WorldWideScience

Sample records for monthly labor review

  1. Child labor : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Grootaert, Christiaan; Kanbur, Ravi

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1990, the first World Summit for Children promised to reduce child mortality and malnutrition. It set targets to be reached by the year 2000. Although it established no explicit goals on child labor, the targets included basic education for all children and the completion of primary education by at least 80 percent of children. Meeting these goals will reduce child labor, say the authors. The evidence they review shows that education intervention play a key role in reducing c...

  2. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  3. Monthly energy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  4. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  5. Monthly energy review, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  6. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  7. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  8. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  9. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  10. Monthly energy review, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 36 figs., 61 tabs.

  11. Monthly energy review, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  12. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  13. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  14. Monthly energy review, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  15. Monthly energy review, August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  16. Monthly energy review, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-26

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities.

  17. Monthly energy review, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  18. Monthly energy review, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-25

    The Monthly Energy Review provides an overview of the production, distribution, and consumption of energy derived from petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. It also discusses oil and gas resource development, energy prices, and issues relevant to international energy markets.

  19. Monthly energy review, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Monthly Energy Review provides information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  20. Monthly energy review, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  1. Monthly energy review, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review contains statistical data on the following: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. In addition, an energy overview is provided, and, for the April issue, Energy use and carbon emissions; Some international comparisons.

  2. Monthly energy review, April 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review contains statistical data on the following: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. In addition, an energy overview is provided, and, for the April issue, Energy use and carbon emissions; Some international comparisons

  3. Monthly energy review, February 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities

  4. Monthly energy review, July 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities

  5. Monthly energy review, April 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities

  6. Monthly energy review, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  7. Monthly energy review, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  8. Monthly energy review, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Energy production during December 1997 totaled 5.9 quadrillion Btu, a 2.8 percent increase from the level of production during December 1996. Coal production increased 9.5 percent, natural gas production increased 3.9 percent, and production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.1 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.9 percent from the level of production during December 1996.

  9. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  10. Monthly energy review, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Activities covered include: U.S. production, consumption, trade, stock, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  11. Monthly energy review, May 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is a monthly report of Energy Information Administration on production, consumption, stocks, imports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. International energy data is also presented. 47 figs., 67 tabs

  12. Monthly energy review, November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This monthly publication contains statistical data on energy resources in the United States. Petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy are covered. Additional sections include an energy overview, energy consumption, oil and gas resource development and energy prices. This issue includes features on energy-related housing characteristics and the propane-provider fleet

  13. Monthly energy review, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum,natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal metric conversion factors.

  14. Monthly energy review, December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-22

    This document provides data on monthly energy use and fossil fuels. The following sections are included: Highlights: Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1985--1990; Highlights: assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities; energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices; and international energy.

  15. Monthly energy review, November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal and metric conversion factors are included.

  16. Monthly energy review, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report presents an overview of monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal metric conversion factors are included.

  17. Monthly energy review, December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document provides data on monthly energy use and fossil fuels. The following sections are included: Highlights: Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1985--1990; Highlights: assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities; energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices; and international energy

  18. Monthly energy review, December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This monthly publication contains statistical data on energy resources in the United States. Petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy are covered. Additional sections include an energy overview, energy consumption, oil and gas resource development and energy prices. This issue includes a market assessment of alternative-fuel vehicles in the Atlanta private fleet for 1994

  19. Monthly energy review, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-21

    This publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. An energy preview of alternative fuel providers vehicle fleet surveys is included. The publication is intended for use by members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  20. Monthly energy review, October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided for oil and gas resource development. International energy statistics are given for petroleum production, consumption, and stocks, and for nuclear electricity gross generation. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  1. Monthly energy review, September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided on international energy, including petroleum production, consumption, and stocks and nuclear electricity gross generation. This issues provides a brief industry overview and a detailed analysis of the spring 1996 gasoline price runup, crude oil supply issues, U.S. crude oil imports, petroleum stocks, futures markets, refining cash margin trends, and the financial performance of U.S. refining and marketing firms. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  2. Monthly Energy Review, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Energy production during November 1997 totaled 5.6 quadrillion Btu, a 0.3-percent decrease from the level of production during November 1996. Natural gas production increased 2.8 percent, production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.7 percent, and coal production decreased 1.6 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 1.1 percent from the level of production during November 1996. Energy consumption during November 1997 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 0.1 percent above the level of consumption during November 1996. Consumption of natural gas increased 1.5 percent, consumption of coal fell 0.3 percent, while consumption of petroleum products decreased 0.2 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 0.8 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during November 1997 totaled 1.7 quadrillion Btu, 8.6 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 6.3 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 1.2 percent. Net exports of coal fell 17.8 percent from the level in November 1996.

  3. Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at labor issues. The first article examines the unionization efforts of the Wobblies in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. The second article explores the protests of the Luddites during Britain's Industrial Revolution. The final article looks at whether…

  4. Military duty: risk factor for preterm labor? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeary, A M; Lomenick, T S

    2000-08-01

    The female military population represents a high-risk group for preterm labor and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. As the number of women entering the armed forces continues to increase, concerns regarding the effects of military service on pregnancy must persist. Although active duty females have access to prenatal care and maintain consistent follow-up, previous research has noted a 5-fold increase in preterm labor compared with civilian working women. Hospitalization and loss of work attributable to pregnancy complications directly affect productivity and mission accomplishment; therefore, it is crucial to identify those at risk to institute measures that will prevent such occurrences and decrease time away from work. This article provides a review of the existing literature concerning preterm labor in military women, comparisons with the civilian population, and recommendations for future research.

  5. 78 FR 41953 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Labor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Labor Organization and Auxiliary Reports ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting the Office of Labor Management Standards (OLMS) sponsored information...

  6. Historical monthly energy review, 1973--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Historical Monthly Energy Review (HMER) presents monthly and annual data from 1973 through 1992 on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities. This edition of the HMER extends the original HMER in several ways: (1) Four additional years of monthly data, 1989--1992, have been added. (2) This report fully replaces the earlier one; each data cell that has been revised since the original HMER is marked with an ``R`` so that changes can be quickly noted. (3) Section 1 has been expanded to include Tables 1.7--1.13, which were not available in the first HMER. (4) Tables 3.9 on propane and Table 4.3 on natural gas trade, which have been added to the MER since the release of the first HMER, are included in this edition. In addition, Table 10.4 on nuclear electricity gross generation has been reorganized to align more closely with the current presentation in the MER.

  7. Historical monthly energy review, 1973--1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Historical Monthly Energy Review (HMER) presents monthly and annual data from 1973 through 1992 on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities. This edition of the HMER extends the original HMER in several ways: (1) Four additional years of monthly data, 1989--1992, have been added. (2) This report fully replaces the earlier one; each data cell that has been revised since the original HMER is marked with an ''R'' so that changes can be quickly noted. (3) Section 1 has been expanded to include Tables 1.7--1.13, which were not available in the first HMER. (4) Tables 3.9 on propane and Table 4.3 on natural gas trade, which have been added to the MER since the release of the first HMER, are included in this edition. In addition, Table 10.4 on nuclear electricity gross generation has been reorganized to align more closely with the current presentation in the MER

  8. 78 FR 57660 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Labor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ...(a)(1)(D). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The WHD administers the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Labor Standards for Federal Service Contracts ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... collection request (ICR) titled, ``Labor Standards for Federal Service Contracts,'' to the Office of...

  9. The state of the heart: Emotional labor as emotion regulation reviewed and revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandey, Alicia A; Melloy, Robert C

    2017-07-01

    Emotional labor has been an area of burgeoning research interest in occupational health psychology in recent years. Emotional labor was conceptualized in the early 1980s by sociologist Arlie Hochschild (1983) as occupational requirements that alienate workers from their emotions. Almost 2 decades later, a model was published in Journal of Occupational Health Psychology ( JOHP ) that viewed emotional labor through a psychological lens, as emotion regulation strategies that differentially relate to performance and wellbeing. For this anniversary issue of JOH P, we review the emotional labor as emotion regulation model, its contributions, limitations, and the state of the evidence for its propositions. At the heart of our article, we present a revised model of emotional labor as emotion regulation, that incorporates recent findings and represents a multilevel and dynamic nature of emotional labor as emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Labor Markets in Imbalance: Review of Qualitative Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, James L.; Wiener, Jonathan B.

    Recent statistical investigations indicate that labor market imbalance has increased during the past decade and has had important deleterious effects on the nation's inflation and productivity growth records. A growing difficulty in filling skilled jobs at a given unemployment rate is reflected. Business community analysts attribute the growing…

  11. Nitrous oxide for the management of labor pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likis, Frances E; Andrews, Jeffrey C; Collins, Michelle R; Lewis, Rashonda M; Seroogy, Jeffrey J; Starr, Sarah A; Walden, Rachel R; McPheeters, Melissa L

    2014-01-01

    We systematically reviewed evidence addressing the effectiveness of nitrous oxide for the management of labor pain, the influence of nitrous oxide on women's satisfaction with their birth experience and labor pain management, and adverse effects associated with nitrous oxide for labor pain management. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases for articles published in English. The study population included pregnant women in labor intending a vaginal birth, birth attendees or health care providers who may be exposed to nitrous oxide during labor, and the fetus/neonate. We identified a total of 58 publications, representing 59 distinct study populations: 2 studies were of good quality, 11 fair, and 46 poor. Inhalation of nitrous oxide provided less effective pain relief than epidural analgesia, but the quality of studies was predominately poor. The heterogeneous outcomes used to assess women's satisfaction with their birth experience and labor pain management made synthesis of studies difficult. Most maternal adverse effects reported in the literature were unpleasant side effects that affect tolerability, such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and drowsiness. Apgar scores in newborns whose mothers used nitrous oxide were not significantly different from those of newborns whose mothers used other labor pain management methods or no analgesia. Evidence about occupational harms and exposure was limited. The literature addressing nitrous oxide for the management of labor pain includes few studies of good or fair quality. Further research is needed across all of the areas examined: effectiveness, satisfaction, and adverse effects.

  12. Systematic Review of Hydrotherapy Research: Does a Warm Bath in Labor Promote Normal Physiologic Childbirth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Battista, Jenna

    Health sciences research was systematically reviewed to assess randomized controlled trials of standard care versus immersion hydrotherapy in labor before conventional childbirth. Seven studies of 2615 women were included. Six trials examined hydrotherapy in midwifery care and found an effect of pain relief; of these, 2 examined analgesia and found reduced use among women who bathed in labor. One study each found that hydrotherapy reduced maternal anxiety and fetal malpresentation, increased maternal satisfaction with movement and privacy, and resulted in cervical dilation progress equivalent to standard labor augmentation practices. Studies examined more than 30 fetal and neonatal outcomes, and no benefit or harm of hydrotherapy was identified. Two trials had anomalous findings of increased newborn resuscitation or nursery admission after hydrotherapy, which were not supported by additional results in the same or other studies. Review findings demonstrate that intrapartum immersion hydrotherapy is a helpful and benign practice. Hydrotherapy facilitates physiologic childbirth and may increase satisfaction with care. Maternity care providers are recommended to include hydrotherapy among routine labor pain management options and consider immersion to promote progress of normal or protracted labor, particularly among women with preferences to avoid obstetric medications and procedures.

  13. Fetal scalp blood sampling in labor - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weber, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, electronic fetal monitoring and fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) were introduced without robust evidence. With a methodical review of the published literature, and using one randomized controlled trial, seven controlled studies, nine randomized studies of various...... surveillance methods and data from the Danish National Birth Registry, we have assessed the usefulness of FBS as a complementary tool to improve the specificity and sensitivity of electronic cardiotocography (CTG). Based on heterogeneous studies of modest quality with somewhat inconsistent results, we conclude...

  14. Lesbian women and household labor division: A systematic review of scholarly research from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Melanie E

    2017-01-02

    Recent studies have begun to attend to distribution of household labor within same-gender couples compared to heterosexual couples, yet much of the available research with lesbian couples has attempted to superimpose division of household labor frameworks developed with heterosexual couples (e.g., gender role socialization, exchange bargaining theories) to fit the experiences of same-gender couples. Using two academic search databases, the present article provides a systematic review of the available 28 peer-reviewed articles published from 2000-2015 about lesbian partnerships and household labor divisions. Results indicate that lesbian couples engage in a more equal distribution of household labor than heterosexual couples, and that lesbian women often opt to eschew traditional gendered divisions of chores in favor of other factors such as quality of task or ability. The systematic review uncovered notable constraints in the demography of participants (e.g., race, socioeconomic status, geographic location) across studies. Strategies for deepening the depth and breadth of this line of work for future researchers, and implications for relationship satisfaction are also discussed.

  15. Effect of birth ball on labor pain relief: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makvandi, Somayeh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Sadeghi, Ramin; Karimi, Leila

    2015-11-01

    To critically evaluate the available evidence related to the impact of using a birth ball on labor pain relief. The Cochrane library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE/PubMed and Scopus were searched from their inception to January 2015 using keywords: (Birth* OR Swiss OR Swedish OR balance OR fitness OR gym* OR Pezzi OR sport* OR stability) AND (ball*) AND (labor OR labour OR Obstetric). All available randomized controlled trials involving women using a birth ball for pain relief during labor were considered. The search resulted in 341 titles and abstracts, which were narrowed down to eight potentially relevant articles. Of these, four studies met the inclusion criteria. Pain intensity on a 10 cm visual analogue scale was used as the main outcome measure. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2 was used for statistical analysis. Four RCTs involving 220 women were included in the systematic review. One study was excluded from the meta-analysis because of heterogeneous interventions and a lack of mean and standard deviation results of labor pain score. The meta-analysis showed that birth ball exercises provided statistically significant improvements to labor pain (pooled mean difference -0.921; 95% confidence interval -1.28, -0.56; P = 0.0000005; I(2)  = 33.7%). The clinical implementation of a birth ball exercise could be an effective tool for parturient women to reduce labor pain. However, rigorous RCTs are needed to evaluate the effect of the birth ball on labor pain relief. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. The efficacy of hypnosis as an intervention for labor and delivery pain: a comprehensive methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Alison S; Milling, Leonard S

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive methodological review of research on the efficacy of hypnosis for reducing labor and delivery pain. To be included, studies were required to use a between-subjects or mixed model design in which hypnosis was compared with a control condition or alternative intervention in reducing labor pain. An exhaustive search of the PsycINFO and PubMed databases produced 13 studies satisfying these criteria. Hetero-hypnosis and self-hypnosis were consistently shown to be more effective than standard medical care, supportive counseling, and childbirth education classes in reducing pain. Other benefits included better infant Apgar scores and shorter Stage 1 labor. Common methodological limitations of the literature include a failure to use random assignment, to specify the demographic characteristics of samples, and to use a treatment manual. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Threat Effect of Active Labor Market Programs: A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Hansen, Anne Toft

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of the threat effect of active labor market programs for unemployed individuals. The threat effect is the induced change in the hazard rate of leaving unemployment prior to program participation. Studies included in the review all estimated a threat effect...... a hazard rate of 1.27 for the pooled estimate. It has thus been concluded that active labor market programs constitute a significant threat effect......., with the participants in all cases being unemployed individuals in receipt of benefit of some kind during their tenure of unemployment. Seven of these studies have been included in a meta-analysis: The meta-analysis, which has been carried out using a random effects model to account for heterogeneity, indicated...

  18. Child labor and health: a systematic literature review of the impacts of child labor on child's health in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdalla; Abdalla, Salma M; Jafer, Mohammed; Abdelgadir, Jihad; de Vries, Nanne

    2018-02-02

    To summarize current evidence on the impacts of child labor on physical and mental health. We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect for studies that included participants aged 18 years or less, conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and reported quantitative data. Two independent reviewers conducted data extraction and assessment of study quality. A total of 25 studies were identified, the majority of which were cross-sectional. Child labor was found to be associated with a number of adverse health outcomes, including but not limited to poor growth, malnutrition, higher incidence of infectious and system-specific diseases, behavioral and emotional disorders, and decreased coping efficacy. Quality of included studies was rated as fair to good. Child labor remains a major public health concern in LMICs, being associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes. Current efforts against child labor need to be revisited, at least in LMICs. Further studies following a longitudinal design, and using common methods to assess the health impact of child labor in different country contexts would inform policy making. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  19. Implication of Emotional Labor, Cognitive Flexibility, and Relational Energy among Cabin Crew: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Rithi; Reddy, K Jayasankara

    2018-01-01

    The primary aim of the civil aviation industry is to provide a secured and comfortable service to their customers and clients. This review concentrates on the cabin crew members, who are the frontline employees of the aviation industry and are salaried to smile. The objective of this review article is to analyze the variables of emotional labor, cognitive flexibility, and relational energy using the biopsychosocial model and identify organizational implications among cabin crew. Online databases such as EBSCOhost, JSTOR, Springerlink, and PubMed were used to gather articles for the review. The authors analyzed 17 articles from 2001 to 2016 and presented a comprehensive review. The review presented an integrative approach and suggested a hypothetical model that can prove to be a signitficant contribution to the avaition industry in particular and to research findings of aviation psychology.

  20. Anesthetic and Obstetric Management of Syringomyelia During Labor and Delivery: A Case Series and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gráinne Patricia; Wasade, Vibhangini S; Murphy, Kellie E; Balki, Mrinalini

    2017-09-01

    Syringomyelia is a rare, slowly progressive neurological condition characterized by the presence of a syrinx within the spinal cord. Consensus regarding the safest mode of delivery and anesthetic management in patients with syringomyelia remains controversial and presents management dilemmas. This study reviews the cases of syringomyelia at our institution and provides a systematic review of the literature to guide decisions regarding labor and delivery management. A retrospective review of cases at our hospital from 2002 to 2014 and a systematic review of the literature from 1946 to 2014 were undertaken. Hospital records and electronic databases were interrogated using International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes and the keywords "syringomyelia," "syringobulbia," and "pregnancy." Data regarding demographics, diagnosis, radiology reports, neurological symptoms, mode of delivery, anesthetic management, and maternal-fetal outcomes were collected. We collected and analyzed data on a total of 43 pregnancies in 39 patients. The most common location for syrinx was in the cervicothoracic region (41.9%). The large majority of patients (n = 34; 87%) demonstrated signs and symptoms associated with syringomyelia before delivery. Syringomyelia associated with Arnold Chiari malformation was documented in 49% (n = 21) cases. General anesthesia was the most commonly used (n = 21/30, 70%) anesthetic technique for cesarean delivery. The majority (n = 9/13, 69%) of patients had an epidural sited for labor analgesia. There were no maternal or neonatal complications associated with neuraxial anesthesia; however, 3 cases (14%) raised concerns regarding general anesthesia including difficult intubation, transient worsening of neurological symptoms postpartum, and prolonged muscle paralysis after atracurium. Despite concerns regarding aggravation of the syrinx with vaginal delivery, this mode of delivery has never caused any documented long-term worsening of neurological

  1. Interventions for intrauterine resuscitation in suspected fetal distress during term labor : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullens, L.; van Runnard Heimel, P.J.; van der Hout-van der Jagt, M.B.; Oei, G.

    IMPORTANCE: Intrauterine resuscitation techniques during term labor are commonly used in daily clinical practice. Evidence, however, to support the beneficial effect of intrauterine resuscitation techniques on fetal distress during labor is limited and sometimes contradictory. In contrast, some of

  2. A historical review of the concept of labor support in technocratic, humanistic and holistic paradigms of childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Tahereh Fathi; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Ebrahimipour, Hossein

    2017-10-01

    In the past century, maternal support during childbirth has been changed according to the different approaches suggested by various health care paradigms. The aim of this review was to argue the maternity supportive care paradigms of the past century and to closely analyze each paradigm. This is a historical review, in which published articles were retrieved from databases including Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar. Sage Journals and Springer's publications were also searched due to the high citation rate of their articles. The keywords entered were "Labor support", "Normal delivery", "Birth attendance", "Supportive approaches", "Health care paradigms", and "Midwifery models of care". They were entered alone or in combinations using "AND". Also, Persian articles were searched in local databases including Irandoc, SID, IranMedex, and Magiran using the above-mentioned keywords in Persian. Sixty articles met inclusion criteria. The review revealed four main themes including the definitions of continuous labor support, the technocratic paradigm, the humanistic paradigm and the naturalistic paradigm as models of labor support. According to the evidence, labor support has changed from technocratic to humanistic and holistic approaches, which in turn, caused some changes in midwifery models of care used by midwives in the practice. Labor support based on the holistic approaches and the naturalistic paradigms could bring about remarkable outcomes, the most important being satisfied with the birth experience, increased mother's self-confidence, enhanced mother's ability in childbirth and better completion of the childbirth process.

  3. Review of the Book “Digital Labor: The Internet as Playground and Factory”, Edited by Trebor Scholz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Sevignani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of the collected volume Digital Labor: The Internet as Playground and Factory, edited by Trebor Scholz (2013 and published by Routledge, New York. The author introduces the articles, discusses them briefly, and gives an overall evaluation of the book.

  4. Children of Working Mothers. Special Labor Force Report. Bulletin 2158.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Part of a Special Labor Force Report series, this bulletin on children of working mothers discusses the increase in the number of children with working mothers as of March 1981, and describes major reasons for this growth. The bulletin consists of an article first published February 1982 in the "Monthly Labor Review," additional tables providing…

  5. Labor Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ154 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Labor Induction • What is labor induction? • Why is labor induced? • What is the Bishop score? • What is “ripening ...

  6. Stroke admissions in Kubwa General Hospital: A 30-month review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osaze Ojo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available >Background: Stroke is a common neurological disorder that contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality of medical admissions.Objectives: To review the types, risk factors, hemispheric involvement, and outcomes of admitted stroke patients in Kubwa General Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria.Subjects and Methods: We carried out a retrospective study of patients who had a clinical diagnosis of stroke in Kubwa General Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria, between January 2013 and June 2015.Results: A total of 60 patients who had stroke were admitted during this period, accounting for 4.25% of medical admissions. Men and women accounted for 68.3% and 31.7%, respectively, with a male-to-female ratio of 2:1. Their mean age was 54.9 ± 13.5 years while the median age was 52.5 years. The mean hospital stay for these patients was 8.4 ± 5.5 days. Ischemic stroke occurred more frequently (65% compared with hemorrhagic stroke (35%. Hypertension (65%, alcohol (25%, previous stroke (18.3%, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia (18.3% were the common identifiable risk factors for stroke. Ten patients (16.7% had two risk factors for stroke, whereas 8 patients (13.3% had three risk factors for stroke. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures on admission were 171.5 ± 41.6 mmHg and 103.3 ± 24.0 mmHg, respectively. The left hemisphere (53.3% was more often affected than the right hemisphere in these patients. Majority of the patients (48.3% were discharged following improvement while the case fatality was 11.7%.Conclusion: Stroke is not uncommon as a cause of medical admission in Kubwa General Hospital. Ischemic stroke occurred more commonly and the left hemisphere was more often involved compared with the right hemisphere. Hypertension was the most common risk factor for stroke in these patients.

  7. Review of hidden carbon emissions, trade, and labor income share in China, 2001–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shu-Hong; Song, Ma-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated development between the economy and the environment is currently one of the most important issues in China. By establishing models concerning labor income share and hidden carbon emissions, and taking trade as the link in their relationship, this study puts forward the scale effects, technological effects, and structural effects that relate to labor income share under the function of trade. We then establish multi-index and multi-indicator constitutive (MIMIC) equation to measure the ratio of hidden carbon emissions to total emissions, which is further considered the basis of the measurement model. Results of regression analysis carried out on labor income share show that hidden carbon emissions do have a positive effect on labor income share. In the meantime, we also prove that under scale effects, technological effects, and the structural effects of trade, hidden carbon emissions affect labor income shares in different directions. Our conclusions and policy implications are obtained from the calculated results. - Highlights: • This study establishes models concerning labor income share and hidden carbon emissions. • MIMIC is established to measure the ratio of hidden carbon emissions to total discharge. • Hidden carbon emissions have a positive effect on labor income share. • Hidden carbon emissions have various effects on the labor income share

  8. 78 FR 18348 - Submission for OMB Review; Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ...: There is no existing Governmentwide data base that collects PLAs and specifically the number submitted... Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... information collection requirement regarding Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects...

  9. The Effect of the Use of Oxytocin in Labor on Neonatal Jaundice: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabe Seyedi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal Jaundice is a common problem that occurs in most preterm and term neonates. This systematic review aimed to examine the evidence for the effects of oxytocin in labor on neonatal jaundice. Materials and Methods: In this systematic review study, English databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Persian databases including SID, Magiran, and Barakat Knowledge Network System Were searched from Jan 1980 to Dec 2017. Persian and English human clinical trials were targeted. The review was limited to human clinical trials examining the effect of oxytocin in labor on neonatal jaundice. The searched MESH vocabulary was "neonatal hyperbilirubinemia" OR "jaundice" in combination with "oxytocin in labor" OR "induction of labor". Two authors examined the articles separately and the disagreements were resolved through discussion. Results: Out of 583 articles searched in the databases, 440 title, 83 abstracts, and 60 full texts were reviewed, of which 5 English language articles entered the study and 4 articles entered the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis results showed that oxytocin did not affect the serum bilirubin level of the umbilical cord (Mean difference: 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]:-2.50 to 5.69; P=0.44; I2=78%. Furthermore, administering oxytocin in labor did not significantly affect serum bilirubin level on days 1 (-0.32; -1.36 to 0.71; P=0.54; I2=72%, and day 3 (3.75; -11.76 to 18.90; P=0.65; I2=63%, while it significantly affected serum bilirubin level on day 2 (-1.63; -2.81 to -0.45; P=0.007; I2=0%. Conclusion: The result of meta-analysis showed that the administration of oxytocin during labor does not affect serum bilirubin level on days 1 and 3, while induction of labor with oxytocin causes serum bilirubin to increase on the second postnatal day. However, due to the high heterogeneity of the studies, better designed clinical trials are recommended to achieve better

  10. The effect of adding a background infusion to patient-controlled epidural labor analgesia on labor, maternal, and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, Michael; Böhmer, Johannes; Klöhr, Sven; Hofmann, Thomas; Rossaint, Rolf; Straube, Sebastian

    2015-07-01

    Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) has gained popularity, but it is still unclear whether adding a background infusion confers any benefit. A systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS, CENTRAL, Clinicaltrials.gov, and ISI WOS was performed to identify randomized controlled double-blind trials that compare PCEA-only with PCEA combined with a continuous infusion (PCEA + CI) in parturients. The data were subjected to meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Our primary outcome was the incidence of instrumental vaginal delivery. Secondary outcomes were incidences of spontaneous vaginal and cesarean deliveries, duration of labor, analgesic outcomes, maternal outcomes (visual analog scale scores for pain, maternal satisfaction, nausea, pruritus, hypotension), and neonatal outcomes (Apgar score, umbilical artery pH). We identified 7 trials with a low risk of bias, reporting on 891 parturients, for inclusion in our systematic review. The risk of instrumental vaginal delivery was increased in the PCEA + CI group, risk ratio (RR) 1.66 (95% confidence interval 1.08-2.56, P = 0.02; I = 0%); the RR for cesarean delivery was 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.61-1.13, I = 0%). The second stage of labor was prolonged (weighted mean difference 12.3 minutes, 95% confidence interval 5.1-19.5 minutes, P = 0.0008; I = 0%) in the PCEA + CI group. Fewer patients in the PCEA + CI group required physician-administered boluses (RR 0.35 [95% confidence interval 0.25-0.47, P neonatal outcomes (Apgar scores analgesia. Further high-quality studies involving a sufficient number of patients are required.

  11. The Debate on Globalization and International Revitalization of Labor. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fleming

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some alternative or critical theoretical contributions regarding globalization and labor. The main question in this discussion is if there are changes in direction of a possible revitalization of labor movements and if international solidarity can increase due to globalization. This question also relates to discussions of changes in division of work, the concept of work, working class, commodification, decommodification, and new centers of global production—all related to different paradigms or new concepts. The reason or need for reconceptualizing comes from the great transformation of capitalism in forms of neoliberal globalization, in a different direction than predicted by Polanyi. That is, instead of increased public sector decommodification (not profit- or market-oriented production and national regulation, embedding capitalist markets, as seen after 1945, the last three decades have witnessed a countertransformation and large-scale recommodification by privatizing, disembedding, and deregulating global markets. As a consequence, inequality in income and working life conditions has increased in most countries and been used to press trade unions. Western industrial unions have been declining as many industries and labor-intensive, low-paid jobs moved to developing countries. Most blue-collar jobs are now in Asia, especially China, with about one-third of its employment blue collars. Is the center of global capital-labor contradictions and dynamics moving to the South, with a possibility of a new revitalization of labor and international solidarity? We discuss different optimistic and pessimistic views on a possible international revitalization of labor.

  12. Preterm Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm labor is labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It can lead to premature birth. Premature babies may face serious health risks. Symptoms of preterm labor include Contractions every 10 minutes or more often ...

  13. Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Udry, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...

  14. Critical Review on Labor Factors and Country Competitiveness: Comparison between Indonesia and Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Wahyuni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to critically compare labor factors and country competitiveness of Jordan and Indonesia that affecting its country attractiveness in the textile industry. This study is a mix between qualitative quantitative approaches. The data were collected from the published materials of Better Work data, BAPPENAS, and in depth – interview with certified social compliance auditors, factory managers, and some workers to earn more information on textile industry in Indonesia and Jordan. The result of this study indicated that there are several labor factors that could boost up the Indonesian’s performance in Textile industry, i.e. working hours, occupational safety and health, compensation and benefits, and also discrimination.

  15. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

  16. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  17. Management of eight labor and delivery patients dependent on buprenorphine (Subutex™: A retrospective chart review [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solina Tith

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opioid use during pregnancy is a growing concern in the United States. Buprenorphine has been recommended by “The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology” as an alternative to methadone to decrease risks associated with the use of illicit opioids during pregnancy. The partial μ-opioid agonists’ unique pharmacology, including its long half time and high affinity to the μ-opioid receptor, complicates patient management in a highly kinetic, and often urgent field like obstetric anesthesia. We reviewed our management and outcomes in this medically complex population. Methods: An Institutional Review Board (IRB approved retrospective chart review was conducted of women admitted to the University of Washington Medical Center Labor and Delivery unit from July 2012 to November 2013 using buprenorphine. All deliveries, including intrauterine fetal demise, were included. Results: Eight women were admitted during this period to our L&D floor on buprenorphine. All required peri-partum anesthetic management either for labor and/or cesarean delivery management. Analgesic management included dilaudid or fentanyl PCA and/or continued epidural infusion, and in one instance ketamine infusion, while the pre-admission buprenorphine regimen was continued. Five babies were viable, two women experienced intrauterine fetal death at 22 and 36 weeks gestational age (GSA, respectively, and one neonate died shortly after delivery due to a congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Conclusions: This case series illuminates the medical complexity of parturients using buprenorphine. Different treatment modalities in the absence of evidence-based guidelines included additional opioid administration and continued epidural analgesia. The management of post-cesarean pain in patients on partial μ-opioid agonists remains complex and variable, and evidence-based guidelines could be useful for clinicians to direct care.

  18. Combined Spinal-Epidural Analgesia for Laboring Parturient with Arnold-Chiari Type I Malformation: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark K. Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetic management of laboring parturients with Arnold-Chiari type I malformation poses a difficult challenge for the anesthesiologist. The increase in intracranial pressure during uterine contractions, coughing, valsalva maneuvers, and expulsion of the fetus can be detrimental to the mother during the process of labor and delivery. No concrete evidence has implicated high cerebral spinal fluid pressure on maternal and fetal complications. The literature on the use of neuraxial techniques for managing parturients with Arnold-Chiari is extremely scarce. While most anesthesiologists advocate epidural analgesia for management of labor pain and spinal anesthesia for cesarean section, we are the first to report the use of combined spinal-epidural analgesia for managing labor pain in a pregnant woman with Arnold-Chiari type I malformation. Also, we have reviewed the literature and presented information from case reports and case series to support the safe usage of neuraxial techniques in these patients.

  19. Daddy Months

    OpenAIRE

    Volker Meier; Helmut Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We consider a bargaining model in which husband and wife decide on the allocation of time and disposable income. Since her bargaining power would go down otherwise more strongly, the wife agrees to having a child only if the husband also leaves the labor market for a while. The daddy months subsidy enables the couple to overcome a hold-up problem and thereby improves efficiency. However, the same ruling harms cooperative couples and may also reduce welfare in an endogenous taxation framework.

  20. Review of regional economic models with special reference to labor impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, G.; Mason, B.

    1979-06-01

    This paper reviews several regional economic models and examines the capabilities of these models for assessing the total employment impacts of solar energy adoption. Five generic analytic methods are discussed: economic base analysis, shift-share analysis, demographic-economic interaction models, input-output analysis, and industrial location analysis. Ten regional models incorporating some aspect of these methods are reviewed. From the model review, the conclusion is drawn that there is no single model that fits all of the necessary criteria for planned research efforts. Models that appear to hold promise are the Economic Activity Analysis (EAA) Model, the Regional Industrial Multipliers System (RIMS), the Multiregion, Multi-industry (MRMI) Model, and the MULTIREGION model.

  1. Risk factors for failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to cesarean delivery anesthesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M E; Kountanis, J A; Tsen, L C; Greenfield, M L; Mhyre, J M

    2012-10-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates evidence for seven risk factors associated with failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to cesarean delivery anesthesia. Online scientific literature databases were searched using a strategy which identified observational trials, published between January 1979 and May 2011, which evaluated risk factors for failed conversion of epidural analgesia to anesthesia or documented a failure rate resulting in general anesthesia. 1450 trials were screened, and 13 trials were included for review (n=8628). Three factors increase the risk for failed conversion: an increasing number of clinician-administered boluses during labor (OR=3.2, 95% CI 1.8-5.5), greater urgency for cesarean delivery (OR=40.4, 95% CI 8.8-186), and a non-obstetric anesthesiologist providing care (OR=4.6, 95% CI 1.8-11.5). Insufficient evidence is available to support combined spinal-epidural versus standard epidural techniques, duration of epidural analgesia, cervical dilation at the time of epidural placement, and body mass index or weight as risk factors for failed epidural conversion. The risk of failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to anesthesia is increased with an increasing number of boluses administered during labor, an enhanced urgency for cesarean delivery, and care being provided by a non-obstetric anesthesiologist. Further high-quality studies are needed to evaluate the many potential risk factors associated with failed conversion of labor epidural analgesia to anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. El presente como Historia. Se extingue la primera generación de Monthly Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar Solé, Salvador

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the death of the American political economist Paul M. Sweezy, this article puts forward an assessment of his intellectual and political career as well as that of his main institutional creation, namely, the American monthly journal Monthly Review: An independent socialist magazine. The impact of both on the social sciences of the second half of the 20th century, as well as on the politics of the New Left of this period, is also assessed. The main point is that Sweezy and Monthly Review have forcefully contributed to the renewal of several branches of modern social science (notably, political economy and sociology of development, although their contribution to macrosociology and macrohistory in their contribution both to the knowledge of capitalism as a historical system and of the social structure of the soviet-type societies has also to be mentioned, of marxist thought and of the emerging styles of radical left politics in the West.Con ocasión de la muerte del economista político norteamericano Paul M. Sweezy, el artículo propone un balance de la trayectoria intelectual y política de éste y de su principal creación institucional, la revista mensual norteamericana Monthly Review: Revista socialista independiente, así como del impacto de ambos tanto en las ciencias sociales de la segunda mitad del siglo XX, como en la política de la Nueva Izquierda occidental durante este mismo periodo. La idea central es que ambas han contribuido de manera vigorosa a renovar algunas de las especialidades de la ciencia social contemporánea (notablemente, la economía política y la sociología del desarrollo, aunque también es digna de mención su contribución a la macrosociología y a la macrohistoria por sus aportes al conocimiento del capitalismo como sistema histórico y de la estructura social de las sociedades de modelo soviético, el pensamiento marxista y los modos emergentes de hacer política de la izquierda radical

  3. Progesterone Therapy for the Prevention of Preterm Labor in Women with Single Risk-factor: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefayat Chaman-Ara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm labor is a common complication of pregnancy which has become a main health concern around the world due to its negative consequences. Objective: To investigate the efficacy of progesterone therapy in the prevention of preterm labor in women with single risk factor. Search strategy: A PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, Science Direct, Scopus, OVID, EMBASE, SID, Magiran and Google Scholar search (date last searched April 2016 without any time, language and location restriction was done. Inclusion criteria: All randomized clinical trials of singleton pregnancies with single risk factor (prior preterm labor without short cervical length or short cervical length without prior preterm labor which were randomized to progesterone and control groups were included in our meta-analysis. Primary outcome: Our primary outcome was gestational age at delivery. Results: 13 studies (1259 subjects and 2653 control women were included in the meta-analysis. Using random effect model showed that mean gestational age at delivery of progesterone group is 0.74 (0.41-1.06 month longer than that of control group with CI=95% which is significant statically. Conclusions: Progesterone therapy is an effective intervention for the prevention of preterm labor in women with single risk factor. 

  4. Less-Restrictive Food Intake During Labor in Low-Risk Singleton Pregnancies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardulli, Andrea; Saccone, Gabriele; Anastasio, Hannah; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate benefits and harms of food intake during labor. Electronic databases such as MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from their inception until October 2016. We included randomized trials comparing a policy of less-restrictive food intake with a policy of more restrictive food intake during labor. The primary outcome was the mean duration of labor. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird to produce summary treatment effects in terms of either a relative risk or a mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI). Ten trials, including 3,982 laboring women, were included. All the studies involved laboring singletons considered at low risk because they had no obstetric or medical complications that would increase the likelihood of cesarean delivery. In three studies, women were allowed to select from a low-residue diet throughout the course of labor. One study had honey date syrup as the allowed food intake. Five studies had carbohydrate drinks as food intake in labor. The last one was the only trial that allowed unrestrictive food intake. In the included studies, all women in the intervention group were allowed the assigned food intake until delivery, whereas women in a control group were allowed only ice chips, water, or sips of water until delivery. A policy of less-restrictive food intake was associated with a significantly shorter duration of labor (mean difference -16 minutes, 95% CI -25 to -7). No other benefits or harms in obstetric or neonatal outcome were noticed. Regurgitation during general anesthesia and Mendelson syndrome did not occur in either group. Women with low-risk singleton pregnancies who were allowed to eat more freely during labor had a shorter duration of labor. A policy of less-restrictive food intake during labor did not influence other obstetric or neonatal outcomes nor did it increase the incidence of vomiting. Operative delivery rates were similar.

  5. Media and Cultural Industries Internships: A Thematic Review and Digital Labor Parallels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Corrigan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews existing research on the motivations and experiences of interns in media and cultural industries. Digital labour theories are used to organize and make sense of the existing internship literature. Throughout the article, parallels are also drawn between the experiences of interns and those of digital creative labourers—both professionals and peer producers. Three key themes are identified within the internship literature: 1 interns derive satisfaction from work they con- sider meaningful, particularly hands-on work executed under the training and trust of effective supervisors; 2 interns see their work as future-oriented investments in their skills, professional networks, and personal brands; and 3 the ambiguity and professional necessity of media and cultural industries internships make them fertile ground for exploitation and self-exploitation. In conclusion, I argue that attentiveness to meaning, temporality, and ambiguity will be essential to future critical investigations of internships.

  6. Health literacy of primiparae in the first six months of maternity: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Olecká

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to find out how the health literacy of primiparae in the first six months of motherhood is examined. The following research questions were raised: What methods are used to examine maternal health literacy? What aspects of maternal health literacy are investigated? Do the results prove any link between maternal health literacy and child health? Design: Review. Methods: The search for primary research studies was based on a combination of the following keywords: health literacy, mother*, maternity*, information, and knowledge in the Scopus and Web of Science databases. Exclusion criteria: not a primary study, does not concern research on primiparae of children under six months, unrelated to health literacy research or obtaining of information and acquiring of knowledge, not available in full-text, or clear research methodology description not available. The data were processed using thematic analysis based on the sorting method. Results: 31 studies were found, 17 of which were analysed. The majority of studies used quantitative methods of research with standardized tools. The key categories of health literacy related to obtaining, understanding and use of health information. No direct correlation was clearly demonstrated between level of maternal health literacy and child health. Conclusion: The trend in terms of the focus and goals of professional studies, regardless of cultural or national context, is a shift away from examining the way information is acquired to how it is understood by mothers.

  7. Surgical management of arrested hydrocephalus: Case report, literature review, and 18-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jennifer; Barrena, Benjamin G; Lollis, S Scott; Bauer, David F

    2016-12-01

    Arrested hydrocephalus is stable ventriculomegaly without evidence of neurologic deterioration or symptoms. Management of arrested hydrocephalus in asymptomatic adults is controversial, with little clinical data. This case highlights the potential for decompensation in adults with arrested hydrocephalus and reviews the literature regarding pathophysiology and management of this clinical entity. A 39 year-old gentleman with arrested hydrocephalus incidentally found during work-up for new-onset seizure and managed conservatively for ten years presented with increasing headache, memory loss, gait instability and urinary and fecal incontinence. Stable massive triventriculomegaly was documented on serial brain imaging, and ophthalmologic exam revealed no papilledema. The patient underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy with immediate post-operative improvement of headache, resolution of incontinence, and cessation of seizures. At 15 months after surgery, neuropsychiatric testing demonstrated improvement in visuomotor skills, problem solving, verbal fluency and cognitive flexibility compared to his pre-operative baseline. At 18 months after surgery he remained seizure free with full continence and significant improvement in headaches. Early recognition of arrested hydrocephalus and its potential for decompensation may prompt surgical treatment and prevent neurologic deterioration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) 2002-15: Review of Office of Inspector General Patient Dumping Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuabi, Nadia; Weiss, Larry D; Langdorf, Mark I

    2016-05-01

    The Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) of 1986 was enacted to prevent hospitals from "dumping" or refusing service to patients for financial reasons. The statute prohibits discrimination of emergency department (ED) patients for any reason. The Office of the Inspector General (OIG) of the Department of Health and Human Services enforces the statute. The objective of this study is to determine the scope, cost, frequency and most common allegations leading to monetary settlement against hospitals and physicians for patient dumping. Review of OIG investigation archives in May 2015, including cases settled from 2002-2015 ( https://oig.hhs.gov/fraud/enforcement/cmp/patient_dumping.asp ). There were 192 settlements (14 per year average for 4000+ hospitals in the USA). Fines against hospitals and physicians totaled $6,357,000 (averages $33,435 and $25,625 respectively); 184/192 (95.8%, $6,152,000) settlements were against hospitals and eight against physicians ($205,000). Most common settlements were for failing to screen 144/192 (75%) and stabilize 82/192 (42.7%) for emergency medical conditions (EMC). There were 22 (11.5%) cases of inappropriate transfer and 22 (11.5%) more where the hospital failed to transfer. Hospitals failed to accept an appropriate transfer in 25 (13.0%) cases. Patients were turned away from hospitals for insurance/financial status in 30 (15.6%) cases. There were 13 (6.8%) violations for patients in active labor. In 12 (6.3%) cases, the on-call physician refused to see the patient, and in 28 (14.6%) cases the patient was inappropriately discharged. Although loss of Medicare/Medicaid funding is an additional possible penalty, there were no disclosures of exclusion of hospitals from federal funding. There were 6,035 CMS investigations during this time period, with 2,436 found to have merit as EMTALA violations (40.4%). However, only 192/6,035 (3.2%) actually resulted in OIG settlements. The proportion of CMS-certified EMTALA

  9. Current and emerging concepts in muscle tension dysphonia: a 30-month review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Kenneth W; Atkinson, Cory; Lazarus, Cathy

    2005-06-01

    The modern theory of hoarseness is that there are multifactorial etiologies contributing to the voice problem. The hypothesis of this study is that muscle tension dysphonia is multifactorial with various contributing etiologies. This project is a retrospective chart review of all patients seen in the Voice Speech and Language Service and Swallowing Center at our institution with a diagnosis of muscle tension (functional hypertensive) dysphonia over a 30-month period. A literature search and review is also performed regarding current and emerging concepts of muscle tension dysphonia. One hundred fifty subjects were identified (60% female, 40% male, with a mean age of 42.3 years). Significant factors in patient history believed to contribute to abnormal voice production were gastroesophageal reflux in 49%, high stress levels in 18%, excessive amounts of voice use in 63%, and excessive loudness demands on voice use in 23%. Otolaryngologic evaluation was performed in 82% of patients, in whom lesions, significant vocal fold edema, or paralysis/paresis was identified in 52.3%. Speech pathology assessment revealed poor breath support, inappropriately low pitch, and visible cervical neck tension in the majority of patients. Inappropriate intensity was observed in 23.3% of patients. This set of multiple contributing factors is discussed in the context of current and emerging understanding of muscle tension dysphonia. Results confirm multifactorial etiologies contributing to hoarseness in the patients identified with muscle tension dysphonia. An interdisciplinary approach to treating all contributing factors portends the best prognosis.

  10. Petroleum products price regulation in Nov Scotia : a six-month review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    Gasoline pricing regulation was introduced in July 2006 in order to achieve the following 3 main objectives: (1) stabilize prices by reducing the frequency of price changes and creating more uniform pricing across the province, (2) maintain industry infrastructure by slowing or halting the decline in the dealer network, particularly in rural areas, by improving viability through regulated margins, and (3) minimize the cost to consumers since higher prices are expected to result from the actions needed to maintain price stability and the higher margins needed to maintain industry infrastructure. This report examined the extent to which these objectives were achieved and contained the findings and recommendations of a review of the first six months of gasoline price regulation in Nova Scotia. The report discussed the rationale for regulation, study objectives, approach, and warning signs. It also discussed gasoline regulation in Nova Scotia including how regulation works and implementing regulation. The Nova Scotia gasoline market was presented with reference to industry structure; pre-regulation competition and pricing; and how regulation may affect structure and competition. Last, the report discussed whether regulation was meeting the objectives and perspectives on regulation. Several recommendations were presented, such as reducing the benchmark price adjustment period from two weeks to one week; removing the price cap on full-serve gasoline; adopting a fixed and transparent formula for forward averaging and applying it at each adjustment; and considering a framework for regulatory review. 12 refs., 15 figs

  11. Informalidade no mercado de trabalho brasileiro: uma resenha da literatura Brazilian labor market informality: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ulyssea

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature relative to Brazilian labor market informality is very disperse and presents a significant lack of organization. In that sense, the purpose of this paper is to organize and discuss on a systematic way the main pieces of literature concerning informality in the Brazilian labor market using, whenever it is possible, the international literature as a comparison point for the existing results relative to Brazil's experience. More specifically, questions related to wage differentials between formal and informal workers, labor market segmentation and the effect of institutions on the informal sector are emphasized.

  12. Review of once-monthly oral ibandronate and the use thereof

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The MOBILE study was a prospective, randomised, phase lll, non- inferiority study that compared the efficacy and safety of three once-monthly oral ibandronate doses (50+50 mg monthly, given on 2 consecutive days; 100 mg monthly; 150 mg monthly) with. 2.5 mg daily ibandronate, which has previously been shown.

  13. Education and the Child Labor Paradox Today. Essay Review of "Children on the Streets of the Americas" (Roslyn A. Mickelson, editor); "The Policy Analysis of Child Labor: A Comparative Study" (Christiaan Grootaert, Harry Anthony Patrinos); "What Works for Working Children?" (Jo Boyden, Birgitta Ling, William Myers); "Child Employment in Britain: A Social and Psychological Analysis" (Sandy Hobbs, Jim McKechnie); and "Bud, Not Buddy" (Christopher Paul Curtis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2001-01-01

    Reviews five books on child labor, published 1997-2000, with reference to the International Labour Organization's 1999 convention that retreats from its previous hard stance on child labor. Discusses street children; public policy on child labor, child welfare, and school attendance; types of children's work; and working children as agents…

  14. Preterm labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald Francis

    2014-01-01

    While tocolytic therapy may not be indicated in all cases of spontaneous preterm labor (SPTL), the evidence that they are superior to placebo is robust. The perfect tocolytic that is 100% efficacious and 100% safe does not exist and efforts should continue to develop and introduce safer and more...... and arrange in utero transfer to a center with neonatal intensive care facilities, both of which reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. Few tocolytics (β₂-agonists and atosiban) are licensed for use as tocolytics and only one was developed specifically to treat preterm labor (atosiban). Accordingly, most...

  15. Months backward test: A review of its use in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, James; Leonard, Maeve; Donoghue, Laura; O'Regan, Niamh; Timmons, Suzanne; Exton, Chris; Cullen, Walter; Dunne, Colum; Adamis, Dimitrios; Maclullich, Alasdair J; Meagher, David

    2015-09-22

    To review the use of the Months Backwards Test (MBT) in clinical and research contexts. We conducted a systematic review of reports relating to the MBT based upon a search of PsychINFO and MEDLINE between January 1980 and December 2014. Only reports that specifically described findings pertaining to the MBT were included. Findings were considered in terms of rating procedures, testing performance, psychometric properties, neuropsychological studies and use in clinical populations. We identified 22 data reports. The MBT is administered and rated in a variety of ways with very little consistency across studies. It has been used to assess various cognitive functions including focused and sustained attention as well as central processing speed. Performance can be assessed in terms of the ability to accurately complete the test without errors ("MB accuracy"), and time taken to complete the test ("MB duration"). Completion time in cognitively intact subjects is usually upper limits of 60-90 s typically applied in studies. The majority of cognitively intact adults can complete the test without error such that any errors of omission are strongly suggestive of cognitive dysfunction. Coverage of clinical populations, including those with significant cognitive difficulties is high with the majority of subjects able to engage with MBT procedures. Performance correlates highly with other cognitive tests, especially of attention, including the digit span backwards, trailmaking test B, serial threes and sevens, tests of simple and complex choice reaction time, delayed story recall and standardized list learning measures. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability are high (both > 0.90). Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies comparing the months forward test and MBT indicate greater involvement of more complex networks (bilateral middle and inferior frontal gyri, the posterior parietal cortex and the left anterior cingulate gyrus) for backwards cognitive processing. The MBT

  16. A Review of the Labor Market, Manpower Characteristics and Training of Motor Vehicle Repair Personnel. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, R. W.; And Others

    To determine whether current automotive mechanic training programs provide adequate exposure to the knowledge and skills needed to properly service and repair motor vehicles, data were gathered on the tasks, service and repair establishments, job market, labor force, and training programs. Primary sources of data are reports prepared by various…

  17. Observations on International Labor Standards and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Alan B. Krueger

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical arguments for and against linking international labor standards to trade. Based on theory alone it is difficult to generalize about the effect of labor standards on efficiency and equity. Some economists have argued that international labor standards are merely disguised protectionism. An evaluation of determinants of support for legislation that would ban imports to the United States of goods made with child labor provides little support for the prevailing ...

  18. Are Micro and Macro Labor Supply Elasticities Consistent? A Review of Evidence on the Intensive and Extensive Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Chetty; Adam Guren; Day Manoli; Andrea Weber

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate whether state-of-the-art macro models featuring indivisible labor are consistent with modern quasi-experimental micro evidence by synthesizing evidence on both the intensive and extensive margins. We find that micro estimates are consistent with macro estimates of the steady-state (Hicksian) elasticities relevant for cross-country comparisons on both the extensive and intensive margins. However, micro estimates of intertemporal substitution (Frisch) elasticities are an order of ...

  19. Immediate compared with delayed pushing in the second stage of labor: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuli, Methodius G; Frey, Heather A; Odibo, Anthony O; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2012-09-01

    To estimate whether immediate or delayed pushing in the second stage of labor optimizes spontaneous vaginal delivery and other perinatal outcomes. We searched electronic databases MEDLINE and CINHAL through August 2011 without restrictions. The search terms used were MeSH headings, text words, and word variations of the words or phrases labor, laboring down, passive descent, passive second stage, physiologic second stage, spontaneous pushing, pushing, or bearing down. We searched for randomized controlled trials comparing immediate with delayed pushing in the second stage of labor. The primary outcome was spontaneous vaginal delivery. Secondary outcomes were instrumental delivery, cesarean delivery, duration of the second stage, duration of active pushing, and other maternal and neonatal outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Q test and I2. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and weighted mean differences were calculated using random-effects models. Twelve randomized controlled trials (1,584 immediate and 1,531 delayed pushing) met inclusion criteria. Overall, delayed pushing was associated with an increased rate of spontaneous vaginal delivery compared with immediate pushing (61.5% compared with 56.9%, pooled RR 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.15). This increase was smaller and not statistically significant among high-quality studies (59.0% compared with 54.9%, pooled RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.98-1.26) but larger and statistically significant in lower-quality studies (81.0% compared with 71.0%%, pooled RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.24). Operative vaginal delivery rates were high in most studies and not significantly different between the two groups (33.7% compared with 37.4%, pooled RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.76-1.06). Delayed pushing was associated with prolongation of the second stage (weighted mean difference 56.92 minutes, 95% CI 42.19-71.64) and shortened duration of active pushing (weighted mean difference -21.98 minutes, 95% CI -31.29 to -12.68). Studies to date suggest

  20. Analysis of daily quality assurance tests for tomotherapy and two Varian linear accelerators - three months review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, Pratishtha; Jaiswal, Deeksha; Dheera, A.; Upreti, Udita; Chaudhari, Suresh; Kinhikar, Rajesh; Deshpande, Deepak; Shrivastava, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Daily quality assurance (QA) for high precision radiotherapy equipments is very important to maintain the mechanical and dosimetric accuracy for patient treatments. Gross deviations in these parameters may have an adverse impact on the delivery of the treatments to patients. We report the results of daily QA tests performed over a period of three months for two Varian linear accelerators and a Tomotherapy machine

  1. Fatiga laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Useche Mora Luz Graciela

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available

    La fatiga laboral es un fenómeno complejo y muy común en los ambientes de trabajo especialmente en aquellos que requieren de una alta carga física y en los que son utilizadas complicadas tecnologías que presentan al hombre máximas exigencias, obligándolo a trabajar más allá de sus posibilidades psicofisiológicas y en condiciones muchas veces nocivas. En este sentido, el presente artículo se propone presentar el análisis de aspectos fundamentales de la fatiga que requieren ser conocidos por todo trabajador, con el fin de evitar situaciones de morbilidad y, por qué no decirlo, hasta de muerte.

     

  2. Maritime Policy and the Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Pawlik, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The reports highlighting the foreseen lack of merchant marine officers for the expanding world’s fleet calls for a review in evaluating the impact of maritime policy in the seafaring labor market. This paper aims to clarify the particular characteristics of the seafaring labor market and how it can...... be shaped by specific maritime labor policies. The seafaring labor market in the Philippines, Poland, Germany, and Brazil as well as the general maritime labor policies in these countries is discussed. The focus on these countries leads to a comparative observation of maritime labor as a factor...... of production in an exporting market, in an importing market, and in a closed market, respectively, as shaped by various relevant maritime policies. Since a global policy that can regulate the maritime labor market does not exist, the trend on maritime labor supply is dynamic on a per country basis wherein crew...

  3. 75 FR 33898 - Agency Information Collection (Monthly Certification of Flight Training) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... collection of information through http://www.Regulations.gov or to VA's OMB Desk Officer, OMB Human Resources... Certification of Flight Training) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department... Flight Training (under Chapters 30 and 32, Title 38 U.S.C.; Chapters 1606 and 1607, Title 10 U.S.C.; and...

  4. 75 FR 3541 - Agency Information Collection (Monthly Record of Training and Wages) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235, Washington, DC 20503... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA submission describes the nature of the... of a currently approved collection. Abstract: On-the-job trainers use VA Form 28-1905c to maintain...

  5. Modern Neuraxial Anesthesia for Labor and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Marie-Louise; Smiley, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The availability of safe, effective analgesia during labor has become an expectation for women in most of the developed world over the past two or three decades. More than 60% of women in the United States now receive some kind of neuraxial procedure during labor. This article is a brief review of the advantages and techniques of neuraxial labor analgesia along with the recent advances and controversies in the field of labor analgesia. For the most part, we have aimed the discussion at the non-anesthesiologist to give other practitioners a sense of the state of the art and science of labor analgesia in the second decade of the 21st century.

  6. Lipid based nutrient supplements (LNS) for treatment of children (6 months to 59 months) with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM): A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Boy-Mena, Evelyn; Sachdev, Harshpal S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Moderate acute malnutrition is a major public health problem affecting children from low- and middle-income countries. Lipid nutrient supplements have been proposed as a nutritional intervention for its treatment. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of LNS for the treatment of MAM in infants and children 6 to 59 months of age. Study design Systematic review of randomized-controlled trials and controlled before-after studies. Results Data from nine trials showed that use of LNS, in comparison to specially formulated foods, improved the recovery rate (RR 1.08; 95% CI 1.02–1.14, 8 RCTs, 8934 participants, low quality evidence); decreased the chances of no recovery (RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.58–0.85, 7 RCTs, 8364 participants, low quality evidence) and the risk of deterioration into severe acute malnutrition (RR 0.87; 95% CI 0.73–1.03, 6 RCTs, 6788 participants, low quality evidence). There was little impact on mortality (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.54–1.52, 8 RCTs, 8364 participants, very-low- quality evidence) or default rate (RR 1.32; 95% CI 0.73–2.4, 7 studies, 7570 participants, low quality evidence). There was improvement in weight gain, weight-for-height z-scores, height-for-age z-scores and mid-upper arm circumference. Subset analyses suggested higher recovery rates with greater amount of calories provided and with ready-to-use therapeutic foods, in comparison to ready-to-use supplementary foods. One study comparing LNS with nutritional counselling (very low quality evidence) showed higher chance of recovery, lower risk of deteriorating into severe acute malnutrition and lower default rate, with no impact on mortality, and no recovery. Conclusions Evidence restricted to the African regions suggests that LNS may be slightly more effective than specially formulated fortified foods or nutritional counselling in recovery from MAM, lowering the risk of deterioration into SAM, and improving weight gain with little impact on mortality or default

  7. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...

  8. A Systematic Review to Define the Speech and Language Benefit of Early (<12 Months) Pediatric Cochlear Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnzeel, Hanneke; Ziylan, Fuat; Stegeman, Inge; Topsakal, Vedat; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-01-01

    This review aimed to evaluate the additional benefit of pediatric cochlear implantation before 12 months of age considering improved speech and language development and auditory performance. We conducted a search in PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL databases and included studies comparing groups with different ages at implantation and assessing speech perception and speech production, receptive language and/or auditory performance. We included studies with a high directness of evidence (DoE). We retrieved 3,360 articles. Ten studies with a high DoE were included. Four articles with medium DoE were discussed in addition. Six studies compared infants implanted before 12 months with children implanted between 12 and 24 months. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 9 years. Cochlear implantation before the age of 2 years is beneficial according to one speech perception score (phonetically balanced kindergarten combined with consonant-nucleus-consonant) but not on Glendonald auditory screening procedure scores. Implantation before 12 months resulted in better speech production (diagnostic evaluation of articulation and phonology and infant-toddler meaningful auditory integration scale), auditory performance (Categories of Auditory Performance-II score) and receptive language scores (2 out of 5; Preschool Language Scale combined with oral and written language skills and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test). The current best evidence lacks level 1 evidence studies and consists mainly of cohort studies with a moderate to high risk of bias. Included studies showed consistent evidence that cochlear implantation should be performed early in life, but evidence is inconsistent on all speech and language outcome measures regarding the additional benefit of implantation before the age of 12 months. Long-term follow-up studies are necessary to provide insight on additional benefits of early pediatric cochlear implantation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. A giant mesenteric lipoblastoma in an 18-month old infant: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foteini Gentimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infantile lipoma (or lipoblastoma of the mesentery is an extremely rare benign tumor of embryonal fat, with 15 cases reported in the English literature until today and only three of them arise from the ileum mesentery. We report an 18-month old boy presenting with a palpable intraabdominal mass arising from the ileum mesentery. Histopathologic and cytogenetic studies confirmed the diagnosis of mesenteric lipoblastoma (or infantile lipoma. Complete excision of the mass was performed. A follow-up examination consisting of physical examination and an abdominal ultrasound at 30 months postoperatively revealed no recurrence. We also present a review of the English literature regarding the presentation and management of mesenteric lipoblastomas in children.

  10. Review Symposium. "Working in America: A Blueprint for the New Labor Market," by Paul Osterman, Thomas A. Kochan, Richard Locke, and Michael J. Piore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Harry C., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    A panel comments on the book, Working in America, and implications for the U.S. labor market, including declining traditional internal labor markets, the need for private versus public policy interventions, international labor policy, and value-based policy. Commentators include David Neumark, Peter Cappelli, Sanford M. Jacoby, Rebecca M. Blank,…

  11. Department of Labor Black Lung C

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Department of Labor (DOL) provides a monthly file through the use of eData which contains the necessary identifying and payment information for all live miners,...

  12. Department of Labor, Black Lung B

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Each month, the Department of Labor (DOL) sends a file via eData which contains changes to the Black Lung payments (updates only). Annually, around the time of the...

  13. "American Gothic" and the Division of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Provides historical review of gender-based division of labor. Argues that gender-based division of labor served a purpose in survival of tribal communities but has lost meaning today and may be a handicap to full use of human talent and ability in the arts. There is nothing in various art forms which make them more appropriate for males or…

  14. TVT-Secur mini-sling for stress urinary incontinence: a review of outcomes at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Colin A

    2011-09-01

    • Synthetic mid-urethral slings (MUSs) are considered the first choice surgical procedure for stress urinary incontinence. Recent publications have raised concerns about the efficacy of third generation single-incision mini-slings. The present paper is a systematic review of studies reporting 12-month outcomes after the TVT-Secur (TVT-S) procedure. • Pubmed/Medline online databases, abstracts from recent International Continence Society and International Urogynecological Association annual scientific meetings and the Clinicaltrials.gov and Controlled-trials.com online trial registries were searched for English-language articles containing the terms 'TVT-Secur', 'TVT Secur' or 'mini-sling'. The primary outcomes were objective and subjective cure rates at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included peri-operative (vaginal perforation, urinary retention, urinary tract infection [UTI]) and postoperative (mesh exposure, de novo overactive bladder (OAB), dyspareunia and return to theatre) complication rates. • Among 1178 women undergoing the TVT-S procedure, from 10 studies, both objective and subjective cure rate at 12 months was 76%, with objective cure significantly higher in women undergoing the 'U-type' approach. Vaginal perforation was a complication in 1.5% of cases, with a 2.4% incidence of mesh exposure in the first year. The incidence of de novo OAB symptoms was 10%. Rates of urinary retention (2.3%), UTI (4.4%), dyspareunia (1%) and return to theatre for complications (0.8%) were low. In the first year after a TVT-S procedure 5% of women required repeat continence surgery. • Longer-term studies and randomized comparisons with more established MUSs are required before TVT-S should be routinely used in the surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence. © 2011 THE AUTHOR. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  15. Effects of fasting in the holy month of Ramadan on the uric acid, urea, and creatinine levels: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Alireza Mirsane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasting during the month of Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. During this holy month, healthy Muslims abstain from eating, drinking, and smoking from dawn to dusk. Although fasting is obligatory for every adult Muslim, if it has hazardous effects on the body, it is prohibited. Due to some Islamic principles, patients are exempted from fasting; however, due to the willingness of some individuals to fast, there are concerns about its effects on urea, uric acid, and creatine levels. Atypical levels of these compounds can cause serious disorders or indicate abnormal renal function. The present narrative review is aimed to investigate the effect of abnormally high levels of urea, uric acid, and creatinine on one’s health and effects of fasting during Ramadan on these indicators. Articles were searched from PubMed, Elsevier and Google Scholar and then they were evaluated. It can be concluded that fasting does not have any adverse effects on the urea, uric acid, and creatinine levels according to the above-mentioned studies.

  16. Immune cells in term and preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; StLouis, Derek; Lehr, Marcus A; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Elly N; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Labor resembles an inflammatory response that includes secretion of cytokines/chemokines by resident and infiltrating immune cells into reproductive tissues and the maternal/fetal interface. Untimely activation of these inflammatory pathways leads to preterm labor, which can result in preterm birth. Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity; therefore, the elucidation of the process of labor at a cellular and molecular level is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of preterm labor. Here, we summarize the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the physiological or pathological activation of labor. We review published literature regarding the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the cervix, myometrium, fetal membranes, decidua and the fetus in late pregnancy and labor at term and preterm. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) mediate the process of labor by releasing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Adaptive immune cells (T-cell subsets and B cells) participate in the maintenance of fetomaternal tolerance during pregnancy, and an alteration in their function or abundance may lead to labor at term or preterm. Also, immune cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems (natural killer T (NKT) cells and dendritic cells (DCs)) seem to participate in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. In conclusion, a balance between innate and adaptive immune cells is required in order to sustain pregnancy; an alteration of this balance will lead to labor at term or preterm. PMID:24954221

  17. Labor Education in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kenneth D.

    1971-01-01

    Labor education reflects the pragmaticism of American culture and supports the system. It emphasizes leadership training, loyalty building, and political education. The control of labor education is centralized in union headquarters. (VW)

  18. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  19. Signs of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  20. Treatments for Preterm Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  1. Stages of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  2. Trade, Labor, Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between international trade and labor standards is one of several controversial issues facing the WTO. Proponents of a trade-labor link argue that labor is a human rights issue and that trade sanctions represent a critical tool in the effort to improve international working conditions. Opponents argue that a link between trade and labor would open the door to protectionist measures that would target low wage countries and harm the very workers the policy is intended to help. ...

  3. Emancipating Labor Internationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Waterman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The secular trinity of c19th socialism was Labor-Internationalism-Emancipation. As early-industrial capitalism developed into a national-industrial-colonial capitalism, the internationalism of labor became literally international, and simultaneously lost its emancipatory aspiration and capacity (or vice versa). The dramatic – and labor-devastating – development of a globalised-networked-informatised capitalism is raising the necessity and possibility of a new kind of labor internationalis...

  4. ARIZONA FARM LABOR REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALTER, RICHARD H.

    THE ORGANIZATION OF THE FARM PLACEMENT PROGRAM IS DESCRIBED. INCLUDED ARE THE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATIONS, THE LOCAL LEVELS, THE STATE FARM LABOR ADVISORY COMMITTEE, AND THE PLANNING AND OPERATING METHODS USED BY FARM PLACEMENT PERSONNEL IN MEETING FARM LABOR NEEDS. MAJOR CROP ACTIVITIES ARE RELATED TO COTTON AND VEGETABLES. THE LABOR FORCE IS…

  5. Labor migration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P L

    1991-01-01

    "A recent conference sponsored by the United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan examined the growing importance of labor migration for four major Asian labor importers (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore) and five major labor exporters (Bangladesh, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).... The conference concluded that international labor migration would increase within Asia because the tight labor markets and rising wages which have stimulated Japanese investment in other Asian nations, for example, have not been sufficient to eliminate migration push and pull forces...." excerpt

  6. Misguided guidelines for managing labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Wayne R; Friedman, Emanuel A

    2015-06-01

    In a recent review we expressed concerns about new guidelines for the assessment and management of labor recommended jointly by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM). These guidelines are based heavily on a new concept of how cervical dilatation and fetal descent progress, derived from the work of Zhang et al. In their Viewpoint article they have addressed, but not allayed, the concerns we described in our review. We assert that the dilatation curve promulgated by Zhang et al cannot be reconciled with direct clinical observation. Even if they were correct, however, it still does not follow that the ACOG/SMFM guidelines should recommend replacing the coherent system of identifying and managing labor aberrations described by Friedman. That system is grounded in well-established clinical principles based on decades of use and the objectively documented association of some labor abnormalities with poor fetal and maternal outcomes. Recommendations for new clinical management protocols should require the demonstration of superior outcomes through extensive, preferably prospective, assessment. Using untested guidelines for the management of labor may adversely affect women and children. Even if those guidelines were to reduce the currently excessive cesarean delivery rate, the price of that benefit is likely to be a trade-off in harm to parturients and their offspring. The nature and degree of that harm needs to be documented before considering adoption of the guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Labor epidural analgesia: Past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most severe pains experienced by a woman is that of childbirth. Providing analgesia for labor has always been a challenge more so because of the myths and controversies surrounding labor. It is imperative to understand the pain transmission during various stages of labor in order to select a proper technique for providing labor analgesia. The adverse effects of labor pain are numerous and affect both the mother as well as the fetus. Currently lumbar epidural is considered to be the gold standard technique for labor analgesia. Local anaesthetics like bupivacaine and ropivacaine are commonly used and adjuvants like clonidine, fentanyl and neostigmine have been extensively studied. However, despite being so popular, epidural analgesia is not without complications, with hypotension being the most common. Other complications include accidental dural puncture, infection, intravascular placement, high block and epidural hematoma. Other neuraxial techniques include continuous caudal analgesia, and combined spinal epidural analgesia. The numerous studies investigating the various aspects of this method have also served to dispel various myths surrounding epidural analgesia like increased incidence of cesarean section and instrumental delivery, prolongation of labor and future back pain. The future of labor analgesia lies in the incorporation of ultrasound in identifying the epidural space helping in proper catheter placement. The keywords "labor epidural" in the PUBMED revealed a total of 5018 articles with 574 review articles and 969 clinical trials. The relevant articles along with their references were extensively studied.

  8. Intermittent Auscultation in Labor: Could It Be Missing Many Pathological (Late) Fetal Heart Rate Decelerations? Analytical Review and Rationale for Improvement Supported by Clinical Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholapurkar, Shashikant L.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent auscultation (IA) of fetal heart rate (FHR) is recommended/preferred in low risk labors. Its usage even in developed countries is poised to increase because of perceived benefit of reduction in operative intervention and some disillusionment with the cardiotocography (CTG). Many national guidelines have stipulated regimes (frequency/timing) of IA based on level IV evidence. These tend to get faithfully and exactingly followed. It was observed that deliveries of many unexpectedly asphyxiated infants occurred despite rigorously performed and documented IA compliant with the guidelines. This triggered a reappraisal of the robustness of IA leading to this focused review supplemented by two anonymized cases. It concludes that the current methodology of IA may be flawed in that it poses a risk of missing many or most late (pathological) FHR decelerations, one of the foremost goals of IA. This is because many late decelerations reach their nadir before the end of the contraction. Thus the currently recommended auscultation of FHR for 60 seconds after the contraction by all national guidelines seemed to encompass their “recovery” phase and appeared to be misinterpreted as normal FHR or even as a reassuring accelerative pattern in the clinical practice. A recent recommendation of recording of the FHR as a single figure (rather than a range) does not remedy this anomaly and seems even less informative. It would be better to auscultate FHR before and after the contractions (or contraction to contraction) and take the FHR just before the contraction as the baseline FHR and interpret the FHR after contraction in the context of this baseline. This relatively simple improvement would detect most late FHR decelerations thus ameliorating the risk and significantly enhancing the patient safety. PMID:26566404

  9. La Justicia Laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya Melgar, Alfredo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Iniciada en el último cuarto del siglo XIX nuestra legislación laboral, pronto se plantea la exigencia de que las reglas sustantivas del nuevo Derecho vayan acompañadas de normas jurisdiccionales y procesales específicas, atentas a las exigencias de la justicia laboral. Tras una etapa de justicia social paritaria, obrero-patronal, la jurisdicción laboral pasa a ser desempeñada por jueces profesionales centrándose en la Magistratura de Trabajo y consolidándose el diseño procesal en sucesivas Leyes de Procedimiento Laboral.
    En la actualidad, y aunque la nueva Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil ha incidido de modo relevante sobre el proceso laboral, es obvia la influencia que el modelo del proceso laboral ha ejercido con carácter previo sobre el nuevo proceso civil.

  10. An analysis of mobile whole blood collection labor efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William N; Dayton, Paula J; Raife, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    Labor efficiency is desirable in mobile blood collection. There are few published data on labor efficiency. The variability in the labor efficiency of mobile whole blood collections was analyzed. We determined to improve our labor efficiency using lean manufacturing principles. Workflow changes in mobile collections were implemented with the goal of minimizing labor expenditures. To measure success, data on labor efficiency measured by units/hour/full-time equivalent (FTE) were collected. The labor efficiency in a 6-month period before the implementation of changes, and in months 1 to 6 and 7 to 12 after implementation was analyzed and compared. Labor efficiency in the 6-month period preceding implementation was 1.06 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. In months 1 to 6, labor efficiency declined slightly to 0.92 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE (p = 0.016 vs. preimplementation). In months 7 to 12, the mean labor efficiency returned to preimplementation levels of 1.09 ±0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. Regression analysis correlating labor efficiency with total units collected per drive revealed a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.48 for the aggregate data from all three periods), indicating that nearly half of labor efficiency was associated with drive size. The lean-based changes in workflow were subjectively favored by employees and donors. The labor efficiency of our mobile whole blood drives is strongly influenced by size. Larger drives are more efficient, with diminishing returns above 40 units collected. Lean-based workflow changes were positively received by employees and donors. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. Labor Laws and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Viral V. Acharya; Ramin P. Baghai; Krishnamurthy V. Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Can stringent labor laws be efficient? Possibly, if they provide firms with a commitment device to not punish short-run failures and thereby incentivize the pursuit of value-maximizing innovative activities. In this paper, we provide empirical evidence that strong labor laws indeed appear to have an ex ante positive incentive effect by encouraging the innovative pursuits of firms and their employees. Using patents and citations as proxies for innovation and a time-varying index of labor laws,...

  12. Child labor in Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, M N; Prabhu, S V; Mistry, H N

    1985-01-01

    Of the world's largest child labor force in India, Bombay has over 30,000 working children, most of them migrants. In a prospective study of 73 working children from a part of Dharavi, the biggest slum in Asia, 68% were working as hotel boys; 22% had started working before their 10th birthday, a large number doing so to increase the family income, but earning less than Rs. 100 ($11) per month. Forty percent worked more than 12 hours a day and only 16% continued schooling. Two-thirds depended entirely on their employers for food which was adequate and no child in the study was malnourished. Overall incidence of anemia and vitamin deficiency was 10% each. Only 7% had ailments related to their occupation. Because this was a cross-sectional study no conclusions can be drawn regarding long term and residual effects. Preventing children from working is likely to make worse their own as well as their families' problems unless substitute sources of income or welfare are available. Legal protection and other services near their working places are essential for those who have to work.

  13. Effect of Massage Therapy on Labor Pain Reduction in Primiparous Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbaran, Mehdi; Khorsandi, Maahboobeh; Matourypour, Pegah; Shamsi, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Pain is a common experience for women during labor. Therefore, pain relief care for mothers during labor is very important. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of massage therapy on labor pain reduction in primiparous women. In this meta-analysis, the databases of Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, Iranmedex, Scientific Information Database (SID), and Magiran were searched for published articles in English and Persian language up to January 2016. Among the studies, with regard to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 studies were selected. Data were analyzed by using Stata software version 11, and standard mean difference (SMD) of effects of massage therapy was calculated. The heterogeneity among studies was evaluated by the Chi-square based Q-test and I 2 statistics. The results of Chi-square based on Q-test and I 2 statistics showed heterogeneity among studies in the latent phase ( Q = 63.52, P value massage therapy reduces labor pain in the latent phase (SMD = -1.23, 95% CI: -1.73 to -0.74), active phase (SMD = -1.59, 95% CI: -2.06 to -1.12), and transitional phase (SMD = -1.90, 95% CI: -3.09 to -0.71). This study provides valid evidence for the effect of massage therapy in Iran for labor pain relief. Therefore, the use of massage therapy can be recommended in the primiparous women.

  14. Psychoprophylaxis during labor: associations with labor-related outcomes and experience of childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Malin; Kieler, Helle; Waldenström, Ulla

    2010-06-01

    To study whether use of psychoprophylaxis during labor affects course of labor and experience of childbirth in nulliparous women. Cohort study. Women were recruited from 15 antenatal clinics in Sweden between October 2005 and January 2007. A total of 857 nulliparous women with a planned vaginal delivery. Using data from a randomized controlled trial of antenatal education where the allocated groups were merged, we compared course of labor and experience of childbirth between women who used psychoprophylaxis during labor and those who did not. Data were collected by questionnaires in mid-pregnancy and three months after birth, and from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Logistic regression was used to assess associations. Mode of delivery, augmentation of labor, length of labor, Apgar score, pain relief and experience of childbirth as measured by the Wijma Delivery Experience Questionnaire. Use of psychoprophylaxis during labor was associated with a lower risk of emergency cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.88), but an increased risk of augmentation of labor (adjusted OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.23-2.28). No statistical differences were found in length of labor (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI 0.95-1.83), Apgar score Psychoprophylaxis may reduce the rate of emergency cesarean section but may not affect the experience of childbirth.

  15. Transit labor relations guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...

  16. Female Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the

  17. Bimanual Behaviours in Children Aged 8-18 Months: A Literature Review to Select Toys that Elicit the Use of Two Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Susan; Imms, Christine; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Dodd, Karen; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Toys that provoke the use of both hands are required to develop a test of bimanual performance in children 8-18 months with unilateral cerebral palsy (Mini-AHA). To choose the toys, a conceptual model based on perception-action theory and object use was used to guide a literature review. Evidence was sought for three critical relationships…

  18. 78 FR 72714 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION..., 2013, regarding child labor and forced labor in foreign countries. Relevant information will be used by...

  19. Effect of massage therapy on labor pain reduction in primiparous women: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ranjbaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain is a common experience for women during labor. Therefore, pain relief care for mothers during labor is very important. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of massage therapy on labor pain reduction in primiparous women. Materials and Methods: In this meta-analysis, the databases of Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, Iranmedex, Scientific Information Database (SID, and Magiran were searched for published articles in English and Persian language up to January 2016. Among the studies, with regard to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 studies were selected. Data were analyzed by using Stata software version 11, and standard mean difference (SMD of effects of massage therapy was calculated. The heterogeneity among studies was evaluated by the Chi-square based Q-test and I2statistics. Results: The results of Chi-square based on Q-test and I2statistics showed heterogeneity among studies in the latent phase (Q = 63.52, P value < 0.001 and I2 = 87.4%, active phase (Q = 26.42, P value < 0.001, and I2 = 77.3%, and transitional phase (Q = 104.84, P value <0.001, and I2 = 95.2%. Results showed that massage therapy reduces labor pain in the latent phase (SMD = −1.23, 95% CI: −1.73 to −0.74, active phase (SMD = −1.59, 95% CI: −2.06 to −1.12, and transitional phase (SMD = −1.90, 95% CI: −3.09 to −0.71. Conclusions: This study provides valid evidence for the effect of massage therapy in Iran for labor pain relief. Therefore, the use of massage therapy can be recommended in the primiparous women.

  20. CHILD LABOR IN PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indri Ariyanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explains the effects of gender, parents’ education, parent’s income, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal kinship system on the probability of child labor in Palembang. This study, especially, investigates the probability of children age 7-15 years old to be a worker. It is found that factors that significantly affect child labor are gender, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal system. However, parents’ education and income are found to be insignificant in affecting the probability of child labor in Palembang.

  1. Relationship Banking in Labor Bank

    OpenAIRE

    三村, 聡

    2012-01-01

    As Labor bank is seemed as business partner of labor union, it contributes each community activities. For example, Labor bank helps retired employee, laborer and inhabitants. In addition, after the amendment of Money Lending Business Act of 2010, labor bank became clearly community based bank by consulting for heavily-indebted people and their education. This paper analyzes the new role of labor bank such as community contribution and enhancing financing service by collecting of the opinion o...

  2. Labor Agreement Information System (LAIRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Labor Agreement Information Retrieval System (LAIRS) is a database containing historical information on labor-management relations in the Federal Government. It...

  3. Child Labor: Global Offensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Peter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "An Evil Unbearable to the Human Heart" (Sutcliffe); "Fighting Indifference and Inaction" (Fromont); "Concerted International Action for Children"; "New Shelter for Street Kids of Ankara" (Fromont); "IPEC's International Program for Elimination of Child Labor Challenge to Brazilian…

  4. [Active management of labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ortiz, E; Villalobos Román, M; Flores Murrieta, G; Sotomayor Alvarado, L

    1991-01-01

    Eighty three primigravidae patients at the end of latency labor, erased cervix, 3 cm dilation, vertex presentation and adequate pelvis, were studied. Two groups were formed: 53 patients in the study group, who received active management of labor, and 30 patients in the control group, treated in the traditional way. In all the patients a graphic recording of labor, was carried out; it included all the events, and as labor advanced, a signoidal curve of cervical dilatation, was registered, as well as the hyperbolic one for presentation descent. The study group received the method in a systematized manner, as follows: 1. Peridular block. 2. Amniotomy. 3. IV oxytocin one hour after amniotomy. 4. FCR monitoring. 5. Detection of dystocia origin. Materno-fetal morbidity was registered in both groups, as well as cesarean section rate, instrumental delivery and its indications, labor duration, and time of stay in labor room. Diminution of above intems and opportune detection of dystocia, were determined. It was concluded that a constructive action plan, starting at hospital admission in most healthy women, allows a normal delivery of brief duration.

  5. Timing of induction of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacak, Stephen J; Olson-Chen, Courtney; Pressman, Eva

    2015-10-01

    Determining the optimal timing for induction of labor is critical in minimizing the risks to maternal and fetal health. While data are available to guide us in some clinical situations, such as hypertension and diabetes, many gaps in knowledge still exist in others, including cholestasis of pregnancy, fetal anomalies, and placental abruption. This review of the currently available literature assesses the risks and benefits of preterm and early term induction in a wide variety of maternal and fetal conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Management of 1½ month old neglected talus neck fracture: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh R Kale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Undisplaced talus neck fractures are uncommon and difficult to diagnose. We present a case of an 18-year-old female came with the complaints of pain and swelling in the foot following a fall from a bicycle 1½ months back. For the above complaints, she had consulted local doctors who had done X-rays of the foot and no diagnosis was made. She was treated conservatively with medications and compression bandage for swelling and the patient was allowed to walk. On presenting to us, X-ray of the foot was done and minimally displaced talus neck fracture was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging of the foot was done and the diagnosis was confirmed. Patient was operated with percutaneous screw fixation following which below knee cast was given for 6 weeks followed by partial weight bearing. Patient returned to complete weight bearing and previous activity level without pain at the end of 3 months.

  7. Management of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in District General Hospital: audit for 3months and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. J. Sellers; Dr. Varun Dixit

    2007-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is one of the most important causes of diarrhoea especially following antibiotic course. Elderly population is more susceptible and results in significant mortality and morbidity. We audited twenty four cases of Clostridium difficile in our hospital over duration of three months. We looked into the demographic features of the patient population and compliance with the Trust guidelines for the management of the diarrhoea.

  8. Management of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in District General Hospital: audit for 3months and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. J. Sellers

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is one of the most important causes of diarrhoea especially following antibiotic course. Elderly population is more susceptible and results in significant mortality and morbidity. We audited twenty four cases of Clostridium difficile in our hospital over duration of three months. We looked into the demographic features of the patient population and compliance with the Trust guidelines for the management of the diarrhoea.

  9. Labor analgesia: An update on the effect of epidural analgesia on labor outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the introduction of epidural for labor analgesia, debate has centered on the issue of its effect on outcome of labor; in terms of length of labor and increase in the rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and cesarean section (CS. There is no ideal study on the effect of epidural analgesia (EA on the outcome of labor due to logistic problems in randomization, blinding and getting a control group; as a result these queries are partly answered. Despite these problems, it has been established that labor epidural has minimal effect on progress of established labor and maternal request should be a sufficient indication to start an epidural. Although instrumental vaginal delivery is probably increased with epidural but obstetrician practice, pain free patient and teaching opportunity are likely factors increasing the incidence. Maternal-fetal factors and obstetric management and not the use of EA are the most important determinants of the CS rate. The purpose of this review is to summarize data from controlled trials addressing the question of whether neuraxial labor analgesia causes an increased risk of CS or rate of instrumental delivery. In addition, the review discusses whether the timing of initiation of analgesia infl uences the mode of delivery.

  10. TODAY THE GLOBAL LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Shchipanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The international movement of labor, including temporary impacts on the socio-economic development of the donor and recipient countries the labor force. In this regard, it is relevant and legitimate problems of the evolution of the global labor market, the need to examine the issues of labor mobility, the problems of international labor migration and its impact on the national markets of skilled labor in the context of globalization. Distribution and use of human resources becomes cross-border nature, and so an international study of the labor market.

  11. WORKIN CONDITION OF RURAL LABOR IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Contreras-Molotla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the behavior of the working conditions of the rural labor force of Mexico in the context of trade liberalization (1990-2010. Therefore, trends in agricultural and non-agricultural occupations are reviewed; salaried and non-salaried activities; labor income; and the main demographic characteristic of labor as age and schooling. The empirical analysis shows processing micro-data samples from the Census of Population and Housing 1990, 2000 and 2010. Among the major results in low growth of wage employment in rural contexts, both agricultural and non-agricultural activities is found. The female agricultural wage labor grew to early twenty-first century and later had a contraction at the end of the decade two thousand. Males still predominantly in farming, but it has increased its participation in the agricultural wage labor. Non-agricultural occupations increased in rural contexts. However, at the last moment of the study became more precarious, as the increased work on their own, with low levels of remuneration, this situation reflects the limited labor demand of labor. Therefore, in the context of trade liberalization, not salaried occupations increased steadily and continues with low levels of remuneration. The geographic region of residence enabled to distinguish differences in the working conditions of the rural population and occupied in time regional wage gap it is slightly shortened. The Northwest, North region were showing the highest levels of labor remuneration, in contrast, the South and Gulf regions were those that had the lowest wages.

  12. Emergency department attendance by patients with cancer in the last month of life: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Lesley; Gao, Wei; Higginson, Irene; Smith, Melinda; Davies, Joanna; Ellis-Smith, Clare; Daveson, Barbara

    2015-02-26

    Emergency department visits towards the end of life by people with cancer are increasing over time. This increase has occurred despite evidence of an association with poor patient outcomes, the majority of patients preferring home-based care, and significant overcrowding and capacity concerns for many emergency departments. We aimed to explore factors associated with emergency department attendance by cancer patients in the last month of life. We searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Library from inception to February, 2014, for studies investigating emergency department attendances by adult cancer patients (≥18 years) towards the end of life. No time or language limitations were applied. We performed meta-analysis of factors using a random-effects model, with results expressed as odds ratios (OR) for emergency department attendance. Sensitivity analysis explored heterogeneity. 30 studies were identified, reporting three demographic, five clinical, and 13 environmental factors; they included data from five countries and 1 181 842 patients. An increased likelihood of emergency department attendance was found for men versus women (OR 1·24, 95% CI 1·19-1·29), black versus white race (1·45, 1·40-1·50), patients with lung cancer versus other cancers (1·17, 1·10-1·23), and those of lowest versus highest socioeconomic status (1·15, 1·10-1·19). Patients receiving palliative care were less likely than those not receiving palliative care to attend the emergency department in the last month of life (OR 0·43, 95% CI 0·36-0·51). We have identified demographic (men, black race), clinical (lung cancer), and environmental (low socioeconomic status, no palliative care) factors associated with an increased risk of emergency department attendance. These findings could be used to develop screening interventions and assist policy makers in directing limited resources. Future studies should also investigate previously neglected areas of

  13. Gelsemium elegans Poisoning: A Case with 8 Months of Follow-up and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundGelsemium elegans (G. elegans is a toxic plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. It is highly poisonous due to its strong respiratory depressive effect. However, G. elegans poisoning cases have not been summarized comprehensively and are rarely reported in English journals. Furthermore, none of the present reports present prognosis in detail.Case presentationA 26-year-old female was found comatose at home and brought to the hospital with deep coma, hypoxia, and acidosis. After mechanical ventilation for hours, the patient recovered from coma with sequelae of impaired short-term memory, disorientation, and childish behaviors. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed bilateral hippocampus and basal ganglia damage due to hypoxia. During 8 months of follow-up, both her symptoms and brain MRI scan improved significantly.ConclusionG. elegans is highly toxic. Although patients may die within 30 min due to its strong respiratory depressive effect, they can survive with timely respiratory support and enjoy gradual improvement without delayed postanoxic encephalopathy.

  14. Gram stain microbiological pattern of upper extremities suppuration at Baptist Medical Centre, Ogbomoso Nigeria: a fifteen month review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, A J; Olaolorun, D A; Meier, D E; Tarpley, J L

    2011-06-01

    Sixty-eight (68) patients with serious upper extremity suppurative infections, presenting within a period of fifteen (15) months, were prospectively studied clinically, Gram stain of aspirates/pus were performed, specimen cultured, planted, and where indicated glucose levels and haemoglobin genotype determined. Half of the patients had hand infections. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from thirty-nine (39) patients. Gram Negative bacilli, including Salmonella were more isolated from patients with diabetes mellitus or Hgb SS or SC. The Gram stain results correlated with the culture result 90%. When Gram Positive cocci were demonstrated in the primary microscopic examination, cultures were not mandatory. When no organism was demonstrated on primary Gram stain or the patient was diabetic or a sickler, cultures of the specimens were done. The Gram stain, well performed, remains a useful, inexpensive, technologically appropriate laboratory test for abetting decision making in patients with upper extremity suppurative infections. Organisms encountered in this study included: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Coliforms.

  15. An unusual localization of seven months delayed pelvic lymphocele following radical retropubic prostatectomy: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berk Hazır

    Full Text Available Introduction: A pelvic lymphocele is a collection of lymphatic fluid that develops after extensive lymphadenectomies in surgeries such as urological malignancies or renal transplantation. Pelvic lymphoceles may cause complications such as fever, abdominal pain, leg swelling, genital swelling and flank pain. This report summarizes the management of a pelvic lymphocele after open radical retropubic prostatectomy with bilateral lymphadenectomy. Presentation of case: Herein, we present a case in which a pelvic lymphocele developed seven months post-radical open retropubic prostatectomy and through this patient we discussed the lymphocele following radical prostatectomy. The pelvic lymphocele occurred along the sciatic nerve from the sciatica foramen to the intergluteal muscles. The patient was treated with three drainage catheters. This localization is an atypical and unusual for lymphocele after radical retropubic prostatectomy. Discussion: Lymphocele formation that leads to major complications after radical prostatectomy is rare. Lymphocele formation is most commonly seen in the early postoperative period, but it should be considered in patients with fever, abdominal pain or leg swelling during the late postoperative period. Lymphocele formation was the most common cause of hospital readmission after radical prostatectomy. Conclusion: Lymphocele formation can be seen in atypical regions and can lead to unexpected complications after radical prostatectomy. Therefore, it should be brought to mind when complaints such as fever and lower extremity swelling occurred in patients underwent extensive lymph node dissection. Surgical treatment options are available, but percutaneous interventions can also be used. Keywords: Radical retropubic prostatectomy, Pelvic lymphocele, Percutaneous drainage, Prostate cancer, Case-report

  16. The Effectiveness of Policies that Promote Labor Force Participation of Women with Children: A Collection of National Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascio, Elizabeth; Haider, Steven; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    Numerous countries have enacted policies to promote the labor force participation of women around the years of childbearing, and unsurprisingly, many research articles have been devoted to evaluating their effectiveness. Perhaps more surprisingly, however, six such articles were submitted...... independently over several months to Labour Economics and subsequently made it through the normal review process. These articles are collected in the Special Section that follows. This article provides additional background to facilitate the understanding of the policies that are evaluated in the Special...

  17. Primary and Secondary Labor Markets: Implications for Vocational Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner, David

    2000-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and empirical work in labor economics and the sociology of work relating to the segmentation of the labor market into a primary and a secondary sector and examines the implications for vocational rehabilitation. Transition into primary sector employment is explored as an important aspect of career development for individuals…

  18. Labor Market Progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeheaver, Dean

    1990-01-01

    Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)

  19. 76 FR 35244 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... failing to fulfill its obligations and commitments under the International Labour Organization Declaration... were inconsistent with its commitments under the Labor Chapter. The objectives of the review of the... commitments or obligations arising under a labor chapter * * *.'' The Procedural Guidelines specify that OTLA...

  20. The impact of 12 months treatment with ivacaftor on Scottish paediatric patients with cystic fibrosis with the G551D mutation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Carol; Wilkinson, Jane; Young, David; Brooker, Richard John

    2018-01-01

    We reviewed the impact of ivacaftor on Scottish paediatric patients with cystic fibrosis ≥6 years of age after 12 months of treatment. Statistically significant improvements in FEV 1 and body mass index and a reduction in sweat chloride, all comparable with previously published data were observed. The findings also suggested reduced use of intravenous antibiotics and oral antibiotics. No significant adverse effects were observed but a possible association with cataract formation could not be excluded. This review suggests that, in the short term at least, ivacaftor is effective and safe in paediatric patients ≥6 years of age with G551D. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Dissemination of 2014 dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) trial results: a systematic review of scholarly and media attention over 7 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Melissa K; Haneef, Romana; Ravaud, Philippe; Boutron, Isabelle

    2017-11-03

    To explore how the results from the 2014 dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) trial were disseminated to the scientific community and online media. A a systematic review of scholarly and public attention surrounding the DAPT study. Data were collected from the ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, PubMed Commons, EurekAlert, the DAPT study website (www.daptstudy.org) and the New England Journal of Medicine website (for scholarly attention) and Altmetric Explorer, Snap Bird, YouTube (for public attention) citing DAPT study results appearing from 16 November 2014 to 10 June 2015. No participants were involved in this study. Proportion of contents highlighting the increased risk of mortality and critical to the author's interpretation of the results. We identified 425 items reported by seven sources; 164 (39%) disseminated the authors' interpretation via an electronic link or a reference, with no additional text. Among 81 items (19 %), the message favoured prolonged treatment and consequently overstated the article conclusions. Among 119 items (28 %), the text was uncertain about the benefit of prolonged treatment but was reported with no or inappropriate mention of increased risk of mortality. Only 34 items (8 %) were uncertain about the benefit of prolonged treatment and mentioned increased risk of mortality. In all, 27 items (6 %) did not favour prolonged treatment, and only 12 of these (3 %) clearly raised some concerns about the reporting of increased risk of death. Dissemination of the DAPT study results to the scientific community and on different media sources rarely criticised the interpretation of the study results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Parturients' need of continuous labor support in labor wards

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Continuous labor support is practiced in different parts of the world. In Ethiopia ... Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the attitude of women in response to labor support based at institutional ... The reasons given for wanting companion were emotional ..... mothers play vital role in labor and delivery while men.

  3. Child labor, agricultural shocks and labor sharing in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe author studies the effect of an agricultural shock and a labor sharing arrangement (informal social network) on child labor. Albeit bad parental preference to child labor (as the strand of literature claims), poor households face compelling situations to send their child to work.

  4. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  5. LABOR DISCRIMINATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyara Slavyanska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Labor discrimination is a phenomenon with very serious social and economic consequences, which has increased actuality and importance in Bulgaria nowadays. Because of the high price of discrimination, building effective anti-discrimination legislation occupies a special place in the policy of the European Union. Despite the European directives, the presence of anti-discrimination legislation and the broadly declared anti-discrimination inclinations in our country, these are absolutely not enough for providing environment of equality, with a climate of respect and tolerance to the differences. It turns out that certain groups are definitely victims of labor discrimination. In this connection the present article consecutively identifies these groups, as well as the reasons for their discrimination, underlining the necessity and benefits of the integration of the different.

  6. Labor construction trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing costs and schedule delays being experienced in construction projects have led companies to look for alternatives to their present methods of expansion. One of the facets being evaluated is the construction labor posture. As a result, more companies are employing open shop contractors. Certain benefits can be realized by open shop construction. Productivity, in terms of the time required and overall costs, is definitely improved at no sacrifice in quality. Before an owner decides to build a project open shop, however, he must be fully aware of the pro's and con's of both types of labor posture. He must know to select a capable open shop contractor and he must realize his obligations for a successful open shop program

  7. Division of Labor

    KAUST Repository

    Oke, Muse; Zaher, Manal S.; Hamdan, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The first assignment of DNA polymerases at the eukaryotic replication fork was possible after the in vitro reconstitution of the simian virus 40 (SV40) replication system. In this system, DNA polymerase α (Pol α) provides both leading and lagging strands with RNA-DNA primers that are extended by DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Extrapolating the architecture of the replication fork from the SV40 model system to an actual eukaryotic cell has been challenged by the discovery of a third DNA polymerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε). A division of labor has been proposed for the eukaryotic replication fork whereby Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand. However, an alternative model of unequal division of labor in which Pol δ can still participate in leading-strand synthesis is plausible.

  8. Division of Labor

    KAUST Repository

    Oke, Muse

    2014-09-12

    The first assignment of DNA polymerases at the eukaryotic replication fork was possible after the in vitro reconstitution of the simian virus 40 (SV40) replication system. In this system, DNA polymerase α (Pol α) provides both leading and lagging strands with RNA-DNA primers that are extended by DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Extrapolating the architecture of the replication fork from the SV40 model system to an actual eukaryotic cell has been challenged by the discovery of a third DNA polymerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε). A division of labor has been proposed for the eukaryotic replication fork whereby Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand. However, an alternative model of unequal division of labor in which Pol δ can still participate in leading-strand synthesis is plausible.

  9. Labor Informality: General Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sandoval Betancour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main causes of labor informality in order to verify the validity of classical theories that explain unemployment in market economies and its relationship to informality. Methodologically, the project was based, in the empirical part, on international statistics, comparing the evolution of labor market structure in a combined sample of highly industrialized countries and other less industrialized ones. Empirical evidence supports the conclusion that the classical economic theory of Marxist origin is inefficient to explain the causes of unemployment in contemporary market economies, as well as it fails to satisfactorily explain informality. On the contrary, we conclude that the theory in question is more relevant to explain informality in centrally planned economies where this phenomenon has been present even more significantly than in free market economies.

  10. Youth Labor Migration in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bossavie, Laurent; Denisova, Anastasiya

    2018-01-01

    This descriptive study investigates internal and external labor migration by Nepalese youth. External labor migration is separated into the flow to India, which is unregulated, and the flow to other countries, which typically takes the form of temporary contract migration to countries with bilateral labor agreements with Nepal (referred to in Nepal as foreign employment). The study finds t...

  11. A Model of U.S. Army Recruit Labor Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wargelin, Mark

    1997-01-01

    .... This paper reviews previous military manpower research and critically examines two recruit labor supply experiments the Multiple Option Recruiting Experiment of 1979, and the Educational Assistance Test Program of 1981...

  12. Economic, Labor, and Regulatory Moderators of the Effect of Individual Placement and Support Among People With Severe Mental Illness: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Justin D; Drake, Robert E; Bond, Gary R

    2018-01-13

    As Individual Placement and Support (IPS) has become the international standard for vocational rehabilitation of adults with serious mental illness, researchers must consider the relationship between IPS and local environments. This meta-analysis used mixed-effects meta-regressions to assess the impact of site-level moderators on the likelihood that IPS recipients, compared with recipients of alternative vocational services, achieved competitive employment. Potential moderators included change in gross domestic product (GDP), local unemployment and unionization rates, and indices describing employment protection regulations, level of disability benefits compensation, and efforts to integrate people with disabilities into the workforce. Regulatory moderators represent facilitators and barriers to employment that may reinforce or detract from the effectiveness of IPS. Across 30 sites drawn from 21 randomized controlled trials in 12 countries (33% in the United States), IPS recipients were 2.31 (95% CI 1.99-2.69) times more likely to find competitive employment than recipients of alternative vocational rehabilitation services. The significant competitive-employment rate advantage of IPS over control services increased in the presence of weaker employment protection legislation and integration efforts, and less generous disability benefits. Policy makers should recognize and account for the fact that labor and disability regulations can create an arrangement of incentives that reduces the relative efficacy of supported employment. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Evidências sobre o suporte durante o trabalho de parto/parto: uma revisão da literatura Evidence on support during labor and delivery: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odaléa Maria Brüggemann

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do suporte à mulher durante o trabalho de parto/parto por profissionais de saúde, mulheres leigas e doulas, sobre os resultados maternos e neonatais têm sido avaliados em vários ensaios clínicos randomizados, metanálises e revisões sistemáticas. Este artigo apresenta a revisão desses estudos, enfocando as principais características, o provedor de suporte, a simultaneidade na presença ou não do companheiro/familiares da parturiente durante o trabalho de parto e parto, e os resultados obtidos. Foram incluídos os estudos publicados entre os anos de 1980 e 2004, que contemplam explicitamente os aspectos avaliados. De maneira geral, os resultados do suporte são favoráveis, destacando-se redução da taxa de cesarianas, da analgesia/medicamentos para alívio da dor, da duração do trabalho de parto, da utilização de ocitocina e produzindo aumento na satisfação materna com a experiência vivida. Quando o provedor de suporte não é um profissional de saúde, os benefícios têm sido mais acentuados. Os estudos disponíveis não avaliam o acompanhante escolhido pela parturiente como um provedor de suporte, o que constitui lacuna de conhecimento a ser preenchida.The effects of support for women during labor and delivery provided by health professionals, lay women, and doulas on the maternal and neonatal outcomes have been evaluated through randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews. This article presents a review of these studies, focusing on the principal characteristics, support provider, simultaneous presence of the woman's spouse and/or family members during labor and delivery and the outcomes. The analysis included studies published from 1980 to 2004 which explicitly approached these aspects. In general, the results of such support were favorable, highlighting a reduction in the cesarean rate, analgesia/ medication for pain relief, duration of labor, and utilization of oxytocin and an increase in

  14. Electrohysterographic Characterization of Labor Contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Eva; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Petersen, Olav Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Better methods are needed for preterm labor diagnostication. We hypothesize 1) that depolarization of the myometrium propagates from fundus to isthmus, 2) that the propagation velocity (PV) is faster in labor than in non-labor, and 3) that PV can be determined by electromyography (EMG......). PV may be the best EMG-predictor of preterm labor. Knowledge on how to determine PV is insufficient though. Objective: To investigate EMG-signals from laboring myometrium and to develop a method for determining PV. Method: We included 10 women in active labor. EMG-signals were obtained via three...... of the vertical electrode order. Conclusion: Depolarization of the laboring myometrium may therefore not occur in the direction from fundus to isthmus. Further investigation is needed for PV determination....

  15. 78 FR 13897 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Labor Affairs Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Public Session Meeting AGENCY: International Labor Affairs Bureau (ILAB), U.S. Department of Labor.... Department of Labor gives notice of the public session of the meeting of the Labor Affairs Council (``Council... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade...

  16. [Effect of the music in labor and newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarro, Camila Sotilo; de Campos, Luciane Botinhon; Galli, Natália Oliveira; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Pereira, Valdina Marins

    2010-06-01

    Music has been applied for balancing energies that have been disturbed by the stress of modern life. The objective of the present study was to verify the effect of music in labor and on the newborn, when submitted to the same melodies heard by their own mothers during pregnancy. Pregnant women, Health Center users, were submitted to musical sensitization sessions since their fifth month of pregnancy. During labor, the melodies previously selected by the pregnant women were played all the time with a thirty-minute break for every two hours of music. Data collection was performed through interviews performed after labor, at different moments, and the mother' statements were qualitatively analyzed. According to the women's words, music minimized the distress of labor and made it easier for the baby to adjust in the first months of life.

  17. Monthly energy review: February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-23

    This is the February report by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an article on the effect of the proximity of wind resources to transmission lines, an energy overview, energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, and international energy. 57 tabs.

  18. Monthly energy review, May 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-24

    Energy production during Feb 95 totaled 5.4 quadrillion Btu (Q), 3.1% over Feb 94. Energy consumption totaled 7.4 Q, 0.7% below Feb 94. Net imports of energy totaled 1.3 Q, 5.6% below Feb 94. This publication is divided into energy overview, energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy.

  19. Monthly energy review, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This publication contains statistical information and data analysis of energy production and consumption within the major energy industries of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy and oil and gas resource development. Energy production during October 1993 totaled 5.5-quadrillion Btu, a 3.0 percent decrease from the level of production during October 1992. Coal production decreased 5.6 percent, petroleum production decreased 3.4 percent, and natural gas production increased 1.9 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.0 percent from the level of production during October 1992. Energy consumption during October 1993 totaled 6.7 quadrillion Btu, 0.9 percent above the level of consumption during October 1992. Natural gas consumption increased 6.5 percent, coal consumption rose 2.9 percent, and petroleum consumption was down 1.3 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 5.5 percent from the level of 1 year earlier.

  20. Monthly energy review: September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Energy production during June 1996 totaled 5.6 quadrillion Btu, a 0.5% decrease from the level of production during June 1995. Energy consumption during June 1996 totaled 7.1 quadrillion Btu, 2.7% above the level of consumption during June 1995. Net imports of energy during June 1996 totaled 1.6 quadrillion Btu, 4.5% above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Statistics are presented on the following topics: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  1. Monthly energy review, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-26

    Energy production during April 1994 totaled 5.5 quadrillion Btu, a 2.2-percent increase from the level of production during April 1993. Coal production increased 11.8 percent, petroleum production fell 4.0 percent, and natural gas production decreased 0.3 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 2.9 percent from the level of production during April 1993. Energy consumption during April 1994 totaled 6.7 quadrillion Btu, 1.4 percent above the level of consumption during April 1993. Petroleum consumption increased 3.9 percent, coal consumption rose 1.1 percent, and natural gas consumption decreased 1.5 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 0.4 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during April 1994 totaled 1.5 quadrillion Btu, 8.7 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 4.5 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 18.5 percent. Net exports of coal fell 9.2 percent from the level in April 1993.

  2. Monthly energy review, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Energy production during March 1994 totaled 5.9 quadrillion Btu, a 3.7-percent increase from the level of production during March 1993. Coal production increased 15.7 percent, petroleum production fell 4.1 percent, and natural gas production decreased 1.1 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were up 0.5 percent from the level of production during March 1993. Energy consumption during March 1994 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 1.3 percent below the level of consumption during March 1993. Natural gas consumption decreased 3.6 percent, petroleum consumption fell 1.6 percent, and coal consumption remained the same. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined increased 3.7 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during March 1994 totaled 1.5 quadrillion Btu, 6.7 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 3.2 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 15.7 percent. Net exports of coal rose 2.1 percent from the level in March 1993.

  3. Monthly energy review, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-27

    This publication presents information and compiled data on energy sources. The following information is presented: energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices; and international energy.

  4. Monthly energy review, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-25

    Energy production during February 1994 totaled 5.3 quadrillion Btu, a 2.2% increase over February 1993. Coal production increased 9%, natural gas rose 2.5%, and petroleum decreased 3.6%; all other forms of energy production combined were down 3%. Energy consumption during the same period totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 4.1% above February 1993. Natural gas consumption increased 5.8%, petroleum 5.2%, and coal 2.3%; consumption of all other energy forms combined decreased 0.7%. Net imports of energy totaled 1.4 quadrillion Btu, 16.9% above February 1993; petroleum net imports increased 10.1%, natural gas net imports were down 4.9%, and coal net exports fell 43.7%. This document is divided into: energy overview, energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, international energy, appendices (conversion factors, etc.), and glossary.

  5. Monthly energy review, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-29

    Energy production during May 1994 totaled 5.6 quadrillion Btu, a 2.4-percent increase from the level of production during May 1993. Coal production increased 13.3 percent, natural gas production rose 1.7 percent, and petroleum production decreased 2.5 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 8.3 percent from the level of production during May 1993. Energy consumption during May 1994 totaled 6.6 quadrillion Btu, 3.6 percent above the level of consumption during May 1993. Natural gas consumption increased 8.7 percent, coal consumption rose 4.6 percent, and petroleum consumption was up 3.6 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 5.8 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during May 1994 totaled 1.5 quadrillion Btu, 14.3 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 8.4 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 23.2 percent. Net exports of coal fell 16.8 percent from the level in May 1993.

  6. Monthly energy review: March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is the March report by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an article on current and potential markets for alternative-fuel vehicles, an energy overview, and data on energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 32 figs., 88 tabs.

  7. Monthly energy review, February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This is an overview of the February energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an energy overview, US energy production, energy consumption, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  8. Monthly energy review, December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Sections of this report include the following: Energy overview; Energy consumption; Petroleum; Natural gas; Oil and gas resource development; Coal; Electricity; Nuclear energy; Energy prices; and International energy. Appendices contain thermal conversion factors, metric and other physical conversion factors, carbon dioxide emission factors for coal, list of feature articles that have appeared since 1994, and a glossary.

  9. Monthly energy review, March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This is an overview of the March 1997 energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The Contents of the report include an update on the effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on electric utilities, an energy overview, US energy production, energy consumption, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 37 figs., 60 tabs.

  10. Monthly energy review, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This is an overview of the May energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an energy overview, US energy production, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. Energy production during February 1997 totaled 5.4 quadrillion Btu, a 1.9% decrease from the level of production during February 1996. Coal production increased 1.2%, natural gas production decreased 2.9%, and production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 2.1%. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.3% from the level of production during February 1996. Energy consumption during February 1997 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 4.0% below the level of consumption during February 1996. Consumption of petroleum products decreased 4.4%, consumption of natural gas was down 3.5%, and consumption of coal fell 2.2%. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 6.7% from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during February 1997 totaled 1.5 quadrillion Btu, 14.1% above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 12.7% and net imports of natural gas were up 7.4%. Net exports of coal fell 12.1% from the level in February 1996. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  11. Monthly energy review, January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This is an overview of the January energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an energy overview, US energy production, energy consumption, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 47 figs., 71 tabs.

  12. Monthly energy review, September 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This publication presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities. 36 figs., 57 tabs

  13. Monthly energy review, January 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This publication contains statistical information and data analysis of energy production and consumption within the major energy industries of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy and oil and gas resource development. Energy production during October 1993 totaled 5.5-quadrillion Btu, a 3.0 percent decrease from the level of production during October 1992. Coal production decreased 5.6 percent, petroleum production decreased 3.4 percent, and natural gas production increased 1.9 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.0 percent from the level of production during October 1992. Energy consumption during October 1993 totaled 6.7 quadrillion Btu, 0.9 percent above the level of consumption during October 1992. Natural gas consumption increased 6.5 percent, coal consumption rose 2.9 percent, and petroleum consumption was down 1.3 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 5.5 percent from the level of 1 year earlier

  14. Monthly energy review, November 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities. 30 figs., 57 tabs

  15. Monthly energy review, July 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    US total energy consumption in July 1990 was 6.7 quadrillion Btu Petroleum products accounted for 42 percent of the energy consumed in July 1990, while coal accounted for 26 percent and natural gas accounted for 19 percent. Residential and commercial sector consumption was 2.3 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. The sector accounted for 35 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Industrial sector consumption was 2.4 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. The industrial sector accounted for 36 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Transportation sector consumption of energy was 1.9 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 1 percent from the July 1989 level. The sector consumed 29 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Electric utility consumption of energy totaled 2.8 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. Coal contributed 53 percent of the energy consumed by electric utilities in July 1990, while nuclear electric power contributed 21 percent; natural gas, 12 percent; hydroelectric power, 9 percent; petroleum, 5 percent; and wood, waste, geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy, about 1 percent

  16. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  17. Description and search labor for information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Julian

    2007-01-01

    Selection power is taken as the fundamental value for information retrieval systems. Selection power is regarded as produced by selection labor, which itself separates historically into description and search labor. As forms of mental labor, description and search labor participate in the conditions for labor and for mental labor. Concepts and distinctions applicable to physical and mental labor are indicated, introducing the necessity of labor for survival, the idea of technology as a human ...

  18. Weakness and the Inability to Ambulate in a 14-Month-Old Female: A Case Report and Concise Review of Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Bloch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS is an acquired disease of the peripheral nervous system which causes demyelination and leads to weakness, ataxia, and areflexia. There are a variety of forms of the syndrome, and although it is found in all age groups, it is rare in children less than two years of age. The present complaint of weakness, ataxia, or lower extremity pain in the pediatric population should cause the practitioner to consider GBS in the differential. We describe a case of a 14-month-old girl presenting with weakness and the inability to ambulate who was diagnosed with GBS. The purpose of this paper is to review the emergency medicine diagnosis and management of Guillain-Barre syndrome in children.

  19. Anesthetic management for lobectomy of a 2-month-old infant with bronchogenic cyst: Case report along with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Bansal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchogenic cyst, a benign congenital cystic lesion of the lung, is a rare cause of respiratory distress in children comprising 7.5% of all mediastinal masses. A thorough preoperative evaluation is crucial to plan for definitive intra- and post-operative management. All patients should be thoroughly evaluated for the presence of compression, deviation or distortion of airways and great veins. The easiest means of providing one lung ventilation in pediatrics is to intubate the main stem bronchus of the nonoperated lung. Other options available for pediatric one lung ventilation are single lumen endobronchial tubes, micro cuff tubes, Marraro bilumen tubes, and bronchial blockers. We hereby present a case report of a 2-month-old infant posted for excision of bronchogenic cyst along with a review of literature.

  20. Effectiveness of long-term (twelve months) nonsurgical weight loss interventions for obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Fiona; Rolland, Catherine; Broom, John; Love, John

    2010-11-10

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 2%-26% of women of reproductive age and is often accompanied by obesity. Modest weight loss reduces health risks and ameliorates effects of the syndrome. Weight loss interventions are mainly of short duration and have limited success. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to assess the efficacy of long-term (12 months), nonsurgical weight loss interventions for women with PCOS. Fifteen databases were searched, resulting in eight papers that met the search criteria. Comparison of results and meta-analysis was difficult due to heterogeneity of studies. Behavioral components of interventions were poorly described, and compliance was difficult to ascertain. The results suggested that the inclusion of a lifestyle component improves outcomes, but protocols must be clearly described to maintain study validity and to identify successful behavioral strategies.

  1. Instrumented fusion in a 12-month-old with atlanto-occipital dislocation: case report and literature review of infant occipitocervical fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Andrew T; Dewan, Michael C; Patel, Bhairav; Geck, Matthew J; Tomycz, Luke D

    2017-08-01

    The treatment of atlantoaxial dislocation in very young children is challenging and lacks a consensus management strategy. We review the literature on infantile occipitocervical (OC) fusion is appraised and technical considerations are organized for ease of reference. Surgical decisions such as graft type and instrumentation details are summarized, along with the use of bone morphogenic protein and post-operative orthoses. We present the case of a 12-month-old who underwent instrumented occipitocervical (OC) fusion in the setting of traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD). Occipitocervical (OC) arthrodesis is obtainable in very young infants and children. Surgical approaches are variable and use a combination of autologous grafting and creative screw and/or wire constructs. The heterogeneity of pathologic etiology leading to OC fusion makes it difficult to make definitive recommendations for surgical management.

  2. Inestabilidad laboral y competitividad

    OpenAIRE

    García, Norberto

    2010-01-01

    En las dos últimas décadas pasadas - 1980's y 1990's -, en buena parte de los países de América Latina y el Caribe se introdujeron reformas laborales para flexibilizar el mercado laboral - Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Ecuador, Perú, Colombia, Panamá, entre otros - . En particular, siguiendo la experiencia de España de 1983-97, la mayoría de esas reformas promovieron la introducción de múltiples contratos laborales y redujeron los costos de indemnización por despido. La introducción de los múltip...

  3. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any agency...

  4. Negotiation within labor relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia BĂDOI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation is the process we use in order to obtain things that we want and are controlled by others. Any desire we intend to fulfill, any need that we are obliged to meet is a potential bargaining situations. Between groups and individuals, negotiation occurs naturally, as some have one thing that the other wants and is willing to bargain to get it. More or less we are all involved in negotiations: closing a contract, buying a thing, obtaining sponsorships, collective decision making, conflict resolution, agreement on work plans. Within the field of labor relations, negotiation can occur on the occasion of closing / amending employment contracts or in order to regulate employment or work relations. Moreover, used properly, the negotiation can be an effective tool for solving labor disputes, with benefits for both involved parties. This paper aims to present negotiating principles and steps to follow in planning and preparing negotiations and the negotiating techniques that can lead to a successful negotiation based on a well-developed plan.

  5. ROLE AND CONSEQUENCES OF EMOTIONAL LABOR IN THE WORKPLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Fortuna SCHIOPU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of emotions in the workplace has begun to be increasingly studied by theorists and researchers in organizational behavior. One essential construct in the literature is the emotional labor which is perceived to be the management of feelings to express organizationally desired emotions. This article aims to review existing perspectives on emotional labor, to differentiate the concepts of emotional labor and emotional dissonance, to analyze emotion regulation strategies, and to discuss the consequences of emotional labor in the workplace. These clarifications with regard to the emotional labor and its mechanisms can help manage their associated negative outcomes (such as emotional exhaustion, lower job satisfaction, higher levels of burnout, and intentions to quit the job and sustain their possible positive outcomes (such as feelings of accomplishment and enhanced identification with the work role.

  6. Does labor market history matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2014-01-01

    This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found that occ......This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found...... that occurrence dependence from non-employment states seems to have the strongest effect on the employment rate, while employment history is the main driver of state dependence in the wage. Predictions based on the estimated model reveal potential negative long-term effects from external employment shocks...

  7. A literature review of food culture and eating behaviours among Mauritian Muslims during the fasting month of Ramadan: The need for nutrition education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Zaynab Toorabally

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar and is also recognised as Ramadhan or Ramzan. During this holy month, Muslims around the globe are devoted to the almighty by focusing on fasting, praying and giving charity to the poorer amongst all. Fasting being one of the five pillars of Islam, is regarded as an obligatory deed for all able-bodied accountable Muslims. During Ramadan, this category of individuals spends daylight hours observing a complete fast by abstaining from all foods, drinks, medications as well as smoking. In Mauritius, the duration of fasting will vary according to the season coinciding with Ramadan and ranges from 13 to 15 hours. In general, food intake is reduced during Ramadan. Normally, this should lead to reduced energy intake and weight loss depending on the food consumption pattern of the fasting individual. Nonetheless, eating behaviours are different during the period of Ramadan and may be accounted for the fact that following the daily fasting period, certain individuals feel indulged to consume specific types of foods and drinks at breakfast (iftaar. In Mauritius, it has long been a well anchored culture to have fried cakes and milk beverages besides the recommended dates at ‘iftaar’. It is however alarming to observe that there is a large tendency to replace dinner with the ‘iftaar. . The review focuses on the pattern of food consumption and feast during the period of Ramadan in Mauritius and aims to justify the need for nutrition education to improve food intake

  8. Prehospital anaesthesia performed by physician/critical care paramedic teams in a major trauma network in the UK: a 12 month review of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Carl; Crombie, Nicholas; Hulme, Jonathan; Cormack, Stef; Hussain, Nageena; Ludwig, Frank; Wheaton, Steve

    2015-01-01

    In the West Midlands region of the UK, delivery of pre-hospital care has been remodelled through introduction of a 24 h Medical Emergency Response Incident Team (MERIT). Teams including physicians and critical care paramedics (CCP) are deployed to incidents on land-based and helicopter-based platforms. Clinical practice, including delivery of rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia (RSI), is underpinned by standard operating procedures (SOP). This study describes the first 12 months experience of prehospital RSI in the MERIT scheme in the West Midlands. Retrospective review of the MERIT clinical database for the 12 months following the launch of the scheme. Data was collected relating to the number of RSIs performed; indication for RSI; number of intubation attempts; grade of view on laryngoscopy and the base speciality/grade of the operator performing intubation. MERIT teams were activated 1619 times, attending scene in 1029 cases. RSI was performed 142 times (13.80% of scene attendances). There was one recorded case of failure to intubate requiring insertion of a supraglottic airway device (0.70%). In over a third of RSI cases, CCPs performed laryngoscopy and intubation (n=53, 37.32%). Proficiency of obtaining Grade I view at laryngoscopy was similar for physicians (74.70%) and CCPs (77.36%). Intubation was successful at the first attempt in over 90% of cases. This study demonstrates that operation within a system that provides high levels of exposure, underpinned by comprehensive and robust training and governance frameworks, promotes levels of performance in successful prehospital RSI regardless of base speciality or profession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Care during labor and birth for the prevention of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Our objective was to estimate the effect of various childbirth care packages on neonatal mortality due to intrapartum-related events (“birth asphyxia”) in term babies for use in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Methods We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies or reviews of childbirth care packages as defined by United Nations norms (basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care, skilled care at birth). We also reviewed Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA) training. Data were abstracted into standard tables and quality assessed by adapted GRADE criteria. For interventions with low quality evidence, but strong GRADE recommendation for implementation, an expert Delphi consensus process was conducted to estimate cause-specific mortality effects. Results We identified evidence for the effect on perinatal/neonatal mortality of emergency obstetric care packages: 9 studies (8 observational, 1 quasi-experimental), and for skilled childbirth care: 10 studies (8 observational, 2 quasi-experimental). Studies were of low quality, but the GRADE recommendation for implementation is strong. Our Delphi process included 21 experts representing all WHO regions and achieved consensus on the reduction of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths by comprehensive emergency obstetric care (85%), basic emergency obstetric care (40%), and skilled birth care (25%). For TBA training we identified 2 meta-analyses and 9 studies reporting mortality effects (3 cRCT, 1 quasi-experimental, 5 observational). There was substantial between-study heterogeneity and the overall quality of evidence was low. Because the GRADE recommendation for TBA training is conditional on the context and region, the effect was not estimated through a Delphi or included in the LiST tool. Conclusion Evidence quality is rated low, partly because of challenges in undertaking RCTs for obstetric interventions, which are considered standard of care. Additional challenges for evidence interpretation

  10. Care during labor and birth for the prevention of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Neil F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to estimate the effect of various childbirth care packages on neonatal mortality due to intrapartum-related events (“birth asphyxia” in term babies for use in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies or reviews of childbirth care packages as defined by United Nations norms (basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care, skilled care at birth. We also reviewed Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA training. Data were abstracted into standard tables and quality assessed by adapted GRADE criteria. For interventions with low quality evidence, but strong GRADE recommendation for implementation, an expert Delphi consensus process was conducted to estimate cause-specific mortality effects. Results We identified evidence for the effect on perinatal/neonatal mortality of emergency obstetric care packages: 9 studies (8 observational, 1 quasi-experimental, and for skilled childbirth care: 10 studies (8 observational, 2 quasi-experimental. Studies were of low quality, but the GRADE recommendation for implementation is strong. Our Delphi process included 21 experts representing all WHO regions and achieved consensus on the reduction of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths by comprehensive emergency obstetric care (85%, basic emergency obstetric care (40%, and skilled birth care (25%. For TBA training we identified 2 meta-analyses and 9 studies reporting mortality effects (3 cRCT, 1 quasi-experimental, 5 observational. There was substantial between-study heterogeneity and the overall quality of evidence was low. Because the GRADE recommendation for TBA training is conditional on the context and region, the effect was not estimated through a Delphi or included in the LiST tool. Conclusion Evidence quality is rated low, partly because of challenges in undertaking RCTs for obstetric interventions, which are considered standard of care. Additional challenges for

  11. LABOR MARKET POLICIES AND EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRITAN SHORAJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper will be examined some important issues of the labor market policies in Albania. As well, the analysis of labor market institutions such as the Social Insurances or the Syndicates on the efficiency of employing active labor forces. Which are the policies on the protection of the labor forces and the criteria of definition of the minimum salary? Furthermore, it continues with the importance of reforms in the labor market policies, to be examined in the labor market aspect as a production factor and as a regulator of the internal market. Fast globalization is causing continuous risk and movement for the active labor forces. The increase and development of technology puts out of the market many employees, decreasing the number of unqualified employees and increases the demand for the qualified ones. Does the globalization really affect the labor market, efficiency and as a consequence increase production, or the latter are benefits only for the developed economic countries? At the same time, we shall examine the movement of the labor forces from one country to another and the fluctuation of the relevant salaries. In general, the analysis of this paper faces two key issues: the first being raised on discussion of the kinds of programs on the active labor forces, such as programs of direct employment or consideration of employment in public sector, and the second regarding the methodology of evaluating these programs. How effective are them on the domestic market? The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations on the efficiency of policies for the labor market forces.

  12. Labor Dystocia: Uses of Related Nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jeremy L; Ryan, Sharon L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Buxton, Margaret; Holley, Sharon L; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Labor dystocia (slow or difficult labor or birth) is the most commonly diagnosed aberration of labor and the most frequently documented indication for primary cesarean birth. Yet, dystocia remains a poorly specified diagnostic category, with determinations often varying widely among clinicians. The primary aims of this review are to 1) summarize definitions of active labor and dystocia, as put forth by leading professional obstetric and midwifery organizations in world regions wherein English is the majority language and 2) describe the use of dystocia and related terms in contemporary research studies. Major national midwifery and obstetric organizations from qualifying United Nations-member sovereign nations and international organizations were searched to identify guidelines providing definitions of active labor and dystocia or related terms. Research studies (2000-2013) were systematically identified via PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL searches to describe the use of dystocia and related terms in contemporary scientific publications. Only 6 organizational guidelines defined dystocia or related terms. Few research teams (n = 25 publications) defined dystocia-related terms with nonambiguous clinical parameters that can be applied prospectively. There is heterogeneity in the nomenclature used to describe dystocia, and when a similar term is shared between guidelines or research publications, the underlying definition of that term is sometimes inconsistent between documents. Failure to define dystocia in evidence-based, well-described, clinically meaningful terms that are widely acceptable to and reproducible among clinicians and researchers is concerning at both national and global levels. This failure is particularly problematic in light of the major contribution of this diagnosis to primary cesarean birth rates. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  13. Labor Comes into Its Own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrle, Edmund F.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a concise and interesting overview of the rise and extension of labor activity during the New Deal. Labor took advantage of Roosevelt's pro-union policies to consolidate their power and forever transform the lives of working men and women. Discusses improvements in working conditions, wages, and benefits. (MJP)

  14. Economic implications of labor induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Simon, Raquel; Montañes, Antonio; Clemente, Jesús; Del Pino, María D; Romero, Manuel A; Fabre, Ernesto; Oros, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    To assess health service costs associated with labor induction according to different clinical situations in a tertiary-level hospital. In a prospective study, individual patient cost data were assessed for women admitted for induction of labor at a tertiary hospital in Spain between November 1, 2012, and August 31, 2013. The costs of labor induction were estimated according to maternal and neonatal outcomes, method of delivery, cervical condition at admission, and obstetric indication. Direct costs including professional fees, epidural, maternal stay, consumables, and drugs were calculated. Overall, 412 women were included in the final cost analysis. The mean total cost of labor induction was €3589.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3475.13-3704.61). Cesarean delivery after labor induction (€4830.45, 95% CI 4623.13-5037.58) was significantly more expensive than spontaneous delivery (€3037.45, 95% CI 2966.91-3179.99) and instrumental vaginal delivery (€3344.31, 95%CI 3151.69-3536.93). The total cost for patients with a very unfavorable cervix (Bishop score Labor induction for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was the most expensive obstetric indication for induction of labor (€4347.32, 95% CI 3890.45-4804.18). Following the induction of labor, a number of patient- and treatment-related factors influence costs associated with delivery. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of long-term (twelve months nonsurgical weight loss interventions for obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Nicholson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fiona Nicholson1, Catherine Rolland1, John Broom1, John Love21Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland; 2School of Applied Social Studies, Faculty of Health and Social Care, The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, ScotlandAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects 2%–26% of women of reproductive age and is often accompanied by obesity. Modest weight loss reduces health risks and ameliorates effects of the syndrome. Weight loss interventions are mainly of short duration and have limited success. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to assess the efficacy of long-term (12 months, nonsurgical weight loss interventions for women with PCOS. Fifteen databases were searched, resulting in eight papers that met the search criteria. Comparison of results and meta-analysis was difficult due to heterogeneity of studies. Behavioral components of interventions were poorly described, and compliance was difficult to ascertain. The results suggested that the inclusion of a lifestyle component improves outcomes, but protocols must be clearly described to maintain study validity and to identify successful behavioral strategies.Keywords: obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, weight loss 

  16. Polyarticular Septic Arthritis Caused by Haemophilus influenzae Serotype f in an 8-Month-Old Immunocompetent Infant: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheel Ahmed Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The standard use of vaccinations against pathogens has resulted in a decreased incidence of musculoskeletal infections caused by these previously common bacterial pathogens. Consequently, the incidence of infections caused by atypical bacteria is rising. This report presents a case of septic arthritis caused by non-type b H. influenzae in a pediatric patient. Methods. We report a case of an infant with polyarticular septic arthritis caused by H. influenzae serotype f. A literature review was conducted with the inclusion criteria of case reports and studies published between 2004 and 2013 addressing musculoskeletal H. influenzae infections. Results. An 8-month-old female presented with pain and swelling in her right ankle and left elbow. The patient was diagnosed with septic arthritis and underwent incision and drainage. Wound and blood cultures were positive for Haemophilus influenzae serotype f. In addition to treatment with IV antibiotics, the patient underwent immunocompetency studies, which were normal. Subsequent follow-up revealed eradication of the infection. Conclusions. Haemophilus influenzae non-type b may cause serious invasive infections such as sepsis or septic arthritis in children with or without predisposing factors such as immunodeficiency or asplenia. Optimal treatment includes surgical management, culture driven IV antibiotics, and an immunologic workup.

  17. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the pancreatic head – a case report of a 6 months old child and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomazic, Ales; Gvardijancic, Diana; Maucec, Joze; Homan, Matjaz

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are rare in the pediatric population. Most common localizations were reported in the lungs. A localization in the pancreas needs differentiation from other tumors and chronic pancreatitis. Treatment is surgical resection, although there are reports of treatment with oral steroids and radiation therapy. A 6-month-old child was treated due to a tumor in the head of the pancreas. On admission he was jaundiced with pruritus. US and MRI confirmed pancreatic tumor. Preoperative biopsy wasn’t conclusive regarding the nature of the tumor. Duodenopancreatectomy was performed. Postoperative course was uneventful. Histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. On follow up, he remained with no evidence of recurrence. A literature review revealed 10 cases of pancreatic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors in the pediatric age group. Our patient is the youngest reported. Despite major resection, there were no complications. However, management of this child might be possible with steroids, but conservative treatment might be insufficient, especially in aggressive forms of tumors

  18. [Demography and labor shortage. Future challenges of labor market policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, J

    2013-03-01

    For demographic reasons, the German labor force will decrease dramatically and it will be much older on average. However, labor demand, especially for qualified workers, is expected to remain high. This paper focuses on the possibilities of expanding the labor force by increasing the participation rates of women and older persons. Herein, the change in the labor force is decomposed with respect to population and labor participation and, moreover, the effects of higher participation rates are simulated. The decomposition and simulation scenarios are based on data published by the Institute for Employment Research. The analysis clearly reveals that the effect of a considerably higher labor participation of women and older workers will disappear over time when the working-age population shrinks more and more. In addition, individuals who are currently unemployed or out of the labor force are not skilled enough. Since it seems difficult to get more qualified workers in the short and even in the medium term, improving the conditions for women and older people to take up jobs should be tackled soon. This includes investments in education and health care.

  19. Child labor in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegmann David

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a report on child labor in the U.S. that reviewed the positive and negative aspects of work for youth. Working was found to provide young people with valuable lessons about responsibility, punctuality, interacting with people and learning about money management, increasing self-esteem and helping them become independent and skilled. Research findings suggested that working during high school may contribute to increased rates of employment and better wages up to a decade after high school completion. Research concerning the hazards associated with work indicated that, each year, tens of thousands of young people are seen in hospital emergency departments for work-related injuries, hundreds require hospitalization, and more than 70 die of work-related injuries. Long work hours during the school year were associated with problem behaviors. The report points out some important questions: updating regulations on allowable work hours, eliminating less stringent regulation of agricultural work, revising outdated rules against hazardous work, developing and implementing a comprehensive plan for monitoring the injuries, illnesses, and hazards, building workplace health and safety information into school-based programs, and developing criteria for designating "commendable workplaces for youth."

  20. 29 CFR 1978.110 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Labor, shall not be subject to judicial review in any criminal or other civil proceedings (49 U.S.C... law judge, shall be transmitted by the Administrative Review Board, United States Department of Labor... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 1978.110 Section 1978.110 Labor...

  1. LABOR SUBSTITUTABILITY IN LABOR INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN THE PRESENCE OF FOREIGN LABOR

    OpenAIRE

    Napasintuwong, Orachos; Emerson, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    The Morishima elasticity of substitution (MES) is estimated to address factor substitutability in Florida agriculture during 1960-1999. By adopting a profit maximization model of induced innovation theory, the MES's between hired and self-employed labor and the MES's between labor and capital provide implications for future immigration policies.

  2. A Select Bibliography of Books on Labor Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography of 90 books on labor issues presents selections in the following areas: labor history, biographies, contemporary issues, labor economics and labor relations, labor law, labor unions, women and work, and reference books. (DB)

  3. Testing the Effectiveness of Therapeutic Showering in Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Mary Ann

    : Therapeutic showering is a holistic nursing intervention that is often available and supports physiologic labor. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of therapeutic showering with usual care during active labor. Research questions were as follows: Are there significant differences between women who showered 30 minutes during active labor and those who received usual labor care in anxiety, tension, relaxation, pain, discomfort, and coping? Is there a difference in use of obstetric interventions between groups? A convenience sample of healthy low-risk women in active labor was recruited (N = 32). A pretest posttest control group repeated-measures design was used. Participants were randomized to treatment group (n = 17), who showered for 30 minutes, or to control group (n = 14) who received usual labor care. Women evaluated pain, discomfort, anxiety, tension, coping, and relaxation at enrollment, again 15 minutes after entering the shower or receiving usual care, then again 30 minutes after entering the shower or receiving usual care. Chart reviews after delivery recorded obstetric interventions. The showering group had statistically significant decreases in pain, discomfort, anxiety and tension, and significant increase in relaxation. There were no differences in use of obstetric interventions. Therapeutic showering was effective in reducing pain, discomfort, anxiety, and tension while improving relaxation and supporting labor in this sample.

  4. Labor force activity after 60

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Larsen, Mona

    2015-01-01

    of reference. Main emphasis is given to the development in two distint age groups, i.e. people in the first half of the 60s of which many are eligible for early retirement programs and people older than 65 mostly eligible for social security retirement programs. For these two age groups the actual development...... in labor force participation is described based on register data and on labor force surveys along with indicators of cohort relevant changes in education and health. Focus in the paper includes also the gender aspect to accommodate stronger cohort effects for women than for men. The impact on labor force...

  5. Structural Change Out of Agriculture: Labor Push versus Labor Pull

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Alvarez-Cuadrado; Markus Poschke

    2011-01-01

    The process of economic development is characterized by substantial rural-urban migrations and a decreasing share of agriculture in output and employment. The literature highlights two main engines behind this process of structural change: (i) improvements in agricultural technology combined with the effect of Engel's law of demand push resources out of the agricultural sector (the "labor push" hypothesis), and (ii) improvements in industrial technology attract labor into this sector (the "la...

  6. Child Labor in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Eric V. Edmonds; Nina Pavcnik

    2005-01-01

    Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.

  7. Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Pain Relief during Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Tournaire

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluated the effect of complementary and alternative medicine on pain during labor with conventional scientific methods using electronic data bases through 2006 were used. Only randomized controlled trials with outcome measures for labor pain were kept for the conclusions. Many studies did not meet the scientific inclusion criteria. According to the randomized control trials, we conclude that for the decrease of labor pain and/or reduction of the need for conventional analgesic methods: (i There is an efficacy found for acupressure and sterile water blocks. (ii Most results favored some efficacy for acupuncture and hydrotherapy. (iii Studies for other complementary or alternative therapies for labor pain control have not shown their effectiveness.

  8. Survey of Labor Economics Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Nan L.

    1985-01-01

    Labor economics textbooks for use with college students were surveyed. Information concerning intended audience, content, and teaching aids is provided for each text. Criteria used in evaluating the texts is provided. (RM)

  9. Smoking, Labor, & Delivery: It's Complicated

    Science.gov (United States)

    You probably have mixed feelings about going into labor. On one hand, bringing a new life into the world is really exciting. On the other, it can be really scary to have a baby, especially if this is your first child. Unfortunately, it can be even scarier if you smoke. Research shows that smoking during pregnancy can lead to serious complications for you and your baby during labor and delivery.

  10. A Labor Supply Elasticity Accord?

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Ljungqvist; Thomas J. Sargent

    2011-01-01

    A dispute about the size of the aggregate labor supply elasticity has been fortified by a contentious aggregation theory used by real business cycle theorists. The replacement of that aggregation theory with one more congenial to microeconomic observations opens possibilities for an accord about the aggregate labor supply elasticity. The new aggregation theory drops features to which empirical microeconomists objected and replaces them with life-cycle choices. Whether the new aggregation theo...

  11. Labor Supply and Optimization Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jakob Egholt

    In this paper I investigate the nature of optimization frictions by studying the labor market of Danish students. This particular labor market is an interesting case study as it features a range of special institutional settings that affect students’ incentive to earn income and comparing outcomes...... theory. More concretely I find the dominate optimization friction to be individuals’ inattention about their earnings during the year, while real adjustment cost and gradual learning appears to be of less importance....

  12. School Attendance and Child Labor in Ecuador. Policy Research Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gloria

    Data from Ecuador's Living Standard and Measurement Surveys were used to analyze the characteristics and determinants of child labor and schooling. Of particular interest was the influence of adult wages on child labor. Survey data on children aged 10-17 included sex, age, rural or urban residence, monthly wages, whether or not attending school,…

  13. 78 FR 13088 - National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ....S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S... meeting is to discuss the implementation of the labor provisions of Free Trade Agreements, as well as a... implementation of the labor provisions of Free Trade Agreements, and a review and discussion by the full...

  14. Satisfaction with care in labor and birth: a survey of 790 Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S; Lumley, J

    1994-03-01

    Data on satisfaction with care in labor and birth were gathered in a survey conducted in conjunction with a review of maternity services in Victoria, Australia. All women who gave birth in one week in 1989 (> 1000) were mailed questionnaires eight to nine months after the birth, with a response rate of 790 (71.4%). When adjusted for parity in a logistic regression model, the following factors were highly related to dissatisfaction with intrapartum care: lack of involvement in decision making (p maternal age, marital status, total family income, country of birth, or health insurance status. The survey results were influential in shaping final recommendations of the Ministerial Review of Birthing Services by countering stereotypes about women who become dissatisfied with their care, providing evidence of far greater dissatisfaction with intrapartum than antenatal care, and demonstrating the importance of information, participation in decision making, and relationships with caregivers to women's overall satisfaction with intrapartum care.

  15. 77 FR 9267 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ...), established a new eligibility criterion for receipt of trade benefits under the Generalized System of... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION... information and/or comment on reports issued by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) October 3...

  16. 76 FR 22921 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... trade benefits under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), Caribbean Basin Trade and Partnership... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION... information and/or comment on reports issued by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) on December...

  17. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  18. Child Labor, Learning Problems, and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In Africa, approximately 80 million children are working. Africa's 41% child labor rate is nearly twice as high as that in Asia. This study examined whether child labor is a direct result of poverty or of reading and math problems in school. The study analyzed reading and math scores of 62 child laborers and 62 non-child laborers from a farming…

  19. Tax Policy and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    In exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models.The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other labor-market

  20. Five shared decision-making tools in 5 months: use of rapid reviews to develop decision boxes for seniors living with dementia and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawani, Moulikatou Adouni; Valéra, Béatriz; Fortier-Brochu, Émilie; Légaré, France; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Côté, Luc; Voyer, Philippe; Kröger, Edeltraut; Witteman, Holly; Rodriguez, Charo; Giguere, Anik M C

    2017-03-15

    Decision support tools build upon comprehensive and timely syntheses of literature. Rapid reviews may allow supporting their development by omitting certain components of traditional systematic reviews. We thus aimed to describe a rapid review approach underlying the development of decision support tools, i.e., five decision boxes (DB) for shared decision-making between seniors living with dementia, their caregivers, and healthcare providers. We included studies based on PICO questions (Participant, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) describing each of the five specific decision. We gave priority to higher quality evidence (e.g., systematic reviews). For each DB, we first identified secondary sources of literature, namely, clinical summaries, clinical practice guidelines, and systematic reviews. After an initial extraction, we searched for primary studies in academic databases and grey literature to fill gaps in evidence. We extracted study designs, sample sizes, populations, and probabilities of benefits/harms of the health options. A single reviewer conducted the literature search and study selection. The data extracted by one reviewer was verified by a second experienced reviewer. Two reviewers assessed the quality of the evidence. We converted all probabilities into absolute risks for ease of understanding. Two to five experts validated the content of each DB. We conducted descriptive statistical analyses on the review processes and resources required. The approach allowed screening of a limited number of references (range: 104 to 406/review). For each review, we included 15 to 26 studies, 2 to 10 health options, 11 to 62 health outcomes and we conducted 9 to 47 quality assessments. A team of ten reviewers with varying levels of expertise was supported at specific steps by an information specialist, a biostatistician, and a graphic designer. The time required to complete a rapid review varied from 7 to 31 weeks per review (mean ± SD, 19 ± 10

  1. CHILD LABOR ABUSE: LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhoshev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Remifentanil as an Alternative Labor Analgesic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Devabhakthuni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of remifentanil in the management of labor pain. Although neuraxial analgesia is the best option during labor, alternative analgesic options are needed for patients with contraindications. Using a systematic literature search, clinical outcomes of remifentanil for labor pain have been summarized. Also, comparisons of remifentanil to other options including meperidine, epidural analgesia, fentanyl, and nitrous oxide are provided. Based on the literature review, remifentanil is associated with high overall maternal satisfaction and favorable side-effect profile. However, due to the low reporting of adverse events, large, randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate maternal and neonatal safety adequately and determine the optimal dosing needed to provide effective analgesia. While remifentanil is a feasible alternative for patients who cannot or do not want to receive epidural analgesia, administration should be monitored closely for potential adverse effects.

  3. A Theory of Exploitative Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Ann Rogers; Kenneth A. Swinnerton

    2003-01-01

    Child labor laws should aim to protect children who work, instead of trying to remove children from work. In this paper, we identify an instance when the risk of exploitation lowers the expected bene…t of child labor to the child,and therefore suppresses child labor force participation. Targeted legal intervention that lowers or removes the risk of exploitation raises child participation in the labor market, child welfare, and overall societal welfare. Targeting on child labor more broadly ma...

  4. Emotional labor in nursing praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel da Silva Vilelas

    Full Text Available Healthcare work is, by nature, an activity full of intense emotions and therefore, is opportune ground for exploring emotions in the workplace in different contexts of nursing care. It is a very fertile terrain if care is focused on the emotions of the client, nurses, healthcare teams, and on the interaction of all actors involved. This article presents a theoretical reflection exploring the concept of emotional labor in the context of nursing care. Theoretical references from several fields of knowledge, namely sociology and nursing, have been adopted to conceptualize the theme. Studies on emotional labor have contributed toward the understanding of the key issue of emotional management in healthcare institutions and both its positive and negative impact on clients and professionals. The development of the theme of emotional labor in nursing has given rise to numerous theoretical approaches and perspectives explaining this concept.

  5. 76 FR 67104 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY... child labor regulations published on September 2, 2011. The Department of Labor (Department or DOL) is...

  6. Labor Economics and Sociology of Labor: Demarkation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Lebedev

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with important economic and sociological problems taking into account their relevance to economics and sociology of labor as two independent sciences. The author suggests some demarcation boundaries of the concepts relevant to contemporary life within these two disciplines.

  7. Clandestine labor migration to Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, C

    1992-01-01

    "Illegal migration to Taiwan is a recent phenomenon but with a rapid rate of increase. Most illegal foreign workers enter on visitor's visas and overstay. This paper's detailed analysis of official data reveals that Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand are the major sources, providing a stock of mostly male workers numbering around 40,000. Sociodemographic and attitudinal changes among Taiwanese workers coupled with labor shortages in low-skilled jobs are pressuring the Taiwanese government to formulate plans for a systematic importation of foreign labor." excerpt

  8. Class, Race and American Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Collomp

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Labor history in the United States is well‑chartered territory. It is the object of countless scholarly books, appears in many college and university curricula and it is the subject of on‑going revisions and debates. Although labor history has always implied a form of at least implicit social commitment, it has been commented upon and written about as abundantly as other aspects of social history and often with more stamina or vindication. Nineteenth and early twentieth‑century working class ...

  9. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  10. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the US labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  11. Hypnotherapy for labor and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Kathleen R

    2014-01-01

    Hypnotherapy is an integrative mind-body technique with therapeutic potential in various health care applications, including labor and birth. Evaluating the efficacy of this modality in controlled studies can be difficult, because of methodologic challenges, such as obtaining adequate sample sizes and standardizing experimental conditions. Women using hypnosis techniques for childbirth in hospital settings may face barriers related to caregiver resistance or institutional policies. The potential anxiolytic and analgesic effects of clinical hypnosis for childbirth merit further study. Nurses caring for women during labor and birth can increase their knowledge and skills with strategies for supporting hypnotherapeutic techniques. © 2014 AWHONN.

  12. [Adapting to a shortage of labor beyond the year 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, D; Marchand, O

    1991-05-01

    Future labor force trends in France are reviewed. The impact of these trends on the current disequilibrium between job supply and demand is assessed. Factors considered include increases in immigration, extension of working life, female employment, and increased productivity. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  13. 29 CFR 2570.99 - Review by the Secretary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review by the Secretary. 2570.99 Section 2570.99 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... ERISA Section 502(c)(5) § 2570.99 Review by the Secretary. (a) The Secretary may review a decision of an...

  14. 77 FR 31549 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY... its [[Page 31550

  15. 75 FR 49508 - Recovery Policy, RP9525.7, Labor Costs-Emergency Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ...] Recovery Policy, RP9525.7, Labor Costs--Emergency Work AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS... (FEMA) is accepting comments on RP9525.7, Labor Costs--Emergency Work. This is an existing policy that is scheduled for review to ensure that Recovery Directorate policies are up to date, incorporate...

  16. A global strategy for labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faux, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    The rules of the global market were established to protect the interests of investors at the expense of workers and they shift benefits to investors, costs to workers. Globalization is measured by the interests of investors. But 20 years of investor protectionism show that growth has slowed and equality has gotten worse. The purpose of neo-liberal policies has been to discipline labor to free capital from having to bargain with workers over gains from rising productivity. But such bargaining is the essence of a democratic market. Uncontrolled globalization puts government's domestic policies on the side of capital. In an economy whose growth depends on foreign markets, rising domestic wages make it harder to compete internationally. There has been a general deterioration of labor's position relative to capital's. A global marketplace implies a global politics, and the real work happens when representatives of multi-national business privately negotiate the rules. Labor must change the framework in which the investor class pursues its interest across borders, while workers are constricted by borders. Labor unions are critical; they can deny the human resource necessary for profits. The strike is the ultimate threat to investors. One solution: a "grand bargain" linking development with broadly increased living standards connected to planning for sustainable development to create a global social contract. Workers have advantages: they are the majority and they are indispensable.

  17. Seven Important Labor Force Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents statistics on the changing human resources mix in the labor force, which vocational counselors should be aware of. Trends include higher percentages of women working, and older men and married men leaving the work force. One result is an increasing number of persons are able to retire earlier. (JAC)

  18. Neuraxial analgesia effects on labor progression: facts, fallacies, uncertainties, and the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Erica N.; Tao, Weike; Craig, Margaret; McIntire, Donald; Leveno, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 60% of women who labor receive some form of neuraxial analgesia, but concerns have been raised regarding whether it negatively impacts the labor and delivery process. In this review, we attempt to clarify what has been established as truths, falsities, and uncertainties regarding the effects of this form of pain relief on labor progression, negative and/or positive. Additionally, although the term “epidural” has become synonymous with neuraxial analgesia, we discuss two other techniques, combined spinal-epidural and continuous spinal analgesia, that are gaining popularity, as well as their effects on labor progression. PMID:25088476

  19. Cervical length screening for prevention of preterm birth in singleton pregnancy with threatened preterm labor: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials using individual patient-level data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghella, V; Palacio, M; Ness, A; Alfirevic, Z; Nicolaides, K H; Saccone, G

    2017-03-01

    Cervical length screening by transvaginal sonography (TVS) has been shown to be a good predictive test for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) in symptomatic singleton pregnancy with threatened preterm labor (PTL). The aim of this review and meta-analysis of individual participant data was to evaluate the effect of knowledge of the TVS cervical length (CL) in preventing PTB in singleton pregnancies presenting with threatened PTL. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register and the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field's Trials Register (May 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria included randomized controlled trials of singleton gestations with threatened PTL randomized to management based mainly on CL screening (intervention group), or CL screening with no knowledge of results or no CL screening (control group). Participants included women with singleton gestations at 23 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks with threatened PTL. We contacted corresponding authors of included trials to request access to the data and perform a meta-analysis of individual participant data. Data provided by the investigators were merged into a master database constructed specifically for the review. The primary outcome was PTB DE PARTO PREMATURO: REVISIÓN SISTEMÁTICA Y METAANÁLISIS DE ENSAYOS CONTROLADOS ALEATORIZADOS HACIENDO USO DE LOS DATOS INDIVIDUALES DE LAS PACIENTES: RESUMEN OBJETIVO: El cribado mediante la longitud cervical obtenida con ecografía transvaginal (ETV) ha demostrado ser una buena prueba para la predicción del parto pretérmino espontáneo (PPTE) en embarazos con feto único sintomáticos debido a la amenaza de parto pretérmino (PPT). El objetivo de esta revisión y metaanálisis de los datos de participantes individuales fue evaluar el efecto de medir la longitud cervical (LC) mediante ETV con el fin de prevenir el parto prematuro en embarazos únicos con amenaza de PPT. MÉTODOS: Se realizaron búsquedas en los ficheros

  20. The political economy of child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Maffei, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of child labor is widespread in developing countries and emotionally discussed in the media and public. At present there is a well-developed and fast growing economic literature on child labor which covers the various aspects of child labor. In the first part of the thesis we give a survey about the facts, the institutions and the economic literature dealing with child labor. The economic theory of child labor can be roughly subdivided into the economic theory of child labor i...

  1. Labor Market Trends for Health Physicists through 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This report reviews past, current, and projected future labor market trends for health physicists through 2005. Information is provided on degrees granted, available supply of new graduates, employment, job openings for new graduates, and salaries. Job openings for new graduates are compared to the available supply of new graduates to assess relative job opportunities in the health physics labor market. The report is divided into three sections: trends during 1983-1993, trends during the mid-1990s, and projected trends for 1997 through 2005

  2. Emotion regulation in the workplace: a new way to conceptualize emotional labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandey, A A

    2000-01-01

    The topic of emotions in the workplace is beginning to garner closer attention by researchers and theorists. The study of emotional labor addresses the stress of managing emotions when the work role demands that certain expressions be shown to customers. However, there has been no overarching framework to guide this work, and the previous studies have often disagreed on the definition and operationalization of emotional labor. The purposes of this article are as follows: to review and compare previous perspectives of emotional labor, to provide a definition of emotional labor that integrates these perspectives, to discuss emotion regulation as a guiding theory for understanding the mechanisms of emotional labor, and to present a model of emotional labor that includes individual differences (such as emotional intelligence) and organizational factors (such as supervisor support).

  3. Labor Dystocia: A Common Approach to Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jeremy L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Holley, Sharon L; Ryan, Sharon L; Buxton, Margaret; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary labor and birth population norms should be the basis for evaluating labor progression and determining slow progress that may benefit from intervention. The aim of this article is to present guidelines for a common, evidence-based approach for determination of active labor onset and diagnosis of labor dystocia based on a synthesis of existing professional guidelines and relevant contemporary publications. A 3-point approach for diagnosing active labor onset and classifying labor dystocia-related labor aberrations into well-defined, mutually exclusive categories that can be used clinically and validated by researchers is proposed. The approach comprises identification of 1) an objective point that strictly defines active labor onset (point of active labor determination); 2) an objective point that identifies when labor progress becomes atypical, beyond which interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia may be justified (point of protraction diagnosis); and 3) an objective point that identifies when interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia, if used, can first be determined to be unsuccessful, beyond which assisted vaginal or cesarean birth may be justified (earliest point of arrest diagnosis). Widespread adoption of a common approach for diagnosing labor dystocia will facilitate consistent evaluation of labor progress, improve communications between clinicians and laboring women, indicate when intervention aimed at speeding labor progress or facilitating birth may be appropriate, and allow for more efficient translation of safe and effective management strategies into clinical practice. Correct application of the diagnosis of labor dystocia may lead to a decrease in the rate of cesarean birth, decreased health care costs, and improved health of childbearing women and neonates. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  4. Unilateral gynaecomastia in a 16-month-old boy with neurofibromatosis type 1 – case report and brief review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich, Reinhard E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 is an autosomal dominant disease that shows high penetrance with a wide variability in the phenotype. Pre enlargement of the breast in male subjects affected by this condition is well known, but rarely reported. The present case report describes diagnosis and therapy of unilateral gynaecomastia in a toddler showing integumental stigmata of NF1. Furthermore, the report provides a brief review of the literature concerning this finding in NF1. According to this review, the present case appears to be one of the youngest NF1-affected males affected by gynaecomastia that has been reported.

  5. Labor Market Characteristics and the Labor Force Participation of Individuals,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    dependent variable are well-known and range from frequent uninterpretability of results to bias in statistical tests (see, e.g., Hanushek and Jackson...shown that logit and probit analysis yield almost identical results near the means of relevant variables ( Hanushek and Jackson, 1977: 188- 189). We choose...general and lucid treatment of these and related points, see Hanushek and Jackson (1977:Ch. 7). Step 2: Analysis of labor market impact on individual

  6. Management of preterm labor: atosiban or nifedipine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel de Heus

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Roel de Heus, Eduard J H Mulder, Gerard H A VisserDepartment of Woman and Baby, University Medical Centre Utrecht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Preterm birth is strongly associated with neonatal death and long-term neurological morbidity. The purpose of tocolytic drug administration is to postpone threatening preterm delivery for 48 hours to allow maximal effect of antenatal corticosteroids and maternal transportation to a center with specialized neonatal care facilities. There is uncertainty about the value of atosiban (oxytocin receptor antagonist and nifedipine (calcium channel blocker as first-line tocolytic drugs in the management of preterm labor. For nifedipine, concerns have been raised about unproven safety, lack of placebo-controlled trials, and its off-label use. The tocolytic efficacy of atosiban has also been questioned because of a lack of reduction in neonatal morbidity. This review discusses the available evidence, the pros and cons of either drug and aims to provide information to support a balanced choice of first-line tocolytic drug: atosiban or nifedipine?Keywords: atosiban, oxytocin receptor antagonist, nifedipine, calcium channel blocker, preterm birth, tocolytic drugs, preterm labor

  7. 29 CFR 215.8 - Department of Labor contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Department of Labor contact. 215.8 Section 215.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GUIDELINES, SECTION 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.8 Department of Labor contact. Questions concerning the subject...

  8. 77 FR 70473 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... 106- 200 (2002), established a new eligibility criterion for receipt of trade benefits under the... of benefits under CBTPA and AGOA, respectively. In addition, the Andean Trade Preference Act, as... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION...

  9. How HANDy Are Baby Signs? A Systematic Review of the Impact of Gestural Communication on Typically Developing, Hearing Infants under the Age of 36 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Thibert, Jonelle; Grandpierre, Viviane; Johnston, J. Cyne

    2014-01-01

    Baby sign language is advocated to improve children's communication development. However, the evidence to support the advantages of baby sign has been inconclusive. A systematic review was undertaken to summarize and appraise the research related to the effectiveness of symbolic gestures for typically developing, hearing infants with hearing…

  10. Failed labor induction: toward an objective diagnosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rouse, Dwight J

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes in women undergoing labor induction with an unfavorable cervix according to duration of oxytocin administration in the latent phase of labor after ruptured membranes.

  11. International Labor Organization's 75th Anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansenne, Michel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This special issue contains eight articles that examine the following: social justice, global employment issues, International Labor Organization (ILO) standards, social security, training, tripartism, the 1994 ILO conference, and labor standards--all from a global perspective. (JOW)

  12. Performance Related Pay and Labor Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.; Kerkhofs, M.J.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labor productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP).We find that PRP increases labor productivity at the firm level with about 9%.

  13. "A Welcome Debate" over Labor Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Cat

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Wilma B. Liebman, the new chair of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). In this interview, Liebman talks about labor law, academics, and reversing ossification.

  14. Water Breaking: Understand This Sign of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Labor and delivery, postpartum care Water breaking worries? Prepare yourself for childbirth by getting the facts about this important sign of labor. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're ...

  15. Epidural Analgesia and Fever at Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. M. Shifman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of labor fever under epidural analgesia (EA and to evaluate its impact on the courses of puerperium and early neonatality. Subjects and methods. The paper presents the data of a prospective study of the course of labor, puerperium, and early neonatality in 397 women in whom labors occurred at the Republican Peritoneal Center in 2006. A study group included 324 parturients in whom labor pain was relieved by EA. A comparison group comprised 55 parturients in whom no analgesics were used at labor. Results. There were no significant statistical differences between the groups in the incidence of labor fever and complicated puerperium and in that of neonatal pyoseptic diseases. Key words: labor hyperthermia, epidural analgesia, labor pain relief.

  16. The size of the labor wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milland, Maria; Christoffersen, Jens; Hedegaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    To assess possible associations between the size of labor units and the frequency of approved obstetric claims.......To assess possible associations between the size of labor units and the frequency of approved obstetric claims....

  17. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.

    2011-12-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  18. Labor Unions and Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Addessi, William

    The paper investigates the nexus between labor and financial markets, focusing on the interaction between labor union behavior in setting wages, firms' investment strategy and asset prices. The way unions set wage claims after observing firm's financial performance increases the volatility of firms......' returns and the riskiness of corporate ownership. To remunerate this higher volatility and stronger risk, firms' equities have to grant high return. This mechanism is able to offer an explanation of for the "equity puzzle", that is it can explain the difference between equity returns and the risk free...... rate. It is a welcome result that the simulated excess return is about the empirical estimate and this result is obtained with a logarithmic specification of the shareholders preferences....

  19. Bleeding Meckel’s diverticulum in a 4-month-old infant: Treatment with laparoscopic diverticulectomy. A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rainer Poley

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available J Rainer Poley1, Thomas E Thielen2, Jeffrey C Pence31Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition; 2Resident in Pediatrics; 3Assistant Professor of Surgery and Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Surgery, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USAAbstract: A bleeding Meckel’s diverticulum is presented in a 4-month-old African American infant. This event is rare at this age, and our patient is only the second 4-month-old infant reported in the English literature. The infant presented with painless frank rectal bleeding, the blood being maroon-colored, and clots were found in the diaper. There was also anemia, with an hemoglobin of less than 8 gm/dl. The color of the blood suggested a bleeding site in the ileocecal region, a Meckel’s diverticulum was suspected, which was then confirmed by an isotope scan. A typical Meckel’s diverticulum was found on laparoscopic surgery, was excised, and the infant made an uneventful recovery. Keywords: infant-bleeding Meckel’s diverticulum, laparoscopic diverticulectomy

  20. Indonesian Labor Reform Since 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Uwiyono, Aloysius

    2008-01-01

    The development of labor law in the world essentially influenced by the newest models in industrial relations in each county. In general, there are two models, Corporatist Model/Regulatory Model and Contractual Model. The first model frequently meets in the countries whose use the civil law like France, Netherlands, Germany, and Indonesia, while the second model frequently meet in common law countries like the United States of America's, England, Australia, and Malaysia. Based on the two theo...

  1. Mercado de trabalho: revendo conceitos e aproximando o campo da saúde. A década de 90 em destaque Labor market: reviewing concepts and bringing the health field together. A view on the 1990's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza Christina Varella

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o mercado de trabalho em saúde, em comparação com o mercado de trabalho brasileiro em geral. Apresenta inicialmente uma aproximação teórica sobre o tema, para sustentar o debate. Discute as características do mercado de trabalho em geral, buscando evidenciar se o quadro de desestruturação e desregulamentação verificado pode, em parte, ser reflexivo na configuração do setor saúde. Evidencia um movimento migratório de empregos públicos da esfera federal para a municipal, e também que, na década de 90, sobretudo o setor público se valeu de modalidades mais flexíveis para a contratação de profissionais de saúde.This paper analyzes health labor market in comparison with Brazilian labor market in general. It first presents a theoretical study on the subject, to support debate. The characteristics of the labor market in general are discussed, in an effort to evince if the current stage of lack of structuring measures and of regulation can, in part, be reflected on the configuration of the health sector. It evinces a migratory movement of public jobs from the federal sphere to the municipal one, and shows that, in the 1990's, the health public sector made use of more flexible modalities to recruit health professionals.

  2. 10 CFR 440.19 - Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labor. 440.19 Section 440.19 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.19 Labor. Payments for labor... supplement wages paid to training participants, public service employment workers, or other Federal or State...

  3. 22 CFR 901.19 - Labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labor organization. 901.19 Section 901.19 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.19 Labor organization. Labor organization means any employee organization accorded recognition as the...

  4. Department of Labor Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... reduce or eliminate the amount of diacetyl in some kinds of flavorings, foods, and beverages. They have.... Hilda L. Solis, Secretary of Labor. Office of Labor-Management Standards--Proposed Rule Stage Regulation... in part II of this issue of the Federal Register. Office of Labor-Management Standards--Completed...

  5. John R. Commons: Pioneer in Labor Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack

    1989-01-01

    John R. Commons has contributed in one way or another to pratically every piece of social and labor legislation that has been enacted in the twentieth century. He has made his mark on such diverse aspects of American labor as apprenticeship, vocational education, workers' compensation, and the administration of labor law. (Author/JOW)

  6. Conceptual problems of the intellectual labor economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Lebedev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the detailed analysis of the intellectual labor and takes into account theoretical and practical aspects of the intellectual labor economics in the transition to the information society. The author describes the nature, specific features, content, structure and the bases for classification of the intellectual labor.

  7. Tax policy and labor market performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models. The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other

  8. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  9. Intersectoral labor mobility and deforestation in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owusu, V.; Yerfi Fosu, K.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper quantifies the effects of the determinants of intersectoral labor mobility and the effect of intersectoral labor mobility on deforestation in Ghana over the period 1970–2008. A cointegration and error correction modeling approach is employed. The empirical results show that labor mobility

  10. 23 CFR 140.906 - Labor costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor costs. 140.906 Section 140.906 Highways FEDERAL... Railroad Work § 140.906 Labor costs. (a) General. (1) Salaries and wages, at actual or average rates, and... reimbursable when supported by adequate records. This shall include labor costs associated with preliminary...

  11. Early Smoking, Education, and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market

  12. Age-specific labor market dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.

    2008-01-01

    One important finding concerns the fact that job separations for older workers constitute mostly a one-way exit out of the labor force, despite the fact that an ageing society calls for an active labor market participation from us all. Also, the allocation of labor for younger workers has shown to

  13. 24 CFR 92.354 - Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor. 92.354 Section 92.354... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.354 Labor. (a) General. (1) Every contract... prevailing in the locality, as predetermined by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U...

  14. Theories of international labor migration: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, C W

    1995-01-01

    "Emigration pressures are primarily the result of increasing inequalities between countries which, in turn, are the result of factors internal to less developed countries and their relations with developed countries. Both micro (neoclassical) and macrostructural theories of migration are reviewed. It is argued that the neoclassical theory of migration is often unjustly criticized and is sufficiently robust to incorporate those structural considerations which are at the core of macrostructural theories. Moreover, the neoclassical theory, with slight modification, can incorporate the ¿new economics of migration.' The major empirical problem confronting models of international labor migration is that migration flows are constrained by immigration policy. This policy, in turn, is influenced by various special interest groups. The direction and form of migration flows is conditioned by contemporary and historical relationships between source and destination countries." excerpt

  15. Management of preterm labor: atosiban or nifedipine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heus, Roel; Mulder, Eduard J H; Visser, Gerard H A

    2010-08-09

    Preterm birth is strongly associated with neonatal death and long-term neurological morbidity. The purpose of tocolytic drug administration is to postpone threatening preterm delivery for 48 hours to allow maximal effect of antenatal corticosteroids and maternal transportation to a center with specialized neonatal care facilities. There is uncertainty about the value of atosiban (oxytocin receptor antagonist) and nifedipine (calcium channel blocker) as first-line tocolytic drugs in the management of preterm labor. For nifedipine, concerns have been raised about unproven safety, lack of placebo-controlled trials, and its off-label use. The tocolytic efficacy of atosiban has also been questioned because of a lack of reduction in neonatal morbidity. This review discusses the available evidence, the pros and cons of either drug and aims to provide information to support a balanced choice of first-line tocolytic drug: atosiban or nifedipine?

  16. 77 FR 20054 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: May 14...

  17. 76 FR 31641 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: June 28...

  18. 75 FR 78758 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: January...

  19. Not by Labor Alone: Considerations for Value Influence Use of the Labor Rule in Ownership Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Hood, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    People often assign ownership to the person who has invested labor into making an object (labor rule). However, labor usually improves objects and increases their value, and it has not been investigated whether these considerations underlie people's use of the labor rule. We presented participants with third-party ownership conflicts between…

  20. The emergency and delay management in total talus extrusion: Case report and review of literature after 24 months of follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Piscitelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Total talus extrusion is a rare and severe injury. It is burdened by many complications as avascular necrosis and osteomyelitis even if a proper debridement of extruded talus is performed. Few case reports or case series were published, and because of the rarity of this event, there are no guidelines for treatment. We report the first case on an octogenarian man providing a long-term follow-up performing contrast enhanced magnetic resonances. The authors report the case of an octogenarian man who fell from an olive tree reporting a total talus extrusion associated with the fracture of the medial malleolus. After an accurate debridement and washing of the wound, the talus was anatomically repositioned and the fracture was treated with an external fixator. The wound healed with difficulty after 12 months and the patient developed a chronic osteomyelitis of the talar dome and avascular necrosis of talar head. We followed the patient for 24 months performing contrast enhanced magnetic resonances and evaluating the development of the avascular necrosis. Even if we encountered these complications, the treatment allowed the patient to walk without pain, using a talus type shoe and one crutch. Although the literature suggests that an anatomic replacement of talus allows avoiding main complications, we deem that the patient's age is an important biological feature to consider in the prognostic stratification. Moreover, primary talectomy and tibio-calcaneal fusion should be reserved as a salvage procedure. Talus replacement allows an overall good outcome for the patients, retaining height, and allowing a good quality of life.

  1. Validity and efficacy of the labor contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Toyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The validity and efficacy of the labor contract as well as cases of nullity and defeasibility import an analysis of scopes of the supplementary application of Civil Code taking into account the peculiarities of Labor Law. Labor contract, while legal business has as regulatory framework to the regulations of Civil Code but it is necessary to determine, in each case, whether to apply fully this normative body, or modulate its supplemental application, or simply conclude that it doesn’t result compatible its regulation due to the special nature of labor relations. Specifically, this issue will be analyzed from cases of nullity and defeasibility of the labor contract.

  2. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2014-01-01

    The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor ...

  3. Virological success after 12 and 24 months of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: Comparing results of trials, cohorts and cross-sectional studies using a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taieb, Fabien; Madec, Yoann; Cournil, Amandine; Delaporte, Eric

    2017-01-01

    UNAIDS recently defined the 90-90-90 target as a way to end the HIV epidemic. However, the proportion of virological success following antiretroviral therapy (ART) may not be as high as the anticipated 90%, and may in fact be highly heterogeneous. We aimed to describe the proportion of virological success in sub-Saharan Africa and to identify factors associated with the proportion of virological success. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis focusing on the proportion of patients in sub-Saharan Africa who demonstrate virological success at 12 and 24 months since ART initiation, as well as at 6 and 36 months, where possible. Programme factors associated with the proportion of virological success were identified using meta-regression. Analyses were conducted using both on-treatment (OT) and intention-to-treat (ITT) approaches. Eighty-five articles were included in the meta-analysis, corresponding to 125 independent study populations. Using an on-treatment approach, the proportions (95% confidence interval (CI)) of virological success at 12 (n = 64) and at 24 (n = 32) months since ART initiation were 87.7% (81.3-91.0) and 83.7% (79.8-87.6), respectively. Univariate analysis indicated that the proportion of virological success was not different by study design. Multivariate analysis at 24 months showed that the proportion of virological success was significantly larger in studies conducted in public sector sites than in other sites (p = 0.045). Using an ITT approach, the proportions (95% CI) of virological success at 12 (n = 50) and at 24 (n = 20) months were 65.4% (61.8-69.1) and 56.8% (51.3-62.4), respectively. At 12 months, multivariate analysis showed that the proportion of success was significantly lower in cohort studies than in trials (63.0% vs. 71.1%; p = 0.017). At 24 months, univariate analysis demonstrated that the proportion of success was also lower in cohorts. Regardless of the time following ART initiation, and of the threshold, proportions

  4. 29 CFR 801.69 - Procedures for initiating review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for initiating review. 801.69 Section 801.69 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS... Vacation of Decision and Order of Administrative Law Judge § 801.69 Procedures for initiating review. (a...

  5. Consumo de alcohol y salud laboral: Revisión y líneas de actuación Alcohol consumption and occupational health: Review and lines of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriqueta Ochoa Mangado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alcohol tiene una elevada prevalencia en la sociedad en general, y también entre la población trabajadora, repercutiendo sobre el medio laboral. La repercusión del consumo de alcohol en el medio laboral es muy importante (enfermedades, accidentes laborales, absentismo, incapacidades laborales, disminución de la productividad.... Se describen los aspectos fundamentales de la psicofarmacología del alcohol, del diagnóstico de su dependencia y de los tratamientos para la dependencia de alcohol. Se valora la necesidad de una política en el medio laboral encaminada a prevenir o minimizar los riesgos laborales derivados del consumo de alcohol, con programas de prevención y apoyo que aporten información básica de referencia y orienten al abordaje asistencial de los trabajadores afectados.The consumption of alcohol and other drugs has high prevalence in the society in general, and in working population especially, affecting the occupational area. The repercussion of the consumption of these substances in the working environment is very important (diseases, occupational accidents, absenteeism, occupational disabilities, decrease of the productivity.... We describe the fundamental aspects of the psychopharmacology of alcohol, diagnosis of dependence and the treatment for alcohol dependence. Political measurements are necessary in the occupational area to prevent and minimize the risks derived from the consumption of these substances. Programs of prevention and support which offer basic information and orientation to the medical approach of the affected workers should be included.

  6. Indeterminacy and labor augmenting externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile; Goenka, Aditya

    2002-01-01

    In this two-sector discrete time model of endogenous economic growth intersectoral effects are assumed to be "labor augmenting" We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for local indeterminacy and multiplicity of the balanced growth path in terms of factor intensities in both sectors....... The balanced growth path is unique if the consumption good sector is more capital intensive. However, it can be indeterminate. When the investment good sector is more capital intensive a sufficient condition for indeterminacy is that there exists at least three balanced growth paths....

  7. Labor report 1997-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares

    1998-01-01

    In agreement with the disposition in the 93 rd Article of the Mexican United States Constitution Policy, the National Institute for Nuclear Research, which is directed as decentralized public organization of the Federal Government presents its labor report corresponding to the period 1997-1998. The Institution purpose is to perform research and development in the nuclear sciences and technology fields, as well as to promote the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy and divulging the advances reached for entailing them to the economic, social, scientific and technological development of the country. (Author)

  8. 29 CFR 552.108 - Child labor provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child labor provisions. 552.108 Section 552.108 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.108 Child labor provisions. Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child labor...

  9. 29 CFR 42.9 - Farm Labor Specialist (ESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). 42.9 Section 42.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.9 Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (a) The Assistant Secretary for ESA shall designate ESA Compliance Officers as Farm Labor Specialists (Specialists...

  10. Can we forget the Mini-Mental State Examination? A systematic review of the validity of cognitive screening instruments within one month after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heugten, Caroline M; Walton, L; Hentschel, U

    2015-07-01

    To review systematically studies investigating the convergent, criterion, and predictive validity of multi-domain cognitive screening instruments in the first four weeks after stroke. Electronic databases (Pubmed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase) were searched until June 2014. Studies concerning screening for cognitive dysfunction in stroke patients using multi-domain instruments, within four weeks postinfarct or haemorrhagic stroke, using tests taking no longer than one hour. Convergent, criterion, and predictive validity were examined. A total of 51 studies investigating 16 cognitive screening instruments were identified. None of the instruments covered all of the most affected cognitive domains. Only one study investigated the convergent validity of a multi-domain test during the (sub)acute phase after stroke. A total of 15 studies examined the criterion validity of cognitive measurements during the acute phase after stroke. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Higher Cortical Function Deficit Test had good criterion validity. A total of 24 studies examined the predictive ability of multi-domain cognitive instruments applied in the acute phase after stroke. The Cognistat, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Functional Independence Measure-cognitive showed good predictive validity. The Mini-Mental State Examination is the most widely used cognitive screening instrument, but shows insufficient criterion validity. None of the existing instruments fulfils all criteria. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment is the best candidate at present, provided items measuring speed of information processing are added, and further studies investigating the optimal cut-offs are conducted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. CASE REVIEW (Labor Law) | Fassil | Haramaya Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ethiopian labour law seemingly adopts the presumption of 'indefinite period' of engagement for all labour contracts. The burden is then on the employer to prove otherwise i.e. recruitments for definite period or piece work. This case comment drills on the effect of phaseout of project works on labour contract attached to it ...

  12. A global perspective on foreign contract labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, J E; Casco, R R

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview on foreign contract labor. The growth in the use of foreign contract labor is described with reference to other types of international labor movements such as 1) illegal, undocumented, or irregular migration; 2) free migration; and 3) permanent settlement migration. Within this general context, the various national advantages and disadvantages of contract labor are outlined. Particular issues like the role of trade unions and the likely future international labor circulation are noted. The 1984 World Labour Report estimates a global stock of almost 22 million foreign workers. Despite lack of reliable data, the size of irregular labor flows is considerable. More than 4 million undocumented workers, primarily Mexicans, can be found in the US alone. Other major flows of illegal labor go from China to Hong Kong, Malaysia to Singapore, Columbia to Venezuela, and poor Arab countries to oil-exporting countries in the Middle East. Laws are often poorly enforced and contradictory. Employers often actively recruit illegal migrants. While permanent migration was formerly the primary source of foreign workers, the numbers migrating in this manner are decreasing significantly. In absolute terms, host countries gain considerably more through the use of contract labor than sending countries. The pervasive commitment of national governments to economic growth is a prime consideration in the decision to import foreign labor. In general, trade unions have created an environment wherein the use of foreign labor in the formal as opposed to the informal labor market is more difficult. The disadvantages of labor export include the costs of family separation, worker exploitation, and cultural alienation. Remittances constitute the most tangible return of labor export. In many countries they have made a very considerable impact on the balance of payments deficit.

  13. Korean Emotional Laborers' Job Stressors and Relievers: Focus on Work Conditions and Emotional Labor Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Garam

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job stressors and relieving factors would be the first step in seeking alternatives to protect emotional laborers from those mental health risks. Using the third wave data of Korean Working Conditions Survey, logistic regression analysis was conducted for two purposes: to examine the relations of emotional labor and stress, and to find out job stressors and relievers for emotional laborers. The chances of stress arousal are 3.5 times higher for emotional laborers; emotional laborers experience double risk-burden for stress arousal. In addition to general job stressors, emotional laborers need to bear burdens related to emotional labor properties. The effect of social support at the workplace is not significant for stress relief, unlike common assumptions, whereas subjective satisfaction (wage satisfaction and work-life balance) is proven to have relieving effects on emotional laborers' job stress. From the results, the importance of a balanced understanding of emotional labor for establishing effective policies for emotional laborer protection is stressed.

  14. Labor potential: enhancing its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Melnichuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This publication presents the views of the author about the need to expand research of labor potential, estimation of quantitative indicators and qualitative characteristics at the individual, regional levels and the state as a whole to develop the mechanisms of its development. The existing methods of labour potential assessment are mainly based on the probable approach taking into account external and internal factors. In the case of assessment of labour potential of a single enterprise for the most suitable for this production method the mechanisms of its development can be worked out. However, for the state under a certain depreciation of the resource, property, financial and other potentials, aggressive manifestations of the crisis phenomena, processes etc. to resolve urgent is the problem of enhancing the development of qualitative characteristics of labor potential at all its levels. In this context it is important to exploit the potential of domestic education and science which now continue to be reformed for the sake of achieving European standards, using the advanced experience of other countries. Every means of legal, financial, managerial, and organizational impact should be used for this.

  15. Natural gas monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  16. 29 CFR 500.41 - Farm labor contractor is responsible for actions of his farm labor contractor employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., prior to such employee's engagement in any activity enumerated in section 3(6) of the Act. A farm labor... farm labor contractor employee. 500.41 Section 500.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... PROTECTION Registration of Farm Labor Contractors and Employees of Farm Labor Contractors Engaged in Farm...

  17. [Productive restructuring and its impact on labor relations in the public health services in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria Inês Carsalade; Molinaro, Alex

    2013-06-01

    The restructuring of productive systems and economic globalization are directly impacting the basic social rights of workers. In the semi-peripheral countries such as Brazil, where the wage-based society and the consolidation of social rights are not completely implemented, this process of change in the world of labor contributes to aggravate the inequality in the capital-labor relationship and hampers access to employment. By means of a critical review of the scientific literature regarding changes in the world of labor and its impact on the organization and production of health services in Brazil, this article pinpoints the weakness of regulation of the labor market in Brazil, especially in the health sector. It also stresses the need to increase the debate on new forms of institutionalization of the labor relationship in order to ensure equity in the workplace and protect the rights to work and in the workplace.

  18. La reforma del proceso laboral en Uruguay. El regreso al proceso laboral autónomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reform of the labor process in Uruguay. The return to the autonomous labor processThe reform of the Uruguayan labor process and the return to an autonomous legal regime represent a radical and fundamental change in the national legislation. The simplicity of new procedural structures governed by principles and owns norms of labor discipline give the new regime a dogmatic autonomous space lost for many years. The procedural labor reform is built on the adjectival character of its nature prioritizing the substantive law and adjusting the procedural rule to its characteristics. The principles of Labor Law (substantive and procedural are the foundation of the new regime

  19. Beyond dualism: Multisegmented labor markets in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    James Heintz; Fabian Slonimczyk

    2007-01-01

    Using estimates of earnings functions in Ghana, this paper examines patterns of labor market segmentation with regard to formal and informal employment. Persistent earnings differentials are used as indicators of limited mobility across segments of the employed labor force. We find evidence of labor market segmentation between formal and informal employment and between different categories of informal employment which cannot be fully explained by human capital, physical asset, or credit marke...

  20. Immigrants, Labor Market Performance, and Social Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Bratsberg, Bernt; Raaum, Oddbjørn; Røed, Knut

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the date of arrival, we study long- term labor market and social insurance outcomes for all major immigrant cohorts to Norway since 1970. Immigrants from highincome countries performed as natives, while labor migrants from low- income source countries had declining employment rates and increasing disability program participation over the lifecycle. Refugees and family migrants assimilated during the initial period upon arrival, but labor market convergence halted ...

  1. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  2. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  3. Gender Bias and Child Labor in LDCs

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Kumar; Emma Underhill

    2014-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that girls work more than boys as child labor. In this paper, we develop a model to analyze the causes and consequences of the gender differentials in child labor. In particular, we analyze the effects of gender bias on child labor. We find that when parents can give strictly positive bequests to both boys and girls, son preference on its own does not lead to gender differential in child labor. Only when parents cannot give bequests, girls work more than boys as ch...

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility and Labor Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Coe, Neil

    This article examines the circumstances under which CSR initiatives facilitate and/or constrain labor agency in GPNs. Using a case study of Nike’s CSR approach in the football manufacturing industry of Pakistan, we explore how the CSR measures advocated in a new, emerging policy paradigm on CSR...... in GPNs affect labor agency at Nike’s main football supplier factory in Pakistan. We argue that international companies may undermine labor agency in GPNs through their sourcing policies, but that their CSR policies could have a potential, albeit limited, positive impact on labor agency in GPNs which...

  5. Analysis of current labor market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Yurchyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents current state of the national labor market and highlights its main trends. We have substantiated the necessity for building institutional support to the labor market in order to meet the needs of Ukrainian economy for innovative development in integrated environment. Measures for promotion of labor market in Ukraine should be: systematization of indicators evaluating its effectiveness; involvement in the assessment of both domestic and foreign experts; permanently identify weaknesses in the institutional support labor market; improving the infrastructure of the labor market. Of particular interest in promoting the efficient functioning of the labor market include the adoption of the concept that would provide incentives for innovative development of institutional support for the labor market. Important for rebirth of man's relation to labor should belong to such institutions as education, culture, family and church. Strategy for the development of effective national labor market should be based on the innovation focus of its institutions, to increase the competitiveness of the workforce and increasing the efficiency of its use in the region.

  6. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G. Shendell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990–2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3–83 countries. Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries.

  7. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... for the years 1999-2002. The Danish workforce is split into "R&D workers", who hold a bachelor's or a master's degree in a technical field, and "non{R&D workers". We find that mobile R&D workers ("R&D joiners"') contribute more to patenting activity than immobile R&D workers. Furthermore, R&D workers who have...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  8. Korean Emotional Laborers' Job Stressors and Relievers: Focus on Work Conditions and Emotional Labor Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Garam Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job st...

  9. The assessment of labor: a brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Wayne R; Friedman, Emanuel A

    2018-01-26

    In the 1930s, investigators in the US, Germany and Switzerland made the first attempts to quantify the course of labor in a clinically meaningful way. They emphasized the rupture of membranes as a pivotal event governing labor progress. Attention was also placed on the total number of contractions as a guide to normality. Beginning in the 1950s, Friedman determined that changes in cervical dilatation and fetal station over time were the most useful parameters for the assessment of labor progress. He showed all normal labors had similar patterns of dilatation and descent, differing only in the durations and slopes of their component parts. These observations led to the formulation of criteria that elevated the assessment of labor from a rather arbitrary exercise to one guided by scientific objectivity. Researchers worldwide confirmed the basic nature of labor curves and validated their functionality. This system allows us to quantify the effects of parity, analgesia, maternal obesity, prior cesarean, maternal age, and fetal presentation and position on labor. It permits analysis of outcomes associated with labor aberrations, quantifies the effectiveness of treatments and assesses the need for cesarean delivery. Also, dysfunctional labor patterns serve as indicators of short- and long-term risks to offspring. We still lack the necessary translational research to link the physiologic manifestations of uterine contractility with changes in dilatation and descent. Recent efforts to interpret electrohysterographic patterns hold promise in this regard, as does preliminary exploration into the molecular basis of dysfunctional labor. For now, the clinician is best served by a system of labor assessment proposed more than 60 years ago and embellished upon in considerable detail since.

  10. Nanotechnology between the lab and the shop floor: what are the effects on labor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invernizzi, Noela

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology’s effects on labor and employment have received little attention within research and debates on the social implications of nanotechnology. This article shows that, in spite of its incipient development, nanotechnology is unquestionably moving toward manufacturing, involving a still very small but increasing component of the labor force. Based on secondary data and the literature review, I compose a picture of the emerging jobs in nanotechnology and highlight four emerging trends in nanotechnology workers’ skills requirements. I show that, in addition to job creation, nanotechnology diffusion is likely to pose labor market changes that may be disruptive for some categories of workers.

  11. Nanotechnology between the lab and the shop floor: what are the effects on labor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Invernizzi, Noela, E-mail: noela.invernizzi@gmail.com [Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Science and Technology Innovation Program (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Nanotechnology's effects on labor and employment have received little attention within research and debates on the social implications of nanotechnology. This article shows that, in spite of its incipient development, nanotechnology is unquestionably moving toward manufacturing, involving a still very small but increasing component of the labor force. Based on secondary data and the literature review, I compose a picture of the emerging jobs in nanotechnology and highlight four emerging trends in nanotechnology workers' skills requirements. I show that, in addition to job creation, nanotechnology diffusion is likely to pose labor market changes that may be disruptive for some categories of workers.

  12. Labor and health status in economic evaluation of health care. The Health and Labor Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roijen, L.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; Koopmanschap, M. A.; Bonsel, G.; Rutten, F. F.

    1996-01-01

    A health care program may influence both costs and health effects. We developed the Health and Labor Questionnaire (HLQ), which consists of four modules, to collect data on absence from work, reduced productivity, unpaid labor production, and labor-related problems. We applied the HLQ in several

  13. Is automation labor-displacing? : Productivity growth, employment, and the labor share

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Autor, David; Salomons, A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338041575

    2018-01-01

    Is automation a labor-displacing force? This possibility is both an age-old concern and at the heart of a new theoretical literature considering how labor immiseration may result from a wave of “brilliant machines,” which is in part motivated by declining labor shares in many developed countries.

  14. Human cervicovaginal fluid biomarkers to predict term and preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Yujing J.; Liong, Stella; Permezel, Michael; Rice, Gregory E.; Di Quinzio, Megan K. W.; Georgiou, Harry M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB; birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation) remains the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The current generation of biomarkers predictive of PTB have limited utility. In pregnancy, the human cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) proteome is a reflection of the local biochemical milieu and is influenced by the physical changes occurring in the vagina, cervix and adjacent overlying fetal membranes. Term and preterm labor (PTL) share common pathways of cervical ripening, myometrial activation and fetal membranes rupture leading to birth. We therefore hypothesize that CVF biomarkers predictive of labor may be similar in both the term and preterm labor setting. In this review, we summarize some of the existing published literature as well as our team's breadth of work utilizing the CVF for the discovery and validation of putative CVF biomarkers predictive of human labor. Our team established an efficient method for collecting serial CVF samples for optimal 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis resolution and analysis. We first embarked on CVF biomarker discovery for the prediction of spontaneous onset of term labor using 2D-electrophoresis and solution array multiple analyte profiling. 2D-electrophoretic analyses were subsequently performed on CVF samples associated with PTB. Several proteins have been successfully validated and demonstrate that these biomarkers are associated with term and PTL and may be predictive of both term and PTL. In addition, the measurement of these putative biomarkers was found to be robust to the influences of vaginal microflora and/or semen. The future development of a multiple biomarker bed-side test would help improve the prediction of PTB and the clinical management of patients. PMID:26029118

  15. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  16. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecule of the Month - Adamantane - A Plastic Piece of Diamond. J Chandrasekhar. Volume 16 Issue 12 ... Keywords. Adamantane; diamondoid systems; plastic crystals. ... Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News. © 2017 Indian ...

  17. Oceanographic Monthly Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Monthly Summary contains sea surface temperature (SST) analyses on both regional and ocean basin scales for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans....

  18. La selectividad como riesgo laboral en la labor docente universitaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Martinez, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad no hay datos que sirvan de soporte para analizar la contribución de los alumnos en el fracaso escolar. Para lo cual, se ha elaborado un test con una serie de items que determinan el grado de cumplimiento de la “actividad discente” recogida en los siguientes campos: asistir a clase, hacer uso de las tutorías para resolver dudas, estudio diario para poder llevar a cabo una evaluación continua, asistir a los exámenes finales, y nivel de preparación básica e interés con que los alumnos llegan a la universidad para que los profesores puedan trabajar. El control para que este comportamiento no ocurra está en la selectividad. Una selectividad inadecuada conduce a los profesores a un estado de ansiedad, estrés laboral, y burn-out (quemado que con el mobbing que provoca el acoso de una evaluación docente mal entendida hace cada vez más inviable el trabajo docente.

  19. The connection between the education level of young people, labor productivity and inflation in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Ortansa FLOREA (MOISE)

    2015-01-01

    Labor productivity is an important indicator for any economy. An increase of productivity is benefits for the entrepreneurs and for the national economy. This paper discusses the link between changes in the number of high school graduates in Romania, to amend the rate labor productivity and inflation rate. The period under review is 2004-2012. The data used are those published by the National Institute of Statistics, National Bank of Romania and Eurostat. The data used are those published by ...

  20. "Subconscious" Sex Bias and Labor Market Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Stephen E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the contention that the resentment some men feel toward working women is based on sympathy toward unemployed male breadwinners. Argues that this rationalization ignores the gross discrepancy in the size of the two labor force groups and the real issues in labor market discrimination against women. (Author/IRT)

  1. Wage and Hour Farm Labor Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Catherine

    This paper, by a teacher of migrants, summarizes various farm labor laws and child labor laws pertaining to migrant and seasonal workers. The Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act of 1983 provides workers with assurances about pay, hours, and working conditions, including safety and health. This legislation permits anyone…

  2. Empirical studies in labor and education economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketel, N.

    2016-01-01

    The chapters of this thesis focus on policy-relevant research questions in economics of education and labor economics. All chapters make use of randomized experiments in order to answer these questions. The second chapter studies the returns to medical school in a regulated labor market, by

  3. The Labor Market and the Great Recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobijn, B.; Elsby, M.W.L.; Sahin, A.

    2010-01-01

    From the perspective of a wide range of labor market outcomes, the recession that began in 2007 represents the deepest downturn in the postwar era. Early on, the nature of labor market adjustment displayed a notable resemblance to that observed in past severe downturns. During the latter half of

  4. Macroeconomic implications of labor market frictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedláček, P.

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in economic activity, business cycles, are a fact of life. An important factor shaping the character of economic fluctuations is the labor market. However, the labor market does not operate smoothly. Neither workers, nor firms are all the same. Therefore, it often requires a substantial

  5. 75 FR 55251 - Labor Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... immeasurable contributions of working men and women today and throughout our history. As we recognize the... and that of organized labor in our national life. Workers have not always possessed the same rights... aisles of today's superstores, organized labor has provided millions of hard-working men and women with a...

  6. A Labor Perspective on Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Anthony R.

    Most major workplace literacy programs involve unions. Organized labor's current leadership in worker education and training is not a continuation of earlier activities but an expansion of union interest and activity that is unprecedented in the history of organized labor. These efforts do not rely on public funding, because many unions have…

  7. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor market and the institutional features of the Russian labor market. The study reveals that, despite lower wages, women, judging by their socio-economic characteristics, possess competitive advantages over men, having higher level of education and better state of health. In addition to horizontal segregation, traditional partition of industries to “male” and “female”, the main causes of gender wage gaps are discriminatory social attitudes and social role of women. The issue to address gender discrimination in the modern Russian society becomes more critical due to contradiction between normative-legal acts, stipulating the gender equality in all spheres of life, and discriminatory social attitudes. The article gives a brief overview of research and practice publications on the problem of gender disparities in labor remuneration and methods to address them in the developed world. The state statistical monitoring of labor productivity in terms of gender is considered as a tool for in-depth study of discrimination

  8. US Investment Treaties and Labor Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan-Ho Kim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Korea and the United States declared the start of negotiations for the establishment of a free trade agreement. The FTA will include investment chapter. That means the Korea-US BIT (Bilateral Investment Treaty talk, which has been deadlocked since 1998, resumes as a part of FTA negotiations. The FTA investment chapter will be based on the US model BIT, which has been updated in 2004. The updated BIT version includes labor clause which provides that parties should not weaken labor standards in an effort to attract foreign investment. This clause is grounded on the criticism raised by labor groups which asserts that competition among countries to attract foreign investment leads to bidding wars in labor standards. No solid evidence is found in support of the hypothesis that foreign investors favor countries with lower labor standards. Nonetheless, some countries have offered special incentives to investors that limit labor rights in the belief that doing so would help attract foreign investment, especially in export processing or special economic zones. In this regard, the Korea's Act on free economic zones which provides exceptional labor standards to foreign invested enterprise in those zones may become an issue in reaching the FTA. This article contemplates the "not lowering labor standards" provision in the US BIT model and its implications on the FTA talks with the US.

  9. International Trade and Labor Market Discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Chisik (Richard); J.E. Namini (Julian Emami)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe embed a competitive search model with labor market discrimination, or nepotism, into a two-sector, two-country framework in order to analyze how labor market discrimination impacts the pattern of international trade and also how trade trade affects discrimination. Discrimination, or

  10. Family planning and the labor sector: soft-sell approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teston, R C

    1981-01-01

    right track. Hamlish Richards, chief of ILO's population and labor policies branch, has high praise for the program. Over the years the ILO has awarded fellowships to 19 labor ministry officials from Asia and Africa to learn from Dedel and her staff. What is most impressive is PFPO's training component. The country's bigger establishments have already implemented the PFPO concepts, and the programs of these companies are reviewed. Last year PFPO entered into an agreement with the Population Center Foundation and POPCOM Region 11 to test the viability of the use of incentives. 6 companies agreed to try out this approach.

  11. Labor market trends for nuclear engineers through 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, N.; Blair, L.M.; Baker, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout most of the 1980s, both private organizations and government agencies were concerned about the availability of an adequate supply of qualified nuclear engineers. This concern was primarily the result of a number of nuclear engineering academic programs being eliminated coupled with a continuous decline in graduate and undergraduate enrollments and degrees. By the early 1990s, the number of degrees and available supply had declined to new lows, but cutbacks in funding for the nuclear weapons program and nuclear energy R ampersand D, and in hiring by the electric utility industry, offset in large measure the declining supply. Recently, concerns about environment and waste management and about nuclear safety have again generated questions about the adequacy of supply of qualified personnel for nuclear energy activities. This report briefly examines the nuclear engineering labor market. Trends in employment, new graduates, job openings, and salaries are reviewed as a basis for understanding the current labor market. This review is then used as a basis for assessing future employment needs and new graduate supply to provide an outlook for future labor market conditions through 2000

  12. Monthly energy review, September 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-26

    This publication presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities. 36 figs., 57 tabs.

  13. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  14. The need to nurse the nurse: emotional labor in neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cricco-Lizza, Roberta

    2014-05-01

    In this 14-month ethnographic study, I examined the emotional labor and coping strategies of 114, level-4, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses. Emotional labor was an underrecognized component in the care of vulnerable infants and families. The nature of this labor was contextualized within complex personal, professional, and organizational layers of demand on the emotions of NICU nurses. Coping strategies included talking with the sisterhood of nurses, being a super nurse, using social talk and humor, taking breaks, offering flexible aid, withdrawing from emotional pain, transferring out of the NICU, attending memorial services, and reframing loss to find meaning in work. The organization had strong staffing, but emotional labor was not recognized, supported, or rewarded. The findings can contribute to the development of interventions to nurse the nurse, and to ultimately facilitate NICU nurses' nurturance of stressed families. These have implications for staff retention, job satisfaction, and delivery of care.

  15. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  16. FADIGA LABORAL EM TRABALHADORES RURAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Nayalle de Souza Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue identificar la existencia de estrés laboral de trabajadores rurales del Bom Jesus-PI, Brasil. Estudio descriptivo exploratorio llevado acabo entre abril y junio de 2011, con 47 trabajadores. Recopilación de datos se realizó por instrumento para evaluación del estrés llamado Cuestionario Bipolar y guión de entrevista semiestructurada con la caracterización del perfil sociodemográfico y de las condiciones de trabajo. Se tabularon los cuestionarios, que se compararon por Chi-Cuadrado con 95% de confiabilidad. Se realizó para diferenciación o clasificación de las respuestas analizadas y observación del comportamiento dentro de grupos el análisis de componentes principales y agrupaciones. El estrés es común en el medio rural, principalmente en forma de estrés intenso, debido a la exposición a condiciones insalubres para el trabajador. Aunque no se identifican, directamente, sus factores desencadenantes, por lo tanto, sus medidas de prevención.

  17. [Changes in labor market participation of older employees in Germany: the perspective of labor market research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussig, M

    2009-08-01

    For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.

  18. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts(air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  19. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-03-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  20. 24-month fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, R.G.; Sipes, D.E.; Beall, R.H.; Donovan, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four month reload cycles can potentially lessen total power generation costs. While 24-month cores increase purchased fuel costs, the longer cycles reduce the number of refueling outages and thus enhance plant availability; men-rem exposure to site personnel and other costs associated with reload core design and licensing are also reduced. At dual unit sites an operational advantage can be realized by refueling each plant alternately on a 1-year offset basis. This results in a single outage per site per year which can be scheduled for off-peak periods or when replacement power costs are low

  1. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk plants, cattle, fish), seawater around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  2. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  3. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  4. The Vulnerability of the Regional Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Rarița

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, the European and Romanian economies have been strongly affected by major changes which have influenced also the labor market: the alert pace of the international economic integration, the creation of work division in order to protect some economic sectors, the accelerated development and implementation of new technologies, the increase of the demographic aging trends. In the context of the amplified labor force crisis, the present paper will analyze some dysfunctions which have affected especially the regional labor market: the chronic unemployment, the mismatch between the demand and the offer of jobs and the localized consequences of the labor migration. The approach on these aspects was done in a vaster context intended to analyze the regional labor market of Galati and Braila, starting from the existent imbalances on these markets. The present paper starts from the premise that the proposal of some measurements which should lead to a balancing of the regional working market, must take into account the way in which the direct actors involved are defining these obstacles and opportunities for professional (reinsertion. In order to highlight both the opinions and the perceptions of the participants on the labor market, the research had to take place on two levels: among the groups with a difficult position on the labor market and among the employers.

  5. 75 FR 67776 - Comment Request; Review of Productivity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Bureau of Labor Statistics Comment Request; Review of Productivity Statistics... Statistics (BLS) is responsible for publishing measures of labor productivity and multifactor productivity..., Office of Productivity and Technology, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Room 2150, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE...

  6. Medications for Pain Relief during Labor and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQ086 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Medications for Pain Relief During Labor and Delivery • What types of medications for pain relief are used during labor and delivery? • What are ...

  7. Labor Market Size and Unemployment Duration: A Theoretical Note

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Schaeffer; Tesfa Gebremedhin

    2004-01-01

    When job prospects are uncertain, labor market size matters even when labor and jobs, respectively, are homogenous. The expected unemployment duration and its standard deviation may then differ systematically with labor market size.

  8. 75 FR 4271 - Labor Organization Officer and Employee Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Labor-Management Standards 29 CFR Part 404 Labor Organization Officer and Employee Reports CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100 to 499, revised as [[Page 4272

  9. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. Molecule of the Month Isomers of Benzene - Still Pursuing Dreams. J Chandrasekhar. Feature Article Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 80-83. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Molecule of the Month - A Stable Dibismuthene - A Compound with a Bi-Bi Double Bond. V Chandrasekhar. Volume 16 ... Author Affiliations. V Chandrasekhar1. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India.

  11. Photos of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Congratulations to Adele Rimoldi, ATLAS physicist from Pavia, who ran her first marathon in New York last month. Adele completed the 42.2 km in a time of 4:49:19. She sure makes it look easy!!! The ATLAS pixel service quarter panel in SR1

  12. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 5. Molecule of the Month Molecular–Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best! Photon Rao. Feature Article Volume 2 Issue 5 May 1997 pp 69-72. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. The Effect of Foot Reflexology on Anxiety, Pain, and Outcomes of the Labor in Primigravida Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi-Hanjani, Soheila; Mehdizadeh-Tourzani, Zahra; Shoghi, Mahnaz

    2015-08-01

    Reflexology is a technique used widely as one of non-pharmacological pain management techniques. The present study aimed to review and determine the effect of foot reflexology on anxiety, pain and outcomes of the labor in primigravida women. This clinical trial study was conducted on 80 primigravida mothers who were divided randomly into an intervention group (Foot reflexology applied for 40 min, n=40) and control group (n=40). The pain intensity was scored immediately after the end of intervention and at 30,60 and 120 min after the intervention in both groups, based on McGill Questionnaire for Pain Rating Index (PRI). Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was completed before and after intervention in both groups. Duration of labor phases, the type of labor and Apgar scores of the infant at the first and fifth minute were recorded in both groups. Descriptive and inferential statistics methods (t-test and chi-square test) were applied in analyzing data. Application of reflexology technique decreased pain intensity (at 30, 60 and 120 min after intervention) and duration of labor as well as anxiety level significantly (Preflexology reduces labor pain intensity, duration of labor, anxiety, frequency distribution of natural delivery and increases Apgar scores. Using this non-invasive technique, obstetricians can achieve, to some extent, to one of the most important goals of midwifery as pain relief and reducing anxiety during labor and encourage the mothers to have a vaginal delivery.

  14. Active labor market policies and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti......-social behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...... market programs....

  15. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  16. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  17. INDIRECT LABOR COSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OVERHEAD ALLOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bea Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Cost accounting typically allocates indirect labor cost to cost object based on direct labor hours. The allocation process implicitly assumes that indirect labor costs vary proportionally with direct labor hours. The assumption of a linear relationship between indirect and direct labor is particularly suspicious at low production volume levels because there tends to be a fixed component in indirect labor. The linearity assumption is also challenged by recent increasing complexity of indirect ...

  18. Home Page, Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Training Services Alaska Labor Relations Agency Labor Standards and Safety Vocational Rehabilitation Workers' Compensation Of Interest Alaska's Job Bank Job Fairs, Recruitments, and Workshops Finding

  19. Domestic Labor and the Lack of Social Security Protection in Brazil: Questions for Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Lourdes de Lima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes domestic labor in Brazil, considering gender, the sexual division of labor and social security, which are influenced by the social transformations of the late 20th century. To do so, a dialog was established with various theoreticians including: Boschetti, Hirata, Kergoat, Nogueira and Saffioti.A historical review of the sexual division of labor in capitalist society is conducted, utilizing the concept of gender and examining inequality between men and women in the work force. Then, looking at social security in Brazil, the  implications of counter reforms to the system for female labor and particularly for domestic work are analyzed, identifying the real lack of social protection suffered by the entire working class.

  20. forced labor in the system of the Russian criminal legislation and problems of its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vladimirovich Tasakov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to review and analyse the Russian criminal law in the aspect of forced labor taking into account theexisting historical practice to assess the implementation of this type of punishment to identify the existing problems and to propose certain measures to overcome them. Methods dialectical historicallegal comparative legal systemic. Results the research discloses the issues of increasing the efficiency of forced labor in the Russian criminal law defines and discusses thedisputable issues that may arise during the use of this type of punishment proposes specific ways and recommendations for their solution. Scientific novelty the article analyzes criminal punishment in the form of forced labor and discusses issues of increasing the efficiency of this punishment and its enforcement. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific educational and practical activities when considering sentencing in the form of forced labor. nbsp

  1. SPECIFIC REGULATIONS REGARDING THE SOLVING OF LABOR DISPUTES IN ROMANIAN LEGAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onica -Chipea Lavinia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to briefly review specific provisions of labor legislation for the solving of labor disputes. Those rules are found in matters of discrimination in the payment settlements, the public sector staff as well as some personnel status or disciplinary (work stops at Status of Teachers and established a derogationfrom the common law (Labor Code Law nr.62/2011 of Social Dialogue in resolving individual labor conflicts(former conflicts of rights. The role and importance of these regulations is that they give the parties the employment relationship, particularly employees, way, way more for rights enshrined in law. Appeals, complaints or expressions of individual grievances be settled outside the judicial system organ (the courts,authorizing officers, judicial administrative organs, which aim at restoring order violated.

  2. Freedom of Movement and Position in the First Stage of Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Canhoto Ferrão

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the scientific evidence, in the literature published between january 2007 and february 2016, about the benefits of freedmon of movement and position in the first stage of labor. Method: Review of literature with articles researched in selected databases on plataforms b-On and EBSCOhost, using descriptors: first stage of labour/labor, ambulation, upright positions, benefits and midwife/midwives. Results: Sample with 15 studies that showed, almost unanimously, that the free movement associated with the vertical position provides numerous benefits, especially in the progression of the first stage of labor, reduction of pain and increased maternal satisfaction, in the quality of uterine contractions and maternal-fetal circulation compared to the dorsal lithotomy position. Conclusion: Woman should have the right of choice as to freedom of movement and position during first stage of labor, being informed about the benefits of this intervention by the nurse midwife who cares for her.

  3. Day labor and occupational health: time to take a closer look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The term "day labor" refers to work performed by individuals who are hired on a temporary basis, often for one day at a time. This type of employment has increased in North America as informal work arrangements and immigration have increased. Research on the occupational health of day laborers is minimal. The objectives of this article are to review the current literature pertaining to occupational health in day laborers, and to characterize the issues that affect this population's access to occupational health services. Surveys of day laborers and other immigrant, low-wage workers show that they are at elevated risk for occupational injury and are often unable to access medical care when injured on the job. Reasons include workers' reluctance to complain about unsafe work conditions, inadequate safety training, and lack of incentive for employers to reduce workplace injuries. More research is needed to better characterize the occupational health of this population.

  4. Titrated Misoprostol Versus Dinoprostone for Labor Induction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study designed to compare titrated misoprostol regarding its safety and efficacy with dinoprostone for induction of labor. ... Statistical analysis done using Student's t-test for quantitative data and ..... induction: A pilot study. Rev Bras ...

  5. Employment: Labor Force Status (1983-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Civilian labor force data consists of the number of employed persons, the number of unemployed persons, an unemployment rate and the total count of both employed and...

  6. Economic system and management by labor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krikorov, Y M

    1981-01-01

    Current problems in improving systematic leadership using the economic structure of the gas industry are touched upon, as are further development of democratic processes in the control of industry and increasing the creative activity of labor collectives.

  7. Alternative Work Schedules: A Labor Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalusky, John L.

    1977-01-01

    The compressed work week, flexitime, and job sharing are discussed from the labor perspective. The author suggests that it is unlikely that unions will endorse flexible work arrangements that jeopardize the eight-hour-day concept. (LBH)

  8. Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring during Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are the types of monitoring? • How is auscultation performed? • How is electronic fetal monitoring performed? • How ... methods of fetal heart rate monitoring in labor. Auscultation is a method of periodically listening to the ...

  9. Solidarity Action in Global Labor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Globalization transforms workforces of transnational corporation from predominantly home countrydominated workforces into foreign-dominated, multinational workforces. Thus, the national grounding of trade unions as the key form of labor organizing is challenged by new multinational compositions...... and cross-border relocations of corporate employment affecting working conditions of employees and trade unions in local places. We assume that economic globalization is characterized by expanding global corporate network of vertically and horizontally integrated (equity-based) and disintegrated (nonequity......-based) value chains. We also assume that globalization can both impede and enable labor empowerment. Based on these premises the key question is, how can labor leverage effective power against management in global corporate networks? This question is split into two subquestions: a) How can labor theoretically...

  10. Elderly Labor Supply: Work or Play

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haider, Steven

    2001-01-01

    .... However, very little research has examined labor market behavior in this population. In this paper, we examine a series of questions in an attempt to better understand why the elderly continue to work...

  11. Determinants of Female Labor Force Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Adiqa Kausar Kiani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors related to female entering the labor market. For example, household income, household expenditure, education and status of the head of the household (male/ female. The degree of correlation between each variable and female labor force participation rate varies throughout the country. This study focused on the factors due to which women enter in labor market. Tobit model is used for this analysis. It is concluded that education and household expenditures have positive but insignificant impact on the female LF, whereas household income and head of the household has negative impact on FLF. It is suggested that in order to improve the working condition of female labor force government should take necessary action, for example women education etc.

  12. 29 CFR 525.18 - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review. 525.18 Section 525.18 Labor Regulations Relating to... DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.18 Review. Any person aggrieved by any action of the... allow, file with the Administrator a petition for review. Such review, if granted, shall be made by the...

  13. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  17. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  18. Labor Force Participation Rates among Working-Age Individuals with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes four consecutive years of monthly labor force participation rates reported by the Current Population Survey that included nationally representative samples of the general U.S. population and nationally representative samples of the U.S. population with specifically identified disabilities. Visual impairment is one of the…

  19. The Impact of Active Labor Market Programs and Benefit Entitlement Rules on the Duration of Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.; Zweimüller, J.

    2000-01-01

    Swiss policy makers created a unique link between unemployment benefits and active labor market programs (ALMPs) by making benefit payments conditional on program attendance after 7 months of unemployment duration. We evaluate the effect of ALMPs and benefit entitlement on the duration of

  20. Child Labor in the Early Sugar Beet Industry in the Great Plains, 1890-1920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons-Barrett, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Children working in agriculture have always been a part of the rural culture and work ethos of the United States, especially on the Great Plains. Many teenagers still detassel corn or walk the beans in the summer months to earn spending money or money for college. But what about the children who work as migrant laborers in commercialized…

  1. Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative: supporting vulnerable women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Cambria Jones; Callister, Lynn Clark; Birkhead, Ana; Nichols, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the qualitative aspects of the Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative. "Hispanic Labor Friends," bilingual Hispanic community women who were themselves mothers, were recruited by clinic and hospital personnel. Women who agreed were educated, received translation certification, and were oriented to the initiative. Pregnant Hispanic immigrant women seen in the health center who met criteria set by the multidisciplinary health care team were assigned a Hispanic Labor Friend by 32 weeks' gestation. Hispanic Labor Friends assisted women with communication with healthcare providers and provided social support. Qualitative evaluation of the program consisted of interviews with several groups: (1) Hispanic immigrant women who had a Hispanic Labor Friend, (2) Hispanic immigrant women who were not in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, (3) Hispanic Labor Friends, (4) healthcare providers for Hispanic women. Data saturation was reached, and data were analyzed by the research team using descriptive qualitative inquiry. The Hispanic immigrant women described positive outcomes from being involved in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, including feeling supported and comforted. "I felt as though my family were at my side." One woman who had standard care said, "It is hard for me to communicate. When I gave birth, the nurses asked me things, and I didn't understand anything. I stayed quiet." One of the nurses who was interviewed said: "I think they [the HLF patients] get better care. Sometimes we think we can communicate with them with their little bit of English and our little bit of Spanish. But you get an HLF and it's a totally different story. We can more adequately tell what's going on with them...They end up getting better care." One Hispanic Labor Friend said, "The women are very appreciative that I was there to help them through a critical time." Women who participated in the study identified the need to have a continuing association with Hispanic Labor Friends in

  2. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Illness Prevention and Sun Safety. “Sun Safety.” https:// phc.amedd.army.mil/ topics /discond/hipss/Pages/ SunSafety.aspx. Accessed on 7 December 2016. 22...febrile illness; however, after its wide- spread introduction into immunologically MSMR Vol. 23 No. 12 December 2016 Page 8 naïve populations, a...October 2016 (data as of 22 November 2016) MSMR’s Invitation to Readers Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR) invites readers to submit topics for

  3. Female labor force participation in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Verick, Sher

    2014-01-01

    While women’s labor force participation tends to increase with economic development, the relationship is not straightforward or consistent at the country level. There is considerably more variation across developing countries in labor force participation by women than by men. This variation is driven by a wide variety of economic and social factors, which include economic growth, education, and social norms. Looking more broadly at improving women’s access to quality employment, a critica...

  4. Measuring educational heterogeneity and labor quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Sørensen, Anders

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the magnitude of the mismeasurement that occurs when only a few education categories are used in the construction of a constant quality index for labor input. By employing a very comprehensive data set it is found that the error resulting from the omission of information...... on education is relatively small. The empirical results are thus supportive of the current state of practice of constructing indices of constant quality labor input....

  5. Elderly Labor Supply: Work or Play

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haider, Steven

    2001-01-01

    .... Despite this, we find that the wages of the elderly are low both relative to younger populations and relative to the wages they earned when they themselves were young. Among individuals over the age of 70, we find that changes in health status dominate labor market transitions. Overall. our findings suggest that non- pecuniary considerations play an important role in determining elderly labor supply decisions.

  6. Child-Labor Proposal Eyes Private Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Scott J.

    2007-01-01

    Proposed child-labor-rule changes--the most ambitious in 30 years--would carve out a permanent exemption to U.S. Department of Labor regulations for the work-study program run by a national network of Roman Catholic high schools. The program is a requirement of the Chicago-based Cristo Rey Network, which now has 12 high schools around the country…

  7. Sex Discrimination and Women's Labor Market Interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    David Neumark

    1993-01-01

    The human capital explanation of sex differences in wages is that women intend to work in the labor market more intermittently than men, and therefore invest less. This lower investment leads to lower wages and wage growth. The alternative "feedback" hypothesis consistent with the same facts is that women experience labor market discrimination and respond with career interruptions and specialization in household production. This paper explores the relationship between self-reported discrimina...

  8. Structural Change Accounting with Labor Market Distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbiao Cai

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies the relative importance of sectoral productivity and labor market distortions for structural change. I use a model in which labor productivity is the product of TFP and human capital in each sector, but distortions generate wedges in wage per efficiency worker across sectors. I calculate human capital by sector using micro census data, and use the model to infer TFP and distortions such that it replicates structural change in the US, India, Mexico and Brazil between 1960...

  9. Job Sorting in African Labor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Fafchamps; Mans Soderbom; Najy Benhassine

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from eleven African countries, we investigate if there is a job sorting in African labor markets. We find that much of the wage gap correlated with education is driven by selection across occupations and firms. This is consistent with educated workers being more effective at complex tasks like labor management. In all countries the education wage gap widens rapidly at high low levels of education. Most of the education wage gap at low levels of education c...

  10. The labor force of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, J L

    1987-07-01

    In the decades ahead, the US labor force will reflect changes in the industrial structure, with declines in some manufacturing industries and expansion in service industries. The services sector is so diverse that the jobs within it cannot be categorized as either high wage or low wage. The service-producing sector employs 85% of professional specialty workers in the US. In general, information on compensation trends indicates that greater increases in compensation have occurred for workers in service-producing as opposed to goods-producing industries. The increase in service sector jobs has created opportunities for women to enter the labor force and, at present, 5 out of 6 women work in this sector compared to fewer than 2 out of 3 men. Productivity growth rates in the service-producing industries vary substantially and are strongly affected by the business cycle. Central to employment opportunities in the years ahead will be the effect of new technology. To date, the aggregate effect of new technology has been increased employment and higher living standards. Although retraining programs should be in place, the scenario of a huge technology-created labor surplus seems unlikely. In fact, a more likely problem is a shortage of labor resulting from earlier labor force withdrawal and demographic aging of the population. Those in the 25-54-year age group will represent a larger share of the labor force in the years ahead. In addition, blacks are expected to account for 20% of the labor force growth in the next decade. Finally, given increasing labor force participation rates among mothers, employers may have to provide more flexible work schedules, assistance with day care, and more attractive benefits packages.

  11. Social Preferences and Labor Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe

    2006-01-01

    We find that the main featues of labor policy across OECD countries can be explained by a simple general equilibrium search model with risk neutral agents and a government that chooses policy to maximize a social welfare function. In equilibrum, policies are chosen to optimal redistribute income....... The model also explains why countries that appear to pursue equity spend more on both active and passive labor market programs....

  12. Inteligencia social en el sector laboral colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    La inteligencia social en el trabajo es la competencia que desarrollan las personas para lograr acceder y realizarse laborando, está investigación busca determinar cuáles son los recursos que emplea el trabajador para ingresar y permanecer en el mercado laboral tanto formal como informal. Las condiciones del mercado laboral colombiano, hacen que subsistan y complementen el empleo y desempleo. La incapacidad del sector productivo y de servicios de generar empleo genera un deterioro de la ca...

  13. Optimal wage setting for an export oriented firm under labor taxes and labor mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Ponce Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is developed a theoretical model to study the incentives that a labor tax might induce in terms of the optimal wage setting for an export oriented firm. In particular, we analyze the interaction of a labor tax that tends to reduce the wage due the firm is induced to shift backwards the tax burden to its employees minimizing the possible increase in the payroll costs and a fall of profits. However a lower wage might not be an optimal response to the establishment of a labor tax because it increases the labor turnover and as a result the firm faces both: an output’s opportunity cost and a labors turnover cost. The firm thus optimally decides to respond to the qualification and labor taxes by increasing the after tax wage.

  14. Nitrous oxide for labor analgesia: Utilization and predictors of conversion to neuraxial analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Caitlin D; Butwick, Alexander J; Riley, Edward T; Carvalho, Brendan

    2017-08-01

    We examined the characteristics of women who choose nitrous oxide for labor analgesia and identified factors that predict conversion from nitrous oxide to labor neuraxial analgesia. Retrospective descriptive study. Labor and Delivery Ward. 146 pregnant women who used nitrous oxide for analgesia during labor and delivery between September 2014 and September 2015. Chart review only. Demographic, obstetric, and intrapartum characteristics of women using nitrous oxide were examined. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with conversion from nitrous oxide to neuraxial analgesia. Data are presented as n (%), median [IQR], adjusted relative risk (aRR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as appropriate. During the study period, 146 women used nitrous oxide for labor analgesia (accounting for 3% of the total deliveries). The majority (71.9%) of women who used nitrous oxide were nulliparous, and over half (51.9%) had expressed an initial preference for "nonmedical birth." The conversion rate to neuraxial blockade was 63.2%, compared to a concurrent institutional rate of 85.1% in women who did not use nitrous oxide. Factors associated with conversion from nitrous oxide to neuraxial blockade were labor induction (aRR=2.0, CI 1.2-3.3) and labor augmentation (aRR=1.7, CI 1.0-2.9). Only a small number of women opted to use nitrous oxide during labor, analgesia was minimal, and most converted to neuraxial analgesia. Women with induced and augmented labors should be counseled about the increased likelihood that they will convert to neuraxial analgesia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Labor Economists Get Their Microscope: Big Data and Labor Market Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, John J; Tambe, Prasanna

    2015-09-01

    This article describes how the fine-grained data being collected by Internet labor market intermediaries, such as employment websites, online labor markets, and knowledge discussion boards, are providing new research opportunities and directions for the empirical analysis of labor market activity. After discussing these data sources, we examine some of the research opportunities they have created, highlight some examples of existing work that already use these new data sources, and enumerate the challenges associated with the use of these corporate data sources.

  16. International labor standards and the political economy of child labor regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Child labor is a persistent phenomenon in many developing countries. In recent years, support has been growing among rich-country governments and consumer groups for the use of trade policies, such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards, to reduce child labor in poor countries. In this paper, we discuss research on the long-run implications of such policies. In particular, we demonstrate that such measures may have the unintended side effect of lowering domest...

  17. Maternal fever during labor--what does it mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churgay, C A; Smith, M A; Blok, B

    1994-01-01

    Several studies have shown maternal fever to be associated with chorioamnionitis and neonatal sepsis if at least two of the following five criteria are also present: maternal tachycardia, purulent or foul-smelling amniotic fluid, fetal tachycardia, uterine tenderness, or maternal leukocytosis. Less is known about the risk of neonatal sepsis when the presence of maternal fever in labor is the only criterion. A retrospective medical record review searching for women who had a fever greater than 100.4 degrees F while in the active phase of labor during a 1-year period at the University of Michigan was undertaken to investigate the relation between isolated maternal fever in labor and neonatal sepsis. Eighty-two cases of maternal fever were found. Forty-six women met the clinical criteria for chorioamnionitis, and 6 of the 7 neonates with sepsis diagnosed were born to these mothers. There were no significant differences found in admission or intrapartum factors between women who did and did not meet clinical criteria for chorioamnionitis, and there was no association between these factors and neonatal sepsis. Epidural anesthesia was administered to 91 percent of these women and might be associated with maternal fever during labor. Using maternal clinical criteria for chorioamnionitis and a neonatal band cell-total neutrophil ratio of 0.2 or greater instead of the current system to determine the need for newborn antibiotic administration would improve the positive predictive value (12.5 percent versus 9.3 percent) and specificity (34.6 percent versus 16 percent) without compromising sensitivity (100 percent). All septic and probably septic newborns would be treated, and neonatal antibiotic administration would be reduced by 17 percent. The addition of the maternal clinical criteria for chorioamnionitis to the criteria already used for diagnosing and treating neonatal sepsis could prove useful in decisions regarding the selective administration of intrapartum antibiotics

  18. Implementation of Robert's Coping with Labor Algorithm© in a large tertiary care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Esther; Roberts, Leissa; Zelman, Karen; Michelli, Shelley; Hastings-Tolsma, Marie

    2017-07-01

    to implement use of Roberts' Coping with Labor Algorithm © (CWLA) with laboring women in a large tertiary care facility. this was a quality improvement project to implement an alternate approach to pain assessment during labor. It included system assessment for change readiness, implementation of the algorithm across a 6-week period, evaluation of usefulness by nursing staff, and determination of sustained change at one month. Stakeholder Theory (Friedman and Miles, 2002) and Deming's (1982) Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle, as adapted by Roberts et al (2010), provided the framework for project implementation. the project was undertaken on a labor and delivery (L&D) unit of a large tertiary care facility in a southwestern state in the USA. The unit had 19 suites with close to 6000 laboring patients each year. full, part-time, and per diem Registered Nurse (RN) staff (N=80), including a subset (n=18) who served as the pilot group and champions for implementing the change. a majority of RNs held a positive attitude toward use of the CWLA to assess laboring women's coping with the pain of labor as compared to a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). RNs reported usefulness in using the CWLA with patients from a wide variety of ethnicities. A pre-existing well-developed team which advocated for evidence-based practice on the unit proved to be a significant strength which promoted rapid change in practice. this work provides important knowledge supporting use of the CWLA in a large tertiary care facility and an approach for effectively implementing that change. Strengths identified in this project contributed to rapid implementation and could be emulated in other facilities. Participant reports support usefulness of the CWLA with patients of varied ethnicity. Assessment of change sustainability at 1 and 6 months demonstrated widespread use of the algorithm though long-term determination is yet needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  20. The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets : Second Edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeri, T.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most labor economics textbooks pay little attention to actual labor markets, taking as reference a perfectly competitive market in which losing a job is not a big deal.The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets is the only textbook to focus on imperfect labor markets and to provide a systematic

  1. Using Mythematics in the Classroom: The Fifth Labor of Hercules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The mythology surrounding Hercules has been a part of human culture for over 2,500 years. In ancient Greek mythology, Eurystheus assigns various labors to Hercules, who has to perform them in order to cleanse his soul. This article treats one of the more famous labors, the fifth labor: The Augean Stables. The labor is provided verbatim from…

  2. Projecting female labor supply: The relevance of social norm change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romme, A.G.L.

    1990-01-01

    The relevance of labor supply research for long-term labor market policy is rather low. This article is an attempt to improve on this situation in the case of female labor force participation. It focuses on labor supply decisions under fundamental uncertainty, that is, imperfect ability to cope with

  3. 36 CFR 8.4 - Federal and State labor laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal and State labor laws... State labor laws. A concessioner shall comply with all standards established pursuant to Federal or State labor laws, such as those concerning minimum wages, child labor, hours of work, and safety, that...

  4. 48 CFR 2922.101-3 - Reporting labor disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes. 2922.101-3 Section 2922.101-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 2922.101-3 Reporting...

  5. Labor allocation in transition: evidence from Chinese rural households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Herzfeld, T.; Glauben, T.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical models are developed in this paper to quantitatively analyze households' participation in decisions on hiring labor and supplying labor off the farm, hired labor demand and off-farm labor supply of rural Chinese households. Econometric estimates use micro-level data from Zhejiang province

  6. 48 CFR 52.222-3 - Convict Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Convict Labor. 52.222-3... Labor. As prescribed in 22.202, insert the following clause: Convict Labor (JUN 2003) (a) Except as... union central bodies or similar labor union organizations have been consulted; (iii) Such paid...

  7. BINGE DRINKING, SMOKING AND MARIJUANA USE: THE ROLE OF WOMEN's LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunradi, Carol B; Ames, Genevieve M; Xiao, Hong

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the role of women's labor force participation in relation to binge drinking, smoking and marijuana use among employment age married/cohabiting women. The sample consisted of 956 women who were employed as construction workers (n=104), or were unemployed (n=101), homemakers (n=227) or employed in non-physically demanding occupations (n=524). Results of multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that women construction workers were at elevated risk for smoking and monthly binge drinking; unemployed women were more likely to use marijuana. Women in both categories were at risk for polysubstance use. Additional research is needed to explicate how labor force participation influences women's substance use.

  8. "Arab Labor"'s Alternative Vision: The "Liberal Bargain" in the Welfare State of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Ezer, Miri; Tidhar, Chava

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on "Independence Day", an episode of "Arab Labor" (first season, 2008), a pioneer bilingual Hebrew-Arabic satirical Israeli TV series, written by Sayed Kashua, an Arab-Israeli author and journalist. "Arab Labor" was a breakthrough in the Israeli popular TV scape, where, as a rule, Arab-Israeli…

  9. 76 FR 28730 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... agricultural productivity; wage rates are used in the administration of the H-2A Program and for setting... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION...

  10. 76 FR 38110 - Notice of Intent To Resume the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... agricultural productivity; wage rates are used in the administration of the H-2A Program and for setting... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Resume the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports. AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA...

  11. Collective labor supply and housework with non-participation of women in paid labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, C.; van Praag, B.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2009-01-01

    Back to overview Collective Labor Supply and Housework with Non-Participation of Women in Paid Labor (with B. van Praag and H. Maassen van den Brink) We estimate a collective time allocation model, where two-earner households behave as if the spouses maximize a household utility function, and where

  12. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.; Aguilar, E.; Auer, I.; Guijarro, J. A.; Domonkos, P.; Vertacnik, G.; Szentimrey, T.; Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Viarre, J.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Lakatos, M.; Williams, C. N.; Menne, M.; Lindau, R.; Rasol, D.; Rustemeier, E.; Kolokythas, K.; Marinova, T.; Andresen, L.; Acquaotta, F.; Fratianni, S.; Cheval, S.; Klancar, M.; Brunetti, M.; Gruber, C.; Prohom Duran, M.; Likso, T.; Esteban, P.; Brandsma, T.

    2011-08-01

    The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME) has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative). The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide) trend was added. Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i) the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii) the error in linear trend estimates and (iii) traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve precipitation data

  13. Employment growth through labor flow networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Omar A; Axtell, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    It is conventional in labor economics to treat all workers who are seeking new jobs as belonging to a labor pool, and all firms that have job vacancies as an employer pool, and then match workers to jobs. Here we develop a new approach to study labor and firm dynamics. By combining the emerging science of networks with newly available employment micro-data, comprehensive at the level of whole countries, we are able to broadly characterize the process through which workers move between firms. Specifically, for each firm in an economy as a node in a graph, we draw edges between firms if a worker has migrated between them, possibly with a spell of unemployment in between. An economy's overall graph of firm-worker interactions is an object we call the labor flow network (LFN). This is the first study that characterizes a LFN for an entire economy. We explore the properties of this network, including its topology, its community structure, and its relationship to economic variables. It is shown that LFNs can be useful in identifying firms with high growth potential. We relate LFNs to other notions of high performance firms. Specifically, it is shown that fewer than 10% of firms account for nearly 90% of all employment growth. We conclude with a model in which empirically-salient LFNs emerge from the interaction of heterogeneous adaptive agents in a decentralized labor market.

  14. Employment growth through labor flow networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Guerrero

    Full Text Available It is conventional in labor economics to treat all workers who are seeking new jobs as belonging to a labor pool, and all firms that have job vacancies as an employer pool, and then match workers to jobs. Here we develop a new approach to study labor and firm dynamics. By combining the emerging science of networks with newly available employment micro-data, comprehensive at the level of whole countries, we are able to broadly characterize the process through which workers move between firms. Specifically, for each firm in an economy as a node in a graph, we draw edges between firms if a worker has migrated between them, possibly with a spell of unemployment in between. An economy's overall graph of firm-worker interactions is an object we call the labor flow network (LFN. This is the first study that characterizes a LFN for an entire economy. We explore the properties of this network, including its topology, its community structure, and its relationship to economic variables. It is shown that LFNs can be useful in identifying firms with high growth potential. We relate LFNs to other notions of high performance firms. Specifically, it is shown that fewer than 10% of firms account for nearly 90% of all employment growth. We conclude with a model in which empirically-salient LFNs emerge from the interaction of heterogeneous adaptive agents in a decentralized labor market.

  15. Pathophysiology of preterm labor with intact membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Asha N; Hackney, David N; Mesiano, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Preterm labor with intact membranes is a major cause of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). To prevent sPTB a clear understanding is needed of the hormonal interactions that initiate labor. The steroid hormone progesterone acting via its nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) in uterine cells is essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy and disruption of PR signaling (i.e., functional progesterone/PR withdrawal) is key trigger for labor. The process of parturition is also associated with inflammation within the uterine tissues and it is now generally accepted that inflammatory stimuli from multiple extrinsic and intrinsic sources induce labor. Recent studies suggest inflammatory stimuli induce labor by affecting PR transcriptional activity in uterine cells to cause functional progesterone/PR withdrawal. Advances in understanding the functional interaction of inflammatory load on the pregnancy uterus and progesterone/PR signaling is opening novel areas of research and may lead to rational therapeutic strategies to effectively prevent sPTB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Combating pharmacist shortage through labor certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswoswe, J J; Stewart, K R; Enigbokan, M; Egbunike, I; Jackson, D M

    1994-06-01

    Several solutions, ranging from increased technician duties to salary raises, automation, and increasing job satisfaction, have been presented in the literature as methods of assuaging the pharmacist shortage. Although a significant portion of pharmacy graduates from American pharmacy colleges are foreign nationals, no marketing strategies have been elucidated in the retention and recruitment of foreign nationals through labor certification. Labor certifications are generally approved by the Secretary of Labor if the following factors have been verified: 1) there are not sufficient United States workers who are able, willing, qualified, and available for employment; and 2) the employment of the foreign national will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of U.S. workers similarly employed. When properly understood, the labor certification process is a test of the job market where foreigners, by virtue of their skills and qualifications, attain certification which subsequently leads to permanent residency (green card). The objective of this report is to elucidate the tedious yet effective method of retaining American-educated foreign nationals through labor certification.

  17. Flexiseguridad, derecho al trabajo y estabilidad laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Blancas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexisecurity, right to work and labor stabilityThis article deals with one of the most recent and innovative proposals of related flexibilization, basically, to the extinction of labor relation and that areknown as «flexisecurity» or «flexicurity». For this, the author comments the model of Denmark – country in which it’s originated «flexisecurity» – emphasizing the configuration of a «golden triangle», composed of: i flexibility in the labor relation, aimed at facilitating the dismissal ii a generous system of unemployment benefits, funded primarily by the State and iii a new policy of «activation» of the labor market, which seeks to keep large sectors of the population permanently trained to meet new labor challenges. The author emphasizes the difference between our country and Denmark, since it is a Welfare State with a high level of social protection funded by a fiscal pressure and high tax rates. Finally, the article notes that for the study of «flexisecurity» it shouldn’t ignore the legal framework derived from workers’ fundamental rights established in the Constitution and international treaties which imply: right to work, dignity and citizenship of the worker and Trade Union Freedom and Collective Rights

  18. Retrospective Cohort Study of Hydrotherapy in Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlaan, Jennifer

    To describe the use of hydrotherapy for pain management in labor. This was a retrospective cohort study. Hospital labor and delivery unit in the Northwestern United States, 2006 through 2013. Women in a nurse-midwifery-managed practice who were eligible to use hydrotherapy during labor. Descriptive statistics were used to report the proportion of participants who initiated and discontinued hydrotherapy and duration of hydrotherapy use. Logistic regression was used to provide adjusted odds ratios for characteristics associated with hydrotherapy use. Of the 327 participants included, 268 (82%) initiated hydrotherapy. Of those, 80 (29.9%) were removed from the water because they met medical exclusion criteria, and 24 (9%) progressed to pharmacologic pain management. The mean duration of tub use was 156.3 minutes (standard deviation = 122.7). Induction of labor was associated with declining the offer of hydrotherapy, and nulliparity was associated with medical removal from hydrotherapy. In a hospital that promoted hydrotherapy for pain management in labor, most women who were eligible initiated hydrotherapy. Hospital staff can estimate demand for hydrotherapy by being aware that hydrotherapy use is associated with nulliparity. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Global Value Chains, Labor Organization and Private Social Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain a...... at production sites. However, labor organizations' ability to seriously challenge the prevailing governance structure of the cut flower value chain appears extremely limited.......This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain...... analysis and reveals how retailer-driven chains offer more room for labor organizations to exercise their agency than the traditional cut flower value chains. Labor organizations have been able to influence social standard setting and implementation, and to use standards to further labor representation...

  20. [Management of threatening preterm labor with intact membranes: indications for antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, N

    2002-11-01

    To analyse the benefits and disadvantages of systematic antibiotic therapy in patient presenting a preterm labor with intact membranes. We reviewed French and English reports on Medline using to the following key words: "antibiotic therapy and preterm labor, preterm labor, streptococcus B, vaginose, mycoplasma, antenatal infection". The systematic prescription of antibiotics is not recommended for patients presenting preterm labor who have intact membranes and no symptoms of infection. The benefit of antibiotics is small and shows a tendency to prolong the pregnancy and the reduction of maternal infection. No benefit has been shown for neonatal results. When early-onset neonatal sepsis develops in a case in which antepartum chemoprophylaxis was used, the isolated bacteria will present an increasing risk of bacterial drug resistance. Local treatment (cream or pessary) do not belong in the treatment of threatening preterm labor and are not recommended for the prevention of prematurity or materno fetal infection. Risk groups of patients who present a positive vaginal colonization are subject to discussion. Studies do not allow us to ascertain that antibiotics have a beneficial effect on prematurity in these groups. Antibiotics are recommended for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria. This treatment reduces prematurity and maternal infections. Despite poor consensus criteria, if threatening preterm labor is associated with a bacteriuria, experts usually recommend treatment.

  1. DEVELOPING A MODEL TO ENHANCE LABOR PRODUCTIVITY USING BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION BENCHMARK DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghoon Kim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Labor Working Status Monitoring (LWSM Model that incorporates the WRITE and the industry benchmark data was developed through the five steps to enhance labor producitivty in bridge construction operations. The first step of the development process was to conduct a literature review, followed by the second step which was to develop the WRITE. During the development, the authors identified the necessary hardware and software for the WRITE and outlined a schematic to show the connection of major hardware components. The third step was to develop the LWSM Model for monitoring the on-site construction labor working status by comparing data from the WRITE with the industry benchmark data. A survey methodology was used to acquire industry benchmark data from bridge construction experts. The fourth step was to demonstrate the implementation of the LWSM Model at a bridge construction site. During this phase, labor working status data collected using the WRITE was compared with the benchmark data to form the basis for the project managers and engineers to make efficiency improvement decisions. Finally, research findings and recommendations for future research were outlined. The success of this research made several contributions to the advancement of bridge construction. First, it advances the application of wireless technology in construction management. Second, it provides an advanced technology for project managers and engineers to share labor working status information among project participants. Finally, using the developed technology, project managers and engineers can quickly identify labor efficiency problems and take action to address these problems.

  2. The Effect of Foot Reflexology on Anxiety, Pain, and Outcomes of the Labor in Primigravida Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Moghimi-Hanjani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reflexology is a technique used widely as one of non-pharmacological pain managementtechniques. The present study aimed to review and determine the effect of foot reflexology on anxiety, painand outcomes of the labor in primigravida women. This clinical trial study was conducted on 80 primigravidamothers who were divided randomly into an intervention group (Foot reflexology applied for 40 min, n=40and control group (n=40. The pain intensity was scored immediately after the end of intervention and at 30,60 and 120 min after the intervention in both groups, based on McGill Questionnaire for Pain Rating Index(PRI. Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI was completed before and after intervention in bothgroups. Duration of labor phases, the type of labor and Apgar scores of the infant at the first and fifth minutewere recorded in both groups. Descriptive and inferential statistics methods (t-test and chi-square test wereapplied in analyzing data. Application of reflexology technique decreased pain intensity (at 30, 60 and 120min after intervention and duration of labor as well as anxiety level significantly (Psignificant difference was observed between two groups in terms of the frequency distribution of the type oflabor and Apgar score (Pduration of labor, anxiety, frequency distribution of natural delivery and increases Apgar scores. Using thisnon-invasive technique, obstetricians can achieve, to some extent, to one of the most important goals ofmidwifery as pain relief and reducing anxiety during labor and encourage the mothers to have a vaginaldelivery.

  3. Development and testing of nurses' perceptions of the use of hydrotherapy in labor questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Mary Ann; Miller, Michael G

    2010-01-01

    While effective for labor pain, hydrotherapy is not often used. The purpose of this study was to develop and test an instrument of nurses' perceptions of the barriers to the use of hydrotherapy in labor. Following generation of items and review by content experts, the Nurses' Perceptions of the Use of Hydrotherapy in Labor (NPUHL) questionnaire was administered to 65 intrapartum nurses (phase I) and to 401 nurses (phase II). In phase I, the mean score of the NPUHL was significantly and negatively correlated with the Labor Support Scale (r = -.30, p = .016), indicating that nurses who demonstrated more labor-supportive behaviors also perceived fewer barriers to the use of hydrotherapy in labor. In phase II, exploratory factor analysis revealed five factors: Health Care Environment, Knowledge and Beliefs, Personal Concerns, Effort Required for Hydrotherapy, and Technology. There was a significant negative correlation (r = -.61) between use of hydrotherapy and the total NPUHL score and those of its subscales (r = -.12 to -.61); nurses with access to hydrotherapy tubs perceived fewer barriers to hydrotherapy than nurses without (t = 9.71, df= 387, p < .01). For the revised 30-item NPUHL, Cronbach's alpha was .93, and subscale alphas ranged from .58 to .93. The 30-item NPUHL scale demonstrated evidence of good initial reliability and validity.

  4. Women's Changing Participation in the Labor Force: A World Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, T. Paul

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes how the composition of the labor force changes with economic development. It considers recent trends in women's labor force participation and the type of jobs held in various sectors as national per capita income increases. The paper notes that women are more likely to work in the family or informal labor market if the labor costs to firms exceed the opportunity costs of female labor to family enterprises. Firms are at a relative disadvantage compared with families in the...

  5. The estimation of labor life quality in regions of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Yelena Leonidovna Andreyeva; Tatyana Vladimirovna Polkova

    2013-01-01

    The methodology of labor life quality estimation based on research of the social and labor sphere of Russia regions over the last 10 years is described in the article. The most significant components of the labor life quality, allowing to estimate the central problem places of the social and labor sphere (employment and unemployment, salary and income, qualification and labor productivity, safety and work organization, business and investment activity) are allocated and proved. On...

  6. Model of monopolistic competition with heterogeneous labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filatov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a tool for modelling monopolistic competition markets, based on Dixit-Stiglitz ideology but taking into account heterogeneity at labor market. We analyse several modifications of a two-sector general equilibrium model. In the basic one with two levels of workers qualification their shares are determined endogenously on the base of comparison between the higher wage of the skilled worker and heterogeneous education costs, also taking into account the labor mobility between the manufacture and agriculture sector. The model is generalized for the case of continuous distribution of labor qualification. The impact of the model parameters (ratio of fixed and variable costs, market size, heterogeneity in productivity, elasticity of substitution, etc. on the obtained equilibrium prices, quantities, wages, number and size of firms, social welfare is investigated.

  7. [Miserable labor pain? Myths and nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Meei-Ling; Kao, Chien-Huei

    2013-12-01

    Pain is a common, normal, and healthy physical phenomenon during childbirth. However, widely held public and clinical perspectives treat pain as a pathologic process and consider labor pain in a negative context. These perspectives ignore the positive effects of pain in the domains of protection, new life, expectation, purpose, preparation, and progression. The pain interpretation and pain experience of new mothers deeply impact their mental health, maternal-infant relationship, and transition to motherhood. This paper introduces the common myths related to labor pain, the three stages of pain transmission, and the current approaches to pain management. The authors hope childbirth caregivers may accept labor pain as a meaningful, pleasant, and positive gift, which is the first and most important step toward effective pain management.

  8. How Long Is a Normal Labor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Blix, Ellen; Hegaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Normal progress of labor is a subject for discussion among professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the duration of labor in women with a planned home birth and spontaneous onset who gave birth at home or in hospital after transfer. METHODS: This is a population-based study...... of home births in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). All midwives assisting at a home birth from 2008 to 2013 were asked to provide information about home births using a questionnaire. RESULTS: Birth data from 1,612 women, from Denmark (n = 1,170), Norway (n = 263), Sweden (n...... = 138), and Iceland (n = 41) were included. The total median duration from onset of labor until the birth of the baby was approximately 14 hours for primiparas and 7.25 hours for multiparas. The duration of the different phases varied between countries. Blood loss more than 1,000 mL and perineal...

  9. Unfunded pensions and endogenous labor supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    A classic result in dynamic public economics, dating back to Aaron (1966) and Samuelson (1975), states that there is no welfare rationale for PAYG pensions in a dynamically-efficient neoclassical economy with exogenous labor supply. This paper argues that this result, under the fairly-mild restri......A classic result in dynamic public economics, dating back to Aaron (1966) and Samuelson (1975), states that there is no welfare rationale for PAYG pensions in a dynamically-efficient neoclassical economy with exogenous labor supply. This paper argues that this result, under the fairly......-mild restriction that the old be no less risk-averse than the young, extends to a neoclassical economy with endogenous labor supply....

  10. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  12. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    of men living in the neighborhood, but positively affected by the employment rate of non-Western immigrant men and co-national men living in the neighborhood. This is strong evidence that immigrants find jobs in part through their employed immigrant and co-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood of residence...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...

  13. Fertility Effects on Female Labor Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundborg, Petter; Plug, Erik; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    This paper introduces a new IV strategy based on IVF induced fertility variation in childless families to estimate the causal effect of having children on female labor supply using IVF treated women in Denmark. Because observed chances of IVF success do not depend on labor market histories, IVF...... treatment success provides a plausible instrument for childbearing. Our IV estimates indicate that fertility effects are: (a) negative, large and long lasting; (b) much stronger at the extensive margin than at the intensive margin, and (c) similar for mothers, not treated with IVF, which suggests that IVF...

  14. Labor development strategy in the bag industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maya Nihayah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to formulate strategies for improving the labor competencies in the bag industry in Kudus Regency. The data comprise business players, which will be analyzed using the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT analysis. The results reveal that the proper strategy for improving employment in the bag industry is growth and build strategy. Growth and development strategy are intensive actions undertaken through the development of labor competencies to improve the quality of output. It can be made with creating learning resources by designing methods and trainings refer to the Competency Based Training (CBT.

  15. Diverging patterns with endogenous labor migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichlin, P; Rustichini, A

    1998-05-05

    "The standard neoclassical model cannot explain persistent migration flows and lack of cross-country convergence when capital and labor are mobile. Here we present a model where both phenomena may take place.... Our model is based on the Arrow-Romer approach to endogenous growth theory. We single out the importance of a (however weak) scale effect from the size of the workforce.... The main conclusion of this simple model is that lack of convergence, or even divergence, among countries is possible, even with perfect capital mobility and labor mobility." excerpt

  16. Mythematics Solving the Twelve Labors of Hercules

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Michael

    2009-01-01

    How might Hercules, the most famous of the Greek heroes, have used mathematics to complete his astonishing Twelve Labors? From conquering the Nemean Lion and cleaning out the Augean Stables, to capturing the Erymanthean Boar and entering the Underworld to defeat the three-headed dog Cerberus, Hercules and his legend are the inspiration for this book of fun and original math puzzles. While Hercules relied on superhuman strength to accomplish the Twelve Labors, Mythematics shows how math could have helped during his quest. How does Hercules defeat the Lernean Hydra and stop its heads from multip

  17. Labor-Force Dynamics at Older Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissimopoulos, Julie M.; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Labor-market transitions toward the latter parts of workers’ careers can be complex, with movement between jobs and classes of work and in and out of retirement. The authors analyzed factors associated with the labor-market transitions of older workers to self-employment from unemployment or disability, retirement, or wage and salary work using rich panel data from seven waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). They found evidence that (prior) job characteristics and liquidity constraints are important predictors of movements to self-employment for workers and nonworkers, while risk aversion is a significant predictor only for workers. PMID:23049149

  18. Reflexiones sobre la incapacidad y aptitud laboral. Nuevas sinergias entre medicina evaluadora y medicina laboral. Historia clínica laboral única: la incapacidad laboral, un continuo evolutivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Eloy Díaz Salazar

    Full Text Available Numerosos agentes intervienen en la gestión de la incapacidad laboral, tanto temporal como permanente, y se hace necesario una actuación sinérgica entre todos ellos; del mismo modo, se considera que existen posibles actuaciones o cambios que pueden ayudar a disminuir el gasto y duración de los procesos, y proceder a la reincorporación laboral lo antes posible y de la forma más beneficiosa para el paciente, y, por ende, para la sociedad.

  19. From Labor Shortage to Labor Surplus: The Changing Labor Market Context and Its Meaning for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how the American economy has experienced sharp contractions in overall levels of output, income, and wealth resulting from the recent financial crisis, and how these losses have had an impact on the nation's labor market. The significance of these trends to American higher education is summarized in these terms: "Large labor…

  20. 75 FR 8402 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... . Executive Order No. 13126 (EO 13126) declared that it was ``the policy of the United States Government..., Vanuatu, Venezuela, Wallis and Futuna, West Bank and Gaza Strip, Western Sahara, Republic of Yemen, Zambia... penalize those responsible and the adequacy of these actions. (D) Government Policies on Child Labor DOL...

  1. 29 CFR 528.6 - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review. 528.6 Section 528.6 Labor Regulations Relating to... MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.6 Review. Any employer and, when appropriate, any apprenticeship agency or... order of annulment or withdrawal may obtain review, limited to the question of whether the findings of...

  2. Hacia un nuevo modelo laboral en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cruz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Towards a new labor model in SpainThe article starts with confirming the acceleration process in reforms of labor regulations-intensive and extensive-which is faced bySpain that has considered even the reform of constitutional framework. It should be noted that measures taken in the Spanish reform are aimed at increasing the employability of workers and with regard to promotion of employment stability; we find the incorporation of a new contractual modality, literally called “employment contract for indefinite time to support entrepreneurs”.Meanwhile, as the most important novelties are located the following: elimination with general character of administrative authorization for collective dismissals, the expansion of the proper reasons of economic dismissals, with the corresponding reduction effect of the judicial control as justification for business measure and the possible reduction in the practice of dismissal cost, the generalization of compensatory amount for unfair dismissal after 33 days of salary per year of seniority with limit of the 24 monthly salary, the complete suppression of processing salaries when the employer chooses indemnified extinction in case of unfair dismissal, among others. All this range of regulatory changes is analyzed critically by the author who, starting from the Spanish legislation, studies the most relevant legal concepts.

  3. An integrated program for developing auxillary processes and mechanization of physical labor in coal enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lostorfer, R.; Bendzsak, I.; Jakucs, S.; Lahorszki, L.; Rosa, A.; Szalai, K.

    1979-01-01

    After explaining the long-term plan of coal enterprises, a review is given of the engineering and economic system of an enterprise. A detailed analysis of the auxilliary processes and mechanization of physical labor is presented. A description of underground and surface transport, repair of mining vehicles, stock-piling and preservation of tailings are presented.

  4. The Darjeeling Distinction: Labor and Justice on Fair-Trade Tea Plantations in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Poerting

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: The Darjeeling Distinction: Labor and Justice on Fair-Trade Tea Plantations in India. By Sarah Besky. Berkeley, CA: University of California press, 2014. xxxi + 233 pp. US$ 29.95. ISBN 978-0-520-27739-7.

  5. Partograph as a tool for team work management of spontaneous labor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is presently being debated whether the partograph is a useful tool for labor supervision and, if useful, where should the action line be located between 2, 3 or 4 h to improve the fetomaternal outcome. This review adduces facts to show that this debate is because there is a poor understanding of the essence and purpose of ...

  6. 78 FR 31970 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Federal Labor Standards Payee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... AGENCY: Office of Labor Relations, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The proposed information collection requirement described below will be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. HUD is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. The...

  7. Challenges in Albania for improving Labor Market Information System and Labor Market Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neshat Zeneli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Labour Market Policy of the Republic of Albania in terms of design (preparation, case identification, formulation, and approval, programming and budgeting, implementation, monitoring and evaluation has a short experience (1995-ongoing. The influence and presence of hierarchy model is very high beside the support of different programs and projects through bilateral and EU programs. Still there are a lot of key issues to be addressed. The most important issues to be addressed in this paper are evidence based related to: • The Availability of Labor Market Information and its structure on national, regional and local level in Albania and how much this information is used for -policy making and –monitoring/evaluation in terms of input, output, outcome and impact. • Mode of the governance of the labor market in Albania and challenges to pass from the hierarchy to market and network governance. The main aim of this paper/article is to do a complete and deep analysis of the actual situation of labor market information system and labor market governance in Albania, and to propose conclusions and recommendations that will improve both labor market information system and the labor market governance from hierarchy to market and network governance, because good and standardized labor information system can help towards right policy decisions and good governance of LM policy means more employment, more stability, more social inclusion in the society.

  8. PENENTU UPAH REGIONAL: TENAGA KERJA TERDIDIK (SKILLED LABOR DAN TIDAK TERDIDIK (UNSKILLED LABOR DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maya Nihayah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The wage have impacts on poverty, living standards and the incentive to improve labor productivity (human capital, in particular, for economic growth. Regional decentralization has implications, which, they must be developed regional endowment to get the efficiency in production process. So it is interesting to examine the importance of regional characteristics in the observed variability of regional wage in Indonesia. Based on this idea, the objective of this study is to examine the contribution of regional characteristics to the regional wage differential in Indonesia. Data supplied by the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics during 2003 – 2007. In this study used 3 model; Ordinary Least Square (OLS, Co-Varian Model and Generalized Least Squared (GLS. Then, the most effective model based on the smallest standard error was chosen to estimate regional characteristics in the observed variability of regional wage inIndonesia. The result showed that the regional characteristics, particularly skilled or unskilled labor, play an important role in determining the wage differentials in region. The empirical evidence presented that regional economic growth and the existing of high skilled labor in labor market have positive impact toward spatial wage. Then, skilled labor and unskilled will give negative influence in regional wage. The points out is laboring existence with level education or skilled level, despite not works or was working have influence toward the regional wage. Therefore, labor's policy is expected gets focused on given specialization corresponds to that region characteristics.

  9. Between hearth and labor market: the recruitment of peasant women in the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, S A

    1990-01-01

    To cover subsistence requirements, peasant women from the Peruvian Andes increasingly are being forced to engage in income-generating activities, including domestic service, marketing, manufacturing, and herding. In many cases, recruitment into waged labor involves migration from rural communities. Case studies of the placement of peasant women in external labor markets illustrate the complex micro- and macro-level factors that determine the mix of productive and reproductive labor. The sexual division of labor in the domestic economy and community is the critical in regulating the length of absence of peasant women from the home, the types of jobs taken, and the migratory destination. In 1 such case study, 56 women from the village of Kallarayan (all of whom had migrated at some point) were interviewed during 13 months of fieldwork in 1984-85. There is no paid employment in Kallarayan, so 14% of the village's population is involved in migration to urban areas or commercial agricultural areas in jungle valleys at any point. Male migration is high in the 11-40-year age group, but becomes seasonal once men marry. Female migrants tend to remain away from the village for longer periods, but are almost exclusively single. Recruitment of peasant women into paid labor is achieved by 5 types of agents: family, godparents and friends, authority figures, recruiting agents, and employers. Peasant girls under 15 years of age tend to be allocated to external labor markets (largely domestic services) by parents and godparents; after 15 years, however, when children are considered to reach adulthood, there is a shift toward self-motivated migration or recruitment by employers and agents. The eldest daughter typically enters migration at age 14 years and sacrifices her education, while younger siblings remain in the home longer. In all but the poorest families, female migration for waged labor ends with marriage.

  10. Experience of attaining high labor productivity in a stoping face using mechanized complex 110PK-70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshetnikov, M N

    1982-01-01

    In 1979 when the first 1 million T of coal was produced at the mine ''Zyryanovskaya'' high volumes of coal extraction were attained in individual months: in January 102,300 T, in July 122,200 T. In 1980, high results were also attained. In January 106,000 T were extracted and in November 108,500 T of coal. The brigade has accumulated experience for introducing scientific organization of labor and improving labor productivity. In 1977 labor productivity of the workers in the stoping face was 31.5 T per shift, in 1978 variable productivity was elevated to 48.2 T. In 1979 labor productivity reached 67.3 T per shift. The best results for productivity was reached in June 1979, 90 T at the outlet, in February 1980--81.1 T per shift. The success of the brigade is formed of many factors, technical, organizational, economic. The basis for high labor productivity of the workers is timely preparation of new longwalls, normal production conditions for fulfillment of plans and the adopted socialist commitments. An important factor in the work of the extraction brigade is the type and condition of mining equipment. The level of work organization as a whole depends on the brigade, directly on the miners and the section leaders themselves. High conscientiousness of all the brigade members also is important for improving labor productivity. The majority of workers in the brigade (about 70%) are members of the party. Mass technical creativity of all the brigade members is also a great reserve for improving labor efficiency. The brigade has 24 efficiency experts who annually introduce 20-30 suggestions each aimed at improving work efficiency.

  11. Do international labor standards contribute to the persistence of the child-labor problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of governments and consumer groups in rich countries have tried to discourage the use of child labor in poor countries through measures such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards. The purported objective of such measures is to reduce the incidence of child labor in developing countries and thereby improve children�s welfare. In this paper, we examine the effects of such policies from a political-economy perspective. We show that th...

  12. Ethanol for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, David M; Morgan, Amanda M; Deans, Samantha J; Schubert, Frank P

    2015-11-05

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of death and disability in newborns worldwide. A wide variety of tocolytic agents have been utilized to delay birth for women in preterm labor. One of the earliest tocolytics utilized for this purpose was ethanol infusion, although this is not generally used in current practice due to safety concerns for both the mother and her baby. To determine the efficacy of ethanol in stopping preterm labor, preventing preterm birth, and the impact of ethanol on neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included randomized and quasi-randomized studies. Cluster-randomized trials and cross-over design trials were not eligible for inclusion. We only included studies published in abstract form if there was enough information on methods and relevant outcomes. Trials were included if they compared ethanol infusion to stop preterm labor versus placebo/control or versus other tocolytic drugs. At least two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and risk of bias. At least two review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Twelve trials involving 1586 women met inclusion criteria for this review. One trial did not report on the outcomes of interest in this review.Risk of bias of included studies: The included studies generally were of low quality based on inadequate reporting of methodology. Only three trials had low risk of bias for random sequence generation and one had low risk of bias for allocation concealment and participant blinding. Most studies were either high risk of bias or uncertain in these key areas. Comparison 1: Ethanol versus placebo/control (two trials, 77 women) Compared to controls receiving pain medications and dextrose solution, ethanol did not improve any of the primary outcomes: birth labour. However, it would be useful for long-term follow-up studies on the babies born

  13. El Acoso ó “Mobbing” Laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcira Isabel Muñoz Osorio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo, producto de un proyecto de investigación institucional y un proyecto de aula de la cátedra dederecho laboral individual, realiza un análisis de las situaciones que surgen en el ámbito del ambiente laboral,que de una u otra forma perjudican y desestabilizan al trabajador, sujeto pasivo del acoso. El artículo pretendedar a conocer que todo ultraje y/o maltrato que se presenta en el ambiente laboral de manera repetitiva, públicay que atenta contra la dignidad humana, hoy día es objeto de sanciones. Se revisan además los antecedentes yel marco jurídico de esta conducta.Palabras claves:Acoso laboral, mobbing, agresivo, persistente, demostrable, atropello.Abstract:This article, the product of an institutional research project and a draft class of the class of individual employmentlaw, an analysis of the situations that arise in the context of the workplace, which in one way or another harmand destabilize the worker, taxpayer harassment. The article aims to show that every outrage and / or abuse thatoccurs in the workplace so repetitive, public and undermines human dignity, is now subject to sanctions. It alsolooks into the background and legal framework for this behavior.Keywords:Harassment, bullying, aggressive, persistent, demonstrable killing.

  14. Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…

  15. Department of Labor Issues. Transition Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Secretary of Labor should place emphasis on five issues to ensure safe and healthful workplaces and to promote the welfare of wage earners. First, the Secretary should improve the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's enforcement program. Second, the Secretary should enhance the use of Job Training Partnership Act resources. Third,…

  16. A Positive Stigma for Child Labor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a simple empirical model that assumes a positive stigma (or norm) towards child labor that is common in some developing countries. We then illustrate our positive stigma model using data from Guatemala. Controlling for several child- and household-level characteristics, we use two instruments for measuring stigma: a child's indigenous…

  17. A positive stigma for child labor ?

    OpenAIRE

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2008-01-01

    The authors introduce a simple empirical model that assumes a positive stigma (or norm) toward child labor that is common in some developing countries. They illustrate the positive stigma model using data from Guatemala. Controlling for several child and household-level characteristics, the analysis uses two instruments for measuring stigma: a child's indigenous background and the househol...

  18. Vulnerabilidad laboral de la mujer rural latinoamericana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime de Pablo Valenciano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda el estudio de la situación laboral de las mujeres rurales en los países latinoamericanos. Las mujeres rurales son uno de los grupos sociales más vulnerables en el ámbito laboral latinoamericano, debido a su baja participación laboral, a la categorización ocupacional mayoritaria como trabajadoras por cuenta propia y familiar no remunerado y a índices de feminización positivos. Pero sus posibilidades de mejorar su condición de vulnerabilidad social laboral se centra principalmente en el Empleo Rural No Agrario (ERNA, con gran potencial en el desarrollo rural, y al apoyo legislativo en cuanto al acceso a los bienes de tierra. Frente al proceso de urbanización es necesario implementar políticas públicas que tengan en cuenta la existencia de las mujeres rurales como trabajadoras en el ámbito rural y diseñar medidas de ayuda especialmente dirigidas a este colectivo.

  19. Neighborhood quality and labor market outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2014-01-01

    of refugee men. Their labor market outcomes are also not affected by the overall employment rate and the overall average skill level in the neighborhood. However, an increase in the average skill level of non-Western immigrant men living in the neighborhood raises their employment probability, while...

  20. Emotional Labor, Face and Guan xi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianwenling

    2017-01-01

    Emotional Labor, Face and Guan xi are all relevant to performance, appearance, and emotional feelings, which are essential elements in work place. In other words, not only front-line workers, but all employees in an organization is faced up with the three

  1. Cognitive Capitalism, Education and Digital Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A., Ed.; Bulut, Ergin, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive capitalism--sometimes referred to as "third capitalism," after mercantilism and industrial capitalism--is an increasingly significant theory, given its focus on the socio-economic changes caused by Internet and Web 2.0 technologies that have transformed the mode of production and the nature of labor. The theory of cognitive…

  2. Labor tax reform, unemployment, and search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, Ben J.; Ligthart, Jenny E.

    A key obstacle to reducing payroll taxes in many industrialized and transition countries is the direct revenue loss to the government that it implies. This paper studies a simple and practical labor tax reform of reducing a payroll tax and increasing a progressive wage tax that keeps the marginal

  3. Labor recruitment and economic freedoms in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Rozanova, Marya S.

    2016-01-01

    In the spring of 2015, Jan Cremers (UvT-TLS) contributed to an international congress in Saint Petersburg dedicated to labor migration. The conference was organized by the state university of Saint Petersburg, the Friedrich-Ebert-Foundation in the Russian Federation, the Center for Civil, Social,

  4. Globalization, industrialization, and labor markets in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund, Irene; Tran, *Angie Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    exports in 2013. Evidence shows that the ‘high road’ to industrialization model – with domestic linkages and skills upgrading – does not accompany growth in exports, as low-skilled assembly, mostly young female workers join the labor force with non-liveable wages and substandard working conditions...

  5. Labor market in Serbia: 1990-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Key problems in transitions in Serbia can be analyzed through the processes happening at the labor market. Labor market in Serbia is divided on the formal and informal one ("gray". The basic problem is mass unemployment. The unemployment in Serbia is not frictional unemployment resulting from decisions of workers to change their jobs. This kind of unemployment is considered normal at all labor markets. Since it is not frictional, unemployment in Serbia is not short-term one. This unemployment is by its nature structural and therefore long-term. Structural unemployment always arises as a result of the illadapted structure of labor supply and demand. There is a particularly high level of long-term unemployment among young people who practically do not have any work experience. The only realistic solution for mass unemployment and low wages in the Serbian economy is increasing of productivity and overall economic efficiency. Stimulating entrepreneurship and opening of new companies to absorb an enormous number of unemployed is the central issue of the economic reform. Instead of short-term passive measures, the state should adopt active measures aimed at stimulating of entrepreneurship and creating of new jobs.

  6. Temporal Autonomy in a Laboring Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, R.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss which stance towards the allocation of labor and leisure would be defensible from the perspective of modern liberal political theory. There is a long tradition in philosophy defending an ideal of leisure, but this tradition has been rightly criticized for being

  7. "Dynamic Labor Shortage" In the Offing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lawrence

    1982-01-01

    The United States is on the verge of a labor shortage that is partly the result of declining birth rates. An increase in work force participation by older adults, encouraged by reversals of early retirement and other policy changes, would be advantageous to employers, workers, and the economy. (Author/SK)

  8. Essays on health and labor economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullegie, P.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with a range of topics in health and labor economics. The first part examines the validity of a method that aims at improving the interpersonal comparability of self-reports in surveys. The second part is concerned with the question how the demand for medical care is related to

  9. [Labor market and health. SESPAS Report 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana M

    2010-12-01

    The labor market, where the supply of labor meets demand, determines employment and working conditions, with positive and negative effects on the active population's health and that of their families. Labor markets are also affected by national and international social and economic policies. Unemployment, precarious contracts and new types of employment have been shown to be related to exposure to living and working conditions that cause physical and mental health problems. Some collectives, such as manual, young or immigrant workers, are more vulnerable to labor market fluctuations and more frequently experience adverse employment and working conditions. The current situation in Spain is now highly worrysome. In Spain, in 2009, more than 1.2 million workers lost their jobs. The unemployment rate has doubled in 5 years, from 9% in 2005 to 18% in 2009. Temporary contracts account for 24% of all job contracts. Economic and employment policies are urgently needed to reverse this situation, which unquestionably has a negative effect on people's health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Roundtable discussion: Early labor: what's the problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Patricia; Nolan, Mary L.; Spiby, Helen; Green, Josephine; Gross, Mechthild M.; Cheyne, Helen; Hundley, Vanora; Rijnders, Marlies; de Jonge, Ank; Buitendijk, Simone

    2009-01-01

    PREFACE: In places where hospital birth is the norm, one of the major contemporary challenges to the organization of intrapartum care is posed by women who are not in established labor. In the United Kingdom, these women have been given a special name, "Category X," and they can account for a

  11. Roundtable discussion : Early labor : What's the problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, P.; Nolan, M.L.; Spiby, H.; Green, J.; Gross, M.M.; Cheyne, H.; Hundley, V.; Rijnders, M.; Jonge, A.de; Buitendijk, S.

    2009-01-01

    PREFACE: In places where hospital birth is the norm, one of the major contemporary challenges to the organization of intrapartum care is posed by women who are not in established labor. In the United Kingdom, these women have been given a special name, "Category X," and they can account for a

  12. Female labor supply and housing decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldershof, T.

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on the labor supply decisions of married and cohabiting women in relation to the housing tenure choice decision. The main motivation for a joint analysis has been the relaxation of the mortgage qualification constraint. Since 1992 households can take out a mortgage on the

  13. Teaching Labor Relations with "Norma Rae"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Vicki Fairbanks; Provitera, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate business students in North America are often unfamiliar with the labor organizing process and frequently fail to identify with the reasons why workers join unions. This article suggests a discussion exercise based on the 1979 film, "Norma Rae," by 20th Century Fox, as an effective tool for familiarizing students with fundamental…

  14. Labor Factor Efficiency in the Agricultural Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    R?y, Inna U.; Shakulikova, Gulzada T.; Kozhakhmetova, Gulnar A.; Lashkareva, Olga V.; Bondarenko, Elena G.; Bermukhambetova, Botagoz B.; Baimagambetova, Zamzagul A.; Zhetessova, Mariyam T.; Beketova, Kamar N.; Anafiyaeva, Zhibek

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural problems associated with prospects of the rural population and agriculture in general have recently become an important factor in the modern economic policy development. The urgency of finding ways to improve the labor resource efficiency in agriculture pursuant to the state tasks is determined by the need to restore the agricultural…

  15. Labor Migration from Ukraine to the EU: an Analysis of Characteristics and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezrukova Nataliya V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing characteristics of labor migration from Ukraine to the European Union and evaluating the possible consequences of this process, as well as determining the future development trends in terms of emigration from Ukraine. The main directions of labor migration from Ukraine have been examined. An estimation of the volume of labor migration has been provided. Data about the socio-demographic characteristics of migrants have been presented. It is specified that the process of emigration has both positive and negative consequences for our country. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of employment settings of migrants in the Member States of the European Union. The main causes of emigration from Ukraine, among which both unemployment and low wages, have been allocated. The authors prove that the average monthly salary of Ukrainian migrants in the EU Member States is much higher than in Ukraine. On the basis of the carried out study has been concluded that labor migration from Ukraine to the EU has important socio-economic importance to our State. At the same time, signing of the Association agreement between Ukraine, on the one hand, and the European Union, the European Atomic Energy Community and their Member States, on the other hand, as well as introduction of a visa-free regime, will contribute to an increase in the number of labor migrants.

  16. Incapacidad y aptitud laboral. Nuevas sinergias entre medicina evaluadora y medicina laboral. Historia clínica laboral única: la capacidad laboral, un continuo evolutivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando García Benavides

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En España coexisten dos sistemas públicos de salud: el universal, gestionado por las comunidades autónomas y financiado con impuestos, y el laboral, gestionado por las Mutuas y financiado por cuotas a la Seguridad Social, los cuales se reparten la responsabilidad de gestión de la incapacidad laboral. Esta doble dependencia dificulta la gestión de esta importante prestación sanitaria y social. Una gestión que es diferente en función de la etiología (común o profesional y su pronóstico (temporal o permanente. Para poder comprender mejor la naturaleza de la incapacidad laboral, y que su investigación sea útil para mejorar su gestión médica y social, conviene adoptar una perspectiva longitudinal (life course research, analizando trayectorias de incapacidad en los individuos, y no solo episodios aislados. Una trayectoria de incapacidad que debemos analizar junto a la trayectoria laboral de esa misma persona. Para analizar conjuntamente las trayectorias laboral y de incapacidad disponemos de la Muestra Continua de Vidas Laborales de la Seguridad Social desde 2004. Una muestra de 873.008 afiliados (un 4%, aproximadamente en 2009 entre los que se produjeron 163.136 episodios de incapacidad temporal (IT iniciados en 2009, las cuales evolucionaron entre 2009 y 2012 a 4.738 casos de incapacidad permanente (IP. Un 2,9% en total, que fue del 12,6% en caso de tumores malignos (282 IP de 2.234 IT y del 9,2% en el caso de enfermedades cardiovasculares (344 IP de 3.532 IT. En un contexto de incremento de la esperanza de vida y la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas (vivimos más pero con más incapacidad necesitamos analizar longitudinalmente las trayectorias de incapacidad para poder prevenir los años de vida laboral perdidos por IP, los cuales, como sabemos, están relacionados con la trayectoria laboral (1.

  17. Observations vs. theory of household labor supply vol. I

    OpenAIRE

    Obi, Keiichiro

    1986-01-01

    In this paper I shall be using three different units of laborsupply; labor supply in man units, in hourly units, and in man-hour units.The first category, labor supply in man units, indicates the quantity oflabor supplied as measured by the number of persons who are willing to work.Labor supply in hourly units refers to the quantity of percapita labor supplymeasured in hourly units. Finally, labor supply in man-hour units indicatesthe quantity of labor supplied by a group of persons measured ...

  18. Improving Staff Communication and Transitions of Care Between Obstetric Triage and Labor and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Kathleen; Teel, Joseph; Nicholls, Erika; Lee, Daniel D; Colwill, Alyssa Covelli; Srinivas, Sindhu K

    2018-03-01

    To improve staff perception of the quality of the patient admission process from obstetric triage to the labor and delivery unit through standardization. Preassessment and postassessment online surveys. A 13-bed labor and delivery unit in a quaternary care, Magnet Recognition Program, academic medical center in Pennsylvania. Preintervention (n = 100), postintervention (n = 52), and 6-month follow-up survey respondents (n = 75) represented secretaries, registered nurses, surgical technicians, certified nurse-midwives, nurse practitioners, maternal-fetal medicine fellows, anesthesiologists, and obstetric and family medicine attending and resident physicians from triage and labor and delivery units. We educated staff and implemented interventions, an admission huddle and safety time-out whiteboard, to standardize the admission process. Participants were evaluated with the use of preintervention, postintervention, and 6-month follow-up surveys about their perceptions regarding the admission process. Data tracked through the electronic medical record were used to determine compliance with the admission huddle and whiteboards. A 77% reduction (decrease of 49%) occurred in the perception of incomplete patient admission processes from baseline to 6-month follow-up after the intervention. Postintervention and 6-month follow-up survey results indicated that 100% of respondents responded strongly agree/agree/neutral that the new admission process improved communication surrounding care for patients. Data in the electronic medical record indicated that compliance with use of admission huddles and whiteboards increased from 50% to 80% by 6 months. The new patient admission process, including a huddle and safety time-out board, improved staff perception of the quality of admission from obstetric triage to the labor and delivery unit. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Examination of the Pharmacology of Oxytocin and Clinical Guidelines for Use in Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Katie; McCool, William F; Guidera, Mamie

    2017-07-01

    The use of exogenous oxytocin to induce or augment labor has increased in recent years. This literature-informed review examines the action of this medication and the potential associated complications, with an evaluation of current professional practice guidelines. A brief history of the use of exogenous oxytocin for labor induction or augmentation is presented. In addition, risk management strategies for the prevention of oxytocin-related adverse outcomes and subsequent litigation are identified. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  20. [Migration to the northern frontier of Mexico and its relationship with the regional labor market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguiano Tellez, M E

    1998-01-01

    "This document tries to show the close relationship between the recent population growth in the northern border cities of Mexico and the dynamic demand of the regional market labor. First, it analyzes the evolution of demographic growth and the development of economic activities, in the Mexican borders in urban towns, then it reviews the data from the survey called Encuesta sobre Migracion en la Frontera Norte de Mexico in order to explore the connection between the regional labor market characteristics and the internal and international migration flows." (EXCERPT)