WorldWideScience

Sample records for monthly labor review

  1. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  2. Monthly Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  3. Child labor: An integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Técia Maria Santos Carneiro e Cordeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the knowledge available in the SciELO database of regarding child labor. It is an integrative review in SciELO Brazil database with the following selection criteria: a articles published in national journals; b articles published between 2010 to June 2011; c articles indexed in Portuguese; d addressing the child labor. The documentary corpus consists of six papers. The results point to the scarcity of publications for health professionals and the state of Bahia, the largest proportion of exploitation of child labor in rural areas, in males and in low income families, interference with the growing and physical and psychological development of children, and strategic proposals to combat the exploitation of child labor, combat poverty and compliance of the laws. It is concluded that child labor need to be the subject of debates, lectures, seminars and scientific researches to address the importance of this issue in society, its consequences, constitute a problem that economic, social, collective and that involves public health

  4. CHILD LABOR: AN INTEGRATIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Técia Maria Santos Carneiro e Cordeiro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the knowledge available in the SciELO database of regarding child labor. It is an integrative review in SciELO Brazil database with the following selection criteria: a articles published in national journals; b articles published between 2010 to June 2011; c articles indexed in Portuguese; d addressing the child labor. The documentary corpus consists of six papers. The results point to the scarcity of publications for health professionals and the state of Bahia, the largest proportion of exploitation of child labor in rural areas, in males and in low income families, interference with the growing and physical and psychological development of children, and strategic proposals to combat the exploitation of child labor, combat poverty and compliance of the laws. It is concluded that child labor need to be the subject of debates, lectures, seminars and scientific researches to address the importance of this issue in society, its consequences, constitute a problem that economic, social, collective and that involves public health.

  5. Monthly energy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  6. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  7. Monthly Energy Review, July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-07-27

    The Monthly Energy Review is prepared by the Energy Information Administration. Topics discussed include: Energy Overview, Energy Consumption, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Oil and Gas Resource Development, Coal, Electricity, Nuclear Energy, Energy Prices, International Energy. (VC)

  8. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  9. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  10. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  11. Monthly energy review, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 36 figs., 61 tabs.

  12. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  13. Monthly energy review, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  14. Monthly energy review, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  15. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  16. Monthly energy review, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 75 tabs.

  17. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  18. Monthly energy review, August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  19. Monthly energy review, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  20. Monthly energy review, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  1. Monthly energy review, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  2. Monthly energy review, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-25

    The Monthly Energy Review provides an overview of the production, distribution, and consumption of energy derived from petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. It also discusses oil and gas resource development, energy prices, and issues relevant to international energy markets.

  3. Monthly energy review, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review contains statistical data on the following: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. In addition, an energy overview is provided, and, for the April issue, Energy use and carbon emissions; Some international comparisons.

  4. Monthly energy review, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Monthly Energy Review provides information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  5. Monthly energy review, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  6. Monthly energy review, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-26

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities.

  7. Monthly energy review, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  8. Monthly energy review, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  9. Monthly energy review, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Energy production during December 1997 totaled 5.9 quadrillion Btu, a 2.8 percent increase from the level of production during December 1996. Coal production increased 9.5 percent, natural gas production increased 3.9 percent, and production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.1 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.9 percent from the level of production during December 1996.

  10. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  11. Monthly energy review: April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This monthly report presents an overview of energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. A section is also included on international energy. The feature paper which is included each month is entitled ``Energy equipment choices: Fuel costs and other determinants.`` 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  12. Monthly Energy Review, February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    This monthly publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics, covering the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief descriptions (`energy plugs`) on two EIA publications are presented at the start.

  13. Monthly energy review, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-26

    This publication presents information for the month of August, 1993 on the following: Energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices, and international energy.

  14. Monthly energy review, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Activities covered include: U.S. production, consumption, trade, stock, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  15. Monthly energy review, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  16. Monthly energy review, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-26

    This publication presents information for the month of August, 1993 on the following: Energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices, and international energy.

  17. Monthly energy review, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy data. A brief summary of the monthly and historical comparison data is provided in Section 1 of the report. A highlight section of the report provides an assessment of summer 1997 motor gasoline price increases.

  18. Monthly energy review, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum,natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal metric conversion factors.

  19. Monthly energy review, July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document presents an overview of the recent monthly energy statistics from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Statistical data covers activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels , nuclear energy, and electricity. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  20. Monthly energy review, November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal and metric conversion factors are included.

  1. Monthly energy review, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report presents an overview of monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal metric conversion factors are included.

  2. Monthly energy review, December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-22

    This document provides data on monthly energy use and fossil fuels. The following sections are included: Highlights: Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1985--1990; Highlights: assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities; energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices; and international energy.

  3. Monthly energy review, October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided for oil and gas resource development. International energy statistics are given for petroleum production, consumption, and stocks, and for nuclear electricity gross generation. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  4. Monthly energy review, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-21

    This publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. An energy preview of alternative fuel providers vehicle fleet surveys is included. The publication is intended for use by members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  5. 20 CFR 656.26 - Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals review of denials of labor certification. 656.26 Section 656.26 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR CERTIFICATION PROCESS FOR PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor...

  6. Monthly energy review, September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided on international energy, including petroleum production, consumption, and stocks and nuclear electricity gross generation. This issues provides a brief industry overview and a detailed analysis of the spring 1996 gasoline price runup, crude oil supply issues, U.S. crude oil imports, petroleum stocks, futures markets, refining cash margin trends, and the financial performance of U.S. refining and marketing firms. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  7. Monthly Energy Review, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Energy production during November 1997 totaled 5.6 quadrillion Btu, a 0.3-percent decrease from the level of production during November 1996. Natural gas production increased 2.8 percent, production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.7 percent, and coal production decreased 1.6 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 1.1 percent from the level of production during November 1996. Energy consumption during November 1997 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 0.1 percent above the level of consumption during November 1996. Consumption of natural gas increased 1.5 percent, consumption of coal fell 0.3 percent, while consumption of petroleum products decreased 0.2 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 0.8 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during November 1997 totaled 1.7 quadrillion Btu, 8.6 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 6.3 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 1.2 percent. Net exports of coal fell 17.8 percent from the level in November 1996.

  8. Remifentanil for labor analgesia: an evidence-based narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, M; Carvalho, B

    2016-02-01

    This manuscript reviews the available literature on remifentanil patient-controlled intravenous analgesia in labor focusing on efficacy and safety. Remifentanil compares favorably to other potent systemic opioids but with fewer opioid-related neonatal effects. However, remifentanil provides modest and short-lasting labor analgesia that is consistently inferior when compared to neuraxial analgesia. The initial analgesic effect provided with remifentanil also diminishes as labor progresses. In several studies, remifentanil induced significant respiratory depressant effects in laboring women with episodes of desaturation, hypoventilation and even apnea. Given the safety concerns, we recommend that remifentanil patient-controlled intravenous analgesia should not be a routine analgesia technique during labor. In cases where neuraxial analgesia is refused or contraindicated and the use of remifentanil justified, continuous and careful monitoring is required to detect respiratory depression to provide safe care of both the pregnant woman and unborn child.

  9. Judicial Review of Labor Arbitration Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Reynolds C.

    The review of grievance arbitration awards in public education constitutes the topic of this second chapter in a book on school law. A discussion of landmark cases outside of education underscores the general principles that have motivated courts to undertake review of arbitration awards. Supreme Court decisions in three cases known as the…

  10. "Active labor" duration and dilation rates among low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jeremy L; Lowe, Nancy K; Ahijevych, Karen L; Patrick, Thelma E; Cabbage, Lori A; Corwin, Elizabeth J

    2010-01-01

    Laboring women are often admitted to labor units under criteria that are commonly associated with the onset of active-phase labor (i.e., cervical dilatation of 3-5 cm in the presence of regular contractions). Beginning with these criteria through complete dilatation, this systematic review describes labor duration and cervical dilation rates among low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset. Studies published in English (between 1990 and 2008) were identified via MEDLINE and CINAHL searches. Data were abstracted and weighted "active labor" durations (i.e., from 3-5 cm through complete dilatation) and linear dilation rates were calculated. Eighteen studies (n = 7009) reported mean "active labor" duration. The weighted mean duration was 6.0 hours, and the calculated dilation rate was 1.2 cm per hour. These findings closely parallel those found at the median. At the statistical limits, the weighted "active labor" duration was 13.4 hours (mean + 2 standard deviations) and the dilation rate was 0.6 cm per hour (mean - 2 standard deviations). These findings indicate that nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset have longer "active" labors and therefore slower dilation rates than are traditionally associated with active labor when commonly used criteria are applied as the starting point. Revision of existing active labor expectations and/or criteria used to prospectively identify active phase onset is warranted. Copyright 2010 American College of Nurse-Midwives. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Historical monthly energy review, 1973--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Historical Monthly Energy Review (HMER) presents monthly and annual data from 1973 through 1992 on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities. This edition of the HMER extends the original HMER in several ways: (1) Four additional years of monthly data, 1989--1992, have been added. (2) This report fully replaces the earlier one; each data cell that has been revised since the original HMER is marked with an ``R`` so that changes can be quickly noted. (3) Section 1 has been expanded to include Tables 1.7--1.13, which were not available in the first HMER. (4) Tables 3.9 on propane and Table 4.3 on natural gas trade, which have been added to the MER since the release of the first HMER, are included in this edition. In addition, Table 10.4 on nuclear electricity gross generation has been reorganized to align more closely with the current presentation in the MER.

  12. The labor share: A review of theory and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Dorothee

    2011-01-01

    The labor share is defined as the share of value added which is payed out to workers. It is therefore often also called the wage share. Generally it is assumed that value added is produced with capital and labor as input factors so that Y = F(K;L) where Y is value added or output, K the capital input, and L labor.

  13. 77 FR 26430 - Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings; Negotiability Proceedings; Review of Arbitration Awards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... requests for Federal Service Impasses Panel assistance in the resolution of negotiation impasses. See 77 FR... Proceedings; Review of Arbitration Awards; Miscellaneous and General Requirements AGENCY: Federal Labor... Practice Proceedings, part 2424, Negotiability Proceedings, part 2425, Review of Arbitration Awards,...

  14. Canadian Women's Labor Force Behavior: A Forty Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Janet E.; Skrypnek, Berna J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three dimensions of labor force behavior: participation, attachment, and commitment. Presents a picture of trends in Canadian women's labor force behavior over the last 40 years using existing data. Discusses the implications of these trends for family life and corporate and public policy. (JOW)

  15. Paliperidone Palmitate Intramuscular 3-Monthly Formulation: A Review in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Yvette N; Keating, Gillian M

    2016-10-01

    A 3-monthly formulation of intramuscular paliperidone palmitate (3-monthly paliperidone palmitate) has recently been approved for the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adult patients in the EU (Trevicta(®)), following earlier approval in the USA (Invega Trinza(®)). This narrative review discusses the clinical use of 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adult patients and summarizes its pharmacological properties. The efficacy of the 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate formulation as a maintenance treatment for schizophrenia has been demonstrated in well designed, phase III trials. Three-monthly paliperidone palmitate was more effective than placebo in delaying time to relapse and reducing relapse rates, and was noninferior to 1-monthly paliperidone palmitate in the proportion of patients that remained relapse-free. The 3-monthly formulation was also more effective than placebo in controlling the symptoms of schizophrenia, whilst not differing significantly from the 1-monthly formulation in terms of symptomatic control. Three-monthly paliperidone palmitate was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with a tolerability profile consistent with that of the 1-monthly formulation. In conclusion, 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate is a useful treatment option for adult patients with schizophrenia who are adequately treated with the 1-monthly formulation, particularly for those who would prefer, or may benefit from, longer dosing intervals.

  16. The Threat Effect of Active Labor Market Programs: A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Hansen, Anne Toft

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of the threat effect of active labor market programs for unemployed individuals. The threat effect is the induced change in the hazard rate of leaving unemployment prior to program participation. Studies included in the review all estimated a threat effect...... a hazard rate of 1.27 for the pooled estimate. It has thus been concluded that active labor market programs constitute a significant threat effect....

  17. Maternal position during the first stage of labor: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Cecatti Jose G; Miquelutti Maria A; Souza João P; Makuch Maria Y

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Policy makers and health professionals are progressively using evidence-based rationale to guide their decisions. There has long been controversy regarding which maternal position is more appropriate during the first stage of labor. This problem has been examined often and repeatedly and the optimal recommendation remains unclear. Methods This is a systematic review of the effect of maternal position during the first stage of labor. The main question addressed here is: Doe...

  18. 78 FR 18348 - Submission for OMB Review; Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Submission for OMB Review... submitting to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve an extension of an... agencies to consider the use of a project labor agreement (PLA), as they may decide appropriate, on...

  19. 75 FR 13765 - Submission for OMB Review; Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Submission for OMB Review... submitting to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve a new information... a project labor agreement (PLA), as they may decide appropriate, on large-scale...

  20. Segmented Labor Markets: A Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature and Its Implication for Educational Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin

    The study reviews orthodox theories of labor markets, presents new formulations of segmentation theory, and provides empirical tests of segmentation in the United States and several developing nations. Orthodox labor market theory views labor as being paid for its contribution to production and that investment in education and vocational training…

  1. Balloon catheters for induction of labor at term after previous cesarean section: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Sven; Weiss, Christel; Rath, Werner

    2016-09-01

    To systematically review the application of balloon catheters for cervical ripening and labor induction at term after previous cesarean section. All pregnancies at term with previous cesarean section were included when cervical ripening or labor induction was conducted with balloon catheters. MEDLINE, Cochrane database and bibliography of identified articles were searched for English language studies. Reviews and meta-analysis, randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies as well as case-control studies were considered. A total of 48 potentially relevant studies were identified. The title and abstract were screened for eligibility and 32 articles were excluded. The remaining 16 publications included 1447 women (single-balloon catheter: n=1329, double-balloon catheter: n=118). There were no randomized controlled trials. Most of the trials were retrospective studies (n=10). The rate of uterine rupture after labor induction was low (n=18, 1.2%). Meta-analysis of studies comparing the risk of uterine rupture between labor induction and spontaneous onset of labor found a higher risk after induction (OR 2.45, 95%CI 1.34-4.47, NNH 186). The average rate of oxytocin application was 68.4%, and vaginal birth was achieved in 56.4%. The risk for cesarean delivery was higher when labor was induced (OR 2.63, 95%CI 2.24-3.10). Data on balloon catheters for labor induction after previous cesarean section are limited by small sample size and retrospective analyses. The present data show a moderately increased risk for uterine rupture (OR=2.45) compared to spontaneous onset of labor. However, for evidence based recommendations much more well-conducted trials are needed.

  2. Lesbian women and household labor division: A systematic review of scholarly research from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Melanie E

    2017-01-02

    Recent studies have begun to attend to distribution of household labor within same-gender couples compared to heterosexual couples, yet much of the available research with lesbian couples has attempted to superimpose division of household labor frameworks developed with heterosexual couples (e.g., gender role socialization, exchange bargaining theories) to fit the experiences of same-gender couples. Using two academic search databases, the present article provides a systematic review of the available 28 peer-reviewed articles published from 2000-2015 about lesbian partnerships and household labor divisions. Results indicate that lesbian couples engage in a more equal distribution of household labor than heterosexual couples, and that lesbian women often opt to eschew traditional gendered divisions of chores in favor of other factors such as quality of task or ability. The systematic review uncovered notable constraints in the demography of participants (e.g., race, socioeconomic status, geographic location) across studies. Strategies for deepening the depth and breadth of this line of work for future researchers, and implications for relationship satisfaction are also discussed.

  3. Fetal scalp blood sampling in labor - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weber, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, electronic fetal monitoring and fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) were introduced without robust evidence. With a methodical review of the published literature, and using one randomized controlled trial, seven controlled studies, nine randomized studies of various...... surveillance methods and data from the Danish National Birth Registry, we have assessed the usefulness of FBS as a complementary tool to improve the specificity and sensitivity of electronic cardiotocography (CTG). Based on heterogeneous studies of modest quality with somewhat inconsistent results, we conclude...

  4. Effect of birth ball on labor pain relief: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makvandi, Somayeh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Sadeghi, Ramin; Karimi, Leila

    2015-11-01

    To critically evaluate the available evidence related to the impact of using a birth ball on labor pain relief. The Cochrane library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE/PubMed and Scopus were searched from their inception to January 2015 using keywords: (Birth* OR Swiss OR Swedish OR balance OR fitness OR gym* OR Pezzi OR sport* OR stability) AND (ball*) AND (labor OR labour OR Obstetric). All available randomized controlled trials involving women using a birth ball for pain relief during labor were considered. The search resulted in 341 titles and abstracts, which were narrowed down to eight potentially relevant articles. Of these, four studies met the inclusion criteria. Pain intensity on a 10 cm visual analogue scale was used as the main outcome measure. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2 was used for statistical analysis. Four RCTs involving 220 women were included in the systematic review. One study was excluded from the meta-analysis because of heterogeneous interventions and a lack of mean and standard deviation results of labor pain score. The meta-analysis showed that birth ball exercises provided statistically significant improvements to labor pain (pooled mean difference -0.921; 95% confidence interval -1.28, -0.56; P = 0.0000005; I(2)  = 33.7%). The clinical implementation of a birth ball exercise could be an effective tool for parturient women to reduce labor pain. However, rigorous RCTs are needed to evaluate the effect of the birth ball on labor pain relief. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. The Optimal Pain Management Approach for a Laboring Patient: A Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Albert; Tran, Quang

    2017-05-10

    There is a general agreement that a patient in labor should be given the option to have an epidural block for pain management. Despite this consensus, there are differences in practice patterns as to when to initiate an epidural and how to minimize its impact on the duration and outcome of a patient's labor. A review of the literature suggests epidural analgesia does prolong stages one and two of labor, but not significantly. Cesarean delivery rates are not affected by the early initiation of epidural analgesia. The use of various adjuvants such as opioids, clonidine, and neostigmine in conjunction with local anesthetics solution can significantly reduce the severity of motor blockade and the need for assisted vaginal delivery.

  6. Maternal position during the first stage of labor: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, João P; Miquelutti, Maria A; Cecatti, Jose G; Makuch, Maria Y

    2006-01-01

    Background Policy makers and health professionals are progressively using evidence-based rationale to guide their decisions. There has long been controversy regarding which maternal position is more appropriate during the first stage of labor. This problem has been examined often and repeatedly and the optimal recommendation remains unclear. Methods This is a systematic review of the effect of maternal position during the first stage of labor. The main question addressed here is: Does encouraging women to adopt an upright position or to ambulate during the first stage of labor reduce the duration of this stage? All randomized controlled trials carried out to assess this effect were taken into consideration in this review. The following electronic databases were accessed to identify studies: MEDLINE, Popline, the Scientific Electronic Library On-line and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information. Citation eligibility was independently assessed by two reviewers. The methodological quality of each trial was also evaluated independently by two reviewers and a trial under consideration was included only when consensus had been attained. Allocation concealment and screening for the occurrence of attrition, performance and detection biases were considered when studies were appraised. The decision whether to perform data pooling was based on the clinical similarity of studies. Results The search strategy resulted in 260 citations, of which 18 were assessed in full-text. Nine eligible randomized controlled trials were included in the systematic review. Randomization methods were not fully described in eight studies. The allocation concealment was considered adequate in four studies and unclear in five. The investigators pooled the data from seven studies in which the length of the first stage of labor and results were in favor of the intervention, but the high level of heterogeneity (I2 = 88.4%) impaired the meaning of this finding. The intervention did

  7. Maternal position during the first stage of labor: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecatti Jose G

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers and health professionals are progressively using evidence-based rationale to guide their decisions. There has long been controversy regarding which maternal position is more appropriate during the first stage of labor. This problem has been examined often and repeatedly and the optimal recommendation remains unclear. Methods This is a systematic review of the effect of maternal position during the first stage of labor. The main question addressed here is: Does encouraging women to adopt an upright position or to ambulate during the first stage of labor reduce the duration of this stage? All randomized controlled trials carried out to assess this effect were taken into consideration in this review. The following electronic databases were accessed to identify studies: MEDLINE, Popline, the Scientific Electronic Library On-line and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information. Citation eligibility was independently assessed by two reviewers. The methodological quality of each trial was also evaluated independently by two reviewers and a trial under consideration was included only when consensus had been attained. Allocation concealment and screening for the occurrence of attrition, performance and detection biases were considered when studies were appraised. The decision whether to perform data pooling was based on the clinical similarity of studies. Results The search strategy resulted in 260 citations, of which 18 were assessed in full-text. Nine eligible randomized controlled trials were included in the systematic review. Randomization methods were not fully described in eight studies. The allocation concealment was considered adequate in four studies and unclear in five. The investigators pooled the data from seven studies in which the length of the first stage of labor and results were in favor of the intervention, but the high level of heterogeneity (I2 = 88.4% impaired the meaning of this

  8. Depression and anxiety in labor migrants and refugees--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Jutta; Ehrenstein, Ondine S von; Priebe, Stefan; Mielck, Andreas; Brähler, Elmar

    2009-07-01

    Prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among migrants (i.e. refugees, labor migrants) vary among studies and it's been found that prevalence rates of depression and anxiety may be linked to financial strain in the country of immigration. Our aim is to review studies on prevalence rates of depression and/or anxiety (acknowledging that Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is within that class of disorders), and to evaluate associations between the Gross National Product (GNP) of the immigration country as a moderating factor for depression, anxiety and PTSD among migrants. We carried out a systematic literature review in the databases MEDLINE and EMBASE for population based studies published from 1990 to 2007 reporting prevalence rates of depression and/or anxiety and or PTSD according to DSM- or ICD- criteria in adults, and a calculation of combined estimates for proportions using the DerSimonian-Laird estimation. A total of 348 records were retrieved with 37 publications on 35 populations meeting our inclusion criteria. 35 studies were included in the final evaluation. Our meta-analysis shows that the combined prevalence rates for depression were 20 percent among labor migrants vs. 44 percent among refugees; for anxiety the combined estimates were 21 percent among labor migrants vs. 40 percent among (n=24,051) refugees. Higher GNP in the country of immigration was related to lower symptom prevalence of depression and/or anxiety in labor migrants but not in refugees. We conclude that depression and/or anxiety in labor migrants and refugees require separate consideration, and that better economic conditions in the host country reflected by a higher GNP appear to be related to better mental health in labor migrants but not in refugees.

  9. Labor market work and home care's unpaid caregivers: a systematic review of labor force participation rates, predictors of labor market withdrawal, and hours of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-12-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for "intensive" caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers.

  10. The Threat Effect of Active Labor Market Programs: A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Hansen, Anne Toft

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of the threat effect of active labor market programs for unemployed individuals. The threat effect is the induced change in the hazard rate of leaving unemployment prior to program participation. Studies included in the review all estimated a threat effect......, with the participants in all cases being unemployed individuals in receipt of benefit of some kind during their tenure of unemployment. Seven of these studies have been included in a meta-analysis: The meta-analysis, which has been carried out using a random effects model to account for heterogeneity, indicated...... a hazard rate of 1.27 for the pooled estimate. It has thus been concluded that active labor market programs constitute a significant threat effect....

  11. High-dose vs low-dose oxytocin for labor augmentation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Qin; Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Qi, Hui-Ping; Xu, Hairong; Fraser, William D

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to estimate the efficacy and safety of high-dose vs low-dose oxytocin for labor augmentation on the risk of cesarean section and on indicators of maternal and neonatal morbidity. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for randomized clinical trials published until January 2010. Ten randomized clinical trials, including 5423 women, met the inclusion criteria. High-dose oxytocin was associated with a moderate decrease in the risk of cesarean section (relative risk [RR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.97), a small increase in spontaneous vaginal delivery (RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12), and a decrease in labor duration (mean difference: -1.54 hours, 95% CI, -2.44 to -0.64). While hyperstimulation was increased with high-dose oxytocin (RR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.49-2.45), there was no evidence of an increase in maternal or neonatal morbidity. We conclude that high-dose oxytocin for labor augmentation is associated with a decrease in cesarean section and shortened labor. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A review of evidence-based practices for management of the second stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopas, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    Management of the second stage of labor often follows tradition-based routines rather than evidence-based practices. This review of second-stage labor care practices discusses risk factors for perineal trauma and prolonged second stage and scrutinizes a variety of care practices including positions, styles of pushing, use of epidural analgesia, and perineal support techniques. Current evidence for management of the second stage of labor supports the practices of delayed pushing, spontaneous (nondirected) pushing, and maternal choice of positions. Perineal compresses, perineal massage with a lubricant, and controlling the rate of fetal extension during crowning may prevent severe perineal trauma at birth. Supine positioning is not recommended. Upright positions and directed pushing can shorten the time from onset of second stage to birth and may be indicated in certain situations, although directed pushing has some associated risks. If the fetus is in the occiput posterior position, immediate pushing is not recommended, and manual rotation can be effective in correcting the malposition. Women should be informed of the potential effects of epidural analgesia on labor progress. Consultation and intervention to expedite birth may be indicated when birth is not imminent after 2 hours of active pushing, or 4 hours complete dilatation, for nulliparous women; or one hour of pushing, or 2 hours complete dilatation, for multiparous women. Each woman should be individually assessed and apprised of the potential risks to her and her fetus of a prolonged second stage of labor, and some women may choose to continue pushing beyond these time limits. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  13. Transient Horner syndrome following epidural anesthesia for labor: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Ramez; Tome, Riad; Barua, Ankur; Barbara, Adel; Gaitini, Luis; Odeh, Marwan; Garzozi, Hanna

    2011-02-01

    Epidural anesthesia is a widely used method for pain control during labor; nevertheless, it is not without risks. Horner syndrome is an uncommon related complication. We report a case of transient Horner syndrome following epidural anesthesia and a review of the literature. We discuss the pathophysiologic and contributing factors to this syndrome and its potential complications. Obstetricians & gynecologists, family physicians. After completion of this activity, physicians will be able to educate healthcare professionals working on the labor ward to be able to estimate the small incidence of Horner Syndrome following epidural anesthesia administered in labor. This will result in optimal management and will minimize the need for costly and inappropriate diagnostic investigations. The reader will also be able to compare the difference in the incidence of Horner syndrome following epidural anesthesia, as reported in the literature; appraise the clinical presentation, the pathophysiology, and the mechanism of Horner syndrome developing as a complication of regional anesthesia; and analyze the different theories proposed in the reported cases in the literature.

  14. Review: Eicosanoids in preterm labor and delivery: Potential roles of exosomes in eicosanoid functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, H N; Vaswani, K; Almughlliq, F; Koh, Y Q; Mitchell, M D

    2016-12-09

    Preterm delivery is a major obstetric health problem contributing to poor neonatal outcome including low birth weight, respiratory distress syndrome, gastrointestinal, immunologic, central nervous system, hearing, and vision problems. Worldwide, approximately 15 million babies are born prematurely each year. The critical question which remains is how to identify women destined to deliver preterm from those who will achieve a term delivery. Prostaglandins, in all mammals are important in the parturient process. Increased intrauterine prostaglandin production is associated with labor and in fact prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or analogs are widely used clinically for cervical ripening and labor induction. Measurements of circulating eicosanoids have been problematic because of the rapid and major clearance by the lungs and then kidneys resulting in very low concentrations in plasma. Moreover, since eicosanoids are produced by all mammalian tissues, the sources of the measured eicosanoids are unknown. Our understanding of how cells communicate has undergone a paradigm shift with the recognition of the role of exosomes in intercellular signaling. Recent publications have identified enzymes and products of arachidonic acid metabolism (eicosanoids) within exosomes. This review will explore the potential roles of exosomes in eicosanoid functions that are critical in preterm labor and delivery.

  15. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life in Brazil: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Siqueira Boccolini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life in Brazil. METHODS Systematic review of epidemiological studies conducted in Brazil with exclusive breastfeeding as outcome. Medline and LILACS databases were used. After the selection of articles, a hierarchical theoretical model was proposed according to the proximity of the variable to the outcome. RESULTS Of the 67 articles identified, we selected 20 cross-sectional studies and seven cohort studies, conducted between 1998 and 2010, comprising 77,866 children. We identified 36 factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding, being more often associated the distal factors: place of residence, maternal age and education, and the proximal factors: maternal labor, age of the child, use of a pacifier, and financing of primary health care. CONCLUSIONS The theoretical model developed may contribute to future research, and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding may subsidize public policies on health and nutrition.

  16. Factors implicated in the initiation of human parturition in term and preterm labor: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanos, Konstantinos; Dagklis, Themistoklis; Petousis, Stamatios; Margioula-Siarkou, Chrysoula; Prapas, Yannis; Prapas, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    After accommodating the pregnancy for an average of 40 weeks, the uterus expels the fetus, the placenta and the membranes through the birth canal in a process named parturition. The absolute sequence of events that trigger and sustain human parturition are not yet fully clarified. Evidence suggests that spontaneous preterm and term labor seem to share a common inflammatory pathway. However, there are several other factors being involved in the initiation of human parturition. Placental corticotropin releasing hormone production seems to serve as a placental clock that might be set to ring earlier or later determining the duration of pregnancy and timing of labor. Estrogens do not cause contractions but their properties seem to capacitate uterus to coordinate and enhance contractions. Cytokines, prostaglandins, nitric oxide and steroids seem also to induce ripening by mediating remodeling of the extracellular matrix and collagen. Infection and microbe invasion resulting in chorioamnionitis also represents a common cause of early preterm labour. This review provides an overview of all these factors considered to be implicated in the initiation of human parturition.

  17. Signs of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: March, 2014 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  18. Stages of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: May, 2014 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  19. MONTHLY REVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Bird flu researchThe central government has allocated 100 million yuan (US$ 12 million) in special funding for researchinto bird flu, a spokesman with China’s National Avian Influenza Prevention Headquarters said on 9 February.The funding would be used to develop vaccines, technology and products for rapid diagnosis, analysis of mutations of the virus, new transmission channels and technology for prevention and control, and the screening of anti-virus drugs, said the spokesman.

  20. Inducing labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labor induction; Pregnancy - inducing labor; Prostaglandin - inducing labor; Oxytocin - inducing labor ... threaten the health of you or your baby. Oxytocin may also be started after a woman's labor has started, but her contractions have not been ...

  1. Women and the Economy: A Bibliography and Review of the Literature on Sex Differentiation in the Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Andrew I.; And Others

    The booklet presents (1) a bibliography of approximately 660 references to literature about sex discrimination in the labor market and (2) an expository review of recent research about male/female differences in earnings and occupational assignments. The bibliography is divided into 12 content categories. These include earnings of women workers,…

  2. Children of Working Mothers. Special Labor Force Report. Bulletin 2158.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Part of a Special Labor Force Report series, this bulletin on children of working mothers discusses the increase in the number of children with working mothers as of March 1981, and describes major reasons for this growth. The bulletin consists of an article first published February 1982 in the "Monthly Labor Review," additional tables providing…

  3. Clinchfield Coal Co. v. District 28, United Mine Workers: a standard for judicial review of labor arbitration awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, C.L.

    A review of the Clinchfield Coal Company case suggests that the Fourth Circuit Court may be expanding the limitations that the Steelworkers Trilogy established in terms of the judicial review standards in federal labor law. The decision signals coal companies that the parties to collective bargaining agreements are responsible for the quality of their arbitrators in keeping with the philosophy of industrial self-government. If new standards are evolving, it may indicate that such self-government is not working. If the industry seeks court review, it may end up with decisions that are more onerous in the long term than isolated arbitration decisions.

  4. Electrocardiogram ST Analysis During Labor : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saccone, Gabriele; Schuit, Ewoud; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis; Xodo, Serena; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of cardiotocography plus ST analysis with cardiotocography alone during labor. DATA SOURCES: Randomized controlled trials were identified by searching electronic databases. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We included all randomized controlled trials comparing intr

  5. Electrocardiogram ST Analysis During Labor : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saccone, Gabriele; Schuit, Ewoud; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis; Xodo, Serena; Berghella, Vincenzo

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of cardiotocography plus ST analysis with cardiotocography alone during labor. DATA SOURCES: Randomized controlled trials were identified by searching electronic databases. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We included all randomized controlled trials comparing

  6. The Debate on Globalization and International Revitalization of Labor. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fleming

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some alternative or critical theoretical contributions regarding globalization and labor. The main question in this discussion is if there are changes in direction of a possible revitalization of labor movements and if international solidarity can increase due to globalization. This question also relates to discussions of changes in division of work, the concept of work, working class, commodification, decommodification, and new centers of global production—all related to different paradigms or new concepts. The reason or need for reconceptualizing comes from the great transformation of capitalism in forms of neoliberal globalization, in a different direction than predicted by Polanyi. That is, instead of increased public sector decommodification (not profit- or market-oriented production and national regulation, embedding capitalist markets, as seen after 1945, the last three decades have witnessed a countertransformation and large-scale recommodification by privatizing, disembedding, and deregulating global markets. As a consequence, inequality in income and working life conditions has increased in most countries and been used to press trade unions. Western industrial unions have been declining as many industries and labor-intensive, low-paid jobs moved to developing countries. Most blue-collar jobs are now in Asia, especially China, with about one-third of its employment blue collars. Is the center of global capital-labor contradictions and dynamics moving to the South, with a possibility of a new revitalization of labor and international solidarity? We discuss different optimistic and pessimistic views on a possible international revitalization of labor.

  7. A review of statistical analyses on monthly and daily rainfall in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A review on recent studies about monthly and daily rainfall in Catalonia is presented. Monthly rainfall is analysed along the west Mediterranean Coast and in Catalonia, quantifying aspects as the irregularity of monthly amounts and the spatial distribution of the Standard Precipitation Index. Several statistics are applied to daily rainfall series such as their extreme value and intraannual spatial distributions, the variability of the average and standard deviation rain amounts for each month, their amount and time distributions, and time trends affecting four pluviometric indices for different percentiles and class intervals. All these different analyses constitute the continuity of the scientific study of Catalan rainfall, which started about a century ago.

  8. Prevalence of preterm labor in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Katayon Vakilian; Mehdi Ranjbaran; Mahboobeh Khorsandi; Naser Sharafkhani; Mahmoud Khodadost

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preterm labor, which defines as live-birth delivery before 37 weeks of gestation is a main determinant of neonatal morbidity and mortality around the world. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of preterm labor in Iran by a meta-analysis study, to be as a final measure for policy makers in this field. Materials and Methods: In this meta-analysis, the databases of Thomson database (Web of Knowledge), PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, S...

  9. ‘ACTIVE LABOR’ DURATION AND DILATION RATES AMONG LOW-RISK, NULLIPAROUS WOMEN WITH SPONTANEOUS LABOR ONSET: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jeremy L.; Lowe, Nancy K.; Ahijevych, Karen L.; Patrick, Thelma E.; Cabbage, Lori A.; Corwin, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Laboring women are often admitted to labor units under criteria commonly associated with the onset of active phase labor, i.e., cervical dilatation of 3–5 cm in the presence of regular contractions. Beginning with these criteria through complete dilatation, this systematic review describes labor duration and cervical dilation rates among low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset. Methods Studies published in English (1990–2008) were identified via MEDLINE and CINAHL searches. Data were abstracted and weighted ‘active labor’ durations (i.e., from 3–5 cm through complete dilatation) and linear dilation rates were calculated. Results Eighteen studies (n = 7009) reported mean ‘active labor’ duration. The weighted mean duration was 6.0 hrs and the calculated dilation rate was 1.2 cm/hr. These findings closely parallel those found at the median. At the statistical limits, the weighted ‘active labor’ duration was 13.4 hrs (mean + 2 SD) and the dilation rate was 0.6 cm/hr (mean − 2 SD). Conclusions Nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset have longer ‘active’ labors and, hence, slower dilation rates than are traditionally associated with active labor when commonly used criteria are applied as the starting point. Revision of existing active labor expectations and/or criteria used to prospectively identify active phase onset is warranted. PMID:20630357

  10. A Rare Adrenal Mass in a 3-Month-Old: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Garg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-month-old female infant presented with abdominal distention for 2 months. A large palpable mass in right upper quadrant was noted on physical exam. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a large heterogeneous mass with multiple cystic components. Mass was surgically excised and pathology was consistent with mature adrenal teratoma. Teratoma is a germ cell tumor mainly found in gonadal tissues. Occurrence of adrenal gland teratoma in children is very rare with less than 10 pediatric case reports in English literature. We present a rare case of primary adrenal tumor in an infant and a review of the literature.

  11. 77 FR 3286 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Labor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Training Administration (ETA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) revision titled, ``Labor Condition Application for H-1B, H-1B1, and E-3 Non-immigrants,'' (Form ETA-9035 and ETA-9035E) to the Office..., Employment and Training Administration (ETA), Office of Management and Budget, Room 10235, Washington,...

  12. Preterm Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm labor is labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It can lead to premature ... babies may face serious health risks. Symptoms of preterm labor include Contractions every 10 minutes or more ...

  13. Effect of labor analgesia on labor outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Stephen H; Abdallah, Faraj W

    2010-06-01

    Labor is among the most painful experiences that humans encounter. Neuraxial analgesia is the most effective means of treating this pain. In this review, we discussed the effect of neuraxial analgesia on the progress of labor when compared with parenteral opioids. We then compared initiation of analgesia with a combined spinal-epidural technique (CSE) to conventional epidural analgesia. Finally we discussed the impact of neuraxial analgesia, given early in labor, compared with later administration. Compared with parenteral opioids, neuraxial analgesia does not increase the incidence of cesarean section, although it is associated with a longer (approximately 16 min) second stage of labor. The incidence of operative vaginal delivery is higher in the epidural group but this may be due to indirect reasons such as changes in physician behavior. There was no difference in labor outcome when CSE was compared with low-concentration epidural analgesia, but higher concentrations may prolong labor. Early administration of neuraxial analgesia does not increase the incidence of operative delivery or prolong labor. Neuraxial analgesia does not interfere with the progress or outcome of labor. There is no need to withhold neuraxial analgesia until the active stage of labor.

  14. Expert systems and the CPI product substitution review: A needs analysis for the US Bureau of Labor Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrowood, L.F.; Tonn, B.E.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents recommendations relative to the use of expert systems and machine learning techniques by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to substantially automate product substitution decisions associated with the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Thirteen commercially available, PC-based expert system shells have received in-depth evaluations. Various machine learning techniques were also reviewed. Two recommendations are given: (1) BLS should use the expert system shell LEVEL5 OBJECT and establish a software development methodology for expert systems; and (2) BLS should undertake a small study to evaluate the potential of machine learning techniques to create and maintain the approximately 350 ELI-specific knowledge bases to be used in CPI product substitution review.

  15. El presente como Historia. Se extingue la primera generación de Monthly Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar Solé, Salvador

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the death of the American political economist Paul M. Sweezy, this article puts forward an assessment of his intellectual and political career as well as that of his main institutional creation, namely, the American monthly journal Monthly Review: An independent socialist magazine. The impact of both on the social sciences of the second half of the 20th century, as well as on the politics of the New Left of this period, is also assessed. The main point is that Sweezy and Monthly Review have forcefully contributed to the renewal of several branches of modern social science (notably, political economy and sociology of development, although their contribution to macrosociology and macrohistory in their contribution both to the knowledge of capitalism as a historical system and of the social structure of the soviet-type societies has also to be mentioned, of marxist thought and of the emerging styles of radical left politics in the West.Con ocasión de la muerte del economista político norteamericano Paul M. Sweezy, el artículo propone un balance de la trayectoria intelectual y política de éste y de su principal creación institucional, la revista mensual norteamericana Monthly Review: Revista socialista independiente, así como del impacto de ambos tanto en las ciencias sociales de la segunda mitad del siglo XX, como en la política de la Nueva Izquierda occidental durante este mismo periodo. La idea central es que ambas han contribuido de manera vigorosa a renovar algunas de las especialidades de la ciencia social contemporánea (notablemente, la economía política y la sociología del desarrollo, aunque también es digna de mención su contribución a la macrosociología y a la macrohistoria por sus aportes al conocimiento del capitalismo como sistema histórico y de la estructura social de las sociedades de modelo soviético, el pensamiento marxista y los modos emergentes de hacer política de la izquierda radical

  16. Prevalence of preterm labor in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayon Vakilian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm labor, which defines as live-birth delivery before 37 weeks of gestation is a main determinant of neonatal morbidity and mortality around the world. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of preterm labor in Iran by a meta-analysis study, to be as a final measure for policy makers in this field. Materials and Methods: In this meta-analysis, the databases of Thomson database (Web of Knowledge, PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, Iranmedex, Scientific Information Database (SID, Magiran, and Medlib were searched for articles in English and Persian language published between 1995 and 2014. Among the studies with regard to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 14 studies (out of 1370 publications were selected. Data were analyzed by using Stata software version 11. The heterogeneity of reported prevalence among studies was evaluated by the Chi-square based Q test and I2 statistics. Results: The results of Chi-square based on Q test and I2 statistics revealed severe heterogeneity (Q=2505.12, p-value < 0.001 and I2= 99.5% and consequently, the random effect model was used for the meta-analysis. Based on the random effect model, the overall estimated prevalence of preterm in Iran was 9.2% (95% CI: 7.6 – 10.7. Conclusion: Present study summarized the results of previous studies and provided a comprehensive view about the preterm delivery in Iran. In order to achieve a more desirable level and its reduction in the coming years, identifying affecting factor and interventional and preventive actions seem necessary.

  17. Septic Arthritis in Infants Younger Than 3 Months: A Retrospective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Kenneth T; Samora, Julie Balch; Klingele, Kevin E

    2015-09-01

    Septic arthritis in infants is rare and can be difficult to diagnose. This study reviewed a series of patients younger than 3 months to identify factors that may assist in early diagnosis and treatment. A query of records at a large Midwestern pediatric hospital (1994-2010) was performed to identify all patients younger than 3 months at the time of diagnosis. Analysis included birth history, joint involvement, physical examination findings, laboratory results, imaging results, method of treatment, and outcome. In 14 cases (11 boys, 3 girls; mean age at diagnosis, 42.2 days), complete records were available for review. Involved joints included the knee, hip, and shoulder. The most common findings on physical examination were decreased range of motion (100%), tenderness (100%), and swelling (71.4%). Mean temperature was 38.5°C. Mean white blood cell count was 18.5 K/µL, mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 48.9 mm/h, and mean C-reactive protein level was 6.1 mg/dL. More than half (57.1%) of joint aspirates grew positive cultures, and 41.7% of blood cultures had positive results. Causative organisms were group B streptococcus, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, and Candida albicans. The most common physical examination findings in infants younger than 3 months with septic arthritis include tenderness, decreased range of motion, and swelling. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate are likely to be elevated, but these findings should be used in combination with findings on physical examination and radiographic studies to aid in diagnosis.

  18. Combined Spinal-Epidural Analgesia for Laboring Parturient with Arnold-Chiari Type I Malformation: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark K. Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetic management of laboring parturients with Arnold-Chiari type I malformation poses a difficult challenge for the anesthesiologist. The increase in intracranial pressure during uterine contractions, coughing, valsalva maneuvers, and expulsion of the fetus can be detrimental to the mother during the process of labor and delivery. No concrete evidence has implicated high cerebral spinal fluid pressure on maternal and fetal complications. The literature on the use of neuraxial techniques for managing parturients with Arnold-Chiari is extremely scarce. While most anesthesiologists advocate epidural analgesia for management of labor pain and spinal anesthesia for cesarean section, we are the first to report the use of combined spinal-epidural analgesia for managing labor pain in a pregnant woman with Arnold-Chiari type I malformation. Also, we have reviewed the literature and presented information from case reports and case series to support the safe usage of neuraxial techniques in these patients.

  19. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  20. Health literacy of primiparae in the first six months of maternity: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Olecká

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to find out how the health literacy of primiparae in the first six months of motherhood is examined. The following research questions were raised: What methods are used to examine maternal health literacy? What aspects of maternal health literacy are investigated? Do the results prove any link between maternal health literacy and child health? Design: Review. Methods: The search for primary research studies was based on a combination of the following keywords: health literacy, mother*, maternity*, information, and knowledge in the Scopus and Web of Science databases. Exclusion criteria: not a primary study, does not concern research on primiparae of children under six months, unrelated to health literacy research or obtaining of information and acquiring of knowledge, not available in full-text, or clear research methodology description not available. The data were processed using thematic analysis based on the sorting method. Results: 31 studies were found, 17 of which were analysed. The majority of studies used quantitative methods of research with standardized tools. The key categories of health literacy related to obtaining, understanding and use of health information. No direct correlation was clearly demonstrated between level of maternal health literacy and child health. Conclusion: The trend in terms of the focus and goals of professional studies, regardless of cultural or national context, is a shift away from examining the way information is acquired to how it is understood by mothers.

  1. A Review of Class-Based Theories of Student Resistance in Education: Mapping the Origins and Influence of "Learning to Labor" by Paul Willis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the origins, influence, and contemporary understandings of class-based theories of student resistance in education, contributing to or emerging from "Learning to Labor" by Paul Willis. It reports the results of a review of the literature that discusses class-based student resistance and cites the seminal book. More than 500…

  2. Progesterone Therapy for the Prevention of Preterm Labor in Women with Single Risk-factor: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefayat Chaman-Ara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm labor is a common complication of pregnancy which has become a main health concern around the world due to its negative consequences. Objective: To investigate the efficacy of progesterone therapy in the prevention of preterm labor in women with single risk factor. Search strategy: A PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, Science Direct, Scopus, OVID, EMBASE, SID, Magiran and Google Scholar search (date last searched April 2016 without any time, language and location restriction was done. Inclusion criteria: All randomized clinical trials of singleton pregnancies with single risk factor (prior preterm labor without short cervical length or short cervical length without prior preterm labor which were randomized to progesterone and control groups were included in our meta-analysis. Primary outcome: Our primary outcome was gestational age at delivery. Results: 13 studies (1259 subjects and 2653 control women were included in the meta-analysis. Using random effect model showed that mean gestational age at delivery of progesterone group is 0.74 (0.41-1.06 month longer than that of control group with CI=95% which is significant statically. Conclusions: Progesterone therapy is an effective intervention for the prevention of preterm labor in women with single risk factor. 

  3. Less-Restrictive Food Intake During Labor in Low-Risk Singleton Pregnancies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardulli, Andrea; Saccone, Gabriele; Anastasio, Hannah; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate benefits and harms of food intake during labor. Electronic databases such as MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from their inception until October 2016. We included randomized trials comparing a policy of less-restrictive food intake with a policy of more restrictive food intake during labor. The primary outcome was the mean duration of labor. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird to produce summary treatment effects in terms of either a relative risk or a mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI). Ten trials, including 3,982 laboring women, were included. All the studies involved laboring singletons considered at low risk because they had no obstetric or medical complications that would increase the likelihood of cesarean delivery. In three studies, women were allowed to select from a low-residue diet throughout the course of labor. One study had honey date syrup as the allowed food intake. Five studies had carbohydrate drinks as food intake in labor. The last one was the only trial that allowed unrestrictive food intake. In the included studies, all women in the intervention group were allowed the assigned food intake until delivery, whereas women in a control group were allowed only ice chips, water, or sips of water until delivery. A policy of less-restrictive food intake was associated with a significantly shorter duration of labor (mean difference -16 minutes, 95% CI -25 to -7). No other benefits or harms in obstetric or neonatal outcome were noticed. Regurgitation during general anesthesia and Mendelson syndrome did not occur in either group. Women with low-risk singleton pregnancies who were allowed to eat more freely during labor had a shorter duration of labor. A policy of less-restrictive food intake during labor did not influence other obstetric or neonatal outcomes nor did it increase the incidence of vomiting. Operative delivery rates were similar.

  4. The effects of induction of labor prior to post-term in low risk pregnanices: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydahl, Eva

    2016-01-01

    part of this increase. Aim: To assess the evidence behind the policy of routine labor induction at 41 completed gestational weeks (41+0 to 41+6 weeks) instead of awaiting spontaneous labor until 42 completed weeks where induction is performed (42+0 to 42+6 weeks). Method: A systematic literature search...

  5. Child Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    "When I was 12, I started working in a cotton mill as a child laborer." Fan Xiaofeng, the former vice-director of the Labor Protection Department of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, wrote this sentence in one of her books. In 1932, she came to

  6. Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA 2002-15: Review of Office of Inspector General Patient Dumping Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Zuabi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA of 1986 was enacted to prevent hospitals from “dumping” or refusing service to patients for financial reasons. The statute prohibits discrimination of emergency department (ED patients for any reason. The Office of the Inspector General (OIG of the Department of Health and Human Services enforces the statute. The objective of this study is to determine the scope, cost, frequency and most common allegations leading to monetary settlement against hospitals and physicians for patient dumping. Methods: Review of OIG investigation archives in May 2015, including cases settled from 2002-2015 (https://oig.hhs.gov/fraud/enforcement/cmp/patient_dumping.asp. Results: There were 192 settlements (14 per year average for 4000+ hospitals in the USA. Fines against hospitals and physicians totaled $6,357,000 (averages $33,435 and $25,625 respectively; 184/192 (95.8%, $6,152,000 settlements were against hospitals and eight against physicians ($205,000. Most common settlements were for failing to screen 144/192 (75% and stabilize 82/192 (42.7% for emergency medical conditions (EMC. There were 22 (11.5% cases of inappropriate transfer and 22 (11.5% more where the hospital failed to transfer. Hospitals failed to accept an appropriate transfer in 25 (13.0% cases. Patients were turned away from hospitals for insurance/financial status in 30 (15.6% cases. There were 13 (6.8% violations for patients in active labor. In 12 (6.3% cases, the on-call physician refused to see the patient, and in 28 (14.6% cases the patient was inappropriately discharged. Although loss of Medicare/Medicaid funding is an additional possible penalty, there were no disclosures of exclusion of hospitals from federal funding. There were 6,035 CMS investigations during this time period, with 2,436 found to have merit as EMTALA violations (40.4%. However, only 192/6,035 (3.2% actually resulted in OIG settlements. The proportion

  7. Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) 2002-15: Review of Office of Inspector General Patient Dumping Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuabi, Nadia; Weiss, Larry D.; Langdorf, Mark I.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) of 1986 was enacted to prevent hospitals from “dumping” or refusing service to patients for financial reasons. The statute prohibits discrimination of emergency department (ED) patients for any reason. The Office of the Inspector General (OIG) of the Department of Health and Human Services enforces the statute. The objective of this study is to determine the scope, cost, frequency and most common allegations leading to monetary settlement against hospitals and physicians for patient dumping. Methods Review of OIG investigation archives in May 2015, including cases settled from 2002–2015 ( https://oig.hhs.gov/fraud/enforcement/cmp/patient_dumping.asp ). Results There were 192 settlements (14 per year average for 4000+ hospitals in the USA). Fines against hospitals and physicians totaled $6,357,000 (averages $33,435 and $25,625 respectively); 184/192 (95.8%, $6,152,000) settlements were against hospitals and eight against physicians ($205,000). Most common settlements were for failing to screen 144/192 (75%) and stabilize 82/192 (42.7%) for emergency medical conditions (EMC). There were 22 (11.5%) cases of inappropriate transfer and 22 (11.5%) more where the hospital failed to transfer. Hospitals failed to accept an appropriate transfer in 25 (13.0%) cases. Patients were turned away from hospitals for insurance/financial status in 30 (15.6%) cases. There were 13 (6.8%) violations for patients in active labor. In 12 (6.3%) cases, the on-call physician refused to see the patient, and in 28 (14.6%) cases the patient was inappropriately discharged. Although loss of Medicare/Medicaid funding is an additional possible penalty, there were no disclosures of exclusion of hospitals from federal funding. There were 6,035 CMS investigations during this time period, with 2,436 found to have merit as EMTALA violations (40.4%). However, only 192/6,035 (3.2%) actually resulted in OIG settlements. The

  8. Informalidade no mercado de trabalho brasileiro: uma resenha da literatura Brazilian labor market informality: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ulyssea

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature relative to Brazilian labor market informality is very disperse and presents a significant lack of organization. In that sense, the purpose of this paper is to organize and discuss on a systematic way the main pieces of literature concerning informality in the Brazilian labor market using, whenever it is possible, the international literature as a comparison point for the existing results relative to Brazil's experience. More specifically, questions related to wage differentials between formal and informal workers, labor market segmentation and the effect of institutions on the informal sector are emphasized.

  9. Education and the Child Labor Paradox Today. Essay Review of "Children on the Streets of the Americas" (Roslyn A. Mickelson, editor); "The Policy Analysis of Child Labor: A Comparative Study" (Christiaan Grootaert, Harry Anthony Patrinos); "What Works for Working Children?" (Jo Boyden, Birgitta Ling, William Myers); "Child Employment in Britain: A Social and Psychological Analysis" (Sandy Hobbs, Jim McKechnie); and "Bud, Not Buddy" (Christopher Paul Curtis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2001-01-01

    Reviews five books on child labor, published 1997-2000, with reference to the International Labour Organization's 1999 convention that retreats from its previous hard stance on child labor. Discusses street children; public policy on child labor, child welfare, and school attendance; types of children's work; and working children as agents…

  10. Education and the Child Labor Paradox Today. Essay Review of "Children on the Streets of the Americas" (Roslyn A. Mickelson, editor); "The Policy Analysis of Child Labor: A Comparative Study" (Christiaan Grootaert, Harry Anthony Patrinos); "What Works for Working Children?" (Jo Boyden, Birgitta Ling, William Myers); "Child Employment in Britain: A Social and Psychological Analysis" (Sandy Hobbs, Jim McKechnie); and "Bud, Not Buddy" (Christopher Paul Curtis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2001-01-01

    Reviews five books on child labor, published 1997-2000, with reference to the International Labour Organization's 1999 convention that retreats from its previous hard stance on child labor. Discusses street children; public policy on child labor, child welfare, and school attendance; types of children's work; and working children as agents…

  11. Crime and the Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Richard B.

    1982-01-01

    Much work on crime has focused on the effect of criminal sanctions on crime, ignoring (except as a control variable) the effect of labor market conditions on crime. This study reviews studies of time series, cross area, and individual evidence pertaining to the effect of unemployment and other labor market variables on crime and compares the "strength" of the labor market-crime and the sanctions-crime relations. It concludes that there is a labor market-crime link but that this link is not we...

  12. Acupuncture and Acupressure in Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaeger, Judith M; Gabzdyl, Elizabeth M; Bussell, Jeanie L; Takakura, Nobuari; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Takayama, Miho; Wilkie, Diana J

    2017-01-01

    Acupuncture and acupressure, 2 modalities of Traditional Chinese Medicine, are based on reducing pain and symptoms of disease through balancing yin and yang. Acupuncture and acupressure have been used in China for reduction of labor pain, labor augmentation, and other intrapartum indications for more than 2 millennia. This article presents a review of the current literature that has addressed the effects of acupuncture and acupressure on intrapartum events. Studies of acupuncture have demonstrated that acupuncture may reduce labor pain, the use of pharmacologic agents, the use of forceps and vacuum-assisted births, and the length of labor. Studies that examined the effect of acupuncture on labor that is induced or augmented for premature rupture of membranes have found that acupuncture may increase the degree of cervical ripening but does not reduce the amount of oxytocin or epidural analgesia administration, nor does it shorten length of induced labor. Acupressure may reduce labor pain and labor duration, but acupressure has not been found to increase cervical ripening or induce labor. There are insufficient studies about acupuncture and acupressure and their effects on labor at this time, and there is need for further research. Areas of uncertainty include efficacy, optimal point selection, best techniques, and length of time for point stimulation.

  13. Management of preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, J W; Tressler, T B

    2001-02-01

    Preterm labor and delivery continues to be one of the most serious problems in obstetrics, both medically and socioeconomically. The more classically used definitions of preterm delivery may not be useful in this era of advances in neonatal care. Similarly, the classically used criteria for "success" in tocolysis may obscure benefits from prolongation of gestation that does not meet these criteria. This article reviews the etiologic theories, risk factors, diagnostic techniques, and possible primary and adjunctive modes of therapy for preterm labor. The emphasis of these recommendations is on their clinical utility for the practicing obstetric care provider.

  14. Preterm labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald Francis

    2014-01-01

    and arrange in utero transfer to a center with neonatal intensive care facilities, both of which reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. Few tocolytics (β₂-agonists and atosiban) are licensed for use as tocolytics and only one was developed specifically to treat preterm labor (atosiban). Accordingly, most...

  15. Preterm labor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sayres Jr, WG

    2010-01-01

    .... For the patient in preterm labor, only antenatal corticosteroids and delivery in a facility with a level III neonatal intensive care unit have been shown to improve outcomes consistently. Tocolytic agents may delay delivery for up to 48 hours, enabling the administration of antenatal corticosteroids or maternal transfer. Routine use of antibiotics ...

  16. WWC Review of the Report "Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative: 18 Month Interim Report"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study reviewed in this report examined the effects of Philadelphia's "Renaissance Schools Initiative" on students in K-8 schools after one year of implementation. Schools were selected for participation based on their School Performance Index (SPI) at the start of the 2010-11 school year. The SPI rates every school in Philadelphia from one to…

  17. Quick Critics: Speeding up the Publication of Reviews from Years to Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    In metabolic terms, publishing in the humanities is more couch potato than sprinter. An idea can take years to move from light-bulb stage to manuscript to finished book. Add another year, or two or three, before an author can expect to see reviews of that book in academic journals. That slows down an already glutted system. "It's just appalling…

  18. Labor analgesia for the obese parturient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinas, Elizabeth H

    2012-10-01

    Obese parturients present obstetric anesthesia providers with multiple challenges, including increased incidence of maternal coexisting disease, labor complications, and potential for difficult initiation and failure of neuraxial labor analgesia. This focused review discusses these challenges, and suggests potential methods to increase labor analgesia success in this population.

  19. Lipid based nutrient supplements (LNS) for treatment of children (6 months to 59 months) with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM): A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Boy-Mena, Evelyn; Sachdev, Harshpal S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Moderate acute malnutrition is a major public health problem affecting children from low- and middle-income countries. Lipid nutrient supplements have been proposed as a nutritional intervention for its treatment. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of LNS for the treatment of MAM in infants and children 6 to 59 months of age. Study design Systematic review of randomized-controlled trials and controlled before-after studies. Results Data from nine trials showed that use of LNS, in comparison to specially formulated foods, improved the recovery rate (RR 1.08; 95% CI 1.02–1.14, 8 RCTs, 8934 participants, low quality evidence); decreased the chances of no recovery (RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.58–0.85, 7 RCTs, 8364 participants, low quality evidence) and the risk of deterioration into severe acute malnutrition (RR 0.87; 95% CI 0.73–1.03, 6 RCTs, 6788 participants, low quality evidence). There was little impact on mortality (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.54–1.52, 8 RCTs, 8364 participants, very-low- quality evidence) or default rate (RR 1.32; 95% CI 0.73–2.4, 7 studies, 7570 participants, low quality evidence). There was improvement in weight gain, weight-for-height z-scores, height-for-age z-scores and mid-upper arm circumference. Subset analyses suggested higher recovery rates with greater amount of calories provided and with ready-to-use therapeutic foods, in comparison to ready-to-use supplementary foods. One study comparing LNS with nutritional counselling (very low quality evidence) showed higher chance of recovery, lower risk of deteriorating into severe acute malnutrition and lower default rate, with no impact on mortality, and no recovery. Conclusions Evidence restricted to the African regions suggests that LNS may be slightly more effective than specially formulated fortified foods or nutritional counselling in recovery from MAM, lowering the risk of deterioration into SAM, and improving weight gain with little impact on mortality or default

  20. Double lung point in an 18-month-old child: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2015-03-01

    Double lung point is a rare sign of pneumothorax in clinical practice. In this report I presented an 18-month-old child who presented with bilateral pneumothorax. Ultrasonography examination revealed conventional lung point sign on the right and double lung point on the left side. Thoracentesis was attempted and closed thoracic drainage was performed on the right side, but no gas was drawn on the left side. Clinical implication of double lung point sign found in chest ultrasonography is that the size of pneumothorax is limited and conservative treatment is enough. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of double lung point identified with ultrasonography in child. The strength of the case is that the double lung point sign is supported by computed tomography (CT). Furthermore, we propose that the presence of double lung point indicates limited pneumothorax and conservative management may well be attempted.

  1. 18 CFR Appendix A 1 to Part 281 - Comparison of Selected Fuel Price Data, FPC Form No. 423 Versus Monthly Energy Review, 1976...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Fuel Price Data, FPC Form No. 423 Versus Monthly Energy Review, 1976-January 1980 A Appendix A 1 to... Selected Fuel Price Data, FPC Form No. 423 Versus Monthly Energy Review, 1976—January 1980 1 As reported in DOE/EIA Energy Data Report entitled Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants...

  2. Department of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... International Labor Organization International Visitors Program Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Organization of American States (OAS) Promoting Labor Diplomacy U.S. - Argentina Labor Cooperation U.S. - Brazil Labor Cooperation ...

  3. Aripiprazole once-monthly as treatment for psychosis in Turner syndrome: literature review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Cristiano; Pompili, Enrico; Silvestrini, Cristiana; Nicolò, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by partial or complete monosomy-X, usually resulting of a sporadic chromosomal nondisjunction. It is one of the most common sex chromosome abnormalities, affecting approximately 1 in 2,000 live born females. There are sporadic few case reports of concomitant TS with schizophrenia worldwide. No defined psychiatric condition has been traditionally related to TS, and it is not mentioned in DSM-IV. Although it is not associated with any psychiatric syndrome, several case reports in the literature describe a similar constellation of symptoms in TS that may represent a biologically-based entity. Aripiprazole once-monthly is a second generation antipsychotic recently developed. Its efficacy and non-inferiority to oral aripiprazole have been demonstrated in preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. Experience with oral aripiprazole and the current availability of the long-acting formulation suggest a potential benefit in a variety of clinical scenarios and therefore consideration as a treatment option in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychotic symptoms in several disease like TS.

  4. Misoprostol for induction of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Megan L; Wing, Deborah A

    2015-10-01

    Labor-induction rates have increased considerably in the United States as well as around the world. With up to half of all induced labors requiring cervical ripening, prostaglandins have been utilized to increase induction success and achieve vaginal delivery. Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog has the ability to mimic the changes of spontaneous labor and has been used off label for over 30 years as a labor-induction agent. In the following article, cervical ripening and induction of labor with misoprostol will be discussed. The risks and benefits of misoprostol for ripening and induction and routes of administration will be reviewed, as well as future directions and new developments for its use.

  5. Financial Globalization and Labor: Employee Shareholding or Labor Regression?

    OpenAIRE

    Nacho Álvarez Peralta; Bibiana Medialdea García

    2008-01-01

    The authors review from a critical perspective the ‘patrimonial capitalism’ approach, as well as its analysis of wage-labor transformations in developed economies during the last thirty years. For this purpose, they take the economies of France and the United States as study cases. According to this approach, patrimonial financialization of working households has involved a radical transformation of the wage-labor nexus, paradigmatically exemplified by the concept of employee shareholding. Th...

  6. [Combined epidural-spinal analgesia during labor: a quantitative systematic review of the literature (meta-analysis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Ramírez, J; Haya Palazuelo, J; Valverde Mantecón, J M

    2013-11-01

    To perform a meta-analysis on the use of combined epidural-intrathecal analgesia during labor, including intrathecal fentanyl and/or morphine compared to usual epidural techniques. A literature search was made looking for randomized clinical trials in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library. The size of the effect for quantitative variables was analyzed by weighted mean difference; for qualitative variables, by odds ratio. Variables analyzed were: labor duration, type of delivery (spontaneous, instrumental and caesarean section), motor blockade, pain, and satisfaction. The analysis used in most cases was a random effects model. A total of 21 trials, which included 3.646 patients, were selected out of the 38 initially found. The type of delivery variable with its 3 subgroups was the only one to show uniformity (p>Q 0.1; I(2)<50%). There were no differences in the variables analyzed except pain, which was advantageous for the group with intrathecal fentanyl or morphine by 0.55 points out of 10. Combined analgesia including intrathecal fentanyl-morphine does not offer significant advantages compared to the standard epidural. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Maritime Policy and the Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Pawlik, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The reports highlighting the foreseen lack of merchant marine officers for the expanding world’s fleet calls for a review in evaluating the impact of maritime policy in the seafaring labor market. This paper aims to clarify the particular characteristics of the seafaring labor market and how it can...... be shaped by specific maritime labor policies. The seafaring labor market in the Philippines, Poland, Germany, and Brazil as well as the general maritime labor policies in these countries is discussed. The focus on these countries leads to a comparative observation of maritime labor as a factor...... of production in an exporting market, in an importing market, and in a closed market, respectively, as shaped by various relevant maritime policies. Since a global policy that can regulate the maritime labor market does not exist, the trend on maritime labor supply is dynamic on a per country basis wherein crew...

  8. In the first 3 months after stroke is progressive resistance training safe and does it improve activity? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Karen; Musovic, Amie; F Taylor, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    BACKGROUND Progressive resistance training (PRT) can improve strength and function in people with chronic stroke, but less is known about whether this intervention is safe and beneficial during the first 3 months following stroke. OBJECTIVE To systematically review the evidence about the safety and effectiveness of PRT to improve activity in people within the first 3 months after stroke. METHODS After database searching and selection of studies a risk of bias assessment was conducted. Data for the primary outcome of safety was synthesised descriptively and meta-analyses for other outcomes were conducted using a random effects model. RESULTS The quality of the 5 included studies ranged from good to excellent (mean 24.2, range 20-28). For the trials investigating adverse events, none reported any significant increase in events after PRT. There was high level evidence that PRT had little or no effect on strength (SMD (standardized mean difference) 0.17, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.50, I(2) = 0%). There were no significant benefit for upper limb function (SMD 0.11, 95% CI -0.41 to 0.63, I(2) = 0%) and mobility (SMD 0.11, 95% CI -0.21 to 0.43, I(2) = 27%) after PRT compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS There was no evidence reported that PRT is unsafe in people within the first 3 months after stroke, although there was a lack of reporting about adverse events. The lack of demonstration of effect in improving muscle strength and activity suggests there is insufficient evidence to recommend the prescription of PRT for people within the first 3 months after stroke.

  9. Fatiga laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Useche Mora Luz Graciela

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available

    La fatiga laboral es un fenómeno complejo y muy común en los ambientes de trabajo especialmente en aquellos que requieren de una alta carga física y en los que son utilizadas complicadas tecnologías que presentan al hombre máximas exigencias, obligándolo a trabajar más allá de sus posibilidades psicofisiológicas y en condiciones muchas veces nocivas. En este sentido, el presente artículo se propone presentar el análisis de aspectos fundamentales de la fatiga que requieren ser conocidos por todo trabajador, con el fin de evitar situaciones de morbilidad y, por qué no decirlo, hasta de muerte.

     

  10. Fetal fibronectin testing for prevention of preterm birth in singleton pregnancies with threatened preterm labor: a systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghella, Vincenzo; Saccone, Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    Fetal fibronectin is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that is produced by amniocytes and cytotrophoblasts and has been shown to predict spontaneous preterm birth. The aim of this systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized clinical trials was to evaluate the effect of the use of fetal fibronectin in the prevention of preterm birth in singleton pregnancies with threatened preterm labor. The research was conducted with the use of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Sciences, Scopus, ClinicalTrial.gov, OVID, and Cochrane Library as electronic databases from the inception of each database to February 2016. Selection criteria included randomized clinical trials of singleton gestations with threatened preterm labor that were assigned randomly to management based on fetal fibronectin results (ie, intervention group) or not (ie, comparison group). Types of participants included women with singleton gestations at 23 0/7 to 34 6/7 weeks with threatened preterm labor. Studies that included management that was also based on the use of sonographic cervical length were excluded. The primary outcome was preterm birth at birth at control group. No differences were found in the number of women who delivered within 7 days (12.8% vs 14.5%; relative risk, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-1.21), in the mean of gestational age at delivery (mean difference, 0.20 week; 95% confidence interval, -0.26 to 0.67), in the rate of maternal hospitalization (27.4% vs 26.9%; relative risk, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.44), in the use of tocolysis (25.3% vs 28.2%; relative risk, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.24), antenatal steroids (29.2% vs 29.2%; relative risk, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-1.39), in the mean time in the triage unit (mean difference, 0.60 hour; 95% confidence interval, -0.03 to 1.23) and in neonatal outcomes that included respiratory distress syndrome (1.3% vs 1.5%; relative risk, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-14.06), and admission to the neonatal

  11. Effects of neuraxial labor analgesia on children: a review%椎管内分娩镇痛对儿童的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳; 王东信

    2014-01-01

    背景 分娩疼痛程度剧烈,可对产妇及胎儿产生一系列不良影响.椎管内分娩镇痛是目前国内外应用最为普遍的分娩镇痛方法. 目的 回顾椎管内分娩镇痛对儿童影响的研究文献. 内容 椎管内分娩镇痛可以改善新生儿的状态(包括提高新生儿Apgar评分、改善新生儿酸碱平衡状态),这可能有利于儿童的远期发育,但还有待进一步的临床研究证实.椎管内分娩镇痛增加产妇发热的发生,这并不增加新生儿感染的发生,但会对新生儿产生不良的影响.已有的研究未能发现分娩镇痛药物对儿童脑发育有不良影响,也未发现剖宫产能改善儿童智力发育或器械助产能导致儿童远期神经发育迟缓. 趋向 目前的结果未发现椎管内分娩镇痛对儿童有不良的影响,这方面仍有待进一步研究.%Background Labor pain is one of the most severe pains that a woman encounters during her life time.And it produces a series of adverse effects on both mother and child.Neuraxial labor analgesia is the most commonly used method of labor analgesia.Objective To review the effects of neuraxial labor analgesia on children.Content Neuraxial analgesia improved the neonatal status (including higher Apgar score,ameliorated acid-base balance),which might be favorable for children's long-term neurodevelopment.The later effect,however,deserves further confirmation.Neuraxial analgesia increased the occurrence of maternal fever during delivery which might have adverse effects on the newborn.However,it did not increase the rate of neonatal infection.Current evidence had not find that drugs used during labor analgesia has any negative effects on children's brain development.Furthermore,studies had not find that cesarean section improved children's mental development,nor that instrumental delivery produced children's long-term neurodevelopmental retardation.Trend Current results have not find that neuraxial labor analgesia has

  12. Brain empyema due to Escherichia coli in a 5 month-old infant: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Madrid Gómez Tagle

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brain empyema in children is a rare intracranial infection that may result from meningitis, sinusitis, or mechanisms such as head trauma, neurological surgery or hematogenous spread from a remote site. Objective: To describe a case of brain empyema caused by Escherichia coli in an infant. Methodology: A case report is presented with isolation of Escherichia coli arising after the overlap period of meningitis (1-3 months. A literature review of the risk factors, etiology and treatment of brain empyema in children is conducted. Results: The case report is about a 5 month-old male infant with no history of immunodeficiency, plagiocephalic, and with a 3 week-long history of otitis prior to admission. The patient had fever, seizures and rostro-caudal deterioration, cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and hypoglycorrhachia. The tomographic images revealed brain empyema. It was posible to isolate Escherichia coli from culture and surgical drainage was required plus systemic antibiotic therapy for 4 weeks. Conclusions: Brain empyema caused by Escherichia coli in infants after the overlap period are very rare. Treatment consists in prompt surgical evacuation, eradication of the primary infection and proper administration of systemic antimicrobials.

  13. Effects of fasting in the holy month of Ramadan on the uric acid, urea, and creatinine levels: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Alireza Mirsane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasting during the month of Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. During this holy month, healthy Muslims abstain from eating, drinking, and smoking from dawn to dusk. Although fasting is obligatory for every adult Muslim, if it has hazardous effects on the body, it is prohibited. Due to some Islamic principles, patients are exempted from fasting; however, due to the willingness of some individuals to fast, there are concerns about its effects on urea, uric acid, and creatine levels. Atypical levels of these compounds can cause serious disorders or indicate abnormal renal function. The present narrative review is aimed to investigate the effect of abnormally high levels of urea, uric acid, and creatinine on one’s health and effects of fasting during Ramadan on these indicators. Articles were searched from PubMed, Elsevier and Google Scholar and then they were evaluated. It can be concluded that fasting does not have any adverse effects on the urea, uric acid, and creatinine levels according to the above-mentioned studies.

  14. Feeding practices among Indonesian children above six months of age: a literature review on their potential determinants (part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, Sonia; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Sukotjo, Sri

    2015-01-01

    Feeding practices among young children are not optimal in Indonesia. Improving these practices is crucial to prevent and reduce malnutrition among young children. A better understanding of the underlying factors to appropriate practices is essential to address barriers and identify opportunities to optimal practices. This paper aims to shed light on potential determinants of feeding practices among children above 6 months of age. A systematic research of several databases using combinations of different search terms: feeding, child, Indonesia, MPASI/complementary food, gizi/nutrition, factor, determinant, praktek/practices was conducted. All documents were reviewed using a three-step procedure to assess content appropriateness and research quality. Data were analyzed using the Hector's framework on behaviour change. Available data on individual factors influencing feeding practices related mainly to mother's attributes, namely knowledge, perceptions, attitudes, beliefs and skills. Some of them are positively linked to good practices. Some environmental-related factors such as health services, home and peer environment were conducive to improved practices. Studies on societal factors were mostly restricted to food systems which do not favour optimal feeding practices. The review provides insights on underlying factors conducive to optimal feeding practices. Yet, relevant and quality research is required to get a better understanding on factors related to the environment and society as well as on how they are related with each other and operate in different contexts. Indonesia has already experimented successful programs which can be used as a reference to strengthen young child feeding practices.

  15. MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…

  16. The effects of induction of labor prior to post -term in low risk pregnanices: a systematic review protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydahl, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review is to identify, assess and synthesize the best available evidence on the effects of induction prior to post -term (2 weeks past estimated date of delivery (EDD))on the mother and fetus...

  17. Department of Labor Black Lung C

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Department of Labor (DOL) provides a monthly file through the use of eData which contains the necessary identifying and payment information for all live miners,...

  18. Department of Labor, Black Lung B

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Each month, the Department of Labor (DOL) sends a file through the use of eData which contains changes to Black Lung payments (updates only). Annually, around time...

  19. Efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole once monthly for schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya K

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kazuto Oya, Taro Kishi, Nakao Iwata Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan Objective: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of aripiprazole once monthly (AOM for schizophrenia.Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs on AOM, published until June 25, 2015, were retrieved from PubMed, Cochrane, and PsycINFO databases. Relative risk (RR, standardized mean difference (SMD, 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs, and numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH were calculated.Results: We identified four relevant RCTs (total n=1,860, two placebo-controlled trials, one noninferiority trial comparing AOM to oral aripiprazole (OA, and one including therapeutic doses of AOM and OA, as well as an AOM dose below therapeutic threshold (control arm. AOM was superior to placebo for decreasing Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total scores (SMD =-0.65, 95% CI =-0.90 to -0.41, n=1,126. However, PANSS total scores did not differ significantly between pooled AOM and OA groups. The pooled AOM group showed significantly lower incidence of all-cause discontinuation (RR =0.54, 95% CI =0.41–0.71, n=1,139, NNH =4 and inefficacy (RR =0.28, 95% CI =0.21–0.38, n=1,139, NNH =5 than placebo, but was not superior to placebo regarding discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs or death. The AOM group exhibited a lower incidence of all-cause discontinuation than OA (RR =0.78, 95% CI =0.64–0.95, n=986, NNH =14, but there were no intergroup differences in discontinuation due to inefficacy, AEs, or death. There were no significant differences in extrapyramidal symptoms scale scores between AOM and placebo or between AOM and OA. AOM resulted in higher weight gain than placebo (SMD =0.41, 95% CI =0.18–0.64, n=734 but lower than OA (SMD =-0.16, 95% CI =-0.29 to -0.02, n=847.Conclusion: AOM has antipsychotic efficacy and low risk of discontinuation due to AEs. Keywords: schizophrenia

  20. 48 CFR 2937.103-70 - Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts. 2937.103-70 Section 2937.103-70... contract requirements and performance standards. (a) General. Following is a checklist to aid analysis and... that contractor? (2) If the requirement is for support services (such as system engineering...

  1. "American Gothic" and the Division of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Provides historical review of gender-based division of labor. Argues that gender-based division of labor served a purpose in survival of tribal communities but has lost meaning today and may be a handicap to full use of human talent and ability in the arts. There is nothing in various art forms which make them more appropriate for males or…

  2. Labor Market Inequalities in FYR Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    The study includes an analysis of inequality patterns in terms of labor force participation as well as a review of policy responses, and areas for possible further policy action. In particular, the report looks at the two main dimensions of inequality that characterize Macedonia’s labor market: gender and ethnicity. Almost half the female working age population is inactive, whereas male in...

  3. Discoordination of labor activity: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Kozonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the literature review of current conception of development, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management of discoordination in labor activity. Special attention is payed to the clinical course of the labor and its outcome and for morhpofunctional features of the myometrium in this category of patients.

  4. The Fair Labor Standards Act. Enforcement of Child Labor Provisions in Massachusetts. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    During 1987, investigations of 113 cases of alleged or suspected child labor violations at Massachusetts business establishments were conducted. Thirteen (38 percent) of these were randomly selected for review. Compliance officers in the Department of Labor's Wage and Hour Division substantiated child labor violations in 9 of the 13 cases. A total…

  5. Maternal inflammatory markers and term labor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierny, Jill T; Unal, E Ramsey; Flood, Pamela; Rhee, Ka Young; Praktish, Allison; Olson, Tara Hudak; Goetzl, Laura

    2014-05-01

    We sought to examine the relationship between maternal markers of inflammation and labor performance. A nested cohort study was performed utilizing an established cohort of term nulliparous patients. Maternal blood was collected at the onset of regular, painful contractions in patients undergoing labor induction or at admission in patients with spontaneous labor. Levels of cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were determined using standard multiplex methodology. Maternal demographic data were collected prospectively. Detailed retrospective chart review was performed to extract data on cervical dilation, effacement, and station during labor. Subjects were excluded if they failed to achieve complete dilation. Mixed effects modeling was used to examine the association between serum cytokine quartiles and labor progress in the latent and active phases. In all, 334 women were included in our analysis. The lowest quartile of IL-6 was associated with slower latent labor (P = .001). In contrast, the highest quartiles of IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α were associated with slower active labor (P = .03 and .0002, respectively). Proinflammatory activation is important in labor initiation. However, once active labor is established, excess inflammation can be detrimental to efficient labor progress. These data may explain, in part, the known associations among clinical chorioamnionitis, cesarean delivery, and postpartum hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Myocardial infarct during pregnancy. Treatment of the acute phase and of labor. Apropos a case and a review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayón, J; Fidalgo, M L; Calabozo, R; Alonso-Orcajo, N; Porrero, E; Rodríguez, M A; Suárez, G; Santos, I; Ramos, G; González, C

    1994-03-01

    An acute myocardial infarction, is an infrequent complication in pregnant women. We present the case of a 29-years-old patient who suffered 2 acute myocardial infarction in relation with her two pregnancies. The first acute myocardial infarction occurred the third day after delivery, and the second, during the seventh month of the second pregnancy. In the latter, delivery was vaginal, with epidural anaesthesia. A coronary angiogram showed coronary arteries without significant narrowings, as well as an aneurysm of the left ventricle. A review of the literature published so far is made in the discussion.

  7. Bimanual Behaviours in Children Aged 8-18 Months: A Literature Review to Select Toys that Elicit the Use of Two Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Susan; Imms, Christine; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Dodd, Karen; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Toys that provoke the use of both hands are required to develop a test of bimanual performance in children 8-18 months with unilateral cerebral palsy (Mini-AHA). To choose the toys, a conceptual model based on perception-action theory and object use was used to guide a literature review. Evidence was sought for three critical relationships…

  8. Dwindling Labor Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUYONG

    2004-01-01

    this summer, China encountered an unexpected problem-a dwindling supply of migrant labor. In the southeast coastal area in particular, where manufacturing is heavily concentrated, the shortage of labor has become a quite severe problem.

  9. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  10. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  11. Commissioners' Monthly Case Activity Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission — Total cases pending at the beginning of the month, total cases added to the docket during the month, total cases disposed of during the month, and total cases...

  12. What Is Labor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are common complications? What is a high-risk pregnancy? What is labor? What is a cesarean delivery? Other FAQs NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What is labor? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Labor is the ...

  13. Short Interpregnancy Interval as a Risk Factor of Spontaneous Preterm Labor due to Low Cervical Collagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundtoft, Iben Blaabjerg; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sommer, Steffen

      OBJECTIVE: The incidence of preterm labor is increasing and continues to be a significant cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Various risk factors of preterm labor are known, among those a short interval between labor and a subsequent conception. The risk of spontaneous preterm labor inc...... cervix has not normalized until 12 months after labor. The lower collagen concentrations may explain the association between short interpregnancy interval and preterm labor.......  OBJECTIVE: The incidence of preterm labor is increasing and continues to be a significant cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Various risk factors of preterm labor are known, among those a short interval between labor and a subsequent conception. The risk of spontaneous preterm labor...... increases with interpregnancy intervals shorter than 12 months, the strongest association with intervals shorter than 6 months. Cervix uteri consist predominantly of fibrous connective tissue and it is from this tissue cervix derives its "strength". A prerequisite for vaginal delivery is a decrease...

  14. Labor Market Policy: A Comparative View on the Costs and Benefits of Labor Market Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    I review theories and evidence on wage-setting institutions and labor market policies in an international comparative context. These include collective bargaining, minimum wages, employment protection laws, unemployment insurance (UI), mandated parental leave, and active labor market policies (ALMPs). Since it is unlikely that an unregulated…

  15. [65-month testosterone replacement therapy for androgen deficiency-induced ED: a case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Zheng, Lei; Sun, Dong-Chen; Li, Quan-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Fa-Peng; Wang, Qi-Fei; Jiang, Hui

    2014-02-01

    To explore the mechanism of erectile dysfunction (ED) with testosterone deficiency and discuss the feasibility of long-term testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) by observing a case of ED with testosterone deficiency treated by TRT for 65 months. We treated an ED patient with testosterone deficiency by TST for 65 months, and evaluated the therapeutic effects by analyzing his IIEF-5 score, dynamic changes in testosterone, PSA, hemoglobin and red blood cell count, and adverse events. The patient was a 46-year-old man, with an IIEF-5 score of 7, baseline serum total testosterone (TT) of 2.79 ng/ml, and no response to phosphodiesterases-5 inhibitors (PDE5i). He was diagnosed with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) and treated by TRT: testosterone undecanoate at 80 mg bid po for the first 2 weeks and then at 40 mg bid po. Two months after medication, the TT level was increased to normal (3.45 ng/ml), and physical fitness and anxiety symptoms were markedly improved, with no significant improvement in sexual function. Then we administered PDE5i on demand in addition, which elevated his IIEF-5 score to > 21. The combined medication of TRT and on-demand PDE5i lasted for 45 months followed by TRT alone for another 18 months. The patient was restored to normal penile erection and sexual satisfaction, with the IIEF-5 score remaining at > 21. Regular follow-up revealed no significant abnormalities in the testosterone level, PSA, and routine blood tests. TRT enhances the effect of PDE5i in the treatment of androgen deficiency-induced ED, and long-term TRT is safe and effective for androgen deficiency.

  16. Management of 1½ month old neglected talus neck fracture: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh R Kale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Undisplaced talus neck fractures are uncommon and difficult to diagnose. We present a case of an 18-year-old female came with the complaints of pain and swelling in the foot following a fall from a bicycle 1½ months back. For the above complaints, she had consulted local doctors who had done X-rays of the foot and no diagnosis was made. She was treated conservatively with medications and compression bandage for swelling and the patient was allowed to walk. On presenting to us, X-ray of the foot was done and minimally displaced talus neck fracture was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging of the foot was done and the diagnosis was confirmed. Patient was operated with percutaneous screw fixation following which below knee cast was given for 6 weeks followed by partial weight bearing. Patient returned to complete weight bearing and previous activity level without pain at the end of 3 months.

  17. La Justicia Laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya Melgar, Alfredo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Iniciada en el último cuarto del siglo XIX nuestra legislación laboral, pronto se plantea la exigencia de que las reglas sustantivas del nuevo Derecho vayan acompañadas de normas jurisdiccionales y procesales específicas, atentas a las exigencias de la justicia laboral. Tras una etapa de justicia social paritaria, obrero-patronal, la jurisdicción laboral pasa a ser desempeñada por jueces profesionales centrándose en la Magistratura de Trabajo y consolidándose el diseño procesal en sucesivas Leyes de Procedimiento Laboral.
    En la actualidad, y aunque la nueva Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil ha incidido de modo relevante sobre el proceso laboral, es obvia la influencia que el modelo del proceso laboral ha ejercido con carácter previo sobre el nuevo proceso civil.

  18. Labor inspection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Cardoso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One aspect the literature overlooks on the effects of labor regulation of labor market efficiency is the degree of the legislation's effectiveness, i.e., its actual enforcement in daily work relations. Even the more sophisticated econometric studies (which take into account the effects of interaction between labor market regulatory institutions in explaining its dynamics leave this central issue aside, namely enforcement versus non-enforcement of the law. Keeping this issue in mind, we seek to answer the following question in this article: given that the effectiveness of labor legislation depends on the interaction between the overall sanctions and the probability of the employer getting caught breaking the law, and given that the law's effectiveness is a decisive aspect for the real measurement of a country's labor costs, to what extent is the Brazilian labor inspection system designed to meet its objective, namely, to enforce the law?

  19. Monthly errors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2006 monthly average statistical metrics for 2m Q (g kg-1) domain-wide for the base and MODIS WRF simulations against MADIS observations. This dataset is...

  20. Child Labor - Moral Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Lagasse, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    In many instances, child labor is a way to exploit the cheap labor a child has to offer. Although in many situations, the exploitation of child labor is not normally the case, such as families living in a developing country. What individuals raised in Western cultures fail to realize is that in some nations and for some families, child labor is a necessary resource to survive, children act as an exceptional resource in these situations. Without the extra income a child could make working in t...

  1. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection and preterm labor(birth) in pregnant women-an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaosong; Sun, Dehong; Li, Chuansheng; Ying, Jie; Yan, Youde

    2017-08-29

    We aimed to explore whether maternal chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection certainly affects preterm labor (birth) in pregnant women. Four databases were systematically searched up to May 31, 2017, without language restriction. Any study was included if it clearly defined exposure to chronic HBV infection, reported risk of preterm labor or birth in pregnant women, and reported relative risks (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) or provided data for estimation. RRs (or ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using random-effects models. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed with Cochran's Q statistic and I(2) statistic. Twenty-two observational studies involving 6 141 146 pregnant women (three prospective cohort studies, n = 1 116 799; 15 retrospective cohort studies, n = 5 022 513 and four case-control studies, n = 1834) were included. The risk of preterm labor was significantly intensified with chronic HBV infection compared with uninfected women, with substantial heterogeneity. Chronic HBV infection was also significantly associated with a 16% increase in the risk of preterm birth, with substantial heterogeneity. The risk of preterm birth significantly increased by 21% in HBsAg+/HBeAg+ pregnant women compared with uninfected pregnant women. Chronic HBV infection intensifies the risk of preterm labor and birth in pregnant women, but this conclusion should be interpreted with caution given the possibility of residual confounding and be confirmed by well-designed studies in the future. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Traumatic posterior hip dislocation in a 16-month-old child: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Sanjay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Traumatic posterior hip dislocation is an uncommon injury in children, constituting less than 5% of paediatric dislocations. In a younger child (<5 years, minor trauma such as a slip or fall from a low height may cause a hip dislocation, whereas in an adolescent a dislocation is usually caused by a major trauma such as motor vehicle accident. In this case report we present a rare case of trau-matic hip dislocation in a 16-month-old girl. Early detection and closed reduction ensured good outcome in our case. A high index of suspicion is necessary to achieve satisfactory reduction within six hours of dislocation because reduction after this period will greatly increase the risk of complications. Key words: Hip dislocation; Child; Accidents; Wounds and injuries

  3. [Intravenous remifentanyl for labor analgesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, D; Serrano, M L; Corral, E M; García del Valle, S

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous remifentanil may be the preferred analgesic when regional techniques are contraindicated. To perform a systematic review on the use of remifentanil for analgesia in labor. We searched MEDLINE (January 1995-August 2007) for studies on obstetric analgesia with remifentanil. We found 32 references representing the use of remifentanil in 257 women in labor. In most cases, patients reported relief of pain and a high level of satisfaction, with no severe side effects in mothers or neonates. When compared with meperidine and nitrous oxide in clinical trials, remifentanil provided better analgesia with fewer adverse effects. Analgesia with intravenous remifentanil is more effective and safer than other alternatives to regional analgesic techniques in obstetrics. Nevertheless, the optimum system for infusing the drug must b e established and further studies of maternal and fetal safety should be carried out.

  4. PROBLEMS OF MIGRANT LABOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WALLS, FOREST

    PRESENT MIGRANT LABOR PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS WHICH HAVE BEEN PROPOSED ARE PRESENTED. THE FIRST PROBLEM AREA IS PROVIDING EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN. THIS IS HINDERED BY THE PROBLEM OF SECURING COMPLIANCE WITH MINIMUM EDUCATION LAWS AND BY LAWS PROHIBITING EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN DURING SCHOOL HOURS. A SECOND PROBLEM AREA IS THAT OF CHILD LABOR.…

  5. Female Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the opti

  6. Quality of Labor Support during Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri N

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Providing appropriate and quality care for delivery process can be done in the form of the "Labor Support". This approach is one of the key factors in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality rates and fulfilling the Millennium Development Goals. It has also an important role in the promoting maternal satisfaction. This study aims at assessing mothers’ view regarding the labor support quality. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 women who were hospitalized in the postpartum ward of Gonabad 22 Bahman Hospital, and had normal vaginal delivery were chosen using convenience sampling method. Participants were asked to fill in the demographic questionnaire and the form of assessment quality of labor support. Data analysis was performed by SPSS11.5 software.  Results: In this study, the data showed a mean participants’ age of 27/14 ± 5/89 years and a mean admission-delivery time interval of 305/13 ± 147/30 minutes. Results showed that 74 percent of women evaluated the emotional support as good, 93% of the women had reported that they are satisfied with physical support, and 92 percent of the participants had expressed that they were content with the instructions/information provided by the personnel. Conclusion: According to this study, overall satisfaction from the quality of labor support has been acceptable in Gonabad 22 Bahman Hospital. Emotional supports stood lower when compared in terms of quality to two other categories.

  7. Labor Shortage Looming Ahead?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The large quantity of cheap labor resources has long been regarded as one of the important factors that make it possible for China’s economy to maintain rapid growth. However, Cai Fang, Director of the Institute of Population and Labor Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, warned at a lecture in early May that China’s surplus rural labor force is not as large as thought and that China will soon experience the transition from labor surplus to labor shortage. He predicted that the turning point would occur probably in 2009. In response, Hou Dongmin, Director of the Institute of Population, Resources and Environment of Renmin University of China, and Deng Yuwen, researcher at the China Society of Economic Reform, analyze the expected impacts of transition on China’s future growth mode (in sequence).

  8. Tooth fragment embedded in the lower lip for 10 months following dentoalveolar trauma: A case report with literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N B Nagaveni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries to maxillary anterior teeth are a common finding in children because of falls while playing. Sequelae of trauma to dental hard tissue include broken, lost, aspirated and swallowed teeth. One additional hazard is the embedding of fractured tooth fragments in the soft tissues, particularly in the lip. A 10-year-old male patient complained of pain in the lower lip. There was a history of trauma to the upper anterior tooth 10 months previously. Clinical examination showed scarring and discoloration over the lower lip, and the presence of a hard mass was felt on palpation. Intraoral examination revealed an Ellis and Davey class II fracture of number 11. A radiograph of the lip was taken, which showed a radiopaque structure similar to the shape of the missing tooth fragment. Under local anesthesia, the tooth fragment was removed successfully, and the class II fracture was restored with composite. Therefore, proper clinical and complete radiographic examination of both hard and soft tissues following dental trauma is essential to rule out such occurrences.

  9. Tooth fragment embedded in the lower lip for 10 months following dentoalveolar trauma: A case report with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaveni, N B; Umashankara, K V

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to maxillary anterior teeth are a common finding in children because of falls while playing. Sequelae of trauma to dental hard tissue include broken, lost, aspirated and swallowed teeth. One additional hazard is the embedding of fractured tooth fragments in the soft tissues, particularly in the lip. A 10-year-old male patient complained of pain in the lower lip. There was a history of trauma to the upper anterior tooth 10 months previously. Clinical examination showed scarring and discoloration over the lower lip, and the presence of a hard mass was felt on palpation. Intraoral examination revealed an Ellis and Davey class II fracture of number 11. A radiograph of the lip was taken, which showed a radiopaque structure similar to the shape of the missing tooth fragment. Under local anesthesia, the tooth fragment was removed successfully, and the class II fracture was restored with composite. Therefore, proper clinical and complete radiographic examination of both hard and soft tissues following dental trauma is essential to rule out such occurrences.

  10. Gelsemium elegans Poisoning: A Case with 8 Months of Follow-up and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundGelsemium elegans (G. elegans is a toxic plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. It is highly poisonous due to its strong respiratory depressive effect. However, G. elegans poisoning cases have not been summarized comprehensively and are rarely reported in English journals. Furthermore, none of the present reports present prognosis in detail.Case presentationA 26-year-old female was found comatose at home and brought to the hospital with deep coma, hypoxia, and acidosis. After mechanical ventilation for hours, the patient recovered from coma with sequelae of impaired short-term memory, disorientation, and childish behaviors. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed bilateral hippocampus and basal ganglia damage due to hypoxia. During 8 months of follow-up, both her symptoms and brain MRI scan improved significantly.ConclusionG. elegans is highly toxic. Although patients may die within 30 min due to its strong respiratory depressive effect, they can survive with timely respiratory support and enjoy gradual improvement without delayed postanoxic encephalopathy.

  11. Uterine hypertonia and nuchal cord causing severe fetal bradycardia in a parturient receiving combined spinal-epidural analgesia during labor: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal bradycardia is common following spinal opioids administered for pain relief during labor. This slowing is usually benign and short lived. Although it leads to some anxiety among obstetricians and anesthesiologists, it rarely results in urgent operative delivery. Here, we are reporting a case where urgent caesarean delivery was needed due to severe and persistent fetal bradycardia following low-dose intrathecal fentanyl. Fetal bradycardia possibly was due to hypertonic uterine contractions complicated by tightly wrapped cord round the neck.

  12. The rise and fall of sustainability in Western Australian politics: a review of sustainable development under the Western Australian Labor government between 2001 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Brueckner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses problems associated with the political operationalization of the sustainability agenda and the design of new development goals based on the case of Western Australia (WA. In this state, rapid economic development, long the key objective of successive governments, has caused serious environmental problems and brought into question the sustainability of the state’s development path. In the 2001 WA state election, the Labor Party came into office in part because of its overt commitment to sustainable development, departing from past progrowth philosophies. This article analyzes the extent to which the WA Labor government was able to operationalize politically its sustainability agenda during its time in office between 2001 and 2008. It finds that despite a strong commitment to its sustainability agenda in the early years of holding office, the Labor government failed to institutionalize policy changes, which, following a 2006 leadership change, allowed for a reversal of progress. We then discuss the WA experience within the global policy context and place it within the larger debates on the operationalization of sustainability.

  13. Antibiotics and preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, H L; Ernest, J M

    2001-08-01

    Prematurity is a profound obstetric problem and to date no effective treatment or prevention strategies have been found. Many animal and clinical data exist to link infection and preterm labor, yet clinical trials examining the effect of antibiotic treatment in patients with patterns labor and intact membranes have been conflicting and disappointing. Beyond treatment to reduce neonatal group B streptococcal infection, sexually transmitted infections, symptomatic bacterial vaginosis, and bacteriuria, no clinical data exist at this time to support the routine use of antibiotics in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes.

  14. Labor Agreement Information System (LAIRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Labor Agreement Information Retrieval System (LAIRS) is a database containing historical information on labor-management relations in the Federal Government. It...

  15. Comparative study of programmed labor and traditional management of labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin S. Kshirsagar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolongation of labor leads to dehydration, ketoacidosis, infection, fetal asphyxia. Programmed labor aims at reducing the duration of labor, labor pain and incidence of cesarean section with improved maternal and neonatal outcome. Aims and Objectives: 1To evaluate the effect of programmed labor on duration of labor. 2To assess efficacy of analgesics in reducing pain of labor. 3To find out maternal and neonatal complications. 4To study impact of programmed labor on LSCS rates. Methods: Prospective randomized study of primigravida in active labor (after 4 cm cervical dilatation for which 100 women were selected for programmed labor (cases and 100 women were selected for traditional management of labor (controls. Cases were subjected to interventions to improve uterine contractions (ARM, Dinoprostone tablets, and Oxytocin drip, to facilitate cervical dilatation (Inj. Drotaverine, to relieve labor pains (Inj. Pentazocine & Diazepam. All labors were monitored by partogram. Results: Programmed labor reduced duration of first and second stage of labor. There was faster cervical dilatation (1.8 cm/hour against 1.2 cm/hour. Majority of the patients had better pain relief. There was no impact on LSCS rates Conclusions: Programmed labor significantly reduced duration of labor with good pain relief without compromising maternal and fetal/neonatal safety. But it had no impact on LSCS rates. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 209-212

  16. 76 FR 12934 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will submit to the Office of Management... review is for the U.S. Census Bureau to obtain clearance from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... to the publication of all labor force data in the BLS' monthly report Employment and Earnings....

  17. Labor analgesia: An update on the effect of epidural analgesia on labor outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the introduction of epidural for labor analgesia, debate has centered on the issue of its effect on outcome of labor; in terms of length of labor and increase in the rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and cesarean section (CS. There is no ideal study on the effect of epidural analgesia (EA on the outcome of labor due to logistic problems in randomization, blinding and getting a control group; as a result these queries are partly answered. Despite these problems, it has been established that labor epidural has minimal effect on progress of established labor and maternal request should be a sufficient indication to start an epidural. Although instrumental vaginal delivery is probably increased with epidural but obstetrician practice, pain free patient and teaching opportunity are likely factors increasing the incidence. Maternal-fetal factors and obstetric management and not the use of EA are the most important determinants of the CS rate. The purpose of this review is to summarize data from controlled trials addressing the question of whether neuraxial labor analgesia causes an increased risk of CS or rate of instrumental delivery. In addition, the review discusses whether the timing of initiation of analgesia infl uences the mode of delivery.

  18. CHILD LABOR IN PALEMBANG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ariyanti, Indri; Marwa, Taufiq; Tarmizi, Nurlina; Soebyakto, Bambang Bemby

    2016-01-01

    This research explains the effects of gender, parents’ education, parent’s income, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal kinship system on the probability of child labor in Palembang...

  19. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum in Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlamkadem, Said; Labib, Smael; Harandou, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema also known as Hamman's syndrome is a very rare complication of labor that is often related to the valsalva maneuver during the labor. In most case, Hamman's syndrome is a self-limiting condition, rarely complicated unless there are underlying respiratory diseases. Chest X-ray can be a useful early diagnostic technique in severe clinical presentation. We report an uneventful pregnancy in a primigravid parturient, which was complicated in the late second stage of labor by the development of subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and mild pneumothorax. Spontaneous recovery occurred after four days of conservative management. This condition shows the major interest of labor analgesia especially locoregional techniques. PMID:28316849

  20. Bureau of Labor Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov Disability.gov Freedom of Information Act | Privacy & Security Statement | Disclaimers | Customer Survey | Important Web Site Notices U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics | Postal Square Building, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE Washington, ...

  1. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientific Name Preterm labor Preterm birth Preterm infant Late-preterm birth ... first-time pregnancies No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  2. Labor Law Renewal

    OpenAIRE

    Sachs, Benjamin Ian

    2007-01-01

    This essay challenges the conventional wisdom that American labor law has reached a dead end. I argue that the dysfunctionality of the National Labor Relations Act has led not to "ossification" - as many believe - but to a hydraulic effect: unable to find an outlet through the NLRA, the continuing demand for collective action has forced open alternative legal channels. The essay outlines three examples to illustrate these emerging trends. The first involves the ability of several thousand ...

  3. Pregnancy and labor massage

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Massage therapy has been demonstrated to be effective during pregnancy. Women who received massage therapy reported decreased depression, anxiety, and leg and back pain. Cortisol levels decreased and, in turn, excessive fetal activity decreased, and the rate of prematurity was lower in the massage group. In a study of labor pain, women who received massage therapy experienced significantly less pain, and their labors were on average 3 h shorter with less need for medication. An underlying mec...

  4. [Active management of labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ortiz, E; Villalobos Román, M; Flores Murrieta, G; Sotomayor Alvarado, L

    1991-01-01

    Eighty three primigravidae patients at the end of latency labor, erased cervix, 3 cm dilation, vertex presentation and adequate pelvis, were studied. Two groups were formed: 53 patients in the study group, who received active management of labor, and 30 patients in the control group, treated in the traditional way. In all the patients a graphic recording of labor, was carried out; it included all the events, and as labor advanced, a signoidal curve of cervical dilatation, was registered, as well as the hyperbolic one for presentation descent. The study group received the method in a systematized manner, as follows: 1. Peridular block. 2. Amniotomy. 3. IV oxytocin one hour after amniotomy. 4. FCR monitoring. 5. Detection of dystocia origin. Materno-fetal morbidity was registered in both groups, as well as cesarean section rate, instrumental delivery and its indications, labor duration, and time of stay in labor room. Diminution of above intems and opportune detection of dystocia, were determined. It was concluded that a constructive action plan, starting at hospital admission in most healthy women, allows a normal delivery of brief duration.

  5. Prostaglandins in labor--a translational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul H; Carson, Ray J; Nelson, Scott M

    2008-05-01

    The mechanisms involved in the initiation of human labor are largely unknown. Understanding the molecular pathways is fundamental in both the development of effective therapeutic strategies and intervention to prevent preterm labor. Prostaglandins are bioactive lipids and members of the eicosanoids family, derived from arachidonic acid, which act in a paracrine or autocrine manner and function via binding to specific G-protein-coupled receptors, activating intracellular signaling and gene transcription. Prostaglandins have a central role in the maintenance of pregnancy and initiation of labor, with the change from uterine quiescence to a contractile state facilitated by differential expression of prostaglandin receptors within the myometrium and fetal membranes. Clinical evidence for the key role of prostaglandins in human parturition is evident from their successful exploitation as exogenous agents for the induction of labor and the role of prostaglandin synthase inhibitors as a preventative therapy for preterm labor. This review aims to focus on prostaglandin synthesis and metabolism and how differential regulation of prostaglandins and their receptors in gestational tissues interact in the initiation of labor.

  6. Wage-Tenure Profiles in Contractual Labor Markets,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Luis and Andrew Weiss, "Self-Selection in the Labor Market," American Economic Review 71, June 1981, 275-84. Hall, Robert, "The Importance of Lifetime...Efficiency, Boston, M.I.T. University Press, 1965. Johnson, George E., "Economic Analysis of Trade Unionism," American Economic Review 65, May 1975, 23-8...Profiles, Productivity and Hours Restrictions," American Economic Review 71, September 1981, 606-20. Mincer, Jacob, and Boyan Jovanovich, "Labor

  7. The Labor Law of The People’s Republic of China(Continued from last issue)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Chapter III Employment Contracts and Collective Agreements Article 21 Labor contracts can stipulate a probationtionary periodwhich shall be not longer than six months. Article 22 The parties to a labor contract can stipulate in thecontract such matters as keeping commercial secrets. Article 23 Labor contracts shall be terminated on the expiration

  8. Monthly energy review, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This is an overview of the May energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an energy overview, US energy production, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. Energy production during February 1997 totaled 5.4 quadrillion Btu, a 1.9% decrease from the level of production during February 1996. Coal production increased 1.2%, natural gas production decreased 2.9%, and production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 2.1%. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.3% from the level of production during February 1996. Energy consumption during February 1997 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 4.0% below the level of consumption during February 1996. Consumption of petroleum products decreased 4.4%, consumption of natural gas was down 3.5%, and consumption of coal fell 2.2%. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 6.7% from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during February 1997 totaled 1.5 quadrillion Btu, 14.1% above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 12.7% and net imports of natural gas were up 7.4%. Net exports of coal fell 12.1% from the level in February 1996. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  9. Monthly energy review, March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This is an overview of the March 1997 energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The Contents of the report include an update on the effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on electric utilities, an energy overview, US energy production, energy consumption, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 37 figs., 60 tabs.

  10. Monthly energy review, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-26

    Energy production during April 1994 totaled 5.5 quadrillion Btu, a 2.2-percent increase from the level of production during April 1993. Coal production increased 11.8 percent, petroleum production fell 4.0 percent, and natural gas production decreased 0.3 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 2.9 percent from the level of production during April 1993. Energy consumption during April 1994 totaled 6.7 quadrillion Btu, 1.4 percent above the level of consumption during April 1993. Petroleum consumption increased 3.9 percent, coal consumption rose 1.1 percent, and natural gas consumption decreased 1.5 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 0.4 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during April 1994 totaled 1.5 quadrillion Btu, 8.7 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 4.5 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 18.5 percent. Net exports of coal fell 9.2 percent from the level in April 1993.

  11. Monthly energy review, December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Sections of this report include the following: Energy overview; Energy consumption; Petroleum; Natural gas; Oil and gas resource development; Coal; Electricity; Nuclear energy; Energy prices; and International energy. Appendices contain thermal conversion factors, metric and other physical conversion factors, carbon dioxide emission factors for coal, list of feature articles that have appeared since 1994, and a glossary.

  12. Monthly energy review, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-25

    Energy production during February 1994 totaled 5.3 quadrillion Btu, a 2.2% increase over February 1993. Coal production increased 9%, natural gas rose 2.5%, and petroleum decreased 3.6%; all other forms of energy production combined were down 3%. Energy consumption during the same period totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 4.1% above February 1993. Natural gas consumption increased 5.8%, petroleum 5.2%, and coal 2.3%; consumption of all other energy forms combined decreased 0.7%. Net imports of energy totaled 1.4 quadrillion Btu, 16.9% above February 1993; petroleum net imports increased 10.1%, natural gas net imports were down 4.9%, and coal net exports fell 43.7%. This document is divided into: energy overview, energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, international energy, appendices (conversion factors, etc.), and glossary.

  13. Monthly energy review, February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This is an overview of the February energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an energy overview, US energy production, energy consumption, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  14. Monthly energy review, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This publication contains statistical information and data analysis of energy production and consumption within the major energy industries of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy and oil and gas resource development. Energy production during October 1993 totaled 5.5-quadrillion Btu, a 3.0 percent decrease from the level of production during October 1992. Coal production decreased 5.6 percent, petroleum production decreased 3.4 percent, and natural gas production increased 1.9 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.0 percent from the level of production during October 1992. Energy consumption during October 1993 totaled 6.7 quadrillion Btu, 0.9 percent above the level of consumption during October 1992. Natural gas consumption increased 6.5 percent, coal consumption rose 2.9 percent, and petroleum consumption was down 1.3 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 5.5 percent from the level of 1 year earlier.

  15. Monthly energy review, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Energy production during March 1994 totaled 5.9 quadrillion Btu, a 3.7-percent increase from the level of production during March 1993. Coal production increased 15.7 percent, petroleum production fell 4.1 percent, and natural gas production decreased 1.1 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were up 0.5 percent from the level of production during March 1993. Energy consumption during March 1994 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 1.3 percent below the level of consumption during March 1993. Natural gas consumption decreased 3.6 percent, petroleum consumption fell 1.6 percent, and coal consumption remained the same. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined increased 3.7 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during March 1994 totaled 1.5 quadrillion Btu, 6.7 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 3.2 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 15.7 percent. Net exports of coal rose 2.1 percent from the level in March 1993.

  16. Monthly energy review June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents data on energy consumption, fossil fuels imports, supply and disposition, energy prices, electricity, nuclear energy electricity production, and international energy production and consumption.

  17. Monthly energy review, May 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-24

    Energy production during Feb 95 totaled 5.4 quadrillion Btu (Q), 3.1% over Feb 94. Energy consumption totaled 7.4 Q, 0.7% below Feb 94. Net imports of energy totaled 1.3 Q, 5.6% below Feb 94. This publication is divided into energy overview, energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy.

  18. Monthly energy review, October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-25

    This is the June report by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an energy overview, energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. Included are appendices containing thermal conversion factors, metric and other physical conversion factors, and carbon dioxide emission factors for coal.

  19. Monthly energy review, August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    Two brief articles are presented: measuring dependence on imported oil; and preliminary estimates of household energy consumption and expenditures in 1993. Then statistical tables are presented: energy overview, energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. Appendices present thermal conversion factors, metric and other physical conversion factors, CO{sub 2} emission factors for coal, and listing of previous articles. A glossary is also included.

  20. Monthly energy review, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-29

    Energy production during May 1994 totaled 5.6 quadrillion Btu, a 2.4-percent increase from the level of production during May 1993. Coal production increased 13.3 percent, natural gas production rose 1.7 percent, and petroleum production decreased 2.5 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 8.3 percent from the level of production during May 1993. Energy consumption during May 1994 totaled 6.6 quadrillion Btu, 3.6 percent above the level of consumption during May 1993. Natural gas consumption increased 8.7 percent, coal consumption rose 4.6 percent, and petroleum consumption was up 3.6 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 5.8 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during May 1994 totaled 1.5 quadrillion Btu, 14.3 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 8.4 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 23.2 percent. Net exports of coal fell 16.8 percent from the level in May 1993.

  1. Monthly energy review, January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This is an overview of the January energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an energy overview, US energy production, energy consumption, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 47 figs., 71 tabs.

  2. Monthly energy review, September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-25

    An ``energy snapshot`` article is included on housing characteristics in 1993 (survey of 7,111 households). The rest of the document is divided into: energy overview, energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, international energy, and appendices (conversion factors, CO2 emission factors from coal, index, glossary).

  3. Monthly energy review, July 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-24

    Energy production during April 1995 totaled 5.5 quadrillion Btu, a 1.0-percent decrease from the level of production during April 1994. Coal production decreased 7.7 percent, natural gas increased 1.3 percent, and production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids increased 0.3 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were up 8.6 percent from the level of production during April 1994.

  4. Monthly energy review, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-28

    This publication presents statistical data on the following topics: Energy Consumption; Petroleum; Natural Gas; Oil and Gas Resource Development; Coal; Electricity; Nuclear Energy; Energy Prices; and International Energy. Appendices are included on: Thermal Conversion Factors; Metric and Other Physical Conversion Factors; Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal. A Glossary is included.

  5. Monthly energy review, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Energy production during March 1994 totaled 5.9 quadrillion Btu, a 3.7-percent increase from the level of production during March 1993. Coal production increased 15.7 percent, petroleum production fell 4.1 percent, and natural gas production decreased 1.1 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were up 0.5 percent from the level of production during March 1993. Energy consumption during March 1994 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 1.3 percent below the level of consumption during March 1993. Natural gas consumption decreased 3.6 percent, petroleum consumption fell 1.6 percent, and coal consumption remained the same. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined increased 3.7 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during March 1994 totaled 1.5 quadrillion Btu, 6.7 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 3.2 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 15.7 percent. Net exports of coal rose 2.1 percent from the level in March 1993.

  6. Monthly energy review, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This publication contains statistical information and data analysis of energy production and consumption within the major energy industries of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy and oil and gas resource development. Energy production during October 1993 totaled 5.5-quadrillion Btu, a 3.0 percent decrease from the level of production during October 1992. Coal production decreased 5.6 percent, petroleum production decreased 3.4 percent, and natural gas production increased 1.9 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.0 percent from the level of production during October 1992. Energy consumption during October 1993 totaled 6.7 quadrillion Btu, 0.9 percent above the level of consumption during October 1992. Natural gas consumption increased 6.5 percent, coal consumption rose 2.9 percent, and petroleum consumption was down 1.3 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 5.5 percent from the level of 1 year earlier.

  7. Monthly energy review: September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Energy production during June 1996 totaled 5.6 quadrillion Btu, a 0.5% decrease from the level of production during June 1995. Energy consumption during June 1996 totaled 7.1 quadrillion Btu, 2.7% above the level of consumption during June 1995. Net imports of energy during June 1996 totaled 1.6 quadrillion Btu, 4.5% above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Statistics are presented on the following topics: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  8. Monthly energy review, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-29

    US total energy consumption in July 1990 was 6.7 quadrillion Btu Petroleum products accounted for 42 percent of the energy consumed in July 1990, while coal accounted for 26 percent and natural gas accounted for 19 percent. Residential and commercial sector consumption was 2.3 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. The sector accounted for 35 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Industrial sector consumption was 2.4 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. The industrial sector accounted for 36 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Transportation sector consumption of energy was 1.9 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 1 percent from the July 1989 level. The sector consumed 29 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Electric utility consumption of energy totaled 2.8 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. Coal contributed 53 percent of the energy consumed by electric utilities in July 1990, while nuclear electric power contributed 21 percent; natural gas, 12 percent; hydroelectric power, 9 percent; petroleum, 5 percent; and wood, waste, geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy, about 1 percent.

  9. Weakness and the Inability to Ambulate in a 14-Month-Old Female: A Case Report and Concise Review of Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Bloch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS is an acquired disease of the peripheral nervous system which causes demyelination and leads to weakness, ataxia, and areflexia. There are a variety of forms of the syndrome, and although it is found in all age groups, it is rare in children less than two years of age. The present complaint of weakness, ataxia, or lower extremity pain in the pediatric population should cause the practitioner to consider GBS in the differential. We describe a case of a 14-month-old girl presenting with weakness and the inability to ambulate who was diagnosed with GBS. The purpose of this paper is to review the emergency medicine diagnosis and management of Guillain-Barre syndrome in children.

  10. 76 FR 68040 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Labor Relations Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... careful review of public comments, discussed below, DoD, GSA, and NASA have concluded that the proposed... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Labor Relations Costs AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General....205-21, the cost principle addressing labor relations costs. Currently, this cost principle states...

  11. Joint Ventures. The Industry-Labor-Education Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Council on Vocational Education, Tallahassee.

    The purpose of this paper is to examine substate linkages between business, labor, and vocational education in Florida. Information for the paper was gathered by reviewing the activities of the Regional Coordinating Councils for Vocational, Adult and Community Education, the Private Industry Councils, the regional consortia, and organized labor.…

  12. Primary and Secondary Labor Markets: Implications for Vocational Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner, David

    2000-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and empirical work in labor economics and the sociology of work relating to the segmentation of the labor market into a primary and a secondary sector and examines the implications for vocational rehabilitation. Transition into primary sector employment is explored as an important aspect of career development for individuals…

  13. Labor Market Effects of Unemployment Insurance Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatsiramos, K.; van Ours, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: With the emergence of the Great Recession unemployment insurance (UI) is once again at the heart of the policy debate. In this paper, we review the recent theoretical and empirical evidence on the labor market effects of UI design. We also discuss policy issues related to UI design, includ

  14. Labor market effects of unemployment insurance design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatsiramos, K.; van Ours, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of the Great Recession unemployment insurance (UI) is once again at the heart of the policy debate. In this paper, we review the recent theoretical and empirical evidence on the labor market effects of UI design. We also discuss policy issues related to UI design, including the st

  15. Brazil : Eradicating Child Labor in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The report reviews evidence of child labor in Brazil, and the Government's efforts to eradicate its worst forms, by examining background assessments of ongoing programs for its prevention. It seeks to identify promising strategies, addressing the needs of highly vulnerable children in urban areas, engaged in activities such as drug commerce, prostitution, or other dangerous activities. One...

  16. Weight-Loss Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Intermittent Energy Restriction Trials Lasting a Minimum of 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Headland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to summarise the effects of intermittent energy restriction on weight and biological markers in long term intervention studies of >6 months duration. An electronic search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases for intervention trials lasting 6 months or longer investigating the effects of intermittent energy restriction. A total of nine studies were identified as meeting the pre-specified criteria. All studies included an intermittent energy restriction arm, with six being directly compared to continuous energy restriction. A total of 981 subjects were enrolled and randomised, with weight loss observed in all intermittent energy restriction arms regardless of study duration or follow up length. Eight interventions in six trials were used for the meta-analyses, with results indicating neither intermittent or continuous energy restriction being superior with respect to weight loss, 0.084 ± 0.114 (overall mean difference between groups ± standard error; p = 0.458. The effects of intermittent energy restriction in the long term remain unclear. The number of long term studies conducted is very limited, and participant numbers typically small (less than 50 completers, indicating the need for larger, long term trials of 12 months or more, to be conducted in order to understand the impact of intermittent energy restriction on weight loss and long term weight management. Blood lipid concentrations, glucose, and insulin were not altered by intermittent energy expenditure in values greater than those seen with continuous energy restriction.

  17. Industrial Value Chain based on the International Division of Labor:A Review%国际分工下的产业价值链:一个综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迎新; 刘学智

    2014-01-01

    国际分工是产生国际贸易的基础。本文从评析国际分工、产业价值链及国际产业转移的研究成果入手,回顾和评述了近年来学术界关于国际分工下产业价值链与全球价值链交集的研究成果;基于产业价值链的国际分工新格局,探讨了国际分工下产业价值链的特征,提出世界制造业的战略性重组致使制造业中心呈现多层次化、多极化的趋势,即产业价值链向新兴市场转移步伐加快,贸易保护主义抬头,国际产业价值链重新布局,以及发达国家制造业复苏等;本文还总结了产业价值链提升路径和中国参与国际产业分工的策略。%The international division of labor is an important foundation of international trade .This paper reviews and comments on the industrial value chain and global value chain in the intersection of the international division of labor by analyzing the study findings about international division of labor , industrial value chain and the international industrial transfer;based on the new pattern of international industrial value chain , it discusses the characteristics of industrial val-ue chain in the international division of labor , pointing out that the strategic restructuring of the world manufacturing in-dustry leads to the manufacturing center to be multi -level and multi-polar trend characteristic , that is the acceleration of industrial value chain transfer to developing market , the rising of trade protectionism , the relocation of the international industrial value chain , the recovering of manufacturing in developed countries , etc.Finally, this paper summarizes the upgrading path of acceleration of industrial value chain and the strategy of China ′s participating in the international indus-trial division.

  18. CHILD LABOR DISGRACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Shanxi Province child labor scandal has shocked China to its core. Over 1,000 children were forced into illegal labor by morally bankrupt brick kiln businesses, throwing a depressing shroud over China’s rapid development. Uncovering these tales of abduction, death and the physical and mental abuse endured by these children has been a proud moment for China’s press. Several hundred of the kiln slave children have now been reunited with their families. Kiln owners, contractors and accomplices are being brought to justice or hunted down, some even charged with murder.However, in all this gloom some good has surfaced.Public and government attention is now focused on erasing child labor once and for all and for better protecting workers’ rights, hopefully ridding China of such disgraces in the future.

  19. North and south of European labor and social judicary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Bojan V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work deliberates judicial protection of social and economic rights. A comparative overview of labor and social judiciary on two poles of European social model is given. On one side resolution of labor and social disputes in Danish and Swedish court procedure as representatives of the Nordic social democratic model of welfare state is analyzed, where public interest for social system security is emphasized and the role of social partners in resolving labor disputes is relevant. On the other side labor and social judiciary of Spain and Italy as representatives of Mediterranean model of welfare state is reviewed as a model defined by specialization of labor and social judiciary in procedural but not organizational way. All this is analyzed with the aim of affirmation of institutionalization of specialized professional judiciary for resolving labor and social disputes in our legal system.

  20. Evidências sobre o suporte durante o trabalho de parto/parto: uma revisão da literatura Evidence on support during labor and delivery: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odaléa Maria Brüggemann

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do suporte à mulher durante o trabalho de parto/parto por profissionais de saúde, mulheres leigas e doulas, sobre os resultados maternos e neonatais têm sido avaliados em vários ensaios clínicos randomizados, metanálises e revisões sistemáticas. Este artigo apresenta a revisão desses estudos, enfocando as principais características, o provedor de suporte, a simultaneidade na presença ou não do companheiro/familiares da parturiente durante o trabalho de parto e parto, e os resultados obtidos. Foram incluídos os estudos publicados entre os anos de 1980 e 2004, que contemplam explicitamente os aspectos avaliados. De maneira geral, os resultados do suporte são favoráveis, destacando-se redução da taxa de cesarianas, da analgesia/medicamentos para alívio da dor, da duração do trabalho de parto, da utilização de ocitocina e produzindo aumento na satisfação materna com a experiência vivida. Quando o provedor de suporte não é um profissional de saúde, os benefícios têm sido mais acentuados. Os estudos disponíveis não avaliam o acompanhante escolhido pela parturiente como um provedor de suporte, o que constitui lacuna de conhecimento a ser preenchida.The effects of support for women during labor and delivery provided by health professionals, lay women, and doulas on the maternal and neonatal outcomes have been evaluated through randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews. This article presents a review of these studies, focusing on the principal characteristics, support provider, simultaneous presence of the woman's spouse and/or family members during labor and delivery and the outcomes. The analysis included studies published from 1980 to 2004 which explicitly approached these aspects. In general, the results of such support were favorable, highlighting a reduction in the cesarean rate, analgesia/ medication for pain relief, duration of labor, and utilization of oxytocin and an increase in

  1. Labor Market Progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeheaver, Dean

    1990-01-01

    Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)

  2. Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pushing your baby down and out of the birth canal. In other words, labor pain has a purpose. Try the following to help ... Opioids don't get rid of all the pain, and they are short-acting. They can make ... birth. Epidural and spinal blocks – An epidural involves placing ...

  3. Oxytocin and customization of assistance in labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ragusa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic oxytocin (synOT is a commonly used drug in labor and it can be applied in all stages of labor. SynOT has been increasingly used over the years, and is currently one of the most common drugs employed in obstetrics. The goal of synOT administration is to cause the augmentation of labor; unfortunately, guidelines for the administration of this drug are often non-specific, although synOT is the drug most commonly associated with preventable adverse perinatal outcomes. Approximately half of all paid obstetric litigation claims in the United States involve allegations of injudicious use of oxytocin, and the association between oxytocin use, hyperstimulation, fetal distress and adverse neonatal outcome are well know. Furthermore, synOT and oxytocin have some extragenital effects that should be known by obstetricians. This review will present the viewpoint of the authors on this topic.

  4. School-Based Vocational Programs and Labor Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James E.; Husch, James V.

    1987-01-01

    The article reviews the rules and regulations of the United States Fair Labor Standards Act in relation to school-based vocational programs and emphasizes the payment of wages across different training and placement options. (Author/CB)

  5. Child labor, agricultural shocks and labor sharing in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe author studies the effect of an agricultural shock and a labor sharing arrangement (informal social network) on child labor. Albeit bad parental preference to child labor (as the strand of literature claims), poor households face compelling situations to send their child to work. Thi

  6. Child labor, agricultural shocks and labor sharing in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe author studies the effect of an agricultural shock and a labor sharing arrangement (informal social network) on child labor. Albeit bad parental preference to child labor (as the strand of literature claims), poor households face compelling situations to send their child to work.

  7. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  8. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  9. Incidence and determinants of endophthalmitis within 6 months of surgeries over a 2-year period at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Saudi Arabia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Khandekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We present the incidence and determinants of endophthalmitis between July 2010 and June 2012 at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. On its basis, we recommended recommendations to strengthen the infection prevention and control strategies. Methods: This is a retrospective review of health records type of study. The details of cases reported having endophthalmitis among those operated in 2 years of study period were studied. The incidence of endophthalmitis was calculated for different eye surgeries and epidemiological variables. The causative organisms in vitreous tap were reviewed. The visual outcomes 6 weeks following intervention/treatment of endophthalmmitis were also studied. Results: Of the 22,554 cases operated, 17 developed endophthalmitis. The incidence was 0.08% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-0.11. The incidence of endophthlamitis among cataract surgeries was 0.12% (95% CI 0.04-0.21. Five specimens did not show any bacteria or fungus. Staphylococcus epidermis (3 cases was the main pathogen identified. In 8 (47% eyes, vision deteriorated in spite of treatment. In 5 (29% eyes, it became stable and in 4 (23.5% eyes, it improved following treatment. Signs of infection were noted in 1 st week, 3 weeks and 12 weeks in 4, 6 and 5 eyes respectively. Late presentation of infection (6 months postoperatively was reported in two eyes. Conclusions: A vigilant infection control unit in a large eye hospital helps in monitoring endophthalmitis related catastrophes and suggests timely preventive measures to reduce the occurrence and appropriate measures to limit visual disabilities following eye surgery related endophthalmitis.

  10. 31 CFR 800.508 - Role of the Secretary of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Role of the Secretary of Labor. 800..., AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Committee Procedures: Review and Investigation § 800.508 Role of the Secretary of Labor. In response to a request from the Chairperson of the Committee, the Secretary of Labor...

  11. Labor Arbitration and Dispute Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getman, Julius G.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the nature of labor arbitration; then explores the transferability of the labor arbitration model. Argues that the establishment and legitimation of unions and collective bargaining are responsible for the success of labor arbitration, not vice versa. Available from The Yale Law Journal, 401A Yale Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06520;…

  12. Does labor market history matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2014-01-01

    This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found...

  13. Effectiveness of long-term (twelve months nonsurgical weight loss interventions for obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Nicholson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fiona Nicholson1, Catherine Rolland1, John Broom1, John Love21Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland; 2School of Applied Social Studies, Faculty of Health and Social Care, The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, ScotlandAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects 2%–26% of women of reproductive age and is often accompanied by obesity. Modest weight loss reduces health risks and ameliorates effects of the syndrome. Weight loss interventions are mainly of short duration and have limited success. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to assess the efficacy of long-term (12 months, nonsurgical weight loss interventions for women with PCOS. Fifteen databases were searched, resulting in eight papers that met the search criteria. Comparison of results and meta-analysis was difficult due to heterogeneity of studies. Behavioral components of interventions were poorly described, and compliance was difficult to ascertain. The results suggested that the inclusion of a lifestyle component improves outcomes, but protocols must be clearly described to maintain study validity and to identify successful behavioral strategies.Keywords: obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, weight loss 

  14. Polyarticular Septic Arthritis Caused by Haemophilus influenzae Serotype f in an 8-Month-Old Immunocompetent Infant: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheel Ahmed Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The standard use of vaccinations against pathogens has resulted in a decreased incidence of musculoskeletal infections caused by these previously common bacterial pathogens. Consequently, the incidence of infections caused by atypical bacteria is rising. This report presents a case of septic arthritis caused by non-type b H. influenzae in a pediatric patient. Methods. We report a case of an infant with polyarticular septic arthritis caused by H. influenzae serotype f. A literature review was conducted with the inclusion criteria of case reports and studies published between 2004 and 2013 addressing musculoskeletal H. influenzae infections. Results. An 8-month-old female presented with pain and swelling in her right ankle and left elbow. The patient was diagnosed with septic arthritis and underwent incision and drainage. Wound and blood cultures were positive for Haemophilus influenzae serotype f. In addition to treatment with IV antibiotics, the patient underwent immunocompetency studies, which were normal. Subsequent follow-up revealed eradication of the infection. Conclusions. Haemophilus influenzae non-type b may cause serious invasive infections such as sepsis or septic arthritis in children with or without predisposing factors such as immunodeficiency or asplenia. Optimal treatment includes surgical management, culture driven IV antibiotics, and an immunologic workup.

  15. Polyarticular Septic Arthritis Caused by Haemophilus influenzae Serotype f in an 8-Month-Old Immunocompetent Infant: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Raheel Ahmed; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Rosenfeld, Scott B

    2015-01-01

    Background. The standard use of vaccinations against pathogens has resulted in a decreased incidence of musculoskeletal infections caused by these previously common bacterial pathogens. Consequently, the incidence of infections caused by atypical bacteria is rising. This report presents a case of septic arthritis caused by non-type b H. influenzae in a pediatric patient. Methods. We report a case of an infant with polyarticular septic arthritis caused by H. influenzae serotype f. A literature review was conducted with the inclusion criteria of case reports and studies published between 2004 and 2013 addressing musculoskeletal H. influenzae infections. Results. An 8-month-old female presented with pain and swelling in her right ankle and left elbow. The patient was diagnosed with septic arthritis and underwent incision and drainage. Wound and blood cultures were positive for Haemophilus influenzae serotype f. In addition to treatment with IV antibiotics, the patient underwent immunocompetency studies, which were normal. Subsequent follow-up revealed eradication of the infection. Conclusions. Haemophilus influenzae non-type b may cause serious invasive infections such as sepsis or septic arthritis in children with or without predisposing factors such as immunodeficiency or asplenia. Optimal treatment includes surgical management, culture driven IV antibiotics, and an immunologic workup.

  16. Division of Labor

    KAUST Repository

    Oke, Muse

    2014-09-12

    The first assignment of DNA polymerases at the eukaryotic replication fork was possible after the in vitro reconstitution of the simian virus 40 (SV40) replication system. In this system, DNA polymerase α (Pol α) provides both leading and lagging strands with RNA-DNA primers that are extended by DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Extrapolating the architecture of the replication fork from the SV40 model system to an actual eukaryotic cell has been challenged by the discovery of a third DNA polymerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε). A division of labor has been proposed for the eukaryotic replication fork whereby Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand. However, an alternative model of unequal division of labor in which Pol δ can still participate in leading-strand synthesis is plausible.

  17. Labor Informality: General Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sandoval Betancour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main causes of labor informality in order to verify the validity of classical theories that explain unemployment in market economies and its relationship to informality. Methodologically, the project was based, in the empirical part, on international statistics, comparing the evolution of labor market structure in a combined sample of highly industrialized countries and other less industrialized ones. Empirical evidence supports the conclusion that the classical economic theory of Marxist origin is inefficient to explain the causes of unemployment in contemporary market economies, as well as it fails to satisfactorily explain informality. On the contrary, we conclude that the theory in question is more relevant to explain informality in centrally planned economies where this phenomenon has been present even more significantly than in free market economies.

  18. Illegal Immigrants and Refugees--Their Economic Adaptation and Impact on Local U.S. Labor Markets: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Robert G.

    This paper presents a review of existing case study literature on the local and regional impacts of illegal immigrants and refugees in the United States. This report is a part of the second phase of the National Commission for Employment Policy's long-term work plan "Changes in the Workplace." While there is an enormous amount of…

  19. Labor contractors: a conceptual overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P M

    1996-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of labor brokering or contracting that helps to explain why employers turn to foreign workers to fill certain vacant jobs, and how the presence of foreign workers brought to a country by labor contractors can affect the size and duration of migration flows. The major conclusion is that East Asian policies that aim to avoid the settlement of unskilled foreign workers also make labor brokering a prominent feature of labor migration and migrant labor markets in the region."

  20. 75 FR 8402 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... as the sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage and serfdom and forced or compulsory labor... Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, USDOL, 200... labor or forced labor in violation of international standards under Trafficking Victims...

  1. How to Tell When Labor Begins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Several days before labor begins or at the onset of labor What is false labor? Your uterus may contract ... for changes in your cervix that signal the onset of labor. One good way to tell the difference is ...

  2. The labor activity of dental surgeons within the multidisciplinary context of ergonomics: a review of the domains to be considered in dental environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Augusto Ferrari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous scientific studies show that dental professionals are exposed daily to various risks associated with various agents present in the workplace. The objective of this study was to conduct a literature review related to research concerning dental activity in Brazil, under the aegis of ergonomics. Using the principles of Work Ergonomic Analysis (WEA as parameters, this study focused on giving an overview of the main ergonomic approaches addressed by researchers for a wide range of problems in this field. The method used in the study was a literature review of 48 scientific papers selected from the period of July to November 2014. The results showed that studies related to the fields of physical ergonomics focused on the dentist’s activity are widely addressed. Thus, this paper suggests new research lines on a cognitive and organizational level.

  3. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any...

  4. Los costos de la enfermedad laboral: revisión de literatura / Cost of occupational diseases: a review of scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha I. Riaño-Casallas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: identificar el estado de desarrollo de la investigación sobre los costos de la enfermedad laboral que ha sido publicada en la literatura durante la última década en el mundo. Metodología: se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de literatura, altamente sensible, con el objetivo de identificar publicaciones que se adaptaran a los criterios de inclusión predefinidos por los autores. Se consultaron bases de datos como Pubmed, Ebsco, Lilacs, Online Wiley, Embase y Springer. El periodo de tiempo consultado fue 2000-2013. Resultados: Se incluyeron 54 artículos, de los cuales el mayor porcentaje están escritos en inglés, la mayoría fue producto de investigaciones realizadas en Estados Unidos. La metodología utilizada principalmente por los autores de los artículos fue del tipo de estudios de carga y costos de la enfermedad. Los costos incluidos en estas publicaciones fueron directos e indirectos en su mayoría y la perspectiva predominante fue la de tipo social. Conclusiones: Las economías más avanzadas del mundo son las que en su mayoría realizan este tipo de investigaciones, balance que resalta la importancia de realizar estos estudios para economías de países en desarrollo. Con respecto al lenguaje de publicación solamente se encontraron publicaciones en español realizadas en España, de ahí que sea necesario adelantar más estudios de este tipo en Latinoamérica. / Abstract Objective: look the development of research about the work related illness published in the literature in different years, countries and economic activities and knows about the point of view to calculate the cost. Methodology: it was performance a systematic search, highly sensivity with the purpose of identify publications that could be accomplishment with inclusion criteria predefined by the authors. Databases such as PubMed, Ebsco, Lilacs, Online Wiley, Springer and Embase were consulted. The consultation period was from 2000 to 2013

  5. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  6. Care during labor and birth for the prevention of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Neil F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to estimate the effect of various childbirth care packages on neonatal mortality due to intrapartum-related events (“birth asphyxia” in term babies for use in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies or reviews of childbirth care packages as defined by United Nations norms (basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care, skilled care at birth. We also reviewed Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA training. Data were abstracted into standard tables and quality assessed by adapted GRADE criteria. For interventions with low quality evidence, but strong GRADE recommendation for implementation, an expert Delphi consensus process was conducted to estimate cause-specific mortality effects. Results We identified evidence for the effect on perinatal/neonatal mortality of emergency obstetric care packages: 9 studies (8 observational, 1 quasi-experimental, and for skilled childbirth care: 10 studies (8 observational, 2 quasi-experimental. Studies were of low quality, but the GRADE recommendation for implementation is strong. Our Delphi process included 21 experts representing all WHO regions and achieved consensus on the reduction of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths by comprehensive emergency obstetric care (85%, basic emergency obstetric care (40%, and skilled birth care (25%. For TBA training we identified 2 meta-analyses and 9 studies reporting mortality effects (3 cRCT, 1 quasi-experimental, 5 observational. There was substantial between-study heterogeneity and the overall quality of evidence was low. Because the GRADE recommendation for TBA training is conditional on the context and region, the effect was not estimated through a Delphi or included in the LiST tool. Conclusion Evidence quality is rated low, partly because of challenges in undertaking RCTs for obstetric interventions, which are considered standard of care. Additional challenges for

  7. Care during labor and birth for the prevention of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Our objective was to estimate the effect of various childbirth care packages on neonatal mortality due to intrapartum-related events (“birth asphyxia”) in term babies for use in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Methods We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies or reviews of childbirth care packages as defined by United Nations norms (basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care, skilled care at birth). We also reviewed Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA) training. Data were abstracted into standard tables and quality assessed by adapted GRADE criteria. For interventions with low quality evidence, but strong GRADE recommendation for implementation, an expert Delphi consensus process was conducted to estimate cause-specific mortality effects. Results We identified evidence for the effect on perinatal/neonatal mortality of emergency obstetric care packages: 9 studies (8 observational, 1 quasi-experimental), and for skilled childbirth care: 10 studies (8 observational, 2 quasi-experimental). Studies were of low quality, but the GRADE recommendation for implementation is strong. Our Delphi process included 21 experts representing all WHO regions and achieved consensus on the reduction of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths by comprehensive emergency obstetric care (85%), basic emergency obstetric care (40%), and skilled birth care (25%). For TBA training we identified 2 meta-analyses and 9 studies reporting mortality effects (3 cRCT, 1 quasi-experimental, 5 observational). There was substantial between-study heterogeneity and the overall quality of evidence was low. Because the GRADE recommendation for TBA training is conditional on the context and region, the effect was not estimated through a Delphi or included in the LiST tool. Conclusion Evidence quality is rated low, partly because of challenges in undertaking RCTs for obstetric interventions, which are considered standard of care. Additional challenges for evidence interpretation

  8. [International trends in laboral risk legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vigil, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    It had been established that labor damage are: laboral injuries, professional diseases and others diseases related with laboral conditions. All of them are referred to as diseases or damages suffered as a consequence of a laboral relations. It is implicated that the damage occurs in the place or during a laboral scheduled time with a causal direct relation. There is a trend in the Spanish laboral legislation, which is controversial in laboral medicine, because it includes a Law for the Prevention of Laboral Risks that consider also to the chronic diseases as a cause no traumatic of a laboral risk to conditioned a damage during the laboral journey.

  9. Negotiation within labor relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia BĂDOI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation is the process we use in order to obtain things that we want and are controlled by others. Any desire we intend to fulfill, any need that we are obliged to meet is a potential bargaining situations. Between groups and individuals, negotiation occurs naturally, as some have one thing that the other wants and is willing to bargain to get it. More or less we are all involved in negotiations: closing a contract, buying a thing, obtaining sponsorships, collective decision making, conflict resolution, agreement on work plans. Within the field of labor relations, negotiation can occur on the occasion of closing / amending employment contracts or in order to regulate employment or work relations. Moreover, used properly, the negotiation can be an effective tool for solving labor disputes, with benefits for both involved parties. This paper aims to present negotiating principles and steps to follow in planning and preparing negotiations and the negotiating techniques that can lead to a successful negotiation based on a well-developed plan.

  10. Migration, transfers and child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Ralitza; Epstein, Gil S; Gang, Ira N.

    2011-01-01

    We examine agricultural child labor in the context of emigration, transfers, and the ability to hire outside labor. We start by developing a theoretical background based on Basu and Van, (1998), Basu, (1999, 2000) and Epstein and Kahana (2008) and show how hiring labor from outside the household and transfers to the household might induce a reduction in children's working hours. Analysis using Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) data on the Kagera region in Tanzania lend support to the...

  11. Labor Dystocia: Uses of Related Nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jeremy L; Ryan, Sharon L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Buxton, Margaret; Holley, Sharon L; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Labor dystocia (slow or difficult labor or birth) is the most commonly diagnosed aberration of labor and the most frequently documented indication for primary cesarean birth. Yet, dystocia remains a poorly specified diagnostic category, with determinations often varying widely among clinicians. The primary aims of this review are to 1) summarize definitions of active labor and dystocia, as put forth by leading professional obstetric and midwifery organizations in world regions wherein English is the majority language and 2) describe the use of dystocia and related terms in contemporary research studies. Major national midwifery and obstetric organizations from qualifying United Nations-member sovereign nations and international organizations were searched to identify guidelines providing definitions of active labor and dystocia or related terms. Research studies (2000-2013) were systematically identified via PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL searches to describe the use of dystocia and related terms in contemporary scientific publications. Only 6 organizational guidelines defined dystocia or related terms. Few research teams (n = 25 publications) defined dystocia-related terms with nonambiguous clinical parameters that can be applied prospectively. There is heterogeneity in the nomenclature used to describe dystocia, and when a similar term is shared between guidelines or research publications, the underlying definition of that term is sometimes inconsistent between documents. Failure to define dystocia in evidence-based, well-described, clinically meaningful terms that are widely acceptable to and reproducible among clinicians and researchers is concerning at both national and global levels. This failure is particularly problematic in light of the major contribution of this diagnosis to primary cesarean birth rates. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  12. 76 FR 22921 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in Foreign Countries and Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of...

  13. 77 FR 9267 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in Foreign Countries and Efforts by Certain Countries To Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of...

  14. 78 FR 72714 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in Foreign Countries and Efforts by Certain Countries To Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of...

  15. 77 FR 70473 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in Foreign Countries and Efforts by Certain Countries To Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of...

  16. LABOR MARKET POLICIES AND EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRITAN SHORAJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper will be examined some important issues of the labor market policies in Albania. As well, the analysis of labor market institutions such as the Social Insurances or the Syndicates on the efficiency of employing active labor forces. Which are the policies on the protection of the labor forces and the criteria of definition of the minimum salary? Furthermore, it continues with the importance of reforms in the labor market policies, to be examined in the labor market aspect as a production factor and as a regulator of the internal market. Fast globalization is causing continuous risk and movement for the active labor forces. The increase and development of technology puts out of the market many employees, decreasing the number of unqualified employees and increases the demand for the qualified ones. Does the globalization really affect the labor market, efficiency and as a consequence increase production, or the latter are benefits only for the developed economic countries? At the same time, we shall examine the movement of the labor forces from one country to another and the fluctuation of the relevant salaries. In general, the analysis of this paper faces two key issues: the first being raised on discussion of the kinds of programs on the active labor forces, such as programs of direct employment or consideration of employment in public sector, and the second regarding the methodology of evaluating these programs. How effective are them on the domestic market? The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations on the efficiency of policies for the labor market forces.

  17. Five shared decision-making tools in 5 months: use of rapid reviews to develop decision boxes for seniors living with dementia and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawani, Moulikatou Adouni; Valéra, Béatriz; Fortier-Brochu, Émilie; Légaré, France; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Côté, Luc; Voyer, Philippe; Kröger, Edeltraut; Witteman, Holly; Rodriguez, Charo; Giguere, Anik M C

    2017-03-15

    Decision support tools build upon comprehensive and timely syntheses of literature. Rapid reviews may allow supporting their development by omitting certain components of traditional systematic reviews. We thus aimed to describe a rapid review approach underlying the development of decision support tools, i.e., five decision boxes (DB) for shared decision-making between seniors living with dementia, their caregivers, and healthcare providers. We included studies based on PICO questions (Participant, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) describing each of the five specific decision. We gave priority to higher quality evidence (e.g., systematic reviews). For each DB, we first identified secondary sources of literature, namely, clinical summaries, clinical practice guidelines, and systematic reviews. After an initial extraction, we searched for primary studies in academic databases and grey literature to fill gaps in evidence. We extracted study designs, sample sizes, populations, and probabilities of benefits/harms of the health options. A single reviewer conducted the literature search and study selection. The data extracted by one reviewer was verified by a second experienced reviewer. Two reviewers assessed the quality of the evidence. We converted all probabilities into absolute risks for ease of understanding. Two to five experts validated the content of each DB. We conducted descriptive statistical analyses on the review processes and resources required. The approach allowed screening of a limited number of references (range: 104 to 406/review). For each review, we included 15 to 26 studies, 2 to 10 health options, 11 to 62 health outcomes and we conducted 9 to 47 quality assessments. A team of ten reviewers with varying levels of expertise was supported at specific steps by an information specialist, a biostatistician, and a graphic designer. The time required to complete a rapid review varied from 7 to 31 weeks per review (mean ± SD, 19 ± 10

  18. Migrant labor absorption in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayagam, J

    1992-01-01

    The use of migrant workers to ease labor shortages caused by rapid industrialization in Malaysia during the twentieth century is examined. "This paper will focus on: (1) the extent, composition and distribution of migrant workers; (2) the labor shortage and absorption of migrant workers; and (3) the role of migrant workers in the government's economic restructuring process."

  19. Health and Labor Force Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Monroe; Johnson, William G.

    1974-01-01

    Analytic labor force participation models which exclude information on worker health care lack explanatory power. If costs of disability can be separated through better information into costs reducible through delivery of health care, and costs more appropriately dealt with through labor market policies, the models will be improved. (KP)

  20. Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Roger D.

    1996-01-01

    Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize…

  1. Labor Unions and Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Addessi, William

    The paper investigates the nexus between labor and financial markets, focusing on the interaction between labor union behavior in setting wages, firms' investment strategy and asset prices. The way unions set wage claims after observing firm's financial performance increases the volatility of firms...

  2. A Select Bibliography of Books on Labor Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography of 90 books on labor issues presents selections in the following areas: labor history, biographies, contemporary issues, labor economics and labor relations, labor law, labor unions, women and work, and reference books. (DB)

  3. Popularizing labor analgesia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zi Tian; Gao, Xue Lian; Yang, Hui Xia

    2007-09-01

    In China many women in labor are young primigravidas whose fear of labor pain leads them to request cesarean deliveries. While the rate of cesarean deliveries has reached 50% in many hospitals, less than 1% of women in labor are given neuraxial analgesia. The necessary equipment is seldom available in China and many physicians have misconceptions about the risks associated with neuraxial analgesia, which are low with the ultra-low-dosages used today. However, attitudes have begun to change. Meetings held in China have brought together Chinese physicians and world experts on the various epidural and combined spinal-epidural techniques. Thanks to the information and support provided at these meetings clinical trials were carried out, more than 5000 women benefited from labor analgesia, and publications appeared in Chinese journals. An effective, safe, and cost-effective way to provide analgesia to women in labor may slow the increase in cesarean delivery rates across China and improve women's health in general.

  4. Child Labor Requirements in Agriculture under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Child Labor Bulletin No. 102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    This booklet is a guide to the provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (also known as the Wage-Hour Law) which apply to minors employed in agriculture. The content is as follows: coverage of the child labor provisions regarding agricultural employment, minimum age standards for employment in agriculture, school hours and employment in…

  5. 二年来关于中国劳资关系问题的研究综述%A review of study on the problem of labor-capital relations in China in the resent two years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易重华

    2015-01-01

    In the resent two years since 2013,the academic circles have certain research results in the labor-capital relations problem in China.On the labor-capital relations definition,there are mainly six kinds of different views.Although scholars have different understanding on labor-capital relations,they have played a widespread attention to non-public enterprise labor relations,discussing mainly from the nature,the degree of imbalance between the labor and the capital,dispute characteristics,development status,cooperation,and have analyzed the result of many complex causes of the imbalance between the labor and the capital.%从2013年以来的二年里,学术界在中国劳资关系问题上形成了一定的研究成果。在劳资关系定义上,主要有六种不同观点。尽管学者们对劳资关系理解不同,但普遍关注非公有制企业的劳动关系,主要对其性质、失衡程度、纠纷特点、发展状况、合作性进行了探讨,并分析了导致劳资失衡的多种复杂原因。

  6. Potential biochemical events associated with initiation of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaeff, A C; Ramin, S M

    2008-01-01

    Much of our understanding and knowledge of human parturition has been blurred by conjecture and extrapolation. The limited available data on human parturition reflect the inability to directly experiment with pregnant human subjects. In spite of this obvious impediment and the scarcity of longitudinal data on fundamental physiological changes in human pregnancy, recent reports have generated a better understanding of the synchronous activities leading to labor. The purpose of this review was to organize, in an evidence-based format, the current understanding of maternal physiologic phenomena leading from uterine quiescence to uterine labor activity. Recent discoveries have prompted a revision of pre-existing classical theories on the initiation of parturition, such as the progesterone block theory or the prostaglandins stimulation of the uterotonic action of oxytocin. The presence in the circulation of extrahypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) produced by the placenta and myometrium is an inciting unique feature of primate pregnancy and a promising field for research. The concept of anatomical regionalization in labor promotion, including the cervical physiological inflammatory reaction, is also discussed in the review, especially in support of the strong link between inflammatory activation and onset of preterm labor. Understanding the intimate chain of events leading to parturition is critical, and elucidating the interplay of signals and processes that initiate normal labor may help us to understand the abnormal variant, spontaneous preterm labor, and devise efficacious interventions against it.

  7. School Attendance and Child Labor in Ecuador. Policy Research Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gloria

    Data from Ecuador's Living Standard and Measurement Surveys were used to analyze the characteristics and determinants of child labor and schooling. Of particular interest was the influence of adult wages on child labor. Survey data on children aged 10-17 included sex, age, rural or urban residence, monthly wages, whether or not attending school,…

  8. School Attendance and Child Labor in Ecuador. Policy Research Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gloria

    Data from Ecuador's Living Standard and Measurement Surveys were used to analyze the characteristics and determinants of child labor and schooling. Of particular interest was the influence of adult wages on child labor. Survey data on children aged 10-17 included sex, age, rural or urban residence, monthly wages, whether or not attending school,…

  9. The Economic Impact of AIDS Treatment: Labor Supply in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurthy, Harsha; Zivin, Joshua Graff; Goldstein, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Using longitudinal survey data collected in collaboration with a treatment program, this paper estimates the economic impacts of antiretroviral treatment. The responses in two outcomes are studied: (1) labor supply of treated adult AIDS patients; and (2) labor supply of individuals in patients' households. Within six months after treatment…

  10. Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Pain Relief during Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Tournaire

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluated the effect of complementary and alternative medicine on pain during labor with conventional scientific methods using electronic data bases through 2006 were used. Only randomized controlled trials with outcome measures for labor pain were kept for the conclusions. Many studies did not meet the scientific inclusion criteria. According to the randomized control trials, we conclude that for the decrease of labor pain and/or reduction of the need for conventional analgesic methods: (i There is an efficacy found for acupressure and sterile water blocks. (ii Most results favored some efficacy for acupuncture and hydrotherapy. (iii Studies for other complementary or alternative therapies for labor pain control have not shown their effectiveness.

  11. Child Labor in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, Eric V.; Nina Pavcnik

    2005-01-01

    Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.

  12. Child Labor in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Eric V. Edmonds; Nina Pavcnik

    2005-01-01

    Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.

  13. The Relationship of Labor Pain, Medication Usage, and Length of Labor with Childbirth Preparation in Primigravidas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    of midwifery on the island of Borneo, according to legend, started when a husband and his pregnant wife were hunting food in the jungle. He came upon a...classes on base or in the local community . Patients were excluded if they were scheduled for an elective Cesarean section prior to the onset of labor...Row. Broome, M. E., & Koehler, C. (1986). Childbirth education: A review of effects on the woman and her family. Family and Community Health, 9(1

  14. Benefits of massage therapy and use of a doula during labor and childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, P

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the most recent literature on touch support and one-to-one support during labor and childbirth. The positive and negative aspects of the traditional birth attendant are presented. Research in one-to-one care and touch support during labor is examined with respect to husband/partner, nurses, nurse-midwives, and doulas (trained labor attendants). According to recent studies, women supported by doulas or midwives benefit by experiencing shorter labors and lower rates of epidural anesthesia and cesarean section deliveries. Also, a smaller percentage of their newborns experience fetal distress and/or are admitted to neonatal intensive care units. Women whose husbands or partners massage them during labor experience shorter labors. Nursing one-to-one support results in no significant obstetric outcomes. Antenatal perineal massage was found to reduce the rates of tears, cesarean section, and instrumental deliveries. Research in perineal massage during labor has shown no benefit.

  15. Research to Quantify the Effect of Permanent Change of Station Moves on Wives’ Wages and Labor Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    4, Jul 1974 [71 Heckman, James, "A Partial Survey of Recent Research on the Labor Supply of Women," American Economic Review Supplement, Vol. 63, No...2, May 1978 [8] Keeley, Michael, et al, "The Estimation of Labor Supply Models Using Experimental Data," American Economic Review , Vol. 68, No. 5, Dec...Offered Wages, and the Labor Supply of Married Women," American Economic Review , Vol. 69, No. 5, Dec 1979 [131 Polachek, Solomon, "Occupational Self

  16. Does labor market history matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2014-01-01

    This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found...... that occurrence dependence from non-employment states seems to have the strongest effect on the employment rate, while employment history is the main driver of state dependence in the wage. Predictions based on the estimated model reveal potential negative long-term effects from external employment shocks...... and potential positive benefits from employment programs for long-term unemployed....

  17. La contrarreforma laboral de 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Amorós, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    La reforma laboral de 2012 es vertebra entorn de la Llei 3/2012, de 6 de juliol, de mesures urgents per a la reforma del mercat laboral, text que va entrar en vigor el dia 8 de juliol de 2012. Una Llei que encimbella el “mercat” -“laboral”- a la categoria de subjecte de dret. Des de l'òptica de la política del dret, la Llei 3/2012, reordena les fonts reguladores de les relacions laborals reconfigurant els poders normatius; i des de l'òptica de la lògica jurídica, fa servir, inadequadament, ca...

  18. Monthly Meteorological Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly forms that do not fit into any regular submission. Tabulation sheets and generic monthly forms designed to capture miscellaneous monthly observations.

  19. Monitoring the compliance of the academic enterprise with the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, Adriana; McDowell, Gary S

    2016-01-01

    Background: On December 1 2016, the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) will be updated by the U.S. Department of Labor. The key changes are an increase in the salary threshold for exemption from overtime for working more than 40 hours per week, and indexing the salary level so that it is updated automatically every 3 years. This update is predicted to have a profound effect on the academic enterprise as a large proportion of the postdoctoral researcher population is currently paid at a salary below the new threshold for exemption. Here we review the key changes to the FLSA, how they came about, and how the postdoctoral population is affected by the ruling. Methods: We describe recent data collection efforts (checking university websites and contacting HR departments) to uncover what institutions in the 2014 NSF Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering are doing to comply with the FLSA ruling for postdocs. Results: Our data show that 41% of the estimated postdoctoral workforce in STEM and 57% of institutions checked have not decided or have no public decision yet available one month prior to implementation, and only 35.5% of institutions are planning to raise salaries to the new minimum. Conclusions: Our data show the uncertainty of postdoc salaries in the U.S. one month prior to implementation of the FLSA ruling. This implementation also gives rise to various issues that have arisen in an already strained research enterprise, including short-, medium- and long-term effects on academe.

  20. Tachysystole in term labor: incidence, risk factors, outcomes, and effect on fetal heart tracings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Cara C; Knight, Stacey; Esplin, M Sean; Eller, Alexandra G; Holmgren, Calla M; Manuck, Tracy A; Richards, Douglas; Henry, Erick; Jackson, G Marc

    2013-07-01

    Recent recommendations called for obstetricians to abandon the terms of "hyperstimulation" and "hypercontractility" in favor of the more rigidly defined term, "tachysystole" (TS). The aim of the current study is to describe incidence of and risk factors for TS, describe fetal heart rate (FHR) changes associated with TS, and investigate maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with TS. For this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed and analyzed the intrapartum FHR and tocometric characteristics of all patients with a singleton, nonanomalous fetus in term labor in a single hospital system over a 28-month period. Univariate association testing was done using χ(2) and t tests, comparing demographics, pregnancy characteristics, outcomes, and TS events. Multivariable association testing between risk factors and TS events were tested using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for multiple pregnancies during the study period for the same woman. There were a total of 50,335 deliveries from 48,529 women during the 28-month period. Of these, there were a total of 7567 TS events in 5363 deliveries among 5332 women. Use of oxytocin or misoprostol, an epidural, hypertension, and induction of labor were associated with an increased risk of TS. We found a doubling of TS events with any oxytocin, a dose-response correlation between oxytocin and TS, FHR changes occurring in a quarter of TS events and, finally, that presence of TS increases the chance of composite neonatal morbidity. TS is associated with specific risk factors and impacts FHR and neonatal morbidity. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Labor-Management and Codetermination in Regulated Monopolies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    American Economic Review vol. 56, pp. 734-757. Jacques H. Drbze, 1976. "Some Theory of Labor Management and Participation," Econometrica vol. 44, pp. 1125...Alternative Interpretation," American Economic Review vol. 66, March, pp. 104-23. Esther Gal-or, Michael Landsberger, and Abraham Subotnik, 1978...Benjamin N. Ward, 1958. "The Firm in Illyria: Market Syndicalism," American Economic Review vol. 48, September. =*1 43 Springer-Verlag. James E. Meade, 1972

  2. Drug use in pregnancy and labor

    OpenAIRE

    Risanto Siswosudarmo, Risanto Siswosudarmo

    2015-01-01

    Drug use in pregnancy should consider two main things, the first is its indication to the mother and the second, the more important, is its potential side-effect to the fetus. The aim of this paper is to review the possibility of side-effects of drugs commonly used during pregnancy, labor and delivery.Side-effects of drugs to the fetus are classified into three catagories namely1. embryotoxic effect,2. teratogenic effect and 3. minor side-effect.Embryotoxic effect is the most severe side-effe...

  3. Complications of labor and delivery: shoulder dystocia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jane E

    2012-03-01

    This article reviews one of the less common but most dreaded complications of labor and delivery, shoulder dystocia, an infrequent but potentially devastating event that results from impaction of the fetal shoulders in the maternal pelvis. Shoulder dystocia occurs most commonly in patients without identified risk factors, and can result in both maternal and fetal morbidity. Because the vast majority of cases of shoulder dystocia are unpredictable, obstetric care providers must be prepared to recognize dystocia and respond appropriately in every delivery. Detailed documentation is essential after any delivery complicated by shoulder dystocia.

  4. [Cerebral blood flow during labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendel, H; Funk, A; Jörn, H; Gans, A

    1990-01-01

    The successful results obtained using Doppler sonography for antepartal diagnosis gave cause to use the method during labor. For this purpose doppler measurements of the intern fetal carotid artery of a group of 7 patients with normal course of pregnancy were made and a continuous direct CTG was recorded simultaneously. The Doppler parameter, the S/D-ratio, for the contraction phases were compared with those of the contraction--free phases. During the contraction phase the S/D-ratio was higher than during the relaxation period of the uterus. The difference between these values were proved to be statistically significant. A comparison of the doppler parameter of the patients at onset of labor and the patients at the end of labor showed, that the S/D-ratio increased significantly at the end of labor. This result demonstrates, that the intravascular resistance in the fetal carotid artery increased due to the cephalic pressure.

  5. Labor-outflow Province,the Flow of Rural Labor Force Changes Literature Review and Evaluation of Related Researches%劳务输出大省农村劳动力流向变动国内外研究文献综述及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁志民; 朱再昱; 谢春明

    2011-01-01

    Since reform and opening policy,labor-exporting province has gone through a budding and maturing development concerning the outflow of rural labor force.Chinese scholars have explored the domestic labor migration phase and outflow area in past three decades,industry personal characteristics of a certain follow-up analysis of government labor mobility in rural areas with a reflection of macroeconomic policy.Migrant workers starting a business to guide the service system were discussed.Foreign scholars had earlier dynamic model of the rural labor mobility research,the Government Management System of the floating population,the rural labor force back starting a business research.China's economy is the current transition period,changes in the flow of rural labor force will present some of the new requirements,new features,the new trend of China's further economic development will have some impact on the complex,and therefore need to further increase research efforts to analyze changes in the flow of rural labor industry,age,region on the understanding of the laws,labor export areas to further explore the dynamic model of the flow,and further efforts to increase the study's statistical analysis for the flow of migrant workers and government to create favorable conditions to guide policy.%改革开放以来,劳务输出大省农村劳动力的流动经历了从萌芽、发展到不断成熟的阶段,国内学者对我国30多年来劳动力流动的阶段进行了梳理,对流向变动的地区、行业、个人特征进行跟踪分析,对政府关于农村劳动力流动的宏观政策进行了反思,并对引导农民工合作创业的服务体系进行了探讨。国外学者较早进行了农村劳动力流动的动力模型研究、政府对流动人口的管理体系研究和农村劳动力回流合作创业研究。当前中国经济正处于转型时期,农村劳动力流向变动呈现出新特点,因而需要加大研究力度,分析农村劳动力流向

  6. Labor Supply and Optimization Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jakob Egholt

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the nature of optimization frictions by studying the labor market of Danish students. This particular labor market is an interesting case study as it features a range of special institutional settings that affect students’ incentive to earn income and comparing outcomes...... theory. More concretely I find the dominate optimization friction to be individuals’ inattention about their earnings during the year, while real adjustment cost and gradual learning appears to be of less importance....

  7. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  8. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  9. Successful treatment of Dandy-Walker syndrome by endoscopic third ventriculostomy in a 6-month-old girl with progressive hydrocephalus: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chih-Fen; Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Chang, Cheng-Fu; Wang, Chih-Chien; Chen, Shyi-Jou

    2011-02-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a congenital brain malformation involving the cerebellum and fourth ventricle. We report a 6-month-old girl with DWS presenting an initially normal ventricular system and mild cyst-like lesion over the posterior fossa as assessed by postnatal brain sonography. However, symptoms and signs of increased intracranial cerebral pressure in terms of frequent vomiting and tense anterior fontanel developed, and these were associated with mild hypotonia and poor neck support, and upward-gaze palsy at the age of 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge cystic lesion of the fourth ventricle, which filled the posterior fossa and ventricular dilatation. The tentorium was progressively displaced upward by the cyst. A nearly complete agenesis of the cerebellar vermis was also confirmed. After a successful endoscopic third ventriculostomy, a series of brain magnetic resonance imaging scans, taken during a follow-up survey, showed normal lateral and third ventricles. Consequently, symptoms of intracranial cerebral pressure resolved, and a developmental milestone was achieved. In conclusion, DWS can be confirmed postpartum, and endoscopic third ventriculostomy was found to be a preferential operative procedure for DWS with hydrocephalus. It may be effective for patients younger than 1 year. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Successful Treatment of Dandy–Walker Syndrome by Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in a 6-Month-Old Girl With Progressive Hydrocephalus: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Fen Hu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dandy–Walker syndrome (DWS is a congenital brain malformation involving the cerebellum and fourth ventricle. We report a 6-month-old girl with DWS presenting an initially normal ventricular system and mild cyst-like lesion over the posterior fossa as assessed by postnatal brain sonography. However, symptoms and signs of increased intracranial cerebral pressure in terms of frequent vomiting and tense anterior fontanel developed, and these were associated with mild hypotonia and poor neck support, and upward-gaze palsy at the age of 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge cystic lesion of the fourth ventricle, which filled the posterior fossa and ventricular dilatation. The tentorium was progressively displaced upward by the cyst. A nearly complete agenesis of the cerebellar vermis was also confirmed. After a successful endoscopic third ventriculostomy, a series of brain magnetic resonance imaging scans, taken during a follow-up survey, showed normal lateral and third ventricles. Consequently, symptoms of intracranial cerebral pressure resolved, and a developmental milestone was achieved. In conclusion, DWS can be confirmed postpartum, and endoscopic third ventriculostomy was found to be a preferential operative procedure for DWS with hydrocephalus. It may be effective for patients younger than 1 year.

  11. Fatal Disseminated Aspergillus penicillioides Infection in a 3-Month-Old Infant with Suspected Cystic Fibrosis: Autopsy Case Report with Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kirti; Gupta, Parikshaa; Mathew, Joseph L; Bansal, Arun; Singh, Gangandeep; Singh, Meenu; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) often are colonized by Aspergillus species in their respiratory tract, but invasive aspergillosis is a rare complication. We describe the autopsy findings of an infant with cystic fibrosis who had fatal disseminated aspergillosis. The causative agent was identified as A. penicillioides by molecular technique. To our knowledge, this is the first report of disseminated aspergillosis caused by A. penicillioides in any type of patient. The literature on invasive aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis also is reviewed.

  12. Oxytocin regimen for labor augmentation, labor progression, and perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Branch, D Ware; Ramirez, Mildred M; Laughon, S Katherine; Reddy, Uma; Hoffman, Mathew; Bailit, Jennifer; Kominiarek, Michelle; Chen, Zhen; Hibbard, Judith U

    2011-08-01

    To examine the effects and safety of high-dose (compared with low-dose) oxytocin regimen for labor augmentation on perinatal outcomes. Data from the Consortium on Safe Labor were used. A total of 15,054 women from six hospitals were eligible for the analysis. Women were grouped based on their oxytocin starting dose and incremental dosing of 1, 2, and 4 milliunits/min. Duration of labor and a number of maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared among these three groups stratified by parity. Multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear mixed model were used to adjust for potential confounders. Oxytocin regimen did not affect the rate of cesarean delivery or other perinatal outcomes. Compared with 1 milliunit/min, the regimens starting with 2 milliunits/min and 4 milliunits/min reduced the duration of first stage by 0.8 hours (95% confidence interval 0.5-1.1) and 1.3 hours (1.0-1.7), respectively, in nulliparous women. No effect was observed on the second stage of labor. Similar patterns were observed in multiparous women. High-dose regimen was associated with a reduced risk of meconium stain, chorioamnionitis, and newborn fever in multiparous women. High-dose oxytocin regimen (starting dose at 4 milliunits/min and increment of 4 millliunits/min) is associated with a shorter duration of first-stage of labor for all parities without increasing the cesarean delivery rate or adversely affecting perinatal outcomes. II.

  13. Department of Labor Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Fair Labor Standards Act 1235-AA04 ] Wage and Hour Division--Final Rule Stage Regulation Sequence Title Identifier Number Number 219 Amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act 1235-AA00 220 Child Labor Regulations... Sequence Title Identifier Number Number 221 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service...

  14. [Trends in labor medicine in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Hernández, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Labor medicine is the natural field for searching the relation between society, work and disease. It is also the field for preventing labor diseases, and for the application resulting from search as protection measures in the laboral services. At present, tendencies in laboral medicine services are multidisciplinary where the specialists need to development competences in epidemiology, clinics, investigation, toxicology, dermatology and many other fields.

  15. Tax Policy and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    In exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models.The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other labor-market insti

  16. 75 FR 13429 - Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, Federal Labor Relations...) revises portions of its regulations regarding unfair labor practice (ULP) proceedings. The purpose of the... analyses of the revisions to Part 2423--Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings are as follows: Part...

  17. Child labor and school policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago V. de V. Cavalcanti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether child labor is socially inefficient. Baland and Robinson (2000 show that child labor might be inefficient when parents care for their children's welfare. In their model, child labor is explained by two factors: poverty and capital market imperfections. However, education in their model is readily available in terms of access, affordability and quality. This paper shows that the incidence of child labor is negatively related to school quality and positively related to the labor market conditions for children. It also shows that when children have no access to school or their access is limited, child labor is socially efficient. Therefore, a ban on child labor is not necessarily Pareto improving.Este artigo investiga se o trabalho infantil é socialmente ineficiente. Em recente artigo, Baland and Robinson (2000 mostram que, quando os pais se preocupam com o bem-estar dos filhos, o trabalho infantil é ineficiente. O emprego de crianças, no modelo desses autores, é explicado por dois fatores: pobreza e imperfeicões no mercado de crédito. No entanto, educação é prontamente disponível na economia de Baland e Robinson, tanto em termos de acesso, quanto de qualidade. Contudo, nos países em desenvolvimento, escolas não são disponíveis para todas as crianças, principalmente nas áreas rurais, onde o problema de emprego de menores é mais acentuado. Este artigo mostra que o grau de incidência de trabalho infantil nas sociedades depende da qualidade do sistema educacional e das condições de mercado de trabalho para as crianças. O artigo demonstra, ainda, que quando o acesso à escola é limitado, o trabalho infantil é socialmente eficiente. Assim, restrições legais de emprego de menores não necessariamente implicam uma melhora de Pareto.

  18. Second-stage labor: how long is too long?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveno, Kenneth J; Nelson, David B; McIntire, Donald D

    2016-04-01

    The management of labor has come under increased scrutiny due to the rapid escalation of cesarean delivery in the United States. A workshop of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists was convened to address the rising cesarean delivery rates and one of their recommendations was that the accepted upper limit of the second stage of labor should be increased to ≥4 hours in nulliparous women with epidural analgesia and to ≥3 hours in parous women with epidural. This led to the inaugural Obstetric Care Consensus series document, "Safe Prevention of the Primary Cesarean Delivery," wherein the workshop recommendations on second-stage labor were promulgated nationally. The result is that the now acceptable maximum length of the second stage of labor exceeds the obstetric precepts that have been in use for >50 years. In this Clinical Opinion, we review the evidence on infant safety, vis-à-vis length of the second stage of labor. Our examination of the evidence begins at the outset of the 20th century and culminates in the very recent (2014) recommendation to abandon the long accepted obstetric paradigm that second-stage labor >3 hours in nulliparous women with labor epidural is unsafe for the unborn infant. We conclude that the currently available evidence fails to support the Obstetric Care Consensus position that longer second-stage labor is safe for the unborn infant. Indeed, the evidence suggests quite the opposite. We suggest that when infant safety is at stake the evidence should be robust before a new clinical road is taken. The evidence is not robust.

  19. The emergency and delay management in total talus extrusion: Case report and review of literature after 24 months of follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Piscitelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Total talus extrusion is a rare and severe injury. It is burdened by many complications as avascular necrosis and osteomyelitis even if a proper debridement of extruded talus is performed. Few case reports or case series were published, and because of the rarity of this event, there are no guidelines for treatment. We report the first case on an octogenarian man providing a long-term follow-up performing contrast enhanced magnetic resonances. The authors report the case of an octogenarian man who fell from an olive tree reporting a total talus extrusion associated with the fracture of the medial malleolus. After an accurate debridement and washing of the wound, the talus was anatomically repositioned and the fracture was treated with an external fixator. The wound healed with difficulty after 12 months and the patient developed a chronic osteomyelitis of the talar dome and avascular necrosis of talar head. We followed the patient for 24 months performing contrast enhanced magnetic resonances and evaluating the development of the avascular necrosis. Even if we encountered these complications, the treatment allowed the patient to walk without pain, using a talus type shoe and one crutch. Although the literature suggests that an anatomic replacement of talus allows avoiding main complications, we deem that the patient's age is an important biological feature to consider in the prognostic stratification. Moreover, primary talectomy and tibio-calcaneal fusion should be reserved as a salvage procedure. Talus replacement allows an overall good outcome for the patients, retaining height, and allowing a good quality of life.

  20. 75 FR 9615 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs: Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ...Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, as amended), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: March 16, 2010; 10:30 a.m.-11:30 a.m.; U.S. Department of Labor, Secretary's Conference Room, 200 Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC. Purpose: The meeting will include a review and discussion of current issues which influence U.S. trade policy. Potential U.S. negotiating objectives and bargaining positions in current and anticipated trade negotiations will be discussed. Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 2155(f) it has been determined that the meeting will be concerned with matters the disclosure of which would seriously compromise the Government's negotiating objectives or bargaining positions. Accordingly, the meeting will be closed to the public.

  1. 76 FR 54835 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... September 2, 2011 Part II Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations; Civil Money Penalties; Proposed...; ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations...

  2. CHILD LABOR ABUSE: LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhoshev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.

  3. Intrauterine infection and preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Varkha; Hirsch, Emmet

    2011-01-01

    Summary Preterm labor is defined as labor that begins before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. More than 12% of infants born in the USA are preterm. At least 40% of preterm births are associated with intrauterine infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are members of a family of cell-surface proteins responsible for recognition of a diverse spectrum of bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens. TLRs initiate the host innate (i.e. non-adaptive) immune response, inducing a proinflammatory cascade involving cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, and other effector molecules that result in the characteristic phenomena of labor, such as uterine contractions and rupture of fetal membranes. These cascades may also be activated by mechanisms that are not primarily infectious but are accompanied by inflammatory responses. Now that the molecular mechanisms linking infection and labor have been, to a large extent, elucidated, the challenge is to identify points of overlap with non-infectious causes of labor and to find intervention strategies that can minimize the negative impact of preterm delivery. PMID:21944863

  4. By the Sweat & Toil of Children. Volume V: Efforts To Eliminate Child Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Maureen; Eugenio, Marcia M.; Hillmeyer, Jack; Hurlburt, Teresa; Ledan, Marie E.; Singh, Simrin; Willcutts, Keven; Woodson, Antonio

    This report reviews the child labor situation in 16 countries where child labor has been identified as a problem, and the level and types of action being undertaken to reduce child exploitation. The information is based on material gathered during field visits to Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, Nicaragua,…

  5. 20 CFR 655.32 - Labor certification determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process and Enforcement of..., address the availability of U.S. workers in the occupation as well as the prevailing benefits, wages, and... procedures; (3) Offer the employer an opportunity to request administrative review of the denial available...

  6. 77 FR 56842 - Labor-Management Relations Information Collection Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... CONCILIATION SERVICE Labor-Management Relations Information Collection Requests AGENCY: Federal Mediation and... and Conciliation Service (FMCS) hereby announces the submission of the following public information collection request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval in...

  7. Theories regarding endocrine contributions to the onset of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, J

    1978-01-01

    A review of the literature on endocrine factors influencing labor is presented. Treated separately are oxytocin, the prostaglandins, the fetus, and estrogen/progesterone. Implications for nursing practice and theory are discussed where appropriate, and the reader is encouraged to think of parturition as a complex interplay of factors.

  8. Leuprolide acetate 1-, 3- and 6-monthly depot formulations in androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer in nine European countries: evidence review and economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wex J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jaro Wex,1 Manpreet Sidhu,2 Isaac Odeyemi,2 Ahmed M Abou-Setta,1 Peny Retsa,2 Bertrand Tombal31PharmArchitecture Limited, London, UK; 2Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd, Chertsey, UK; 3Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, BelgiumObjective: Leuprolide is an established luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone (LHRH agonist used as first-line treatment in advanced prostate cancer. As different formulations and dosing schedules are likely to have economic implications, we aimed to evaluate their efficacy, safety, and costs in nine European countries: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Poland, and Portugal.Methods: Database searches identified 13 clinical trials of leuprolide 1- (1 M, 3- (3 M and 6-monthly (6 M. Only data on leuprolide with Atrigel were compared for all three formulations, which had the same efficacy, safety, and adherence. Cost-minimization analysis accounting for cost of Eligard®, specialist consultations, and diagnostics during up to 12 months follow-up was conducted. The perspective was that of public payers.Results: No significant differences were observed in the percentages of intention-to-treat patients achieving testosterone levels ≤ 50 ng/dL following treatment with Eligard® 1 M (93.3%, 3 M (98.3%, and 6 M (97.3% (P > 0.05, and adverse event profiles of the three formulations were comparable. Overall, 6 M was the least expensive, with average total annual costs from €788 (Belgium to €1839 (Portugal. The 3 M option was between 2.5% (Hungary and 37.6% (Belgium more expensive than 6 M; 1 M formulation was the most expensive, with costs 15.5% and 151.6% more expensive than 6 M for those countries, respectively. The 3 M option was 11.2%–45.3% less expensive than 1 M. Total costs were associated with frequency of visits for injection and monitoring. The 1 M required twelve visits, 3 M 4.4–4.8 visits, and 6 M 2.1–2.3 visits. Up to 50% additional visits could be funded with the

  9. Cervical length screening for prevention of preterm birth in singleton pregnancy with threatened preterm labor: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials using individual patient-level data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghella, V; Palacio, M; Ness, A; Alfirevic, Z; Nicolaides, K H; Saccone, G

    2017-03-01

    Cervical length screening by transvaginal sonography (TVS) has been shown to be a good predictive test for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) in symptomatic singleton pregnancy with threatened preterm labor (PTL). The aim of this review and meta-analysis of individual participant data was to evaluate the effect of knowledge of the TVS cervical length (CL) in preventing PTB in singleton pregnancies presenting with threatened PTL. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register and the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field's Trials Register (May 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria included randomized controlled trials of singleton gestations with threatened PTL randomized to management based mainly on CL screening (intervention group), or CL screening with no knowledge of results or no CL screening (control group). Participants included women with singleton gestations at 23 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks with threatened PTL. We contacted corresponding authors of included trials to request access to the data and perform a meta-analysis of individual participant data. Data provided by the investigators were merged into a master database constructed specifically for the review. The primary outcome was PTB PREMATURO: REVISIÓN SISTEMÁTICA Y METAANÁLISIS DE ENSAYOS CONTROLADOS ALEATORIZADOS HACIENDO USO DE LOS DATOS INDIVIDUALES DE LAS PACIENTES: RESUMEN OBJETIVO: El cribado mediante la longitud cervical obtenida con ecografía transvaginal (ETV) ha demostrado ser una buena prueba para la predicción del parto pretérmino espontáneo (PPTE) en embarazos con feto único sintomáticos debido a la amenaza de parto pretérmino (PPT). El objetivo de esta revisión y metaanálisis de los datos de participantes individuales fue evaluar el efecto de medir la longitud cervical (LC) mediante ETV con el fin de prevenir el parto prematuro en embarazos únicos con amenaza de PPT. MÉTODOS: Se realizaron búsquedas en los ficheros de ensayos

  10. Retention of HIV-Infected Children in the First 12 Months of Anti-Retroviral Therapy and Predictors of Attrition in Resource Limited Settings: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuogi, Lisa L; Smith, Christiana; McFarland, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Current UNAIDS goals aimed to end the AIDS epidemic set out to ensure that 90% of all people living with HIV know their status, 90% initiate and continue life-long anti-retroviral therapy (ART), and 90% achieve viral load suppression. In 2014 there were an estimated 2.6 million children under 15 years of age living with HIV, of which only one-third were receiving ART. Little literature exists describing retention of HIV-infected children in the first year on ART. We conducted a systematic search for English language publications reporting on retention of children with median age at ART initiation less than ten years in resource limited settings. The proportion of children retained in care on ART and predictors of attrition were identified. Twelve studies documented retention at one year ranging from 71-95% amongst 31877 African children. Among the 5558 children not retained, 4082 (73%) were reported as lost to follow up (LFU) and 1476 (27%) were confirmed to have died. No studies confirmed the outcomes of children LFU. Predictors of attrition included younger age, shorter duration of time on ART, and severe immunosuppression. In conclusion, significant attrition occurs in children in the first 12 months after ART initiation, the majority attributed to LFU, although true outcomes of children labeled as LFU are unknown. Focused efforts to ensure retention and minimize early mortality are needed as universal ART for children is scaled up.

  11. Kwashiorkor from a severe dietary restriction in an 8-month infant in suburban Detroit, Michigan: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Emily P; Sage, Robert J; Shwayder, Tor

    2010-05-01

    Kwashiorkor is a type of protein-calorie malnutrition often seen in children of impoverished countries and famine. The condition occurs in the setting of insufficient protein intake in the presence of sufficient caloric intake. We report a case of a 8-month-old male infant in the suburban Detroit, MI, USA who presented with diffuse edema, erythroderma and desquamation, a "bull-dog" face, diarrhea, and irritability, consistent with kwashiorkor as a result of severe dietary restriction. The mother had placed the child on a severely restrictive diet, consisting only of RICE DREAM((R)) milk, sweet potatoes and bananas, with the assumption that it would help his rash. Nineteen prior cases of kwashiorkor induced in infants by dietary restriction of "well intending" parents have been reported in the US literature. Malnutrition is often under diagnosed or misdiagnosed in developed countries such as the United States. The results, if unrecognized or untreated, may be devastating. This makes it imperative that physicians consider this diagnosis, recognize potential risk factors and be prepared to accurately assess overall nutritional status of patients.

  12. Oxalosis in primary hyperoxaluria in infancy. Report of a case in a 3-month-old baby. Follow-up for 3 years and review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orazi, Cinzia; Schingo, Paolo M.S.; Fassari, Fausto M. [Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Imaging, Rome (Italy); Picca, Stefano [Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Nephrology Dialysis Unit, Rome (Italy); Canepa, Giuseppe [Orthopedics L. Mandic Hospital Merate (LC), Merate (Italy)

    2009-04-15

    Primary hyperoxaluria (PH1) is a rare inborn autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to the deficiency of hepatic alanine-glyoxylate-aminotransferase. This deficiency results in excessive synthesis and urinary excretion of oxalate, inducing renal stone formation and deposition of calcium oxalate in the kidney, bone, myocardium, and vessels (systemic oxalosis, SO) in the most severely affected individuals. We report renal and skeletal changes in a 3-month-old girl with PH1 and SO. Intense cortico-medullary hyperechogenicity and increased homogeneous radiopacity of normal-sized kidneys suggested the diagnosis of SO. Skeletal survey showed osteopenia and characteristic symmetrical metaphyseal transverse bands in long bones, progressively becoming more dense and migrating towards the diaphysis. Multiple pathological and slowly healing fractures of the limbs occurred at the dense band level. A radiopaque rim was then observed in flat bones, epiphyseal nuclei, and vertebral bodies. Inflammatory granulomatous reaction, induced by the presence of oxalate crystals in the marrow spaces, coexisted with progressively evident radiological signs of secondary hyperparathyroidism, with partially overlapping features. The patient was treated by peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis until combined liver-kidney transplantation. There are no previous reports of infants treated with hemodialysis for more than 2 years. (orig.)

  13. Proposing Chinese Pharmacists Month

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Pharmacists: Today I would like to share with you about the American Pharmacists Month which is celebrated in October every year.This month-long observance is promoted by American Pharmacist Association.

  14. A 17-Month Review of the Care Model, Service Structure, and Design of THRIVE, a Community Mental Health Initiative in Northern Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheang, K M; Cheok, C C S

    2015-12-01

    Effective delivery of psychiatric care requires the development of a range of services. The existing Singapore health care system provides a comprehensive range of psychiatric services based in restructured hospitals. The Ministry of Health Community Mental Health Masterplan (2012-2017) aims to build novel services for the community. This Masterplan envisions the development of ASCATs (Assessment Shared Care Teams) and COMITs (Community Intervention Teams) to build the capacity and capability for psychiatric care to be delivered outside the hospital in the community. A community mental health plan comprising a fast access clinic, internet-delivered self-help and building a community network of providers was devised for the North of Singapore through the THRIVE (Total Health Rich In Vitality and Energy) programme. This article provides an introduction to the care model, service structure and design of the THRIVE, and reviews its milestones and achievements from its inception in August 2012 until December 2013.

  15. Emotional labor in nursing praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel da Silva Vilelas

    Full Text Available Healthcare work is, by nature, an activity full of intense emotions and therefore, is opportune ground for exploring emotions in the workplace in different contexts of nursing care. It is a very fertile terrain if care is focused on the emotions of the client, nurses, healthcare teams, and on the interaction of all actors involved. This article presents a theoretical reflection exploring the concept of emotional labor in the context of nursing care. Theoretical references from several fields of knowledge, namely sociology and nursing, have been adopted to conceptualize the theme. Studies on emotional labor have contributed toward the understanding of the key issue of emotional management in healthcare institutions and both its positive and negative impact on clients and professionals. The development of the theme of emotional labor in nursing has given rise to numerous theoretical approaches and perspectives explaining this concept.

  16. Membrane frizzled-related protein gene–related ophthalmological syndrome: 30-month follow-up of a sporadic case and review of genotype-phenotype correlation in the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaci, Rosachiara; Zenteno, Juan C.; Casubolo, Cristina; Delfini, Elisabetta; Macaluso, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report a new sporadic case of membrane frizzled-related protein gene (MFRP)-related syndrome with a 30-month follow-up, and to review the literature for genotype-phenotype correlation in MFRP mutations. Methods A complete ophthalmological evaluation was performed at presentation and 30 months later, including best-corrected visual acuity test, slit lamp examination, fundoscopy, kinetic perimetry, electroretinography, fundus imaging (color, red-free, and autofluorescence), and morphologic-biometric analysis of the eye structures with an optical biometer, anterior-segment optical coherence tomography, retinal optical coherence tomography, and a confocal scanning laser for optic nerve head study. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA obtained from peripheral blood lymphocytes and nucleotide sequencing of the complete MFRP gene were performed. The literature on cases of posterior microphthalmos and retinitis pigmentosa associated with MFRP mutations was reviewed. Results A 33-year-old female patient presented with posterior microphthalmos, retinitis pigmentosa with patches of retinal pigmented epithelium atrophy and scarce pigment mobilization, foveoschisis, and optic nerve drusen. After 30 months, progression of rod-cone retinal degeneration was detected. One obligate carrier showed a normal eye phenotype. A homozygote mutation in the MFRP gene (c.492delC), predicting a truncated protein (P166fsX190), was identified with genetic analysis. To our knowledge, 17 cases of MFRP-related syndrome have been reported in the literature, including the patient described herein. The phenotype of the syndrome, expressivity, and age of onset varied among and within the affected families. However, all patients sharing homozygous mutation c.492delC (alternatively named c.498delC) showed a complete phenotype (including foveoschisis and optic nerve head drusen), and similar fundus characteristics. Conclusions A new sporadic case of MFRP-related syndrome is reported

  17. Labor Unions and Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Addessi, William

    The paper investigates the nexus between labor and financial markets, focusing on the interaction between labor union behavior in setting wages, firms' investment strategy and asset prices. The way unions set wage claims after observing firm's financial performance increases the volatility of firms......' returns and the riskiness of corporate ownership. To remunerate this higher volatility and stronger risk, firms' equities have to grant high return. This mechanism is able to offer an explanation of for the "equity puzzle", that is it can explain the difference between equity returns and the risk free...

  18. Labor Contract Law Vs. Employment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Liang; Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ In Oct 2005, an IT company in Beijing signed one-year labor contracts with several employees, and they renewed the contracts in Oct 2006. When the contracts came to the end in Oct 2007, the company rejected to renew the contracts, but asked the employees to contract with an as-sociated company. The employees rejected this, but the practical labor relationship continued. Meanwhile, the company was in arrears of em-ployees' salaries, and didn't make full pay of the mandatory social insurance forced by national laws, even peculated the housing fund withheld from employees' salaries.

  19. Valuing human leptospirosis prevention using the opportunity cost of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbiol, Joseph; Borja, Maridel; Yabe, Mitsuyasu; Nomura, Hisako; Gloriani, Nina; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2013-05-03

    Leptospirosis is a serious public health concern in the Philippines, not only because of its increasing incidence rate, but also because of its significant health and economic impacts. Despite its relatively high seroprevalence, knowledge on the economic burden of disease, particularly on the value that the society places on disease prevention remains limited. Obtaining such information is important within the context of public health policy. This study was conducted in Metro Manila to determine the economic burden of leptospirosis, by asking respondents about their willingness to contribute to labor (WTCL) for the prevention of leptospirosis. The respondents pledged an average labor contribution of 10.66 h/month. The average WTCL corresponded to a monetary value of US$4.01 per month when valued using the opportunity cost of labor (leisure rate of time). From the monetized labor contribution, the total economic value of preventing leptospirosis was estimated at US$124.97 million per annum, which represents 1.13% of Metro Manila's gross domestic product (GDP). Estimates from a Tobit regression model identified the respondents' knowledge regarding leptospirosis, the susceptibility of their homes to flooding, and the proximity of their homes to sewers as significant factors to consider when developing resource contribution programs for leptospirosis prevention. More efforts need to be made in developing community level preventive programs, and in improving public's knowledge and awareness about leptospirosis.

  20. Oxytocin Regimen for Labor Augmentation, Labor Progression, Perinatal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Branch, D. Ware; Ramirez, Mildred M.; Laughon, S. Katherine; Reddy, Uma; Hoffman, Mathew; Bailit, Jennifer; Kominiarek, Michelle; Chen, Zhen; Hibbard, Judith U.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects and safety of high-dose (compared with low-dose) oxytocin regimen for labor augmentation on perinatal outcomes. Methods Data from the Consortium on Safe Labor were used. A total of 15,054 women from six hospitals were eligible for the analysis. Women were grouped based on their oxytocin starting dose and incremental dosing: 1, 2, and 4 mU/min. Duration of labor and a number of maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared among these three groups stratified by parity. Multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear mixed model were used to adjust for potential confounders. Results Oxytocin regimen did not affect the rate of cesarean delivery or other perinatal outcomes. Compared to 1 mU/min, the regimens starting with 2 mU/min and 4 mU/min reduced the duration of 1st stage by 0.8 hours (95% confidence interval 0.5 – 1.1) and 1.3 hours (1.0 – 1.7), respectively, in nulliparas. No effect was observed on the second stage of labor. Similar patterns were observed in multiparas. High-dose regimen was associated with a reduced risk of meconium stain, chorioamnionitis, and newborn fever in multiparas. Conclusion High-dose oxytocin regimen (starting dose at 4 mU/min and increment of 4 mU/min) is associated with a shorter duration of first stage of labor in all parities without increasing the cesarean delivery rate or adversely affecting perinatal outcomes. PMID:21775839

  1. Clinical improvement and resorption of calcifications in calcific tendinitis of the shoulder after shock wave therapy at 6 months' follow-up: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioppolo, Francesco; Tattoli, Maria; Di Sante, Luca; Venditto, Teresa; Tognolo, Lucrezia; Delicata, Mariachiara; Rizzo, Rosaria Sabrina; Di Tanna, Gianluca; Santilli, Valter

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of shock wave therapy (SWT) for functional improvement and the reduction of pain in patients with calcific tendinitis of the shoulder, and to determine the rate of disappearance of calcifications after therapy at 6 months' follow-up. Articles were searched from the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Ovid database. We included randomized controlled trials from 1992 to 2011, and their quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Studies were evaluated by 2 independent reviewers for their methodologic quality. Disagreements were settled by a third reviewer. Data were then extracted and cross-checked for accuracy. The reviewers were not blinded to the authors of the articles. In 4 of the 6 studies included for review, the resorption of calcifications was evaluated using meta-analysis because the studies had 2 treatment groups, while the other 2 studies were analyzed descriptively because they had 3 treatment groups. Fixed- and random-effects models were used to meta-analyze total and partial resorption ratios, and I(2) statistics were calculated to assess heterogeneity. We found a clinical improvement with a pooled total resorption ratio of 27.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.20-102.67) and a pooled partial resorption ratio of 16.22 (95% CI, 3.33-79.01). SWT increases shoulder function, reduces pain, and is effective in dissolving calcifications. These results were maintained over the following 6 months. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Wisconsin Governor's Committee on Migratory Labor. Report for 1966 and 1967 With a Summary of Earlier Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raushenbush, Elizabeth Brandeis

    A review of State and Federal activities relative to migrant labor problems presents a backdrop for the report of Wisconsin's Governor's Committee on Migratory Labor for the years 1966-67. The review includes summary data on the migrants and the programs provided in Wisconsin since 1945. The current report contains data on migrant population and…

  3. Association between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Febrile Convulsion in 3- to 60-Month-Old Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Habibian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Controversy exists regarding the association between Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA, iron status, and Febrile Convulsion (FC during childhood. In this article, a systematic review and meta-analysis is conducted in order to determine possible association and the degree of association between these statuses and FC. To identify all studies related to IDA and FC, various references such as MEDLINE (PubMed, Embase (OVID, Web of sciences (Thomson Reuters and Google scholar were searched (up until 15 January 2013. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Q statistic, Tau2, and I2. Additionally, subgroup analyses were performed. The outcome of primary interest was the overall Odds Ratio (OR of FC for IDA and standard mean differences (SMD of ferritin level. In total, 21 articles were considered to assess the association between IDA and FC. Anemia was more prevalent among the FC patients compared with the controls and the overall OR was 1.52 (95% CI=1.03 to 2.25. In addition, the pooled OR for 17 studies performed in the populations with low and moderate prevalence of anemia was 2.04 (95% CI=1.46 to 2.85. Furthermore, 12 studies assessed the association between the ferritin level and FC. The overall SMD was -0.02 with a 95% CI of -0.09 to 0.06. Besides, the pooled SMD of ferritin was -0.57 (95% CI=-0.7 to -0.46 in 6 studies reporting no difference between the FC and the control group with respect to temperature. IDA was associated with a moderate increased risk of FC in children, particularly in the areas with low and moderate prevalence of anemia.

  4. BUREAU OF MIGRANT LABOR REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    YERSAK, CHARLES G.

    A GRADUAL REDUCTION IN MIGRANT LABOR HAS OCCURRED IN NEW JERSEY BECAUSE OF MECHANIZATION AND URBANIZATION. THIS REDUCTION IS REFLECTED IN FEWER ACTIVE CAMPS THAT HOUSE WORKERS. THE TREND IS AWAY FROM THE USE OF FRAME BUILDINGS AND NEW CAMPS BEING BUILT ARE CONSTRUCTED OF CINDER BLOCK. THE MIGRANT FORCE IS LARGELY COMPOSED OF NEGROES FROM THE SOUTH…

  5. Library Labor Cost Accounting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Bois, Dan

    The Library Labor Cost Accounting System will provide visibility on current costs of manually processing library materials, at each campus as well as system-wide. The scope of the study includes the following: (1) 100 individual activities, grouped into 14 functional areas, e.g., Ordering, Receiving; and into 3 major operations: Acquisitions,…

  6. A global strategy for labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faux, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    The rules of the global market were established to protect the interests of investors at the expense of workers and they shift benefits to investors, costs to workers. Globalization is measured by the interests of investors. But 20 years of investor protectionism show that growth has slowed and equality has gotten worse. The purpose of neo-liberal policies has been to discipline labor to free capital from having to bargain with workers over gains from rising productivity. But such bargaining is the essence of a democratic market. Uncontrolled globalization puts government's domestic policies on the side of capital. In an economy whose growth depends on foreign markets, rising domestic wages make it harder to compete internationally. There has been a general deterioration of labor's position relative to capital's. A global marketplace implies a global politics, and the real work happens when representatives of multi-national business privately negotiate the rules. Labor must change the framework in which the investor class pursues its interest across borders, while workers are constricted by borders. Labor unions are critical; they can deny the human resource necessary for profits. The strike is the ultimate threat to investors. One solution: a "grand bargain" linking development with broadly increased living standards connected to planning for sustainable development to create a global social contract. Workers have advantages: they are the majority and they are indispensable.

  7. Economic and Labor Market Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Demetra Smith; Fix, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A number of economic and labor market trends in the United States over the past 30 years affect the well-being of workers and their families. This article describes key changes taking place and the implications for social and economic policies designed to help low-income working families and their children, particularly those families that include…

  8. Indeterminacy and labor augmenting externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile; Goenka, Aditya

    2002-01-01

    In this two-sector discrete time model of endogenous economic growth intersectoral effects are assumed to be "labor augmenting" We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for local indeterminacy and multiplicity of the balanced growth path in terms of factor intensities in both sectors...

  9. Is China Short of Labor?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Most people believe the last thing China is lacking is labor. However, while extensive human resources remain untapped, many working-age employees are being laid-off and a large number of college graduates are having difficulty finding jobs. Some experts

  10. The Chilean Teacher Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Maria del Rosario

    2013-01-01

    In Chile, as many other countries, understanding how high-qualified teachers are distributed across schools and which are the relationships that may lead to teachers' potential sorting are key aspect of the teacher labor market and it is central to addressing student achievement gaps. The first paper uses rich new data on all elementary public…

  11. Seven Important Labor Force Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents statistics on the changing human resources mix in the labor force, which vocational counselors should be aware of. Trends include higher percentages of women working, and older men and married men leaving the work force. One result is an increasing number of persons are able to retire earlier. (JAC)

  12. laboral en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlandina de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    grado de precariedad laboral de los jóvenes. En la explicación del fenómeno estudiado tomamos en cuenta aspectos socioespaciales, laborales, familiares e individuales. Por medio de la aplicación de modelos de regresión describimos los perfiles laborales y sociodemográficos de los jóvenes que trabajan.

  13. Endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine placental mediators in labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliodromiti, Zoe; Antonakopoulos, Nikolaos; Sifakis, Stavros; Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Daniilidis, Angelos; Dafopoulos, Kostantinos; Botsis, Dimitrios; Vrachnis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Considering that preterm birth accounts for about 6-10% of all births in Western countries and of more than 65% of all perinatal deaths, elucidation of the particularly complicated mechanisms of labor is essential for determination of appropriate and effective therapeutic interventions. Labor in humans results from a complex interplay of fetal and maternal factors, which act upon the uterus to trigger pathways leading gradually to a coordinated cervical ripening and myometrial contractility. Although the exact mechanism of labor still remains uncertain, several components have been identified and described in detail. Based on the major role played by the human placenta in pregnancy and the cascade of labor processes activated via placental mediators exerting endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine actions, this review article has aimed at presenting the role of these mediators in term and preterm labor and the molecular pathways of their actions. Some of the aforementioned mediators are involved in myometrial activation and preparation and others in myometrial stimulation leading to delivery. In the early stages of pregnancy, myometrial molecules, like progesterone, nitric oxide, and relaxin, contribute to the retention of pregnancy. At late stages of gestation, fetal hypothalamus maturation signals act on the placenta causing the production of hormones, including CRH, in an endocrine manner; the signals then enhance paracrinically the production of more hormones, such as estrogens and neuropeptides, that contribute to cervical ripening and uterine contractility. These molecules act directly on the myometrium through specific receptors, while cytokines and multiple growth factors are also produced, additionally contributing to labor. In situations leading to preterm labor, as in maternal stress and fetal infection, cytokines trigger placental signaling sooner, thus leading to preterm birth.

  14. 29 CFR 402.2 - Labor organization initial information report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization initial information report. 402.2... LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS LABOR ORGANIZATION INFORMATION REPORTS § 402.2 Labor organization initial information report. Every labor organization shall file a report signed by its president and...

  15. Mercado de trabalho: revendo conceitos e aproximando o campo da saúde. A década de 90 em destaque Labor market: reviewing concepts and bringing the health field together. A view on the 1990's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza Christina Varella

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o mercado de trabalho em saúde, em comparação com o mercado de trabalho brasileiro em geral. Apresenta inicialmente uma aproximação teórica sobre o tema, para sustentar o debate. Discute as características do mercado de trabalho em geral, buscando evidenciar se o quadro de desestruturação e desregulamentação verificado pode, em parte, ser reflexivo na configuração do setor saúde. Evidencia um movimento migratório de empregos públicos da esfera federal para a municipal, e também que, na década de 90, sobretudo o setor público se valeu de modalidades mais flexíveis para a contratação de profissionais de saúde.This paper analyzes health labor market in comparison with Brazilian labor market in general. It first presents a theoretical study on the subject, to support debate. The characteristics of the labor market in general are discussed, in an effort to evince if the current stage of lack of structuring measures and of regulation can, in part, be reflected on the configuration of the health sector. It evinces a migratory movement of public jobs from the federal sphere to the municipal one, and shows that, in the 1990's, the health public sector made use of more flexible modalities to recruit health professionals.

  16. Formulary compliance and pharmacy labor costs associated with systematic formulary management strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmons, Pieter J.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; Daniels, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The impact of a comprehensive hospital formulary management system on formulary compliance and pharmacy labor costs was evaluated. Methods. The formulary management system consisted of monitoring nonformulary medication use, reviewing formulary medication use annually, and providing periodi

  17. Education for All the Handicapped Children Act, Hearing Officer and the Labor Arbitrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, M. J., Jr.; Stack, William B.

    1979-01-01

    The authors review the qualifications for hearing officers required in Public Law 94-142 and suggest that practicing labor arbitrators in the public and private sectors be considered for use as hearing officers. (Author/IRT)

  18. Formulary compliance and pharmacy labor costs associated with systematic formulary management strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmons, Pieter J.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; Daniels, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The impact of a comprehensive hospital formulary management system on formulary compliance and pharmacy labor costs was evaluated. Methods. The formulary management system consisted of monitoring nonformulary medication use, reviewing formulary medication use annually, and providing

  19. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of chlamydia testing and treatment: Systematic review and retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M E; Leung, Stella; Yu, B Nancy; Frølund, Maria; Benfield, Thomas; Blanchard, James; Westh, Henrik; Ward, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated chlamydia on PID at 12-months. We undertook a systematic review to identify further studies that reported the risk of PID in women who were tested for chlamydia (infected and uninfected). We used the same method to calculate the PEF in eligible studies then compared all estimates of PEF. The systematic review identified a single study, a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening (POPI-RCT). In the presence of testing and treatment <10% of PID at 12-months was attributable to treated (baseline) chlamydia infections (Manitoba: 8.86%(95%CI 7.15-10.75); Denmark: 3.84%(3.26-4.45); screened-arm POPI-RCT: 0.99%(0.00-29.06)). In the absence of active chlamydia treatment 26.44%(11.57-46.32) of PID at 12-months was attributable to untreated (baseline) chlamydia infections (deferred-arm POPI-RCT). The PEFs suggest that eradicating baseline chlamydia infections could prevent 484 cases of PID at 12-months per 100,000 women in the untreated setting and 13-184 cases of PID per 100,000 tested women in the presence of testing and treatment. Testing and treating chlamydia reduced the PEF of chlamydia on PID by 65% compared to the untreated setting. But in the presence of testing and treatment over 90% of PID could not be attributed to a baseline chlamydia infection. More information is needed about the aetiology of PID to develop effective strategies for improving the reproductive health of women.

  20. Labor Dystocia: A Common Approach to Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jeremy L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Holley, Sharon L; Ryan, Sharon L; Buxton, Margaret; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary labor and birth population norms should be the basis for evaluating labor progression and determining slow progress that may benefit from intervention. The aim of this article is to present guidelines for a common, evidence-based approach for determination of active labor onset and diagnosis of labor dystocia based on a synthesis of existing professional guidelines and relevant contemporary publications. A 3-point approach for diagnosing active labor onset and classifying labor dystocia-related labor aberrations into well-defined, mutually exclusive categories that can be used clinically and validated by researchers is proposed. The approach comprises identification of 1) an objective point that strictly defines active labor onset (point of active labor determination); 2) an objective point that identifies when labor progress becomes atypical, beyond which interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia may be justified (point of protraction diagnosis); and 3) an objective point that identifies when interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia, if used, can first be determined to be unsuccessful, beyond which assisted vaginal or cesarean birth may be justified (earliest point of arrest diagnosis). Widespread adoption of a common approach for diagnosing labor dystocia will facilitate consistent evaluation of labor progress, improve communications between clinicians and laboring women, indicate when intervention aimed at speeding labor progress or facilitating birth may be appropriate, and allow for more efficient translation of safe and effective management strategies into clinical practice. Correct application of the diagnosis of labor dystocia may lead to a decrease in the rate of cesarean birth, decreased health care costs, and improved health of childbearing women and neonates.

  1. Why Should We Care About Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    BEEGLE, KATHLEEN; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    Although there is extensive literature on the determinants of child labor and many initiatives aimed at combating it, there is limited evidence on the consequences of child labor on socioeconomic outcomes such as education, wages, and health. The authors evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy. Five years subsequent to the child labor experience, they find significant negative effects on sch...

  2. Management of preterm labor: atosiban or nifedipine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel de Heus

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Roel de Heus, Eduard J H Mulder, Gerard H A VisserDepartment of Woman and Baby, University Medical Centre Utrecht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Preterm birth is strongly associated with neonatal death and long-term neurological morbidity. The purpose of tocolytic drug administration is to postpone threatening preterm delivery for 48 hours to allow maximal effect of antenatal corticosteroids and maternal transportation to a center with specialized neonatal care facilities. There is uncertainty about the value of atosiban (oxytocin receptor antagonist and nifedipine (calcium channel blocker as first-line tocolytic drugs in the management of preterm labor. For nifedipine, concerns have been raised about unproven safety, lack of placebo-controlled trials, and its off-label use. The tocolytic efficacy of atosiban has also been questioned because of a lack of reduction in neonatal morbidity. This review discusses the available evidence, the pros and cons of either drug and aims to provide information to support a balanced choice of first-line tocolytic drug: atosiban or nifedipine?Keywords: atosiban, oxytocin receptor antagonist, nifedipine, calcium channel blocker, preterm birth, tocolytic drugs, preterm labor

  3. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of chlamydia testing and treatment: Systematic review and retrospective cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katy M. E.; Leung, Stella; Yu, B. Nancy; Frølund, Maria; Benfield, Thomas; Blanchard, James; Westh, Henrik; Ward, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Background The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. Methods We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated chlamydia on PID at 12-months. We undertook a systematic review to identify further studies that reported the risk of PID in women who were tested for chlamydia (infected and uninfected). We used the same method to calculate the PEF in eligible studies then compared all estimates of PEF. Results The systematic review identified a single study, a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening (POPI-RCT). In the presence of testing and treatment cases of PID at 12-months per 100,000 women in the untreated setting and 13–184 cases of PID per 100,000 tested women in the presence of testing and treatment. Conclusion Testing and treating chlamydia reduced the PEF of chlamydia on PID by 65% compared to the untreated setting. But in the presence of testing and treatment over 90% of PID could not be attributed to a baseline chlamydia infection. More information is needed about the aetiology of PID to develop effective strategies for improving the reproductive health of women. PMID:28199392

  4. Migrant labor in agriculture: an international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P L

    1985-01-01

    The May 1984 Conference on Migrant Labor in Agriculture at the University of California-Davis discussed papers by 22 farm labor experts from 12 nations. Each industrial nation utilizes a different set of public and private policies to supply workers for labor-intensive agriculture, but none is entirely satisfactory. Labor-intensive agriculture is becoming more dependent on workers who are shut out of labor markets. Some countries have simply accepted foreign workers in agriculture, while others have adopted policies to integrate farm and nonfarm labor markets. Polices to reduce agriculture's reliance on workers-without-options include restructuring employment practices to employ fewer seasonal workers for longer periods, mechanizing production, and importing fruits and vegetables from nearby developing countries. This article explains the salient features of labor-intensive agriculture, the various polices for obtaining seasonal farmworkers, and options to reduce farming's dependence on migrant labor.

  5. Health problems of Maryland's migrant farm laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, V; Baker, T

    1995-08-01

    The health problems of Maryland's agricultural migrant labor force are presented for the information of Maryland's health care providers. Maryland's problems are placed in the context of U.S. and worldwide migrant labor practices.

  6. Labor law update--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiesta, J

    1997-01-01

    To ensure proper actions when making managerial decisions, nurses must be aware of labor laws and the policies that apply to them. Part 1 of "Labor Law Update" discusses public policy considerations and gender, racial and pregnancy discrimination.

  7. "A Welcome Debate" over Labor Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Cat

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Wilma B. Liebman, the new chair of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). In this interview, Liebman talks about labor law, academics, and reversing ossification.

  8. Water Breaking: Understand This Sign of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Labor and delivery, postpartum care Water breaking worries? Prepare yourself for childbirth by getting the facts about this important sign of labor. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're ...

  9. Working Children: A Report on Child Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    This report explains the applicability of the Fair Labor Standards Act to child labor. Statistics are provided on violations which occurred during fiscal year 1970, and individual cases are described. This document is a revision of ED 048 498. (BH)

  10. Failed labor induction: toward an objective diagnosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rouse, Dwight J

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes in women undergoing labor induction with an unfavorable cervix according to duration of oxytocin administration in the latent phase of labor after ruptured membranes.

  11. 78 FR 38075 - International Labor Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Productivity and Technology, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Room 2120, 2 Massachusetts Avenue NE., Washington, DC... Productivity and Technology, Bureau of Labor Statistics, telephone number 202-691-6304 (this is not a toll...

  12. 22 CFR 40.51 - Labor certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Labor Certification and Qualification for Certain..., shall be ineligible under INA 212(a)(5)(A) to receive a visa unless the Secretary of Labor has...

  13. The size of the labor wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milland, Maria; Christoffersen, Jens; Hedegaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    To assess possible associations between the size of labor units and the frequency of approved obstetric claims.......To assess possible associations between the size of labor units and the frequency of approved obstetric claims....

  14. Epidural Analgesia and Fever at Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. M. Shifman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of labor fever under epidural analgesia (EA and to evaluate its impact on the courses of puerperium and early neonatality. Subjects and methods. The paper presents the data of a prospective study of the course of labor, puerperium, and early neonatality in 397 women in whom labors occurred at the Republican Peritoneal Center in 2006. A study group included 324 parturients in whom labor pain was relieved by EA. A comparison group comprised 55 parturients in whom no analgesics were used at labor. Results. There were no significant statistical differences between the groups in the incidence of labor fever and complicated puerperium and in that of neonatal pyoseptic diseases. Key words: labor hyperthermia, epidural analgesia, labor pain relief.

  15. Solidarity Action in Global Labor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Globalization transforms workforces of transnational corporation from predominantly home countrydominated workforces into foreign-dominated, multinational workforces. Thus, the national grounding of trade unions as the key form of labor organizing is challenged by new multinational compositions...... reorganize from national unions and industrial relations institutions into global labor networks that allow prolabor improvement in global workplaces? b) How and why has labor in a globalized economy secured the core International Labor Organization (ILO) international labor right to organize companies....... The disputes took place in affiliated factories of foreign transnational corporations located in Malaysia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Turkey. The conclusion is that the combination of global labor capabilities and global labor strategizing must generate strategic labor power that adequately matches...

  16. Talent, Labor Quality and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    German Cubas; Ravikumar, B.; Gustavo Ventura

    2012-01-01

    We develop a quantitative theory of labor quality based on the division of the labor force between unskilled and skilled workers, and investments in the quality of skilled labor. We use the theory to quantify the importance labor quality and Total Factor Productivity for cross-country income differences. A central ingredient in our analysis is the observed achievement levels (talent) constructed from PISA scores in a sample of 59 countries. Our findings imply that the cross-country difference...

  17. Child Labor, Crop Shocks, and Credit Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Beegle; Rajeev Dehejia; Roberta Gatti

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between household income shocks and child labor. In particular, we investigate the extent to which transitory income shocks lead to increases in child labor and whether household access to credit mitigates the effects of these shocks. Using panel data from a survey in Tanzania, we find that both relationships are significant. Our results suggest that credit constraints play a role in explaining child labor and consequently that child labor is inefficient, ...

  18. The Class of 2011: Young Workers Face a Dire Labor Market without a Safety Net. EPI Briefing Paper #306

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shierholz, Heidi; Edwards, Kathryn Anne

    2011-01-01

    The Great Recession left a crater in the labor market that has been devastating for unemployed Americans of all ages. After more than two years of unemployment at well over 8%, there is a hole of more than 11 million jobs, with average spells of unemployment lasting nearly nine months. The weak labor market has been particularly tough on young…

  19. Hispanic Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    Hispanic heritage month is from September 15 to October 15. One problem that arises when grouping people into categories such as Hispanic or Latino is stereotyping, stereotypes can be promoted or used in this Hispanic month to promote a greater understanding of Latino cultures.

  20. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  1. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  2. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  3. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  4. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  5. The Labor Values of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlopova, T. V.; Ozernikova, T. G.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the labor values of young people. The problem of the transformation of labor values occupies a special place in the transition economy of Russia. In this article, the authors look at labor values as an element of the motivation mechanism. Furthermore, the authors examine the the term "motivation" in its content sense…

  6. Early Smoking, Education, and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market perf

  7. Explaining Variation in Child Labor Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Andrew; Bardasi, Elena; Beegle, Kathleen; Serneels, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Child labor statistics are critical for assessing the extent and nature of child labor activities in developing countries. In practice, widespread variation exists in how child labor is measured. Questionnaire modules vary across countries and within countries over time along several dimensions, including respondent type and the structure of the questionnaire. Little is known about the eff...

  8. Macroeconomic shocks and firms' labor adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor

    2013-01-01

    , but a brief discussion of cross-country differences and similarities in firmlevel labor adjustment is also provided. For Denmark, remarkable long-term stability in firms’ labor adjustment technologies is observed and the cross-country comparisons reveal striking similarities between countries with very...... diverse labor market institutions....

  9. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  10. Age-specific labor market dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.

    2008-01-01

    One important finding concerns the fact that job separations for older workers constitute mostly a one-way exit out of the labor force, despite the fact that an ageing society calls for an active labor market participation from us all. Also, the allocation of labor for younger workers has shown to b

  11. Early Smoking, Education, and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market perf

  12. 23 CFR 140.906 - Labor costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Railroad Work § 140.906 Labor costs. (a) General. (1) Salaries and wages, at actual or average rates, and... engineering, construction engineering, right-of-way, and force account construction. (2) Salaries and expenses... may be reimbursed. (b) Labor surcharges. (1) Labor surcharges include worker compensation...

  13. 22 CFR 901.19 - Labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labor organization. 901.19 Section 901.19 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.19 Labor organization. Labor organization means any employee organization accorded recognition as...

  14. Intersectoral labor mobility and deforestation in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owusu, V.; Yerfi Fosu, K.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper quantifies the effects of the determinants of intersectoral labor mobility and the effect of intersectoral labor mobility on deforestation in Ghana over the period 1970–2008. A cointegration and error correction modeling approach is employed. The empirical results show that labor mobility

  15. 77 FR 31549 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Labor. ACTION... opportunity to submit written comments on its proposal to amend its ] child labor regulations which protect...

  16. 76 FR 67104 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Labor. ACTION... comments for an additional 30 days on the proposed revisions to the child labor regulations published on...

  17. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.

    2011-12-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  18. Consumo de alcohol y salud laboral: Revisión y líneas de actuación Alcohol consumption and occupational health: Review and lines of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriqueta Ochoa Mangado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alcohol tiene una elevada prevalencia en la sociedad en general, y también entre la población trabajadora, repercutiendo sobre el medio laboral. La repercusión del consumo de alcohol en el medio laboral es muy importante (enfermedades, accidentes laborales, absentismo, incapacidades laborales, disminución de la productividad.... Se describen los aspectos fundamentales de la psicofarmacología del alcohol, del diagnóstico de su dependencia y de los tratamientos para la dependencia de alcohol. Se valora la necesidad de una política en el medio laboral encaminada a prevenir o minimizar los riesgos laborales derivados del consumo de alcohol, con programas de prevención y apoyo que aporten información básica de referencia y orienten al abordaje asistencial de los trabajadores afectados.The consumption of alcohol and other drugs has high prevalence in the society in general, and in working population especially, affecting the occupational area. The repercussion of the consumption of these substances in the working environment is very important (diseases, occupational accidents, absenteeism, occupational disabilities, decrease of the productivity.... We describe the fundamental aspects of the psychopharmacology of alcohol, diagnosis of dependence and the treatment for alcohol dependence. Political measurements are necessary in the occupational area to prevent and minimize the risks derived from the consumption of these substances. Programs of prevention and support which offer basic information and orientation to the medical approach of the affected workers should be included.

  19. El sistema de justicia laboral

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Hugo Italo; Saldaña

    2009-01-01

    Tradicionalmente se ha definido la actividad del estado en su función jurisdiccional, afirmando que le corresponde la solución de conflictos jurídicos que surgen entre los particulares, sin embargo este principio aplicado en el ámbito laboral sufre interpretaciones diferentes y se afirma que a través de las autoridades laborales, se pretende la aplicación de la justicia social.

  20. An End to Forced Labor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China is working on an improved drug rehabilitation regulation that drops work as a form of treatment China is going to release a new regulation soon to give detail to the rules for forced-and-isolated rehab treatment,a new measure replac- ing forced drug treatment through labor, according to an official with the China Narcotics Control Foundation(CNCF). Chen Xingyou,Secretary General of the

  1. 29 CFR 531.7 - Request for review of tip credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Request for review of tip credit. 531.7 Section 531.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Determinations of âReasonable Costâ and âFair Valueâ...

  2. Prenatal radiation exposure policy: A labor arbitration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.J. (New York Power Authority, White Plains (USA))

    1990-07-01

    A policy on prenatal radiation exposure at two nuclear power plants was revised to give better assurance of compliance with NCRP recommendations on fetal radiation exposure. This action was taken after publication of NCRP 91 in June 1987 to provide better assurance that a total dose equivalent limit to an embryo-fetus be no greater than 0.5 mSv (0.05 rem) in any month and no more than 5 mSv (500 mrem) for a gestation period. For any female worker to receive radiation exposure greater than 1.5 mSv (0.15 rem) in a month at these nuclear power plants, she was asked to initiate an administrative request for radiation exposure in excess of this limit. In this request, she was asked to acknowledge that she was aware of the guidance in U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 8.13. A worker who had the potential for radiation exposure in excess of 1.5 mSv (0.15 rem) refused to process this request and was consequently denied overtime work. She filed a grievance for denial of overtime, and this grievance was submitted for labor arbitration in June 1988. The arbitration decision and its basis and related NRC actions are discussed.

  3. Women in the labor force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatter, R H

    1994-01-01

    Unlike the rate for men, the labor force participation rate for women has increased significantly over the past three decades or so. This trend is expected to continue at least through 2005. Among the reasons for the growing role of women in the labor market are higher levels of educational attainment, improved employment opportunities, changing values in society, and economic pressures and aspirations that require women to assume dual careers as homemakers and family income producers. By the year 2005, it is estimated that women workers will number about 72 million, with more than 63 percent of all women age 16 and over either working or actively looking for work. While traditional occupations such as secretarial and clerical administrative support and professions such as nursing and teaching still predominate, about 4 million women are now in executive, administrative and managerial positions in the private sectors of the economy. As for the types of industry in which women are employed, service industries clearly predominate. Projections suggest that women workers of the future will be older on average, with the fastest growth occurring in the 45-64 age cohort. They will also be a more diverse group as the number of black, Asian and Hispanic women workers grows more rapidly than the number of white non-Hispanic labor force participants.

  4. Monthly energy review, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities.

  5. Monthly energy review, September 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-26

    This publication presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities. 36 figs., 57 tabs.

  6. Monthly energy review, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-25

    This report presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities. 36 figs., 57 tabs.

  7. Monthly energy review, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities.

  8. Validity and efficacy of the labor contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Toyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The validity and efficacy of the labor contract as well as cases of nullity and defeasibility import an analysis of scopes of the supplementary application of Civil Code taking into account the peculiarities of Labor Law. Labor contract, while legal business has as regulatory framework to the regulations of Civil Code but it is necessary to determine, in each case, whether to apply fully this normative body, or modulate its supplemental application, or simply conclude that it doesn’t result compatible its regulation due to the special nature of labor relations. Specifically, this issue will be analyzed from cases of nullity and defeasibility of the labor contract.

  9. Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? ... for preterm labor and premature birth. What are preterm labor and premature birth? Preterm and premature mean ...

  10. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  11. Lightship Monthly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Weather Observations (Monthly Form 1001) from lightship stations in the United States. Please see the 'Surface Weather Observations (1001)' library for more...

  12. Oceanographic Monthly Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Monthly Summary contains sea surface temperature (SST) analyses on both regional and ocean basin scales for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans....

  13. [Productive restructuring and its impact on labor relations in the public health services in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria Inês Carsalade; Molinaro, Alex

    2013-06-01

    The restructuring of productive systems and economic globalization are directly impacting the basic social rights of workers. In the semi-peripheral countries such as Brazil, where the wage-based society and the consolidation of social rights are not completely implemented, this process of change in the world of labor contributes to aggravate the inequality in the capital-labor relationship and hampers access to employment. By means of a critical review of the scientific literature regarding changes in the world of labor and its impact on the organization and production of health services in Brazil, this article pinpoints the weakness of regulation of the labor market in Brazil, especially in the health sector. It also stresses the need to increase the debate on new forms of institutionalization of the labor relationship in order to ensure equity in the workplace and protect the rights to work and in the workplace.

  14. Cortisol as a Biomarker of Stress in Term Human Labor: Physiological and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Edward R.; Tanner, Charles J.; Heitkemper, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Literature on the use of plasma cortisol to quantify psychophysiological stress in humans is extensive. However, in parturition at term gestation the use of cortisol as a biomarker of stress is particularly complex. Plasma cortisol levels increase as labor progresses. This increase seems to be important for maintenance of maternal/fetal wellbeing and facilitation of normal labor progress. Unique physiological and methodological issues involved in the use of cortisol as a biomarker of stress in labor present challenges for researchers. This review examines these issues, suggests mixed methods and within-subject repeated measures designs, and offers recommendations for assay procedures for parturient sampling. Documentation of clinical interventions and delivery outcomes may elucidate relationships among psychophysiological stressors, cortisol and normal labor progress. With attention to these methodological issues, analysis of plasma cortisol may lead to clinical interventions that support normal labor physiology. PMID:23338011

  15. Modern Neuraxial Anesthesia for Labor and Delivery [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise Meng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The availability of safe, effective analgesia during labor has become an expectation for women in most of the developed world over the past two or three decades. More than 60% of women in the United States now receive some kind of neuraxial procedure during labor. This article is a brief review of the advantages and techniques of neuraxial labor analgesia along with the recent advances and controversies in the field of labor analgesia. For the most part, we have aimed the discussion at the non-anesthesiologist to give other practitioners a sense of the state of the art and science of labor analgesia in the second decade of the 21st century.

  16. 29 CFR 552.108 - Child labor provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child labor provisions. 552.108 Section 552.108 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.108 Child labor provisions. Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child labor...

  17. 75 FR 11512 - Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in... public meeting of the Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported... forced labor or child labor. The notice sets forth the process for requesting to appear at the meeting...

  18. 78 FR 60317 - Notice of Updates to the Department of Labor's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Child Labor or Forced Labor Required by the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005... removes 3 items from the ``List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor'' (List), produced in... raise public awareness about the incidence of child labor and forced labor in the production of goods in...

  19. 29 CFR 500.41 - Farm labor contractor is responsible for actions of his farm labor contractor employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., prior to such employee's engagement in any activity enumerated in section 3(6) of the Act. A farm labor... farm labor contractor employee. 500.41 Section 500.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... PROTECTION Registration of Farm Labor Contractors and Employees of Farm Labor Contractors Engaged in Farm...

  20. Medio laboral y salud mental.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fernández Liria

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisan las formas predominantes de experimentar el trabajo y el medio laboral en el mundo occidental desde la revolución industrial analizando el surgimiento de diferentes funciones, como: medio de subsistencia, generador de derechos, jerarquizador en el entramado social, fuente de significado personal y entorno privilegiado de relaciones interpersonales significativas. Se discute el papel que la actividad productiva puede tener en el sistema de significados que configura a los individuos como miembros de una sociedad concreta, y, por tanto, en su salud mental. En base a ello se discute el papel del sistema de atención la salud mental en este terreno.

  1. ACOSO LABORAL EN COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    VARGAS MORÚA, ELIZARDA

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo constituye un análisis descriptivo de las resoluciones judiciales de Costa Rica respecto al acoso laboral. De acuerdo con el Sistema Costarricense de Información Jurídica son 23 resoluciones clasificadas bajo el tema de “acoso laboral” relativas a procesos iniciados desde el año 1998 al presente. También se analiza la información suministrada por el Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social de las denuncias que se tramitaron por la vía administrativa. Aunque el ordenamiento costa...

  2. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  3. A global perspective on foreign contract labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, J E; Casco, R R

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview on foreign contract labor. The growth in the use of foreign contract labor is described with reference to other types of international labor movements such as 1) illegal, undocumented, or irregular migration; 2) free migration; and 3) permanent settlement migration. Within this general context, the various national advantages and disadvantages of contract labor are outlined. Particular issues like the role of trade unions and the likely future international labor circulation are noted. The 1984 World Labour Report estimates a global stock of almost 22 million foreign workers. Despite lack of reliable data, the size of irregular labor flows is considerable. More than 4 million undocumented workers, primarily Mexicans, can be found in the US alone. Other major flows of illegal labor go from China to Hong Kong, Malaysia to Singapore, Columbia to Venezuela, and poor Arab countries to oil-exporting countries in the Middle East. Laws are often poorly enforced and contradictory. Employers often actively recruit illegal migrants. While permanent migration was formerly the primary source of foreign workers, the numbers migrating in this manner are decreasing significantly. In absolute terms, host countries gain considerably more through the use of contract labor than sending countries. The pervasive commitment of national governments to economic growth is a prime consideration in the decision to import foreign labor. In general, trade unions have created an environment wherein the use of foreign labor in the formal as opposed to the informal labor market is more difficult. The disadvantages of labor export include the costs of family separation, worker exploitation, and cultural alienation. Remittances constitute the most tangible return of labor export. In many countries they have made a very considerable impact on the balance of payments deficit.

  4. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G. Shendell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990–2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3–83 countries. Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries.

  5. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G; Noomnual, Saisattha; Chishti, Shumaila; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Madrigano, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H) risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990-2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3-83 countries). Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries.

  6. Practice Bulletin No. 171: Management of Preterm Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and the most common reason for antenatal hospitalization . In the United States, approximately 12% of all live births occur before term, and preterm labor preceded approximately 50% of these preterm births . Although the causes of preterm labor are not well understood, the burden of preterm births is clear-preterm births account for approximately 70% of neonatal deaths and 36% of infant deaths as well as 25-50% of cases of long-term neurologic impairment in children . A 2006 report from the Institute of Medicine estimated the annual cost of preterm birth in the United States to be $26.2 billion or more than $51,000 per premature infant . However, identifying women who will give birth preterm is an inexact process. The purpose of this document is to present the various methods proposed to manage preterm labor and to review the evidence for the roles of these methods in clinical practice. Identification and management of risk factors for preterm labor are not addressed in this document.

  7. Practice Bulletin No. 159 Summary: Management of Preterm Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and the most common reason for antenatal hospitalization (1-4). In the United States, approximately 12% of all live births occur before term, and preterm labor preceded approximately 50% of these preterm births (5, 6). Although the causes of preterm labor are not well understood, the burden of preterm births is clear-preterm births account for approximately 70% of neonatal deaths and 36% of infant deaths as well as 25-50% of cases of long-term neurologic impairment in children (7-9). A 2006 report from the Institute of Medicine estimated the annual cost of preterm birth in the United States to be $26.2 billion or more than $51,000 per premature infant (10). However, identifying women who will give birth preterm is an inexact process. The purpose of this document is to present the various methods proposed to manage preterm labor and to review the evidence for the roles of these methods in clinical practice. Identification and management of risk factors for preterm labor are not addressed in this document.

  8. Practice Bulletin No. 159: Management of Preterm Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and the most common reason for antenatal hospitalization . In the United States, approximately 12% of all live births occur before term, and preterm labor preceded approximately 50% of these preterm births . Although the causes of preterm labor are not well understood, the burden of preterm births is clear-preterm births account for approximately 70% of neonatal deaths and 36% of infant deaths as well as 25-50% of cases of long-term neurologic impairment in children . A 2006 report from the Institute of Medicine estimated the annual cost of preterm birth in the United States to be $26.2 billion or more than $51,000 per premature infant . However, identifying women who will give birth preterm is an inexact process. The purpose of this document is to present the various methods proposed to manage preterm labor and to review the evidence for the roles of these methods in clinical practice. Identification and management of risk factors for preterm labor are not addressed in this document.

  9. La reforma del proceso laboral en Uruguay. El regreso al proceso laboral autónomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reform of the labor process in Uruguay. The return to the autonomous labor processThe reform of the Uruguayan labor process and the return to an autonomous legal regime represent a radical and fundamental change in the national legislation. The simplicity of new procedural structures governed by principles and owns norms of labor discipline give the new regime a dogmatic autonomous space lost for many years. The procedural labor reform is built on the adjectival character of its nature prioritizing the substantive law and adjusting the procedural rule to its characteristics. The principles of Labor Law (substantive and procedural are the foundation of the new regime

  10. Child Labor and the Labor Supply of Other Household Members: Evidence from 1920 America

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of child labor on household labor supply using 1920 US Census micro data. The aim of the analysis is to understand who in the household benefits from child labor. In order to identify a source of exogenous variation in child labor I use State-specific child labor laws. I find that a rise in the proportion of working children by household is associated with no variation in parents¿ labor supply. I also find a strong negative externality among children: as the pro...

  11. Child labor and the labor supply of other household members: Evidence from 1920 america

    OpenAIRE

    Manacorda, Marco

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of child labor on household labor supply using 1920 US Census micro data. The aim of the analysis is to understand who in the household benefits from child labor. In order to identify a source of exogenous variation in child labor I use State-specific child labor laws. I find that a rise in the proportion of working children by household is associated with no variation in parents¿ labor supply. I also find a strong negative externality among children: as the pro...

  12. Estimulação elétrica transcutânea no alívio da dor do trabalho de parto: revisão sistemática e meta-análise Transcutaneous electrical stimulation for pain relief during labor: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa F. D. Mello

    2011-06-01

    : To perform a systematic review assessing the effectiveness of TENS compared to no TENS treatment or placebo with the following outcomes: pain relief (primary outcome, analgesic requirements, duration of labor, the mother's satisfaction, type of delivery and fetal repercussions (secondary outcomes. METHODS: The Pubmed, LILACS and Scielo databases were searched for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials published between 1966 and 2008 using the keywords 'TENS', 'Labor', 'Labor pain' and 'obstetric labor'. The selection of eligible items and assessment of methodological quality were performed independently by two researchers. Random effects meta-analysis was performed for studies that were sufficiently homogeneous. RESULTS: Nine studies involving a total of 1076 pregnant women were included. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in pain relief during labor (pooled RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.72 to 1.65 or the need of additional analgesia (pooled RR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.74 to 1.08. There was no evidence that TENS interfered in any of the outcomes except the mothers' desire to use TENS in future deliveries. CONCLUSIONS: The use of TENS had no impact on mother or child and no influence on labor. According to the results of this review, there is no evidence that TENS reduces the use of additional analgesia.

  13. 29 CFR 525.18 - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review. 525.18 Section 525.18 Labor Regulations Relating to... DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.18 Review. Any person aggrieved by any action of the... allow, file with the Administrator a petition for review. Such review, if granted, shall be made by...

  14. Photos of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Congratulations to Adele Rimoldi, ATLAS physicist from Pavia, who ran her first marathon in New York last month. Adele completed the 42.2 km in a time of 4:49:19. She sure makes it look easy!!! The ATLAS pixel service quarter panel in SR1

  15. Labor potential: enhancing its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Melnichuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This publication presents the views of the author about the need to expand research of labor potential, estimation of quantitative indicators and qualitative characteristics at the individual, regional levels and the state as a whole to develop the mechanisms of its development. The existing methods of labour potential assessment are mainly based on the probable approach taking into account external and internal factors. In the case of assessment of labour potential of a single enterprise for the most suitable for this production method the mechanisms of its development can be worked out. However, for the state under a certain depreciation of the resource, property, financial and other potentials, aggressive manifestations of the crisis phenomena, processes etc. to resolve urgent is the problem of enhancing the development of qualitative characteristics of labor potential at all its levels. In this context it is important to exploit the potential of domestic education and science which now continue to be reformed for the sake of achieving European standards, using the advanced experience of other countries. Every means of legal, financial, managerial, and organizational impact should be used for this.

  16. Migrant Labor, Unemployment and Optimal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Viasu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the arguments against migrant labor is that it has negative ef- fect on the employment of domestic labor. The question is now if the immigration has also negative effects on the other variables of the econ- omy. To examine these effects we develop an optimal growth model with migration and unemployment and then we analyze these effects, restricting our analysis to the steady state. We introduce a simplify- ing hypothesis concerning the skill level of human capital. We assume that the average skill level of domestic employed labor differs from the average skill level of migrant labor, but the two kinds of labor grow at the same constant rate. We prove that the immigration process could have both positive and negative effects on consumption, human capital and physical capital, depending on the skill level of the migrant labor. The numerical simulations confirm our theoretical results.

  17. The Price of Rights: Regulating International Labor Migration (by Martin Ruhs, Princeton University Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Gzesh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Migrant workers, particularly those classified as “low-skilled,” find that the denial of their rights is the “price of admission” to labor immigration programs. This is the global phenomenon described and analyzed by Martin Ruhs in The Price of Rights: Regulating International Labor Migration.  This book review provides an in-depth discussion of Ruhs’s comprehensive study of labor immigration policies and the substantial questions it raises for the global migration debate.  

  18. Nanotechnology between the lab and the shop floor: what are the effects on labor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Noela

    2011-06-01

    Nanotechnology's effects on labor and employment have received little attention within research and debates on the social implications of nanotechnology. This article shows that, in spite of its incipient development, nanotechnology is unquestionably moving toward manufacturing, involving a still very small but increasing component of the labor force. Based on secondary data and the literature review, I compose a picture of the emerging jobs in nanotechnology and highlight four emerging trends in nanotechnology workers' skills requirements. I show that, in addition to job creation, nanotechnology diffusion is likely to pose labor market changes that may be disruptive for some categories of workers.

  19. Nanotechnology between the lab and the shop floor: what are the effects on labor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Invernizzi, Noela, E-mail: noela.invernizzi@gmail.com [Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Science and Technology Innovation Program (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Nanotechnology's effects on labor and employment have received little attention within research and debates on the social implications of nanotechnology. This article shows that, in spite of its incipient development, nanotechnology is unquestionably moving toward manufacturing, involving a still very small but increasing component of the labor force. Based on secondary data and the literature review, I compose a picture of the emerging jobs in nanotechnology and highlight four emerging trends in nanotechnology workers' skills requirements. I show that, in addition to job creation, nanotechnology diffusion is likely to pose labor market changes that may be disruptive for some categories of workers.

  20. Migraine Headache and Labor Market Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    REES, DANIEL I.; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    While migraine headache can be physically debilitating, no study has attempted to estimate its effects on labor market outcomes. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the effect of migraine headache on labor force participation, hours worked, and wages. We find that migraine headache is associated with a decrease in wages. However, there is little evidence that migraine headache leads to reductions in labor force participation or hours worked....

  1. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    neighborhood may, therefore, hamper individual labor market outcomes because of lack of employed contacts. I investigate this hypothesis by exploiting a unique natural experiment that occurred between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to municipalities quasirandomly, which...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...

  2. Labor search and matching in macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The labor search and matching model plays a growing role in macroeconomic analysis. This paper provides a critical, selective survey of the literature. Four fundamental questions are explored: how are unemployment, job vacancies, and employment determined as equilibrium phenomena? What determines worker flows and transition rates from one labor market state to another? How are wages determined? What role do labor market dynamics play in explaining business cycles and growth? The survey descri...

  3. Increasing body mass index predicts increasing difficulty, failure rate, and time to discovery of failure of epidural anesthesia in laboring patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Ayse O; Riess, Matthias L; Ellinas, Elizabeth H

    2017-02-01

    Obese parturients both greatly benefit from neuraxial techniques, and may represent a technical challenge to obstetric anesthesiologists. Several studies address the topic of obesity and neuraxial analgesia in general, but few offer well described definitions or rates of "difficulty" and "failure" of labor epidural analgesia. Providing those definitions, we hypothesized that increasing body mass index (BMI) is associated with negative outcomes in both categories and increased time needed for epidural placement. Single center retrospective chart review. Labor and Delivery Unit of an inner city academic teaching hospital. 2485 parturients, ASA status 2 to 4, receiving labor epidural analgesia for anticipated vaginal delivery. None. We reviewed quality assurance and anesthesia records over a 12-month period. "Failure" was defined as either inadequate analgesia or a positive test dose, requiring replacement, and/or when the anesthesia record stated they failed. "Difficulty" was defined as six or more needle redirections or a note indicating difficulty in the anesthesia record. Overall epidural failure and difficulty rates were 4.3% and 3.0%, respectively. Patients with a BMI of 30kg/m(2) or higher had a higher chance of both failure and difficulty with two and almost three fold increases, respectively. Regression analysis indicated that failure was best predicted by BMI and less provider training while difficulty was best predicted by BMI. Additionally, increased BMI was associated with increased time of discovery of epidural catheter failure. Obesity is associated with increasing technical difficulty and failure of neuraxial analgesia for labor. Practitioners should consider allotting extra time for obese parturients in order to manage potential problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Baby's Growth: 9 Months Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 9 Months Your Child's Checkup: 9 Months Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Contact ...

  5. Profile of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly long-acting injectable in the management of schizophrenia: long-term safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Rodríguez A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre González-Rodríguez,1 Rosa Catalán,1–4 Rafael Penadés,1–4 Clemente Garcia-Rizo,1,3,4 Miquel Bioque,1,4 Eduard Parellada,1,3–5 Miquel Bernardo1–4 1Barcelona Clinic Schizophrenia Unit (BCSU, Neuroscience Institute, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, 2Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology, University of Barcelona, 3Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain; 4Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain; 5Department of Pharmacology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Background and objectives: Short-term studies focused on once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP at doses of 25 mg eq, 50 mg eq, 75 mg eq, 100 mg eq, or 150 mg eq have shown its efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of schizophrenia patients. However, few open-label and long-term studies are available regarding this new pharmacological formulation. Thus, our main aim was to review the scientific evidence on efficacy, safety, tolerability, and preference of PP in these populations. Method: Electronic searches were conducted by using PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. All relevant studies published from 2009 until January 2015 were included without any language restriction if patients met diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, and adequate information on efficacy, safety, and tolerability of once-monthly PP was available. Results: Nineteen studies were identified irrespective of the study design and duration of the follow-up period. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials found that schizophrenia patients receiving PP showed a significant improvement in psychotic symptoms and similar adverse events compared to placebo and suggested that all doses of PP were efficacious and well tolerated. Other studies demonstrated noninferiority of PP compared to risperidone long-acting injectable in recently diagnosed schizophrenia patients, chronically

  6. Corporate Social Responsibility and Labor Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Coe, Neil

    This article examines the circumstances under which CSR initiatives facilitate and/or constrain labor agency in GPNs. Using a case study of Nike’s CSR approach in the football manufacturing industry of Pakistan, we explore how the CSR measures advocated in a new, emerging policy paradigm on CSR...... in GPNs affect labor agency at Nike’s main football supplier factory in Pakistan. We argue that international companies may undermine labor agency in GPNs through their sourcing policies, but that their CSR policies could have a potential, albeit limited, positive impact on labor agency in GPNs which...

  7. Genetic contributions to labor pain and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    Studies on genetic contributions to labor analgesia have essentially evaluated the μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), with some evidence that p.118A/G of OPRM1 influences the response to neuraxial opioids. As for labor progress, the β2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) is associated with preterm labor and delivery, and impacts the course of labor. Taken together though, there is no evidence that pharmacogenetic testing is needed or beneficial in the context of obstetric anesthesia; however, realizing the influence of genetic variants on specific phenotypes provides the rationale for a more cautious interpretation of clinical studies that attempt to find a dose-regimen that fits all.

  8. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    WEB WATCH (204) Try unearthing some interesting information about archaeology BOOK REVIEWS (206) Teaching and assessing practical skills Book Review: Learn to drive with Sir Isaac Newton DVD REVIEW (207) Bring some sunshine into the classroom EQUIPMENT REVIEWS (208) Robust air puck takes a kicking Flowlog offers sensing options plus multimode datalogging Mastering Chladni figures takes practice but it offers surprises

  9. AIDS Epidemic. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session on Reviewing Federal Efforts Being Conducted toward Combating the AIDS Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The text of a Senate hearing called to review federal efforts combating acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is presented in this document. Opening statements reviewing the AIDS crisis are given by Senators Edward Kennedy and Lowell Weicker, Jr. Prepared statements are included by Senators Orrin Hatch and Ted Stevens. David Baltimore and…

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  12. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  13. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  14. Human cervicovaginal fluid biomarkers to predict term and preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Yujing J.; Liong, Stella; Permezel, Michael; Rice, Gregory E.; Di Quinzio, Megan K. W.; Georgiou, Harry M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB; birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation) remains the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The current generation of biomarkers predictive of PTB have limited utility. In pregnancy, the human cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) proteome is a reflection of the local biochemical milieu and is influenced by the physical changes occurring in the vagina, cervix and adjacent overlying fetal membranes. Term and preterm labor (PTL) share common pathways of cervical ripening, myometrial activation and fetal membranes rupture leading to birth. We therefore hypothesize that CVF biomarkers predictive of labor may be similar in both the term and preterm labor setting. In this review, we summarize some of the existing published literature as well as our team's breadth of work utilizing the CVF for the discovery and validation of putative CVF biomarkers predictive of human labor. Our team established an efficient method for collecting serial CVF samples for optimal 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis resolution and analysis. We first embarked on CVF biomarker discovery for the prediction of spontaneous onset of term labor using 2D-electrophoresis and solution array multiple analyte profiling. 2D-electrophoretic analyses were subsequently performed on CVF samples associated with PTB. Several proteins have been successfully validated and demonstrate that these biomarkers are associated with term and PTL and may be predictive of both term and PTL. In addition, the measurement of these putative biomarkers was found to be robust to the influences of vaginal microflora and/or semen. The future development of a multiple biomarker bed-side test would help improve the prediction of PTB and the clinical management of patients. PMID:26029118

  15. Child Labor Requirements in Nonagricultural Occupations under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Child Labor Bulletin No. 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    This booklet is a guide to the provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (also known as the Wage-Hour Law) which apply to minors employed in nonagricultural occupations. The content is as follows: coverage of the child labor provisions (covers employees in commerce, the production of goods for commerce, an enterprise engaged in commerce, and an…

  16. The Use of Female Commercial Sex Workers’ Services by Latino Day Laborers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Frank H.; Ortiz, Daniel J.; Martinez, Victor; Bing, Eric G.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the characteristics of Latino day laborers who have sex with female commercial sex workers (CSWs). A sample of 450 day laborers in Los Angeles was utilized. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association of independent variables with the likelihood of having sex with a CSW. Overall, 26% of the 450 day laborers reported having had sex with a CSW in the previous 12 months. A lower likelihood of having sex with a CSW was found for those with more than six years of education and for those who were married and living with their spouses. A higher likelihood of having sex with a CSW was found for those who met the criteria for harmful drinking or drug dependence. Commercial sex work has been associated with sexually transmitted infections and other problems among clients of CSWs and warrants further attention by providers working with day laborers. PMID:20354572

  17. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... for the years 1999-2002. The Danish workforce is split into "R&D workers", who hold a bachelor's or a master's degree in a technical field, and "non{R&D workers". We find that mobile R&D workers ("R&D joiners"') contribute more to patenting activity than immobile R&D workers. Furthermore, R&D workers who have...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  18. Child Labor and Health: Quantifying the Global Health Impacts of Child Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graitcer, Philip L.; Lerer, Leonard B.

    Child labor remains one of the most controversial challenges at the end of the 20th century. Approximately 250 million children in developing countries work either full- or part-time. Child labor is not confined to less-developed countries, as economic transitions bring shifts in the prevalence and nature of child labor. Throughout the world,…

  19. 76 FR 61289 - Public Hearing on Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Public Hearing on Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY: Wage and Hour... public hearing on its Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), Child Labor Regulations, Orders and...

  20. An approach to corporal expressiveness among Mexican migrant agricultural laborers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Rocio Echeverria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the human body has been approached in distinct historical and cultural contexts and generated a broad diversity of theoretical contributions from the perspective of the different scientific disciplines that problematize it. Despite these advances, however, critics of this field still posit the need to articulate its understanding through multidimensional, perspectives and holistic, unfragmented studies. The phenomenology of corporality in populations of migrant agricultural laborers in Mexico reveals the absence of theorizing. While the article does not pretend to offer an exhaustive review of this topic, it does explore the body-wear-mistreatment relationship in the context of what occurs in the different spatialities that emerge in neoliberal agricultural labor markets that permanently subject the wills of actors. We posit that the body inscribed along the trail of migratory trajectories constitutes an important analytical key for typifying this sector

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  2. TEXAS MIGRANT LABOR, THE 1966 MIGRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    THE CALENDAR YEAR 1966 WAS THE SECOND FULL YEAR IN WHICH NO BRACEROS WERE IMPORTED FROM MEXICO. CRITICAL LABOR SHORTAGES OCCURRED IN SOME AREAS, HOWEVER, THE DOMESTIC LABOR SUPPLY BECAME MORE STABLE AND FEWER PROBLEMS WERE EXPERIENCED THAN IN 1965. THE MAJORITY OF TEXAS MIGRANTS LIVE IN SOUTH TEXAS AND APPROXIMATELY 95 PERCENT OF THEM ARE OF…

  3. Texas Migrant Labor. 1975 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    The Good Neighbor Commission of Texas coordinates the work of the Federal, State, and local government toward the improvement of travel and living and working conditions of Texas migrant laborers and their families. Covering the full spectrum of migrant labor activity directly related to the improvement of the well-being of migrant and seasonal…

  4. Texas Migrant Labor. Annual Report, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    Among the responsibilities of the Good Neighbor Commission of Texas are (1) a survey of conditions and (2) a study of problems related to migrant labor in Texas. This annual report of the 1969 migrant scene shows the results of that survey and study. Beginning with an overview of Texas migrant labor, which goes back several years and includes a…

  5. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  6. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan

    1999-01-01

    of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  7. Labor law for the nonunion agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, J C

    1997-03-01

    Providers should not assume that because they are union free they need not worry about labor law. An agency can have obligations under labor laws even when no union is involved. Who are nonunion employees, legally speaking? What rights do they have, and how can agencies ensure that they are in compliance with those rights?

  8. Macroeconomic implications of labor market frictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedláček, P.

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in economic activity, business cycles, are a fact of life. An important factor shaping the character of economic fluctuations is the labor market. However, the labor market does not operate smoothly. Neither workers, nor firms are all the same. Therefore, it often requires a substantial

  9. US Investment Treaties and Labor Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan-Ho Kim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Korea and the United States declared the start of negotiations for the establishment of a free trade agreement. The FTA will include investment chapter. That means the Korea-US BIT (Bilateral Investment Treaty talk, which has been deadlocked since 1998, resumes as a part of FTA negotiations. The FTA investment chapter will be based on the US model BIT, which has been updated in 2004. The updated BIT version includes labor clause which provides that parties should not weaken labor standards in an effort to attract foreign investment. This clause is grounded on the criticism raised by labor groups which asserts that competition among countries to attract foreign investment leads to bidding wars in labor standards. No solid evidence is found in support of the hypothesis that foreign investors favor countries with lower labor standards. Nonetheless, some countries have offered special incentives to investors that limit labor rights in the belief that doing so would help attract foreign investment, especially in export processing or special economic zones. In this regard, the Korea's Act on free economic zones which provides exceptional labor standards to foreign invested enterprise in those zones may become an issue in reaching the FTA. This article contemplates the "not lowering labor standards" provision in the US BIT model and its implications on the FTA talks with the US.

  10. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor market and the institutional features of the Russian labor market. The study reveals that, despite lower wages, women, judging by their socio-economic characteristics, possess competitive advantages over men, having higher level of education and better state of health. In addition to horizontal segregation, traditional partition of industries to “male” and “female”, the main causes of gender wage gaps are discriminatory social attitudes and social role of women. The issue to address gender discrimination in the modern Russian society becomes more critical due to contradiction between normative-legal acts, stipulating the gender equality in all spheres of life, and discriminatory social attitudes. The article gives a brief overview of research and practice publications on the problem of gender disparities in labor remuneration and methods to address them in the developed world. The state statistical monitoring of labor productivity in terms of gender is considered as a tool for in-depth study of discrimination

  11. Teaching Emotional Labor through Television and Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Katie; Paino, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Emotional labor refers to the process by which workers manage their emotions to align with organizational rules (Hochschild, 2012). In the classroom, the discussion of emotional labor was found to be a contentious issue, with students debating the validity of the concept and/or not understanding its relationship to status. The purpose of this…

  12. How Long Is a Normal Labor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Blix, Ellen; Hegaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Normal progress of labor is a subject for discussion among professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the duration of labor in women with a planned home birth and spontaneous onset who gave birth at home or in hospital after transfer. METHODS: This is a population-based study o...

  13. Macroeconomic implications of labor market frictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedláček, P.

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in economic activity, business cycles, are a fact of life. An important factor shaping the character of economic fluctuations is the labor market. However, the labor market does not operate smoothly. Neither workers, nor firms are all the same. Therefore, it often requires a substantial

  14. The Division of Labor as Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidson, Eliot

    1976-01-01

    Three different principles and ideologies by which the division of labor can be organized are sketched, along with their consequences for variation in structure and content. It is noted that the reality of the division of labor lies in the social interaction of its participants. (Author/AM)

  15. Fertility Effects on Female Labor Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundborg, Petter; Plug, Erik; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    This paper introduces a new IV strategy based on IVF induced fertility variation in childless families to estimate the causal effect of having children on female labor supply using IVF treated women in Denmark. Because observed chances of IVF success do not depend on labor market histories, IVF...

  16. Early smoking, education, and labor market performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance by using mixed ordered and mixed proportional hazard models. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for mal

  17. Empirical studies in labor and education economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketel, N.

    2016-01-01

    The chapters of this thesis focus on policy-relevant research questions in economics of education and labor economics. All chapters make use of randomized experiments in order to answer these questions. The second chapter studies the returns to medical school in a regulated labor market, by exploiti

  18. An Empirical Measure for Labor Market Density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Gautier (Pieter); C.N. Teulings (Coen)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we derive a structural measure for labor market density based on the Ellison and Glasear (1997) index for industry concentration''. This labor market density measure serves as a proxy for the number of workers that can reach a certain work area within a reasonal amount of t

  19. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  20. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  1. Labor market institutions in OECD countries : Origins and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belot, M.V.K.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is a contribution to the field of labor economics. It investigates the effects of labor market institutions, such as the labor taxes, unemployment benefits, labor standards and industrial relations systems on the labor market performance. It also raises the question of their legitimacy,

  2. [Labor duration: from normality to dystocia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayem, G

    2015-04-01

    "Normal" labor has been surprisingly little studied in the past 60 years even though it is a central axis in obstetrics. Standards were proposed 60 years ago by Emmanuel Friedman and adopted by many countries to become then, driven from Dublin school, the conditions allowing the management of labor: rupture of membranes and oxytocin with, in case of failure for dynamic dystocia, cesarean. Recent data have suggested that labor duration had changed since the 1960s. Changes in women's characteristics and in obstetric practice especially with the widespread use of oxytocin and realization of epidural may have an impact on labor duration. Current studies suggest that it may be possible to authorize longer labor duration without significant increase in maternal or neonatal morbidity. However, it is premature to change practices following the latest American recommendations without prior studies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  4. La selectividad como riesgo laboral en la labor docente universitaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Martinez, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad no hay datos que sirvan de soporte para analizar la contribución de los alumnos en el fracaso escolar. Para lo cual, se ha elaborado un test con una serie de items que determinan el grado de cumplimiento de la “actividad discente” recogida en los siguientes campos: asistir a clase, hacer uso de las tutorías para resolver dudas, estudio diario para poder llevar a cabo una evaluación continua, asistir a los exámenes finales, y nivel de preparación básica e interés con que los alumnos llegan a la universidad para que los profesores puedan trabajar. El control para que este comportamiento no ocurra está en la selectividad. Una selectividad inadecuada conduce a los profesores a un estado de ansiedad, estrés laboral, y burn-out (quemado que con el mobbing que provoca el acoso de una evaluación docente mal entendida hace cada vez más inviable el trabajo docente.

  5. The Effect of Foot Reflexology on Anxiety, Pain, and Outcomes of the Labor in Primigravida Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi-Hanjani, Soheila; Mehdizadeh-Tourzani, Zahra; Shoghi, Mahnaz

    2015-08-01

    Reflexology is a technique used widely as one of non-pharmacological pain management techniques. The present study aimed to review and determine the effect of foot reflexology on anxiety, pain and outcomes of the labor in primigravida women. This clinical trial study was conducted on 80 primigravida mothers who were divided randomly into an intervention group (Foot reflexology applied for 40 min, n=40) and control group (n=40). The pain intensity was scored immediately after the end of intervention and at 30,60 and 120 min after the intervention in both groups, based on McGill Questionnaire for Pain Rating Index (PRI). Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was completed before and after intervention in both groups. Duration of labor phases, the type of labor and Apgar scores of the infant at the first and fifth minute were recorded in both groups. Descriptive and inferential statistics methods (t-test and chi-square test) were applied in analyzing data. Application of reflexology technique decreased pain intensity (at 30, 60 and 120 min after intervention) and duration of labor as well as anxiety level significantly (Preflexology reduces labor pain intensity, duration of labor, anxiety, frequency distribution of natural delivery and increases Apgar scores. Using this non-invasive technique, obstetricians can achieve, to some extent, to one of the most important goals of midwifery as pain relief and reducing anxiety during labor and encourage the mothers to have a vaginal delivery.

  6. A model of local labor market reguiation of Chin in the transition period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Qi

    2009-01-01

    With the establishment of labor market of China,market is playing a more and more important role in allocation of human resources.However,with the transition of economy in China and industrial upgrading in recent years,many labor problems have occurred which do harm to the sustainable development of local economy.The paper researches on the labor market issues of China from the perspective of local labor market regulation,Firstly,reviews the theories of local labor market regulation.And then the main components of local labor market regulation of China are identified and the evaluation index system is established,The results of analysis of the calculated output show that (1) the local labor market regulation of China has an obvious character of gradient distribution geographically and decreases gradually from east to west;(2) of all the regulations,the regulation of the development of human capital has the most significant impact on local economy currently which is followed by the regulation of laborrelation and the regulation of market participation.As to the regulation of social security,it has no significant impact on the development of local economy.

  7. [Changes in labor market participation of older employees in Germany: the perspective of labor market research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussig, M

    2009-08-01

    For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.

  8. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. C. Venema

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  9. Modern neuraxial labor analgesia: options for initiation, maintenance and drug selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, M

    2009-11-01

    In the present review we outline the state-of-the-art of neuraxial analgesia. As neuraxial analgesia remains the gold standar of analgesia during labor, we review the most recent literature on this topic. The neuraxial analgesia techniques, types of administration, drugs, adjuvants, and adverse effects are investigated from the references. Most authors would agree that central neuraxial analgesia is the best form to manage labor pain. When neuraxial analgesia is administered to the parturient in labor, different management choices must be made by the anesthetist: how will we initiate analgesia, how will analgesia be maintained, which local anesthetic will we use for neuraxial analgesia and which adjuvant drugs will we combine? The present manuscript tries to review the literature to answer these questions.

  10. Medications for Pain Relief during Labor and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQ086 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Medications for Pain Relief During Labor and Delivery • What are the types ... an epidural”) is the most common type of pain relief used during labor and delivery in the United ...

  11. 29 CFR 528.6 - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review. 528.6 Section 528.6 Labor Regulations Relating to... MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.6 Review. Any employer and, when appropriate, any apprenticeship agency or... order of annulment or withdrawal may obtain review, limited to the question of whether the findings...

  12. Child Labor in the Early Sugar Beet Industry in the Great Plains, 1890-1920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons-Barrett, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Children working in agriculture have always been a part of the rural culture and work ethos of the United States, especially on the Great Plains. Many teenagers still detassel corn or walk the beans in the summer months to earn spending money or money for college. But what about the children who work as migrant laborers in commercialized…

  13. Child Labor in the Early Sugar Beet Industry in the Great Plains, 1890-1920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons-Barrett, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Children working in agriculture have always been a part of the rural culture and work ethos of the United States, especially on the Great Plains. Many teenagers still detassel corn or walk the beans in the summer months to earn spending money or money for college. But what about the children who work as migrant laborers in commercialized…

  14. Migrant Labor in the Workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla DAHL-JØRGENSEN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We compared immigrant workers with native workers on several factors related to their perception of their work identity anchored in their psychosocial work environment, and the result of these factors on work stress and subjective health. The data for this study came from a survey among migrant laborers in the construction and cleaning business (N=125 and was compared to a native sample (N=654 we used in an earlier study. The present study showed that the migrant workers perceived more over-commitment and higher job stress than native workers. This finding was similar to the first study in relation to these two factors. In this study, however, the construction workers and cleaners did not have significant higher levels of mental health problems than native workers. The personal ambitions of the immigrants, measured as a higher level of over-commitment was seen as a driving force behind the patterns we found. In this new study, the construction workers and cleaners showed significantly lower commitment than the natives, but still a path from over-commitment to commitment was found and may function as a barrier from developing even more stress and mental health reactions over time.

  15. FADIGA LABORAL EM TRABALHADORES RURAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Nayalle de Souza Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue identificar la existencia de estrés laboral de trabajadores rurales del Bom Jesus-PI, Brasil. Estudio descriptivo exploratorio llevado acabo entre abril y junio de 2011, con 47 trabajadores. Recopilación de datos se realizó por instrumento para evaluación del estrés llamado Cuestionario Bipolar y guión de entrevista semiestructurada con la caracterización del perfil sociodemográfico y de las condiciones de trabajo. Se tabularon los cuestionarios, que se compararon por Chi-Cuadrado con 95% de confiabilidad. Se realizó para diferenciación o clasificación de las respuestas analizadas y observación del comportamiento dentro de grupos el análisis de componentes principales y agrupaciones. El estrés es común en el medio rural, principalmente en forma de estrés intenso, debido a la exposición a condiciones insalubres para el trabajador. Aunque no se identifican, directamente, sus factores desencadenantes, por lo tanto, sus medidas de prevención.

  16. Statistical Mechanics of Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Inoue, Jun-ichi

    We introduce a probabilistic model of labor markets for university graduates, in particular, in Japan. To make a model of the market efficiently, we take into account several hypotheses. Namely, each company fixes the (business year independent) number of opening positions for newcomers. The ability of gathering newcomers depends on the result of job matching process in past business years. This fact means that the ability of the company is weaken if the company did not make their quota or the company gathered applicants too much over the quota. All university graduates who are looking for their jobs can access the public information about the ranking of companies. Assuming the above essential key points, we construct the local energy function of each company and describe the probability that an arbitrary company gets students at each business year by a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. We evaluate the relevant physical quantities such as the employment rate. We find that the system undergoes a sort of `phase transition' from the `good employment phase' to `poor employment phase' when one controls the degree of importance for the ranking.

  17. Assessment of the effectiveness of non-pharmacological methods in pain relief during labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Maria Borges Osório

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a systematic review that aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of non-pharmacological methods for pain relief during labor. The articles’ selection was based on BDENF, PubMed, LILACS and Cochrane Library, published between 2007 and 2012. One analyzed seven studies that assessed the non-pharmacological methods and met the eligibility criteria. It was evident that massage, aromatherapy, immersion bath, acupuncture and acupressure are effective methods to relieve pain during labor, because besides reducing pain perception, they still lower levels of anxiety and stress. Among them, the most efficient one was the massage, mainly when done in the first stage of labor. Furthermore, the interventions don’t interfere in the kind and duration of labor, being safe to clinical practice.

  18. The neuromatrix theory of pain: implications for selected nonpharmacologic methods of pain relief for labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Kimberly K

    2004-01-01

    Women experience the pain of labor differently, with many factors contributing to their overall perception of pain. The neuromatrix theory of pain provides a framework that may explain why selected nonpharmacologic methods of pain relief can be quite effective for the relief of pain for the laboring woman. The concept of a pain "neuromatrix" suggests that perception of pain is simultaneously modulated by multiple influences. The theory was developed by Ronald Melzack and represents an expansion beyond his original "gate theory" of pain, first proposed in 1965 with P. D. Wall. This article reviews several nonpharmacologic methods of pain relief with implications for the practicing clinician. Providing adequate pain relief during labor and birth is an important component of caring for women during labor and birth.

  19. forced labor in the system of the Russian criminal legislation and problems of its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vladimirovich Tasakov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to review and analyse the Russian criminal law in the aspect of forced labor taking into account theexisting historical practice to assess the implementation of this type of punishment to identify the existing problems and to propose certain measures to overcome them. Methods dialectical historicallegal comparative legal systemic. Results the research discloses the issues of increasing the efficiency of forced labor in the Russian criminal law defines and discusses thedisputable issues that may arise during the use of this type of punishment proposes specific ways and recommendations for their solution. Scientific novelty the article analyzes criminal punishment in the form of forced labor and discusses issues of increasing the efficiency of this punishment and its enforcement. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific educational and practical activities when considering sentencing in the form of forced labor. nbsp

  20. SPECIFIC REGULATIONS REGARDING THE SOLVING OF LABOR DISPUTES IN ROMANIAN LEGAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onica -Chipea Lavinia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to briefly review specific provisions of labor legislation for the solving of labor disputes. Those rules are found in matters of discrimination in the payment settlements, the public sector staff as well as some personnel status or disciplinary (work stops at Status of Teachers and established a derogationfrom the common law (Labor Code Law nr.62/2011 of Social Dialogue in resolving individual labor conflicts(former conflicts of rights. The role and importance of these regulations is that they give the parties the employment relationship, particularly employees, way, way more for rights enshrined in law. Appeals, complaints or expressions of individual grievances be settled outside the judicial system organ (the courts,authorizing officers, judicial administrative organs, which aim at restoring order violated.

  1. The Vulnerability of the Regional Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Rarița

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, the European and Romanian economies have been strongly affected by major changes which have influenced also the labor market: the alert pace of the international economic integration, the creation of work division in order to protect some economic sectors, the accelerated development and implementation of new technologies, the increase of the demographic aging trends. In the context of the amplified labor force crisis, the present paper will analyze some dysfunctions which have affected especially the regional labor market: the chronic unemployment, the mismatch between the demand and the offer of jobs and the localized consequences of the labor migration. The approach on these aspects was done in a vaster context intended to analyze the regional labor market of Galati and Braila, starting from the existent imbalances on these markets. The present paper starts from the premise that the proposal of some measurements which should lead to a balancing of the regional working market, must take into account the way in which the direct actors involved are defining these obstacles and opportunities for professional (reinsertion. In order to highlight both the opinions and the perceptions of the participants on the labor market, the research had to take place on two levels: among the groups with a difficult position on the labor market and among the employers.

  2. Shocks and child labor: the role of markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Economic shocks have been shown to affect child labor and particularly so when households fail to access credit. This paper endeavours to assess whether access toagricultural labor markets also reduce the impact of shocks on child labor. Using panel data from Tanzania, we confirm that households respond to transitory productivity shocks by changes in child labor, but that (1) child labor increases with increases in rainfall, (2) it increases less when households have access to a labor market ...

  3. The risk factors for labor onset hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yasumasa; Terauchi, Mikio; Tamakoshi, Koji; Shiozaki, Arihiro; Saito, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to clarify the perinatal outcomes of and risk factors for hypertension that is first detected after labor onset (labor onset hypertension, LOH), which may be a risk factor for eclampsia and stroke during labor. A total of 1349 parturient women who did not exhibit preeclampsia or gestational hypertension prior to labor were examined. The patients were classified into four groups: the normotensive (n=1023) (whose systolic blood pressure (SBP) remained below 140 mm Hg throughout labor), mild LOH (n=241) (whose maximum SBP during labor ranged from 140 to 159 mm Hg), severe LOH (n=66) (whose maximum SBP during labor ranged from 160 to 179 mm Hg) and emergent LOH groups (n=19) (whose maximum SBP during labor was greater than 180 mm Hg). The perinatal outcomes and patient characteristics of the four groups were compared. Twenty-four percent of the pregnant women who remained normotensive throughout pregnancy developed hypertension during labor. One of the patients in the emergent LOH group developed eclampsia. The blood pressure at delivery and frequencies of hypotensor use, interventional delivery and low Apgar scores differed significantly among the four groups. The following risk factors for severe/emergent LOH were extracted: being over 35 years old, a body mass index at delivery of >30, an SBP at 36 weeks' gestation of 130-134 mm Hg, an SBP at admission of 130-139 mm Hg, proteinuria (a score of 2+ on the dipstick test) and severe edema. The risk factors for severe/emergent LOH were identified in this study. In high risk cases, repeatedly measuring maternal blood pressure during delivery might help detect critical hypertension early.

  4. Labor compensation,labor productivity and labor cost advantage—An empirical study of Chinese manufacturing enterprises during 2000-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都阳; 曲玥

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the usual practice of equating wages or labor compensation with labor cost,this paper incorporates labor productivity into an analytical framework and holds that the labor cost advantage is the relative relationship between labor compensation and labor productivity.Based on an empirical study of the data of Chinese manufacturing firms that include all state-owned enterprises and non-state-owned enterprises with their annual revenue greater than 5 million yuan from 2000 to 2007,this paper finds that labor compensation growth was accompanied by faster labor productivity growth.Hence,the labor cost advantage was not weakened during this period.Furthermore,this paper conducts an exploration of how to sustain labor cost advantages in the future and proposes that they can be sustained by upgrading the industrial structure and improving the education system.

  5. What is the slowest-yet-normal cervical dilation rate among nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jeremy L.; Lowe, Nancy K.; Patrick, Thelma E.; Cabbage, Lori A.; Corwin, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To integrate research literature that has provided insights into the cervical dilation rate that may best describe the slowest-yet-normal dilation rate among nulliparous women when beginning with criteria commonly associated with active labor onset. Data Sources A literature search from 1950 through 2008 was conducted using the Medline electronic database, reference lists from identified articles, and other key references. Study Selection Research reports written in English with a focus on the cervical dilation and/or labor duration of low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset. Data Extraction Classic and contemporary research literature was reviewed and organized under the following subheadings: Friedman Studies; Partograph Studies; Active Management of Labor Studies; Additional Studies. Data Synthesis An integrative review of the literature approximated the slowest-yet-normal cervical dilation rate for nulliparous women when beginning with criteria commonly associated with active labor. Conclusions The slowest-yet-normal linear dilation rate approximates 0.5 cm/hr for low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset when starting at dilatations traditionally associated with active labor onset. However, this linear rate must be evaluated judiciously in light of the physiological acceleration of dilation that occurs during typical labor. Given this, cervical dilation for this population is likely slower than 0.5 cm/hr in earlier active labor and faster in more advanced active labor. Faster dilation expectations (e.g., 1 cm/hr) likely contribute to an overdiagnosis of dystocia (“slow, abnormal progression of labor”) in contemporary practice and, subsequently, to an overuse of interventions aimed at accelerating labor progress. PMID:20629924

  6. Northern settlement family-style: labor planning and population policy in Noril'sk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, A R

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews labor planning and population policies in Noril'sk, a mining and metallurgical settlement in northern Siberia. When the settlement was established in 1935, planners were lacking in ideas about how to recruit workers to staff the mines and smelters and how to retain the labor force once it was in place. From 1935-79, planners followed a forced labor policy dependent upon the labor of prisoners. However, this solution was not adequate for meeting the manpower needs of an economy undergoing rapid technological sophistication. Northern wage increments were introduced after 1945 to recruit skilled workers from other regions. These increments built up over a 4-year period to a maximum of 80% of base pay. A special cost of living bonus was also awarded. Although these inducements facilitated labor recruitment, labor retention remained a major problem. Surveys indicated that workers would prefer improvements in housing and social services to further wage increases. Thus, policy was directed at the housing shortages, poor medical care, and inadequate child care facilities in Noril'sk. Such improvements facilitated labor retention but also contributed to overpopulation. The population doubled between 1956-80, exceeding 180,000 in the latter year. In the early 1980s, selective measures toward population control were implemented to ensure maintenance of living standards (e.g., encouragement of older workers to leave the area upon retirement, more careful screening of recruits). The goal is to stabilize city size at around 250,000. The Noril'sk case illustrates that quality of life investments can alleviate labor retention problems even in the harshest physical environments. Recent policies have advocated productivity-enriching technologies that do not require increments in the labor force.

  7. Outcomes of nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset admitted to hospitals in preactive versus active labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jeremy L; Lamp, Jane M; Buck, Jacalyn S; Lowe, Nancy K; Gillespie, Shannon L; Ryan, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The timing of when a woman is admitted to the hospital for labor care following spontaneous contraction onset may be among the most important decisions that labor attendants make because it can influence care patterns and birth outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate the percentage of low-risk, nulliparous women at term who are admitted to labor units prior to active labor and to evaluate the effects of the timing of admission (ie, preactive vs active labor) on labor interventions and mode of birth. Data from low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset at term gestation were merged from 2 prospective studies conducted at 3 large Midwestern hospitals. Baseline characteristics, labor interventions, and outcomes were compared between groups using Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests, as appropriate. Likelihoods for oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy, and cesarean birth were assessed by logistic regression. Of the sample of 216 low-risk nulliparous women, 114 (52.8%) were admitted in preactive labor and 102 (47.2%) were admitted in active labor. Women who were admitted in preactive labor were more likely to undergo oxytocin augmentation (84.2% and 45.1%, respectively; odds ratio [OR], 6.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.43-12.27) but not amniotomy (55.3% and 61.8%, respectively; OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.44-1.32) when compared to women admitted in active labor. The likelihood of cesarean birth was higher for women admitted before active labor onset (15.8% and 6.9%, respectively; OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.02-6.37). Many low-risk nulliparous women with regular, spontaneous uterine contractions are admitted to labor units before active labor onset, which increases their likelihood of receiving oxytocin and giving birth via cesarean. An evidence-based, standardized approach for labor admission decision making is recommended to decrease inadvertent admissions of women in preactive labor. When active labor cannot be diagnosed with relative certainty, observation

  8. Emotional labor demands and compensating wage differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glomb, Theresa M; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Rotundo, Maria

    2004-08-01

    The concept of emotional labor demands and their effects on workers has received considerable attention in recent years, with most studies concentrating on stress, burnout, satisfaction, or other affective outcomes. This study extends the literature by examining the relationship between emotional labor demands and wages at the occupational level. Theories describing the expected effects of job demands and working conditions on wages are described. Results suggest that higher levels of emotional labor demands are associated with lower wage rates for jobs low in cognitive demands and with higher wage rates for jobs high in cognitive demands. Implications of these findings are discussed. (c) 2004 APA

  9. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  10. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  11. Active labor market policies and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti-social...... behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...

  12. Active labor market policies and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti......-social behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...

  13. Discriminación laboral femenina

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira López, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo pretende analizar hasta qué punto existe discriminación laboral por razón de género en el mercado de trabajo español así como conocer que parte de las diferencias en la trayectoria laboral masculina y femenina están ocasionadas por otra serie de cuestiones, ajenas al mercado laboral, que, sin embargo, no dejan de suponer una barrera adicional en la carrera profesional femenina. En otras palabras, el objetivo principal es diferenciar que parte de las diferencias son resulta...

  14. Outcomes after institution of a new oxytocin infusion protocol during the third stage of labor and immediate postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagraca, J; Malladi, V; Nunes, K; Scavone, B

    2013-07-01

    Due to safety concerns when oxytocin is administered in an uncontrolled fashion, and recent dose-response data that indicate oxytocin's effectiveness at doses lower than those traditionally used, we instituted a new protocol for the infusion of oxytocin during the third stage of labor and in the immediate postpartum period. We undertook this study to confirm that this change in practice did not have untoward effects on postpartum hemorrhage rates. In this retrospective review, patients who delivered in the six months before (PRE group) and patients who delivered in the six months after (POST group) the new protocol had been introduced were identified through an institutional database and their medical records were reviewed. The primary outcome variable was the postpartum hemorrhage rate. Secondary outcomes included maternal and fetal co-morbidities, protocol compliance, administration of other uterotonic agents, use of Bakri balloons and B-Lynch sutures, rate of uterine artery embolization and peripartum hysterectomy, need for red blood cell transfusion, and drop in hemoglobin after delivery. Categorical data were analyzed using Chi-squared or Fisher's Exact test, as appropriate. Continuous data were analyzed using a Mann-Whitney U test. A P value oxytocin in a controlled manner at a lower dose than that historically used was not associated with an increased incidence of postpartum hemorrhage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alcohol Consumption and Long-Term Labor Market Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckerman, Petri; Hyytinen, Ari; Maczulskij, Terhi

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines whether alcohol consumption is related to long-term labor market outcomes. We use twin data for Finnish men and women matched to register-based individual information on employment and earnings. The twin data allow us to account for the shared environmental and genetic factors. The quantity of alcohol consumption was measured by weekly average consumption using self-reported data from three surveys (1975, 1981 and 1990). The average of an individual's employment months and earnings were measured in adulthood over the period 1990-2009. The models that account for the shared environmental and genetic factors reveal that former drinkers and heavy drinkers both have almost 20% lower earnings compared with moderate drinkers. On average, former drinkers work annually approx. 1 month less over the 20-year observation period. These associations are robust to the use of covariates, such as education, pre-existing health endowment and smoking. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The "Bad Labor" Footprint: Quantifying the Social Impacts of Globalization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moana S Simas; Laura Golsteijn; Mark A J Huijbregts; Richard Wood; Edgar G Hertwich

    2014-01-01

    .... In particular, we analyze how much occupational health damage, vulnerable employment, gender inequality, share of unskilled workers, child labor, and forced labor is associated with the production...

  17. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  18. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. COSMIC monthly progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  20. Agricultural child labor, free trade policies and globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Gema López Limón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The infants salaried labor existing in the exporting farming of the Mexicali Valley, is part of the macroeconomic processes linked to the free trade politics and to the economy’s globalization. We are analyzing it as a result of the damage of life and conditions of work of the country families, in a labor market that looks for cheap labor, in this concrete area of the world market. Nevertheless this job is centered at the Mexicali Valley, we are presenting some figures from the San Quintín Valley, another Baja California farming center where infants job appear. We will analyze the role of infant jobs within the economy, the environment where it is developed, and the consequences that it brings to them, such as their exclusion from school, for example, in their future. We will also review the domestic and international legal frame about minors who are working, as well as the eventual proposals to eradicate it, since infants jobs, already well known as poverty producer, affecting not only these children personal destiny, but also affecting the destiny of this region and Mexico as a nation.