature and wind speed on Cladosporium and Alternaria numbers were non-significant according to the sites and months (p > 0.05), but the effects of relative humidity on Cladosporium and Alternaria numbers were significant (p < 0.01). Spore concentrations reached to their highest levels in May 2001.

  6. Meteorological factors and dengue fever transmission in South Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Lin, Yuan-Chien; Cheng, Ming-Hung; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2013-04-01

    The variations in meteorological conditions induced by climate change causes the diffusion pattern of infectious disease and serious epidemic situation. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of meteorological variables to the temporal variation of dengue fever epidemic in weekly basis in south Taiwan. Several extreme and average index of meteorological variables, i.e. temperature and humidity, were used for this analysis, including averaged, maximum and minimum temperature, and average rainfall, maximum 1-hr rainfall, and maximum 24-hr rainfall. This study applies the distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) to reveal the significant meteorological variables and their temporal lag effects to the dengue fever epidemic by analyzing the dengue fever records from 1998-2011. Results show that the weekly minimum temperature (minT) and 1-hr maximum rainfall (maxR) are significantly important to the dengue fever spread. Among them, once minT is higher than 20°C, the relative risk of dengue fever of nine-fourteen week later will be significantly elevated. On the other hand, the incidences of maxR higher than 80mm can also increase the relative risk of dengue fever occurrences around nine-fourteen weeks afterwards.

  7. Climate Record Books

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climate Record Books contain daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual averages, extremes, or occurrences. Most data are sequential by period of record 1871-1910,...

  8. The restart of meteorological observations in the 19th century in Lisbon: the contribution of Marino Miguel FRANZINI (1779-1861)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoforado, Maria-Joao; Nunes, Fatima

    2013-04-01

    After the early meteorological observations of the 1770s to the 1790s in continental Portugal (including a 5 year daily series by J. Velho), there were hardly any until 1815. In December 1815, a meteorological station was set up in Lisbon by Marino Miguel Franzini (1779-1861), an engineer who was also actively involved in Politics (liberal party). Following the tradition of the 18th century enlightenment movement, he took a keen interest in Nature and Sciences, particularly in the "influence" of weather and climate on health and agriculture. Franzini started his observations by request of a physician who sought to understand the reasons why the maximum mortality occurred on the summer months, unlike in northern countries of Europe where maximum mortality occurred in winter (as it happens nowadays in Portugal). The deterministic background of the two scientists is clear. Franzini was a member of the Lisbon Academy of Sciences (founded in 1799) and had contact with foreign Academies and foreign scientists. His instruments were carefully constructed and described, including graduation scales, and stations' location was indicated. Data from two years observations (several meteorological variables) was published in the Academy of Sciences Memoirs. From 1818 until 1826 and from 1835 until 1856 data was divulged in journals and newspapers, such as the "Journal of Medical Sciences", together with data on necrology in some of Lisbon parishes (illustrating the interest of physicians on weather); meteorological data and information about agriculture was also published in the "Lisbon Gazette". Unfortunately, there are hardly any daily data, as Franzini grouped his records according to weather types, as will be explained. Franzini's series will be presented in our talk. The gap between 1826 and 1835 was due to the political activities in which Franzini was involved: the civil war (liberals against absolutist) disruptedscientific research in Portugal. Official meteorological

  9. Synoptic and meteorological drivers of extreme ozone concentrations over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Noelia Felipe; Sillmann, Jana; Schnell, Jordan L.; Rust, Henning W.; Butler, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8-hour average values are investigated, along with drivers of the extreme high percentiles and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on extreme values, as represented by the 95th percentile. The relative importance of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most important predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over Southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over Central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an important role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its extreme values, especially during warmer months.

  10. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall reconstruction via artificial neural network – case study: south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Cardoso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Climatological records users, frequently, request time series for geographical locations where there is no observed meteorological attributes. Climatological conditions of the areas or points of interest have to be calculated interpolating observations in the time of neighboring stations and climate proxy. The aim of the present work is the application of reliable and robust procedures for monthly reconstruction of precipitation time series. Time series is a special case of symbolic regression and we can use Artificial Neural Network (ANN to explore the spatiotemporal dependence of meteorological attributes. The ANN seems to be an important tool for the propagation of the related weather information to provide practical solution of uncertainties associated with interpolation, capturing the spatiotemporal structure of the data. In practice, one determines the embedding dimension of the time series attractor (delay time that determine how data are processed and uses these numbers to define the network's architecture. Meteorological attributes can be accurately predicted by the ANN model architecture: designing, training, validation and testing; the best generalization of new data is obtained when the mapping represents the systematic aspects of the data, rather capturing the specific details of the particular training set. As illustration one takes monthly total rainfall series recorded in the period 1961–2005 in the Rio Grande do Sul – Brazil. This reliable and robust reconstruction method has good performance and in particular, they were able to capture the intrinsic dynamic of atmospheric activities. The regional rainfall has been related to high-frequency atmospheric phenomena, such as El Niño and La Niña events, and low frequency phenomena, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  11. Relationship between particle matter and meteorological data in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Azad; Memarian Fard, Mahsa; Bahrami, Ala

    2017-04-01

    The fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has a strong influence on the hydrological cycle, cloud formation, visibility, global climate, and human health. The meteorological conditions have important effects on PM2.5 mass concentration. Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network measures air pollutants at urban, suburban and rural locations in Canada. In this study, the point monthly relationships between meteorological data provided by Environment of Canada and PM2.5 mass concentration from January 1st, 2010 to December 31st, 2015 of fifteen speciation stations in Canada were analyzed. The correlation analysis results between PM2.5 concentrations and precipitation as well as surface pressure demonstrated a negative correlation. It should be noted that the correlation between temperature and special humidity with PM2.5 in cold seasons and warm seasons were negative and positive respectively. Moreover, the weak correlation between wind speed and PM2.5 were obtained.

  12. Effects of Meteorological Conditions on Reactions to Noise Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor); Fields, James M.

    2004-01-01

    More than 80,000 residents' responses to transportation noise at different times of year provide the best, but imprecise, statistical estimates of the effects of season and meteorological conditions on community response to noise. Annoyance with noise is found to be slightly statistically significantly higher in the summer than in the winter in a seven-year study in the Netherlands. Analyses of 41 other surveys drawn from diverse countries, climates, and times of year find noise annoyance is increased by temperature, and may be increased by more sunshine, less precipitation, and reduced wind speeds. Meteorological conditions on the day of the interview or the immediately preceding days do not appear to have any more effect on reactions than do the conditions over the immediately preceding weeks or months.

  13. Meteorological uncertainty and rainfall downscaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. von Hardenberg

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We explore the sources of forecast uncertainty in a mixed dynamical-stochastic ensemble prediction chain for small-scale precipitation, suitable for hydrological applications. To this end, we apply the stochastic downscaling method RainFARM to each member of ensemble limited-area forecasts provided by the COSMO-LEPS system. Aim of the work is to quantitatively compare the relative weights of the meteorological uncertainty associated with large-scale synoptic conditions (represented by the ensemble of dynamical forecasts and of the uncertainty due to small-scale processes (represented by the set of fields generated by stochastic downscaling. We show that, in current operational configurations, small- and large-scale uncertainties have roughly the same weight. These results can be used to pinpoint the specific components of the prediction chain where a better estimate of forecast uncertainty is needed.

  14. Surface Meteorological Instrumentation for BOBMEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G S Bhat; S Ameenulla

    2000-06-01

    Although India has a long experience in ship-borne experiments and oceanographic instrumentation, the atmospheric component has not received much attention in the past. In this paper, the basis of the atmospheric instrumentation system assembled for use on board ORV Sagar Kanya for the BOBMEX- Pilot experiment is described along with some representative results. Wherever possible, Woods Hole's IMET recommendations for meteorological sensors for applications in the marine environment have been followed to keep our measurements in par with international standards. The sensors were tested during the BOBMEX-Pilot experiment and all sensors worked well. Velocity, humidity and temperature data have been successfully collected using fast sensors. It is shown that the component due to the ship's pitching motion can be removed from the measured vertical velocity by making use of an accelerometer. This makes it possible to calculate the surface fluxes by direct methods.

  15. GENERATION OF A TYPICAL METEOROLOGICAL YEAR FOR PORT HARCOURT ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OGOLOMA O.B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data for the typical meteorological year (TMY for the Port Harcourt climatic zone based on the hourly meteorological data recorded during the period 1983–2002, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The data are the global solar radiation, wind velocity, dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, and others. The HVAC outside design conditions for the Port Harcourt climatic zone (latitude 4.44oN, longitude 7.1oE, elevation 20 m were found to be 26.7oC, 78.6% and 3.5 m/s for the dry bulb temperature, relative humidity and wind speed, respectively, and 13.5 MJ/m2/day for the global solar radiation. The TMY data for the zone are shown to be sufficiently reliable for engineering practice.

  16. Impact of meteorological changes on the incidence of scarlet fever in Hefei City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yu; Huang, Xiao-lei; Wang, Yu-jie; Zhang, Jun-qing; Zhang, Qi; Dang, Yue-wen; Wang, Jing

    2016-10-01

    Studies on scarlet fever with meteorological factors included were few. We aimed to illustrate meteorological factors' effects on monthly incidence of scarlet fever. Cases of scarlet fever were collected from the report of legal infectious disease in Hefei City from 1985 to 2006; the meteorological data were obtained from the weather bureau of Hefei City. Monthly incidence and corresponding meteorological data in these 22 years were used to develop the model. The model of auto regressive integrated moving average with covariates was used in statistical analyses. There was a highest peak from March to June and a small peak from November to January. The incidence of scarlet fever ranges from 0 to 0.71502 (per 105 population). SARIMAX (1,0,0)(1,0,0)12 model was fitted with monthly incidence and meteorological data optimally. It was shown that relative humidity ( β = -0.002, p = 0.020), mean temperature ( β = 0.006, p = 0.004), and 1 month lag minimum temperature ( β = -0.007, p City, China. Besides, the ARIMA model could be useful not only for prediction but also for the analysis of multiple correlations.

  17. 76 FR 490 - Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers AGENCY: Federal.... SUMMARY: The FAA is considering revising its current Advisory Circular on Obstruction Marking and Lighting to include guidance for Meteorological Evaluation Towers (METs). These towers are erected in...

  18. 76 FR 36983 - Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... terrain. Without a similar evaluation process, the FAA cannot recommend lighting for METs. It is important... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers AGENCY: Federal... recommended guidance for the voluntary marking of Meteorological Evaluation Towers (METs) erected in...

  19. Impacts of meteorological and environmental factors on allergic rhinitis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Mou, Zhe; Peng, Li; Chen, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Meteorological and environmental factors influence the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (AR). An understanding of the risk factors will facilitate the development of diagnostic and preventative tools for AR children and improve their quality of life. However, research on the impact of these factors on subjective symptoms in AR children remains scarce. This study explored the relationships between subjective symptoms in pollen and dust mite positive AR children, and meteorological and environmental factors. Using a linear mixed effect model, we analyzed the correlations between monthly data on the subjective symptoms of 351 AR children (from the Shanghai Children's Medical Center) and meteorological and environmental factors during 2013. The monthly meteorological and environmental data were provided by the Shanghai Meteorological Service and Shanghai Environmental Protection Bureau. Temperature and humidity were negatively correlated with the subjective symptom score, with a 0.04 point increase observed for every 1 °C decrease in temperature ( P meteorological and environmental factors were correlated with subjective symptoms in AR children. Low temperatures, lower humidity, and high PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations aggravated subjective symptoms in AR children.

  20. The Impacts of Mosquito Density and Meteorological Factors on Dengue Fever Epidemics in Guangzhou, China, 2006-2014:a Time-series Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ji Chuan; LUO Lei; LI Li; JING Qin Long; OU Chun Quan; YANG Zhi Cong; CHEN Xiao Guang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations between the monthly number of dengue fever(DF) cases and possible risk factors in Guangzhou, a subtropical city of China. Methods The monthly number of DF cases, Breteau Index (BI), and meteorological measures during 2006-2014 recorded in Guangzhou, China, were assessed. A negative binomial regression model was used to evaluate the relationships between BI, meteorological factors, and the monthly number of DF cases. Results A total of 39,697 DF cases were detected in Guangzhou during the study period. DF incidence presented an obvious seasonal pattern, with most cases occurring from June to November. The current month’s BI, average temperature (Tave), previous month’s minimum temperature (Tmin), and Tave were positively associated with DF incidence. A threshold of 18.25 °C was found in the relationship between the current month’s Tmin and DF incidence. Conclusion Mosquito density, Tave, and Tmin play a critical role in DF transmission in Guangzhou. These findings could be useful in the development of a DF early warning system and assist in effective control and prevention strategies in the DF epidemic.

  1. Meteorological determinants of air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turoldo, F.; Del Frate, S.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Montanari, F.; Stel, F.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    Air quality is the result of complex phenomena, among which the major role is played by human emissions of pollutants. Atmospheric processes act as determinants, e.g., modulating, dumping or amplifying the effects of emissions as an orchestra's director does with musical instruments. In this work, a series of small-scale and meso-scale meteorological determinants of air-quality are presented as they are observed in an area characterized by complex orography (Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-eastern side of Italy). In particular, attention is devoted to: i) meso-scale flows favouring the persistence of high concentrations of particulate matter; ii) meso-scale periodic flows (breezes) favouring high values of particulate matter; iii) local-scale thermodynamic behaviour favouring high atmospheric values of nitrogen oxides. The effects of these different classes of determinants are shown through comparisons between anthropic emissions (mainly traffic) and ground-based measurements. The relevance of complex orography (relatively steep relieves near to the sea) is shown for the meso-scale flows and, in particular, for local-scale periodic flows, which favour the increase of high pollutants concentrations mainly in summer, when the breezes regime is particularly relevant. Part of these results have been achieved through the ETS - Alpine Space EU project iMONITRAF!

  2. Meteorology in the Middle Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsson, H.; Ágústsson, H.

    2009-04-01

    Several documents written in Iceland and Norway in the Middle Ages have been investigated in order to establish to what extent navigators and other educated people in the 10th to 13th centuries knew or did not know about mountain meteorology. In the 10th century, Egils Saga describes flow from land as katabatic. In some textbooks published in the 20th century, similar flows are explained as the inverse of sea-breeze (land-breeze). Numerical simulations of similar flows as in Egils Saga reveal on the other hand, that its author was right about the katabatic nature of the flows. In the documents describing the discovery of Greenland in the late 10th century, Bjarni Herjólfsson navigated erroneously, as he entered the Greenland barrier jet. Apparently, he did not foresee that the foggy southeasterly winds would inevitably turn left as they approached Greenland. A few years later, a ship is wrecked in a windstorm at the coast of W-Iceland. The windstorm is described in detail in Laxdaela Saga and resembles very much a downslope windstorm. Until now, an error in translation into English may have prevented such an interpretation of the windstorm.

  3. Phantosmia as a meteorological forecaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, S. R.; Hirsch, A. R.

    2013-09-01

    In normosmics, olfactory ability has been found to vary with ambient humidity, barometric pressure, and season. While hallucinated sensations of phantom pain associated with changes in weather have been described, a linkage to chemosensory hallucinations has heretofore not been reported. A 64-year-old white male with Parkinson's disease presents with 5 years of phantosmia of a smoky burnt wood which changed to onion-gas and then to a noxious skunk-onion excrement odor. Absent upon waking it increases over the day and persists for hours. When severe, there appears a phantom taste with the same qualities as the odor. It is exacerbated by factors that manipulate intranasal pressure, such as coughing. When eating or sniffing, the actual flavors replace the phantosmia. Since onset, he noted the intensity and frequency of the phantosmia forecasted the weather. Two to 3 h before a storm, the phantosmia intensifies from a level 0 to a 7-10, which persists through the entire thunderstorm. Twenty years prior, he reported the ability to forecast the weather, based on pain in a torn meniscus, which vanished after surgical repair. Extensive olfactory testing demonstrates underlying hyposmia. Possible mechanisms for such chemosensory-meteorological linkage includes: air pressure induced synesthesia, disinhibition of spontaneous olfactory discharge, exacerbation of ectopic discharge, affect mediated somatic sensory amplification, and misattribution error with expectation and recall bias. This is the first reported case of weather-induced exacerbation of phantosmia. Further investigation of the connection between chemosensory complaints and ambient weather is warranted.

  4. IIth AMS Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velden, Christopher; Digirolamo, Larry; Glackin, Mary; Hawkins, Jeffrey; Jedlovec, Gary; Lee, Thomas; Petty, Grant; Plante, Robert; Reale, Anthony; Zapotocny, John

    2002-11-01

    The American Meteorological Society (AMS) held its 11th Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography at the Monona Terrace Convention Center in Madison, Wisconsin, during 15-18 October 2001. The purpose of the conference, typically held every 18 months, is to promote a forum for AMS membership, international scientists, and student members to present and discuss the latest advances in satellite remote sensing for meteorological and oceanographical applications. This year, surrounded by inspirational designs by famed architect Frank Lloyd Wright, the meeting focused on several broad topics related to remote sensing from space, including environmental applications of land and oceanic remote sensing, climatology and long-term satellite data studies, operational applications, radiances and retrievals, and new technology and methods. A vision of an increasing convergence of satellite systems emerged that included operational and research satellite programs and interdisciplinary user groups.The conference also hosted NASA's Electronic Theater, which was presented to groups of middle and high school students totaling over 5500. It was truly a successful public outreach event. The conference banquet was held on the final evening, where a short tribute to satellite pioneer Verner Suomi was given by Joanne Simpson. Suomi was responsible for establishing the Space Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin in Madison.

  5. Investigating the Propagation of Meteorological Model Uncertainty for Tracer Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Coto, I.; Ghosh, S.; Karion, A.; Martin, C.; Mueller, K. L.; Prasad, K.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    The North-East Corridor project aims to use a top-down inversion method to quantify sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in the urban areas of Washington DC and Baltimore at approximately 1km2 resolutions. The aim of this project is to help establish reliable measurement methods for quantifying and validating GHG emissions independently of the inventory methods typically used to guide mitigation efforts. Since inversion methods depend strongly on atmospheric transport modeling, analyzing the uncertainties on the meteorological fields and their propagation through the sensitivities of observations to surface fluxes (footprints) is a fundamental step. To this end, six configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW) version 3.8 were used to generate an ensemble of meteorological simulations. Specifically, we used 4 planetary boundary layer parameterizations (YSU, MYNN2, BOULAC, QNSE), 2 sources of initial and boundary conditions (NARR and HRRR) and 1 configuration including the building energy parameterization (BEP) urban canopy model. The simulations were compared with more than 150 meteorological surface stations, a wind profiler and radiosondes for a month (February) in 2016 to account for the uncertainties and the ensemble spread for wind speed, direction and mixing height. In addition, we used the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (STILT) to derive the sensitivity of 12 hypothetical observations to surface emissions (footprints) with each WRF configuration. The footprints and integrated sensitivities were compared and the resulting uncertainties estimated.

  6. Estimating monthly temperature using point based interpolation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaban, Azizan; Mah Hashim, Noridayu; Murat, Rusdi Indra Zuhdi

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses the use of point based interpolation to estimate the value of temperature at an unallocated meteorology stations in Peninsular Malaysia using data of year 2010 collected from the Malaysian Meteorology Department. Two point based interpolation methods which are Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) are considered. The accuracy of the methods is evaluated using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results show that RBF with thin plate spline model is suitable to be used as temperature estimator for the months of January and December, while RBF with multiquadric model is suitable to estimate the temperature for the rest of the months.

  7. Temperature Discontinuity Caused by Relocation of Meteorological Stations in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-wen Hung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With global warming upon us, it has be come increasingly important to identify the extent of this warming trend and in doing so be able to rank mean temperature changes in particular seasons and years. This requires a need for homogeneous climate data, which do not reflect individual anomalies in instruments, station locations or local environments (urbanization. Ac curate homogeneous long-term meteorological data helps show how temperature variations have truly occurred in the climate. Many possible factors contribute to artificial abrupt changes or sharp discontinuities in long time series data, such as the impact of station relocation, changes in observational schedules and instrumentation. Homogeneity adjustments of in situ climate data are very important processes for preparing observational data to be used in further analysis and research. Users require a well-documented history of stations to make appropriate homogeneity adjustments because precise historical back ground records of stations can provide researchers with knowledge of when artificial discontinuity has occurred and its causes. With out such de tailed historical data for each meteorological station, abrupt changes are difficult to interpret. Unfortunately, no homogeneity adjustments for temperature records have been con ducted previously in Tai wan, and present available sources of the history of Taiwan's meteorological stations exhibit in consistencies. In this study, information pertaining to station history, especially relocation records, is pro vided. This information is essential for anal y sis of continuous time series data for temperature and climate warming studies. Temperature data from several stations is given in this study to show how artificial discontinuity occurs due to station relocation. Al though there is no homogeneous adjusted climate data provided in this preliminary work, the summarizing of information regarding station relocations should be of assistance

  8. Meteorological radar methods for validating space observations of precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Otto W.

    1991-01-01

    Meteorological approaches to verification of space measurements of rainfall are examined; validation of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations is expected to depend significantly on ground-based radars. Two methods of comparison are initially contemplated. TRMM rainfall data over time periods of a month for large areas (500 x 500 km) are averaged and compared with similarly averaged ground truth measurements. Both the rainfall and height distribution data from TRMM are compared with the instantaneous values observed at one or more 'ground truth' stations and from airborne radar and radiometers as available.

  9. Frequency of Mine Dust Episodes and the Influence of Meteorological Parameters on the Witwatersrand Area, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Oguntoke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeolian dispersal of dust from gold mine tailing storage facilities impacts negatively on amenities, human health, and the environment of the Witwatersrand region, South Africa. The present study adopted a multivariate analytical method to quantify the effect of specific meteorological parameters on dust fall emissions, monitored at 22 sites in the central Witwatersrand area. Using meteorological and dust fall data from 2001 to 2010, the relationships between weather and dust fallout deposition rates were explored across the sites at different seasons. Dust deposition rate varied among seasons, with spring months showing the highest levels and frequency. Atmospheric humidity had negative correlations ( with dust fall while wind speed showed positive correlations ( at the selected sites (. Sites with low influence of relative humidity had higher impact on wind speed. Mean relative humidity below 50% and mean wind speed above 4 m/s were predicted as critical levels for dust episodes incidence at sites that recorded “heavy” and “very heavy” dust fall. For environmental planning purposes, current mitigation measures should be manipulated in relation to levels of air humidity and wind speed for dust emission reduction, especially during spring.

  10. Which is the dominant factor for perception of rheumatic pain: meteorology or psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cay, Hasan Fatih; Sezer, Ilhan; Firat, Mehmet Z; Kaçar, Cahit

    2011-03-01

    It is believed that there is an association between the weather and rheumatic symptoms. We aimed to investigate what kind of association is present and what are the factors which determine the nature of this association. Fifty-six subjects with rheumatic disease (31 RA, 15 SpA, 10 OA) who live in Antalya were followed between December 2005 and July 2006. Patients were asked to fill diaries which contain questions regarding the symptoms of their rheumatic diseases everyday. In every monthly visit, disease activity measurement, laboratory assessment and Beck depression inventory assessment were recorded. The symptomatic and psychological measurements were matched with the meteorological data of Antalya Regional Directorate of Meteorological Service of Turkish State. Correlation of symptoms with weather variables was investigated. Contributory effect of weather and of psychologic factors on symptom scores were evaluated by stepwise multiple regression analysis. Eighty-four percent of subjects belive in an association between weather and rheumatism, while 57% claimed to have ability to forecast weather. The maximum correlation coefficient between weather and arthritis symptoms was -0.451 and the maximum contribution of weather on symptoms was 17.1%. Arthritis symptoms were significantly contributed by Beck depression score. The belief about presence of weather-arthritis association was found to be stronger than its statistical power. Our results did not prove or rule out the presence of weather-rheumatism association. As long as the scientific attempts result in failure, the intuitive support in favour of the presence of weather-arthritis association will go on forever.

  11. Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.

    2007-10-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) Meteorological Component. The Meteorological Component includes four surface meteorological stations, miniSODAR, laptop computers, and communications equipment. This report describes the equipment that is used, explains the operation of the network, and gives instructions for setting up the Component and replacing defective parts. A detailed description of operation and use of the individual sensors, including the data loggers is not covered in the current document, and the interested reader should refer to the manufacturer’s documentation.

  12. Meteorological data analysis using MapReduce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Sheng, V S; Wen, XueZhi; Pan, Wubin

    2014-01-01

    In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means) based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability.

  13. Meteorological Data Analysis Using MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability.

  14. BOREAS AFM-6 Surface Meteorological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) collected surface meteorological data from 21 May to 20 Sep 1994 near the Southern Study Area-Old Jack Pine (SSA-OJP) tower site. The data are in tabular ASCII files. The surface meteorological data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  15. Stereoscopic observations from meteorological satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, A. F.; Mack, R.; Negri, A.

    The capability of making stereoscopic observations of clouds from meteorological satellites is a new basic analysis tool with a broad spectrum of applications. Stereoscopic observations from satellites were first made using the early vidicon tube weather satellites (e.g., Ondrejka and Conover [1]). However, the only high quality meteorological stereoscopy from low orbit has been done from Apollo and Skylab, (e.g., Shenk et al. [2] and Black [3], [4]). Stereoscopy from geosynchronous satellites was proposed by Shenk [5] and Bristor and Pichel [6] in 1974 which allowed Minzner et al. [7] to demonstrate the first quantitative cloud height analysis. In 1978 Bryson [8] and desJardins [9] independently developed digital processing techniques to remap stereo images which made possible precision height measurement and spectacular display of stereograms (Hasler et al. [10], and Hasler [11]). In 1980 the Japanese Geosynchronous Satellite (GMS) and the U.S. GOES-West satellite were synchronized to obtain stereo over the central Pacific as described by Fujita and Dodge [12] and in this paper. Recently the authors have remapped images from a Low Earth Orbiter (LEO) to the coordinate system of a Geosynchronous Earth Orbiter (GEO) and obtained stereoscopic cloud height measurements which promise to have quality comparable to previous all GEO stereo. It has also been determined that the north-south imaging scan rate of some GEOs can be slowed or reversed. Therefore the feasibility of obtaining stereoscopic observations world wide from combinations of operational GEO and LEO satellites has been demonstrated. Stereoscopy from satellites has many advantages over infrared techniques for the observation of cloud structure because it depends only on basic geometric relationships. Digital remapping of GEO and LEO satellite images is imperative for precision stereo height measurement and high quality displays because of the curvature of the earth and the large angular separation of the

  16. ATLAS Recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Steven Goldfarb; Mitch McLachlan; Homer A. Neal

    Web Archives of ATLAS Plenary Sessions, Workshops, Meetings, and Tutorials from 2005 until this past month are available via the University of Michigan portal here. Most recent additions include the Trigger-Aware Analysis Tutorial by Monika Wielers on March 23 and the ROOT Workshop held at CERN on March 26-27.Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.In addition, you will find access to a variety of general tutorials and events via the portal.Feedback WelcomeOur group is making arrangements now to record plenary sessions, tutorials, and other important ATLAS events for 2007. Your suggestions for potential recording, as well as your feedback on existing archives is always welcome. Please contact us at wlap@umich.edu. Thank you.Enjoy the Lectures!

  17. Inversion of GPS meteorology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically

  18. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  19. Standardization Promotes the Quality of Meteorological Audio & Video Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As an important part of meteorological sector and a critical basis for enhancing the capability of meteorological disaster prevention and mitigation and climate change response,the meteorological standardization is a significant support for facilitating the good and quick development of meteorological sector.Huafeng Group,as a leading enterprise of meteorological audio & video service,has,for years,attached much importance to employing the standardization of meteorological audio & video service to improve its management level and quality of programs,enhance the quality of meteorological audio & video service,build the brand image,cultivate the highlevel backbone personnel,and facilitate the sustainable development of meteorological audio & video service.

  20. Superior Ambulance Call Out Rate Forecasting Using Meteorological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, M. A.; Thornes, J. E.; Bloss, W.; Pope, F.

    2015-12-01

    Ambulances are an integral part of a country's infrastructure ensuring its citizens and visitors are kept healthy. The impact of weather, climate and climate change on ambulance services around the world has received increasing attention in recent years but most studies have been area specific and there is a need to establish basic relationships between ambulance data (both response and illness data) and meteorological parameters. In this presentation, the effects of temperature and relative humidity on ambulance call out rates for different medical categories will be investigated. We use call out data obtained from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) and meteorological data from a central London meteorological station. A time-series analysis was utilized to understand the relation between temperature, relative humidity, air pollutants and different call out categories. There are statistically significant relationships between mean temperature and ambulance callout rate for most of the categories investigated. Most categories show a negative dependence on temperature, i.e. call outs increase with decreasing temperature but some categories showed a positive dependence such as alcohol related call outs. Relative humidity is significant for some categories but in general is much less important than temperature. Significant time lag effects were observed for most of the categories related to infectious illnesses, which are transferrable through human contact. These findings support the opinion that ambulance attendance callouts records are an effective and well-timed source of data and can be used for health early warning systems. Furthermore the presented results can much improve our understanding of the relationships between meteorological conditions and human health thereby allowing for better prediction of ambulance use through the application of long and short-term weather forecasts.

  1. Development of Rainfall Model using Meteorological Data for Hydrological Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Adib Mohammad Razi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At present, research on forecasting unpredictable weather such as heavy rainfall is one of the most important challenges for equipped meteorological center. In addition, the incidence of significant weather events is estimated to rise in the near future due to climate change, and this situation inspires more studies to be done. This study introduces a rainfall model that has been developed using selected rainfall parameters with the aim to recognize rainfall depth in a catchment area. This study proposes a rainfall model that utilizes the amount of rainfall, temperature, humidity and pressure records taken from selected stations in Peninsular Malaysia and they are analyzed using SPSS multiple regression model. Seven meteorological stations are selected for data collection from 1997 until 2007 in Peninsular Malaysia which are Senai, Kuantan, Melaka, Subang, Ipoh, Bayan Lepas, and Chuping. Multiple Regression analysis in Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS software has been used to analyze a set of eleven years (1997 – 2007 meteorological data. Senai rainfall model gives an accurate result compared to observation rainfall data and this model were validating with data from Kota Tinggi station. The analysis shows that the selected meteorological parameters influence the rainfall development. As a result, the rainfall model developed for Senai proves that it can be used in Kota Tinggi catchment area within the limit boundaries, as the two stations are close from one another. Then, the amounts of rainfall at the Senai and Kota Tinggi stations are compared and the calibration analysis shows that the proposed rainfall model can be used in both areas.

  2. Meteorological Drought Prediction Using a Multi-Model Ensemble Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Mo, K. C.; Zhang, Q.; Huang, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, drought is among the costliest natural hazards, with an annual average of 6 billion dollars in damage. Drought prediction from monthly to seasonal time scales is of critical importance to disaster mitigation, agricultural planning, and multi-purpose reservoir management. Started in December 2012, NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) has been providing operational Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) Outlooks using the National Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) forecasts, to support CPC's monthly drought outlooks and briefing activities. The current NMME system consists of six model forecasts from U.S. and Canada modeling centers, including the CFSv2, CM2.1, GEOS-5, CCSM3.0, CanCM3, and CanCM4 models. In this study, we conduct an assessment of the meteorological drought predictability using the retrospective NMME forecasts for the period from 1982 to 2010. Before predicting SPI, monthly-mean precipitation (P) forecasts from each model were bias corrected and spatially downscaled (BCSD) to regional grids of 0.5-degree resolution over the contiguous United States based on the probability distribution functions derived from the hindcasts. The corrected P forecasts were then appended to the CPC Unified Precipitation Analysis to form a P time series for computing 3-month and 6-month SPIs. The ensemble SPI forecasts are the equally weighted mean of the six model forecasts. Two performance measures, the anomaly correlation and root-mean-square errors against the observations, are used to evaluate forecast skill. For P forecasts, errors vary among models and skill generally is low after the second month. All model P forecasts have higher skill in winter and lower skill in summer. In wintertime, BCSD improves both P and SPI forecast skill. Most improvements are over the western mountainous regions and along the Great Lake. Overall, SPI predictive skill is regionally and seasonally dependent. The six-month SPI forecasts are skillful out to four months. For

  3. Interim report on the meteorological database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stage, S.A.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is estimating radiation doses that individuals may have received from operations at Hanford from 1944 to the present. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) directs the project, which is being conducted by the Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The goals of HEDR, as approved by the TSP, include dose estimates and determination of confidence ranges for these estimates. This letter report describes the current status of the meteorological database. The report defines the meteorological data available for use in climate model calculations, describes the data collection procedures and the preparation and control of the meteorological database. This report also provides an initial assessment of the data quality. The available meteorological data are adequate for atmospheric calculations. Initial checks of the data indicate the data entry accuracy meets the data quality objectives.

  4. Adaptive Weather Forecasting using Local Meteorological Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    In general, meteorological parameters such as temperature, rain and global radiation are important for agricultural systems. Anticipating on future conditions is most often needed in these systems. Weather forecasts then become of substantial importance. As weather forecasts are subject to

  5. Meteorological measurements at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    On-site meteorological measurements are necessary for evaluating atmospheric dispersion of gaseous effluents. Radiation doses in a plant`s vicinity due to these effluents are calculated from the results of dispersion evaluations. The guide addresses the requirements for on-site meteorological measurement systems. Guide YVL 7.3 addresses atmospheric dispersion evaluations and calculation methods, Guide YVL 7.2 radiation dose calculations and Guide YVL 7.8 environmental data reporting. (5 refs.).

  6. Global solar radiation: comparison of satellite-based climatology with station records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, Petr; Zahradnicek, Pavel; Stepanek, Petr; Farda, Ales

    2016-04-01

    We analyze surface incoming shortwave radiation (SIS) from the SARAH dataset prepared by the EUMETSAT Climate Monitoring Satellite Applications Facility from satellite observations of the visible channels of the MVIRI and SEVIRI instruments onboard the geostationary Meteosat satellites. The satellite SIS data are evaluated within the period 1984-2014 on various time scales: from individual months and years to long-term climate means. The validation is performed using the ground measurements of global solar radiation (GLBR) carried out on 11 meteorological stations of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute in the Czech Republic with at least 30 years long data series. Our aim is to explore whether the SIS data could potentially serve as an alternative source of information on GLBR outside of a relatively sparse network of meteorological stations recording GLBR. Acknowledgement: Supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the National Sustainability Program I (NPU I), grant number LO1415.

  7. Marketing Violent Entertainment to Children: A Twenty-One Month Follow-Up Review of Industry Practices in the Motion Picture, Music Recording and Electronic Game Industries. A Report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC.

    In a report issued in September 2000, the Federal Trade Commission contended that the motion picture, music recording, and electronic game industries had engaged in widespread marketing of violent movies, music, and games to children inconsistent with their own parental advisories and undermining parents attempts to make informed decisions about…

  8. An 18-yr long (1993–2011 snow and meteorological dataset from a mid-altitude mountain site (Col de Porte, France, 1325 m alt. for driving and evaluating snowpack models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Morin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A quality-controlled snow and meteorological dataset spanning the period 1 August 1993–31 July 2011 is presented, originating from the experimental station Col de Porte (1325 m altitude, Chartreuse range, France. Emphasis is placed on meteorological data relevant to the observation and modelling of the seasonal snowpack. In-situ driving data, at the hourly resolution, consist of measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, windspeed, incoming short-wave and long-wave radiation, precipitation rate partitioned between snow- and rainfall, with a focus on the snow-dominated season. Meteorological data for the three summer months (generally from 10 June to 20 September, when the continuity of the field record is not warranted, are taken from a local meteorological reanalysis (SAFRAN, in order to provide a continuous and consistent gap-free record. Data relevant to snowpack properties are provided at the daily (snow depth, snow water equivalent, runoff and albedo and hourly (snow depth, albedo, runoff, surface temperature, soil temperature time resolution. Internal snowpack information is provided from weekly manual snowpit observations (mostly consisting in penetration resistance, snow type, snow temperature and density profiles and from a hourly record of temperature and height of vertically free ''settling'' disks. This dataset has been partially used in the past to assist in developing snowpack models and is presented here comprehensively for the purpose of multi-year model performance assessment. The data is placed on the PANGAEA repository (http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.774249 as well as on the public ftp server ftp://ftp-cnrm.meteo.fr/pub-cencdp/.

  9. A 18-yr long (1993–2011 snow and meteorological dataset from a mid-altitude mountain site (Col de Porte, France, 1325 m alt. for driving and evaluating snowpack models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Morin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A quality-controlled snow and meteorological dataset spanning the period 1 August 1993–31 July 2011 is presented, originating from the experimental station Col de Porte (1325 m altitude, Chartreuse range, France. Emphasis is placed on meteorological data relevant to the observation and modelling of the seasonal snowpack. In-situ driving data, at the hourly resolution, consist in measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, incoming short-wave and long-wave radiation, precipitation rate partitioned between snow- and rainfall, with a focus on the snow-dominated season. Meteorological data for the three summer months (generally from 10 June to 20 September, when the continuity of the field record is not warranted, are taken from a local meteorological reanalysis (SAFRAN, in order to provide a continuous and consistent gap-free record. Evaluation data are provided at the daily (snow depth, snow water equivalent, runoff and albedo and hourly (snow depth, albedo, runoff, surface temperature, soil temperature time resolution. Internal snowpack information are provided from weekly manual snowpit observations (mostly consisting in penetration resistance, snow type, snow temperature and density profiles and from a hourly record of temperature and height of vertically free "settling" disks. This dataset has been partially used in the past to assist in developing snowpack model and is presented here comprehensively for the purpose of multi-year model performance assessment. The data is placed on the PANGAEA repository (http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.774249 as well as on the public ftp server ftp://ftp-cnrm.meteo.fr/pub-cencdp/.

  10. 118 anos de dados mensais do Índice Padronizado de Precipitação: série meteorológica de Campinas, estado de São Paulo 118 years of monthly Standardized Precipitation Index data: meteorological series of Campinas, state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Constantino Blain

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O Índice Padronizado de Precipitação (SPI é utilizado em programas estaduais e nacionais no monitoramento das condições de seca de diversas regiões brasileiras. Com base na hipótese de que a análise de longas séries temporais do SPI pode auxiliar a adoção de políticas de mitigação e combate a essa anomalia climática, o objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar a variabilidade do SPI mensal, na localidade de Campinas-SP, entre os anos de 1890 a 2007. Por meio de análises espectrais e testes não paramétricos verificou-se uma variabilidade na escala de três a quatro anos. Contudo, não foi possível observar marcante influência do fenômeno El Niño/Oscilação Sul nas condições mensais de variabilidade climática na localidade de Campinas. Com respeito à tendência de longo prazo, enquanto uma tendência de intensificação nas condições de déficit de precipitação pluvial foi detectada em agosto, nos demais meses não houve alterações significativas. Sob o ponto de vista acadêmico o tratamento probabilístico e padronizado dos déficits/excesso de precipitação pluvial empregado no cálculo do SPI, o torna um interessante índice alternativo na investigação de forçantes climáticas condicionantes/moduladoras do clima de determinada região.The Standard Precipitation Index (SPI is used in state and national monitoring programs of the drought conditions in several Brazilian regions. Based on the hypothesis that the analysis of long term SPI time series might help on the adoption of policies of mitigation and facing climate anomalies, this work aims to analyze the variability of monthly SPI, in Campinas (SP during the years from 1890 to 2007. From spectral analyses and non-parametric tests, a variability of three to four years scale was noted for this index. However, a remarkable influence of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation on the variability of monthly climate conditions in Campinas was not seen. Concerning the long

  11. Study of Effective Distances For Interpolation Schemes In Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, M.; Remund, J.; Albuisson, M.; Wald, L.

    This work explores the possibility of integrating the geographical elements such as orography and presence of water bodies as well as the latitudinal effects into an ef- fective distance when interpolating meteorological fields. This effective distance may then be used in any interpolation methods instead of the standard geodetic distance. Several hundreds of sites are used in Europe to assess the benefits of several effec- tive distances. The meteorological parameters under concern are ten-years averages of monthly means of daily sum of horizontal global irradiation, daily sum of sunshine du- ration, daily extremes of air temperature, atmospheric pressure and water vapor pres- sure, and of monthly sums of precipitation. This work demonstrates that taking into account the latitudinal effects in the distance increases the accuracy in interpolation. Such effects have been seldom mentioned in previous publications. The orographic effects may be partly corrected by adding the weighted difference in elevation to the geodetic distance. The following effective distance between the point P and each of the measuring sites Xi for all parameters, is found to give better results than the others: deff2 = fNS2 (dgeo2 + foro2 dh2) with fNS = 1 + 0.3 ¡FP -FX¡ [1+ (sinFP + sinFX) / 2], where dgeo is the geodetic distance in km, latitudes FP and FX are expressed in degrees, dh is the difference in elevation between P and Xi (expressed in km) and foro is set to 500.

  12. Response of Hydrological Drought to Meteorological Drought under the Influence of Large Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefeng Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on monthly streamflow and precipitation data from 1960 to 2010 in the Jinjiang River Basin of China, Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI were used to represent meteorological and hydrological drought, respectively. The response of hydrological drought to meteorological drought under the influence of Shanmei reservoir was investigated. The results indicate that SPI and SSI have a decreasing trend during recent several decades. Monthly scales of SSI series have a significant decreasing trend from November to the following February and a significant increasing trend from May to July at Shilong hydrological station. There are three significant periodic variations with a cycle of 6-7 years, 11-12 years, and 20-21 years for annual scales of SSI series. SPI series have the same periodic variations before the 1980s, but they have not been synchronous with SSI since the 1980s at Shilong due to influences of Shanmei reservoir, especially at the periodic variations of 20-21 years. The variation of the lag time of hydrological drought in response to meteorological drought is significant at the seasonal scale. The lag time of hydrological drought to meteorological drought extends one month on average in spring, summer, and autumn but about three months in winter.

  13. Time-series analysis on the malaria morbidity affected by meteorological factors in Guangdong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗圆

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations between malaria risk and meteorological factors. Methods A negative binomial distribution regression analysis was built between the temperature,relative humidity,rainfall capacity and the monthly incidence of malaria,based on the temperature information

  14. Observed Low Ozone Events in Coastal Antarctica - The Critical Role of Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. E.; Wolff, E. W.; Anderson, P. S.; Turner, J.; Rankin, A. M.

    2004-12-01

    Episodic loss of tropospheric ozone has been observed in both polar regions. The destruction of ozone appears to be associated with halogen chemistry, generally accepted as being driven by bromine released from sea ice surfaces. Since March 2003, measurements of surface ozone have been made at the British Antarctic Survey Clean Air Sector Laboratory (CASLab) at Halley station in coastal Antarctica. Detailed measurements of boundary layer meteorology as well as standard meteorology are also measured at the CASLab. Combining the data allows us to probe the role of meteorology in these "low ozone events". Low ozone events are observed at Halley on numerous occasions during Antarctic spring; on occasions the development of the event and its recovery are strongly associated with the build-up and decline of a stable boundary layer; on occasions, extremely rapid loss of ozone is observed (loss of 20ppbv in 3 minutes on one occasion) which are associated with larger scale transport. We report here on the events recorded during spring 2003, and show the critical influence of meteorology. The association suggests that the role of meteorology must be considered when striving to understand the mechanisms controlling observed low ozone events, and hence extremely good meteorology will need to be included in any modeling calculations trying to reproduce observed events.

  15. Diffuse solar radiation and associated meteorological parameters in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Bhattacharya

    Full Text Available Solar diffuse radiation data including global radiation, shortwave and longwave balances, net radiation and sunshine hours have been extensively analyzed to study the variation of diffuse radiation with turbidity and cloud discharges appearing in the form of atmospherics over the tropics. Results of surface radiation measurements at Calcutta, Poona, Delhi and Madras are presented together with some meteorological parameters. The monthly values of diffuse radiation and the monthly ratios of diffuse to global solar radiation have been examined, with a special emphasis in relation to the noise level of atmospherics at Calcutta in the very low frequency band. The results exhibit some definite seasonal changes which appear to be in close agreement with one another.

  16. Anticipating the severity of the fire season in Northern Portugal using statistical models based on meteorological indices of fire danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Sílvia A.; DaCamara, Carlos C.; Turkman, Kamil F.; Ermida, Sofia L.; Calado, Teresa J.

    2017-04-01

    Like in other regions of Mediterranean Europe, climate and weather are major drivers of fire activity in Portugal. The aim of the present study is to assess the role played by meteorological factors on inter-annual variability of burned area over a region of Portugal characterized by large fire activity. Monthly cumulated values of burned area in August are obtained from the fire database of ICNF, the Portuguese authority for forests. The role of meteorological factors is characterized by means of Daily Severity Rating, DSR, an index of meteorological fire danger, which is derived from meteorological fields as obtained from ECMWF Interim Reanalysis. The study area is characterized by the predominance of forest, with high percentages of maritime pine and eucalyptus, two species with high flammability in summer. The time series of recorded burned area in August during 1980-2011 is highly correlated (correlation coefficient of 0.93) with the one for whole Portugal. First, a normal distribution model is fitted to the 32-year sample of decimal logarithms of monthly burned area. The model is improved by introducing two covariates:(1) the top-down meteorological factor (DSRtd) which consists of daily cumulated values of DSR since April 1 to July 31 and may be viewed as the cumulated stress on vegetation due to meteorological conditions during the pre-fire season; (2) the bottom-up factor (DSRbu) which consists of the square root of the mean of the squared daily deviations (restricted to days with positive departures of DSR from the corresponding long term mean) and may be viewed as the contribution of days characterized by extreme weather conditions favoring the onset and spreading of wildfires. Three different statistical models are then developed: the "climate anomaly" model, using DSRtd as covariate, the "weather anomaly", using DSRbu as covariate, and the "combined" model using both variables as covariates. These models are used to define background fire danger, fire

  17. Analysis on the Influence of Automatic Station Temperature Data on the Sequence Continuity of Historical Meteorological Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the influence of automatic station data on the sequence continuity of historical meteorological data. [Method] Based on the temperature data which were measured by the automatic meteorological station and the corresponding artificial observation data during January-December in 2001, the monthly average, maximum and minimum temperatures in the automatic station were compared with the corresponding artificial observation temperature data in the parallel observation peri...

  18. Review and Development on the Studies of Chinese Meteorological Satellite and Satellite Meteorology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Zongyi; XU Jianmin; ZHAO Fengsheng

    2006-01-01

    Meteorological satellite and satellite meteorology are the fastest developing new branches in the atmospheric sciences. Today the meteorological satellite has become a key element in the global atmospheric sounding system while the satellite meteorology is covering the main components of earth's system science.This article describes the major achievements that China has made in these fields in the past 30 years.The following contents are involved: (1) History and present status of China's meteorological satellites. It covers the development, launch, operation, technical parameters of China's polar and geostationary meteorological satellites. (2) Major achievements on remote sensing principle and method. It describes the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, cloud character retrieval, aerosol character retrieval, precipitation retrieval as well as the generation of cloud wind. (3) Achievement on the studies of meteorological satellite data application. This part covers the applications of meteorological satellite data to weather analysis and forecast, numerical forecast, climate monitoring, and prediction of short-term climate change. Besides, the new results on data assimilation, climate monitoring, and forecast are also included.

  19. Meteorological variability and infectious disease in Central Africa: a review of meteorological data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Alexandra; Little, Eliza; Ng, Sophia; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2016-10-01

    Central African countries may bear high climate change-related infectious disease burdens because of preexisting high rates of disease, poor healthcare infrastructure, land use changes, and high environmental change vulnerabilities. However, making connections between climate and infectious diseases in this region is hampered by the paucity of high-quality meteorological data. This review analyzes the sources and quality of meteorological data used to study the interactions between weather and infectious diseases in Central African countries. Results show that 23% of studies used meteorological data that mismatched with the disease spatial scale of interest. Use of inappropriate weather data was most frequently identified in analyses using meteorological station data or gridded data products. These findings have implications for the interpretation of existing analyses and provide guidance for the use of climate data in future analyses of the connections between meteorology and infectious diseases in Central Africa.

  20. Comparison of the meteorology and surface energy balance at Storbreen and Midtdalsbreen, two glaciers in southern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, R.H.; Andreassen, L.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Oerlemans, J.

    2009-01-01

    We compare 5 years of meteorological records from automatic weather stations (AWSs) on Storbreen and Midtdalsbreen, two glaciers in southern Norway, located approximately 120 km apart. The records are obtained from identical AWSs with an altitude difference of 120 m and cover the period September

  1. Meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report, which focuses on the meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines (turbines with a rated output exceeding 100 kW), has four main goals. The first is to outline the elements of a siting strategy that will identify the most favorable wind energy sites in a region and that will provide sufficient wind data to make responsible economic evaluations of the site wind resource possible. The second is to critique and summarize siting techniques that were studied in the Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program. The third goal is to educate utility technical personnel, engineering consultants, and meteorological consultants (who may have not yet undertaken wind energy consulting) on meteorological phenomena relevant to wind turbine siting in order to enhance dialogues between these groups. The fourth goal is to minimize the chances of failure of early siting programs due to insufficient understanding of wind behavior.

  2. BOREAS AES Campbell Scientific Surface Meteorological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barrie; Knapp. David E. (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected data related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from 14 automated meteorology stations located across the BOREAS region. Included in this data are parameters of date, time, mean sea level pressure, station pressure, temperature, dew point, wind speed, resultant wind speed, resultant wind direction, peak wind, precipitation, maximum temperature in the last hour, minimum temperature in the last hour, pressure tendency, liquid precipitation in the last hour, relative humidity, precipitation from a weighing gauge, and snow depth. Temporally, the data cover the period of August 1993 to December 1996. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  3. The Mars Pathfinder atmospheric structure investigation/meteorology (ASI/MET) experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schofield, J.T.; Barnes, J.R.; Crisp, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder atmospheric structure investigation/meteorology (ASI/MET) experiment measured the vertical density, pressure, and temperature structure of the martian atmosphere from the surface to 160 km, and monitored surface meteorology and climate for 83 sols (1 sol = 1 martian day = 24.......7 hours). The atmospheric structure and the weather record are similar to those observed by the Viking 1 lander (VL-1) at the same latitude, altitude, and season 21 years ago, but there are differences related to diurnal effects and the surface properties of the landing site. These include a cold...

  4. Background of the Military Aviation Meteorological Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Zshumatiy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the birth of aviation and its meteorological service in the early twentieth century. The article details the military aviation meteorological services in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, the USA and Russia. Are described the problems, which arose with the takeoff and landings of flight vehicles with complex weather conditions. It is shown that the information about the actual and forthcoming weather is capable of reducing a quantity of failures of flight vehicles, of increasing safety of pilots and accuracy of the defeat of enemy, of planning the application of aviation.

  5. Coastal Meteorological Phenomena in CalNex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angevine, W. M.; Brioude, J.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal meteorology plays an important role in air quality and climate in California. During the 2010 CalNex experiment, several phenomena affected the campaign observations. Among these were coastal eddies and outflow in Santa Monica Bay and the Los Angeles Bight; marine stratus and stratocumulus; and the land-sea breeze cycle on a variety of spatial scales, including transport from the San Francisco Bay Area into the Central Valley. In this presentation, we will describe these phenomena as they were seen in model forecasts and hindcast simulations, and compare those simulations to the relevant meteorological observations.

  6. Upgraded Radiometer Improves Observation of Meteorological Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ A new meteorological satellite, Fengyun-2C,was successfully launched at 9:20 am on Oct. 19 in Xichang Satellite Launch Center in China's southwest province of Sichuan. The Fengyun-2 (or FY-2,meaning "winds and clouds" in Chinese) is a geostationary meteorological satellite series of China.China started its FY-2 development program in 1980 and has sent two experimental models of FY-2 series in 1997 and 2000 respectively. The FY2-C is China's first professional one in the series.

  7. A feasibility study on precipitation regime classification by meteorological states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, A.; Takayabu, Y. N.

    2012-04-01

    Appropriate microphysical models of rainfall systems are essential for accurate precipitation retrievals from satellite measurements. For a better estimate of rainfall from the microwave imager satellites in Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP), Takayabu (2008, GEWEX Newsletter; hereinafter T08) produced 3-monthly maps of dominant rainfall systems, utilizing TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data. It is worthwhile if we can classify different type of rainfall systems not from satellite rainfall data themselves but from the environmental meteorological states. In this feasibility study, precipitation regime classification over the oceans is performed by constructing a look-up-table (LUT) for estimating precipitation types in terms of local state of the atmosphere and ocean. This time, we chose four variables to construct the LUTs; sea surface temperature (SST), pressure vertical velocity at 500hPa (ω500), lower-tropospheric baroclinicity at 900hPa (dT900/dy), and lower-tropospheric stability (LTS), obtained from ERA-interim and OISST. The LUTs are trained with the precipitation types defined by T08. The four-dimensional probability density functions for each precipitation types were utilized to reconstruct precipitation types at each point. The constructed four-dimensional LUT is shown to have a reasonably good skill in estimation over the oceans. The possibility of detection (POD) is above 60% up to 90% for all seasons. The estimation skill is less dependent on months despite that the LUT was trained with only one month climatology, indicating the choice of these state variables is reasonable. The LUT can also describe interannual variations of precipitation regimes, e.g., those differences in El Niño and La Niña periods. The way of separation by selected environmental states is mostly meteorologically reasonable, although some representative variables have some room for improvements especially in the midlatitudes. We

  8. Meteorological Conditions for Functioning Automobile Transport in Moscow Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiryaeva, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate weather and climate conditions of functioning automobile transport in Moscow region. For this, statistics on the daily number of accidents in the City of Moscow in 2013-2014 were studied and compared with the weather conditions. Various weather phenomena and meteorological parameters that affect the increase and decrease in the number of accidents in warm and cold seasons were identified; the extent of this influence was assessed. Moreover, an analysis of the distribution and change of the frequency of occurrence of these phenomena and meteorological parameters in 1961-2010 in Moscow region was conducted. In the cold season, there are much more weather events influencing the growth in the number of accidents than in the warm season. Fallout of more than 2 cm of snow per date, the reduction in meteorological visibility, drizzle and snow storms lead to an increase of accident rate by 5-15%. In the warm season, when thunderstorms and heavy rainfall there is a decrease in accidents; increase in the number of accidents happens in hot weather (maximum air temperatures over +30 °C). In the period 1991-2010 compared to 1961-1990 in the Moscow oblast the sustained cold period and amount of precipitation under negative air temperature has reduced; a decrease in the number of days with reduced visibility range and the offset of the date of the fallout of the first snow aside winter months is observed, which is favorable for automobile transport. At the same time, there is an increase in the number of days with transitions of air temperature through 0 °C, and the number of hot days, which negatively affects the functioning automobile transport.

  9. Update of ECTOM - European catalogue of training opportunities in meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halenka, Tomas; Belda, Michal

    2016-04-01

    After Bologna Declaration (1999) the process of integration of education at university level was started in most European countries with the aim to unify the system and structure of the tertiary education with the option for possibility of transnational mobility of students across the Europe. The goal was to achieve the compatibility between the systems and levels in individual countries to help this mobility. To support the effort it is useful to provide the information about the possibility of education in different countries in centralised form, with uniform shape and content, but validated on a national level. For meteorology and climatology this could be reasonably done on the floor of European Meteorological Society, ideally with contribution of individual National Meteorological Societies and their guidance. Brief history of the original ECTOM I and previous attempts to start ECTOM II is given. Further need of update of the content is discussed with emphasis to several aspects. There are several reasons for such an update of ECTOM 1. First, there are many more new EMS members which could contribute to the catalogue. Second, corrected, new, more precise and expanding information will be available in addition to existing record, particularly in sense of some changes in education systems of EC countries and associated countries approaching the EC following the main goals included in Bologna Declaration. Third, contemporary technology to organize the real database with the possibility of easier navigation and searching of the appropriate information and feasibility to keep them up to date permanently through the WWW interface should be adopted. In this presentation, the engine of ECTOM II database will be shown together with practical information how to find and submit information on access to education or training possibilities. Finally, as we have started with filling the database using freely available information from the web, practical examples of use will

  10. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  11. Proposing Chinese Pharmacists Month

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Pharmacists: Today I would like to share with you about the American Pharmacists Month which is celebrated in October every year.This month-long observance is promoted by American Pharmacist Association.

  12. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2012-01-01

      March  Selections By the time this appears, we will have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left panel of the web page and then Mar 2012. New films include recent releases such as Johnny English 2, Bad Teacher, Cowboys vs Aliens, and Super 8. We are also starting to acquire some of the classic films we missed when we initiated the DVD section of the club, such as appeared in a recent Best 100 Films published by a leading UK magazine; this month we have added Spielberg’s Jaws and Scorsese’s Goodfellas. If you have your own ideas on what we are missing, let us know. For children we have no less than 8 Tin-Tin DVDs. And if you like fast moving pop music, try the Beyonce concert DVD. New CDs include the latest releases from Paul McCartney, Rihanna and Amy Winehouse. There is a best of Mylene Farmer, a compilation from the NRJ 201...

  13. Modeling drought impact occurrence based on meteorological drought indices in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagge, James H.; Kohn, Irene; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Stahl, Kerstin

    2015-11-01

    There is a vital need for research that links meteorological drought indices with drought impacts felt on the ground. Previously, this link has been estimated based on experience or defined based on very narrow impact measures. This study expands on earlier work by showing the feasibility of relating user-provided impact reports with meteorological drought indices, the Standardized Precipitation Index and the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, through logistic regression, while controlling for seasonal and interannual effects. Analysis includes four impact types, spanning agriculture, energy and industry, public water supply, and freshwater ecosystem across five European countries. Statistically significant climate indices are retained as predictors using step-wise regression and used to compare the most relevant drought indices and accumulation periods across different impact types and regions. Agricultural impacts are explained by 2-12 month anomalies, though anomalies greater than 3 months are likely related to agricultural management practices. Energy and industrial impacts, typically related to hydropower and energy cooling water, respond slower (6-12 months). Public water supply and freshwater ecosystem impacts are explained by a more complex combination of short (1-3 month) and seasonal (6-12 month) anomalies. The resulting drought impact models have both good model fit (pseudo-R2 = 0.225-0.716) and predictive ability, highlighting the feasibility of using such models to predict drought impact likelihood based on meteorological drought indices.

  14. From meteorological to hydrological drought using standardised indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Barker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought monitoring and early warning (M&EW systems are a crucial component of drought preparedness. M&EW systems typically make use of drought indicators such as the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI, but such indicators are not widely used in the UK. More generally, such tools have not been well developed for hydrological (i.e. streamflow drought. To fill these research gaps, this paper characterises meteorological and hydrological droughts, and the propagation from one to the other using the SPI and the related Standardised Streamflow Index (SSI, with the objective of improving understanding of the drought hazard in the UK. SPI and SSI time series were calculated for 121 near-natural catchments in the UK for accumulation periods of 1–24 months. From these time series, drought events were identified and for each event, the duration and severity was calculated. The relationship between meteorological and hydrological drought was examined by cross-correlating the one month SSI with various SPI accumulation periods. Finally, the influence of climate and catchment properties on the drought characteristics and propagation were investigated. Results showed that at short accumulation periods meteorological drought characteristics showed little spatial variability, whilst hydrological drought characteristics showed fewer but longer and more severe droughts in the south and east than in the north and west of the UK. Propagation characteristics showed a similar spatial pattern with catchments underlain by productive aquifers, mostly in the south and east, having longer SPI accumulation periods strongly correlated with the one-month SSI. For catchments in the north and west of the UK, which typically have little catchment storage, standard-period annual average rainfall was strongly correlated to drought and propagation characteristics. However, in the south and east, catchment properties describing storage, such as base flow index, percentage of

  15. From meteorological to hydrological drought using standardised indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Lucy J.; Hannaford, Jamie; Chiverton, Andrew; Svensson, Cecilia

    2016-06-01

    Drought monitoring and early warning (M & EW) systems are a crucial component of drought preparedness. M & EW systems typically make use of drought indicators such as the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI), but such indicators are not widely used in the UK. More generally, such tools have not been well developed for hydrological (i.e. streamflow) drought. To fill these research gaps, this paper characterises meteorological and hydrological droughts, and the propagation from one to the other, using the SPI and the related Standardised Streamflow Index (SSI), with the objective of improving understanding of the drought hazard in the UK. SPI and SSI time series were calculated for 121 near-natural catchments in the UK for accumulation periods of 1-24 months. From these time series, drought events were identified and for each event, the duration and severity were calculated. The relationship between meteorological and hydrological drought was examined by cross-correlating the 1-month SSI with various SPI accumulation periods. Finally, the influence of climate and catchment properties on the hydrological drought characteristics and propagation was investigated. Results showed that at short accumulation periods meteorological drought characteristics showed little spatial variability, whilst hydrological drought characteristics showed fewer but longer and more severe droughts in the south and east than in the north and west of the UK. Propagation characteristics showed a similar spatial pattern with catchments underlain by productive aquifers, mostly in the south and east, having longer SPI accumulation periods strongly correlated with the 1-month SSI. For catchments in the north and west of the UK, which typically have little catchment storage, standard-period average annual rainfall was strongly correlated with hydrological drought and propagation characteristics. However, in the south and east, catchment properties describing storage (such as base flow index, the

  16. Record club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record club

    2010-01-01

      Bonjour a tous, Voici les 24 nouveaux DVD de Juillet disponibles depuis quelques jours, sans oublier les 5 CD Pop musique. Découvrez la saga du terroriste Carlos, la vie de Gainsbourg et les aventures de Lucky Luke; angoissez avec Paranormal Activity et évadez vous sur Pandora dans la peau d’Avatar. Toutes les nouveautés sont à découvrir directement au club. Pour en connaître la liste complète ainsi que le reste de la collection du Record Club, nous vous invitons sur notre site web: http://cern.ch/crc. Toutes les dernières nouveautés sont dans la rubrique « Discs of the Month ». Rappel : le club est ouvert les Lundis, Mercredis, Vendredis de 12h30 à 13h00 au restaurant n°2, bâtiment 504. A bientôt chers Record Clubbers.  

  17. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club November  Selections Just in time for the holiday season, we have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then Nov 2011. New films include the all 5 episodes of Fast and Furious, many of the most famous films starring Jean-Paul Belmondo and those of Louis de Funes and some more recent films such as The Lincoln Lawyer and, according to some critics, Woody Allen’s best film for years – Midnight in Paris. For the younger generation there is Cars 2 and Kung Fu Panda 2. New CDs include the latest releases by Adele, Coldplay and the Red Hot Chili Peppers. We have also added the new Duets II CD featuring Tony Bennett singing with some of today’s pop stars including Lady Gaga, Amy Winehouse and Willy Nelson. The Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday ...

  18. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club Nouveautés été 2011 Le club de location de CDs et de DVDs vient d’ajouter un grand nombre de disques pour l’été 2011. Parmi eux, Le Discours d’un Roi, oscar 2011 du meilleur film et Harry Potter les reliques de la mort (1re partie). Ce n’est pas moins de 48 DVDs et 10 CDs nouveaux qui vous sont proposés à la location. Il y en a pour tous les genres. Alors n’hésitez pas à consulter notre site http://cern.ch/record.club, voir Disc Catalogue, Discs of the month pour avoir la liste complète. Le club est ouvert tous les Lundi, Mercredi, Vendredi de 12h30 à 13h dans le bâtiment du restaurent N°2 (Cf. URL: http://www.cern.ch/map/building?bno=504) A très bientôt.  

  19. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club June Selections We have put a significant number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club and select the «Discs of the Month» button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then June 2011. New films include the latest Action, Suspense and Science Fiction film hits, general drama movies including the Oscar-winning The King’s Speech, comedies including both chapter of Bridget Jones’s Diary, seven films for children and a musical. Other highlights include the latest Harry Potter release and some movies from the past you may have missed including the first in the Terminator series. New CDs include the latest releases by Michel Sardou, Mylene Farmer, Jennifer Lopez, Zucchero and Britney Spears. There is also a hits collection from NRJ. Don’t forget that the Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtimes from 12h30 to 13h00 in Restaurant 2, Building 504. (C...

  20. Application of Standardized Precipitation Index to assess meteorological drought in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anarul H. Mondol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is one of the vulnerable countries of the world for natural disasters. Drought is one of the common and severe calamities in Bangladesh that causes immense suffering to people in various ways. The present research has been carried out to examine the frequency of meteorological droughts in Bangladesh using the long-term rainfall data of 30 meteorological observatories covering the period of 1948–2011. The study uses the highly effective Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI for drought assessment in Bangladesh. By assessing the meteorological droughts and the history of meteorological droughts of Bangladesh, the spatial distributions of meteorological drought indices were also analysed. The spatial and temporal changes in meteorological drought and changes in different years based on different SPI month intervals were analysed. The results indicate that droughts were a normal and recurrent feature and it occurred more or less all over the country in virtually all climatic regions of the country. As meteorological drought depends on only rainfall received in an area, anomaly of rainfall is the main cause of drought. Bangladesh experienced drought in the years 1950, 1951, 1953, 1954, 1957, 1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1967 and 1971 before independence and after independence Bangladesh has experienced droughts in the years 1972, 1973, 1975, 1979, 1980, 1983, 1985, 1992, 1994, 1995, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011 during the period 1948–2011. The study indicated that Rajshahi and its surroundings, in the northern regions and Jessore and its surroundings areas, the island Bhola and surrounding regions, in the south-west region, were vulnerable. In the Sylhet division, except Srimongal, the areas were not vulnerable but the eastern southern sides of the districts Chittagong, Rangamati, Khagrachhari, Bandarban and Teknaf were vulnerable. In the central regions, the districts of Mymensingh and Faridpur were more vulnerable

  1. Daily total global solar radiation modeling from several meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Mehmet; Ozgoren, Muammer

    2011-05-01

    This paper investigates the modeling of the daily total global solar radiation in Adana city of Turkey using multi-linear regression (MLR), multi-nonlinear regression (MNLR) and feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Several daily meteorological data, i.e., measured sunshine duration, air temperature and wind speed and date of the year, i.e., monthly and daily, were used as independent variables to the MLR, MNLR and ANN models. In order to determine the relationship between the total global solar radiation and other meteorological data, and also to obtain the best independent variables, the MLR and MNLR analyses were performed with the "Stepwise" method in the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program. Thus, various models consisting of the combination of the independent variables were constructed and the best input structure was investigated. The performances of all models in the training and testing data sets were compared with the measured daily global solar radiation values. The obtained results indicated that the ANN method was better than the other methods in modeling daily total global solar radiation. For the ANN model, mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), correlation coefficient ( R) and coefficient of determination ( R 2) for the training/testing data set were found to be 0.89/1.00 MJ/m2 day, 7.88/9.23%, 0.9824/0.9751, and 0.9651/0.9508, respectively.

  2. Integrating meteorology into research on migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E Emiel

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric dynamics strongly influence the migration of flying organisms. They affect, among others, the onset, duration and cost of migration, migratory routes, stop-over decisions, and flight speeds en-route. Animals move through a heterogeneous environment and have to react to atmospheric dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Integrating meteorology into research on migration is not only challenging but it is also important, especially when trying to understand the variability of the various aspects of migratory behavior observed in nature. In this article, we give an overview of some different modeling approaches and we show how these have been incorporated into migration research. We provide a more detailed description of the development and application of two dynamic, individual-based models, one for waders and one for soaring migrants, as examples of how and why to integrate meteorology into research on migration. We use these models to help understand underlying mechanisms of individual response to atmospheric conditions en-route and to explain emergent patterns. This type of models can be used to study the impact of variability in atmospheric dynamics on migration along a migratory trajectory, between seasons and between years. We conclude by providing some basic guidelines to help researchers towards finding the right modeling approach and the meteorological data needed to integrate meteorology into their own research.

  3. Guidelines for curricula in agricultural meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural meteorology as an accepted term is only about 80 years old. The first half of this period saw its development in the western world, Japan, India, and China and this was made possible through the evolving possibilities for quantification of the physical aspects of the production environm...

  4. How To...Activities in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmer, Donald N.; Sagness, Richard L.

    This series of experiments seeks to provide laboratory exercises which demonstrate concepts in Earth Science, particularly meteorology. Materials used in the experiments are easily obtainable. Examples of experiments include: (1) making a thermometer; (2) air/space relationship; (3) weight of air; (4) barometers; (5) particulates; (6) evaporation;…

  5. Atmospheric Science: It's More than Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Krockover, Gerald H.

    1988-01-01

    Indicates that atmospheric science is not just forcasting the weather. Gives an overview of current topics in meteorology including ozone depletion, acid precipitation, winter cyclones, severe local storms, the greenhouse effect, wind shear and microbursts. Outlines the Atmospheric Sciences Education Program at Purdue University to produce…

  6. Sparse canopy parameterizations for meteorological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, van den B.J.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Meteorological models for numerical weather prediction or climate simulation require a description of land surface exchange processes. The degree of complexity of these land-surface parameterization schemes - or SVAT's - that is necessary for accurate model predictions, is yet unclear. Also, the

  7. Adaptive Weather Forecasting using Local Meteorological Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    In general, meteorological parameters such as temperature, rain and global radiation are important for agricultural systems. Anticipating on future conditions is most often needed in these systems. Weather forecasts then become of substantial importance. As weather forecasts are subject to uncertain

  8. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg).

  9. Meteorological Development Laboratory Student Career Experience Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, C., Sr.

    2007-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy. The NWS's Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL) supports this mission by developing meteorological prediction methods. Given this mission, NOAA, NWS, and MDL all have a need to continually recruit talented scientists. One avenue for recruiting such talented scientist is the Student Career Experience Program (SCEP). Through SCEP, MDL offers undergraduate and graduate students majoring in meteorology, computer science, mathematics, oceanography, physics, and statistics the opportunity to alternate full-time paid employment with periods of full-time study. Using SCEP as a recruiting vehicle, MDL has employed students who possess some of the very latest technical skills and knowledge needed to make meaningful contributions to projects within the lab. MDL has recently expanded its use of SCEP and has increased the number of students (sometimes called co- ops) in its program. As a co-op, a student can expect to develop and implement computer based scientific techniques, participate in the development of statistical algorithms, assist in the analysis of meteorological data, and verify forecasts. This presentation will focus on describing recruitment, projects, and the application process related to MDL's SCEP. In addition, this presentation will also briefly explore the career paths of students who successfully completed the program.

  10. Quantitative Cloud Analysis using Meteorological Satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijt, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis is about observations of clouds from satellite and ground based instruments. The aim is to reconstruct the three dimensional cloud distributions. This information is used both in climate research and operational meteorological applications. In climate research, cloud observations provide

  11. Assessing the impact of meteorological factors on malaria patients in demilitarized zones in Republic of Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Se-Min Hwang; Seok-Joon Yoon; Yoo-Mi Jung; Geun-Yong Kwon; Soo-Nam Jo; Eun-Jeong Jang; Myoung-Ok Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Background:The trend of military patients becoming infected with vivox malaria reemerged in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 1993.The common explanation has been that infective Anopheles mosquitoes from the Democratic People's Republic of Korea have invaded Republic of Korea's demilitarized zone (DMZ).The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between meteorological factors and the number of malaria patients in the military in this region.Methods:The authors estimated the effects of meteorological factors on vivax malaria patients from the military based on the monthly number of malaria cases between 2006 and 2011.Temperature,precipitation,snow depth,wind velocity,relative humidity,duration of sunshine,and cloud cover were selected as the meteorological factors to be studied.A systematic pattern in the spatial distribution of malaria cases was assessed using the Moran's Index.Granger causality tests and cross-correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relationship between meteorological factors and malaria patients in the military.Results:Spatial analysis revealed significant clusters of malaria patients in the military in Republic of Korea in 2011 (Moran's l=0.136,p-value =0.026).In the six years investigated,the number of malaria patients in the military in Paju decreased,but the number of malaria patients in the military in Hwacheon and Chuncheon increased.Monthly average,maximum and minimum temperatures;wind velocity;and relative humidity were found to be predicting factors of malaria in patients in the military in Paju.In contrast,wind velocity alone was not able to predict malaria in Hwacheon and Chuncheon,however,precipitation and cloud cover were able to predict malaria in Hwacheon and Chuncheon.Conclusions:This study demonstrated that the number of malaria patients in the military is correlated with meteorological factors.The variation in occurrence of malaria cases was principally attributed to differences in meteorological factors by

  12. A Note on Several Meteorological Topics Related to Polar Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Sienicki, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the meteorology of Polar Regions is fundamental to the process of understanding the global climatology of the Earth and Earth-like planets. The nature of air circulation in a polar vortex is of preliminary importance. I have show that the local and continental spatiotemporal relationship between near surface wind events is self-organized criticality. In particular, the wind event size, wind event duration, and duration of quiescent wind event are well approximated by power-law distributions. On a continental scale, the wind events in the Antarctic tend to be self-organized criticality with ergodic properties. A similar self-organized criticality wind event was also found in Taylor Valley located at McMurdo Dry Valleys discovered by Captain Scott's expedition. Captain Scott's meteorological Terra Nova record was also examined. I have also revisited and re-analyzed wind events in Hornsund at Spitsbergen Island, in terms of marginal probabilities and marginal copulas which describe positive L\\'evy pr...

  13. Effect of Meteorological Conditions and Geographical Factors in the Onset of Enterovirus 71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-An; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2015-04-01

    Since it was first recognized in California in 1969, enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection has been a significant cause of neurological disorder and death in children worldwide. In 1998 a historic epidemic of EV71 infection caused hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina in thousands of people in Taiwan. The impact of EV71 infection is greatest during the summer months in Asia, and epidemics recur with a seasonal pattern. It was reported that seasonal patterns of EV71 differed by geographical localities. Previous studies have also showed significant relationships between meteorological variables, in particular, temperature and relative humidity, and the seasonal epidemic patterns of EV71. However, important issues that remain unclear include the spatiotemporal pattern of the EV71 outbreaks in Taiwan, and what role of favorable meteorological conditions in the transmission of the disease in the space-time domain. Thus, this study used a semiparametric generalized additive model (GAM) to understand the association between EV71 and meteorological factors across space and time. This study utilized a population-based database containing space-time data for clinic and hospital visits (i.e., hospital location and appointment times) of EV71 occurring in children less than 18 years old in Taipei from 1998 to 2008. Meteorological data (i.e., temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity) for the study period were provided by the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau. This study expect to find out an important meteorological factor and threshold.

  14. Assessing meteorological key factors influencing crop invasion by pollen beetle (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Junk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus F. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae, is a severe pest of winter oilseed rape. A phenological model to forecast the first spring invasion of crops in Luxembourg by M. aeneus was developed in order to provide a tool for improving pest management and for assessing the potential effects of climate change on this pest. The model was derived using long-term, multi-site observational datasets of pollen beetle migration and meteorological data, as the timing of crop invasion is determined mainly by meteorological variables. Daily values of mean air and soil temperature, accumulated sunshine duration and precipitation were used to create a threshold-based model to forecast crop invasion. Minimising of the root mean squared error (RMSE of predicted versus observed migration dates was used as the quality criterion for selecting the optimum combination of threshold values for meteorological variables. We identified mean air temperature 8.0 °C, mean soil temperature 4.6 °C, and sunshine duration of 3.4 h as the best threshold values, with a cut-off of 1 mm precipitation and with no need for persistence of those conditions for more than one day (RMSE=9.3days$RMSE=9.3\\,\\text{days}$. Only in six out of 30 cases, differences between observed and predicted immigration dates were >5$>5$ days. In the future, crop invasion by pollen beetles will probably be strongly affected by changes in air temperature and precipitation related to climate change. We used a multi-model ensemble of 15 regional climate models driven by the A1B emission scenario to assess meteorological changes in two 30‑year future periods, near future (2021–2050 and far future (2069–2098 in comparison with the reference period (1971–2000. Air temperature and precipitation were predicted to increase in the first three months of each year, both in the near future and the far future. The pollen beetle migration model indicated that this change would

  15. Ecological and meteorological drought monitoring in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Um, M. J.; Kim, Y.; Chae, Y.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to how well the ecological drought index can capture the drought status in the East Asia. We estimated the drought severe index (DSI), which uses the evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), suggested by Mu et al. (2013) to define the ecological drought. In addition, the meteorological drought index, which is standardized precipitation and evapotranspiration index (SPEI), are estimated and compared to the DSI. The satellite data by moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) are used to analyze the DSI and the monthly precipitation and temperature data in the climate research unit (CRU) are applied to estimate the SPEI for 2000-2013 in the East Asia. We conducted the statistical analyses to investigate the drought characteristics of the ecological and meteorological drought indices (i.e. the DSI and SPEI, respectively) and then compared those characteristics drought indices depending on the drought status. We found the DSI did not well captured the drought status when the categories originally suggested by Mu et al. (2013) are applied to divide the drought status in the study area. Consequently, the modified categories for the DSI in this study is suggested and then applied to define the drought status. The modified categories in this study show the great improvement to capture the drought status in the East Asia even though the results cannot be acquired around Taklamakan desert due to the lack of the satellite data. These results illustrate the ecological drought index, such as the DSI, can be applied for the monitoring of the drought in the East Asia and then can give the detailed information of drought status because the satellite data have the relatively high spatial resolutions compared to the observations such as the CRU data. Reference Mu Q, Zhao M, Kimball JS, McDowell NG, Running SW (2013) A remotely sensed global

  16. Resilience of urban ambulance services under future climate, meteorology and air pollution scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Francis; Chapman, Lee; Fisher, Paul; Mahmood, Marliyyah; Sangkharat, Kamolrat; Thomas, Neil; Thornes, John

    2017-04-01

    Ambulances are an integral part of a country's infrastructure ensuring its citizens and visitors are kept healthy. The impact of weather, climate and climate change on ambulance services around the world has received increasing attention in recent years but most studies have been area specific and there is a need to establish basic relationships between ambulance data (both response and illness data) and meteorological parameters. In this presentation, the effects of temperature, other meteorological and air pollution variables on ambulance call out rates for different medical categories will be investigated. We use ambulance call out obtained from various ambulance services worldwide which have significantly different meteorologies, climatologies and pollution conditions. A time-series analysis is utilized to understand the relation between meteorological conditions, air pollutants and different call out categories. We will present findings that support the opinion that ambulance attendance call outs records are an effective and well-timed source of data and can be used for health early warning systems. Furthermore the presented results can much improve our understanding of the relationships between meteorology, climate, air pollution and human health thereby allowing for better prediction of ambulance use through the application of long and short-term weather, climate and pollution forecasts.

  17. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, David S; Vasavada, Ashwin R; Simon-Miller, Amy A

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are quasi-stable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact...

  18. Relationship between onset of peptic ulcer and meteorological factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Yun Liu; Zhong-Hui Liang; An-Ning Gao; Guo-Du Tang; Wang-Yue Yang; Jiang Qin; Xin-Guo Wu; Dong-Cai Zhu; Gui-Ning Wang; Jin-Jiang Liu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the relationship between onset of peptic ulcer (PU) and meteorological factors (MFs).METHODS: A total of 24 252 Patients were found with active PU in 104 121 samples of gastroscoic examination from 17 hospitals in Nanning from 1992 to 1997. The detectable rate of PU (DRPU) was calculated every month,every ten days and every five days. An analysis of DRPU and MFs was made in the same period of the year. A forecast model based on MFs of the previous month was established. The real and forecast values were tested and verified.RESULTS: During the 6 years, the DRPU from November to April was 24.4 -28.8%. The peak value (28.8%)was in January. The DRPU from May to October was 20.0 -22.6%, with its low peak (20.0%) in June. The DRPU decreased from winter and spring to summer and autumn (P < 0.005). The correlated coefficient between DRPU and average temperature value was -0.8704,-0.6624, -0.5384 for one month, ten days, five days respectively (P < 0.01). The correlated coefficient between DRPU and average highest temperature value was -0.8000, -0.6470,-0.5167 respectively (P <0.01). The correlated coefficient between DRPU and average lowest temperature value was -0.8091, -0.6617, -0.5384 respectively (P <0.01). The correlated coefficient between DRPU and average dew point temperature was -0.7812,-0.6246, -0.4936 respectively (P <0.01). The correlated coefficient between DRPU and average air pressure value was 0.7320, 0.5777, 0.4579 respectively (P <0.01). The average temperature, average highest and lowest temperature, average air pressure and average dew point temperature value of the previous month, ten days and five days could forecast the onset of PU, with its real and forecast values corresponding to 71.8%, 67.9% and 66.6% respectively.CONCLUSION: DRPU is closely related with the average temperature, average highest and lowest temperature,average air pressure and average dew point temperature of each month, every ten days and every five

  19. Forecast of Frost Days Based on Monthly Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, M. T.; Tarquis, A. M.; Morató, M. C.; Saa-Requejo, A.

    2009-04-01

    Although frost can cause considerable crop damage and mitigation practices against forecasted frost exist, frost forecasting technologies have not changed for many years. The paper reports a new method to forecast the monthly number of frost days (FD) for several meteorological stations at Community of Madrid (Spain) based on successive application of two models. The first one is a stochastic model, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), that forecasts monthly minimum absolute temperature (tmin) and monthly average of minimum temperature (tminav) following Box-Jenkins methodology. The second model relates these monthly temperatures to minimum daily temperature distribution during one month. Three ARIMA models were identified for the time series analyzed with a stational period correspondent to one year. They present the same stational behavior (moving average differenced model) and different non-stational part: autoregressive model (Model 1), moving average differenced model (Model 2) and autoregressive and moving average model (Model 3). At the same time, the results point out that minimum daily temperature (tdmin), for the meteorological stations studied, followed a normal distribution each month with a very similar standard deviation through years. This standard deviation obtained for each station and each month could be used as a risk index for cold months. The application of Model 1 to predict minimum monthly temperatures showed the best FD forecast. This procedure provides a tool for crop managers and crop insurance companies to asses the risk of frost frequency and intensity, so that they can take steps to mitigate against frost damage and estimated the damage that frost would cost. This research was supported by Comunidad de Madrid Research Project 076/92. The cooperation of the Spanish National Meteorological Institute and the Spanish Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentation (MAPA) is gratefully acknowledged.

  20. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  1. Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  2. ICON - Port Everglades 2013 Meteorological Observations (NODC Accession 0124002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  3. ICON - Port Everglades 2015 Meteorological Observations (NCEI Accession 0156578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  4. Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  5. NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  6. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  7. NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  8. NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  9. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  10. NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  11. Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  12. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  13. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  14. NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  15. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  16. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  17. NOAA Ship Miller Freeman Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Miller Freeman Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  18. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  19. Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  20. Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  1. Research Ship Kilo Moana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Kilo Moana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  2. ICON - North Norman's Patch Reef 2005 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  3. ICON - Salt River Bay 2009 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  4. ICON - Little Cayman, Cayman Islands 2010 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  5. ICON - North Norman's Patch Reef 2004 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  6. ICON - Little Cayman, Cayman Islands 2009 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  7. ICON - Port Everglades 2014 Meteorological Observations (NCEI Accession 0137094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  8. ICON - Port Everglades 2012 Meteorological Observations (NODC Accession 0117727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  9. Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  10. Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  11. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  12. Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  13. Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  14. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  15. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  16. Research Ship Tangaroa Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Tangaroa Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  17. Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  18. Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  19. NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  20. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  1. NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  2. NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  3. ICON - Salt River Bay 2005 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  4. Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  5. NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  6. Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  7. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  8. NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  9. NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  10. Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  11. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  12. ICON - Salt River Bay 2010 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  13. Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  14. University of Idaho Daily Meteorological data for continental US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains daily surface meteorological (METDATA) data for the Continental United States at 4-km (1/24-deg) resolution. The meteorological variables are...

  15. ICON - Media Luna Reef 2010 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  16. ICON - Media Luna Reef 2009 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  17. Temporal disaggregation of daily meteorological grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vormoor, K.; Skaugen, T.

    2012-04-01

    For operational flood forecasting, the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE) applies the conceptual HBV rainfall-runoff model for 117 catchments. The hydrological models are calibrated and run using an extensive meteorological grid data set providing daily temperature and precipitation data back to 1957 for entire Norway at 1x1 km grid resolution (seNorge grids). The daily temporal resolution is dictated by the resolution of historical meteorological data. However, since meteorological forecasts and runoff observations are also available at a much finer than a daily time-resolution (e.g. 6 hourly), and many hydrological extreme events happens at a temporal scale of less than daily, it is important to try to establish a historical dataset of meteorological input at a finer corresponding temporal resolution. We present a simple approach for the temporal disaggregation of the daily meteorological seNorge grids into 6-hour values by consulting a HIRLAM hindcast grid data series with an hourly time resolution and a 10x10 km grid resolution. The temporal patterns of the hindcast series are used to disaggregate the daily interpolated observations from the seNorge grids. In this way, we produce a historical grid dataset from 1958-2010 with 6-hourly temperature and precipitation for entire Norway on a 1x1 km grid resolution. For validation and to see if additional information is gained, the disaggregated data is compared with observed values from selected meteorological stations. In addition, the disaggregated data is evaluated against daily data, simply split into four fractions. The validation results indicate that additional information is indeed gained and point out the benefit of disaggregated data compared to daily data split into four. With regard to temperature, the disaggregated values show very low deviations (MAE, RMSE), and are highly correlated with observed values. Regarding precipitation, the disaggregated data shows cumulative

  18. Records Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — All Federal Agencies are required to prescribe an appropriate records maintenance program so that complete records are filed or otherwise preserved, records can be...

  19. Grid-based Meteorological and Crisis Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hluchy, Ladislav; Bartok, Juraj; Tran, Viet; Lucny, Andrej; Gazak, Martin

    2010-05-01

    We present several applications from domain of meteorology and crisis management we developed and/or plan to develop. Particularly, we present IMS Model Suite - a complex software system designed to address the needs of accurate forecast of weather and hazardous weather phenomena, environmental pollution assessment, prediction of consequences of nuclear accident and radiological emergency. We discuss requirements on computational means and our experiences how to meet them by grid computing. The process of a pollution assessment and prediction of the consequences in case of radiological emergence results in complex data-flows and work-flows among databases, models and simulation tools (geographical databases, meteorological and dispersion models, etc.). A pollution assessment and prediction requires running of 3D meteorological model (4 nests with resolution from 50 km to 1.8 km centered on nuclear power plant site, 38 vertical levels) as well as running of the dispersion model performing the simulation of the release transport and deposition of the pollutant with respect to the numeric weather prediction data, released material description, topography, land use description and user defined simulation scenario. Several post-processing options can be selected according to particular situation (e.g. doses calculation). Another example is a forecasting of fog as one of the meteorological phenomena hazardous to the aviation as well as road traffic. It requires complicated physical model and high resolution meteorological modeling due to its dependence on local conditions (precise topography, shorelines and land use classes). An installed fog modeling system requires a 4 time nested parallelized 3D meteorological model with 1.8 km horizontal resolution and 42 levels vertically (approx. 1 million points in 3D space) to be run four times daily. The 3D model outputs and multitude of local measurements are utilized by SPMD-parallelized 1D fog model run every hour. The fog

  20. Hispanic Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    Hispanic heritage month is from September 15 to October 15. One problem that arises when grouping people into categories such as Hispanic or Latino is stereotyping, stereotypes can be promoted or used in this Hispanic month to promote a greater understanding of Latino cultures.

  1. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  2. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  3. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  4. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  5. Litterfall and growth dynamics relationship with the meteorological variability in three forests in the Montseny natural park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bou Jordi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the influence of some environmental conditions (temperature and rainfall on the litterfall and BAI (basal area increment, in three close forests in the Montseny massif (NE part of the Iberian peninsula, Spain. Two of them are composed of deciduous species Fagus sylvatica and Quercus petraea, and the other one is a Mediterranean evergreen species, Quercus ilex. We have collected monthly data about litterfall and radial growth since 2007. For each forest there are tree plots, with litterfall traps and band dendrometers. This data has been related with the meteorological parameters of meteorological station closed to the study area. Our results show that F. sylvatica recorded the biggest drop in annual litterfall (6 Mg·ha−1·year−1, followed by Q. ilex (4.34 Mg·ha−1·year−1 and Quercus petraea (4.4 Mg·ha−1·year−1 and that all the values were similar to those observed in other forests and mountains with the same state of maturity. Regarding the litterfall, the investigation found a decline in the leaves fall in deciduous trees in years with hot summers. In addition, these warm summers produce a decline in the F. sylvatica BAI, but not in Q. petraea. Concerning growth, we found that Q. petraea increases the BAI on the study period while F. sylvatica does not. In conclusion, we believe that in the future Q. petraea will be more tolerant to the warm conditions than F. sylvatica, making the former a possible replacement of the second species.

  6. Meteorological drivers of ablation processes on a cold glacier in the semi-arid Andes of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. MacDonell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological and surface change measurements collected during a 2.5 yr period are used to calculate surface mass and energy balances at 5324 m a.s.l. on Guanaco Glacier, a cold-based glacier in the semi-arid Andes of Chile. Meteorological conditions are marked by extremely low vapour pressures (annual mean of 1.1 hPa, strong winds (annual mean of 10 m s−1, shortwave radiation receipt persistently close to the theoretical site maximum during cloud-free days (mean annual 295 W m−2; summer hourly maximum 1354 W m−2 and low precipitation rates (mean annual 45 mm w.e.. Snowfall occurs sporadically throughout the year and is related to frontal events in the winter and convective storms during the summer months. Net shortwave radiation provides the greatest source of energy to the glacier surface, and net longwave radiation dominates energy losses. The turbulent latent heat flux is always negative, which means that the surface is always losing mass via sublimation, which is the main form of ablation at the site. Sublimation rates are most strongly correlated with net shortwave radiation, incoming shortwave radiation, albedo and vapour pressure. Low glacier surface temperatures restrict melting for much of the period, however episodic melting occurs during the austral summer, when warm, humid, calm and high pressure conditions restrict sublimation and make more energy available for melting. Low accumulation (131 mm w.e. over the period and relatively high ablation (1435 mm w.e. means that mass change over the period was negative (−1304 mm w.e., which continued the negative trend recorded in the region over the last few decades.

  7. Integrating Current Meteorological Research Through Club Fundraising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, S. S.; Kauffman, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Earth science programs whose focus is primarily an undergraduate education do not often have the funding to take students to very many conferences which could expose the student to new research as well as possible graduate programs and employment opportunities. Conferences also give the more enthusiastic and hardworking students a venue in which to present their research to the meteorological community. In addition, the California University services largely lower income counties, which make student attendance at conferences even more difficult even though the student in SW PA may be individually motivated. This issue is compounded by the fact that the Meteorology Concentration within the Earth Science department at Cal U is composed of only two full-time Professors, which limits the amount of research students can be exposed to within a classroom setting. New research ideas presented at conferences are thus an important mechanism for broadening what could be an isolated program. One way in which the meteorology program has circumvented the funding problem to a certain extent is through an active student club. With nearly 60 majors (3/4 of which are active in club activities, the meteorology club is able to execute a variety of fundraising activities. Money that is raised can then request from student services matching funds. Further money is given to clubs, which are very active not only in fundraising, but using that money for academic related activities. For the last 3 years the club budget has been in the neighborhood of \\$4500. The money has then been used to partially finance student registration and accommodation costs making conference attendance much more affordable. Normally 8-16 students attend conferences that they would otherwise not be able to attend without great expense. There are times when more than 16 students wish to attend, but travel arrangements prohibit more than 16. Moreover club money is also use to supplement student costs on a summer

  8. Meteorological considerations and satellite retrievals in supporting to the assessment of local hydrologic homogeneity over Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Salvatore; Laviola, Sante; Chiaravalloti, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Regional frequency analysis is a useful tool for estimating precipitation quantiles more accurately than at-site frequency analysis, especially in the case of regions with a brief history of short-time rainfall records. Since the rainfalls with short duration are mainly due to convective phenomena, usually affecting areas of few square kilometers, the description of these events with traditional tools such as in-situ rain gauges is often incomplete and not exhaustive. Thus, the application of these datasets to the regional analysis typically provides unrealistic description of the event and large miscalculations of the return time, usually higher than observation. Therefore, in order to evaluate the possible regional homogeneity and improve the performance of hydrologic models the inference analysis of the regional climatic regimes is revealed a useful tool. Starting from the intense rainfall of 19 November 2013 over Southern Italy, we demonstrate that the synoptic meteorological situation well-matched with results of Gabriele & Chiaravalloti (2013a, 2013b) where the regional homogeneity has been calculated on the basis of different climate indexes such as Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) and the Q-vector Divergence (QD). In support to that analysis two different methodologies based on satellite microwave information have been applied: the Water vapor Strong Lines at 183 GHz (183-WSL) (Laviola and Levizzani, 2011) algorithm provides to define the precipitation patterns while the MicroWave Cloud Classification (MWCC) (Miglietta et al., 2013) characterizes the cloud type in terms of stratiform and convective. Although, this study is still in progress the current results clearly demonstrate that the Mediterranean storms move on a sort of 'preferential trajectories' especially during the months September-November where the most intense convections have been found. Laviola, S., and V. Levizzani, 2011: The 183-WSL fast rainrate retrieval algorithm. Part I

  9. Air pollution and meteorological processes in the growing dryland city of Urumqi (Xinjiang, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X

    2011-03-01

    Seven years (2000-2006) of monthly PM₁₀ (particulate matter, d ≤ 10 μm), SO₂, and NO₂ concentrations are reported for Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang in NW China. Considerably high mean annual concentrations have been observed, which ranged between 150 and 240 μg m⁻³ (PM₁₀, 31 and 50 μg m⁻³ (NO₂), and 49 and 160 μg m⁻³ (SO₂). The shapes of seasonal variation of all pollutants were remarkably similar; however, winter/summer ratios of concentrations were quite different for PM₁₀ (2-3) and NO₂ (≈4) compared to SO₂ (up to 30). Very high consumption rates of fossil fuels for energy generation and domestic heating are mainly responsible for high annual pollution levels, as well as the (very) high winter/summer ratios. Detailed analysis of the 2000-2006 records of Urumqi's meteorological data resulted in inter-annual and seasonal frequency distributions of (a) (surface) inversion events, (b) heights of surface inversions, (c) stability classes of Urumqi's boundary layer, and (d) the "Air Stagnation Index (ASI)". Urumqi's boundary layer is shown to be characterized by high mean annual and seasonal frequencies of (surface) inversions and by the dominance of stable dispersion classes. A further outcome of the meteorological analysis is the proof of Urumqi's strong diurnal wind system, which might have particularly contributed to the stabilization of the nocturnal boundary layer. Annual and seasonal variations of pollutant's concentrations are discussed in the context of occurrences of inversions, boundary layer, stability classes, and ASI. The trend of Urumqi's air pollution indicates a strong increase of mean annual concentrations 2000-2003, followed by a slight increase during 2003-2006. These are in strong contrast to (a) the growth of Urumqi's fleet of motor vehicles and (b) to the growing number of stable regimes of Urumqi's boundary layer climate during same period. It is concluded that the (regional and) local administrative

  10. Biases in atmospheric CO2 estimates from correlated meteorology modeling errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. M.; Hayek, M. N.; Andrews, A. E.; Fung, I.; Liu, J.

    2015-03-01

    Estimates of CO2 fluxes that are based on atmospheric measurements rely upon a meteorology model to simulate atmospheric transport. These models provide a quantitative link between the surface fluxes and CO2 measurements taken downwind. Errors in the meteorology can therefore cause errors in the estimated CO2 fluxes. Meteorology errors that correlate or covary across time and/or space are particularly worrisome; they can cause biases in modeled atmospheric CO2 that are easily confused with the CO2 signal from surface fluxes, and they are difficult to characterize. In this paper, we leverage an ensemble of global meteorology model outputs combined with a data assimilation system to estimate these biases in modeled atmospheric CO2. In one case study, we estimate the magnitude of month-long CO2 biases relative to CO2 boundary layer enhancements and quantify how that answer changes if we either include or remove error correlations or covariances. In a second case study, we investigate which meteorological conditions are associated with these CO2 biases. In the first case study, we estimate uncertainties of 0.5-7 ppm in monthly-averaged CO2 concentrations, depending upon location (95% confidence interval). These uncertainties correspond to 13-150% of the mean afternoon CO2 boundary layer enhancement at individual observation sites. When we remove error covariances, however, this range drops to 2-22%. Top-down studies that ignore these covariances could therefore underestimate the uncertainties and/or propagate transport errors into the flux estimate. In the second case study, we find that these month-long errors in atmospheric transport are anti-correlated with temperature and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height over terrestrial regions. In marine environments, by contrast, these errors are more strongly associated with weak zonal winds. Many errors, however, are not correlated with a single meteorological parameter, suggesting that a single meteorological proxy is

  11. Study of particulate matters pollution related with meteorological factors for a city from South-Central of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela MITRAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the effects of climate change and air pollution is at present a global priority. Development and implementation of effective policies in order to achieve these  reductions is a challenge that requires a good understanding of the underlying phenomena  of climate change and air pollution. This paper aims to highlight the seasonal variation of PM10 concentration in Pitesti city depending on major meteorological factors (temperature, intensity of solar radiation, and relative humidity. The applied methodology consists in statistical processing, using specialized software, of a database containing historical records of concentration values of this pollutant and of meteorological parameters recorded concurrently. The results of processing a series of approximately 30000 values recorded from 2008 to 2011 indicate the fact that in every season (winter,spring, summer, and autumn the concentration of PM10 varies according to a sixth degree polynomial function, whose variable is one of the considered meteorological factors. The mathematical relationship that best approximates the variation of average PM10 concentration in relation with the three meteorological factors is by the form of a multiple linear regression equation.Keywords: air pollution and human health, particulate matters related with meteorological factors, statistical analysis

  12. The Science Behind Moravian Meteorological Observations for Late-18th Century Labrador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Dianne; Lüdecke, Cornelia; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    From the time they established their first shelter among the Inuit population of the northern coast of Labrador in 1771, the brethren of the Moravian Church began producing series of daily instrumental and qualitative meteorological observations of significance to science networks of the day (Macpherson, 1987, Demarée & Ogilvie, 2008). Contrary to what is understood, missionaries did not make these observations for their own purposes. Rather, they responded to requests from scientists who commissioned the data. Scientists also equipped these undertakings. The enlightened observers provided handwritten copies that were publicized in England and continental Europe by individuals and their philosophical and scientific institutions. This pattern of producing reliable records specifically for scientists was true for the 15-year span of Moravian meteorological observations for all 3 Labrador stations in the late 18th century; the 40-year span of records for 10 Moravian stations in Labrador and Greenland in the mid-19th century; and the observations from 5 Labrador stations commissioned for the 1st international Polar Year, 1882, and continuing for several decades afterward, and longer in the case of Nain. When Nain data is combined with that from the Canadian meteorological service, we have a relatively straight run from 1882 to 2015. In this paper, we examine the late-18th century Moravian meteorological observations for qualitative information of interest to modern scientific research. The daily entries comprise not only measurements of temperature and air pressure, but also other weather observations, such as wind direction, estimated wind speed, cloudiness, information which has already allowed us to begin tracking polar lows travelling from Labrador to Greenland across the Labrador Sea. The annual missionary reports of Moravians provide critical supplementary data identifying recurring local phenological events in nature, which offer an integrated signal of weather

  13. High Resolution Modelling of Aerosols-Meteorology Interactions over Northern Europe and Arctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Baklanov, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Aerosols have influence on weather, air quality and climate. Multi-scale modelling, and especially long-range atmospheric transport, dispersion, and deposition of aerosols from remote sources is especially challenging in northern latitudes. It is due to complexity of meteorological, chemical and biological processes, their interactions and especially within and above the surface layer, linking to climate change, and influence on ecosystems. The online integrated meteorology-chemistry-aerosols model Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) was employed for evaluating spatio-temporal variability of atmospheric aerosols and their interactions and effects on meteorology with a focus on the Northern Europe and Arctic regions. The model setup covers domain having 510 x 568 grids of latitude vs. longitude, horizontal resolution of 0.15 deg, 40 vertical hybrid levels, time step of 360 sec, 6 h meteorological surface data assimilation. The model was run for January and July-August 2010 at DMI's CRAY-XC30 supercomputer. Emissions used are anthropogenic (ECLIPSE v5), shipping (combined AU_RCP and FMI), wildfires (IS4FIRES), and interactive sea salt, dust and DMS. The boundary conditions were obtained from ECMWF: for meteorology (from IFS at 0.15 and 0.25 deg. for summer and winter, respectively) and atmospheric composition (from MACC Reanalysis at 1.125 deg. resolution). The Enviro-HIRLAM model was employed in 4 modes: the reference run (e.g. without aerosols influence on meteorology) and 3 modified runs (direct aerosol effect (DAE), indirect aerosol effect (IDAE), and both effects DAE and IDAE included). The differences between the reference run and the runs with mentioned aerosol effects were estimated on a day-by-day, monthly and diurnal cycle bases over the domain, Arctic areas, European and Nordic countries. The results of statistical analyses are summarized and presented.

  14. Modeling meteorological forcing of snowcover in forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrom, Robert Ake

    2000-11-01

    The architectural properties of a forest are known to modify significantly meteorological forcing of snowcover. Current numerical snow models utilize a wide range of vegetation representations that limit their application to particular biomes or for basic research on specialized problems. Most do not explicitly represent the combined effects of the canopy on processes of mass and energy transfer beneath the canopy. This project develops forest canopy sub-models that estimate the below-canopy solar and longwave irradiance, wind speed, and accumulation of precipitation, based on meteorological measurements above the canopy and parameters of forest architecture. The wind and solar radiation sub-model predictions were independently compared with meteorological observations at deciduous and coniferous sites in the snowbelt region of northern Michigan. The solar radiation and wind models required adjustments to match sub-canopy measurements. The primary experiment compared the simulations and measurements of snow depth for eight modified versions of the Utah Energy Balance (UEB) snow model during the 1998-99 snowcover season at the two forest sites and a near-by open site. Independent inclusion of each sub-model and a new stability scheme in the UEB model revealed significant sensitivity of modeled snow depth to stability and each of the four processes estimated by the sub-models. The original UEB model uses a simple forest canopy parameterization that does not consider precipitation interception. Comparison of the original and modified UEB models significantly improved simulations of snow depth at the open and coniferous sites, but performance was slightly worse for a leafless deciduous site. Unlike the modified model, the analysis suggests that the original model produces inconsistent results, which reduces its potential for application to different biomes. Results suggest that opposing processes of energy and mass exchange tend to moderate meteorological forcing

  15. Hydro-meteorological evaluation of downscaled global ensemble rainfall forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborit, Étienne; Anctil, François; Fortin, Vincent; Pelletier, Geneviève

    2013-04-01

    Ensemble rainfall forecasts are of high interest for decision making, as they provide an explicit and dynamic assessment of the uncertainty in the forecast (Ruiz et al. 2009). However, for hydrological forecasting, their low resolution currently limits their use to large watersheds (Maraun et al. 2010). In order to bridge this gap, various implementations of the statistic-stochastic multi-fractal downscaling technique presented by Perica and Foufoula-Georgiou (1996) were compared, bringing Environment Canada's global ensemble rainfall forecasts from a 100 by 70-km resolution down to 6 by 4-km, while increasing each pixel's rainfall variance and preserving its original mean. For comparison purposes, simpler methods were also implemented such as the bi-linear interpolation, which disaggregates global forecasts without modifying their variance. The downscaled meteorological products were evaluated using different scores and diagrams, from both a meteorological and a hydrological view points. The meteorological evaluation was conducted comparing the forecasted rainfall depths against nine days of observed values taken from Québec City rain gauge database. These 9 days present strong precipitation events occurring during the summer of 2009. For the hydrologic evaluation, the hydrological models SWMM5 and (a modified version of) GR4J were implemented on a small 6 km2 urban catchment located in the Québec City region. Ensemble hydrologic forecasts with a time step of 3 hours were then performed over a 3-months period of the summer of 2010 using the original and downscaled ensemble rainfall forecasts. The most important conclusions of this work are that the overall quality of the forecasts was preserved during the disaggregation procedure and that the disaggregated products using this variance-enhancing method were of similar quality than bi-linear interpolation products. However, variance and dispersion of the different members were, of course, much improved for the

  16. Meteorological risks as drivers of innovation for agroecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne; Van de Vyver, Hans; Zamani, Sepideh; Curnel, Yannick; Planchon, Viviane; Verspecht, Ann; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2015-04-01

    Devastating weather-related events recorded in recent years have captured the interest of the general public in Belgium. The MERINOVA project research hypothesis is that meteorological risks act as drivers of environmental innovation in agro-ecosystem management which is being tested using a "chain of risk" approach. The major objectives are to (1) assess the probability of extreme meteorological events by means of probability density functions; (2) analyse the extreme events impact of on agro-ecosystems using process-based bio-physical modelling methods; (3) identify the most vulnerable agro-ecosystems using fuzzy multi-criteria and spatial analysis; (4) uncover innovative risk management and adaptation options using actor-network theory and economic modelling; and, (5) communicate to research, policy and practitioner communities using web-based techniques. Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) theory was used to model annual rainfall maxima based on location-, scale- and shape-parameters that determine the centre of the distribution, the deviation of the location-parameter and the upper tail decay, respectively. Likewise the distributions of consecutive rainy days, rainfall deficits and extreme 24-hour rainfall were modelled. Spatial interpolation of GEV-derived return levels resulted in maps of extreme precipitation, precipitation deficits and wet periods. The degree of temporal overlap between extreme weather conditions and sensitive periods in the agro-ecosystem was determined using a bio-physically based modelling framework that couples phenological models, a soil water balance, crop growth and environmental models. 20-year return values were derived for frost, heat stress, drought, waterlogging and field access during different sensitive stages for different arable crops. Extreme yield values were detected from detrended long term arable yields and relationships were found with soil moisture conditions, heat stress or other meteorological variables during the

  17. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  18. Lightship Monthly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Weather Observations (Monthly Form 1001) from lightship stations in the United States. Please see the 'Surface Weather Observations (1001)' library for more...

  19. Oceanographic Monthly Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Monthly Summary contains sea surface temperature (SST) analyses on both regional and ocean basin scales for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans....

  20. Joint meteorological and hydrological drought model: a management tool for proactive water resources planning of semi-arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modaresi Rad, Arash; Ahmadi Ardakani, Samira; Ghahremani, Zahra; Ghahreman, Bijan; Khalili, Davar

    2016-04-01

    Conventionally drought analysis has been limited to single drought category. Utilization of models incorporating multiple drought categories, can relax this limitation. A copula-based model is proposed, which uses meteorological and hydrological drought indices to assess drought events for ultimate management of water resources, at small scales, i.e., sub-watersheds. The study area is a sub basin located at Karkheh watershed (western Iran), utilizing 41-year data of 4 raingauge stations and one hydrometric station located upstream and at the outlet respectively. Prior to drought analysis, time series of precipitation and streamflow records are investigated for possible dependency/significant trend. Considering the semi-arid nature of the study area, boxplots are utilized to graphically capture the rainy months, which used to evaluate the degree of correlation between streamflow and precipitation records via nonparametric correlations and bivariate tail dependence. Time scales of 3- and 12-month are considered, which are used to study vulnerability of early vegetation establishment and long-term ecosystem resilience, respectively. Among four common goodness of fit tests, the Cramér-von-Mises is found preferable for defining copula distribution functions through Akaike & Bayesian information criteria and coefficient of determination. Furthermore the uncertainty associated with different copula models is measured using the concept of entropy. A new bivariate drought modeling approach is proposed through copulas. The proposed index, named standardized precipitation-streamflow index (SPSI) is compared with two separate indices of streamflow drought index (SDI) and standardized precipitation index (SPI). According to results, the SPSI could detect onset of droughts dominated by precipitation as is similarly indicated by SPI index. It also captures discordant case of normal period precipitation with dry period streamflow and vice versa. Finally, combination of severity

  1. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  2. Monthly Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms is a set of historical manuscript records for the period 1893-1948. The collection includes two very similar form types: Form...

  3. [Comparison of spatial interpolation methods for daily meteorological elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-Jian; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Huang, Fen; Jiang, Hai-Yan; Cao, Wei-Xing; Zhu, Yan

    2010-03-01

    A comparative study was made to evaluate the methods of inverse distance weighting (IDW), co-kriging (CK), and thin plate spline (TPS) in interpolating the average meteorological elements (including maximum air temperature, minimum air temperature, sunshine hours, and precipitation) of the 15th day per month from the 1951-2005 comprehensive observation data of 559 meteorological stations in China. The results showed that the RMSEs for the maximum and minimum air temperature in a year interpolated by TPS were the smallest (1.02 degrees C and 1.12 degrees C, respectively), and the R2 between the observed and predicted values were the highest (0.9916 and 0.9913, respectively), compared with those interpolated by IDW and CK. In four seasons, the smallest RMSEs for the maximum and minimum air temperature interpolated by TPS were observed in autumn (0.83 degrees C) and summer (0.86 degrees C), respectively, and the R2 between the observed and predicted values interpolated by TPS were higher in autumn than in other seasons. The RMSEs for the sunshine hours and precipitation in a year interpolated by TPS were the smallest (0.59 h and 1.01 mm, respectively), and the R2 between the observed and predicted values were the highest (0.9118 and 0.8135, respectively), compared with those interpolated by IDW and CK. In four seasons, the RMSE for the sunshine hours in winter interpolated by TPS was the smallest (0.49 h), and the R2 between the observed and predicted sunshine hours was the smallest (0.9293). The RMSE for the precipitation in winter interpolated by TPS was the smallest (0.33 mm), while the RMSE for the precipitation in summer interpolated by IDW was the smallest (2.01 mm). The R2 between the observed and predicted precipitation in winter interpolated by CK was the highest (0.8781). It was suggested that TPS could be the optimal spatial interpolation method in interpolating and rasterizing the daily meteorological elements in China.

  4. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2007-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey

  5. Natural gas monthly, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates for March 1999 for many natural gas data series at the national level. Estimates of national natural gas prices are available through December 1998 for most series. Highlights of the data contained in this issue are listed below. Preliminary data indicate that the national average wellhead price for 1998 declined to 16% from the previous year ($1.96 compared to $2.32 per thousand cubic feet). At the end of March, the end of the 1998--1999 heating season, the level of working gas in underground natural gas storage facilities is estimated to be 1,354 billion cubic feet, 169 billion cubic feet higher than at the end of March 1998. Gas consumption during the first 3 months of 1999 is estimated to have been 179 billion cubic feet higher than in the same period in 1998. Most of this increase (133 billion cubic feet) occurred in the residential sector due to the cooler temperatures in January and February compared to the same months last year. According to the National Weather Service, heating degree days in January 1999 were 15% greater than the previous year while February recorded a 5% increase.

  6. Meteorologic parameters analysis above Dome C made with ECMWF data

    CERN Document Server

    Geissler, Kryno K

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the characterization of all the principal meteorological parameters (wind speed and direction, pressure, absolute and potential temperature) extended over 25 km from the ground and over two years (2003 and 2004) above the Antarctic site of Dome C. The data set is composed by 'analyses' provided by the General Circulation Model (GCM) of the European Center for Medium Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and they are part of the catalog MARS. A monthly and seasonal (summer and winter time) statistical analysis of the results is presented. The Richardson number is calculated for each month of the year over 25 km to study the stability/instability of the atmosphere. This permits us to trace a map indicating where and when the optical turbulence has the highest probability to be triggered on the whole troposphere, tropopause and stratosphere. We finally try to predict the best expected isoplanatic angle and wavefront coherence time employing the Richardson number maps, the wind speed profiles and sim...

  7. 107 Range Commanders Council Meteorology Group Meeting (RCC-MG): NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Range Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry C.

    2016-01-01

    The following is a summary of the major meteorological/atmospheric projects and research that have been or currently are being accomplished at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Listed below are highlights of work done during the past 6 months in the Engineering Directorate (ED) and in the Science and Mission Systems Office (ZP).

  8. Robust Response of Streamflow Drought to Different Timescales of Meteorological Drought in Xiangjiang River Basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological drought can evolve into all aspects of hydrologic system such as soil layer, groundwater, and river discharge, leading to agricultural drought, groundwater drought, and streamflow drought, respectively. How does it propagate? Is there any strong relationship between meteorological drought and others? These issues need further understanding regarding different climate regions. In this paper, monthly SRI and SPEI at different timescales during 1976 and 2005 were utilized to understand how streamflow drought responded to meteorological drought in Xiangjiang river basin, a semihumid basin of Central China. Impressive findings included that strong correlations between SRI and SPEI were found. SPEI of 2-month timescale behaved best when correlating with SRI (R=0.79. Longer timescales of SPEI seemed not to be useful for streamflow drought identification. At seasonal scale, higher correlation coefficients were obtained during dry season, whereas lower coefficients were found in wet season. The maximum R reached up to 0.89 in November at 2-month timescale. Besides, robust response relation between streamflow drought and meteorological drought was also found. The average response rate (Rr was considerably high (75.4%, with the maximum obtained at 2-month timescale (Rr=82.9%. Meanwhile, important seasonal difference of response rate has also been pointed out.

  9. 108 Range Commanders Council Meteorology Group Meeting (RCC-MG) NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Range Report - April 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry C.

    2017-01-01

    The following is a summary of the major meteorological/atmospheric projects and research that have been or currently are being accomplished at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Listed below are highlights of work done during the past 6 months in the Engineering Directorate (ED) and in the Science and Technology Office (ST).

  10. Hydrological and Meteorological Disturbances in Rio Grande Riparian Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, J. R.; Cleverly, J. R.; Dahm, C.

    2012-12-01

    Invasive species and ecohydrological disturbances are imperiling native riparian ecosystems. Adaptable, resilient exotic competitors including tamarisk have colonized many waterways in the western US. Alteration of the natural flow regime due to water diversions is expected to be exacerbated by climate change in this region, confounding restoration efforts. Climate change may also increase the likelihood of other disturbances, including extreme weather events (drought, floods, temperatures). We investigate how hydrological and meteorological variability impact water use by tamarisk communities that have overtaken native riparian vegetation. We have collected more than a decade of complete growing season eddy covariance evapotranspiration (ET) and water table (WT) elevation data at two sites along the Rio Grande corridor of central New Mexico, USA. Conditions have ranged from extreme drought to exceedingly wet years with extensive overbank flooding, and from record setting warm to cold temperatures. Severe to extreme droughts persisted throughout 2002 and 2003. Abundant snowpacks and wetter conditions led to extensive flooding early in the 2005 and 2008 growing seasons. Along with a return to intense drought conditions, extreme temperatures struck New Mexico in 2011. A deep freeze in early February followed by an extraordinarily late, extended hard freeze at the onset of the growing season was then succeeded by the warmest summer in the state's 117 year record. We present how water use by the replacement communities responds to droughts, flooding, and extreme temperatures, all of which are expected to increase in frequency, and speculate how these disturbances will affect native riparian ecosystems.

  11. Analysis of effects of meteorological factors on dengue incidence in Sri Lanka using time series data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Kensuke; Kumarendran, Balachandran; Mettananda, Sachith; Gunasekara, Deepa; Fujii, Yoshito; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical regions of eastern and South-eastern Asia, dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) outbreaks occur frequently. Previous studies indicate an association between meteorological variables and dengue incidence using time series analyses. The impacts of meteorological changes can affect dengue outbreak. However, difficulties in collecting detailed time series data in developing countries have led to common use of monthly data in most previous studies. In addition, time series analyses are often limited to one area because of the difficulty in collecting meteorological and dengue incidence data in multiple areas. To gain better understanding, we examined the effects of meteorological factors on dengue incidence in three geographically distinct areas (Ratnapura, Colombo, and Anuradhapura) of Sri Lanka by time series analysis of weekly data. The weekly average maximum temperature and total rainfall and the total number of dengue cases from 2005 to 2011 (7 years) were used as time series data in this study. Subsequently, time series analyses were performed on the basis of ordinary least squares regression analysis followed by the vector autoregressive model (VAR). In conclusion, weekly average maximum temperatures and the weekly total rainfall did not significantly affect dengue incidence in three geographically different areas of Sri Lanka. However, the weekly total rainfall slightly influenced dengue incidence in the cities of Colombo and Anuradhapura.

  12. Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Groundwater Drought and Its Response to Meteorological Drought in Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the temporal and spatial variations of groundwater drought using a Standardized Groundwater Level Index (SGI were analyzed based on 40 monthly groundwater level observation wells from 1989 to 2012 in Jiangsu Province, China. Meteorological drought, calculated by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, was also included to reveal its propagation and impact on the groundwater drought process. Results showed that the southern region of Jiangsu faced more frequent groundwater droughts and lower intensity, while the northern region faced less frequent groundwater drought with higher intensity. Furthermore, the cross-correlation between the spatial average of SGI and SPI for SPI accumulation periods of q = 1 to 12 was computed. The relationship between SGI and SPI varied in different regions. Detailed analysis of the characteristics of groundwater and meteorological drought for each region showed that meteorological droughts happened more frequently than groundwater drought in Jiangsu Province during the study period, while the mean duration and mean magnitude of groundwater droughts were longer and larger than those of meteorological droughts. It is expected that this study will provide useful information for drought monitoring and mitigation in Jiangsu and similar areas.

  13. Characteristics of the Regional Meteorological Drought Events in Southwest China During 1960-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yunjie; REN Fumin; LI Yiping; WANG Pengling; YAN Hongming

    2014-01-01

    An objective identifi cation technique for regional extreme events (OITREE) and the daily composite-drought index (CI) at 101 stations in Southwest China (including Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Chongqing) are used to detect regional meteorological drought events between 1960 and 2010. Values of the parameters of the OITREE method are determined. A total of 87 drought events are identifi ed, including 9 extreme events. The 2009-2010 drought is the most serious in Southwest China during the past 50 years. The regional meteorological drought events during 1960-2010 generally last for 10-80 days, with the longest being 231 days. Droughts are more common from November to next April, and less common in the remaining months. Droughts occur more often and with greater intensity in Yunnan and southern Sichuan than in other parts of Southwest China. Strong (extreme and severe) regional meteorological drought events can be divided into fi ve types. The southern type has occurred most frequently, and Yunnan is the area most frequently stricken by extreme and severe drought events. The regional meteorological drought events in Southwest China have increased in both frequency and intensity over the study period, and the main reason appears to be a signifi cant decrease in precipitation over this region, but a simultaneous increase in temperature also contributes.

  14. Meteorological factors and timing of the initiating event of human parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Emmet; Lim, Courtney; Dobrez, Deborah; Adams, Marci G; Noble, William

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether meteorological factors are associated with the timing of either onset of labor with intact membranes or rupture of membranes prior to labor-together referred to as 'the initiating event' of parturition. All patients delivering at Evanston Hospital after spontaneous labor or rupture of membranes at ≥20 weeks of gestation over a 6-month period were studied. Logistic regression models of the initiating event of parturition using clinical variables (maternal age, gestational age, parity, multiple gestation and intrauterine infection) with and without the addition of meteorological variables (barometric pressure, temperature and humidity) were compared. A total of 1,088 patients met the inclusion criteria. Gestational age, multiple gestation and chorioamnionitis were associated with timing of initiation of parturition (P < 0.01). The addition of meteorological to clinical variables generated a statistically significant improvement in prediction of the initiating event; however, the magnitude of this improvement was small (less than 2% difference in receiver-operating characteristic score). These observations held regardless of parity, fetal number and gestational age. Meteorological factors are associated with the timing of parturition, but the magnitude of this association is small.

  15. Meteorological factors and timing of the initiating event of human parturition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Emmet; Lim, Courtney; Dobrez, Deborah; Adams, Marci G.; Noble, William

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether meteorological factors are associated with the timing of either onset of labor with intact membranes or rupture of membranes prior to labor—together referred to as `the initiating event' of parturition. All patients delivering at Evanston Hospital after spontaneous labor or rupture of membranes at ≥20 weeks of gestation over a 6-month period were studied. Logistic regression models of the initiating event of parturition using clinical variables (maternal age, gestational age, parity, multiple gestation and intrauterine infection) with and without the addition of meteorological variables (barometric pressure, temperature and humidity) were compared. A total of 1,088 patients met the inclusion criteria. Gestational age, multiple gestation and chorioamnionitis were associated with timing of initiation of parturition ( P < 0.01). The addition of meteorological to clinical variables generated a statistically significant improvement in prediction of the initiating event; however, the magnitude of this improvement was small (less than 2% difference in receiver-operating characteristic score). These observations held regardless of parity, fetal number and gestational age. Meteorological factors are associated with the timing of parturition, but the magnitude of this association is small.

  16. Arctic hydrology and meteorology. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, D.L.

    1990-12-31

    During 1990, we have continued our meteorological and hydrologic data collection in support of our process-oriented research. The six years of data collected to data is unique in its scope and continuity in a North Hemisphere Arctic setting. This valuable data base has allowed us to further our understanding of the interconnections and interactions between the atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere. The increased understanding of the heat and mass transfer processes has allowed us to increase our model-oriented research efforts.

  17. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bange, Jens

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. Good...... of the Funjet, a pusher airplane of 580g total weight, now equipped with a Pitot tube, Tübingen University in conjunction with the Technical University of Braunschweig flies the Carolo, a 2m wide two prop model with a 5-hole pitot tube on the nose, and Aalborg University will use a helicopter for their part...

  18. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bange, Jens

    2011-01-01

    of them are situated in quite homogeneous and gentle terrain. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used as either an extension of current masts or to build a network of very high 'masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In comparison to a multitude of masts......This paper describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. Good...

  19. Sound propagation in areas with a complex meteorology: a meteorological-acoustical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Berg, F. van den

    2008-01-01

    Long range sound propagation is largely affected by the vertical wind and temperature gradients. In areas where the meteorology can be complex, such as coastal areas, islands, and lake districts, the gradients usually vary as a function of the horizontal distance. As a result the sound propagation

  20. Sound propagation in areas with a complex meteorology: a meteorological-acoustical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Berg, F. van den

    2008-01-01

    Long range sound propagation is largely affected by the vertical wind and temperature gradients. In areas where the meteorology can be complex, such as coastal areas, islands, and lake districts, the gradients usually vary as a function of the horizontal distance. As a result the sound propagation i

  1. AERCOARE: An overwater meteorological preprocessor for AERMOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Herman; Elleman, Rob; Wolvovsky, Eric; Richmond, Ken; Paumier, James

    2016-11-01

    AERCOARE is a meteorological data preprocessor for the American Meteorological Society and U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regulatory Model (AERMOD). AERCOARE includes algorithms developed during the Coupled-Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) to predict surface energy fluxes and stability from routine overwater measurements. The COARE algorithm is described and the implementation in AERCOARE is presented. Model performance for the combined AERCOARE-AERMOD modeling approach was evaluated against tracer measurements from four overwater field studies. Relatively better model performance was found when lateral turbulence measurements were available and when several key input variables to AERMOD were constrained. Namely, requiring the mixed layer height to be greater than 25 m and not allowing the Monin Obukhov length to be less than 5 m improved model performance in low wind speed stable conditions. Several options for low wind speed dispersion in AERMOD also affected the model performance results. Model performance for the combined AERCOARE-AERMOD modeling approach was found to be comparable to the current EPA regulatory Offshore Coastal Model (OCD) for the same tracer studies. AERCOARE-AERMOD predictions were also compared to simulations using the California Puff-Advection Model (CALPUFF) that also includes the COARE algorithm. Many model performance measures were found to be similar, but CALPUFF had significantly less scatter and better performance for one of the four field studies. For many offshore regulatory applications, the combined AERCOARE-AERMOD modeling approach was found to be a viable alternative to OCD the currently recommended model.

  2. Correlations between meteorological parameters and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Rakesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There exists a north-south pattern to the distribution of prostate cancer in the U.S., with the north having higher rates than the south. The current hypothesis for the spatial pattern of this disease is low vitamin D levels in individuals living at northerly latitudes; however, this explanation only partially explains the spatial distribution in the incidence of this cancer. Using a U.S. county-level ecological study design, we provide evidence that other meteorological parameters further explain the variation in prostate cancer across the U.S. Results In general, the colder the temperature and the drier the climate in a county, the higher the incidence of prostate cancer, even after controlling for shortwave radiation, age, race, snowfall, premature mortality from heart disease, unemployment rate, and pesticide use. Further, in counties with high average annual snowfall (>75 cm/yr the amount of land used to grow crops (a proxy for pesticide use was positively correlated with the incidence of prostate cancer. Conclusion The trends found in this USA study suggest prostate cancer may be partially correlated with meteorological factors. The patterns observed were consistent with what we would expect given the effects of climate on the deposition, absorption, and degradation of persistent organic pollutants including pesticides. Some of these pollutants are known endocrine disruptors and have been associated with prostate cancer.

  3. The solar eclipse: a natural meteorological experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R Giles; Hanna, Edward

    2016-09-28

    A solar eclipse provides a well-characterized reduction in solar radiation, of calculable amount and duration. This captivating natural astronomical phenomenon is ideally suited to science outreach activities, but the predictability of the change in solar radiation also provides unusual conditions for assessing the atmospheric response to a known stimulus. Modern automatic observing networks used for weather forecasting and atmospheric research have dense spatial coverage, so the quantitative meteorological responses to an eclipse can now be evaluated with excellent space and time resolution. Numerical models representing the atmosphere at high spatial resolution can also be used to predict eclipse-related changes and interpret the observations. Combining the models with measurements yields the elements of a controlled atmospheric experiment on a regional scale (10-1000 km), which is almost impossible to achieve by other means. This modern approach to 'eclipse meteorology' as identified here can ultimately improve weather prediction models and be used to plan for transient reductions in renewable electricity generation. During the 20 March 2015 eclipse, UK electrical energy demand increased by about 3 GWh (11 TJ) or about 4%, alongside reductions in the wind and photovoltaic electrical energy generation of 1.5 GWh (5.5 TJ).This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  4. Monthly energy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  5. Photos of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Congratulations to Adele Rimoldi, ATLAS physicist from Pavia, who ran her first marathon in New York last month. Adele completed the 42.2 km in a time of 4:49:19. She sure makes it look easy!!! The ATLAS pixel service quarter panel in SR1

  6. Monthly Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  7. Records as Genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, Catherine F.

    1993-01-01

    Reworks the concept of genre from rhetorical, dialectical, and dialogic perspectives. Redefines genre as a stabilized-for-now site of social and ideological action. Applies this definition (in a six-month ethnographic study) to a specific literary practice--medical record keeping--evolving in a specific context--a veterinary college. (SR)

  8. Japan Meteorological Agency/Meteorological Research Institute-Coupled Prediction System version 1 (JMA/MRI-CPS1) for operational seasonal forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Yuhei; Yasuda, Tamaki; Fujii, Yosuke; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Soga, Taizo; Mori, Hirotoshi; Hirai, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Ichiro; Sato, Hitoshi; Shimpo, Akihiko; Kamachi, Masafumi; Ose, Tomoaki

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the operational seasonal prediction system of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the Japan Meteorological Agency/Meteorological Research Institute-Coupled Prediction System version 1 (JMA/MRI-CPS1), which was in operation at JMA during the period between February 2010 and May 2015. The predictive skill of the system was assessed with a set of retrospective seasonal predictions (reforecasts) covering 30 years (1981-2010). JMA/MRI-CPS1 showed reasonable predictive skill for the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, comparable to the skills of other state-of-the-art systems. The one-tiered approach adopted in JMA/MRI-CPS1 improved its overall predictive skills for atmospheric predictions over those of the two-tiered approach of the previous uncoupled system. For 3-month predictions with a 1-month lead, JMA/MRI-CPS1 showed statistically significant skills in predicting 500-hPa geopotential height and 2-m temperature in East Asia in most seasons; thus, it is capable of providing skillful seasonal predictions for that region. Furthermore, JMA/MRI-CPS1 was superior overall to the previous system for atmospheric predictions with longer (4-month) lead times. In particular, JMA/MRI-CPS1 was much better able to predict the Asian Summer Monsoon than the previous two-tiered system. This enhanced performance was attributed to the system's ability to represent atmosphere-ocean coupled variability over the Indian Ocean and the western North Pacific from boreal winter to summer following winter El Niño events, which in turn influences the East Asian summer climate through the Pacific-Japan teleconnection pattern. These substantial improvements obtained by using an atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model underpin its success in providing more skillful seasonal forecasts on an operational basis.

  9. Hydrologic, water-quality, and meteorologic data from selected sites in the Upper Catawba River Basin, North Carolina, January 1993 through March 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaynes, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrologic, water-quality, and meteorologic data were collected from January 1993 through March 1994 as part of a water-quality investigation of the Upper Catawba River Basin, North Carolina. Specific objectives of the investigation were to characterize the water quality of Rhodhiss Lake, Lake Hickory, and three tributary streams, and to calibrate hydrodynamic water-quality models for the two reservoirs. Sampling locations included 11 sites in Rhodhiss Lake, 14 sites in Lake Hickory, and 3 tributary sites. Tributary sites were located at Lower Creek upstream from Rhodhiss Lake and at Upper Little River and Middle Little River upstream from Lake Hickory. During 21 sampling visits, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentration, and water transparency were measured at all sampling locations. Water samples were collected for analysis of biochemical oxygen demand, fecal coliform bacteria, hardness, alkalinity, total and volatile suspended solids, suspended sediment, nutrients, total organic carbon, chlorophyll, iron, calcium, and magnesium from three sites in each reservoir and from the three tributary sites. Chemical and particle-size analyses of bottom material from Rhodhiss Lake and Lake Hickory were performed once during the study. At selected locations, automated instruments recorded water level, streamflow, water temperature, solar radiation, and air temperature at 15-minute intervals throughout the study. Hydrologic data presented in the report include monthly water-level statistics and daily mean values of discharge. Diagrams, tables, and statistical summaries of water-quality data are provided. Meteorologic data in the report include monthly precipitation, and daily mean values of solar radiation and air temperature.

  10. The influence of meteorological conditions on the start of the hazel (Corylus L. pollen season in Lublin, 2001-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Piotrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Early spring flowering plants show large differences in the start dates of pollen emission due to high weather variability in the preceding period. In the present study, the influence of meteorological conditions on the start date of the hazel pollen season in Lublin in the years 2001-2009 was investigated. The aeropalynological study was carried out by the volumetric method using a Lanzoni VPPS 2000 sampler. The start of the hazel pollen season was determined using the 98% method. The differences in particular years of the study were over two months. Hazel pollen grains were recorded earliest in 2007, since from 13 January, and latest in 2003, from 18 March. It was found that accumulated 5-day mean temperature before the season affects the onset of the pollen season. As a result of multiple regression analysis, a statistical model was derived, which shows with great accuracy the relationship of the start of the hazel pollen season with total precipitation and the number of winter days.

  11. P Division monthly report, January 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E.P.

    1950-02-06

    This progress report discusses the activities of the P Division for the month of January 1950. The B, D, F and H pilan operated throughout the month except for outages listed under Area Activities. Power levels were as follow: B pile -- 275 megawatts (MW) D pile -- 305 MW, F pile -- 275 MW increased to 305 MW during the month, and H pile -- 275 MW increased to 330 MW during the month. The piles operated with a time operated'' efficiency of 88.8%. A total of 53.07 tons of metal at an average of 91.2% of the current goal concentration was discharged from the piles during the month. A new record canning yield of 93.9% for 4 inch canned slugs was established during January.

  12. Distributed modeling of monthly air temperatures over the rugged terrain of the Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yan; QIU XinFa; HE YongJian; SHI GuoPing; LIU ChangMing

    2009-01-01

    Our analyses of the monthly mean air temperature of meteorological stations show that altitude, global solar radiation and surface effective radiation have a significant impact on air temperature. We set up a physically-based empirical model for monthly air temperature simulation. Combined the proposed model with the distributed modeling results of global solar radiation and routine meteorological ob-servation data, we also developed a method for the distributed simulation of monthly sir temperatures over rugged terrain. Spatial distribution maps are generated at a resolution of 1 km×1 km for the monthly mean, the monthly mean maximum and the monthly mean minimum air temperatures for the Yellow River Basin. Analysis shows that the simulation results reflect to a considerable extent the macro and local distribution characteristics of air temperature. Cross-validation shows that the pro-posed model displays good stability with mean absolute bias errors of 0.19℃-0.35℃. Tests carried out on local meteorological station data and case year data show that the model has good spatial and temporal simulation capacity. The proposed model solely uses routine meteorological data and can be applied easily to other regions.

  13. Distributed modeling of monthly air temperatures over the rugged terrain of the Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Our analyses of the monthly mean air temperature of meteorological stations show that altitude,global solar radiation and surface effective radiation have a significant impact on air temperature.We set up a physically-based empirical model for monthly air temperature simulation.Combined the proposed model with the distributed modeling results of global solar radiation and routine meteorological observation data,we also developed a method for the distributed simulation of monthly air temperatures over rugged terrain.Spatial distribution maps are generated at a resolution of 1 km×1 km for the monthly mean,the monthly mean maximum and the monthly mean minimum air temperatures for the Yellow River Basin.Analysis shows that the simulation results reflect to a considerable extent the macro and local distribution characteristics of air temperature.Cross-validation shows that the proposed model displays good stability with mean absolute bias errors of 0.19℃-0.35℃.Tests carried out on local meteorological station data and case year data show that the model has good spatial and temporal simulation capacity.The proposed model solely uses routine meteorological data and can be applied easily to other regions.

  14. Application of WRF/Chem-MADRID and WRF/Polyphemus in Europe – Part 1: Model description, evaluation of meteorological predictions, and aerosol–meteorology interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive model evaluation and comparison of two 3-D air quality modeling systems (i.e., the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF/Polyphemus and WRF with chemistry and the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization, and Dissolution (MADRID (WRF/Chem-MADRID are conducted over Western Europe. Part 1 describes the background information for the model comparison and simulation design, the application of WRF for January and July 2001 over triple-nested domains in Western Europe at three horizontal grid resolutions: 0.5°, 0.125°, and 0.025°, and the effect of aerosol/meteorology interactions on meteorological predictions. Nine simulated meteorological variables (i.e., downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes (SWDOWN and LWDOWN, outgoing longwave radiation flux (OLR, temperature at 2 m (T2, specific humidity at 2 m (Q2, relative humidity at 2 m (RH2, wind speed at 10 m (WS10, wind direction at 10 m (WD10, and precipitation (Precip are evaluated using available observations in terms of spatial distribution, domainwide daily and site-specific hourly variations, and domainwide performance statistics. The vertical profiles of temperature, dew points, and wind speed/direction are also evaluated using sounding data. WRF demonstrates its capability in capturing diurnal/seasonal variations and spatial gradients and vertical profiles of major meteorological variables. While the domainwide performance of LWDOWN, OLR, T2, Q2, and RH2 at all three grid resolutions is satisfactory overall, large positive or negative biases occur in SWDOWN, WS10, and Precip even at 0.125° or 0.025° in both months and in WD10 in January. In addition, discrepancies between simulations and observations exist in T2, Q2, WS10, and Precip at mountain/high altitude sites and large urban center sites in both months, in particular, during snow events or thunderstorms. These results indicate the model's difficulty in capturing meteorological variables in complex

  15. 125 years German Meteorological Association; 125 Jahre Deutsche Meteorologische Gesellschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetzlaff, Gerd [Leipzig Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Meteorologie (LIM); Luedecke, Cornelia [International Commission on History of Meteorology, Muenchen (Germany); Behr, Hein Dieter (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    The book includes lectures on the historical development of the German Meteorological Association (Deutsche Meteorologische Gesellschaft DMG) from the year of foundation 1875 until 2005, taking into account the meteorological association in Western Germany (DMG) and in the German Democratic Republic (MG) after World War II, the reunion of DMG and DM. One of the contributions describes the history of the meteorological journal (Meteorologische Zeitschrift).

  16. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Baby's Growth: 9 Months Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 9 Months Your Child's Checkup: 9 Months Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Contact ...

  17. Homogeneity of monthly precipitation series from 1932 to 2010 in the Souss Massa Region-Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abahous, Houria; Ronchail, Josyane; Sifeddine, Abdelfattah; Kenny, Lahcen; Bouchaou, Lhoussaine

    2017-04-01

    Water resources are vulnerable to precipitation fluctuations, especially in arid area such as the Souss-Massa region. Therefore, the analysis and the simulation of the regional rainfall characteristics at decadal scale are of great importance. The availability of long-term time series is often limited by their quality. A network of local meteorological stations recording monthly precipitations from 1932 to 2010 is provided by the Hydraulic basin of Souss Massa Agency. A dataset of 19 selected stations is undergoing an interative process of quality control and homogeneity assessment using ProclimDB/Anclim and Homer softwares. Suspicious monthly data are identified with a combination of criterions. We analyse the standardized precipitation index to better distinguish real climate events from erroneous data in the analyzed series. Statistically significant annual change-points are detected with both absolute and relative methods by using a criterion of validation. The temporal distribution of outliers shows an annual cycle and a decrease of their occurence since the eighties. We also assess the year of 1973 as a change point related to climate in Western High Atlas Mountains stations.

  18. Monitoring Forsmark. Meteorological monitoring at Forsmark, January-December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Cari; Jones, Joergen (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    In the Forsmark area, SKB's meteorological monitoring started in 2003 at the sites Storskaeret and Hoegmasten. However, since July 1, 2007 measurements are only performed at Hoegmasten. Measured and calculated parameters at Hoegmasten are precipitation and corrected precipitation, air temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, air humidity, global radiation and potential evapotranspiration. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, has been responsible for planning and design, as well as for the operation of the stations used for meteorological monitoring. In general, the quality of the meteorological measurements during the period concerned, starting January 1, 2010, and ending December 31, 2010, has shown to be good

  19. Promote the Sustainable Development of Meteorological Instrument through Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Zhonghuan TIG Co.,Ltd.(formerly Tianjin Meteorological Instrument Factory) is a scientific research and production base specialized in the R&D,manufacturing of a variety of meteorological and environmental monitoring instrumentation and integration of relevant systems and service with the strong support of military meteorological system and the China Meteorological Administration.By paying attention to technological progress,the company has focused on the development of diversified,systematic,intelligent and universal sensors,the integration of high-end systems,and fine processing.

  20. Prediction of Dengue Outbreaks Based on Disease Surveillance and Meteorological Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Lia Ramadona

    Full Text Available Research is needed to create early warnings of dengue outbreaks to inform stakeholders and control the disease. This analysis composes of a comparative set of prediction models including only meteorological variables; only lag variables of disease surveillance; as well as combinations of meteorological and lag disease surveillance variables. Generalized linear regression models were used to fit relationships between the predictor variables and the dengue surveillance data as outcome variable on the basis of data from 2001 to 2010. Data from 2011 to 2013 were used for external validation purposed of prediction accuracy of the model. Model fit were evaluated based on prediction performance in terms of detecting epidemics, and for number of predicted cases according to RMSE and SRMSE, as well as AIC. An optimal combination of meteorology and autoregressive lag terms of dengue counts in the past were identified best in predicting dengue incidence and the occurrence of dengue epidemics. Past data on disease surveillance, as predictor alone, visually gave reasonably accurate results for outbreak periods, but not for non-outbreaks periods. A combination of surveillance and meteorological data including lag patterns up to a few years in the past showed most predictive of dengue incidence and occurrence in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The external validation showed poorer results than the internal validation, but still showed skill in detecting outbreaks up to two months ahead. Prior studies support the fact that past meteorology and surveillance data can be predictive of dengue. However, to a less extent has prior research shown how the longer-term past disease incidence data, up to years, can play a role in predicting outbreaks in the coming years, possibly indicating cross-immunity status of the population.

  1. Prediction of Dengue Outbreaks Based on Disease Surveillance and Meteorological Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadona, Aditya Lia; Lazuardi, Lutfan; Hii, Yien Ling; Holmner, Åsa; Kusnanto, Hari; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    Research is needed to create early warnings of dengue outbreaks to inform stakeholders and control the disease. This analysis composes of a comparative set of prediction models including only meteorological variables; only lag variables of disease surveillance; as well as combinations of meteorological and lag disease surveillance variables. Generalized linear regression models were used to fit relationships between the predictor variables and the dengue surveillance data as outcome variable on the basis of data from 2001 to 2010. Data from 2011 to 2013 were used for external validation purposed of prediction accuracy of the model. Model fit were evaluated based on prediction performance in terms of detecting epidemics, and for number of predicted cases according to RMSE and SRMSE, as well as AIC. An optimal combination of meteorology and autoregressive lag terms of dengue counts in the past were identified best in predicting dengue incidence and the occurrence of dengue epidemics. Past data on disease surveillance, as predictor alone, visually gave reasonably accurate results for outbreak periods, but not for non-outbreaks periods. A combination of surveillance and meteorological data including lag patterns up to a few years in the past showed most predictive of dengue incidence and occurrence in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The external validation showed poorer results than the internal validation, but still showed skill in detecting outbreaks up to two months ahead. Prior studies support the fact that past meteorology and surveillance data can be predictive of dengue. However, to a less extent has prior research shown how the longer-term past disease incidence data, up to years, can play a role in predicting outbreaks in the coming years, possibly indicating cross-immunity status of the population.

  2. Statistical analysis of aerosol species, trace gasses, and meteorology in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binaku, Katrina; O'Brien, Timothy; Schmeling, Martina; Fosco, Tinamarie

    2013-09-01

    Both canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to atmospheric aerosol and trace gas concentrations and meteorological data collected in Chicago during the summer months of 2002, 2003, and 2004. Concentrations of ammonium, calcium, nitrate, sulfate, and oxalate particulate matter, as well as, meteorological parameters temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and humidity were subjected to CCA and PCA. Ozone and nitrogen oxide mixing ratios were also included in the data set. The purpose of statistical analysis was to determine the extent of existing linear relationship(s), or lack thereof, between meteorological parameters and pollutant concentrations in addition to reducing dimensionality of the original data to determine sources of pollutants. In CCA, the first three canonical variate pairs derived were statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Canonical correlation between the first canonical variate pair was 0.821, while correlations of the second and third canonical variate pairs were 0.562 and 0.461, respectively. The first canonical variate pair indicated that increasing temperatures resulted in high ozone mixing ratios, while the second canonical variate pair showed wind speed and humidity's influence on local ammonium concentrations. No new information was uncovered in the third variate pair. Canonical loadings were also interpreted for information regarding relationships between data sets. Four principal components (PCs), expressing 77.0 % of original data variance, were derived in PCA. Interpretation of PCs suggested significant production and/or transport of secondary aerosols in the region (PC1). Furthermore, photochemical production of ozone and wind speed's influence on pollutants were expressed (PC2) along with overall measure of local meteorology (PC3). In summary, CCA and PCA results combined were successful in uncovering linear relationships between meteorology and air pollutants in Chicago and

  3. Characterising droughts in Central America with uncertain hydro-meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada Montano, B.; Westerberg, I.; Wetterhall, F.; Hidalgo, H. G.; Halldin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts studies are scarce in Central America, a region frequently affected by droughts that cause significant socio-economic and environmental problems. Drought characterisation is important for water management and planning and can be done with the help of drought indices. Many indices have been developed in the last decades but their ability to suitably characterise droughts depends on the region of application. In Central America, comprehensive and high-quality observational networks of meteorological and hydrological data are not available. This limits the choice of drought indices and denotes the need to evaluate the quality of the data used in their calculation. This paper aimed to find which combination(s) of drought index and meteorological database are most suitable for characterising droughts in Central America. The drought indices evaluated were the standardised precipitation index (SPI), deciles (DI), the standardised precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and the effective drought index (EDI). These were calculated using precipitation data from the Climate Hazards Group Infra-Red Precipitation with station (CHIRPS), CRN073, the Climate Research Unit (CRU), ERA-Interim and station databases, and temperature data from the CRU database. All the indices were calculated at 1-, 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-month accumulation times. As a first step, the large-scale meteorological precipitation datasets were compared to have an overview of the level of agreement between them and find possible quality problems. Then, the performance of all the combinations of drought indices and meteorological datasets were evaluated against independent river discharge data, in form of the standardised streamflow index (SSI). Results revealed the large disagreement between the precipitation datasets; we found the selection of database to be more important than the selection of drought index. We found that the best combinations of meteorological drought index and database were

  4. Monthly streamflow forecasting in the Rhine basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Simon; Rössler, Ole; Weingartner, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    Forecasting seasonal streamflow of the Rhine river is of societal relevance as the Rhine is an important water way and water resource in Western Europe. The present study investigates the predictability of monthly mean streamflow at lead times of zero, one, and two months with the focus on potential benefits by the integration of seasonal climate predictions. Specifically, we use seasonal predictions of precipitation and surface air temperature released by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for a regression analysis. In order to disentangle forecast uncertainty, the 'Reverse Ensemble Streamflow Prediction' framework is adapted here to the context of regression: By using appropriate subsets of predictors the regression model is constrained to either the initial conditions, the meteorological forcing, or both. An operational application is mimicked by equipping the model with the seasonal climate predictions provided by ECMWF. Finally, to mitigate the spatial aggregation of the meteorological fields the model is also applied at the subcatchment scale, and the resulting predictions are combined afterwards. The hindcast experiment is carried out for the period 1982-2011 in cross validation mode at two gauging stations, namely the Rhine at Lobith and Basel. The results show that monthly forecasts are skillful with respect to climatology only at zero lead time. In addition, at zero lead time the integration of seasonal climate predictions decreases the mean absolute error by 5 to 10 percentage compared to forecasts which are solely based on initial conditions. This reduction most likely is induced by the seasonal prediction of precipitation and not air temperature. The study is completed by bench marking the regression model with runoff simulations from ECMWFs seasonal forecast system. By simply using basin averages followed by a linear bias correction, these runoff simulations translate well to monthly streamflow. Though the regression model

  5. Satellite Meteorology Education & Training Resources from COMET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, W. E.; Dills, P. N.; Weingroff, M.; Lee, T. F.

    2012-12-01

    The COMET® Program (www.comet.ucar.edu) receives funding from NOAA NESDIS as well as EUMETSAT and the Meteorological Service of Canada to support education and training in satellite meteorology. These partnerships enable COMET to create educational materials of global interest on geostationary and polar-orbiting remote sensing platforms. These materials focus on the capabilities and applications of current and next-generation satellites and their relevance to operational forecasters and other user communities. By partnering with experts from the Naval Research Laboratory, NOAA-NESDIS and its Cooperative Institutes, Meteorological Service of Canada, EUMETSAT, and other user communities, COMET stimulates greater use of satellite data observations and products. This presentation provides an overview of COMET's recent satellite education efforts in the area of polar orbiting satellites. COMET has a new module on Suomi NPP, which describes the satellite system and discusses the improvements that it is bringing to forecasting, numerical weather prediction, and environmental monitoring. COMET has also published an updated version of its module on the VIIRS instrument. "Imaging with VIIRS: A Convergence of Technologies and Experience, 2nd Edition" covers the instrument's enhanced capabilities by examining the systems that contributed to its development. Special attention is paid to the Day/Night Visible channel as VIIRS is the first instrument on a civilian satellite to image atmospheric and terrestrial features with and without moonlight. An upcoming module will exclusively focus on nighttime imaging with the VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB). "Applications of the VIIRS Day-Night Band" will introduce the capabilities of DNB imagery to a wide audience ranging from forecasters and emergency managers to wildfire fighters and oceanographers. DNB products will be compared to traditional satellite products made from infrared data, including the "fog" product. Users will learn how DNB

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  8. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  9. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  10. U.S East Coast Rig Instrumentation Program - measured and observed oceanographic and meteorological data from rigs operating in the Baltimore Canyon OCS area from 01 September 1978 to 30 April 1979 (NODC Accession 7900288)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The oceanographic-meteorological data were collected during the months of September 1978 to April 1979 by the Baltimore Canyon Operators who are participants in the...

  11. Meteorological Influences on the Seasonality of Lyme Disease in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean M.; Eisen, Rebecca J.; Monaghan, Andrew; Mead, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi infection) is the most common vector-transmitted disease in the United States. The majority of human Lyme disease (LD) cases occur in the summer months, but the timing of the peak occurrence varies geographically and from year to year. We calculated the beginning, peak, end, and duration of the main LD season in 12 highly endemic states from 1992 to 2007 and then examined the association between the timing of these seasonal variables and several meteorological variables. An earlier beginning to the LD season was positively associated with higher cumulative growing degree days through Week 20, lower cumulative precipitation, a lower saturation deficit, and proximity to the Atlantic coast. The timing of the peak and duration of the LD season were also associated with cumulative growing degree days, saturation deficit, and cumulative precipitation, but no meteorological predictors adequately explained the timing of the end of the LD season. PMID:24470565

  12. A study of meteorological variables in some extreme environments via cross correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Kuri, L.; McKay, C. P.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.

    Some of us have been studying soils in the Atacama Desert, Chile and in Pico de Orizaba, Mexico. The Atacama, is an extreme, arid, temperate desert that extends across 1000 km with monthly mean air temperatures between 16 to 14°C and is remarkably uniform throughout the year (±3°C). Pico de Orizaba (19° N) is a mountain that possesses a glacier and has tropical alpine environments. Both of such environments are of interest as models for Mars. Meteorological data for the Yungay area of the Atacama Desert, as well as meteorological data of the Northern and Southern faces of Pico de Orizaba have been collected. Both sets of data were analyzed using the cross correlation technique of multivariate time series. In this report we describe some of the patterns found for these statistics.

  13. 20 CFR 226.63 - Determining monthly compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining monthly compensation. 226.63... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.63 Determining monthly compensation. (a) Based on yearly compensation. If Board records do...

  14. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable: • Winds: 10 meters • Temperature and Relative Humidity: 2 meters • Barometric Pressure: 1 meter. Depending upon the geographical location, different models and types of sensors may be used to measure the core variables due to the conditions experienced at those locations. Most sites have additional sensors that measure other variables that are unique to that site or are well suited for the climate of the location but not at others.

  15. Meteorología y clima

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcón Jordán, Marta; Casas Castillo, M. del Carmen

    1999-01-01

    Este libro constituye una introducción al estudio de la atmósfera en los campos de la meteorología y la climatología. Se ha concebido especialmente como herramienta de apoyo para los estudiantes de ciencias y tecnología que inician los estudios de estos temas. El libro incorpora un programa informático de simulación del cambio climático. En él se exponen las características generales de la atmósfera, su estructura física y la composición química y también se hace una introducción al proble...

  16. Robert Recorde

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The 16th-Century intellectual Robert Recorde is chiefly remembered for introducing the equals sign into algebra, yet the greater significance and broader scope of his work is often overlooked. This book presents an authoritative and in-depth analysis of the man, his achievements and his historical importance. This scholarly yet accessible work examines the latest evidence on all aspects of Recorde's life, throwing new light on a character deserving of greater recognition. Topics and features: presents a concise chronology of Recorde's life; examines his published works; describes Recorde's pro

  17. Effects of meteorological elements on admission rates of cerebral infarction patients with hypertensive nephropathy from nine hospitals in Changchun city, Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bo-yu; ZHANG Yue; XU Chang-yan; JIA Bo-ting; WANG Chun-jie; JIA Zhan-jun; NI Hui

    2013-01-01

    Background It is well recognized that meteorological factors have important influences on the onset and development of many kinds of diseases.The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the meteorological elements on admission rates of cerebral infarction patients with hypertensive nephropathy at Changchun city,Jilin Province,northeast China.Methods A total of 763 medical records of inpatients from nine hospitals at Changchun city,during a period from April 6 to April 17 in 2010,were reviewed.These patients were admitted to hospitals due to the occurrence of cerebral infarction.The hypertensive nephropathy was evidenced with certain diagnosis of essential hypertension and hypertension-related kidney injuries.The cerebral infarction was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization (Stroke) standard.All the meteorological data were from practical monitoring records in Jilin Province Meteorological Observatory.The relationships between the epidemiological prevalence of cerebral infarction and meteorological variables were analyzed using the time series models of statistics.Results Compared with admission rates before the violent change in meteorological status (April 6 to April 17,2010),the number of admission patients suffering from cerebral infarction remarkably peaked on April 12.Such an increase was highly correlated with heavy precipitation,elevation of daily average relative humidity,and reduction of average daily air temperature.With the betterment of the meteorological conditions on April 17,the admission rates of cerebral infarction patients dropped to the same level as the dates before snowing (April 6 to April 11).Conclusions The meteorological changes are highly associated with the occurrence of cerebral infarction in patients with hypertensive renal injury in northeast China.This study also suggested that an intensive medical interference for those patients with hypertension-induced organ injuries is very necessary in preventing

  18. Effects of meteorological conditions on spore plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, M.; Levetin, E.

    2002-05-01

    Fungal spores are an ever-present component of the atmosphere, and have long been known to trigger asthma and hay fever symptoms in sensitive individuals. The atmosphere around Tulsa has been monitored for airborne spores and pollen with Burkard spore traps at several sampling stations. This study involved the examination of the hourly spore concentrations on days that had average daily concentrations near 50,000 spores/m3 or greater. Hourly concentrations of Cladosporium, Alternaria, Epicoccum, Curvularia, Pithomyces, Drechslera, smut spores, ascospores, basidiospores, other, and total spores were determined on 4 days at three sites and then correlated with hourly meteorological data including temperature, rainfall, wind speed, dew point, air pressure, and wind direction. On each of these days there was a spore plume, a phenomenon in which spore concentrations increased dramatically over a very short period of time. Spore plumes generally occurred near midday, and concentrations were seen to increase from lows around 20,000 total spores/m3 to highs over 170,000 total spores/m3 in 2 h. Multiple regression analysis of the data indicated that increases in temperature, dew point, and air pressure correlated with the increase in spore concentrations, but no single weather variable predicted the appearance of a spore plume. The proper combination of changes in these meteorological parameters that result in a spore plume may be due to the changing weather conditions associated with thunderstorms, as on 3 of the 4 days when spore plumes occurred there were thunderstorms later that evening. The occurrence of spore plumes may have clinical significance, because other studies have shown that sensitization to certain spore types can occur during exposure to high spore concentrations.

  19. Medical Meteorology: the Relationship between Meteorological Parameters (Humidity, Rainfall, Wind, and Temperature and Brucellosis in Zanjan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefali Abedini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis (Malta fever is a major contagious zoonotic disease, with economic and public health importance. Methods To assess the effect of meteorological (temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind and climate parameters on incidence of brucellosis, brucellosis distribution and meteorological zoning maps of Zanjan Province were prepared using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW and Kriging technique in Arc GIS medium. Zoning maps of mean temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind were compared to brucellosis distribution maps. Results: Correlation test showed no relationship between the mean number of patients with brucellosis and any of the four meteorological parameters. Conclusion: It seems that in Zanjan province there is no correlation between brucellosis and meteorological parameters.

  20. The relationships between air pollutants, meteorological parameters and concentration of airborne fungal spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka, E-mail: agofr@univ.szczecin.p [Department of Plant Taxonomy and Phytogeography, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Szczecin, Waska 13 Street, 71-415 Szczecin (Poland); Strzelczak, Agnieszka [Department of Food Process Engineering, Faculty of Food Science and Fisheries, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland); Wolski, Tomasz [Physical Oceanography Laboratory, University of Szczecin (Poland)

    2011-02-15

    Fungal spores are an important component of bioaerosol and also considered to act as indicator of the level of atmospheric bio-pollution. Therefore, better understanding of these phenomena demands a detailed survey of airborne particles. The objective of this study was to examine the dependence of two the most important allergenic taxa of airborne fungi - Alternaria and Cladosporium - on meteorological parameters and air pollutant concentrations during three consecutive years (2006-2008). This study is also an attempt to create artificial neural network (ANN) forecasting models useful in the prediction of aeroallergen abundance. There were statistically significant relationships between spore concentration and environmental parameters as well as pollutants, confirmed by the Spearman's correlation rank analysis and high performance of the ANN models obtained. The concentrations of Cladosporium and Alternaria spores can be predicted with quite good accuracy from meteorological conditions and air pollution recorded three days earlier. - ANN models predict airspore contents from weather conditions and air pollutant.

  1. Dynamic downscaling of the ERA-40 data using a mesoscale meteorological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. PAPADOPOULOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A sophisticated downscaling procedure that was applied to reproduce high resolution historical records of the atmospheric conditions across the Mediterranean region is presented in this paper. This was accomplished by the dynamical downscaling of the European Center for Medium-Range Forecasts ERA-40 reanalyses with the aid of the atmospheric model of the POSEIDON weather forecasting system. The full three dimensional atmospheric fields with 6 hours of temporal resolution and the surface meteorological parameters at hourly intervals were produced for a 10-year period (1995-2004. The meteorological variables are readily available at 10 km resolution and may constitute the atmospheric forcing to drive wave, ocean hydrodynamic and hydrological models, as well as the baseline data for environmental impact assessment studies. A brief overview of the procedure and a quantitative estimation of the benefit of the new dynamical downscaling dataset are presented.

  2. A Spatial Lattice Model Applied for Meteorological Visualization and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Lu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological information has obvious spatial-temporal characteristics. Although it is meaningful to employ a geographic information system (GIS to visualize and analyze the meteorological information for better identification and forecasting of meteorological weather so as to reduce the meteorological disaster loss, modeling meteorological information based on a GIS is still difficult because meteorological elements generally have no stable shape or clear boundary. To date, there are still few GIS models that can satisfy the requirements of both meteorological visualization and analysis. In this article, a spatial lattice model based on sampling particles is proposed to support both the representation and analysis of meteorological information. In this model, a spatial sampling particle is regarded as the basic element that contains the meteorological information, and the location where the particle is placed with the time mark. The location information is generally represented using a point. As these points can be extended to a surface in two dimensions and a voxel in three dimensions, if these surfaces and voxels can occupy a certain space, then this space can be represented using these spatial sampling particles with their point locations and meteorological information. In this case, the full meteorological space can then be represented by arranging numerous particles with their point locations in a certain structure and resolution, i.e., the spatial lattice model, and extended at a higher resolution when necessary. For practical use, the meteorological space is logically classified into three types of spaces, namely the projection surface space, curved surface space, and stereoscopic space, and application-oriented spatial lattice models with different organization forms of spatial sampling particles are designed to support the representation, inquiry, and analysis of meteorological information within the three types of surfaces. Cases

  3. Patients with Epididymo-Orchitis and Meteorological Impact in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jui-Ming; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Ho, Te-Wei; Chang, Fung-Wei; Pang, See-Tong

    2017-01-01

    Background. Epididymo-orchitis is a common infectious disease among men, especially men aged 20 to 39 years. The aim of this study was to analyze possible associations of various meteorological indicators on the incidence of epididymo-orchitis in Taiwan. Methods and Materials. This nationwide population-based study collected data on cases of epididymo-orchitis that were newly diagnosed from 2001 to 2013 in Taiwan. Monthly meteorological indicators, including average temperatures, humidity, rainfall, total rain days, and sunshine hours, were collected from the Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan. Data for a total of 7,233 patients with epididymo-orchitis were collected for this study. Results. The monthly incidence of epididymo-orchitis was positively correlated with temperature, rainfall, and sunshine hours. The average monthly temperature had a linear correlation with the incidence of epididymo-orchitis (ß = 0.11). The monthly average temperature is significantly related, with a positive linear correlation, to the incidence of epididymo-orchitis in Taiwan. Conclusion. This finding may constitute useful information in terms of helping physicians to distinguish between patients with epididymo-orchitis and testicular torsion in hot or cold weather.

  4. Patients with Epididymo-Orchitis and Meteorological Impact in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Ming Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epididymo-orchitis is a common infectious disease among men, especially men aged 20 to 39 years. The aim of this study was to analyze possible associations of various meteorological indicators on the incidence of epididymo-orchitis in Taiwan. Methods and Materials. This nationwide population-based study collected data on cases of epididymo-orchitis that were newly diagnosed from 2001 to 2013 in Taiwan. Monthly meteorological indicators, including average temperatures, humidity, rainfall, total rain days, and sunshine hours, were collected from the Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan. Data for a total of 7,233 patients with epididymo-orchitis were collected for this study. Results. The monthly incidence of epididymo-orchitis was positively correlated with temperature, rainfall, and sunshine hours. The average monthly temperature had a linear correlation with the incidence of epididymo-orchitis (ß=0.11. The monthly average temperature is significantly related, with a positive linear correlation, to the incidence of epididymo-orchitis in Taiwan. Conclusion. This finding may constitute useful information in terms of helping physicians to distinguish between patients with epididymo-orchitis and testicular torsion in hot or cold weather.

  5. Patients with Epididymo-Orchitis and Meteorological Impact in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jui-Ming; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Ho, Te-Wei; Chang, Fung-Wei; Pang, See-Tong; Hsu, Ren-Jun; Lin, Po-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Background. Epididymo-orchitis is a common infectious disease among men, especially men aged 20 to 39 years. The aim of this study was to analyze possible associations of various meteorological indicators on the incidence of epididymo-orchitis in Taiwan. Methods and Materials. This nationwide population-based study collected data on cases of epididymo-orchitis that were newly diagnosed from 2001 to 2013 in Taiwan. Monthly meteorological indicators, including average temperatures, humidity, rainfall, total rain days, and sunshine hours, were collected from the Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan. Data for a total of 7,233 patients with epididymo-orchitis were collected for this study. Results. The monthly incidence of epididymo-orchitis was positively correlated with temperature, rainfall, and sunshine hours. The average monthly temperature had a linear correlation with the incidence of epididymo-orchitis (ß = 0.11). The monthly average temperature is significantly related, with a positive linear correlation, to the incidence of epididymo-orchitis in Taiwan. Conclusion. This finding may constitute useful information in terms of helping physicians to distinguish between patients with epididymo-orchitis and testicular torsion in hot or cold weather.

  6. Associations of Meteorology with Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Preeclampsia, Preterm Birth and Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alyssa J.; Wu, Jun; Laurent, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between meteorology and pregnancy outcomes are not well known. This article reviews available evidence on the relationships between seasonality or meteorology and three major pregnancy outcomes: the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including preeclampsia, eclampsia and gestational hypertension), gestational length and birth weight. In total 35, 28 and 27 studies were identified for each of these outcomes. The risks of preeclampsia appear higher for women with conception during the warmest months, and delivery in the coldest months of the year. Delivery in the coldest months is also associated with a higher eclampsia risk. Patterns of decreased gestational lengths have been observed for births in winter, as well as summer months. Most analytical studies also report decreases in gestational lengths associated with heat. Birth weights are lower for deliveries occurring in winter and in summer months. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of barometric pressure on gestational length or the effects of temperature and sunshine exposure on birth weight, but these questions appear worth investigating further. Available results should encourage further etiological research aiming at enhancing our understanding of the relationships between meteorology and adverse pregnancy outcomes, ideally via harmonized multicentric studies. PMID:24362545

  7. Associations of meteorology with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review of preeclampsia, preterm birth and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alyssa J; Wu, Jun; Laurent, Olivier

    2013-12-20

    The relationships between meteorology and pregnancy outcomes are not well known. This article reviews available evidence on the relationships between seasonality or meteorology and three major pregnancy outcomes: the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including preeclampsia, eclampsia and gestational hypertension), gestational length and birth weight. In total 35, 28 and 27 studies were identified for each of these outcomes. The risks of preeclampsia appear higher for women with conception during the warmest months, and delivery in the coldest months of the year. Delivery in the coldest months is also associated with a higher eclampsia risk. Patterns of decreased gestational lengths have been observed for births in winter, as well as summer months. Most analytical studies also report decreases in gestational lengths associated with heat. Birth weights are lower for deliveries occurring in winter and in summer months. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of barometric pressure on gestational length or the effects of temperature and sunshine exposure on birth weight, but these questions appear worth investigating further. Available results should encourage further etiological research aiming at enhancing our understanding of the relationships between meteorology and adverse pregnancy outcomes, ideally via harmonized multicentric studies.

  8. Role of meteorology in seasonality of air pollution in megacity Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K; Gurjar, Bhola R

    2012-05-01

    The winters in megacity Delhi are harsh, smoggy, foggy, and highly polluted. The pollution levels are approximately two to three times those monitored in the summer months, and the severity is felt not only in the health department but also in the transportation department, with regular delays at airport operations and series of minor and major accidents across the road corridors. The impacts felt across the city are both manmade (due to the fuel burning) and natural (due to the meteorological setting), and it is hard to distinguish their respective proportions. Over the last decade, the city has gained from timely interventions to control pollution, and yet, the pollution levels are as bad as the previous year, especially for the fine particulates, the most harmful of the criteria pollutants, with a daily 2009 average of 80 to 100 μg/m(3). In this paper, the role of meteorology is studied using a Lagrangian model called Atmospheric Transport Modeling System in tracer mode to better understand the seasonality of pollution in Delhi. A clear conclusion is that irrespective of constant emissions over each month, the estimated tracer concentrations are invariably 40% to 80% higher in the winter months (November, December, and January) and 10% to 60% lower in the summer months (May, June, and July), when compared to annual average for that year. Along with monitoring and source apportionment studies, this paper presents a way to communicate complex physical characteristics of atmospheric modeling in simplistic manner and to further elaborate linkages between local meteorology and pollution.

  9. Meteorological factors associated with abundance of airborne fungal spores over natural vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Sharifa G.; Gilbert, Gregory S.

    2017-08-01

    The abundance of airborne fungal spores in agricultural and urban settings increases with greater air temperature, relative humidity, or precipitation. The same meteorological factors that affect temporal patterns in spore abundance in managed environments also vary spatially across natural habitats in association with differences in vegetation structure. Here we investigated how temporal and spatial variation in aerial spore abundance is affected by abiotic (weather) and biotic (vegetation) factors as a foundation for predicting how fungi may respond to changes in weather and land-use patterns. We measured the phenology of airborne fungal spores across a mosaic of naturally occurring vegetation types at different time scales to describe (1) how spore abundance changes over time, (2) which local meteorological variables are good predictors for airborne spore density, and (3) whether spore abundance differs across vegetation types. Using an air volumetric vacuum sampler, we collected spore samples at 3-h intervals over a 120-h period in a mixed-evergreen forest and coastal prairie to measure diurnal, nocturnal, and total airborne spore abundance across vegetation types. Spore samples were also collected at weekly and monthly intervals in mixed-evergreen forest, redwood forest, and maritime chaparral vegetation types from 12 field sites across two years. We found greater airborne spore densities during the wetter winter months compared to the drier summer months. Mean total spore abundance in the mixed-evergreen forest was twice than in the coastal prairie, but there were no significant differences in total airborne spore abundance among mixed-evergreen forest, redwood forest, and maritime chaparral vegetation types. Weekly and monthly peaks in airborne spore abundance corresponded with rain events and peaks in soil moisture. Overall, temporal patterns in meteorological factors were much more important in determining airborne fungal spore abundance than the

  10. Exploring hydro-meteorological drought patterns over the Greater Horn of Africa (1979-2014) using remote sensing and reanalysis products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awange, J. L.; Khandu; Schumacher, M.; Forootan, E.; Heck, B.

    2016-08-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns of hydrological droughts over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) are explored based on total water storage (TWS) changes derived from time-variable gravity field solutions of Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE, 2002-2014), together with those simulated by Modern Retrospective Analysis for Research Application (MERRA, 1980-2014). These hydrological extremes are then related to meteorological drought events estimated from observed monthly precipitation products of Global Precipitation Climatology Center (GPCC, 1979-2010) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, 1998-2014). The major focus of this contribution lies on the application of spatial Independent Component Analysis (sICA) to extract distinguished regions with similar rainfall and TWS with similar overall trend and seasonality. Rainfall and TWS are used to estimate Standard Precipitation Indices (SPIs) and Total Storage Deficit Indices (TSDIs), respectively that are employed to characterize frequency and intensity of hydro-meteorological droughts over GHA. Significant positive (negative) changes in monthly rainfall over Ethiopia (Sudan) between 2002 and 2010 leading to a significant increase in TWS over the central GHA region were noted in both MERRA and GRACE TWS (2002-2014). However, these trends were completely reversed in the long-term (1980-2010) records of rainfall (GPCC) and TWS (MERRA). The four independent hydrological sub-regions extracted based on the sICA (i.e., Lake Victoria Basin, Ethiopia-Sudanese border, South Sudan, and Tanzania) indicated fairly distinct temporal patterns that matched reasonably well between precipitation and TWS changes. While meteorological droughts were found to be consistent with most previous studies in all sub-regions, their impacts are clearly observed in the TWS changes resulting in multiple years of extreme hydrological droughts. Correlations between SPI and TSDI were found to be significant over Lake Victoria Basin, South

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  12. Meteorological Features at 6523 m of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) between 1 May and 22 July 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Aihong; REN Jiawen; QIN Xiang; JIANG Youyan

    2006-01-01

    Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), the highest mountain peak in the world, has little been studied extensively from a meteorological perspective, mostly because of the remoteness of the region and the resultant lack of meteorological data. An automatic weather station (AWS), the highest in the world, was set up on 27 April 2005 at the Ruopula Pass (6523 m asl) on the northern slope of Mt. Qomolangma by the team of integrated scientific expedition to Mt. Qomolangma. Here its meteorological characteristics were analyzed according to the 10-minute-averaged and 24-hour records of air temperature, relative humidity,air pressure and wind from 1 May to 22 July 2005. It is shown that at 6523 m of Mt. Qomolangma, these meteorological elements display very obvious diurnal variations, and the character of averaged diurnal variation is one-peak-and-one-vale for air temperature, one-vale for relative humidity, two-peak-and-two-vale for air pressure, and one-peak with day-night asymmetry for wind speed. In the 83 days,all the air temperature, relative humidity and air pressure increased with some different fluctuations,while wind speed decreased gradually and wind direction turned from north to south. The variations of relative humidity had great fluctuations and obvious local differences. Then the paper discusses the reason for the characters of diurnal and daily variations.Compared with the corresponding records in May 1960, 5-day-averaged maximums, minimums and diurnal variations of air temperature in May 2005 were apparently lower.

  13. Long-period fading in atmospherics during severe meteorological activity and associated solar geophysical phenomena at low latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Bhattacharya

    Full Text Available The records of VLF atmospherics over Calcutta and then over Kalyani (West Bengal during the torrential rainfall, caused by violent monsoon and post-monsoon depressions, exhibit distinct long-period fadings both at day and night. Interesting results obtained from an analysis of round-the-clock atmospherics data and associated meteorological parameters are reported in this paper. A possible correlation between the severe meteorological activity with the solar geophysical phenomena was studied. The results are indicative of an interesting sequence of solar-terrestrial events. A tentative conclusion is reached, suggesting an origin of the fading from atmospheric gravity waves generated in the centre of activity of the depressions concerned.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics · Lightning · Precipitation

  14. Meteorological effects on variation of airborne algae in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Irma; Roy-Ocotla, Guadalupe; Mosiño, Pedro

    1989-09-01

    Sixteen species of algae were collected from 73.8 m3 of air. Eleven were obtained in Minatitlán and eleven in México City. The data show that similar diversity occurred between the two localities, in spite of the difference in altitude. This suggests that cosmopolitan airborne microorganisms might have been released from different sources. Three major algal divisions (Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Chrysophyta) formed the airborne algal group. Also, a large concentration of 2220 algae m-3 was found near sea-level, while lower amounts were recorded at the high altitude of México City. The genera Scenedesmus, Chlorella and Chlorococcum dominated. Striking relationships were noted between the concentration of airborne green and blue-green algae, and meteorological conditions such as rain, vapour pressure, temperature and winds for different altitudes. In Minatitlán a linear relationship was established between concentration of algae and both vapour pressure (mbar) and temperature (° C), while in México City the wind (m s-1) was associated with variations in the algal count.

  15. Validation of ice loads predicted from meteorological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veal, A.; Skea, A. [UK Met Office, Exeter, England (United Kingdom); Wareing, B. [Brian Wareing Tech Ltd., England (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Results of a field trial conducted on 2 Gerber PVM-100 instruments at Deadwater Fell test site in the United Kingdom were presented. The trials were conducted to assess whether the instruments were capable of measuring the liquid water content of the air, as well as to validate an ice model in terms of accretion rates on different sized conductors. Ambient air temperature, wind speed and direction were monitored at the Deadwater Fell weather station along with load cell values. Time lapse video recorders and a web camera system were used to view the performance of the conductors in varying weather conditions. All data was collected and stored at the site. It was anticipated that output from the instruments could be related to the conditions under which overhead line conductors suffer from ice loads, and help to revise weather maps which have proved to be incompatible with utility experience and the lifetimes achieved by overhead line designs. The data provided from the Deadwater work included logged data from the Gerbers, weather data and load data from a 10 mm diameter aluminium alloy conductor. When the combination of temperature, wind direction and Gerber output indicated icing conditions, they were confirmed by the conductor's load cell data. The tests confirmed the validity of the Gerber instruments to predict the occurrence of icing conditions, when combined with other meteorological data. It was concluded that the instruments may aid in optimized prediction methods for ice loads and icing events. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Effects of meteorological conditions on sulfur dioxide air pollution in the North China plain during winters of 2006-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Chase; Ge, Cui; Wang, Jun; Anderson, Mark; Yang, Kai

    2016-12-01

    The last decade has seen frequent occurrences of severe air pollution episodes of high loading in SO2 during winters in the North China Plain (NCP). Using satellite data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), chemistry transport model (GEOS-Chem) simulations, and National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP) meteorological reanalysis, this study examines meteorological and synoptic conditions associated with air pollution episodes during 2006-2015 winters. OMI-based SO2 data suggest a large decrease (∼30% in area average) of SO2 emissions since 2010. Statistical analysis shows that meteorological conditions associated with the top 10% of OMI-based high SO2 days are found on average to be controlled by high pressure systems with 2 m s-1 lower wind speeds, slightly warmer, 1-2 °C, temperatures and 10-20% higher relative humidities from the surface to 850 hPa. Numerical experiments with GOES-Chem nested grid simulations at 0.5° × 0.667° resolution are conducted for winters of 2009 as a control year, and 2012 and 2013 as years for sensitivity analysis. The experiments reveal that year-to-year change of winter columnar SO2 amounts and distributions in first order are linearly proportional to the change in SO2 emissions, regardless of the differences in meteorological conditions. In contrast, the surface SO2 amounts and distributions exhibit highly non-linear relationships with respect to the emissions and stronger dependence on the meteorological conditions. Longer data records of atmospheric SO2 from space combined with meteorological reanalysis are needed to further study the meteorological variations in air pollution events and the air pollution climatology in the context of climate change.

  17. Should we use seasonnal meteorological ensemble forecasts for hydrological forecasting? A case study for nordic watersheds in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Rachel; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Perreault, Luc; Leconte, Robert; Guay, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Hydro-electricity is a major source of energy for many countries throughout the world, including Canada. Long lead-time streamflow forecasts are all the more valuable as they help decision making and dam management. Different techniques exist for long-term hydrological forecasting. Perhaps the most well-known is 'Extended Streamflow Prediction' (ESP), which considers past meteorological scenarios as possible, often equiprobable, future scenarios. In the ESP framework, those past-observed meteorological scenarios (climatology) are used in turn as the inputs of a chosen hydrological model to produce ensemble forecasts (one member corresponding to each year in the available database). Many hydropower companies, including Hydro-Québec (province of Quebec, Canada) use variants of the above described ESP system operationally for long-term operation planning. The ESP system accounts for the hydrological initial conditions and for the natural variability of the meteorological variables. However, it cannot consider the current initial state of the atmosphere. Climate models can help remedy this drawback. In the context of a changing climate, dynamical forecasts issued from climate models seem to be an interesting avenue to improve upon the ESP method and could help hydropower companies to adapt their management practices to an evolving climate. Long-range forecasts from climate models can also be helpful for water management at locations where records of past meteorological conditions are short or nonexistent. In this study, we compare 7-month hydrological forecasts obtained from climate model outputs to an ESP system. The ESP system mimics the one used operationally at Hydro-Québec. The dynamical climate forecasts are produced by the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) System4. Forecasts quality is assessed using numerical scores such as the Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS) and the Ignorance score and also graphical tools such as the

  18. Towards a quantitative climate reconstruction linking meteorological, limnological and sedimentological datasets: the Lake Sanabria (NW Spain) case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Herrero, María. Teresa; Giralt, Santiago; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Vega, José Carlos

    2010-05-01

    It is well-known that lacustrine sediment records constitute one of the best environmental sensors to reconstruct climate variability. Nevertheless, our knowledge of how the climate signal (precipitation, temperature, wind stress) is transferred from the atmosphere to the lake water masses (through the limnological variables such as pH, nutrient inputs or water chemistry) and to the sediments is very poor. Besides there are few reliable and temporal long limnological and/or meteorological datasets. This lack also prevents the conversion of these qualitative climate reconstructions into quantitative ones. Lake Sanabria (Zamora) is located in the northwestern of the Iberian Peninsula (42°07'30' N, 06°43'00' W), at 1.000 m a.s.l. It is the largest glacial lake (368 ha, 51 m of water depth at the deepest point and 96 Hm3 of water volume) in the Iberian Peninsula. The main water and sediments input and output is the Tera River. Monthly limnological (secchi disk, water temperature profiles, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen), nutrients (nitrates, silicon, total phosphorous, reactive phosphorous, total chlorophyll and a-chlorophyll), hydrological (Tera river discharge) and meteorological (precipitation and air temperature from the Ribadelago meteorological station) datasets covering the period 1992 - 2005 were employed to explore the relationships between the atmosphere and the Lake Sanabria hydrological balance, and the limnological variables. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scanner data of two gravity cores (SAN04-3A and SAN07-1M) allowed us to characterize with high resolution the evolution of the chemical composition of the uppermost sedimentary infill. SAN07-1M was dated using gamma-spectrometry (210Pb) and a key bed corresponding to the dam failure of the Vega de Tera Reservoir located upstream occurred in 1959 AD. The relationships between the sedimentological and limnological datasets allowed us to characterize the transference of the climate signal from the

  19. Summary of Meteorological Observations, Surface (SMOS) for Misawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    OS ADJ A151678 SUMMARY OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS SURFACE ISMOS ) ’/4 FOR MISAWA JAPANIUl NAVAL OCEANOGRAPHY COMMAND DETACHMENT ASHEVILLE NC MAR...34 ... , , ,, . - Ali A151 678 SUMMARY OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS SURFACE iSMOs ) 414 FOR MISAWA JAPANIUl NAVAL OCEANOGRAPHY COMMAND . DETACHMENT

  20. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  1. Norsewind - array of wind lidars and meteorological masts offshore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Detlef Stein, F. P.; Hagemann, Saskia;

    The FP7 project Norsewind (2008-2012) focused on the offshore study of winds through observations with ground-based wind lidars, meteorological masts and satellite remote sensors, and mesoscale modeling. Some results of the observational array of wind lidars and meteorological masts are presented....

  2. The Practice of English Teaching in the Meteorological Correspondence Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shaohui

    2010-01-01

    The correspondence education is the important part of the national education, and its education objects give priority to working staffs. The objects of the meteorological correspondence education are working staffs in the meteorological departments, and most of these students have engaged in the operation work for a long time, keeping at a…

  3. Brookhaven National Laboratory meteorological services instrument calibration plan and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser .

    2013-02-16

    This document describes the Meteorological Services (Met Services) Calibration and Maintenance Schedule and Procedures, The purpose is to establish the frequency and mechanism for the calibration and maintenance of the network of meteorological instrumentation operated by Met Services. The goal is to maintain the network in a manner that will result in accurate, precise and reliable readings from the instrumentation.

  4. The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (TAHMO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Giesen, N.C.; Hut, R.W.; Selker, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this opinion article, we present the Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (TAHMO). The goal of TAHMO is to develop a dense network of hydro-meteorological measurement stations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. On average, there will be one station per 1000 km2. The stations will be cost-ef

  5. Detecting Urban Warming Signals in Climate Records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yuting; JIA Gensuo; HU Yonghong; ZHOU Zijiang

    2013-01-01

    Determining whether air temperatures recorded at meteorological stations have been contaminated by the urbanization process is still a controversial issue at the global scale.With support of historical remote sensing data,this study examined the impacts of urban expansion on the trends of air temperature at 69 meteorological stations in Beijing,Tianjin,and Hebei Province over the last three decades.There were significant positive relations between the two factors at all stations.Stronger warming was detected at the meteorological stations that experienced greater urbanization,i.e.,those with a higher urbanization rate.While the total urban area affects the absolute temperature values,the change of the urban area (urbanization rate) likely affects the temperature trend.Increases of approximately 10% in urban area around the meteorological stations likely contributed to the 0.13℃ rise in air temperature records in addition to regional climate warming.This study also provides a new approach to selecting reference stations based on remotely sensed urban fractions.Generally,the urbanization-induced warming contributed to approximately 44.1% of the overall warming trends in the plain region of study area during the past 30 years,and the regional climate warming was 0.30℃ (10 yr)-1 in the last three decades.

  6. The Quality Control Algorithms Used in the Creation of NASA Kennedy Space Center Lightning Protection System Towers Meteorological Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John M.; Brenton, James C.

    2016-01-01

    An accurate database of meteorological data is essential for designing any aerospace vehicle and for preparing launch commit criteria. Meteorological instrumentation were recently placed on the three Lightning Protection System (LPS) towers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch complex 39B (LC-39B), which provide a unique meteorological dataset existing at the launch complex over an extensive altitude range. Data records of temperature, dew point, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction are produced at 40, 78, 116, and 139 m at each tower. The Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch (EV44) received an archive that consists of one-minute averaged measurements for the period of record of January 2011 - April 2015. However, before the received database could be used EV44 needed to remove any erroneous data from within the database through a comprehensive quality control (QC) process. The QC process applied to the LPS towers' meteorological data is similar to other QC processes developed by EV44, which were used in the creation of meteorological databases for other towers at KSC. The QC process utilized in this study has been modified specifically for use with the LPS tower database. The QC process first includes a check of each individual sensor. This check includes removing any unrealistic data and checking the temporal consistency of each variable. Next, data from all three sensors at each height are checked against each other, checked against climatology, and checked for sensors that erroneously report a constant value. Then, a vertical consistency check of each variable at each tower is completed. Last, the upwind sensor at each level is selected to minimize the influence of the towers and other structures at LC-39B on the measurements. The selection process for the upwind sensor implemented a study of tower-induced turbulence. This paper describes in detail the QC process, QC results, and the attributes of the LPS towers meteorological

  7. Estimating urban ground-level PM10 using MODIS 3km AOD product and meteorological parameters from WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotbi, Saba; Sotoudeheian, Saeed; Arhami, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Satellite remote sensing products of AOD from MODIS along with appropriate meteorological parameters were used to develop statistical models and estimate ground-level PM10. Most of previous studies obtained meteorological data from synoptic weather stations, with rather sparse spatial distribution, and used it along with 10 km AOD product to develop statistical models, applicable for PM variations in regional scale (resolution of ≥10 km). In the current study, meteorological parameters were simulated with 3 km resolution using WRF model and used along with the rather new 3 km AOD product (launched in 2014). The resulting PM statistical models were assessed for a polluted and largely variable urban area, Tehran, Iran. Despite the critical particulate pollution problem, very few PM studies were conducted in this area. The issue of rather poor direct PM-AOD associations existed, due to different factors such as variations in particles optical properties, in addition to bright background issue for satellite data, as the studied area located in the semi-arid areas of Middle East. Statistical approach of linear mixed effect (LME) was used, and three types of statistical models including single variable LME model (using AOD as independent variable) and multiple variables LME model by using meteorological data from two sources, WRF model and synoptic stations, were examined. Meteorological simulations were performed using a multiscale approach and creating an appropriate physic for the studied region, and the results showed rather good agreements with recordings of the synoptic stations. The single variable LME model was able to explain about 61%-73% of daily PM10 variations, reflecting a rather acceptable performance. Statistical models performance improved through using multivariable LME and incorporating meteorological data as auxiliary variables, particularly by using fine resolution outputs from WRF (R2 = 0.73-0.81). In addition, rather fine resolution for PM

  8. 7 CFR 58.148 - Plant records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... probationary status. (3) Rejections of raw milk over No. 3 in quality. (b) Pasteurization recorder charts... heating recorder charts. Retain for 3 months. (e) Load and individual drug residue test results....

  9. The data collection component of the Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; Islam, M.M.

    1988-09-01

    An intensive program of meteorological monitoring is in place at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Program involves the measurement, observation, and storage of various meteorological data; continuous monitoring of regional weather conditions by a staff of professional meteorologists; and around-the-clock forecasting of weather conditions for the Hanford Site. The objective of this report is to document the data collection component of the program. In this report, each meteorological monitoring site is discussed in detail. Each site's location and instrumentation are described and photographs are presented. The methods for processing and communicating data to the Hanford Meteorology Station are also discussed. Finally, the procedures followed to maintain and calibrate these instruments are presented. 2 refs., 83 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. PROMET - The Journal of Meteorological Education issued by DWD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J.

    2009-09-01

    Promet is published by the German Meteorological Service (DWD) since 1971 to improve meteorologists and weather forecasters skills. The journal comprises mainly contributions to topics like biometeorology, the NAO, or meteorology and insurance business. The science-based articles should illustrate the special issue in an understandable and transparent way. In addition, the journal contains portraits of other national meteorological services and university departments, book reviews, list of university degrees, and other individual papers. Promet is published only in German language, but included English titles and abstracts. The journal is peer-reviewed by renowned external scientists. It is distributed free of charge by DWD to the own meteorological staff. On the other hand, DMG (the German Meteorological Society) hand it out to all members of the society. The current issues deal with "Modern procedures of weather forecasting in DWD” and "E-Learning in Meteorology”.

  11. Meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data for 1986 through 1991 from two small basins in central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinley, P.W.; Oliver, T.A.

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is investigating the volcanic tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for their suitability as storage sites for nuclear waste. Two small basins, measuring less than 2 square miles, were studied to determine the volume of precipitation available for recharge to the ground water. The semiarid 3 Springs Basin is located to the east of Kawich Peak in the Kawich Range east of Tonopah, Nevada. Stewart Basin is a subalpine drainage basin north of Arc Dome in the Toiyabe Range north of Tonopah, Nevada. This publication presents the meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data collected during the study. Meteorological data collected include air temperature, soil temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Stream-discharge data were collected from the surface-water outlet of each basin. Water-quality data are chemical analyses of water samples collected from surface- and ground-water sources. Data were collected throughout the two basins. Each basin has a meteorological station located in the lower and upper reaches of the basin. Hydrologic records include stream-discharge and water-quality data from the lower meteorological site and water-quality data from springs within the basins. Meteorological data are available from the lower sites from the winter of 1986 through the fall of 1991. Periods of data collection were shorter for additional sites in the basin.

  12. Commissioners' Monthly Case Activity Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission — Total cases pending at the beginning of the month, total cases added to the docket during the month, total cases disposed of during the month, and total cases...

  13. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. C. Venema

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  14. Meteorological Modeling of a Houston Ozone Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-Gammon, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    The State of Texas requires accurate meteorological simulations of a Houston-Galveston ozone episode to drive their photochemical model for regulatory purposes. The episode of greatest interest occurred during TexAQS-2000, so there is an unusually large amount of data available for driving and validating the simulation. The key meteorological process to simulate is the sea breeze. In the Houston area, this sea breeze takes two forms, both of which typically occur on a summertime day. The first form is the sea breeze front, which forms along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and Galveston Bay if the midday winds are light or offshore and travels inland during the afternoon and early evening. The second form is an inertia-gravity wave response of unusually large amplitude and horizontal scale, due to Houston's proximity to 30 N. It manifests itself as a steady rotation of the wind, superimposed on the background flow, with an amplitude of 2-3 m/s. The MM5 (v3.4) model characteristics were tailored to simulate this phenomenon. Over 20 vertical levels were located in the lowest 300 mb. The soil moisture availability was adjusted according to rainfall prior to and during the event so that the model simulated a reasonably accurate land-sea and urban-rural temperature contrast. A planetary boundary layer scheme was chosen to produce lower atmospheric structures similar to those observed in special soundings. To further increase the agreement between the model and observed fields, data from five profilers and one Doppler lidar were assimilated into the simulation. Assimilation parameters were chosen to provide a large impact on the large-scale, slowly-varying winds while allowing the smaller-scale sea breeze front and other such phenomena to evolve according to the internal dynamics of the model. The assimilation was essential for compelling the model to capture a nighttime low-level jet that was present during part of the episode and which the unassimilated model runs were

  15. Predictiveness of disease risk in a global outreach tourist setting in Thailand using meteorological data and vector-borne disease incidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninphanomchai, Suwannapa; Chansang, Chitti; Hii, Yien Ling; Rocklöv, Joacim; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn

    2014-10-16

    Dengue and malaria are vector-borne diseases and major public health problems worldwide. Changes in climatic factors influence incidences of these diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between vector-borne disease incidences and meteorological data, and hence to predict disease risk in a global outreach tourist setting. The retrospective data of dengue and malaria incidences together with local meteorological factors (temperature, rainfall, humidity) registered from 2001 to 2011 on Koh Chang, Thailand were used in this study. Seasonal distribution of disease incidences and its correlation with local climatic factors were analyzed. Seasonal patterns in disease transmission differed between dengue and malaria. Monthly meteorological data and reported disease incidences showed good predictive ability of disease transmission patterns. These findings provide a rational basis for identifying the predictive ability of local meteorological factors on disease incidence that may be useful for the implementation of disease prevention and vector control programs on the tourism island, where climatic factors fluctuate.

  16. Phenological Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phenology is the scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions. The few records...

  17. Cold months in a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Jouni; Ylhäisi, Jussi S.

    2011-11-01

    The frequency of cold months in the 21st century is studied using the CMIP3 ensemble of climate model simulations, using month-, location- and model-specific threshold temperatures derived from the simulated 20th century climate. Unsurprisingly, cold months are projected to become less common, but not non-existent, under continued global warming. As a multi-model mean over the global land area excluding Antarctica and under the SRES A1B scenario, 14% of the months during the years 2011-2050 are simulated to be colder than the 20th century median for the same month, 1.3% colder than the 10th percentile, and 0.1% record cold. The geographic and seasonal variations in the frequency of cold months are strongly modulated by variations in the magnitude of interannual variability. Thus, for example, cold months are most infrequently simulated over the tropical oceans where the variability is smallest, not over the Arctic where the warming is largest.

  18. Effect of Meteorological Elements Change on Cardiovascular Disease%气象要素变化对心血管疾病的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟娟; 张涵

    2015-01-01

    Based on the medical records of some hospitals and meteoro-logical data of Puyang area, the effect of meteorological elements change on car-diovascular disease was analyzed, and the cause of cardiovascular disease that the main meteorological factors including air temperature, humidity, air pressure and wind speed caused was discussed, so as to provide meteorological basis for preventing cardiovascular disease.%利用濮阳地区部分医院病历资料及气象资料,分析了气象要素变化对心血管疾病产生的影响,并对气温、湿度、气压、风速等主要气象因素引起心血管疾病的原因进行了探讨,为预防心血管疾病提供气象依据。

  19. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bange, Jens

    2012-01-01

    concern - both the campaign at Høvsøre and the alternate location at Risø had to be cancelled for different reasons, both related to flying permits. There was one week of flying though at the Nøjsomheds Odde wind farm in Lolland, where we could compare the SUMO and balloon with a Lidar and data from......This paper describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. Good...... built a lighter-than-air kite with a long tether and nano-synchronised sensors, Bergen University flies the SUMO, a pusher airplane of 580g total weight equipped with a 100Hz Pitot tube, Tübingen University in conjunction with the TU Braunschweig flies the Carolo, a 2m wide two prop model with a 5-hole...

  20. Arctic hydrology and meteorology. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, D.L.

    1989-12-31

    To date, five years of hydrologic and meteorologic data have been collected at Imnavait Creek near Toolik Lake, Alaska. This is the most complete set of field data of this type collected in the Arctic of North America. These data have been used in process-oriented research to increase our understanding of atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere interactions. Basically, we are monitoring heat and mass transfer between various spheres to quantify rates. These could be rates of mass movement such as hillslope flow or rates of heat transfer for active layer thawing or combined heat and mass processes such as evapotranspiration. We have utilized a conceptual model to predict hydrologic processes. To test the success of this model, we are comparing our predicted rates of runoff and snowmelt to measured valves. We have also used a surface energy model to simulate active layer temperatures. The final step in this modeling effort to date was to predict what impact climatic warming would have on active layer thicknesses and how this will influence the hydrology of our research watershed by examining several streambeds.

  1. The solar eclipse: a natural meteorological experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A solar eclipse provides a well-characterized reduction in solar radiation, of calculable amount and duration. This captivating natural astronomical phenomenon is ideally suited to science outreach activities, but the predictability of the change in solar radiation also provides unusual conditions for assessing the atmospheric response to a known stimulus. Modern automatic observing networks used for weather forecasting and atmospheric research have dense spatial coverage, so the quantitative meteorological responses to an eclipse can now be evaluated with excellent space and time resolution. Numerical models representing the atmosphere at high spatial resolution can also be used to predict eclipse-related changes and interpret the observations. Combining the models with measurements yields the elements of a controlled atmospheric experiment on a regional scale (10–1000 km), which is almost impossible to achieve by other means. This modern approach to ‘eclipse meteorology’ as identified here can ultimately improve weather prediction models and be used to plan for transient reductions in renewable electricity generation. During the 20 March 2015 eclipse, UK electrical energy demand increased by about 3 GWh (11 TJ) or about 4%, alongside reductions in the wind and photovoltaic electrical energy generation of 1.5 GWh (5.5 TJ). This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550768

  2. Statistical downscaling of meteorological time series and climatic projections in a watershed in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göncü, S.; Albek, E.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, meteorological time series from five meteorological stations in and around a watershed in Turkey were used in the statistical downscaling of global climate model results to be used for future projections. Two general circulation models (GCMs), Canadian Climate Center (CGCM3.1(T63)) and Met Office Hadley Centre (2012) (HadCM3) models, were used with three Special Report Emission Scenarios, A1B, A2, and B2. The statistical downscaling model SDSM was used for the downscaling. The downscaled ensembles were put to validation with GCM predictors against observations using nonparametric statistical tests. The two most important meteorological variables, temperature and precipitation, passed validation statistics, and partial validation was achieved with other time series relevant in hydrological studies, namely, cloudiness, relative humidity, and wind velocity. Heat waves, number of dry days, length of dry and wet spells, and maximum precipitation were derived from the primary time series as annual series. The change in monthly predictor sets used in constructing the multiple regression equations for downscaling was examined over the watershed and over the months in a year. Projections between 1962 and 2100 showed that temperatures and dryness indicators show increasing trends while precipitation, relative humidity, and cloudiness tend to decrease. The spatial changes over the watershed and monthly temporal changes revealed that the western parts of the watershed where water is produced for subsequent downstream use will get drier than the rest and the precipitation distribution over the year will shift. Temperatures showed increasing trends over the whole watershed unparalleled with another period in history. The results emphasize the necessity of mitigation efforts to combat climate change on local and global scales and the introduction of adaptation strategies for the region under study which was shown to be vulnerable to climate change.

  3. Meteorological extremes and their impacts on forests in the czech republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, Rudolf

    Meteorological extremes in the Czech Republic (CR) cause considerable damage to forest stands. The effects of such extremes has increased conspicuously in the latter half of the present century, with salvage felling due to meteorological factors accounting in some years for more than half of the total timber cut in the CR. The most important reason for this salvage felling is damage due to wind (61 %), followed by damage due to snow (16 %), drought, air pollution and ice deposits. Using data from four professionally-maintained weather stations and one special station, time series for maximum wind gusts are analysed as well as the frequencies of days with ice deposits, maximum mass of ice, heights of new snow 10 cm and, for areal precipitation series from Bohemia and Moravia, precipitation sums for the year, the summer half-year and the frequencies of occurrence of dry months. The problems of measuring these characteristics and their homogeneities are discussed. Their annual distribution and their long-term changes (fluctuations, trends) are studied. The main forest disasters of the 20th century attributable to the identified meteorological extremes are described. The analysis does not, however, permit reliable conclusions about the future behaviour of those extremes and their impact on forests under conditions of global warming.

  4. NASA Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource High Resolution Meteorology Data For Sustainable Building Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David; Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    A primary objective of NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) project is to adapt and infuse NASA's solar and meteorological data into the energy, agricultural, and architectural industries. Improvements are continuously incorporated when higher resolution and longer-term data inputs become available. Climatological data previously provided via POWER web applications were three-hourly and 1x1 degree latitude/longitude. The NASA Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data set provides higher resolution data products (hourly and 1/2x1/2 degree) covering the entire globe. Currently POWER solar and meteorological data are available for more than 30 years on hourly (meteorological only), daily, monthly and annual time scales. These data may be useful to several renewable energy sectors: solar and wind power generation, agricultural crop modeling, and sustainable buildings. A recent focus has been working with ASHRAE to assess complementing weather station data with MERRA data. ASHRAE building design parameters being investigated include heating/cooling degree days and climate zones.

  5. Usage of multivariate geostatistics in interpolation processes for meteorological precipitation maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Ismail Bulent

    2017-01-01

    Long-term meteorological data are very important both for the evaluation of meteorological events and for the analysis of their effects on the environment. Prediction maps which are constructed by different interpolation techniques often provide explanatory information. Conventional techniques, such as surface spline fitting, global and local polynomial models, and inverse distance weighting may not be adequate. Multivariate geostatistical methods can be more significant, especially when studying secondary variables, because secondary variables might directly affect the precision of prediction. In this study, the mean annual and mean monthly precipitations from 1984 to 2014 for 268 meteorological stations in Turkey have been used to construct country-wide maps. Besides linear regression, the inverse square distance and ordinary co-Kriging (OCK) have been used and compared to each other. Also elevation, slope, and aspect data for each station have been taken into account as secondary variables, whose use has reduced errors by up to a factor of three. OCK gave the smallest errors (1.002 cm) when aspect was included.

  6. The association between meteorological factors and road traffic injuries: a case analysis from Shantou city, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinghong; Chen, Xiaojun; Woodward, Alistair; Liu, Xiaobo; Wu, Haixia; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-11-01

    Few studies examined the associations of meteorological factors with road traffic injuries (RTIs). The purpose of the present study was to quantify the contributions of meteorological factors to RTI cases treated at a tertiary level hospital in Shantou city, China. A time-series diagram was employed to illustrate the time trends and seasonal variation of RTIs, and correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were conducted to investigate the relationships between meteorological parameters and RTIs. RTIs followed a seasonal pattern as more cases occurred during summer and winter months. RTIs are positively correlated with temperature and sunshine duration, while negatively associated with wind speed. Temperature, sunshine hour and wind speed were included in the final linear model with regression coefficients of 0.65 (t = 2.36, P = 0.019), 2.23 (t = 2.72, P = 0.007) and -27.66 (t = -5.67, P traffic management system in the future.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  8. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  9. COSMIC monthly progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  10. Model variations in predicting incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria using 1998-2007 morbidity and meteorological data from south Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission is complex and is believed to be associated with local climate changes. However, simple attempts to extrapolate malaria incidence rates from averaged regional meteorological conditions have proven unsuccessful. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if variations in specific meteorological factors are able to consistently predict P. falciparum malaria incidence at different locations in south Ethiopia. Methods Retrospective data from 42 locations were collected including P. falciparum malaria incidence for the period of 1998-2007 and meteorological variables such as monthly rainfall (all locations), temperature (17 locations), and relative humidity (three locations). Thirty-five data sets qualified for the analysis. Ljung-Box Q statistics was used for model diagnosis, and R squared or stationary R squared was taken as goodness of fit measure. Time series modelling was carried out using Transfer Function (TF) models and univariate auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) when there was no significant predictor meteorological variable. Results Of 35 models, five were discarded because of the significant value of Ljung-Box Q statistics. Past P. falciparum malaria incidence alone (17 locations) or when coupled with meteorological variables (four locations) was able to predict P. falciparum malaria incidence within statistical significance. All seasonal AIRMA orders were from locations at altitudes above 1742 m. Monthly rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature was able to predict incidence at four, five and two locations, respectively. In contrast, relative humidity was not able to predict P. falciparum malaria incidence. The R squared values for the models ranged from 16% to 97%, with the exception of one model which had a negative value. Models with seasonal ARIMA orders were found to perform better. However, the models for predicting P. falciparum malaria incidence varied from location to location, and among

  11. Meteorological Snow Chemistry Relationships at Divide Site, St. Elias Mountains, Yukon Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogan, N. W.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Zdanowicz, C. M.; Copland, L.; Fisher, D.; Osterberg, E.; Wanamaker, A.; Yalcin, K.

    2006-12-01

    A new ice core (343 m) was collected from the Eclipse Icefield (~30 km northeast of the Logan Massif, 3017 masl) in the St. Elias Mountains in 2001-02. Previous work on snow samples and an ice core recovered in 1980 from Mt. Logan (5345 masl) has shown that major discontinuities in the variation of the water stable isotope ratios exist with altitude, which are believed to be derived from a multilayered atmosphere during precipitation events on high altitude glacier sites. To properly interpret the glaciochemical records developed from the new Eclipse Icefield ice cores, calibration of snow properties with meteorological data (temperature, precipitation, and sea level pressure) is critical. At the Divide Site (2800 masl), two automatic weather stations (AWS) have been operating since 2002, collecting snow depth as well as standard meteorological data. Based on the AWS data from 2002-2005, the site has a mean annual temperature of -9°C with an average wind speed of 21 km/hr and a mean atmospheric pressure of 726 mb. The winter accumulation seasons (August-April) of 2002-03, 2003-04, 2005-06 result in ~4m of snow (~2m w.e.) with a net surface height change of ~2m over the balanced year (August-August) thereby allowing discrete subannual isotopic records. Accumulating snow from 2002-03 and 2003-04 has an average isotopic composition of -186‰ (SMOW) δD and -24‰ (SMOW) δ18O. We will present a detailed analysis of the accumulation record at the site from 2003 to 2006 in order to identify the individual snowfall events. We will discuss the changes in the isotopic composition between these snowfall events and determine the relative control that variability in the local meteorological conditions at the time of precipitation and broader scale changes in atmospheric circulation and moisture transport have on stable water isotopes in precipitation in the St. Elias Mountains.

  12. MODELING OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GROUNDWATER FLOW AND OTHER METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şaban YURTÇU

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, modeling of the effect of rainfall, flow and evaporation as independent variables on the change of underground water levels as dependent variables were investigated by fuzzy logic (FL. In the study, total 396 values taken from six observation stations belong to Afyon inferior basin in Akarçay from 1977 to 1989 years were used. Using the monthly average values of stations, the change of underground water level was modeled by FL. It is observed that the results obtained from FL and the observations are compatible with each other. This shows FL modeling can be used to estimate groundwater levels from the appropriate meteorological value.

  13. Variations in environmental tritium doses due to meteorological data averaging and uncertainties in pathway model parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kock, A.

    1996-05-01

    The objectives of this research are: (1) to calculate and compare off site doses from atmospheric tritium releases at the Savannah River Site using monthly versus 5 year meteorological data and annual source terms, including additional seasonal and site specific parameters not included in present annual assessments; and (2) to calculate the range of the above dose estimates based on distributions in model parameters given by uncertainty estimates found in the literature. Consideration will be given to the sensitivity of parameters given in former studies.

  14. The effects of meteorological factors on the occurrence of Ganoderma sp. spores in the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka

    2011-03-01

    Ganoderma sp. is an airborne fungal spore type known to trigger respiratory allergy symptoms in sensitive patients. Aiming to reduce the risk for allergic individuals, we analysed fungal spore circulation in Szczecin, Poland, and its dependence on meteorological conditions. Statistical models for the airborne spore concentrations of Ganoderma sp.—one of the most abundant fungal taxa in the area—were developed. Aerobiological sampling was conducted over 2004-2008 using a volumetric Lanzoni trap. Simultaneously, the following meteorological parameters were recorded: daily level of precipitation, maximum and average wind speed, relative humidity and maximum, minimum, average and dew point temperatures. These data were used as the explaining variables. Due to the non-linearity and non-normality of the data set, the applied modelling techniques were artificial neural networks (ANN) and mutlivariate regression trees (MRT). The obtained classification and MRT models predicted threshold conditions above which Ganoderma sp. appeared in the air. It turned out that dew point temperature was the main factor influencing the presence or absence of Ganoderma sp. spores. Further analysis of spore seasons revealed that the airborne fungal spore concentration depended only slightly on meteorological factors.

  15. An analysis of the intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements using DPCCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-hua; Li, Cao-ling

    2016-03-01

    In order to reveal the intrinsic cross-correlations between air pollution index (API) records and synchronously meteorological elements data, the detrended partial cross-correlation (DPCC) coefficients are analyzed using a detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPCCA). DPCC coefficients for different spatial locations and seasons are calculated and compared. The results show that DPCCA can uncover intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements, and most of their interactional mechanisms can be explained. DPCC coefficients are either positive or negative, and vary with spatial locations and seasons, with consistently interactional mechanisms. More remarkable, we find that detrended cross-correlation analysis can present the cross-correlations between the fluctuations in two nonstationary time series, but this cross-correlation does not always fully reflect the interactional mechanism for the original time series. Despite this, DPCCA is recommended as a comparatively reliable method for revealing intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements, and it can also be useful for our understanding of their interactional mechanisms.

  16. Six- and three-hourly meteorological observations from 223 USSR stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Apasova, E.B.; Martuganov, R.A. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorologicl Information, Obninsk (Russia). World Data Centre; Kaiser, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This document describes a database containing 6- and 3-hourly meteorological observations from a 223-station network of the former Soviet Union. These data have been made available through cooperation between the two principal climate data centers of the United States and Russia: the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), in Asheville, North Carolina, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information -- World Data Centre (RIHMI-WDC) in Obninsk. Station records consist of 6- and 3-hourly observations of some 24 meteorological variables including temperature, weather type, precipitation amount, cloud amount and type, sea level pressure, relative humidity, and wind direction and speed. The 6-hourly observations extend from 1936 to 1965; the 3-hourly observations extend from 1966 through the mid-1980s (1983, 1984, 1985, or 1986; depending on the station). These data have undergone extensive quality assurance checks by RIHMI-WDC, NCDC, and the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The database represents a wealth of meteorological information for a large and climatologically important portion of the earth`s land area, and should prove extremely useful for a wide variety of regional climate change studies. These data are available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of this document and 40 data files that are available via the Internet or on 8mm tape. The total size of the database is {approximately}2.6 gigabytes.

  17. Relations between Municipal Water Use and Selected Meteorological Parameters and Drought Indices, East-Central and Northeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Louis C.

    2009-01-01

    Water-use data collected between 1992 and 2006 at eight municipal water-supply utilities in east-central and northeast Florida were analyzed to identify seasonal trends in use and to quantify monthly variations. Regression analyses were applied to identify significant correlations between water use and selected meteorological parameters and drought indices. Selected parameters and indices include precipitation (P), air temperature (T), potential evapotranspiration (PET), available water (P-PET), monthly changes in these parameters (Delta P, Delta T, Delta PET, Delta(P-PET), the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Selected utilities include the City of Daytona Beach (Daytona), the City of Eustis (Eustis), Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU), Jacksonville Electric Authority (JEA), Orange County Utilities (OCU), Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC), Seminole County Utilities (SCU), and the City of St. Augustine (St. Augustine). Water-use rates at these utilities in 2006 ranged from about 3.2 million gallons per day at Eustis to about 131 million gallons per day at JEA. Total water-use rates increased at all utilities throughout the 15-year period of record, ranging from about 4 percent at Daytona to greater than 200 percent at OCU and SCU. Metered rates, however, decreased at six of the eight utilities, ranging from about 2 percent at OCU and OUC to about 17 percent at Eustis. Decreases in metered rates occurred because the number of metered connections increased at a greater rate than did total water use, suggesting that factors other than just population growth may play important roles in water-use dynamics. Given the absence of a concurrent trend in precipitation, these decreases can likely be attributed to changes in non-climatic factors such as water-use type, usage of reclaimed water, water-use restrictions, demographics, and so forth. When averaged for the eight utilities, metered water-use rates depict a clear

  18. Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. D.; Aplin, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact, but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant, because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for Monet, Constable, and Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies. But to what extent does weather inspire composers? The authors of this presentation, who are atmospheric scientists by day but amateur classical musicians by night, have been contemplating this question. We have built a systematic musical database, which has allowed us to catalogue and analyze the frequencies with which weather is depicted in a sample of classical orchestral music. The depictions vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. We have found that composers are generally influenced by their own environment in the type of weather they choose to represent. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Reference: Aplin KL and Williams PD (2011) Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music. Weather, 66(11), pp 300-306. doi:10.1002/wea.765

  19. Association between ambient air pollution, meteorological conditions and exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adult citizens of the town of Smederevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Smederevo is the only town in Serbia with a steel factory, whose exhausts contribute to air pollution. Therefore, the city conducts continuous monitoring of air quality. In recent years, high levels of particulate matter (PM, including coarse (PM10 and fine (PM2.5 particles in the air have frequently been recorded. The aim of this study was to assess association between exacerbation of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in adults and air pollution or meteorological conditions. Methods. The study was conducted in the secondary care General Hospital in Smederevo covering approximately 81, 000 inhabitants living in the area of about 7 km around the automatic station for air quality monitoring from which the verified data were collected. Data on patients were obtained from medical records. The correlation between the incidence of diseases exacerbation and the number of days with exceedance of air pollutants limit level per month, as well as meteorological conditions, was tested with parametric Pearson bivariate correlation test in program SPSS. Results. The study population consisted of adults registered as asthma or COPD suffering patients (n = 1,624 with 570 episodes of remarkable exacerbations (moderate or severe of the disease in 2011. Asthma exacerbation was significantly more frequent in women than in men. The number of days with high levels of PM2.5 per month was statistically significantly associated with the total number of exacerbation (moderate and severe of both asthma and COPD episodes among the female patients. There was also a statistically significant association between the number of days with PM2.5 exceedance and the number of moderate exacerbations in the subgroups of nonsmokers and obese patients. A significant correlation of the number of days with the exceedance of PM10 limit level was shown only for the subgroup of obese, non-smoking patients with moderate exacerbation. A significant negative

  20. EVALUATION OF METEOROLOGICAL ALERT CHAIN IN CASTILLA Y LEÓN (SPAIN): How can the meteorological risk managers help researchers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Laura; Guerrero-Higueras, Ángel Manuel; Sánchez, José Luis; Matía, Pedro; Ortiz de Galisteo, José Pablo; Rodríguez, Vicente; Lorente, José Manuel; Merino, Andrés; Hermida, Lucía; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Fernández-Manso, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    Evaluating the meteorological alert chain, or, how information is transmitted from the meteorological forecasters to the final users, passing through risk managers, is a useful tool that benefits all the links of the chain, especially the meteorology researchers and forecasters. In fact, the risk managers can help significantly to improve meteorological forecasts in different ways. Firstly, by pointing out the most appropriate type of meteorological format, and its characteristics when representing the meteorological information, consequently improving the interpretation of the already-existing forecasts. Secondly, by pointing out the specific predictive needs in their workplaces related to the type of significant meteorological parameters, temporal or spatial range necessary, meteorological products "custom-made" for each type of risk manager, etc. In order to carry out an evaluation of the alert chain in Castilla y León, we opted for the creation of a Panel of Experts made up of personnel specialized in risk management (Responsible for Protection Civil, Responsible for Alert Services and Hydrological Planning of Hydrographical Confederations, Responsible for highway maintenance, and management of fires, fundamentally). In creating this panel, a total of twenty online questions were evaluated, and the majority of the questions were multiple choice or open-ended. Some of the results show how the risk managers think that it would be interesting, or very interesting, to carry out environmental educational campaigns about the meteorological risks in Castilla y León. Another result is the elevated importance that the risk managers provide to the observation data in real-time (real-time of wind, lightning, relative humidity, combined indices of risk of avalanches, snowslides, index of fires due to convective activity, etc.) Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Junta de Castilla y León for its financial support through the project LE220A11-2.

  1. Introduction of the in-orbit test and its performance for the first meteorological imager of the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. H.; Ahn, M. H.

    2014-08-01

    The first geostationary Earth observation satellite of Korea - the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) - was successfully launched on 27 June 2010. After arrival at its operational orbit, the satellite underwent an in-orbit test (IOT) that lasted for about 8 months. During the IOT period, the main payload for the weather application, the meteorological imager, went through successful tests for demonstrating its function and performance, and the test results are introduced here. The radiometric performance of the meteorological imager (MI) is tested by means of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the visible channel, noise-equivalent differential temperature (NEdT) for the infrared channels, and pixel-to-pixel nonuniformity for both the visible and infrared channels. In the case of the visible channel, the SNR of all eight detectors is obtained using the ground-measured parameters with the background signals obtained in orbit. The overall performance shows a value larger than 26 at 5% albedo, exceeding the user requirement of 10 by a significant margin. Also, the relative variability of detector responsivity among the eight visible channels meets the user requirement, showing values within 10% of the user requirement. For the infrared channels, the NEdT of each detector is well within the user requirement and is comparable with or better than the legacy instruments, except for the water vapor channel, which is slightly noisier than the legacy instruments. The variability of detector responsivity of infrared channels is also below the user requirement, within 40% of the requirement, except for the shortwave infrared channel. The improved performance result is partly due to the stable and low detector temperature obtained due to spacecraft design, i.e., by installing a single solar panel on the opposite side of the MI.

  2. Assessing storm events for energy meteorology: using media and scientific reports to track a North Sea autumn storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Important issues for energy meteorology are to assess meteorological conditions for normal operating conditions and extreme events for the ultimate limit state of engineering structures. For the offshore environment in northwest Europe, energy meteorology encompasses weather conditions relevant for petroleum production infrastructure and also the new field of offshore wind energy production. Autumn and winter storms are an important issue for offshore operations in the North Sea. The weather in this region is considered as challenging for extreme meteorological events as the Gulf of Mexico with its attendant hurricane risk. The rise of the Internet and proliferation of digital recording devices has placed a much greater amount of information in the public domain than was available to national meteorological agencies even 20 years ago. This contribution looks at reports of meteorology and infrastructure damage from a storm in the autumn of 2006 to trace the spatial and temporal record of meteorological events. Media reports give key information to assess the events of the storm. The storm passed over northern Europe between Oct.31-Nov. 2, 2006, and press reports from the time indicate that its most important feature was a high surge that inundated coastal areas. Sections of the Dutch and German North Sea coast were affected, and there was record flooding in Denmark and East Germany in the southern Baltic Sea. Extreme wind gusts were also reported that were strong enough to damage roofs and trees, and there was even tornado recorded near the Dutch-German border. Offshore, there were a series of damage reports from ship and platforms that were linked with sea state, and reports of rogue waves were explicitly mentioned. Many regional government authorities published summaries of geophysical information related to the storm, and these form part of a regular series of online winter storm reports that started as a public service about 15 years ago. Depending on the

  3. Projected seasonal meteorological droughts over Europe until 2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoni, Jonathan; Vogt, Jürgen; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo; Dosio, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades, droughts have become increasingly recurrent and intense over large areas of Europe. Due to the projected temperature increase and longer dry periods, meteorological droughts are expected to become more frequent and severe in the next decades, potentially causing relevant impacts in many economic sectors and the environment. To investigate future drought patterns over Europe, we computed a combined indicator based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), and the Reconnaissance Drought Indicator (RDI). All indicators were computed at a 3-month accumulation period to focus on seasonal droughts using temperature and precipitation from an ensemble of eleven bias-adjusted simulations from the EURO-CORDEX experiment as input data. The combined indicator focuses on the predominance of drought conditions over normal conditions and was applied to obtain frequency and severity of drought events at 0.11° spatial resolution over Europe from 1981 to 2100. The analysis was performed for two representative concentration pathways (RCP), the moderate emission scenario RCP4.5 and the extreme RCP8.5. Excluding winter droughts, which are likely to be less frequent and severe over Central and Northern Europe for both scenarios, the other seasons show increased drought frequency and severity over entire Europe, markedly larger as the century passes especially under the RCP8.5. The largest increases are projected for spring droughts over the Iberian Peninsula and North-Eastern Scandinavia and for summer droughts over Western Europe. Under the RCP8.5, at least six out of eleven simulations project a statistically significant positive trend from 1981 to 2100 of drought frequency for the Mediterranean area, the Iberian Peninsula, and Turkey. On an annual scale, most simulations project a continuous increase of both drought frequency and severity for entire Europe, excluding Iceland and Central

  4. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  5. Influence of meteorological conditions on RSV infection in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Santos, M.; Santos, J. A.; Soares, J.; Dias, A.; Quaresma, M.

    2016-12-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis is a common cause for infant hospital admissions. Of all etiological agents, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is commonly the most frequent. The present study assesses relationships between atmospheric factors and RSV infections in under 3-year-old patients admitted to the Inpatient Paediatric Service of Vila Real (North of Portugal). For this purpose, (1) clinical files of children admitted with a diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis from September 2005 to December 2015 (>10 years) were scrutinised and (2) local daily temperature/precipitation series, as well as six weather types controlling meteorological conditions in Portugal, were used. Fifty-five percent of all 770 admitted children were effectively infected with a given virus, whilst 48 % (367) were RSV+, i.e. 87 % of virus-infected children were RSV+. The bulk of incidence is verified in the first year of age (82 %, 302), slightly higher in males. RSV outbreaks are typically from December to March, but important inter-annual variability is found in both magnitude and shape. Although no clear connections were found between monthly temperatures/precipitation and RSV outbreaks apart from seasonality, a linkage to wintertime cold spells is apparent on a daily basis. Anomalously low minimum temperatures from the day of admittance back to 10 days before are observed. This relationship is supported by anomalously high occurrences of the E and AA weather types over the same period, which usually trigger dry and cold weather. These findings highlight some predictability in the RSV occurrences, revealing potential for modelling and risk assessments.

  6. Influence of meteorological conditions on RSV infection in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Santos, M.; Santos, J. A.; Soares, J.; Dias, A.; Quaresma, M.

    2016-04-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis is a common cause for infant hospital admissions. Of all etiological agents, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is commonly the most frequent. The present study assesses relationships between atmospheric factors and RSV infections in under 3-year-old patients admitted to the Inpatient Paediatric Service of Vila Real (North of Portugal). For this purpose, (1) clinical files of children admitted with a diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis from September 2005 to December 2015 (>10 years) were scrutinised and (2) local daily temperature/precipitation series, as well as six weather types controlling meteorological conditions in Portugal, were used. Fifty-five percent of all 770 admitted children were effectively infected with a given virus, whilst 48 % (367) were RSV+, i.e. 87 % of virus-infected children were RSV+. The bulk of incidence is verified in the first year of age (82 %, 302), slightly higher in males. RSV outbreaks are typically from December to March, but important inter-annual variability is found in both magnitude and shape. Although no clear connections were found between monthly temperatures/precipitation and RSV outbreaks apart from seasonality, a linkage to wintertime cold spells is apparent on a daily basis. Anomalously low minimum temperatures from the day of admittance back to 10 days before are observed. This relationship is supported by anomalously high occurrences of the E and AA weather types over the same period, which usually trigger dry and cold weather. These findings highlight some predictability in the RSV occurrences, revealing potential for modelling and risk assessments.

  7. Record dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robe, Dominic M.; Boettcher, Stefan; Sibani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    -facto irreversible and become increasingly harder to achieve. Thus, a progression of record-sized dynamical barriers are traversed in the approach to equilibration. Accordingly, the statistics of the events is closely described by a log-Poisson process. Originally developed for relaxation in spin glasses...

  8. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall would significantly benefit land, water resources and agriculture management, as this assists with planning and management decisions. Forecasting spatiotemporal monthly rainfall is difficult, especially in Australia where there is a complex interaction between topography and the effect of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study describes a method for spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting in south-eastern and eastern part of Australia using climatic and non-climatic variables. Rainfall data were obtained from Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high quality weather stations from the south-eastern and eastern part of Australia with monthly rainfall records from 1879 to 2012. To reduce spatial complexity of the area and improve model accuracy, spatial classification (regionalization) was considered as first step. Significant predictors for each sub-region among lagged climatic input variables were selected using Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA). Climate classification: 1) discovered homogenous sub-regions with a similar rainfall patterns and investigated spatiotemporal rainfall variations in the area, 2) allowed selection of significant predictors with a fine resolution for each area, 3) improved the prediction model and increased model accuracy. PCA was used to reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to remove the rainfall time series correlation. K-means clustering was used on the loadings of PCs describing 93% of long-term monthly rainfall variations. The analysis was repeated for different numbers of sub-regions (3 - 8) to identify the best number of clusters to improve the forecast model performance. Subsequently, a Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. After these two stages of pre-processing, a Neural Network model was developed and optimized for each of the sub-regions as well as for the entire area. It is concluded

  9. Attributions of meteorological and emission factors to the 2015 winter severe haze pollution episodes in Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tingting; Gong, Sunling; Yu, Meng; Zhao, Qichao; Li, Huairui; HE, JIANJUN; Jie ZHANG; Li, Lei; Wang, Xuguan; Li, Shuli; Lu, Yanli; Du, Haitao; Wang, Yaqiang; Zhou, Chunhong; Liu, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    Northern China in the 2015 winter months of November and December has witnessed the most severe air pollution phenomena since the 2013 winter haze events occurred, which triggered the first ever Red Alert in the air pollution control history of Beijing, with an instantaneous PM2.5 concentration over 1 mg m−3. Analysis and modeling results show that the worsening meteorology conditions are the main reason behind this unusual increase of air pollutant concentrations and the ...

  10. Time-Lagging Interplay Effect and Excess Risk of Meteorological/Mosquito Parameters and Petrochemical Gas Explosion on Dengue Incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ko Chang; Chaur-Dong Chen; Chien-Ming Shih; Tzu-Chi Lee; Ming-Tsang Wu; Deng-Chyang Wu; Yen-Hsu Chen; Chih-Hsing Hung; Meng-Chieh Wu; Chun-Chi Huang; Chien-Hung Lee; Chi-Kung Ho

    2016-01-01

    In Kaohsiung, a metropolitan city in Taiwan at high risk of dengue epidemic, weather factors combined with an accidental petrochemical gas explosion (PGE) may affect mosquito‒human dynamics in 2014. Generalized estimating equations with lagged-time Poisson regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of meteorological/mosquito parameters and PGE on dengue incidences (2000–2014) in Kaohsiung. Increased minimum temperatures rendered a 2- and 3-month lagging interactive effect on higher ...

  11. Analysis of some meteorological parameters using artificial neural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-08-26

    Aug 26, 2010 ... artificial neural network method for Makurdi, Nigeria. Chukwu, S. C.1*, and ... the effects of meteorological parameters and finally prediction of solar ... intelligence techniques and are data-driven. Essentially,. ANN are used to ...

  12. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario...... of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological obser-vations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observa-tional data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced....... However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties...

  13. Variability of surface meteorological parameters over the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Fernandes, A.A.

    The trends and periodicities of surface meteorological parameters (sea surface temperature, air temperature, cloudiness, wind speed and sea level pressure) over the western, central, eastern and southern Arabian Sea regions are studied...

  14. A ship-borne meteorological station for ground truth measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, B.A.E.

    Oceanographic upwelling studies required ground truth measurements of meteorological parameters and sea surface temperature to be made from a research vessel which did not have the necessary facilities. A ship-borne station was therefore designed...

  15. Challenges and Opportunities in Urban Meteorology Research and Forecast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yingchun; Wu Dui; Li Ju; Chen Fei; Lenschow Donald; Sun Jielun; Niyogi Dev; Lau Kaihon; Jiang Weimei; Ding Guoan

    2005-01-01

    @@ An international workshop on urban meteorology: observation and modeling, was jointly held by the Institute of Urban Meteorology ( China ) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (US) in Beijing, October, 2004. The workshop was intended to share recent progress in urban meteorological research, discuss issues related to research and development priorities faced by diverse Chinese institutions, and explore collaboration opportunities between Chinese and US research institutions. This article summarizes the major issues discussed at the workshop, including observation on urban boundary layer, urban landuse modeling, socio-economic impacts of weather and climates, and air quality in urban environment. It includes recommendations for future urban meteorology observational and modeling research, and potential collaborative opportunities between China and US.

  16. Developing International Standards for Meteorological Balloon to Facilitate Industrial Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yizhi

    2011-01-01

    Meteorological balloon is made of natural rubber latex with a special process.On natural conditions,it carries the air sounding instrument into the high air to detect the meteorological elements in the air.As a means of delivery used in the aerological sounding,it is widely used in the meteorological,sailing,aeronautical,aerospace and other fields,and plays an extremely important role in the weather report,disaster prevention,disaster relief,guaranteeing ships and aircrafts to leave ports safely,and scientific research in relevant spaces,etc.Especially,the role of meteorological balloons is not ignorable in the forecast of extremely adverse weather frequently occurring around the world in recent years.

  17. A FEDERATED PARTNERSHIP FOR URBAN METEOROLOGICAL AND AIR QUALITY MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, applications of urban meteorological and air quality models have been performed at resolutions on the order of km grid sizes. This necessitated development and incorporation of high resolution landcover data and additional boundary layer parameters that serve to descri...

  18. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) - Space Weather Sensors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) maintains a constellation of sun-synchronous, near-polar orbiting satellites. The orbital period is 101 minutes...

  19. Meteorological effects on the incidence of pneumococcal bacteremia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Thomsen, Reimar W.

    perform an 8-year longitudinal population-based ecological study in a Danish county to examine whether foregoing changes in meteorological parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and wind velocity, predicted variations in pneumococcal bacteremia (PB) incidence....

  20. About the database of Meteorological and Environmental Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Until now,Meteorological and Environmental Research [ISSN: 2152 - 3940] has been included by CAS and CABI from 2010.CAS is a division of the American Chemical Society established in 1907,and is the most authoritative and comprehensive