WorldWideScience

Sample records for monterey sardine sardinops

  1. Anchovy Engraulis capensis and sardine Sardinops sagax currently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    within-season variability in factors affecting sardine Sardinops sagax and anchovy Engraulis capensis recruitment. .... variogram. ... formerly SF, unpublished data) were based on length ..... the front offshore, along with many eggs and larvae.

  2. Worldwide, where anchovies Engraulis spp. and sardine Sardinops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    sardine Sardinops sagax co-occur, the two species alternate in ... the west coasts of South America and southern Africa, ... of extinction in the wild within 100 years (Croxall et al. 1996) ..... able to penguins year-round, compared to the seasonal.

  3. Although South African sardine (or pilchard, Sardinops sagax) were ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    (iii) as anchovy and sardine frequently shoal together during their first ... Fishery Resources Division, Food and Agricultural Organization, Via delle Terme di Caracalla 00100, Rome, Italy. ...... risk and “scope for growth” as performance criteria.

  4. Constant harvest rate for the Pacific sardine (Sardinops caeruleus) fishery in the Gulf of California based on catchability-at-length estimations

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Constant harvest rate as a management strategy for the Pacific sardine (Sardinops caeruleus) fishery in the Gulf of California is supported by an analysis of variations in the catchability coefficient (q), stock abundance and commercial catch. Catchability was analyzed based on population length-structured data standard length (SL), expressed as CPUE, for 26 fishing seasons (1972-1973 to 1997-1998). We used a deterministic model of catchability to estimate the catchability-at-length assuming ...

  5. Stomach Chitinase from Japanese Sardine Sardinops melanostictus: Purification, Characterization, and Molecular Cloning of Chitinase Isozymes with a Long Linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Satoshi; Ikehata, Hiroki; Tada, Chihiro; Ogino, Tomohiro; Kakizaki, Hiromi; Ikeda, Mana; Fukushima, Hideto; Matsumiya, Masahiro

    2016-01-20

    Fish express two different chitinases, acidic fish chitinase-1 (AFCase-1) and acidic fish chitinase-2 (AFCase-2), in the stomach. AFCase-1 and AFCase-2 have different degradation patterns, as fish efficiently degrade chitin ingested as food. For a comparison with the enzymatic properties and the primary structures of chitinase isozymes obtained previously from the stomach of demersal fish, in this study, we purified chitinase isozymes from the stomach of Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus, a surface fish that feeds on plankton, characterized the properties of these isozymes, and cloned the cDNAs encoding chitinases. We also predicted 3D structure models using the primary structures of S. melanostictus stomach chitinases. Two chitinase isozymes, SmeChiA (45 kDa) and SmeChiB (56 kDa), were purified from the stomach of S. melanostictus. Moreover, two cDNAs, SmeChi-1 encoding SmeChiA, and SmeChi-2 encoding SmeChiB were cloned. The linker regions of the deduced amino acid sequences of SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 (SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2) are the longest among the fish stomach chitinases. In the cleavage pattern groups toward short substrates and the phylogenetic tree analysis, SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 were classified into AFCase-1 and AFCase-2, respectively. SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 had catalytic domains that consisted of a TIM-barrel (β/α)₈-fold structure and a deep substrate-binding cleft. This is the first study showing the 3D structure models of fish stomach chitinases.

  6. Traditionally, sardine Sardinops sagax has been the backbone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Grant Program, San Diego, California, USA, in cooperation with Centro de Investigaciones ... maturity of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) during a period of large variations in stock .... Trudy– AtlantNIRO 73: 77–85 (in Russian). ROCHET, M. J. 1998 ...

  7. Anchovy Engraulis capensis, sardine Sardinops sagax and round ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    all years in the recruitment time-series from 1985 to. 1994. ... Forecasts of anchovy recruitment from multiple cruises may produce a different result from the forecast ... abundance, phyto- and zooplankton biomass, copepod ...... estuarine lake.

  8. The southern African sardine Sardinops sagax (also known as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    mental factors that affect stock dynamics primarily through recruitment, and .... school-groups contributed an increasing proportion ..... of a recovery in the stock in the early 1990s were not ..... must strive to promote a healthy spawning stock,.

  9. The southern African sardine Sardinops sagax supports major purse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Echo-Integrator post-processing system (Foote et al. 1991). ... noise-reduction filters at weak, and with frequency ..... approach based on acoustic image simulation. Aquat. ... GERLOTTO, F., SORIA, M. and P. FRÉON 1999 — From 2D to.

  10. Anchovies to Whales: tracking vertebrate biodiversity in Monterey Bay by metabarcoding environmental DNA (eDNA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closek, C. J.; Starks, H.; Walz, K.; Boehm, A. B.; Chavez, F.

    2016-12-01

    The oscillation between the dominance of Sardinops sagax (pacific sardine) and Engraulis mordax (northern anchovy) has been documented in the California Coastal Ecosystem for more than 100 years. These two species are strong drivers of trophic interactions in the region. As part of the Marine Biodiversity Observational Network (MBON) initiative, we used archived filtered seawater samples collected late-summer to mid-fall over a span of 8 years from Monterey Bay, CA to examine the change in marine vertebrate environmental DNA (eDNA). Water samples were collected from a nearshore location in Monterey Bay (C1) during the years of 2008-15. The water was then filtered, and the filter was archived at -80°C. DNA was extracted from the filters, and the 12S rRNA gene present in mitochondrial DNA was PCR amplification using primers designed to amplify 12s rRNA genes from marine vertebrates. The amplicons were subsequently sequenced with an Illumina MiSeq and the data processed using an analysis pipeline for sequence annotation. More than 20 fish genera were noted in the sequences from 2008-12, with Engraulis the dominant fish genus from 2013-15. Anchovy and Megaptera novaeangliae (humpback whale) were present in temporal patterns similar to those noted during visual observations where anchovy and humpback whale were more abundant during the years of 2013-2015 than the other years. This study demonstrates our ability to detect megafauna and fish species that are important to the Monterey Bay ecosystem from coastal water samples and determine community structural differences over time.

  11. Managing small-scale commercial fisheries for adaptive capacity: insights from dynamic social-ecological drivers of change in Monterey Bay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy E Aguilera

    Full Text Available Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax, northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax, and market squid (Loligo opalescens fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience.

  12. Managing small-scale commercial fisheries for adaptive capacity: insights from dynamic social-ecological drivers of change in Monterey Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Stacy E; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C; Carr, Mark H; Cinner, Joshua E; Crowder, Larry B; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C; Kittinger, John N; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience.

  13. Climate, Anchovy, and Sardine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkley, David M.; Asch, Rebecca G.; Rykaczewski, Ryan R.

    2017-01-01

    Anchovy and sardine populated productive ocean regions over hundreds of thousands of years under a naturally varying climate, and are now subject to climate change of equal or greater magnitude occurring over decades to centuries. We hypothesize that anchovy and sardine populations are limited in size by the supply of nitrogen from outside their habitats originating from upwelling, mixing, and rivers. Projections of the responses of anchovy and sardine to climate change rely on a range of model types and consideration of the effects of climate on lower trophic levels, the effects of fishing on higher trophic levels, and the traits of these two types of fish. Distribution, phenology, nutrient supply, plankton composition and production, habitat compression, fishing, and acclimation and adaptation may be affected by ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation, and altered hydrology. Observations of populations and evaluation of model skill are essential to resolve the effects of climate change on these fish.

  14. Monterey Pop

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Der ästhetisch ambitionierte und kommerziell erfolgreiche Dylanfilm DONT LOOK BACK, den Pennebaker 1967 produziert hatte, machte die Produzenten des First International Monterey Pop Festivals auf den Dokumentaristen aus der Direct-Cinema-Gruppe um Robert Drew aufmerksam. Allerdings hatte er noch nie einen wirklichen Konzertfilm gemacht – in DONT LOOK BACK lag der thematische Schwerpunkt auf Dylan und nicht auf seiner Musik –, geschweige denn ein ganzes Festival verfilmt. In MONTEREY POP lässt...

  15. Effects of Climate Change on Sardine Productivity in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, T. R.; Auad, G.; Miller, A. J.

    2007-05-01

    The Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caeruleus) is one of several coastal pelagic, planktivorous species of fish that provide important trophic links within the ecosystems of the major eastern and western boundary currents. Significant and persistent change in sardine productivity has occurred in the California Current over interdecadal periods in response to reorganization of basin-wide, ocean-atmosphere circulation. Less extreme, but still significant changes in sardine productivity are associated with interannual to decadal-scale climate variability. A precipitous decline of the sardine population began in the mid-1940s with a shift in climate leading to cooling of the California Current system. While the decline, and ultimately the collapse of the population, was exacerbated by intensive fishing, the sardine also suffered a severe reduction in productivity with the southward contraction of favorable thermal habitat that led to restriction of the population to the waters off Southern California and Baja California. This southward displacement resulted in geographic separation of the population from the region off central and northern California that is characterized by significantly higher concentrations of zooplankton that supported the previous levels of success in spawning and larval development. The climate shift in 1976-77 led to the recovery of the population and extension of its range of distribution northwards into the waters off British Columbia. The relation of reproductive success of the sardine population to interannual and decadal climate change was examined for the period 1982-2005 using a suite of seasonal indices representing climate processes and habitat conditions (including zooplankton food levels) occurring through the different stages in the sardine life cycle. We used both stepwise regression and EOF analyses to determine the association between levels of recruitment success and seasonal indices of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Ekman

  16. Mixed layer depth variations in the Kuroshio Extension in relation to Japanese sardine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, I.; Nishikawa, H.; Itoh, S.

    2008-12-01

    Mixed layer depths in and south of the Kuroshio Extension changed from deep to shallow states in the late- 1980s and early-1990s. This change corresponded to the collapse of Japanese sardine (Sardinops melanostictus). This mixed layer shoaling was accompanied by lower temperature in 200-400m depths and higher temperature near the surface. Wintertime field survey in 2006 (Hakuho-maru KH06-1 cruise) demonstrated that late winter maximum mixed layer depth reach deeper with the greater isothermal depth of 14-15degC and higher temperature in 300-400m depth. High-resolution ocean model hindcast data suggests that the accelerated near-surface Kuroshio/Kuroshio Extension associated with the elevated sea-surface height anomaly enhanced the heat transport near the surface. This greater heat advection near the surface overrides the cooler subtropical mode water that was created in the previous years possibly causes the shallower winter mixed layer and collapse of the Japanese sardine.

  17. Monterey MRWPCA Interceptor Pipeline 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Monterey Interceptor between Seaside Pump Station and Monterey Beach Resort is buried in the dunes, approximately 100 to 175 feet from the dune bluff. Between...

  18. Monterey MRWPCA Interceptor Pipeline 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Monterey Interceptor between Seaside Pump Station and Monterey Beach Resort is buried in the dunes, approximately 100 to 175 feet from the dune bluff. Between...

  19. [Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content in naturally canned jurel, sardine, salmon, and tuna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, N; Robert, P; Masson, L; Luck, C; Buschmann, L

    1996-03-01

    To obtain more information about fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of fat extracted from canned fish in brine habitually consumed in Chile, four different species Jurel (Trachurus murphyi), Sardine (Sardinops sagax), Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) were analyzed. The GLC of fatty acid methyl esters showed that the main group of fatty acids belongs to polyunsaturated, being omega-3 family the more important. The principal representants were eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), with percentages between 5%-11% and 12%-22% respectively. Omega-6 family was represented mainly by arachidonic acid (AA) with percentages between 2%-4%. Cholesterol content was similar to the values found in other animal origen meats. The figures were between 41-86 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of edible product, Tuna in brine, was the product with the lowest content of cholesterol. The calculated amount of EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acids indicated values between 95-604, 390-1163 and 609-2775 mg respectively per 100 g of edible product. Due these results is important to emphasize the consumption of this type of canned fish in brine, that they really represent a good dietary source of mainly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The international recommendations indicate to increase the consumption of fish, due the beneficial effects described in relation with cardiovascular disease, which is the mean cause of death in Chile, country with a wide variety of marine origen foods, but with a contradictory answer about its consumption which is not incorporated in the current diet.

  20. 2012 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake (Merluccius productus) and Pacific Sardine (Sardinops sagax) (SH1204, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring (FRAM) division at the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC), the Fishery Resources...

  1. The 2012 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake (Merluccius productus) and Pacific Sardine (Sardinops sagax) (SH1204, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring (FRAM) division at the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC), the Fishery Resources...

  2. Demonstration of a fully-coupled end-to-end model for small pelagic fish using sardine and anchovy in the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kenneth A.; Fiechter, Jerome; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Kate; Bernal, Miguel; Creekmore, Sean; Haynie, Alan; Ito, Shin-ichi; Lluch-Cota, Salvador; Megrey, Bernard A.; Edwards, Chris A.; Checkley, Dave; Koslow, Tony; McClatchie, Sam; Werner, Francisco; MacCall, Alec; Agostini, Vera

    2015-11-01

    -1990s from anchovy to sardine dominance. Simulated averaged weights- and lengths-at-age did not vary much across decades, and movement patterns showed anchovy located close to the coast while sardine were more dispersed and farther offshore. Albacore predation on anchovy and sardine was concentrated near the coast in two pockets near the Monterey Bay area and equatorward of Cape Mendocino. Predation mortality from fishing boats was concentrated where sardine age-1 and older individuals were located close to one of the five ports. We demonstrated that it is feasible to perform multi-decadal simulations of a fully-coupled end-to-end model, and that this can be done for a model that follows individual fish and boats on the same 3-dimensional grid as the hydrodynamics. Our focus here was on proof of principle and our results showed that we solved the major technical, bookkeeping, and computational issues. We discuss the next steps to increase computational speed and to include important biological differences between anchovy and sardine. In a companion paper (Fiechter et al., 2015), we further analyze the historical simulation in the context of the various hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the sardine and anchovy cycles.

  3. Abundance of sardine fish species in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Bikram Jit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted during January, 2012 to December 2012 in the sardine fisheries which is occurred both in artisanal and industrial fishing sector in the marine water of the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. During this study period the total landing amounts by weight of sardines were 7352.99 MT, among these 23.76% (1747.22 MT was exploited by the artisanal mechanized boats and 76.24% (5605.77 MT captured through different industrial fishing trawlers and contributed 17.51% of the total marine fish production by commercial fish trawlers during the study period. 4 sardine species have been recorded from our marine territory. Among them, 2 sardine species are highly abundant, Sardinella fimbriata total production volumes was 5495.79 MT (74.74% contributed 1747.22MT (31.79% from the artisanal and 3748.57MT (68.21% from the industrial sector and Dussumieria acuta production amounts was 1857.20MT (25.26% contributed only from the industrial fishing sector.Species wise contribution shows that S. fimbriata contributed 100% in the artisanal sector and in the industrial fishing S. fimbriata contributed 66.87% and D. acuta contributed the rest 33.13%. The distribution of the S. fimbriata is within 10-20 meters depth and abundance was observed in the southern part of the South patches and South of south patches (N: 210.09// -22, E: 920.04/-07 to N: 200.45/-25, E: 920.18/-56 and 10-50m depth in onshore and off shore areas in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point -N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57. The distribution of the D. acuta is within 40-60 m. depth and abundance was observed in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground areas (Kohinoor point - N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57 and south-west to south-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point- N: 200-17/.29, E: 900.15/.21 to N: 200.29/.56, E: 910.24/.22 in the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. The peak capture season of

  4. Furan in canned sardines and other fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Celine; Crews, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-seven different samples of canned sardines and other fish sold in the United Kingdom were analysed for their furan content using a validated automated headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure. All 37 samples contained detectable furan, with an average level of 26 μg kg(-1). The maximum furan content was in canned fish containing tomato sauce, which had an average of 49 μg kg(-1) and in canned fish packed with lemon which had an average of 55 μg kg(-1). All fish in brine or in oil contained less than 20 μg kg(-1) furan. Furan levels recorded in fish packed in extra virgin olive oil were low with an average of 2 μg kg(-1).

  5. Habitat--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  6. Contours--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  7. Habitat--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  8. Contours--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  9. SaRDIn - A Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlocking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, A.; Gnesi, S.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth;

    2016-01-01

    Current computer-based interlocking systems most often have a centralized design, with all logic residing in a single computer. Centralized interlockings are complex to design. Following the general trend in Cyber-Physical Systems, the SaRDIn (Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlockings) concept...... promises a radically simpler solution. The novelty of the SaRDIn concept is a fine-grained distribution of the logic over all processors deployed at the sensors and actuators along the track layout, i.e. within the track circuits, point machines, signals, etc. The advantages and drawbacks...

  10. 78 FR 45964 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Monterey Museum of Art, Monterey, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Monterey Museum of Art, Monterey, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Monterey Museum of Art, in... cultural items listed in this notice meet the definition of objects of cultural patrimony....

  11. Extraction of high added value biological compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Carvalho, Ana P; Piccirillo, Clara; Santos, Manuela M; Castro, Paula M L; Pintado, Manuela E

    2013-08-01

    Different valuable compounds, which can be employed in medicine or in other industries (i.e. food, agrochemical, pharmaceutical) can be recovered from by-products and waste from the fish canning industries. They include lipids, proteins, bio-polymers, minerals, amino acids and enzymes; they can be extracted from wastewaters and/or from solid residues (head, viscera, skin, tails and flesh) generated along the canning process, through the filleting, cooking, salting or smoking stages. In this review, the opportunities for the extraction and the valorisation of bioactive compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues are examined and discussed. These are amongst the most consumed fishes in the Mediterranean area; moreover, canning is one of the most important and common methods of preservation. The large quantities of by-products generated have great potentials for the extraction of biologically desirable high added value compounds.

  12. Effect of temperature, anaerobiosis, stirring and salt addition on natural fermentation silage of sardine and sardine wastes in sugarcane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahar, M; Benkerroum, N; Guerouali, A; Laraki, Y; El Yakoubi, K

    2002-04-01

    Conditions for a natural fermentation during ensilage of sardines or their waste in sugarcane molasses (60:40 w/w) were evaluated regarding the effect of temperature (15, 25 and 35 degrees C), anaerobiosis (closed vs. open jars), daily stirring of the mixture, and salt addition to the initial mix at 5% (w/w) level. Successful natural fermentation took place in sardine silages incubated at 25 or 35 degrees C in open jars to reach a pH of 4.4 in about 2 and 1 weeks, respectively. For samples kept at 15 degrees C, the pH decline was very slow and pH did not decrease below 5.5 after one month of incubation. At 25 degrees C, the most favorable conditions for silage of sardine waste in cane molasses, as evidenced by the fastest decline in pH to a stable value of about 4.4, were achieved in closed jars and with daily stirring of the mix. The pH 4.4 was reached in one week with an advance of at least 3 days compared to the other conditions (open jars and closed jars without daily stirring). Addition of salt at 5% (w/w) in the mix before incubation inhibited the fermentation process.

  13. Inventory and Characterization of Sardine (Sardinella Sp. Oil from Java Island-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Heri Suseno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Parameter of fish oil quality could be observed from an omega-3 fatty acid content, antioxidant activity, Peroxide Value (PV, Free Fatty Acid (FFA value, total oxidation (totox value, density and viscosity, level of toxicity and its heavy metals content. This study aimed to determine the quality of sardine oils which was obtained as by product of fish meal and fish canning industry. Sardine A and B had different fatty acid composition. Based on toxicity test, it was known that sardine oil B (572.02 ppm had higher toxicity than sardine oil A (726.03 ppm. Heavy metal analysis results showed that sardine oil A had Pb concentration at 0.118 ppm, it passed a standard limit (≤0.1 ppm and it might be harmful for consumption. Peroxides value of sardine oil A and B was 13.33 meq/kg and 5.00 meq/kg, respectively. The highest FFA value was sardine oil B (3.948% then followed by sardine oil A (0.423%. Value of p-anisidine of sardine oil A and B was 1.09 and 0.88 meq/kg. The highest totox value was sardine oil A (27.76 meq/kg then followed by sardine oil B (10.88 meq/kg. Viscosity of sample B (270 cPs was higher than A (69 cPs and sample B (1.02 g/cm3 was denser than sample A (0.92 g/cm3.

  14. Changes on quality parameters of surimi and surimi gels produced from frozen whiting and sardine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Burcu Şen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, whiting (Theragra chalcogramma, Pallas, 1814 and sardine (Sardina pilchardus, Walbum, 1792 were used as a raw material for surimi production. Every 30 days direct gels and kamaboko gels produced from frozen surimi packages during the 60 days storage. At the end of the washing sycle of the fish mince 88% of myoglobin content in sardine mince were suspended. Protein amount of whiting, whiting surimi, sardine and sardine surimi were detected 19.65 %, 18.00 %, 20.96 % and 19.27 %, respectively. Whitening values of surimi gels from whiting and sardine surimi were detected higher in direct gels at 60. days of storage as 63.57 and 67.62 respectively. TBA values of whiting surimi was determined 2.71 mg malonaldehyde/kg at the end of 60 days storage while it was determined as 5.79 mg malonaldehyde/kg for sardine. According to the results of TBA and microbiological analyses, the surimi from sardine and whiting was not exceed the acceptable limits. Although surimi made from whiting were determined as ‘acceptable’ at second month of storage, surimi made from sardine were no longer acceptable because of the oxidation problem according to the results of sensory analyses.

  15. Optimization of a chemical method for skinning of sardines (Sardina pilchardus during canning processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Vaz Velho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of sardine (Sardina pilchardus catches is used for canning purposes. The most common product presentation is a beheaded sardine with skin and bones packed in a tin can. Canned sardines can also be presented skinless and boneless. For this last type of product, after beheading and evisceration, sardines are placed in trays, cooked and then skinned by hand, one by one, and placed in the tins, a process involving high labour costs. The aim of this work was to develop a chemical process for peeling raw sardines and its subsequent application in a canning industry processing line just after the beheading and evisceration step and before cooking. Potassium hydroxide treatments (pellets a.r. 85% KOH were applied at concentrations of 2, 3 and 4% (v/v, distilled water. Frozen sardines were beheaded and eviscerated after thawing and immersed in the different potassium hydroxide solutions at 93ºC (pH respectively 13, 13 and 13.02 for 3 min and further washed with distilled water at 100°C. In this first set of experiments, fat sardines were used (average of 9.86% of fat, w/w. The best performance, with respect to skin removal, was achieved with the 2% potassium hydroxide immersion (pH 13. With this treatment the skin was totally removed after immersion. With the other tested concentrations portions of skin were always visible and in some cases changes in texture with breakdown of muscle structure and changes of colour occurred. It was decided to perform a second set of experiments using the 2% KOH treatment, but this time applied to low fat sardines (average of 4.77% of fat, w/w, following the same subsequent procedures. The results showed that the lower fat sardines are more prone to surface changes of colour and major muscle breaks than fat sardines after the potassium hydroxide treatment. In the canning industry for this type of product (skinless and boneless only fat sardines are used to assure the total removal of skin. This treatment of 2% KOH

  16. Contours--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  17. Backscatter [5m]--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  18. Paleoshorelines--Offshore Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the paleoshorelines for the geologic and geomorphic map of Offshore Monterey, California. The vector data file is included in...

  19. Habitat--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  20. Habitat--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  1. Backscatter [5m]--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  2. Contours--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  3. Sardine Fish Oil By Sentrifugation and Adsorbent for Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Haryati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sardine fish meal by-product contain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA and it can be made as emulsion. The purpose of this study were to determine the best fish oil emulsion by mixingthe oil phase (lecithin 3% and oil and water phase (carboxymethyl cellulose/CMC 2% and fruit juice and then stored until creaming, and the emulsion is analyzed their viscosity, pH, percent of stability and longseparation. Sardine oil is separated from the emulsion and tested oxidation parameters. The best emulsion was fish oil emulsion after refined without citric acid (RTS with viscosity (2470.31 cP, pH (5.64, percent of stability (56.14% and long separation (14 days. Primary and secondary oxidation parameters of RTS  were FFA (14.87%, PV (14.43 meq/kg, AV (32.57 meq KOH/g, AnV (17.3 meq/kg, and Totox (46.16 meq/kg.

  4. Reconstruction of trophic pathways between plankton and the North Iberian sardine (Sardina pilchardus using stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bode

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Feeding on phyto- and zooplankton by juvenile (< 1 year old and adult sardines (Sardina pilchardus was inferred from analyses of natural abundance of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in samples from the northwestern Iberian Peninsula (Spain collected at the beginning of the upwelling season and peak spawning period of sardine. Plankton samples were fractionated through nets of 20, 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 ?m mesh-size and the muscle protein of individual sardines was isolated before isotopic determinations. Up to six planktonic components and two sardine feeding types were identified from the modes in the frequency distributions of isotope abundance values. Also, the most probable pathways for carbon and nitrogen flows between compartments were analysed. The resulting food web revealed a relatively large degree of omnivory, both in plankton and sardine components, which confirms that complex trophic interactions could also occur in pelagic upwelling ecosystems. Young sardines had isotope abundance values clustered around a single mode in the frequency distribution, while adult sardines displayed two main modes. These modes are interpreted as representative of two extreme feeding types: one related to the individual capture of zooplankton prey and the other to unselective filter-feeding. Although both types of feeding could include micro- (20-200 ?m and mesozooplankton (200-2000 ?m prey, phytoplankton appears to be ingested mainly by filter-feeding. However, even adult sardines must be mainly zoophagous to achieve the observed isotopic abundance values, taking into account current assumptions on stable isotope enrichment through trophic levels. From the differences in the resulting pathways using either carbon or nitrogen isotopes, we interpreted that sardines acquire most of the protein nitrogen from zooplankton while a substantial fraction of their carbon would derive from phytoplankton. These interpretations agree with the information

  5. HISTAMINE IN CANNED SARDINES HISTAMINA EM CONSERVAS DE SARDINHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fancislene Bernardes Tebalti do Carmo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the presence of histamine in 122 samples of canned sardines produced with three different species by three industries located in the municipalities of Sao Goncalo and Niteroi was evaluated. The samples were divided into five lots with copies of sardines from Venezuela (Sardinella aurita, Morocco (S. pilchardus and Brazil (S. brasiliensis. The initial quality of raw material was evaluated by sensorial parameters and by the histamine level using a semi-quantitative method of thin-layer chromatography. The results of the samples from Venezuela and Morocco showed values below 5 mg/100g, and the national samples showed values similar or greater than 10 mg/100g. It follows that there is need for greater control and monitoring of temperature from capture to processing, to guarantee good quality to the final product, and to avoid risk of poisoning to the consumer.

    KEY WORDS: Canned fish, histamine, quality, sardines.

    O presente estudo avaliou a presença de histamina em 122 amostras de sardinha em conserva, produzidas com três diferentes espécies, por três indústrias, localizadas nos municípios de São Gonçalo e Niterói. As amostras foram divididas em cinco lotes com exemplares de sardinhas provenientes da Venezuela (Sardinella aurita, Marrocos (S. pilchardus e do Brasil (S. brasiliensis. Avaliou-se a qualidade inicial da matéria-prima por meio de parâmetros sensoriais e pelo teor de histamina utilizando-se o método de cromatografia em camada delgada. As amostras oriundas da Venezuela e Marrocos apresentaram valores abaixo de 5 mg/100 g e as nacionais, valores semelhantes ou superiores a 10 mg/100g. Conclui-se que há necessidade de um maior controle e monitorização da temperatura da sardinha desde a captura até o processamento, para que o produto final apresente boa qualidade e não represente perigo de intoxicação ao consumidor.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Conserva, histamina, qualidade, sardinha.

  6. Geology of the Monterey Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, H. Gary

    1977-01-01

    Geophysical data and sea floor samples collected from the continental shelf and slope between Ano Nuevo Point and Point Sur, California indicate that the Monterey Bay region has had a complex late Cenozoic tectonic history. Uplift and depression have produced a succession of regressive and transgressive sedimentary units, while contemporaneous right-slip along faults of the San Andreas system have offset major structural and lithologic elements. This deformation produced three regional and several local unconformities within upper Tertiary rocks and initiated development of a canyon system that today includes the Monterey, Ascension, Carmel, and other large submarine canyons. The Tertiary stratigraphy of the offshore Monterey Bay area is divided into two provinces by a major structural boundary, the north-trending Palo Colorado-San Gregorio fault zone. East of this zone in the offshore are four seismically distinct sequences that can be correlated with major sequences onshore. These sequences comprise (1) pre-Tertiary basement, and (2) middle Miocene, (3) upper Miocene to Pliocene, and (4) upper Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary intervals. Each of the latter three sequences is bounded by unconformities, as is its counterpart on land. Only Neogene sedimentary rocks are present offshore; Paleogene units, if originally present, have been removed completely by pre-middle Miocene erosion. An extensive erosional surface was cut during Zemorrian time into the late Mesozoic granitic basement rocks. Incised into this surface are the ancestral Monterey Canyon and an unnamed canyon. Marine sedimentary rocks of upper Miocene and Pliocene age overlie this unconformably and fill the unnamed canyon. Similar rocks also may have once filled Monterey Canyon. Near shore these strata are covered by terrestrial alluvial and eolian deposits, deltaic deposits, marine canyon fill, landslide and slump deposits, and unconsolidated sediments that range in age from upper Pliocene to Holocene

  7. Remotely sensed chlorophyll: A putative trophic link for explaining variability in Indian oil sardine stocks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, G.; Meenakumari, B.; Raman, M.; Kumar, S.; Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Verlecar, X.

    and explain the phenomena of interannual variability. Earlier research has indicated that the probable appearance and disappearance of sardines is an active movement in search of food and favourable conditions. But no specific study has been carried out...

  8. Iron fertilisation by Asian dust influences North Pacific sardine regime shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yongsong

    2015-05-01

    Forcing factors and mechanisms underlying multidecadal variability in the production of the world's major fish stocks are one of the great mysteries of the oceans. The Japanese and California sardine are species that exhibit the regime shifts. It is shown in the present work that during two periods of frequent Asian dust events over the last 100 years, sardines on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean only flourished under a dust-active regime. The earlier such regime that peaked in the 1930s was strong, and it brought synchronous changes in the two species that were linked to the frequency of Asian dust events. However, there is an apparent mismatch in the rise and fall of abundance between the two species in the current dust-active regime. The massive increase in Japanese sardine stock in the 1970s was related to high levels of ocean precipitation and strong winter mixing, whereas the stock collapse since 1988 has been attributed to diminished winter mixing. High levels of ocean precipitation in the western North Pacific effectively cause wet deposition of Asian dust and enhance Japanese sardine stock, whereas it reduces dust flux that can be transported to the eastern North Pacific, delaying the increase of California sardine stock. Analysis further indicates that productivity of Japanese sardine stock is jointly controlled by wet deposition of Asian dust and winter mixing, which supplies macronutrients from depth. California sardine productivity is inversely related to precipitation in the western North Pacific and is positively affected by precipitation off western North America. This indicates that Asian dust influx dominates productivity of the species because of iron-limited ocean productivity in the California sardine ranges. The analysis suggests that dust regime shifts influence shifts in sardine productivity regimes and that iron input from Asian dust during trans-Pacific transport is directly responsible. It appears that in addition to enhancing

  9. Do the Brazilian sardine commercial landings respond to local ocean circulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Mainara B; Gherardi, Douglas F M; Lentini, Carlos A D; Dias, Daniela F; Campos, Paula C

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, flow intensity and mesoscale ocean processes, all affect sardine production, both in eastern and western boundary current systems. Here we tested the hypothesis whether extreme high and low commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine fisheries in the South Brazil Bight (SBB) are sensitive to different oceanic conditions. An ocean model (ROMS) and an individual based model (Ichthyop) were used to assess the relationship between oceanic conditions during the spawning season and commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine one year later. Model output was compared with remote sensing and analysis data showing good consistency. Simulations indicate that mortality of eggs and larvae by low temperature prior to maximum and minimum landings are significantly higher than mortality caused by offshore advection. However, when periods of maximum and minimum sardine landings are compared with respect to these causes of mortality no significant differences were detected. Results indicate that mortality caused by prevailing oceanic conditions at early life stages alone can not be invoked to explain the observed extreme commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine. Likely influencing factors include starvation and predation interacting with the strategy of spawning "at the right place and at the right time".

  10. Combination of Sardine and Shark Oil High Content of Omega-3 and Squalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Musbah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sardine oil contain high concentration of  EPA but low of  DHA while shark is reverse. Shark oil  high contain of DHA and squalene but low EPA. This research aim to fortify the quality of  fish oil withomega-3 and squalen and improve the quality of fish oil. The combination of fish oil (sardine:shark 1: 1, 1: 2, 1: 3, 1: 4, 2: 1, 3: 1 and 4:1 showed significant results on peroxide, anisidine, and total oxidation value, however free fatty acids analysis did not show the influence to the content value.  The best oxidation parameters value werefound (sardine: shark (1:4 with peroxide was 5.44±0.06 mEq/kg, anisidine was 8.3±0.72 mEq/kg and total oxidation was 19.27±0.7mEq/kg. Fatty acids profile between  sardines and shark oil containedvarious SFA, MUFA and PUFA. Sardine oil which was added more to combination ratio will increase omega-3. Sample 1:4 had 43.16% squalene.

  11. Monterey Bay Aquarium Volunteer Guide Scheduling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    wetlands/aviary 1 24 splash zone—rocky shore, coral reef kingdom 8 play your part 25 sandy seafloor 9 wetlands/aviary 2 26 octopus/deep reef 10...The mission of the Monterey Bay Aquarium is to inspire conservation of the oceans. It does this through education outreach, exhibits, research and... conservation , and by rehabilitating injured ocean wildlife. The Aquarium has a large and diverse staff that includes aquarists, scientific divers

  12. Assessment of the sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792 fishery in the eastern Mediterranean basin (North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. ANTONAKAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the biometric characteristics of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus catches and assess the current status of sardine stock in North Aegean Sea based on population characteristics and abundance trends. The stock was dominated by age groups 1 and 2, not exceeding age group 4. The sardine stock in this area was assessed through an Integrated Catch-at-Age model which implements a separable Virtual Population Analysis on catch at age data with weighted tuning indices. Sardine landings data derived from the commercial purse seine fishery over the period 2000-2008 were combined with the age structure of the stock as resulted from fisheries independent acoustic surveys. Sensitivity analysis of the impact of natural mortality values on stock assessment results was applied. Additionally forecast of the sardine population parameters and catches under different exploitation scenarios was implemented in a medium term basis. Results indicated that the North Aegean Sea sardine stock is considered fully exploited with the fishery operating close but over the empirical exploitation level for sustainability. Finally, the status of the sardine stock in N. Aegean Sea is discussed in relation to the sardine stocks from the western and the central Mediterranean basin.

  13. Assessment of the sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792 fishery in the eastern Mediterranean basin (North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. ANTONAKAKIS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the biometric characteristics of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus catches and assess the current status of sardine stock in North Aegean Sea based on population characteristics and abundance trends. The stock was dominated by age groups 1 and 2, not exceeding age group 4. The sardine stock in this area was assessed through an Integrated Catch-at-Age model which implements a separable Virtual Population Analysis on catch at age data with weighted tuning indices. Sardine landings data derived from the commercial purse seine fishery over the period 2000-2008 were combined with the age structure of the stock as resulted from fisheries independent acoustic surveys. Sensitivity analysis of the impact of natural mortality values on stock assessment results was applied. Additionally forecast of the sardine population parameters and catches under different exploitation scenarios was implemented in a medium term basis. Results indicated that the North Aegean Sea sardine stock is considered fully exploited with the fishery operating close but over the empirical exploitation level for sustainability. Finally, the status of the sardine stock in N. Aegean Sea is discussed in relation to the sardine stocks from the western and the central Mediterranean basin.

  14. 33 CFR 80.1134 - Monterey Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monterey Harbor, CA. 80.1134 Section 80.1134 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1134 Monterey Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  15. EFFECT OF PRESSING ON THE SHELF LIFE OF SUNDRIED WHITE SARDINE (ESCUALOSA THORACATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Priyadarshini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt was made to investigate and explore a method for preparation of salted and dried white sardine which would have organoleptically sound attributes viz., color, flavor, taste and texture. It could however be concluded from the results of present study that the sun dried pressed samples were in better condition than the unpressed sample.

  16. Little genetic variation in the oil sardine, Sardinella longiceps Val., from the western coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    Enzyme gene variability in the oil sardine, @iSardinella longiceps@@, from three localities along the western coast of India was studied by starch-gel electrophoresis. Out of 19 loci scored, no locus was polymorphic by the 95% criterion. Seven loci...

  17. Temporal genetic variation as revealed by a microsatellite analysis of European sardine ( Sardina pilchardus) archived samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Splendiani, Andrea; Bonanomi, Sara;

    2012-01-01

    The Adriatic stock of European sardine ( Sardina pilchardus) has experienced large interannual demographic fluctuations over the last 30 years, with a severe decline beginning in 1991 and continuing until 1997. In the present study, six microsatellite loci were used on a time series collection of...

  18. [Fatty acids in sardine canned in tomato sauce from different fishing areas of the Mexican Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Gónzalez, M I; Montaño Benavides, S; Pérez-Gil Romo, F

    2001-12-01

    Numerous investigations have pointed out the importance that the fatty acids have in the process health-illness, and that the marine resources are excellent sources of the series omega 3 and omega 6. In Mexico, the sardine is a product of marine origin of wide consumption due to its high readiness and low cost. The objective of the present study was to determine the fatty acids profile (FA) in sardine canned in tomato sauce coming from different fishing areas (A) of the Mexican Pacific. There were randomly obtained 8 commercial mark (5 cans of each mark) of sardine canned in tomato sauce; they were classified in sardine of South Baja California Sur (A1), Sonora (A2) and Sinaloa (A3). The samples without draining were liquified and thereafter were obtained the methyl esters of fatty acids that were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. In all the areas they were identified and quantified as 3 FA omega 3 (linolenic, EPA and DHA) and 2 AG omega 6 (linoleic and arachidonic); this source is rich in FA monounsaturated and also presents a considerable quantity of trans FA (18:1n9t and 18:2n6t). The DHA was the most abundant AG in all the areas (3064-4704 mg/100 g); finally, the relationships omega 3/omega 6 were from 3.5 (A1) up to 8.9 (A3). In conclusion, sardine canned in tomato sauce of the mexican Pacific is a rich food in omega-3 and omega-6 FA, independently of the processing area.

  19. Keeping quality of vacuum-packed smoked sardine fillets: microbiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, A; Peláez, C; Moral, A

    1989-03-01

    The effect of mixed smoking (2 h at 30 degrees C and 45 min at 75 degrees C was studied on the keeping quality of lean and fatty sardine fillets from fish caught in the Mediterranean Sea in March and June, respectively. Raw material for smoking included both fresh and frozen sardine fillets. Microbiological and sensory analyses were performed over the storage period, which lasted for 120 days at 0 +/- 1 degrees C. Smoking reduced the viable microbial flora values from 3-5 x 10(4) cfu/g to 2 x 10(2) cfu/g. The antimicrobial action of smoking, combined with that of vacuum packaging, had the effect of producing a gram-positive flora made up mainly of lactic acid bacteria. A practical consequence of this was to extend the shelf life of the smoked sardines for a period of 4 months. Frozen storage of samples at -18 degrees C for 6 months prior to smoking affected the behaviour of the microbial flora during cold storage at 0 degrees C, but did not affect the behaviour of the flora over a period of 3 months frozen storage, since the initial numbers of bacteria decreased and microbial growth was retarded. Furthermore, at the end of the storage period, the number of bacteria in the samples of frozen fatty sardines were higher than in the samples of frozen lean sardine. Physical conditions, therefore appear to exert an influence on bacterial growth. Sulphite-reducing Clostridia were not detected during the storage period.

  20. Seasonal comparison of the diets of juvenile European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus in the Gulf of Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costalago, David; Palomera, Isabel; Tirelli, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    Anchovy and sardine in the Mediterranean are known to share the same habitat and, consequently, to interact with one another. These two sympatric pelagic species are planktivorous and consume a wide range of planktonic prey items during all their developmental stages, potentially overlapping their ecological niches, although the feeding interactions between these species have been poorly investigated. Here we compare the dietary habits of the juvenile phases of anchovy and sardine during different seasons in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, through analysis of their stomach contents and of their feeding-related anatomical characteristics. In this study we show that juveniles of anchovy and sardine do not compete for food, and we describe significant dietary differences between anchovy and sardine due to their different alimentary tract morphology.

  1. Faults--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  2. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  3. Faults--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  4. Folds--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  5. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — One of the most important functions of the southern Monterey Bay coastal system is its role as a habitat for a unique flora and fauna. The beaches are habitat for...

  6. Backscatter [7125]-- Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents 2-m-resolution Reson 7125 data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. These metadata describe...

  7. Backscatter [Swath]-- Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents 2-m-resolution SWATHPlus data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. These metadata describe...

  8. Isopachs--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the isopachs for the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The vector data file is included in...

  9. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  10. Folds--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is included...

  11. Faults--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is...

  12. Monterey Strategy Seminar: Day 1: Capabilities Based Planning.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, James A; Pulsipher, Lashley; Zellen, Barry; Lavoy, Peter R.; Clary, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Monterey Strategy Seminar: Day 1: Capabilities Based Planning. Day 2: Dissuasion in the U.S. Defense Strategy. Day 3: Global Strike Warfare Naval Postgraduate School Center for Contemporary Conflict (CCC)

  13. Paleoshorelines--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the paleoshorelines for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is...

  14. Transgressive Contours--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the transgressive contours for the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The vector file is included in...

  15. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  16. Faults--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is...

  17. Folds--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is included...

  18. Sediment Thickness--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the sediment-thickness map of the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  19. Backscatter [8101]--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents 2-m-resolution Reson 8101 data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. These metadata...

  20. Monterey, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Monterey, California Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  1. Backscatter [Swath]-- Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents 2-m-resolution SWATHPlus data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. These metadata describe...

  2. BackscatterC [7125]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  3. Backscatter [7125]-- Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents 2-m-resolution Reson 7125 data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. These metadata describe...

  4. Isopachs--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the isopachs for the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The vector data file is included in...

  5. Transgressive Contours--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the transgressive contours for the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The vector file is included in...

  6. Sediment Thickness--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the sediment-thickness map of the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  7. Paleoshorelines--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the paleoshorelines for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is...

  8. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  9. BackscatterB [EM300]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  10. Faults--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included...

  11. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Critical Erosion Sites 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — PWA and Griggs (2004) defined three risk categories to Monterey Regional Water Pollution Control Agency (MRWPCA) facilities between Marina and Wharf II. These risk...

  12. Folds--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  13. Backscatter [8101]--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents 2-m-resolution Reson 8101 data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. These metadata...

  14. BackscatterC [7125]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  15. BackscatterB [EM300]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  16. Battle of Midway Memorial Dinner, Monterey Bay Commandery, NOUS tickets

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.)

    2015-01-01

    Web page capture of tickets to the Battle of Midway Memorial Dinner through Eventbrite. The Monterey Bay Commandery of the Naval Order of the United States will host the 73 Battle of Midway Dining-Out on Saturday 6 June at the Naval Support Activity, Monterey, Herrmann Hall, Naval Postgraduate School. This black-tie event is open to the all active and retired service members, military faculty, and civilians. Guests holding confirmed reservations will have gate access the evenin...

  17. MONT95C - Bathymetry contours of the southern Monterey Bay area between Moss Landing and Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The bathymetric grids and derived contours are from data collected by the USGS with a multibeam (Simrad EM1000) sidescan sonar system in the southern Monterey Bay...

  18. MONT95C - Bathymetry contours of the southern Monterey Bay area between Moss Landing and Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The bathymetric grids and derived contours are from data collected by the USGS with a multibeam (Simrad EM1000) sidescan sonar system in the southern Monterey Bay...

  19. [Design of a HACCP plan for the industrial process of frozen sardines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Patricia; Reyes, Genara

    2009-09-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a system to identify, assess and control the hazards related with production, processing, distribution and consumption in order to get safe food. The aim of this study was to design a HACCP plan for implementing in processing line of frozen whole sardine (Sardinella aurita). The methodology was based in the evaluation of the accomplishment of the pre-requisite programs (GMP/SSOP in a previous study), the application of the principles of the HACCP and the sequence of stages settles down by the COVENIN Venezuelan standard No 3802. Time-temperature was recorded in each processing step. Histamine was determined by VERATOX NEOGEN. Results showed that some sardine batches arrived to the plant with high time-temperature records, finding up to 5 ppm of histamine due to the abuse of temperature during transportation. A HACCP plan is proposed with the scope, the selection of the team, the description of the product and the intended use, the flow diagram of the process, hazard analysis and identification of CCP, monitoring system, corrective actions and records. The potential hazards were identified as pathogen growth, presence of histamine and physical objects in the sardines. The control measures of PCC are referred as control of time-temperature during transportation and processing, monitoring of ice supplies and sanitary conditions in the process.

  20. Monitoring the Freshness of Moroccan Sardines with a Neural-Network Based Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benachir Bouchikhi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose was developed and used as a rapid technique to classify thefreshness of sardine samples according to the number of days spent under cold storage (4 ±1°C, in air. The volatile compounds present in the headspace of weighted sardine sampleswere introduced into a sensor chamber and the response signals of the sensors wererecorded as a function of time. Commercially available gas sensors based on metal oxidesemiconductors were used and both static and dynamic features from the sensorconductance response were input to the pattern recognition engine. Data analysis wasperformed by three different pattern recognition methods such as probabilistic neuralnetworks (PNN, fuzzy ARTMAP neural networks (FANN and support vector machines(SVM. The objective of this study was to find, among these three pattern recognitionmethods, the most suitable one for accurately identifying the days of cold storage undergoneby sardine samples. The results show that the electronic nose can monitor the freshness ofsardine samples stored at 4°C, and that the best classification and prediction are obtainedwith SVM neural network. The SVM approach shows improved classificationperformances, reducing the amount of misclassified samples down to 3.75 %.

  1. Influence of smoking and packaging methods on lipid stability and microbial quality of Capelin (Mallotus villosus) and Sardine (Sardinella gibossa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprian, Odoli O; Van Nguyen, Minh; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Jonsson, Asbjorn; Tomasson, Tumi; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Arason, Sigurjon

    2015-01-01

    Lipid and microbial quality of smoked capelin (two groups differing in lipid content) and sardine was studied, with the aim of introducing capelin in the smoked sardine markets. Lipid hydrolysis (phospholipid and free fatty acids) and oxidation index (hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), fatty acid composition, and total viable count were measured in raw and packaged smoked fish during chilled storage (day 2, 10, 16, 22, 28). Lipid hydrolysis was more pronounced in low lipid capelin, whereas accelerated lipid oxidation occurred in high lipid capelin. Muscle lipid was less stable in sardine than capelin. Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) constituted 12% of fatty acids in capelin and 19% in sardine. Vacuum packaging as well as hot smoking retarded bacterial growth, recording counts of ≤log 5 CFU/g compared to ≥log 7CFU/g in cold smoked air packaged. Smoked low lipid capelin was considered an alternative for introduction in smoked sardine markets. PMID:26405526

  2. Improving the Quality of Sardine Fish Oil by Degumming Using Sodium Cholride Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Prima Christiani Hulu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of fish oil is determined by some parameters such as primary and secondary grade oxidation, fatty acid profile and physical qualities which include viscosity, density, color and clarity. Sardine fish oil by-products of fish meal processing can be a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, particularlyeicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Degumming is one of steps that can be carried out to improve the quality of sardine fish oil. The processing will help to reduce oxidation and eliminate the impurity of the oil that influence the quality of fish oil. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sodium chloride solution degumming on the quality of sardine fish oil to fulfill International Fish Oil Standard (IFOS. Fish oil purification was done by degumming of 5% H2O,  followedby sodium chloride solution with ratio of fish oil and sodium chloride solution were 1:1; 1:3, and 1:5. The sodium chloride solution concentrations of 5% and 8% for 20, 30 and 40 minutes. The next steps after degumming process were followed by alkali neutralization and bleached by absorbent. The best treatmentwas at  concentration of 5%  sodium chloride solution, ratio fish oil with sodium chloride solution 1:1 on a long time degumming processed 20 minutes. The best quality of fish oil, according to IFOS, was resulted from the treatments combination of free fatty acid 0.21±0.00%, peroxide value 0.43±0.06 mEq/kg, anisidin value 2.22±0.04 mEq/kg and total oxidation 3.11±0.14  mEq/kg.

  3. Production and characterization of refined oils obtained from Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu

    2015-01-28

    Crude Sardinella longiceps oil was refined in different stages such as degumming, neutralization, bleaching, and deodorization. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated on the basis of free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (pAV), total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) values, Lovibond CIE-L*a*b* color analyses, and (1)H NMR or GC-MS experiments. The utilities of NMR-based proton signal characteristics as new analytical tools to understand the signature peaks and relative abundance of different fatty acids and monitoring the refining process of fish oil have been demonstrated. Phosphoric acid (1%) was found to be an effective degumming reagent to obtain oil with the lowest FFA, PV, pAV, TOTOX, and TBARS values and highest color reduction. Significant reduction in the contents of hydrocarbon functionalities as shown by the decrease in proton integral in the characteristic (1)H NMR region was demonstrated by using 1% H3PO4 during the course of the degumming process. A combination (1.25:3.75%) of activated charcoal and Fuller's earth at 3% concentration for a stirring time of 40 min was found to be effective in bleaching the sardine oil. This study demonstrated that unfavorable odor-causing components, particularly low molecular weight carbonyl compounds, could successfully be removed by the refining process. The alkane-dienals/alkanes, which cause unfavorable fishy odors, were successfully removed by distillation (100 °C) under vacuum with aqueous acetic acid solution (0.25 N) to obtain greater quality of refined sardine oil, a rich source of essential fatty acids and improved oxidative stability. The present study demonstrated that the four-stage refinement process of sardine oil resulted in a significant improvement in quality characteristics and nutritional values, particularly n-3 PUFAs, with improved fish oil characteristics for use in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.

  4. Effect of natural antioxidants on the quality of frozen sardine fillets (Sardina pilchardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Maneta Ganhão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of new technologies / processes provides different benefits on seafood sector, namely by enhanced the shelf-life of fish products with high polyunsaturated fatty acid composition. This is particularly critical during some months of the year when fish (e.g. sardines are larger supply than demand by consumers. The aim of this study was to performed the optimization process of adding natural antioxidants on frozen sardine fillets and evaluated the effect of addition of two natural antioxidants on the lipid oxidation process during storage at -200C. To evaluate the effect of the addition of antioxidants in sardine fillets, the product matrix was chemical characterized, including by the evaluation of the fatty acid profile. The lipid oxidation process was followed by the primary products (peroxide value and secondary products (TBARS quantification, and also by the analysis of the sensory changes (instrumental assessment of color. Finally, it was done a hedonic preference test to know the opinion of consumers about the frozen fillets with and without antioxidant. The natural antioxidants used, tocopherol (54 mg/fillet and tocopherols (15 mg/fillet with rosemary extract (6.5 mg/fillet inhibited or retarded the oxidation over time of storage when compared with the control samples, that had advanced oxidation process. There was not statistically differences among the fillets treated with tocopherol in the presence and absence of rosemary extract. However, our laboratorial results shown slight tendency for the view that the antioxidant tocopherols and rosemary extract had a greater effect on the oxidative stability of fillets. This observation is in line with results of the hedonic test consumer preference. The use of natural antioxidants is an inexpensive solution which allows the complete use of products with less waste of fish products and with a great need for disposal. At the same time meets the consumer´s requirements.

  5. Relative role of life-history traits and historical factors in shaping genetic population structure of sardines (Sardina pilchardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zardoya Rafael

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine pelagic fishes exhibit rather complex patterns of genetic differentiation, which are the result of both historical processes and present day gene flow. Comparative multi-locus analyses based on both nuclear and mitochondrial genetic markers are probably the most efficient and informative approach to discerning the relative role of historical events and life-history traits in shaping genetic heterogeneity. The European sardine (Sardina pilchardus is a small pelagic fish with a relatively high migratory capability that is expected to show low levels of genetic differentiation among populations. Previous genetic studies based on meristic and mitochondrial control region haplotype frequency data supported the existence of two sardine subspecies (S. p. pilchardus and S. p. sardina. Results We investigated genetic structure of sardine among nine locations in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using allelic size variation of eight specific microsatellite loci. Bayesian clustering and assignment tests, maximum likelihood estimates of migration rates, as well as classical genetic-variance-based methods (hierarchical AMOVA test and RST pairwise comparisons supported a single evolutionary unit for sardines. These analyses only detected weak but significant genetic differentiation, which followed an isolation-by-distance pattern according to Mantel test. Conclusion We suggest that the discordant genetic structuring patterns inferred based on mitochondrial and microsatellite data might indicate that the two different classes of molecular markers may be reflecting different and complementary aspects of the evolutionary history of sardine. Mitochondrial data might be reflecting past isolation of sardine populations into two distinct groupings during Pleistocene whereas microsatellite data reveal the existence of present day gene flow among populations, and a pattern of isolation by distance.

  6. Impact of Glider Data Assimilation on the Monterey Bay Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Assimilation on the Monterey Bay Model 6. AUTHOR(S) Igor Shulman, Clark Rowley, Stephanie Anderson, Sergio DeRada, John Kindle, Paul Martin, James...Impact of glider data assimilation on the Monterey Bay model Igor Shulman3*, Clark Rowley3, Stephanie Andersona, Sergio DeRadaa, John Kindlea, Paul ...support of the AOSN-II field campaign. Deep-Sea Research II, this issue |doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008 08.009). Kundu. P.K.. 1976. Ekman veering observed

  7. Spatial distribution of sardine and anchovy early life stages along the eastern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zorica

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite long-term investigations of the Adriatic Sea in general and extensive research on sardine and anchovy as ecologically and economically important fish species, knowledge concerning their spawning ecology, precisely their possible spawning grounds, is still incomplete. Therefore, two scientific surveys (January, July 2012 were performed, as target species spawn during different periods of the year (sardine - October to April (Sinovčić et al., 2007 and anchovy - April to September (Zorica et al., 2013. Throughout these surveys, standard vertical plankton tows were made during the daylight at 72 stations in January and 60 stations in July using a WP2 sampler (mouth opening, 0.255 m2; mesh size, 0.200 mm. WP2 net was put vertically down during the calm sea to a depth of 100 m or to 5 m above the seabed in relatively shallow marine area (less than 100 m. Plankton samples were preserved in 4% buffered formalin and transported to the laboratory where they were analysed. Throughout ichtyoplankton analysis of samples collected during the winter survey a total of 506 sardine eggs and 348 larvae were sorted out. The mean sardine egg and larval abundance in the analysed period at positive stations was 57.8 +/- 77.4 eggs/m2 and 29 +/- 25.85 larvae/m2, with peaks of 396 eggs/m2 and 108 larvae/m2 at positive sampling stations. Concerning the summer survey and anchovy early life stages from obtained samples 1489 anchovy eggs and 1036 larvae were isolated. Average abundance of anchovy eggs and larvae was 145.26 +/- 201.27eggs/m2 and 115.11+/- 162.32 larvae/m2, respectively. The highest values of mentioned parameters at positive stations were 800 eggs/m2 and 952 larvae/m2. According to obtained results and their processing within Ocean Data View (odv.awi.de, revile that both species during 2012 spawn above the whole continental shelf and the areas of higher early life stages abundance overlap.

  8. Análise econômica da produção da sardinha na região sudeste do Brasil Economical analysis of the sardine yield in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available A surplus-yield model of Schaefer (1954; 1957 was used to study a maximum sustainable yield of the Brazilian sardine. Applying the prices of sardine and operation cost, an economical yield of sardine was discussed. The maximum sustainable yield of sardine was estimated on 173 thousands metric tons and the optimum fishing effort was 28,292 sets of net. With the operation cost of Cr$ 71,040.00 per cruise, the price of sardine has to be higher than Cr$ 10,00/kg.

  9. Bathymetry [5m]--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The raster data file is included in...

  10. Bathymetry [2m]--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The raster data file is included in...

  11. Spatially-explicit bioenergetics of Pacific sardine in the Southern California Bight: are mesoscale eddies areas of exceptional prerecruit production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logerwell, Elizabeth A.; Lavaniegos, Bertha; Smith, Paul E.

    Previous research shows that offshore mesoscale eddies in the Southern California Bight region are areas where sardine larval abundance is significantly increased relative to inshore, slope and surrounding offshore waters. In order for mesoscale eddies to be a mechanism linking climate and sardine population variability they must be areas of exceptional prerecruit production. Temperature and prey data from various Southern California Bight (SCB) habitats, including offshore eddies, were applied to a spatially-explicit bioenergetic model which predicts sardine prerecruit growth potential. Growth potential was similar in inshore, slope, and eddy regions (11% and 12% day -1), and was lower in the offshore region, 9% day -1. To estimate production in eddy and non-eddy habitats, growth potential was multiplied by habitat-specific estimates of sardine larval biomass from at-sea surveys. A production index, a measure of potential production resulting from individual growth rate potential and local abundance, was greater in the model cyclonic eddy than in all other regions by more than an order of magnitude. In fact, the production index in the eddy was four times greater than in all other regions combined.

  12. Effect of controlled lactic acid bacterial fermentation on the microbiological and chemical qualities of Moroccan sardines (Sardina pilchardus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndaw, A; Zinedine, A; Faid, M; Bouseta, A

    2008-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were assayed for the conservation of fresh sardine "Sardina pilchardus". Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii was used for inoculation of sardine fillets in a solution of NaCl (5%, w/w) and glucose (4%, w/w) concentration in water. Microbial counts including Standard Plate Count (SPC), LAB, yeasts, coliforms, Salmonella, staphylococci and Clostridium were followed during two weeks of storage at 30 degrees C. Determinations of chemical parameters including pH, dry matter, fat, ash, total nitrogen (NT), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and trimethylamine (TMA) were carried out under the same conditions. Chemical determinations showed a net pH decrease from an initial value of 6.05 in raw sardine fillets to 4.3 after 16 days of fermentation. Increases in TMA content and TBVN were observed. Microbiological control showed that LAB counts reached a level up to 3.10(9) cfu/g after 4 days of fermentation. After two weeks, fermented fish was free of coliforms and Salmonella. The inhibition of pathogenic microflora including staphylococci and Clostridium was also observed. The results indicated that controlled LAB fermentation could be used as a successful process for biopreservation of sardines produced in huge quantities in Morocco.

  13. Dietary sardine protein lowers insulin resistance, leptin and TNF-α and beneficially affects adipose tissue oxidative stress in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zohra; Louchami, Karim; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Ait Yahia, Dalila

    2012-02-01

    The present study aims at exploring the effects of sardine protein on insulin resistance, plasma lipid profile, as well as oxidative and inflammatory status in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed sardine protein (S) or casein (C) diets supplemented or not with high-fructose (HF) for 2 months. Rats fed the HF diets had greater body weight and adiposity and lower food intake as compared to control rats. Increased plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1C, triacylglycerols, free fatty acids and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was observed in HF-fed rats. Moreover, a decline in adipose tissues antioxidant status and a rise in lipid peroxidation and plasma TNF-α and fibrinogen were noted. Rats fed sardine protein diets exhibited lower food intake and fat mass than those fed casein diets. Sardine protein diets diminished plasma insulin and insulin resistance. Plasma triacylglycerol and free fatty acids were also lower, while those of α-tocopherol, taurine and calcium were enhanced as compared to casein diets. Moreover, S-HF diet significantly decreased plasma glucose and HbA1C. Sardine protein consumption lowered hydroperoxide levels in perirenal and brown adipose tissues. The S-HF diet, as compared to C-HF diet decreased epididymal hydroperoxides. Feeding sardine protein diets decreased brown adipose tissue carbonyls and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Perirenal and epididymal superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and brown catalase activity were significantly greater in S-HF group than in C-HF group. Sardine protein diets also prevented hyperleptinemia and reduced inflammatory status in comparison with rats fed casein diets. Taken together, these results support the beneficial effect of sardine protein in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome on such variables as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative and inflammatory status, suggesting the possible use of sardine protein as a protective

  14. Effect of different types of coatings on texture and nutritional properties of canned Portuguese sardines (Sardina pilchardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Pinheiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Canned foods have a long history of success and are likely to remain popular for the foreseeable future owing to their convenience, long shelf life and economy. Interest in fish consumption has increased in recent years due to the wide range of its health benefits. In addition to fresh product, canned fish enables a delayed consumption of this appreciated kind of food. Among the different types of fish, in Portugal, the most used in canning manufacture are sardines, tuna, anchovies, mackerels. Vegetable oils and tomato sauce are usually adopted as coatings (liquid medium. In fact, oil has a preserving effect and contributes to make the product more palatable. Its protective action lies in the ability to insulate products from air, rather than having an active bacteriostatic or bactericidal action. Among the different types of coatings the most commonly used in canning are: olive oil, seed oils and different sauces, such as tomato sauce. Tomato sauce has also vegetable oil on its formulation. The amount of coating substance can affect the nutritional composition as well as texture properties of the sardines. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different types of coatings on texture and nutritional properties of whole, skinless and boneless canned Portuguese Sardines (Sardina pilchardus. An experimental investigation was carried out to assess the protein, lipid, carbohydrates and ash content, texture and colour profile of canned sardine with different kinds of coatings: olive oil, sunflower oil and tomato sauce. The obtained results showed that protein and carbohydrates content were not significantly influenced by the coating used, varying between 5%-8% and13%-18%, respectively. For the moisture content it was found that the samples with tomato sauce were 2.2-fold higher than the samples with sunflower oil, and 1.3-fold higher than the samples with olive oil, independently of being whole, skinless or boneless sardine. As

  15. Interannual Changes in Biomass Affect the Spatial Aggregations of Anchovy and Sardine as Evidenced by Geostatistical and Spatial Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Barra

    Full Text Available Geostatistical techniques were applied and a series of spatial indicators were calculated (occupation, aggregation, location, dispersion, spatial autocorrelation and overlap to characterize the spatial distributions of European anchovy and sardine during summer. Two ecosystems were compared for this purpose, both located in the Mediterranean Sea: the Strait of Sicily (upwelling area and the North Aegean Sea (continental shelf area, influenced by freshwater. Although the biomass of anchovy and sardine presented high interannual variability in both areas, the location of the centres of gravity and the main spatial patches of their populations were very similar between years. The size of the patches representing the dominant part of the abundance (80% was mostly ecosystem- and species-specific. Occupation (area of presence appears to be shaped by the extent of suitable habitats in each ecosystem whereas aggregation patterns (how the populations are distributed within the area of presence were species-specific and related to levels of population biomass. In the upwelling area, both species showed consistently higher occupation values compared to the continental shelf area. Certain characteristics of the spatial distribution of sardine (e.g. spreading area, overlapping with anchovy differed substantially between the two ecosystems. Principal component analysis of geostatistical and spatial indicators revealed that biomass was significantly related to a suite of, rather than single, spatial indicators. At the spatial scale of our study, strong correlations emerged between biomass and the first principal component axis with highly positive loadings for occupation, aggregation and patchiness, independently of species and ecosystem. Overlapping between anchovy and sardine increased with the increase of sardine biomass but decreased with the increase of anchovy. This contrasting pattern was attributed to the location of the respective major patches

  16. Proceedings of the Monterey Containment Symposium, Monterey, California, August 26-28, 1981. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, B.C. [comp.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Jones, E.M. [comp.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Keller, C.E. [comp.] [Field Command (DNA), Kirtland Air Force Base, NM (United States); Smith, C.W. [comp.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1983-02-01

    Since the Atmospheric Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963, the United States has conducted all nuclear weapons tests underground. To meet US treaty responsibilities and to ensure public safety, the containment community must prevent any release of radioactive gases to the atmosphere. In the past two decades we have gained considerable insight into the scientific and engineering requirements for complete containment, but the papers and discussions at the Monterey Symposium indicate that a great deal remains to be done. Among papers included here, those dealing with mature topics will serve as reviews and introductions for new workers in the field. Others, representing first looks at new areas, contain more speculative material. Active research topics include propagation of stress waves in rocks, formation and decay of residual hoop stresses around a cavity, hydrofracture out of a cavity, formation of chimneys, and geologic and geophysical investigations of the Nevada Test Site. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Exploitation des larves de sardine Limnothrissa miodon au lac Kivu (R.D.C. : danger potentiel ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaningini, M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Larva's Catch of Sardine Limnothrissa miodon in Lake Kivu (RD Congo : Potential Danger ?. Commercial frog farms exist in several countries. It seems hopeless believing that frog leg consumption can be prohibited, and the solution is probably a very strict control of the origin of the legs sold and imported. Uncontrolled hunting-poaching of frogs should be replaced by sustainable and rational breeding of frogs for sale. A large frog farm located near Singapore is described with the infrastructure and the management of the production. The two species bred are the American and the Asian bull-frogs Rana catesbeiana and R. tigerina. It is also mentioned that appropriate slaughtering techniques exist for frogs based on same guidelines as for conventional farm animals.

  18. Assessing the quality of sardine based on biogenic amines using a fuzzy logic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Davood; Ghazali, H M

    2017-04-15

    There is an increasing concern about the quality and quality assessment procedures of seafood. In the present study, a model to assess fish quality based on biogenic amine contents using fuzzy logic model (FLM) is proposed. The fish used was sardine (Sardinella sp.) where the production of eight biogenic amines was monitored over fifteen days of storage at 0, 3 and 10°C. Based on the results, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine were selected as input variables and twelve quality grades were considered for quality of fish as output variables for the FLM. Input data were processed by rules established in the model and were then defuzzified according to defined output variables. Finally, the quality of fish was evaluated using the designed model and Pearson correlation between storage times with quality of fish showed r=0.97, 0.95 and 1 for fish stored at 0, 3 and 10°C, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The use of pelagic fish as proxies of environmental contamination: a case study with sardine populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silva Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of bioindicators to analyze marine ecosystems contamination is often made difficult due to the absence of appropriate species. Pelagic fish species, captured by commercial fishing fleets around the world, can be successfully used to assess contaminant levels, by determining their body burden in specific compounds. However the study of biological responses elicited by such compounds, through the analysis of biomarkers, is highly dependent on the physiological and reproductive status of the organisms. Such confounding factors elicit seasonal fluctuations that difficult the extrapolation of data. Sardine (Sardina pilchardus is a marine species common in the North Atlantic Ocean, being easily available through commercial fisheries. The present work intended to explore the potential of this species in biomonitoring studies, by simultaneously using enzymatic biomarkers and condition indices determined in fish landed in three commercial harbors along the west coast of Portugal. This strategy allowed devising spatial and temporal patterns in the sardine metapopulation. Results evidenced significant variability in both biochemical and physiological profiles of the fish, which were coherent among all sampling sites. Throughout the year, large seasonal differences for most markers were reported, which were strongly linked to the reproductive cycle and its physiological consequences (acquisition of energy, mobilization of energy reserves, etc.. It was possible to conclude that seasonality acts as a strong factor underlying chronological physiological adaptations, influencing biochemical markers that are usually employed as indicators of contamination. These effects can limit the usefulness of such a biomarker approach unless seasonality is not accounted for, and if no background values are known from previous studies. In this sense, studies such as this are pivotal to establish a baseline for biomonitoring studies. Also, despite the difficulty in

  20. ROV observation of fluid expulsion in Monterey Bay, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orange, D.L.; Barry, J.; Maher, N. [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute., Pacific Grove, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    ROV dives in Monterey Bay have been used to examine the relationship of fluid flow to tectonic and stratigraphic conduits along an active transpressional continental margin. We used side-scan sonar to identify dive targets for the ROV, since anomalous reflectivity can be caused by the presence of biological {open_quote}cold seep{close_quotes} communities or authigenic carbonate. On a compressional ridge west of the San Gregorio Fault, cold seep clams are found along with extensive fields of authigenic carbonate in an elliptical region of anomalous reflectivity {approximately}400m in diameter. The reflectivity and fluid expulsion suggest that this feature is an active mud volcano. Analyses of push cores from the ridge site indicate high concentrations of both methane and sulfide and the presence of higher-order hydrocarbons. Many carbon isotopic ratios of the carbonate crusts indicate a methane carbon source; some values represent a mixture of methane carbon and normal marine carbon. Fluids charging the seeps west of the San Gregorio Fault may originate in tectonically-compacted sediments affected by residual Pacific-North America plate convergence, and may have an additional component of hydrocarbon charging from the underlying Monterey Formation. At the intersection of the Monterey Fault Zone and the Monterey Canyon a number of cold seeps occur in headless side canyons characterized by intense fracturing. This supports the hypothesis that submarine canyons act as hydrologic sinks for any overpressured fluid flowing toward the surface. On the San Gregorio Fault itself we have found in echelon ridges of carbonate. The fluids seeping out along fault zones may originate deep in the section and utilize the deformation-induced fracture permeability of the fault zone. Alternatively, aquifer-forcing from the uplifted Santa Cruz Mountains may provide a source of fluids venting along these fault zones (aquicludes?) and at seeps east of the fault zones.

  1. ROV observation of fluid expulsion in Monterey Bay, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orange, D.L.; Barry, J.; Maher, N. (Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute., Pacific Grove, CA (United States)) (and others)

    1996-01-01

    ROV dives in Monterey Bay have been used to examine the relationship of fluid flow to tectonic and stratigraphic conduits along an active transpressional continental margin. We used side-scan sonar to identify dive targets for the ROV, since anomalous reflectivity can be caused by the presence of biological [open quote]cold seep[close quotes] communities or authigenic carbonate. On a compressional ridge west of the San Gregorio Fault, cold seep clams are found along with extensive fields of authigenic carbonate in an elliptical region of anomalous reflectivity [approximately]400m in diameter. The reflectivity and fluid expulsion suggest that this feature is an active mud volcano. Analyses of push cores from the ridge site indicate high concentrations of both methane and sulfide and the presence of higher-order hydrocarbons. Many carbon isotopic ratios of the carbonate crusts indicate a methane carbon source; some values represent a mixture of methane carbon and normal marine carbon. Fluids charging the seeps west of the San Gregorio Fault may originate in tectonically-compacted sediments affected by residual Pacific-North America plate convergence, and may have an additional component of hydrocarbon charging from the underlying Monterey Formation. At the intersection of the Monterey Fault Zone and the Monterey Canyon a number of cold seeps occur in headless side canyons characterized by intense fracturing. This supports the hypothesis that submarine canyons act as hydrologic sinks for any overpressured fluid flowing toward the surface. On the San Gregorio Fault itself we have found in echelon ridges of carbonate. The fluids seeping out along fault zones may originate deep in the section and utilize the deformation-induced fracture permeability of the fault zone. Alternatively, aquifer-forcing from the uplifted Santa Cruz Mountains may provide a source of fluids venting along these fault zones (aquicludes ) and at seeps east of the fault zones.

  2. Effects of the addition of spleen of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) on the liquefaction and characteristics of fish sauce made from sardine (Sardinella gibbosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Klomklao, Sappasith; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Kishimura, Hideki; Simpson, Benjamin K.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the addition of spleen of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), at levels of 0%, 10% and 20%, on the liquefaction and characteristics of fish sauce produced from the sardine (Sardinella gibbosa) with different salt concentrations (15%, 20% and 25%) were monitored during fermentation for 180 days. Fish sauces prepared from sardine with spleen supplementation contained greater total nitrogen, amino nitrogen, formaldehyde nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen than did those without spleen a...

  3. A study of the life history of Brazilian sardines, Sardinella aurita: I. Distribution and abundance of sardine eggs in the region of Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1971-06-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and abundance of sardine eggs in the Ilha Grande region, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were studied during five cruises for the 1969 1970 period. Using the shipboard fertilized eggs and the planktonic eggs, morphological descriptions of Brazilian sardine eggs are given. Spawning occurs during the summer from September to March in the coastal water off Ilha Grande to Ilha de São Sebastião down to a depth of 100 meters. Spawning may take place a few hours prior to midnight. lt was noticed that spawning has a close relationship to an area of cold water up welling. Spawning groups are isolated and spawning is small in scale in this region. Temperature and salinity in the spawning area range between 18-24ºC and 35.1-35.9‰ respectively.O presente trabalho apresenta um estudo da fase inicial do ciclo de vida da sardinha (Projeto SOL e verifica o seu potencial re produtivo ("spawning power" na costa sul do Brasil. Cinco viagens à região da Ilha Gran de foram realizadas com o N/Oc. " Prof. W. Besnard" e barco "Emilia". Os resultados estão resumidos, a seguir: 1. Os ovos sao esféricos e o espaço pe rivitelino é amplo. O diâmetro medio dos ovos e de 1,18 mm, cuja distribuição é de 1,00 - 1,32 mm. O espaço perivitelino mede, em média, 0,143 mm, com distribuição entre 0,061-0,254 mm. Geralmente o glóbulo de oleo é único, porém, às vezes apresenta-se segmentado em dois ou três. O seu diâmetro médio é de 0,140 mm, com distribuição entre 0,091 0,182 mm. 2. Podemos supor que a hora de desova da sardinha, nesta região, é pouco antes da meia-noite. Os ovos coletados numa mesma área e num mesmo dia, provenientes de um mesmo grupo de "desovantes", foram classificados em grupos de sardinhas que desovaram na área durante uma viagem de pesquisa. O tamanho dos cardumes de sardinha "desovante" não é grande como os da sardinha da Califórnia. 3. A área de desova, sôbre a plataforma continental, estende-se desde a Ilha de S

  4. THE RESPONSE OF MONTEREY BAY TO THE 2010 CHILEAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence C. Breaker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary frequencies contained in the arrival sequence produced by the tsunami from the Chilean earthquake of 2010 in Monterey Bay were extracted to determine the seiche modes that were produced. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD were employed to extract the primary frequencies of interest. The wave train from the Chilean tsunami lasted for at least four days due to multipath arrivals that may not have included reflections from outside the bay but most likely did include secondary undulations, and energy trapping in the form of edge waves, inside the bay. The SSA decomposition resolved oscillations with periods of 52-57, 34-35, 26-27, and 21-22 minutes, all frequencies that have been predicted and/or observed in previous studies. The EEMD decomposition detected oscillations with periods of 50-55 and 21-22 minutes. Periods in the range of 50-57 minutes varied due to measurement uncertainties but almost certainly correspond to the first longitudinal mode of oscillation for Monterey Bay, periods of 34-35 minutes correspond to the first transverse mode of oscillation that assumes a nodal line across the entrance of the bay, a period of 26- 27 minutes, although previously observed, may not represent a fundamental oscillation, and a period of 21-22 minutes has been predicted and observed previously. A period of ~37 minutes, close to the period of 34-35 minutes, was generated by the Great Alaskan Earthquake of 1964 in Monterey Bay and most likely represents the same mode of oscillation. The tsunamis associated with the Great Alaskan Earthquake and the Chilean Earthquake both entered Monterey Bay but initially arrived outside the bay from opposite directions. Unlike the Great Alaskan Earthquake, however, which excited only one resonant mode inside the bay, the Chilean Earthquake excited several modes suggesting that the asymmetric shape of the entrance to Monterey Bay was an important factor and that the

  5. Hidden Diversity in Sardines: Genetic and Morphological Evidence for Cryptic Species in the Goldstripe Sardinella, Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker, 1849)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rey C.; Willette, Demian A.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Santos, Mudjekeewis D.

    2014-01-01

    Cryptic species continue to be uncovered in many fish taxa, posing challenges for fisheries conservation and management. In Sardinella gibbosa, previous investigations revealed subtle intra-species variations, resulting in numerous synonyms and a controversial taxonomy for this sardine. Here, we tested for cryptic diversity within S. gibbosa using genetic data from two mitochondrial and one nuclear gene regions of 248 individuals of S. gibbosa, collected from eight locations across the Philippine archipelago. Deep genetic divergence and subsequent clustering was consistent across both mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Clade distribution is geographically limited: Clade 1 is widely distributed in the central Philippines, while Clade 2 is limited to the northernmost sampling site. In addition, morphometric analyses revealed a unique head shape that characterized each genetic clade. Hence, both genetic and morphological evidence strongly suggests a hidden diversity within this common and commercially-important sardine. PMID:24416271

  6. Hidden diversity in sardines: genetic and morphological evidence for cryptic species in the goldstripe sardinella, Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker, 1849.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey C Thomas

    Full Text Available Cryptic species continue to be uncovered in many fish taxa, posing challenges for fisheries conservation and management. In Sardinella gibbosa, previous investigations revealed subtle intra-species variations, resulting in numerous synonyms and a controversial taxonomy for this sardine. Here, we tested for cryptic diversity within S. gibbosa using genetic data from two mitochondrial and one nuclear gene regions of 248 individuals of S. gibbosa, collected from eight locations across the Philippine archipelago. Deep genetic divergence and subsequent clustering was consistent across both mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Clade distribution is geographically limited: Clade 1 is widely distributed in the central Philippines, while Clade 2 is limited to the northernmost sampling site. In addition, morphometric analyses revealed a unique head shape that characterized each genetic clade. Hence, both genetic and morphological evidence strongly suggests a hidden diversity within this common and commercially-important sardine.

  7. Quantifying the predation on sardine and hake by cetaceans in the Atlantic waters of the Iberian peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begoña Santos, M.; Saavedra, Camilo; Pierce, Graham J.

    2014-08-01

    Construction of ecosystem models requires detailed information on trophic interactions which may not be readily available, especially for top predators such as cetaceans. Such information can also be useful to estimate natural mortality (M) for fish stock assessments and to evaluate the potential for competition between cetaceans and fisheries. In the present paper we provide estimates and confidence limits, taking into account sampling error, for consumption of fish by the four most common cetaceans along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula, while highlighting the uncertainties and biases inherent in the information presently available on energy requirements, diet and population size. We estimated that common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) consume around 6800 (95% CI, 4871-9476) tons of sardine (Sardina pilchardus), 8800 (6195-12,647) tons of gadids, 1100 (721-1662) tons of hake (Merluccius merluccius) and 1900 (1222-2752) tons of scads (Trachurus sp.) annually. For striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), prey consumed were 900 (196-2661) tons of sardine, 6200 (3448-11,129) tons of gadids, 200 (11-504) tons of hake and 1600 (0-5318) tons of scads. Estimated amounts taken by harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are much lower, reflecting their low abundance in the area. Cetacean predation on sardine represents 2-8% of the current M value, indicating that cetaceans probably have little influence on sardine population dynamics. For the southern hake stock, estimated average removal by cetaceans often exceeds M. While this may indicate that both M and the consumption estimates for hake require revision it also suggests that cetaceans could have a more significant impact on hake populations. Different approaches to estimation of energy requirements of cetaceans can result in figures that differ by at least a factor of 2. The lack of good estimates of field metabolic rate for most species probably represents the most

  8. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-08-18

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath bathymetry data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Offshore of Monterey map area in central California is located on the Pacific Coast, about 120 km south of San Francisco. Incorporated cities in the map area include Seaside, Monterey, Marina, Pacific Grove, Carmel-by-the-Sea, and Sand City. The local economy receives significant resources from tourism, as well as from the Federal Government. Tourist attractions include the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fisherman’s Wharf, and the many golf courses near Pebble Beach, and the area serves as a gateway to the spectacular scenery and outdoor activities along the Big Sur coast to the south. Federal facilities include the Army’s Defense Language Institute, the Naval Postgraduate School, and the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (operated by the Navy). In 1994, Fort Ord army base, located between Seaside and Marina, was closed; much of former army base land now makes up the Fort Ord National Monument, managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. In addition, part of the old Fort Ord is now occupied by California State University, Monterey Bay.The offshore part of the map area lies entirely within the Monterey Bay National

  9. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-08-18

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath bathymetry data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Offshore of Monterey map area in central California is located on the Pacific Coast, about 120 km south of San Francisco. Incorporated cities in the map area include Seaside, Monterey, Marina, Pacific Grove, Carmel-by-the-Sea, and Sand City. The local economy receives significant resources from tourism, as well as from the Federal Government. Tourist attractions include the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fisherman’s Wharf, and the many golf courses near Pebble Beach, and the area serves as a gateway to the spectacular scenery and outdoor activities along the Big Sur coast to the south. Federal facilities include the Army’s Defense Language Institute, the Naval Postgraduate School, and the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (operated by the Navy). In 1994, Fort Ord army base, located between Seaside and Marina, was closed; much of former army base land now makes up the Fort Ord National Monument, managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. In addition, part of the old Fort Ord is now occupied by California State University, Monterey Bay.The offshore part of the map area lies entirely within the Monterey Bay National

  10. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart M of... - Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates A Appendix A to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating...—Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates Point ID No. Latitude Longitude...

  11. Large wave-shaped bedforms in the axial channel of Monterey Submarine Canyon: Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C. K.; Normark, W. R.; Ussler, W.; Caress, D. W.; Keaten, R.; Barry, J.; Xu, J.; Smith, D.; Covault, J. A.; Maier, K. L.

    2007-12-01

    Multibeam bathymetric data show that large wave-shaped bedforms exist on the seafloor within the axial channel of Monterey Submarine Canyon offshore northern California (Smith et al., 2006). These features have wavelengths up to 70 m, amplitudes up to 2 m, and distinct asymmetrical crests that are roughly perpendicular to the channel. Comparisons of repetitive multibeam surveys since 2004 shows that the bedforms are active features because their positions change between surveys. Three complementary studies are underway to understand the origin of these features: (1) Vibracoring - In June 2007, the ROV Ventana collected 18 vibracores up to 2 m in length along a 130-m transect in ~285 m water depth that spanned the crests of two and the flanks of three waves. Sediment in these cores is composed of one or more sequences of coarse gravel or multicolored clay-clasts that fine upward into sand. Sometimes individual gravel-clasts or clay-chips occur within sand. The internal stratigraphy of these waves shows they resemble classic gravity-flow deposits. (2) Sediment Movement - A pilot study was conducted to assess whether sediment within the canyon floor moves by traction from currents or mass transport. On February 8, 2007, three acoustic beacons were deployed in ~290 m water depth within the canyon axis using Ventana. The beacons were placed within recesses in 50-cm-high ~45 kg poured-concrete monuments. These boulder-sized monuments were buried leaving only the top of the beacon standing ~6 cm above the sediment surface. Thus, the monuments were largely entombed within the seafloor. We also placed 3 acoustic beacons mounted on trapezoidal frames at the edge of a terrace on the canyon's lower flank. On February 12th, we returned to the area and determined that all three monuments had moved ~150 m down canyon. Two trapezoidal frames were found on their sides entwined with each other 50 and 75 m down canyon from their deployment site. The third frame was never located. A

  12. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    which feeds primarily on the large populations of sardine. Sardinops .... 1930 and 1971, with the bulk of the construction completed by .... guanay cormorants were best fitted by the equation ..... Clearly, the population dynamics of seabirds in ...

  13. [Evaluation of prerequisites programs for a HACCP plan for frozen sardine plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Patricia; Reyes, Genara

    2008-06-01

    Good manufacturing practices (GMP) and sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOP) are prerequisites programs for the application of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system as a food safety approach during processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate GMP/SSOP prerequisites in processing line of frozen whole sardine (Sardinella aurita). The GMP compliance was verified according to a standard procedure of the Ministry for the Health of Venezuela, and the SSOP were assessed according to a checklist proposed by the FDA. GMP and SSOP were evaluated following a demerit-based approach. A percentage value was calculated and referred to as sanitary effectiveness. Results indicated that the plant had a good level of compliance with GMP from assessment of buildings and facilities, equipment and tools, hygienic requisites of the production, assurance of the hygiene quality, storage and transportation, and the percentage of sanitary effectiveness was 84%. The level of compliance for SSOP was 53,12% with demerits found in all assessed aspects consisting of inexistent guidelines, lack of control in the sanitary plan and lack of leadership in applying corrective actions. Thus, an improvement in the plant sanitation program was designed targeting SSOP.

  14. Paleoceanographic and tectonic controls on deposition of the Monterey formation and related siliceous rocks in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The timing of paleoceanographic and tectonic events that shaped the deposition of the Monterey Formation of California and related siliceous rocks has been determined by application of a refined biochronology. The base of the Monterey at 17.5 Ma coincides with rising global sea level and a switch in biogenous silica deposition from the Caribbean and low-latitude North Atlantic to the North Pacific. Major polar cooling, which began at 15 Ma, postdates the base of the Monterey by more than 2 Ma and cannot be invoked to cause the deposition of diatomaceous sediments occurring in the lowermost Monterey. Later polar cooling in the early late Miocene, however, apparently caused increased upwelling and deposition of purer diatomites in the upper Monterey. The top of the Monterey at about 6 Ma coincides with a major sea level drop and is commonly marked by an unconformity. Equivalent unconformities are widespread around the rim of the North Pacific and typically separate more pelagic sediments from overlying sediments with a greater terrigenous component. Above the Monterey, diatoms persist in California sediments to 4.5-4.0 m.y., where their decline coincides with increased deposition of diatoms in the Antarctic. Carbon isotope records in the Pacific and Indian Oceans record storage of 12C in the Monterey Formation and equivalent organic-rich sediments around the rim of the North Pacific. A +1.0??? excursion in ?? 13C beginning at 17.5 Ma coincides with rising sea level and probably reflects storage of organic material in Monterey-like marginal reservoirs. A reverse -1.0??? shift at 6.2 Ma closely approximates the top of the Monterey and may represent erosion of these marginal reservoirs and reintroduction of stored organic carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. Initiation of transform faulting and extension in the California margin in the latest Oligocene and early Miocene caused the subsidence of basins which later received Monterey sediments. A major tectonic event

  15. Earthquake and bay: Response of Monterey Bay to the Loma Prieta Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Franklin B.; Norton, Jerrold G.; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.

    The magnitude-7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake, which ruptured a segment of the San Andreas fault on October 17, 1989, and caused extensive damage over a large area of central California, also produced substantial motions in nearby Monterey Bay (Figure 1). Earthquake effects included a tsunami, or seismic sea wave, and subsequent surface water oscillations that were detected for about 24 hours following the main shock and widespread, substantial slumping of sediments on the Monterey Bay continental shelf and along the walls of Monterey Submarine Canyon.

  16. Modelling physical-biological interactions in the Southeast Brazil Bight: transport patterns of Brazilian Sardine larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggiani Dias, D.; Gherardi, D. F.; Pezzi, L. P.

    2013-05-01

    The advection of Brazilian Sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) eggs and larvae in the SBB was modeled using an individual-based model (Ichthyop) and a hydrodynamic model (Regional Ocean Modeling System, ROMS) to test for differences in larval retention for five spawning areas with high probability of egg occurrence: i) two areas north of the domain - Cape Frio and Rio de Janeiro, ii) one in the middle in Sao Sebastiao, and iii) two in the South in Paranagua. According to previous studies, this encompasses the known spawning habitat. Advective processes and physical characteristics, such as water temperature and salinity, were considered to determine larvae transport and survival. The hydrodynamic model grid has a horizontal resolution of 1/12o. Results of monthly mean Sea Surface Temperature (MSST) and Sea Surface Height (MSSH) indicate there isn't warming or cooling trend over the years, and the seasonal cycle well represented. These results were compared with satellite-derived data from the AVHRR sensor and AVISO project. Model results accurately represent the position and shape of the main surface structures observed in the satellite data. Monthly MSST maps for the experiment period indicate that the model tends to underestimate temperatures in upwelling areas and overestimate in the Brazil Current region, with differences mostly around ±1oC. For MSSH, although the model represents well the main surface ocean structures, it tends to underestimate along the domain. Temperature-salinity diagrams plotted in a coastal area for December of four years (1985, 1986, 1987 and 1988), near Ubatuba region, are consistent with field collected data, suggesting that the main water masses in SBB are reliably represented. The IBM experiments were carried out during the summer of six years (1980, 1981, 1988, 1991, 1992 and 1993). For each year, 20000 eggs were released, distributed in the five areas, and tracked for 45 days. At the end of simulation, the mortality due to

  17. Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis spawning in the southeast Brazilian Bight over the period 1976-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on sampling over the period 1976-1993 in the southeast Brazilian Bight, the distribution of spawning of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasi/iensis is described in relation to environmental conditions. The area of intense spawning occurs in the southern part of the bight where coastal upwelling was less /Tequent. Spawning intensity showed high interannllal variation and the egg abundance in the survey area ranged /Tom 99 billion eggs in the January 1988 cruise to 4669 billion eggs in the January 1981 cruise. Peak spawning takes place one hour after midnight and eggs hatch . out within 19 hours with a water temperature of 24 °e.Baseado nos dados coletados durante nove cruzeiros oceanográficos realizados na região sudeste, as áreas de desova da sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis foram apresentadas c discutidas em relação às condições oceanográficas. As áreas de desova intensiva foram localizadas na parte sul da área de investigação, onde a ressurgência costeira foi menos freqüente. A intensidade de desova demonstrou uma variação anual relativamente grande. A produção total de ovos da sardinha- ­verdadeira variou de 99 bilhões de ovos durante o cruzeiro de janeiro de 1988 para 4669 bilhões de ovos em janeiro de 1981. O pico de desova ocorre na camada de mistura de superfície uma hora após a meia noite e os ovos eclodem em 19 horas com a temperatura de água 24 °e.

  18. Pascale Sardin. Samuel Beckett et la passion maternelle ou l’hystérie à l’œuvre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe MURAT

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La parution d’un ouvrage critique sur Samuel Beckett tombe évidemment à point nommé, puisque certaines des grandes pièces de ce dramaturge figurent au programme de deux concours de recrutement (session 2010 : Endgame pour l’agrégation externe d’Anglais, En attendant Godot et Oh les beaux jours pour l’agrégation externe de Lettres modernes. Il serait pourtant erroné de voir dans le livre de Pascale Sardin une publication « opportuniste » à destination des seuls candidats des concours. La pers...

  19. California State Waters Map Series—Monterey Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Maier, Katherine L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Greene, H. Gary; Davenport, Clifton W.; Endris, Charles A.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-06-10

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath bathymetry data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area lies within Monterey Bay in central California. Monterey Bay is one of the largest embayments along the west coast of the United States, spanning 36 km from its northern to southern tips (in Santa Cruz and Monterey, respectively) and 20 km along its central axis. Not only does it contain one of the broadest sections of continental shelf along California’s coast, it also contains Monterey Canyon, one of the largest and deepest submarine canyons in the world. Note that the California’s State Waters limit extends farther offshore between Santa Cruz and Monterey so that it encompasses all of Monterey Bay.The coastal area within the map area is lightly populated. The community of Moss Landing (population, 204) hosts the largest commercial fishing fleet in Monterey Bay in its harbor. The map area also includes parts of the cities of Marina (population, about 20,000) and Castroville (population, about 6,500). Fertile lowlands of the Salinas River and Pajaro River valleys largely occupy the inland part of the map area, and land use is primarily agricultural.The offshore part of the map area lies completely within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The

  20. Water level oscillations in Monterey Bay and Harbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seiches are normal modes of water bodies responding to geophysical forcings with potential to significantly impact ecology and maritime operations. Analysis of high-frequency (1 Hz water level data in Monterey, California, identifies harbor modes between 10 and 120 s that are attributed to specific geographic features. It is found that modal amplitude modulation arises from cross-modal interaction and that offshore wave energy is a primary driver of these modes. Synchronous coupling between modes is observed to significantly impact dynamic water levels. At lower frequencies with periods between 15 and 60 min, modes are independent of offshore wave energy, yet are continuously present. This is unexpected since seiches normally dissipate after cessation of the driving force, indicating an unknown forcing. Spectral and kinematic estimates of these low-frequency oscillations support the idea that a persistent anticyclonic mesoscale gyre adjacent to the bay is a potential mode driver, while discounting other sources.

  1. Water level oscillations in Monterey Bay and Harbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Seiches are normal modes of water bodies responding to geophysical forcings with potential to significantly impact ecology and maritime operations. Analysis of high-frequency (1 Hz water level data in Monterey California identifies Harbor modes between 10 and 120 s that are attributed with specific geographic features. It found that modal amplitude modulation arises from cross-modal interaction and that offshore wave energy is a primary driver of these modes. Synchronous coupling between modes is observed to significantly impact dynamic water levels. At lower frequencies between 15 and 60 min modes are independent of offshore wave energy, yet are continuously present. This is unexpected since seiches normally dissipate after cessation of the driving force, indicating an unknown forcing. Spectral and kinematic estimates of these low frequency oscillations supports the idea that a persistent anticyclonic mesoscale gyre adjacent to the Bay is a potential mode driver, while discounting other sources.

  2. The monterey bay broadband ocean bottom seismic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uhrhammer

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the installation of a long-term buried ocean-floor broadband seismic station (MOBB in Monterey Bay, California (USA, 40km off-shore, at a water depth of 1000 m. The station was installed in April 2002 using a ship and ROV, in a collaborative effort between the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI and the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL. The station is located on the western side of the San Gregorio Fault, a major fault in the San Andreas plate boundary fault system. In addition to a 3-component CMG-1T seismometer package, the station comprises a current meter and Differential Pressure Gauge, both sampled at high-enough frequency (1 Hz to allow the study of relations between background noise on the seismometers and ocean waves and currents. The proximity of several land-based broadband seismic stations of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network allows insightful comparisons of land/ocean background seismic noise at periods relevant to regional and teleseismic studies. The station is currently autonomous. Recording and battery packages are exchanged every 3 months during scheduled one day dives. Ultimately, this station will be linked to shore using continuous telemetry (cable and/or buoy and will contribute to the earthquake notification system in Northern California. We present examples of earthquake and noise data recorded during the first 6 months of operation of MOBB. Lessons learned from these and continued recordings will help understand the nature and character of background noise in regional off-shore environments and provide a reference for the installation of future off-shore temporary and permanent broadband seismic stations.

  3. Summer Internship Program at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, G. I.

    2009-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute formally started the Internship Program in 1997. The program is open to undergraduate and graduate students and educators. The purpose of the Program is to provide an opportunity for talented students and teachers to come to MBARI for a certain period of time and to work on a research project under MBARI staff supervision. The interns are selected following a rigorous application procedure, merit review and, in some cases, an interview process. They are from around the world and represent a variety of different backgrounds, experience, and education. They all share a common desire to learn more about the marine environment and to work with MBARI staff. The mission of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute is to serve as a world center for advanced research and education in ocean science and technology. MBARI strives to achieve this mission through the development of better instruments, systems, and methods for scientific research in the deep ocean. MBARI emphasizes peer relationships between engineers and scientists as a basic principle of its operation. Teams at MBARI use cutting-edge technology to develop equipment, software, and research methods to meet the specific needs of deep-sea research. The focus of the MBARI internship is on the intern’s professional development—learning research techniques and improving communication and collaboration skills. Each intern has an MBARI mentor who will supervise a specific project. Interns will also serve as peer-mentors to other interns. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the history of the program as well as lessons learned. 2009 MBARI SUMMER INTERNS WITH PRESIDENT AND CEO MARCIA MCNUTT

  4. Monterey Strategy Seminar: Day 2: Dissuasion in the U.S. Defense Strategy.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, James A; Pulsipher, Lashley; Zellen, Barry; Lavoy, Peter R.; Clary, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Monterey Strategy Seminar: Day 1: Capabilities Based Planning. Day 2: Dissuasion in the U.S. Defense Strategy. Day 3: Global Strike Warfare Naval Postgraduate School Center for Contemporary Conflict (CCC)

  5. 75 FR 13468 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to disapprove a revision to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen...

  6. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP CEMEX Mine Dredge Pond 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Location of the CEMEX mine dredge pond at Lapis Sand Plant, Marina, CA. Southern Monterey Bay has been the most intensively mined shoreline in the U.S. Sand mining...

  7. Sediment core data from the northern flank of Monterey Canyon, offshore California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — he five files included in this U.S. Geological Survey data release are data from a set of sediment cores acquired from the continental slope, north of Monterey...

  8. Geology and geomorphology--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  9. BackscatterA [USGS SWATH]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  10. BackscatterD [CSUMB Swath]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  11. Sediment core data from the northern flank of Monterey Canyon, offshore California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The five files included in this U.S. Geological Survey data release are data from a set of sediment cores acquired from the continental slope, north of Monterey...

  12. 76 FR 20324 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Diving, Education (alternate), Research... professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly...'') chaired by the Research Representative, the Sanctuary Education Panel (``SEP'') chaired by the Education...

  13. Geology and geomorphology--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  14. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP CEMEX Mine Dredge Pond 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Location of the CEMEX mine dredge pond at Lapis Sand Plant, Marina, CA. Southern Monterey Bay has been the most intensively mined shoreline in the U.S. Sand mining...

  15. BackscatterD [CSUMB Swath]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  16. BackscatterA [USGS SWATH]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  17. Re-Engineering the Enrollment Management System at the Monterey Peninsula Unified School District (MPUSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Terrace Manzanita La Mesa Highland Foothills Del Rey Woods King Middle Marina Vista Olson Marina Del Mar Crumpton Los Arboles Seaside High Ord Terrace...Le Mesa Larkin Manzanita Marina Del Mar Marina Vista Marshall Monte Vista Olson Ord Terrace Colton Fitch King Los Arboles Monterey High Seaside...196 183 583 583 King 163 163 228 553 552 Los Arboles 236 210 227 672 672 Total Middle 823 812 886 2521 2520 Monterey 417 362 375 317 1471 1474 Seaside

  18. Dans l’atelier de l’écrivain (autofictif. L’enterrement de la sardine de Patrice Lessard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Randall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available L’enterrement de la sardine, dernier roman de la trilogie lisboète de Patrice Lessard, nous introduit à la fois dans le labyrinthe de la vieille ville de Lisbonne et dans celui de la narration de deux romans en train de se faire. La distinction entre fiction et autobiographie proposée dans l’avant-propos s’effondre vite devant les multiples intrusions du « réel » dans la fiction et de la fiction dans le « réel ». De plus, la facture fragmentaire de l’ensemble pose un défi au lecteur qui se trouve en plein atelier de l’écrivain, devant un portrait de l’artiste inachevé, inachevable. L’enterrement de la sardine, the final volume of Patrick Lessard’s Lisbonne trilogy, plunges the reader into the labyrinth of Lisbonne’s old city as well as into the meanders of two novels in the making. The distinction between fiction and autobiography presented in the preface quickly dissolves in the face of the multiple intrusions of the “real” world into the fictional one and vice versa. The fragmentary nature of the entire text poses a challenge to the reader, who seems to have wandered into the writer’s workshop to confront an unfinished — perhaps unfinishable — self-portrait.

  19. Optimization of α-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate addition for the stabilization of sardine oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Medina, R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to optimize the addition of natural antioxidants (α- tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate for the stabilization of sardine oil rich in omega-3 PUFA. The optimal values for peroxide value (PV, which minimizes primary oxidation products, were obtained at low concentrations of α-tocopherol (50–207 ppm, high content of ascorbyl palmitate (450 ppm and 50 ppm citric acid. On the other hand, optimal values for p-anisidine value (AV, which minimizes secondary oxidation products, were found at medium concentrations of α-tocopherol (478–493 ppm, high contents of ascorbyl palmitate (390–450 ppm and 50 ppm citric acid. The conflicting effect of α-tocopherol on the individual optimization of PV and AV motivated the generation of a Pareto front (set of non inferior solutions employing the weighted-sum multi-objective optimization technique.El objetivo de este trabajo fue optimizar la adición de antioxidantes naturales (α-tocoferol y palmitato de ascorbilo para la estabilización de aceite de sardina rico en omega-3 PUFA. Bajas concentraciones de α-tocoferol (50–207 ppm combinadas con la adicción de antioxidantes secundarios como palmitato de ascorbilo (450 ppm y ácido cítrico (50 ppm, minimizaron la formación de hidroperóxidos en el aceite de sardina estudiado. Sin embargo, los productos secundarios de oxidación se redujeron para concentraciones medias de α-tocoferol (478–493 ppm, altas de palmitato de ascorbilo (390–450 ppm y 50 ppm de ácido cítrico. El efecto contradictorio de la concentración de α-tocoferol en la optimización individual del índice de peróxidos e índice de p-anisidina motivó la realización de una optimización simultánea que permite satisfacer la optimización de cada una de las variables individuales en el grado deseado.

  20. Sardine oil loaded vanillic acid grafted chitosan microparticles, a new functional food ingredient: attenuates myocardial oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyoblast cell lines (H9c2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnu, K V; Ajeesh Kumar, K K; Chatterjee, Niladri S; Lekshmi, R G K; Sreerekha, P R; Mathew, Suseela; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-08-02

    Fish oil has been widely recognized as an excellent dietary source of polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA. However, it can undergo oxidation easily resulting in the formation of toxic off flavor compounds such as hydroperoxides. These compounds adversely affect the nutritional quality and may induce several stress reactions in body. To solve this problem, a new antioxidant bio-material, vanillic acid-grafted chitosan (Va-g-Ch), was synthesized and used as a wall material for microencapsulation of fish oil. The sardine oil loaded Va-g-Ch microparticles could be a potential functional food ingredient considering the numerous health benefits of fish oil, chitosan, and vanillic acid. The current study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of sardine oil-loaded Va-g-Ch microparticles against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation was conducted using H9c2 cardiomyocytes. MTT assay revealed that effective cytoprotective effect was induced by a sample concentration of 12.5 μg/mL. Results of apoptosis by double fluorescent staining with acridine orange/ethidium bromide and caspase-3 evaluation by ELISA substantiated the above findings. Further, flow cytometric determination of membrane potential, relative expression of NF-κB by PCR, and ROS determination using DCFH-DA also confirmed the protective effect of encapsulated sardine oil against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. NF-κB expression was down-regulated nearly by 50% on cells treated with encapsulated sardine oil. Altogether, the results revealed that sardine oil-loaded Va-g-Ch microparticles demonstrated potential cell protection against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress.

  1. Cost Analysis of a Transition to Green Vehicle Technology for Light Duty Fleet Vehicles in Public Works Department Naval Support Activity Monterey (PWD Monterey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    replacing ICEs with green technologies on the federal fleet level. The current leader in this research is the AVTA, a subcomponent of the Idaho...the market that may provide additional benefits. C. FOLLOW-ON RESEARCH Possibilities for future research are as follows: 1. Determine the...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT COST ANALYSIS OF A TRANSITION TO GREEN VEHICLE

  2. Views of the Sea Floor in Northern Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Finlayson, David P.

    2008-01-01

    A sonar survey that produced unprecedented high-resolution images of the sea floor in northern Monterey Bay was conducted in 2005 and 2006. The survey, performed over 14 days by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consisted of 172 tracklines and over 300 million soundings and covered an area of 12.2 km2 (4.7 mi2). The goals of this survey were to collect high-resolution bathymetry (depth to the sea floor) and acoustic backscatter data (amount of sound energy bounced back from the sea floor, which provides information on sea-floor hardness and texture) from the inner continental shelf. These data will provide a baseline for future change analyses, geologic mapping, sediment- and contaminant-transport studies, benthic-habitat delineation, and numerical modeling efforts. The survey shows that the inner shelf in this area is extremely varied in nature, encompassing flat sandy areas, faults, boulder fields, and complex bedrock ridges that support rich marine ecosystems. Furthermore, many of these complex bedrock ridges form the ?reefs? that result in a number of California?s classic surf breaks.

  3. Coast of California Storm and Tidal Waves Study. Geomorphology Framework Report Monterey Bay,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    oi 5-9 Composite stratIgraphic se-ction Of the northern part of Monterey Ila . east of the Palo Colorado-Sati Gregorio fault zone...exposujre oif thte Monterey, Paso Robles . and Aro- ina forinattoits are- ii’gltgibhe. P- rter and tithers (1979) also tletorinite that i-le tlites wi re the...Colorado-San Gregorio Fault Zone (fig. 5-t). The block extends from the Transverse Ranges to Cape Mendocino, a distance of approximately 800 km (Page, 1970

  4. California State Waters Map Series—Monterey Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Maier, Katherine L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Greene, H. Gary; Davenport, Clifton W.; Endris, Charles A.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-06-10

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath bathymetry data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area lies within Monterey Bay in central California. Monterey Bay is one of the largest embayments along the west coast of the United States, spanning 36 km from its northern to southern tips (in Santa Cruz and Monterey, respectively) and 20 km along its central axis. Not only does it contain one of the broadest sections of continental shelf along California’s coast, it also contains Monterey Canyon, one of the largest and deepest submarine canyons in the world. Note that the California’s State Waters limit extends farther offshore between Santa Cruz and Monterey so that it encompasses all of Monterey Bay.The coastal area within the map area is lightly populated. The community of Moss Landing (population, 204) hosts the largest commercial fishing fleet in Monterey Bay in its harbor. The map area also includes parts of the cities of Marina (population, about 20,000) and Castroville (population, about 6,500). Fertile lowlands of the Salinas River and Pajaro River valleys largely occupy the inland part of the map area, and land use is primarily agricultural.The offshore part of the map area lies completely within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The

  5. The evolving fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tourte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties has contributed significantly to the agricultural vibrancy of the two counties and the state of California. Dramatic growth in strawberry, raspberry and blackberry production has been documented over the last 50 years, and most notably since the 1980s. Factors influencing this growth include innovations in agricultural practices and heightened consumer demand. Here, we review the historical context for the berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. Organic production, production economics and challenges for the future are also discussed.

  6. Sand Wave Migrations Within Monterey Submarine Canyon, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Wong, F. L.

    2006-12-01

    Repeated high-resolution multi-beam surveys revealed the existence of a sand wave field along the axis of the Monterey submarine canyon between 20 and 300 m water depth. These sand waves range in wave length from 20 to 70 m and 2 to 5 m in height. Comparison of sequential multi-beam grid data (months apart) indicates that the sand waves apparently migrate upcanyon at some places while the same data clearly show that the sand waves migrate downcanyon at other locations. One hypothesis is that strong internal tidal flows, whose upcanyon component is intensified by the narrow canyon, are responsible for forming the sand wave field and for migrating the sand waves upcanyon. Another hypothesis is that the sand wave field is formed by creeping (analogous to the movement within glaciers), and in general they move in the downcanyon direction. A field experiment was conducted in 2005-06 to measure the driving forces (in hypothesis #1) that form and move the sand waves, and to collect the internal sedimentological structure within the sand waves that could reveal information on hypothesis #2. A mooring designed to measure near-floor velocity profiles, temperature, salinity, and sediment concentration in the water column was deployed for one year (June 2005 -July 2006) at 250 m water depth, slightly downcanyon of the sand wave field. In addition, a mapping survey was conducted in February, 2006 for collecting multi-beam and chirp profiles in the canyon head area of the sand wave field. Preliminary examination of the ADCP (downward looking) showed some very interesting features - the near- floor current dramatically changes with the spring-neap cycle of the surface tide. The time variation of the along-canyon current during neap tides - a sudden jump of upcanyon velocity before gradually tapering down, is typical of internal tides (internal bores). The time variation during spring tides when along canyon velocities reverse directions from upcanyon to downcanyon and gradually

  7. KUALITAS MUTU BAHAN MENTAH DAN PRODUK AKHIR PADA UNIT PENGALENGAN IKAN SARDINE DI PT. KARYA MANUNGGAL PRIMA SUKSES MUNCAR BANYUWANGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Agustin Wulandari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutu ikan kaleng tergantung pada kesegaran bahan mentah, cara pengalengan, peralatan dan kecakapan serta pengetahuan pelaksana-pelaksana teknis, sanitasi dan higiene pabrik dan lingkungan.  Kesegaran bahan mentah sangat penting dalam industri perikanan.  Kesegaran adalah tolak ukur untuk membedakan ikan jelek dan bagus kualitasnya.  Bila kualitas bahan mentah bagus, maka produk yang dihasilkan juga bagus.  Untuk mengendalikan mutu produk yang dihasilkan perusahaan diperlukan suatu sistem yang terkendali dan dapat mengendalikan seluruh aktifitas yang mempengaruhi mutu produk. Khusus untuk produk perikanan lahirnya konsep HACCP mendorong negara-negara maju menerapkan sistem pengawasan mutu ini kepada produsen sebagai jaminan mutu produknya. Dari hasi studi pustaka dan penelitian serta pengamatan langsung pada PT. Karya Manunggal Prima Sukses Muncar,  ternyata diketahui bahwa mutu bahan baku dan produk akhir berupa ikan kaleng sardine saus tomat yang dihasilkan sesuai dengan standart mutu SNI 01-3548-1994.  Sedangkan penerapan konsepsi HACCP belum terlaksana dengan baik sehingga diperlukan perbaikan, baik GMP dan SSOP pada unit pengolahan.Kata kunci : Mutu ikan kaleng, HACCP.  The quality of a certain tinned-fish depends on several things; those are the freshness of raw materials, tinning technique, devices, knowledge, and capability of the technicians, sanitation and hygienist of the factory. The freshness of raw materials is important in fishery industries.  Freshness is one of indicators in determining fish quality. If raw materials are in good quality so that the product will be. To maintain quality of a product in certain factory, system that are able to control all of the elements affecting product quality, is absolutely needed. In fishery product, availability of HACCP, encourage the advanced-countries to apply a monitoring system of product quality to the producer as a kind of quality guarantee. From the study of certain literature

  8. Glycerolysis of sardine oil catalyzed by a water dependent lipase in different tert-alcohols as reaction medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solaesa, Á. G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of monoacylglycerol rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA via enzymatic glycerolysis of sardine oil in a homogeneous system was evaluated. Reactions were conducted in two different tert-alcohols. Based on the phase equilibrium data, the amount of solvent added to create a homogeneous system has been calculated and optimized. The immobilized lipase used in this work was Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei, a water dependent lipase. The amount of water added as well as other reaction parameters were studied to evaluate the optimum conditions for monoacylglycerol obtencion. An initial reactant mole ratio glycerol to sardine oil 3:1, 12 wt% of water based on glycerol content and 10 wt% of lipase loading (based on weight of reactants, achieved a MAG yield of around 70%, with nearly 28 wt% PUFA, with low free fatty acid content (lower than 18 wt%.En este trabajo se ha estudiado la producción de monoacilglicéridos, ricos en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (AGPI, mediante glicerolisis enzimática de aceite de sardina. La reacción se ha llevado a cabo en dos tert-alcoholes para conseguir de esta forma un medio homogéneo de reacción. La cantidad de disolvente añadida al medio de reacción se ha optimizado y calculado en base al equilibrio de fases de los componentes del sistema. La lipasa empleada como biocatalizador ha sido la enzima inmovilizada Lipozyme RM IM de Rhizomucor miehei, una lipasa dependiente de agua. Se ha estudiado el efecto de distintos parámetros cinéticos, así como de la cantidad de agua añadida al medio de reacción, en la producción de monoacilglicéridos. De los resultados obtenidos, se puede concluir que, para una relación molar inicial de reactantes glicerol:aceite de sardina de 3:1, un 12 % en peso de agua en base al glicerol y un 10 % en peso de lipasa, en base al peso de reactantes; se puede llegar a conseguir un rendimiento en monoacilglicéridos alrededor del 70 % en peso, con casi un 28 % en

  9. THE RESPONSE OF MONTEREY BAY TO THE GREAT TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE OF 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carroll

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of Monterey Bay to the Great Tohoku earthquake of 2011 is examined in this study. From a practical standpoint, although the resulting tsunami did not cause any damage to the open harbors at Monterey and Moss Landing, it caused extensive damage to boats and infrastructure in Santa Cruz Harbor, which is closed to surrounding waters. From a scientific standpoint, the observed and predicted amplitudes of the tsunami at 1 km from the source were 21.3 and 22.5 m based on the primary arrival from one DART bottom pressure recorder located 986 km ENE of the epicenter. The predicted and observed travel times for the tsunami to reach Monterey Bay agreed within 3%. The predicted and observed periods of the tsunami-generated wave before it entered the bay yielded periods that approached 2 hours. Once the tsunami entered Monterey Bay it was transformed into a seiche with a primary period of 36-37 minutes, corresponding to quarter-wave resonance within the bay. Finally, from a predictive standpoint, major tsunamis that enter the bay from the northwest, as in the present case, are the ones most likely to cause damage to Santa Cruz harbor.

  10. 77 FR 73322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution... several different types of sources, ranging from fugitive dust to gas turbines. We are approving a local...

  11. 77 FR 73392 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District... types of sources, ranging from fugitive dust to gas turbines. We are proposing to approve a local rule...

  12. Depth to Transition--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the depth-to-transition map of the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  13. 75 FR 37727 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing disapproval of a revision to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  14. Oceanographic and Atmospheric Conditions on the Continental Shelf North of the Monterey Bay During August 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    the Alan Robinson Special Issue Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans September 17, 2010 ____________________________ 1Monterey Bay...JPL/ROMS) [Schepetkin and McWilliams , 2004], and the Navy Coastal Ocean Model / Innovative Coastal-Ocean Observing Network (NCOM/ICON) model [Shulman

  15. BathymetryA Hillshade [2m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  16. BathymetryB [5m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  17. BathymetryA [2m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  18. Monterey Institute Makes Language Fluency a Key Part of Its International Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The Monterey Institute's International Studies curriculum is described in terms of its foreign language fluency requirements for business master's degree candidates and the school's use of language in international business negotiation training and other exercises involving foreign affairs. Illustrations reveal the school's success in educating…

  19. 76 FR 47237 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Monterey County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Monterey County, CA... normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following public land is proposed for direct sale... appraised fair market value of $25,000. DATES: Written comments regarding the proposed sale must be...

  20. Depth to Transition--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the depth-to-transition map of the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  1. BathymetryB Hillshade [5m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  2. Sand Mining Impacts on Long-Term Dune Erosion in Southern Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    estimated to have condominium and hotel in Monterey, as well as 100 m extended 13 km seaward of the present day shoreline of rock rubble and a 200 in...OrthoBase software employed in the overlapping pair, but whose coordinates are unknown. stereo-photogrammetry calculated total horizontal rms The GCPs

  3. Bathymetry Hillshade [5m]--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The raster data file is included in...

  4. BathymetryA Hillshade [2m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  5. BathymetryB [5m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  6. BathymetryB Hillshade [5m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  7. BathymetryA [2m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  8. A preliminary analysis of the state of exploitation of the sardine, Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792, in the gulf of Annaba, East Algerian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedairia, A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed on 2,859 specimens of sardine, Sardina pilchardus, collected biweekly from November 2006 to October 2007. Samplings were carried out at the fishing port of Annaba where purse-seine methods are used for small-scale fishing at depths from 15 to 30 m. Data concerning the exploitation of catches were analysed by means of two software packages: i FISAT (2004, which we used to determine the essential parameters for the study of dynamics; and ii VIT (2000, the most suitable tool for stock assessment based on the application of length cohort analysis (LCA together with a yield per recruit analyses (Y/R based on a short series of data. VIT (2000 assumes steady state and functions with pseudo-cohorts, requiring knowledge of the catches over one year only instead of a historical series of several years. The results of this application revealed that the exploitable average biomass of the sardine stock, composed of 28 length sizes from 6.5 to 20 cm with a step of 0.5 cm, was around 4,778.93 tons, of which 2,513 tons (53% were spawning stock. The size and the average age of the sardine stock were 12.5 cm and 2.7 years. Total biomass balance (D was estimated at 5,508.64 tons. This corresponded to growth in weight of 4,453.77 tons, (80.85%, as compared to recruitment of only 1,054.86 tons (19.15%. Losses were caused mainly by natural mortality (M, estimated at 3,823.14 tons, and accounting for 69.40%. This was higher than fishing mortality (F which was 1,685.5 tons (30.60%. We estimated the yield per recruit (Y/R of sardine at 2.682 g. This value was lower than the threshold of maximum yield per recruit at 3.413 g. Though preliminary, these results indicate that the sardine population can be considered to be in a situation of under-exploitation in this area. The stock is moderately exploited for F0.1 a reference considered more appropriate for management. Applying the precautionary principle, fishing efforts should not increase and we

  9. [Comment to “Response of Monterey Bay to the Loma Prieta Earthquake of October 17, 1989”] Montery Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Franklin B.; Norton, Jerrold G.; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.

    Observations of liquefaction and slumping in Monterey Bay, Calif., described in “Response of Monterey Bay to the Loma Prieta Earthquake of October 17, 1989,” (Eos, February [6], 1990, p. 250), were based on the ongoing work of a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories (MLML), Hopkins Marine Station, and Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), who are continuing to investigate the causes and effects of slumping and other processes that occurred in association with the earthquake.

  10. PENGARUH KATALIS BASA (NaOH PADA TAHAP REAKSI TRANSESTERIFIKASI TERHADAP KUALITAS BIOFUEL DARI MINYAK TEPUNG IKAN SARDIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Probo Ningtyas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel is an alternative diesel engine fuel is produced from oils/fats of plants and animals (including the fisheries industry waste through the esterification and transesterifiksi reactions. A transesterification is reaction to form esters and glycerol from trigliserin (fat/oil and bioalcohol (methanol or ethanol. Transesterification is an equilibrium reaction so that the presence of a catalyst can accelerate the achievement of a state of equilibrium. Process of the transesterification reaction of sardine flour oil waste with NaOH as base catalyst in producing biofuels was conducted.The research purpose has studied the influence of NaOH concentration in transesterification process and examinate its effect on the quality of biofuels production, conversion, and physic quality. The variables that analysed was the effect of NaOH concentration as catalyst (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% from amount of oil and methanol in the transesterification reaction step. The result showed that the increasing NaOH concentration (0.5 - 1.5%, enhanced the biofuel conversion (%. The highest conversion of biofuels was achieved by using 1.50% NaOH (w/w with 45.34% biofuels conversion. The major component in the biofuels was methyl palmitate (20.31%. ASTM analysis data also supported that the biofuel product was in agreement with automotive diesel fuel specification.

  11. Fluctuations in the spawning stock biomass and recruitment of the brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis 1977-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Cergole

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the southeastern coast of Brazil, catches of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis have been decreasing from more than 200 thousand tons/year in the early '70s to about 32 thousand tons in 1990. From 1994 to 1997, catches recovered slightly (118 thousand tons, dropping then to about 20 thousand tons in 1999-2000. Extensive investigations on biology and stock assessment of Brazilian sardine have been developed in the '80s, providing stock biomass and recruitment estimates based on commercial fishing data obtained from 1977-1992. The present paper aims to update biological and stock assessment parameters from sardine data obtained during two acoustic surveys carried out in 1995 and commercial catches from the 1993-1997 period. Results from both cruises showed the weight-length relationship Wt=0.0000019. Lt3,26 (90-240 mm total length and four age classes (mostly class II+. In the commercial catches, sardines belonged to ages 0+ and 3+ years old (mostly older than 1-year old with 90-250 mm total length. Annual growth parameters were: Li=275 mm, K= 0.55 (1996, and Li=273 mm, K=0.50 (1997. Total mortality (Z and natural mortality (M coefficients were: Z= 3.8; M= 0.7 -1.2 (1996, and Z= 3.6; M= 0.6 - 1.1 (1997. The variation amplitude of M is due to the application of several different methods. Considering the historical series of 21 years of data (1977-1997, results showed that the stock went through two favorable periods (1980-84, 1989-94 and one unfavorable period (1985-89. 1997 seems to have been the beginning of a new unfavorable period, revealing recruitment cycles likewise other stocks from California and Japan.Na costa sudeste do Brasil, as capturas da sardinha-verdadeira {Sardinella brasliensis decresceram de mais de 200 mil t/ano no início dos anos 70 para cerca de 32 mil t em 1990. De 1994 a 1997, as capturas se recuperaram alcançando 118 mil t, caindo então para cerca de 20 mil t em 1999-2000. Estudos abrangentes sobre a

  12. Comparison of the feeding apparatus and diet of European sardines Sardina pilchardus of Atlantic and Mediterranean waters: ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costalago, D; Garrido, S; Palomera, I

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the feeding apparatus (gill rakers, GR) and the diet composition of European sardine Sardina pilchardus populations living in two contrasting environments were compared: the upwelling area off western Iberia and the comparatively less productive region of the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The importance of local adaptations in the trophic ecology of this species was estimated. Sardina pilchardus from the Atlantic Iberian coast and from the north-western Mediterranean Sea have clear differences in the feeding apparatus and diet compositions. Those from the Atlantic Iberian coast have significantly more GRs than S. pilchardus of the same size range in the Mediterranean Sea. While S. pilchardus from the Mediterranean Sea mostly depend on prey ranging between 750-1500 and 3000-4000 µm, corresponding mostly to cladocerans, decapods and copepods, those from the Atlantic depend on smaller prey (50-500 and 1000-1500 µm) that include phytoplankton and copepods, particularly during summer months, and S. pilchardus eggs during the winter. The marked difference between the trophic ecology of S. pilchardus in the two areas studied appears to have originated from different dietary strategies that the two populations have adopted in contrasting feeding environments. These differences are shown to profoundly affect the size and quality of prey consumed, and the effect of cannibalism on the populations.

  13. Field comparison of sardine post-flexion larval growth and biochemical composition from three sites in the W Mediterranean (Ebro river coast, bays of Almería and Málaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Garcia

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Late larval stages of sardine (16-23 mm were sampled during the 2003 spawning season in their nursery grounds located off the Ebro river mouth, on the Catalan coast, and in two bays of the Alborán Sea coasts, the Bay of Almería and the Bay of Málaga. The daily growth analysis of each sampled population revealed faster growth in the Ebro sardine larvae than in both of the Alboran Sea larval populations. This fact is supported by their greater content with age of DNA, RNA and protein. However, the significantly higher carbohydrate content of the Bay of Almería sardine larvae and a higher Fulton’s index, indicative of energy storage of individuals, in both of the sardine populations sampled in the Bays of Almería and Málaga show evident differences in the daily growth of the Alborán Sea larvae from those originating in the Ebro region. Late larval growth in the Alborán Sea sardine tends to favour an increase in body mass rather than in body length. This study hypothesises that the productivity pulses off the Alboran Sea coasts induced by the north and northwestern wind regimes may be responsible for the growth pulses observed in the otolith microstructure.

  14. Groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Monterey-Salinas study unit is nearly 1,000 square miles and consists of the Santa Cruz Purisima Formation Highlands, Felton Area, Scotts Valley, Soquel Valley, West Santa Cruz Terrace, Salinas Valley, Pajaro Valley, and Carmel Valley groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Kulongski and Belitz, 2011). These basins were grouped into four study areas based primarily on geography. Groundwater basins in the north were grouped into the Santa Cruz study area, and those to the south were grouped into the Monterey Bay, the Salinas Valley, and the Paso Robles study areas (Kulongoski and others, 2007). The study unit has warm, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 31 inches in Santa Cruz in the north to 13 inches in Paso Robles in the south. The study areas are drained by several rivers and their principal tributaries: the Salinas, Pajaro, and Carmel Rivers, and San Lorenzo Creek. The Salinas Valley is a large intermontane valley that extends southeastward from Monterey Bay to Paso Robles. It has been filled, up to a thickness of 2,000 feet, with Tertiary and Quaternary marine and terrestrial sediments that overlie granitic basement. The Miocene-age Monterey Formation and Pliocene- to Pleistocene-age Paso Robles Formation, and Pleistocene to Holocene-age alluvium contain freshwater used for supply. The primary aquifers in the study unit are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells are typically drilled to depths of 200 to 650 feet, consist of solid casing from the land surface to depths of about 175 to 500 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the primary aquifers may differ from that in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer system. Groundwater movement is generally from the southern part of the Salinas Valley north towards the Monterey Bay

  15. What can otolith shape analysis tell us about population structure of the European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, from Atlantic and Mediterranean waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemaa, Sharif; Bacha, Mahmoud; Khalaf, Gaby; Dessailly, David; Rabhi, Khalef; Amara, Rachid

    2015-02-01

    The European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, exhibits a complex population structure, which has produced conflicting results in previous genetic studies. Despite its importance in the fisheries industry, stock delineation for management and conservation purposes is still a matter of debate throughout the distribution range of the species. This study examines whether otolith shapes are more efficient than genetic markers to detect population structure in pelagic species with large population sizes. Sardines were analyzed from 15 sampling localities in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea covering almost the whole distribution range of the species. A combination of otolith shape indices and elliptic Fourier descriptors was investigated by multivariate statistical procedures. Within the studied area, three distinct groups were identified with an overall correct classification of 77%. Group A: northern Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Gabès; group B: Atlantic Morocco-south Alboran-Algero-provençal coasts; and group C: European Atlantic coast. The Almeria-Oran front and the Gibraltar strait are not an efficient barrier for sardine population separation as there seems to be exchanges between populations of the south-western Mediterranean Sea and those of the Moroccan Atlantic Ocean coast or Gulf of Cadiz. The results are discussed in relation to environmental conditions, oceanographic features, and physical barriers to dispersal in the study area, and compared with those obtained by previous genetic, morphometric, and meristic data. For pelagic species with high gene flow, present results highlighted the need to take into account the identification of phenotypic stocks to ensure sustainable fishery benefits and efficient conservation as they may have unique demographic properties and responses to exploitation.

  16. Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhabiles, M.S.; Abdi, N. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Drouiche, N., E-mail: nadjibdrouiche@yahoo.fr [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS) 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16000 (Algeria); Lounici, H. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Pauss, A. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France); Goosen, M.F.A. [Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mameri, N. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France)

    2012-05-01

    The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5-2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 Degree-Sign C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m{sup -2} bar{sup -1}. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas dhakensis Strain F2S2-1, Isolated from the Skin Surface of an Indian Oil Sardine (Sardinella longiceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiga, Mohan; Vaidyanathan, V V; Thayumanavan, Thangavelu

    2016-08-18

    Draft genome sequencing of Aeromonas dhakensis strain F2S2-1, isolated from the skin surface of an Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps), has been carried out. The draft genome was roughly 4.7 Mb in size with 61.7% G+C content. Annotation of the genome yielded 4,337 genes coding for proteins, tRNAs, and rRNAs. Annotation also revealed the presence of 52 genes linked to resistance to antibiotics/toxic compounds. Pathway analysis revealed the presence of novobiocin biosynthetic genes and genes for biosynthesis of a siderophore group on nonsynthetic peptides. Copyright © 2016 Nadiga et al.

  18. Effects of sardine-enriched diet on metabolic control, inflammation and gut microbiota in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfegó, Mariona; Canivell, Silvia; Hanzu, Felicia A; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Martínez-Medina, Margarita; Murillo, Serafín; Mur, Teresa; Ruano, Elena G; Linares, Francisca; Porras, Nuria; Valladares, Silvia; Fontalba, Maria; Roura, Elena; Novials, Anna; Hernández, Cristina; Aranda, Gloria; Sisó-Almirall, Antoni; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Simó, Rafael; Gomis, Ramon

    2016-04-18

    Nutrition therapy is the cornerstone of treating diabetes mellitus. The inclusion of fish (particularly oily fish) at least two times per week is recommended by current international dietary guidelines for type 2 diabetes. In contrast to a large number of human studies examining the effects of oily fish on different cardiovascular risk factors, little research on this topic is available in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aims of this pilot study were to investigate the effects of a sardine-enriched diet on metabolic control, adiponectin, inflammatory markers, erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) composition, and gut microbiota in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes. 35 drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to follow either a type 2 diabetes standard diet (control group: CG), or a standard diet enriched with 100 g of sardines 5 days a week (sardine group: SG) for 6 months. Anthropometric, dietary information, fasting glycated hemoglobin, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, inflammatory markers, EMFA and specific bacterial strains were determined before and after intervention. There were no significant differences in glycemic control between groups at the end of the study. Both groups decreased plasma insulin (SG: -35.3%, P = 0.01, CG: -22.6%, P = 0.02) and homeostasis model of assessment--insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (SG: -39.2%, P = 0.007, CG: -21.8%, P = 0.04) at 6-months from baseline. However only SG increased adiponectin in plasma compared to baseline level (+40.7%, P = 0.04). The omega-3 index increased 2.6% in the SG compared to 0.6% in the CG (P = 0.001). Both dietary interventions decreased phylum Firmicutes (SG and CG: P = 0.04) and increased E. coli concentrations (SG: P = 0.01, CG: P = 0.03) at the end of the study from baseline, whereas SG decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (P = 0.04) and increased Bacteroides-Prevotella (P = 0.004) compared to baseline. Although enriching diet with 100 g of sardines 5 days a week during

  19. Effect of different types of coatings on texture and nutritional properties of canned Portuguese sardines (Sardina pilchardus)

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Pinheiro; Manuela Vaz Velho

    2014-01-01

    Canned foods have a long history of success and are likely to remain popular for the foreseeable future owing to their convenience, long shelf life and economy. Interest in fish consumption has increased in recent years due to the wide range of its health benefits. In addition to fresh product, canned fish enables a delayed consumption of this appreciated kind of food. Among the different types of fish, in Portugal, the most used in canning manufacture are sardines, tuna, anchovies, mackerels. Ve...

  20. A review of marine zones in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jennifer A.

    2001-01-01

    This report reviews marine zoning in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). The 72 zoned areas in the MBNMS are of 13 different zone types. Each marine zone type has associated regulations that restrict or promote specific activities. For example, recreational activities such as boating, fishing, tidepooling, snorkeling, and SCUBA diving are limited in some zones. Scientific research is allowed at all sites, with appropriate permits, and is specifically promoted in a few sites...

  1. Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project. Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report/Statement II. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    sanderlings, long-billed dowitchers, and I western, California and Heermann’s gulls. Brown pelicans, double-crested cormorants, and surf scooters are typical...sediment carried in suspension above the stream bed (see suspended load). Board: The Monterey Peninsula Water Management District’s seven-member Board...silt and fine sand, which is carried in suspension above the bottom of a stream by moving water, as contrasted with the bed load rolled along the

  2. Employing LIDAR and Rtk GPS to Evaluate a Small Beach Nourishment in Southern Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, A. G.; Smith, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    An increasing number of coastal communities are considering opportunistic beach nourishment as a coastal erosion mitigation method, particularly as erosion rates are quantified with increasing accuracy and consequences of sea level rise are realized. The southernmost region of Monterey Bay is eroding at rates of 0-0.8 m/year and small scale beach nourishment has been recommended as a possible mitigation technique. However, the absence of monitored pilot studies and calibrated models has prevented stakeholders from confidently predicting the lifetime or cost-benefit of the project. During the winter of 2012 - 2013, approximately 7,500 m3 of Monterey Harbor dredge material was used to nourish a section of beach identified as a critical erosion area. To determine whether this method is feasible as A long term mitigation strategy, we have collected topographic survey data of the nourishment area and control sites. Baseline beach profile data were collected using vessel based light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and real time kinematic (RTK) GPS prior to nourishment and periodically following completion of the nourishment project. Swell height and period were also monitored immediately offshore of the nourishment region. Morphologic change based on topographic survey data is combined with wave data to calibrate a beach morphology model to the Southern Monterey Bay region for use in future coastal erosion decisions as well as establish a nourishment evaluation method that could be applied to other critical erosion areas.

  3. Families of miocene monterey crude oil, seep, and tarball samples, coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs to better assess their origins and distributions in coastal California. These samples were used to construct a chemometric (multivariate statistical) decision tree to classify 288 additional samples. The results identify three tribes of 13C-rich oil samples inferred to originate from thermally mature equivalents of the clayey-siliceous, carbonaceous marl and lower calcareous-siliceous members of the Monterey Formation at Naples Beach near Santa Barbara. An attempt to correlate these families to rock extracts from these members in the nearby COST (continental offshore stratigraphic test) (OCS-Cal 78-164) well failed, at least in part because the rocks are thermally immature. Geochemical similarities among the oil tribes and their widespread distribution support the prograding margin model or the banktop-slope-basin model instead of the ridge-and-basin model for the deposition of the Monterey Formation. Tribe 1 contains four oil families having geochemical traits of clay-rich marine shale source rock deposited under suboxic conditions with substantial higher plant input. Tribe 2 contains four oil families with traits intermediate between tribes 1 and 3, except for abundant 28,30-bisnorhopane, indicating suboxic to anoxic marine marl source rock with hemipelagic input. Tribe 3 contains five oil families with traits of distal marine carbonate source rock deposited under anoxic conditions with pelagic but little or no higher plant input. Tribes 1 and 2 occur mainly south of Point Conception in paleogeographic settings where deep burial of the Monterey source rock favored petroleum generation from all three members or their equivalents. In this area, oil from the clayey-siliceous and carbonaceous marl members (tribes 1 and 2) may overwhelm that from the lower

  4. Effect of Mentha spicata L. and Artemisia campestris extracts on the shelf life and quality of vacuum-packed refrigerated sardine (Sardina pilchardus) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houicher, Abderrahmane; Kuley, Esmeray; Bendeddouche, Badis; Ozogul, Fatih

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of ethanolic extracts obtained from Mentha spicata and Artemisia campestris on the shelf life and the quality of vacuum-packed sardine fillets stored at 3 ± 1°C for a period of 21 days. The three groups were tested were VC, control group; VM, group treated with 1 % mint extract; and VA, group treated with 1 % artemisia extract. The observed shelf life of sardine fillets was 10 days for control samples, whereas the combination of vacuum packaging with mint and artemisia extracts extended the product's shelf life to 17 days. Among the chemical indices determined, the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values were significantly lower in VM samples. Total volatile base nitrogen was maintained at low levels in VA samples until 17 days of chilled storage. Results of aerobic plate counts and coliform counts showed the existence of a reduced growth in VA group, whereas lactic acid bacteria did not show a significant difference among groups. Natural extract treatments combined with vacuum packaging showed lower microbiological and chemical indices, indicating that the presence of phenolic compounds in mint and artemisia extracts and the removal of oxygen in the pack retarded lipid oxidation and reduced the growth of microorganisms, which resulted in preventing spoilage and extending the product's shelf life.

  5. The effect of combined traditional and novel treatments on oxidative status of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) muscle lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Estaca, Joaquín; Gómez-Guillén, M Carmen; Montero, Pilar

    2014-09-01

    Fish is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids with beneficial effects on human health; however, these lipids are very sensitive to auto-oxidation reactions, leading to loss of nutritional and sensory quality. The effect of traditional (brining, smoking) and novel (addition of polyphenolic extracts, high pressure) preservation processes on the antioxidant/oxidative status of muscle lipids from dolphinfish and sardine was studied. Brining with oregano or rosemary aqueous extracts, as well as smoking, gave rise to deposition of phenolic compounds (9-42, 1.5-4.5 and 0.4-2.3 µg phenol/g for smoked, oregano-brined and rosemary-brined samples, respectively) in the muscle of both fish species. The antioxidant activity, as measured by ferric reducing ability, was also improved after brining with antioxidant extracts or smoking, results ranging from 8.9 to 82 mM FeSO4 · 7H2O equivalents/mg muscle depending on the treatment and the fish species. Consequently, fish lipid oxidation (as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) derived from brining and pressurizing, applied alone or in combination, was reduced between 6.6 and 69.8% depending on the treatment and the fish species. The combination of brining with oregano extract and light smoking showed an additional antioxidant effect, as compared with that obtained by smoking, on reducing sardine lipid oxidation derived from brining and pressurizing.

  6. Preparation of triacylglycerols rich in omega-3 fatty acids from sardine oil using a Rhizomucor miehei lipase: focus in the EPA/DHA ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Paulo; Batista, Irineu; Bernardino, Raul J; Bandarra, Narcisa Maria

    2014-02-01

    The increasing evidence on the differential biochemical effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) raises the need of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid concentrates with different amounts of these fatty acids. In the present work, physicochemical and enzymatic techniques were combined to obtain acylglycerols, mainly triacylglycerols (TAG), rich in n-3 fatty acids. Sardine oil was obtained by washing sardine (Sardina pilchardus) mince with a NaHCO3 solution, hydrolyzed in a KOH-ethanol solution, and concentrated with urea. The esterification reaction was performed in the stoichiometric proportion of substrates for re-esterification to TAG, with 10 % level of Rhizomucor miehei lipase based on the weight of substrates, without any solvent, during 48 h. This procedure led to approximately 88 % of acylglycerols, where more than 66 % were TAG and the concentration of n-3 fatty acids was higher than 60 %, the EPA and DHA ratio (EPA/DHA) was 4:1. The content of DHA in the unesterifed fraction (free fatty acids) increased from 20 to 54 %, while the EPA level in the same fraction decreased from 33 to 12.5 % (EPA/DHA ratio ≈1:4). Computational methods (density functional theory calculations) have been carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level to explain some of the experimental results.

  7. Currents, temperature, attenuation, and conductivity data collected during the Monterey Canyon Experiment from moorings deployed from platforms ROBERT GORDON SPROUL and NOAA Ship McARTHUR from 1993-08-03 to 1995-05-15 (NCEI Accession 0067570)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Monterey Canyon experiment studied the mechanisms that govern the circulation within and the transport of sediment and water through Monterey Submarine Canyon....

  8. Biological marker distribution and significance in oils and rocks of the Monterey Formation, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiale, Joseph A.; Cameron, Douglas; Davis, Dean V.

    1985-01-01

    The biological marker distributions of several oils, core extracts and solid bitumens of the Monterey Formation of California have been studied. Sterane, terpane and monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons were analyzed in samples from the San Joaquin, Los Angeles, Ventura and Santa Maria Basins. The sterane patterns of both oils and extracts are characterized by (a) low relative concentrations of diasteranes, (b) low 20S/20R-5α,14α,17α-ethylcholestane ratios, (c) relatively high concentrations of cholestane ( vs. methyl- and ethylcholestane) isomers. San Joaquin Basin samples contain significant amounts of the 5β isomer, which is generally absent in samples from other basins. The carbon number distribution of 5α,14α,17α,20R steranes is similar for all oils, regardless of API gravity, depth or basin location, and is suggestive of open marine depositional conditions for the source material involved. 17α(H),l8α(H),21β(H)-28,30-Bisnorhopane is present in almost all samples. Certain San Joaquin Basin oils and extracts contain (a) a series of 25-nor hopanes, including 25,28,30-trisnorhopane, (b) a distinctive monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbon distribution, (c) an aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction devoid of n-paraffins. Biological marker characteristics suggest that the Monterey oils examined originated early in the maturational sequence, from elastics-poor source material. API gravities of the Monterey Formation oils examined vary monotonically with (a) bisnorhopane/hopane ratios, (b) aromatized/regular sterane ratios and (c) the concentration of monoaromatized steranes relative to terpanes and regular steranes. These oil gravity correlations exist regardless of sample depth or basin location.

  9. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide During The Monterey Cooling Event Inferred From Fossil Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuerschner, W. M.

    2001-05-01

    The Middle Miocene is a period of transition from the late Early Miocene climatic optimum to the modern Late Neogene climate mode. Major changes in East Antarctic Ice Sheet volume, sea level, deep ocean circulation and global carbon cycle took place. In the marine record a marked d13C excursion between about 17.5 Ma and 13.5 Ma indicates enhanced biological productivity and burial of organic carbon, which in turn may have resulted into a drastic depletion in atmospheric CO2 concentration and finally into global cooling (Monterey hypothesis). Well preserved fossil laurel leaves (Laurus abchasica) were studied from several Early and Middle Miocene brown coal deposits in Germany and Czech Republic. Applying the inverse relationship between the number of pores (stomata) on leaves and the ambient CO2 concentration, stomatal frequency analysis reveals changes in paleoatmospheric CO2 during the Monterey cooling event. Preliminary results indicate a doubling of stomatal density and stomatal index during the middle Miocene. The increase coincides with the beginning of the δ 13C excursion at about 17.5 Ma in the marine record. Maximum values occur around 14 Ma but decline again around 12 Ma. The comparison with the response rates of the modern Laurus indicates a drawdown of about 100 - 200 ppmv as a first order approximation. During the middle Miocene climatic optimum atmospheric CO2 concentrations may have been significantly higher than during the post-Monterey period. In contrast to Middle Miocene CO2 reconstructions based on marine proxies the present data suggest, that massive oceanic C burial depleted the atmospheric C reservoir. This depletion may have resulted into the global cooling through a reversed greenhouse effect.

  10. Insights into Seasonal Variations in Phosphorus Concentrations and Cycling in Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M.; Defforey, D.; Paytan, A.; Roberts, K.

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for life as it is a structural constituent in many cell components and a key player in cellular energy metabolism. Therefore, P availability can impact primary productivity. Here we quantify dissolved and particulate P compounds and trace P sources and cycling in Monterey Bay over the course of a year. This time series gives insights into monthly and seasonal variations in the surface water chemistry of this region. Preliminary characterization of seawater samples involves measuring total P and soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P NMR) is used to determine the chemical structure of organic phosphorus compounds present in surface seawater. The isotopic signature of phosphatic oxygen (δ18Op) is used as a proxy for studying P cycling and sources. Oxygen isotope ratios in phosphate are determined by continuous-flow isotope mass ratio spectrometry (CF-IRMS) following purification of dissolved P from seawater samples and precipitation as silver phosphate. We expect to observe seasonal changes in P concentrations, as well as differences in organic P composition and P sources. The chemical structure of organic P compounds will affect their bioavailability and thus the extent to which they can fuel primary productivity in Monterey Bay. δ18Op will reflect source signatures and provide information on turnover rates of P in surface waters. Results from this work will provide valuable insights into seasonal changes in P cycling in surface waters and have important implications for understanding primary productivity in the Monterey Bay ecosystem.

  11. Deployment of a Long-Term Broadband Seafloor Observatory in Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, P.; Neuhauser, D.; Stakes, D.; Romanowicz, B.; Ramirez, T.; Uhrhammer, R.

    2002-12-01

    MOBB (Monterey bay Ocean floor Broad Band project) is a collaborative project between the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) and the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL). Its goal is to install and operate a permanent seafloor broadband seismic station as a first step towards extending the on-shore broadband seismic network in northern California to the seaside of the North-America/Pacific plate boundary, providing better azimuthal coverage for regional earthquake and structure studies. The successful MOBB deployment took place 40km off shore at a water depth of 1000m during three dives on April 9-11, 2002. The seismometer was buried in a 60-cm deep caisson, which was later back filled with glass beads to stabilize the instrument. New tools, including a high-pressure water-jet excavator, were developed for the ROV Ventana to accomplish these tasks. The ocean-bottom MOBB station currently comprises a three-component seismometer package, a current-meter, and a recording and battery package. Data recovery dives, during which the recording and battery package will be exchanged, are planned every three months for the next three years. A differential pressure gauge (DPG) (Cox et al., 1984) will be deployed as part of the recording package during the next data recovery dive in September 2002. The station is currently recording data autonomously. Eventually, it will be linked to the planned (and recently funded) MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System; rl {http://www.mbari.org/mars/}) cable and provide real-time, continuous seismic data to be merged with the rest of the northern California real-time seismic system. The data are archived at the NCEDC for on-line availability, as part of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN). This project follows the 1997 MOISE experiment, in which a three-component broadband system was deployed for a period of three months, 40km off shore in Monterey Bay. MOISE was a cooperative program sponsored by MBARI, UC

  12. Numerical Simulation of Recent Turbidity Currents in the Monterey Canyon System, Offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimsund, S.; Xu, J.; Nemec, W.

    2007-12-01

    The method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used, in the form of a 3D numerical model (Flow- 3D®), to perform a full-scale simulation of turbidity currents measured in December 2002 by three moorings in the Soquel and Monterey canyons. The model was verified by simulation of laboratory flows, and was upscaled to the Monterey Canyon system on the basis of high-resolution bathymetric data and flow measurements. The measured velocity profiles were sufficient to assess the flow thickness, initial velocity and duration in the canyon head zone. A computational grid with a highest feasible resolution was used, and both bathymetry and hydrostatic pressure were accounted for. The volumetric sediment concentration and exact grain- size composition of the flows were unknown, and thus a range of values for the initial concentration and bed roughness were assumed and assessed on a trial-and-error basis. The simulations reveal the behavior of a turbidity current along its descent path, including its local hydraulic characteristics (the 3D field of velocity, sediment concentration, shear stress, strain rate, and dynamic viscosity, as well as the magnitude of velocity and turbulent shear). The results confirm that the velocity structure of turbidity current is highly sensitive to variation in seafloor topography. The December 17th flow in the Soquel Canyon appears to have lost capacity by dilution over a relatively short distance and shown significant velocity fluctuations, which is attributed to the rugged topography of the canyon floor. A major loss of momentum occurred when the flow plunged at high angle into the Monterey Canyon, crashing against its bend's southern wall. The December 20th flow in the Monterey Canyon, in contrast, developed a considerably longer body and strongly accelerated towards the canyon's sharp second bend before crashing against its western wall. The mooring data show a down-canyon decline of velocity and suggest gradual waning, but the

  13. Modeling and Field Study of Coupled Bio-Optical Physical Processes in the Monterey Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, I.; Arnone, R.; Teague, W.; Chavez, F.; Schofield, O.; Moline, M.; Penta, B.; Ryan, J.; Gould, R.; Anderson, S.; Jolliff, J. K.; Book, J. W.; Derada, S.; Paduan, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Scientists from government, academia and non-profit organizations participated in an interdisciplinary field program in the Monterey Bay from during May-June of 2008. The experiment was a collaboration between the NRL project "Bio-Optical Studies of Predictability and Assimilation for the Coastal Environment (BIOSPACE)", Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) project "Rapid Environmental Assessment Using an Integrated Coastal Ocean Observation-Modeling System (ESPRESSO)", the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), the NRL project "Unattended Sea-bed Power for In-water Operations", and the U.S. Geological Survey. Objectives of the NRL BIOSPACE and MURI ESPRESSO projects are centered around developing an understanding of coupled bio-optical and physical processes in the coastal zone and improvements of predictability of coastal ocean optical properties on time scales of 1-5 days. MBARI has long-term objectives of monitoring, studying and managing the Monterey Bay ecosystem dynamics and health. The goals for the 2008 field program were to create a synoptic view of the coupled bio- optical physical conditions in the Monterey Bay and to relate satellite observed properties to their subsurface structure. The program was focused on the so-called "upwelling shadow area"(northern part of the bay), where biological processes are enhanced as a result of the slower physical dynamics. The field program deployed a wide range of assets: gliders, AUVs, ScanFish (a ship-towed platform), SEPTR, etc. This deployment was supplemented with intensive station sampling from the R/V Point Sur and satellite ocean color imagery (MODIS, MERIS). The field program was supported by a real-time modeling effort consisting of a hierarchy of different resolution, nested, data assimilating, coupled bio-optical physical models. Development of a pair of cyclonic (in the bay) and anticyclonic (outside of the bay) eddies was observed and predicted by the model during an

  14. The influence of the San Gregorio fault on the morphology of Monterey Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, C.M.G.; Ryan, William B. F.; Eittreim, S.; Donald, Reed

    1998-01-01

    A side-scan sonar survey was conducted of Monterey Canyon and the San Gregorio fault zone, off shore of Monterey Bay. The acoustic character and morphology of the sonar images, enhanced by SeaBeam bathymetry, show the path of the San Gregorio fault zone across the shelf, upper slope, and Monterey Canyon. High backscatter linear features a few kilometers long and 100 to 200 m wide delineate the sea-floor expression of the fault zone on the shelf. Previous studies have shown that brachiopod pavements and carbonate crusts are the source of the lineations backscatter. In Monterey Canyon, the fault zone occurs where the path of the canyon makes a sharp bend from WNW to SSW (1800 m). Here, the fault is marked by NW-SE-trending, high reflectivity lineations that cross the canyon floor between 1850 m and 1900 m. The lineations can be traced to ridges on the northwestern canyon wall where they have ~ 15 m of relief. Above the low-relief ridges, bowl-shaped features have been excavated on the canyon wall contributing to the widening of the canyon. We suggest that shear along the San Gregorio fault has led to the formation of the low-relief ridges near the canyon wall and that carbonate crusts, as along the shelf, may be the source of the high backscatter features on the canyon floor. The path of the fault zone across the upper slope is marked by elongated tributary canyons with high backscatter floors and 'U'-shaped cross-sectional profiles. Linear features and stepped scarps suggestive of recent crustal movement and mass-wasting, occur on the walls and floors of these canyons. Three magnitude-4 earthquakes have occurred within the last 30 years in the vicinity of the canyons that may have contributed to the observed features. As shown by others, motion along the fault zone has juxtaposed diverse lithologies that outcrop on the canyon walls. Gully morphology and the canyon's drainage patterns have been influenced by the substrate into which the gullies have formed.

  15. Franciscan-type rocks off Monterey Bay, California: Implications for western boundary of Salinian Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Henry T.; Nagel, David K.

    1981-07-01

    Serpentinites and spilitic basalts recovered at depths of 1000 m from Ascension Submarine Canyon northwest of Monterey Bay, California indicate that Franciscan basement is present immediately to the west of the San Gregorio Fault. This new information, together with published geological/geophysical data, support previous suggestions that the offshore western boundary of the Salinian block (Sur-Nacimiento Fault) has been tectonically truncated by the San Gregorio Fault and has been displaced by as much as 90 km to the northwest since the mid-late Miocene.

  16. A study of the life history of brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis: II. spawning in 1970 and 1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and abundance of eggs of Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, are presented for the years 1970 and 1971 and compared with that of the previous year (1969. The spawning size of three spawning seasons was calculated using Tanaka's method. Incubation time of sardine eggs was estimated using the method of Ahlstrom. During three spawning seasons a considerable change in the relative spawning size was observed. The spawning season (during spring and summer in the southern hemisphere of 1970-71 was poor when compared with those of 1969-70 and 1971-72. A slight change in the average diameter of eggs in different spawning seasons was also observed. The relation between oceanographie conditions and spawning size was analysed. It is suggested that the warm water covering the spawning ground during the 1970-71 spawning season may have caused an unsuccessful spawning in this year.O presente trabalho apresenta a distribuição e abundância de ovos de sardinha verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, na costa sul do Brasil nos anos de 1970 e 1971. Um dos principais objetivos do estudo quantitativo de ovos e larvas de peixes é estimar o tamanho do estoque, através da abundância de ovos desovados. Com essa finalidade, a computação da abundância de ovos de sardinha verdadeira foi feita usando o método apresentado por Tanaka (1955. O tempo de incubação dos ovos de sardinha foi estimado com base no método da Ahlstrom (1943. A quantidade de ovos desovados variou durante os tres anos (1969 a 1971. Foi feita uma comparação entre a abundância total de ovos desovados e a freqüência de ocorrência de ovos nas estações da região estudada. Os índices de abundância mostram que a desova na época de 1970-71 foi muito fraca, comparada com as de 1969-70 e de 1971-72. Para esclarecer a relação entre a variação anual de tamanho da desova e a condição ambiental, foi analisada a temperatura e salinidade da água na area de desova. Os

  17. Functional and antioxidant properties of hydrolysates of sardine (S. pilchardus) and horse mackerel (T. mediterraneus) for the microencapsulation of fish oil by spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Medina, R; Tamm, F; Guadix, A M; Guadix, E M; Drusch, S

    2016-03-01

    The functionality of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the microencapsulation of fish oil was investigated. Muscle protein from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) was hydrolysed using Alcalase or trypsin. Physically stable emulsions suitable for spray-drying were obtained when using FPH with a degree of hydrolysis of 5%. Microencapsulation efficiency amounted to 98±0.1% and oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil over a period of twelve weeks was in a similar range as it is reported for other matrix systems. Therefore, the suitability of FPH for use in spray-dried emulsions has been shown for the first time. Since no clear correlation between the antioxidative activity of the FPH and the course of lipid oxidation could be established future research is required to more specifically characterise the molecular structure of the peptides and its impact on protein alteration and role in lipid oxidation.

  18. Monitoring the sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fermentation process to obtain anchovies Monitoramento do processo de fermentação da sardinha, Sardinella brasiliensis, para obtenção de anchovas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Oetterer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anchovies are traditional fish preserves, prepared from fermented fish of the engraulidae family, mainly in European countries. In Brazil, sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis are an alternative fish for preparing these types of preserves, provided that the preservation process results in a high quality product. In this research, sardines were prepared for preservation and physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out during the preservation process. Whole or eviscerated sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives and with 20% of salt (w/w were used. Sardines were analyzed fresh, and at 1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days along the preservation process. The use of whole sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives, presented best results, with increased non-proteic nitrogen in the dry matter, higher levels of total volatile bases and higher contents of lactic acid and sodium chloride. The higher acidity observed in the whole sardine treatments resulted in better control of halophylic mesophilic microorganisms, which were kept under 1.4 x 10³ CFU g-1 in both treatments. Total coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus reached 21 and 3.0 x 10² CFU g-1, respectively. Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp were not present in the fresh sardines or in any of the four treatments, indicating that the concentration of salt used was appropriate to maintain the product under adequate microbiological control. Both whole or eviscerated sardines under the conditions of this experiment were appropriate in terms of the microbiological safety of the preserves. Treatments using whole fish, either with or without condiments/preservatives, also presented better sensorial properties such as color, flavor, taste and texture, as compared to the eviscerated fish treatments. Whole sardines produced good quality, anchovy-type preserves, which can be used for consumption and marketing purposes.As sardinhas brasileiras podem ser utilizadas para o preparo

  19. Sedimentary processes of the lower Monterey Fan channel and channel-mouth lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaucke, I.; Masson, D.G.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Gardner, J.V.

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of deposits, sediment transport pathways and processes on the lower Monterey Fan channel and channel-mouth lobe (CML) are studied through the integration of GLORIA and TOBI sidescan sonar data with 7-kHz subbottom profiler records and sediment cores for ground-truthing. The lower Monterey channel is characterised by an up to 30-m-deep channel with poorly developed levees and alternating muddy and silty muddy overbank deposits. The channel is discontinuous, disappearing where gradients are less than about 1:350. Ground-truthing of the large CML shows that the entire CML is characterised by widespread deposits of generally fine sand, with coarser sand at the base of turbidites. Sand is particularly concentrated in finger-like areas of low-backscatter intensity and is interpreted as the result of non-turbulent sediment-gravity flows depositing metres thick massive, fine sand. TOBI sidescan sonar data reveal recent erosional features in the form of scours, secondary channels, large flow slides, and trains of blocks at the distal end of the CML. Erosion is probably related to increasing gradient as the CML approaches Murray Fracture zone and to differential loading of sandy submarine fan deposits onto pelagic clays. Reworking of older flow slides by sediment transport processes on the lobe produces trains of blocks that are several metres in diameter and aligned parallel to the flow direction. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biological marker distribution in coexisting kerogen, bitumen and asphaltenes in Monterey Formation diatomite, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Ruth, E.; Huizinga, B.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1986-01-01

    Organic-rich (18.2%) Monterey Formation diatomite from California was studied. The organic matter consist of 94% bitumen and 6% kerogen. Biological markers from the bitumen and from pyrolysates of the coexisting asphaltenes and kerogen were analyzed in order to elucidate the relationship between the various fractions of the organic matter. While 17..cap alpha.. (H), 18..cap alpha.. (H), 21..cap alpha.. (H)-28,30-bisnorhopane was present in the bitumen and in the pyrolysate of the asphaltenes, it was not detected in the pyrolysates of the kerogen. A C/sub 40/-isoprenoid with head to head linkage, however, was present in pyrolysates of both kerogen and asphaltenes, but not in the bitumen from the diatomite. The maturation level of the bitumen, based on the extent of isomerization of steranes and hopanes, was that of a mature oil, whereas the pyrolysate from the kerogen showed a considerably lower maturation level. These relationships indicate that the bitumen may not be indigenous to the diatomite and that it is a mature oil that migrated into the rock. They consider the possibility, however, that some of the 28,30-bisnorhopane-rich Monterey Formation oils have not been generated through thermal degradation of kerogen, but have been expelled from the source rock at an early stage of diagenesis.

  1. Demonstration of surgical telerobotics and virtual telepresence by Internet + ISDN from Monterey (USA) to Milan (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovetta, A; Sala, R; Bressanelli, M; Garavaldi, M E; Lorini, F; Pegoraro, R; Canina, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the connection which has been held on 8th July 1997 in collaboration with the JPL of the NASA, Pasadena, California, between the Eighth International Conference on the Advanced Robotics (ICAR '97) in course at Monterey, California and the Telerobotics Laboratory of Politecnico di Milano connected in a multipoint teleconference through the MCU of Rome with the Aula Magna of the same Politecnico and the Palace Business of the Giureconsulti of the Chamber of Commerce of Milan. The demonstration has allowed to telecontrol a scara robot of the Sankyo and an ABB robot, which have affected simulations of operations of biopsy to the prostate, to the liver and to the breast, a mechanical hand and a model of a car, disposed in a space destined to reproduce the Martian ground, from Monterey to Milan by means of the INTERNET+ISDN connection from. In fact the event has taken place four days after the landing on Mars happily successful of the spatial probe Pathfinder from which it has gone out the "Sojourner" robot, telecontrolled from the JPL of the NASA, which has begun to take photos of the Martian ground and also some of these images have been transmitted in the course of the connection.

  2. Prevalence of epidermal conditions in California coastal bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Monterey Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldini, Daniela; Riggin, Jessica; Cecchetti, Arianna; Cotter, Mark P

    2010-11-01

    The prevalence of epidermal conditions in a small population of coastal bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Monterey Bay was evaluated between 2006 and 2008. Five different skin condition categories were considered, including Pox-Like Lesions, Discoloration, Orange Film, Polygon Lesions, and Miscellaneous Markings. Of 147 adults and 42 calves photographically examined, at least 90 and 71%, respectively, were affected by at least one or multiple conditions. Pox-Like Lesions were the most prevalent, affecting 80% of the population, including adults and calves. This condition warrants the most urgent investigation being possibly indicative of the widespread presence of poxvirus or a similar pathogen in the population. In view of the high number of individuals affected, standard monitoring of the health status of Monterey Bay bottlenose dolphins is considered imperative. Discoloration was strongly associated with Pox-Like lesions. Orange Films were likely an epifaunal infestation caused by diatoms, which have been documented in other cetacean species. Polygon Lesions, a newly described category, could be the result of infestation by barnacles of the genus Cryptolepas. Miscellaneous Markings were variable in appearance and may not have the same causative factor. Although none of the proposed etiologies can be confirmed without appropriate clinical tests, recognizing common visible characteristics of the conditions could aid in preliminary comparisons across populations and individuals.

  3. Biological marker distribution in coexisting kerogen, bitumen and asphaltenes in Monterey Formation diatomite, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Ruth, E.; Huizinga, B. J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1986-01-01

    Organic-rich (18.2%) Monterey Formation diatomite from California was studied. The organic matter consist of 94% bitumen and 6% kerogen. Biological markers from the bitumen and from pyrolysates of the coexisting asphaltenes and kerogen were analyzed in order to elucidate the relationship between the various fractions of the organic matter. While 17 alpha(H), 18 alpha(H), 21 alpha(H)-28,30-bisnorhopane was present in the bitumen and in the pryolysate of the asphaltenes, it was not detected in the pyrolysates of the kerogen. A C40-isoprenoid with "head to head" linkage, however, was present in pyrolysates of both kerogen and asphaltenes, but not in the bitumen from the diatomite. The maturation level of the bitumen, based on the extent of isomerization of steranes and hopanes, was that of a mature oil, whereas the pyrolysate from the kerogen showed a considerably lower maturation level. These relationships indicate that the bitumen may not be indigenous to the diatomite and that it is a mature oil that migrated into the rock. We consider the possibility, however, that some of the 28,30-bisnorhopane-rich Monterey Formation oils have not been generated through thermal degradation of kerogen, but have been expelled from the source rock at an early stage of diagenesis.

  4. Acoustic mapping of squid egg clusters and their bottom habitat in Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kenneth G.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Iampietro, Pat J.; Kvitek, Rikk G.

    2004-10-01

    Clusters of gelatinous egg capsules, known as mops or beds, of the market squid (Loligo opalescens) were mapped in a shallow-water, sandy habitat of Monterey Bay, California. The benthic egg clusters were imaged using an EdgeTech 272-TD dual-frequency sidescan sonar towed from R/V MACGINITIE, an 8-m-long survey vessel, with data recorded on a Triton Elics International Isis digital data acquisition system. Verification of target identity was accomplished independently by video photography from a remotely operated vehicle. The survey area included a 4-km stretch of sandy seafloor between Lover's Point and Cannery Row in Monterey at depths of 15-30 m. The study area had previously been mapped using the RESON SeaBat 8101 240-kHz multibeam sonar. Resulting high-resolution bathymetric data, with 1-m resolution, were used during the survey planning and execution. Squid egg clusters were clearly visible in the very-high-resolution, 400-kHz backscatter imagery, with pixel size 10-20 cm, recorded from the towed sidescan sonar. The concentration of egg clusters was greatest along a sloping feature believed to be a submarine fault. Egg mops with diameter as small as 0.5 m were distinguishable. [Support by Sea Grant is acknowledged.

  5. EXPLOITING REAL TIME DATA FROM THE MONTEREY OCEAN FLOOR BROADBAND OBSERVATORY (MOBB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, B. A.; Taira, T.; Dolenc, D.; McGill, P. R.; Neuhauser, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Monterey Ocean Bottom Broadband (MOBB) observatory has been acquiring broadband seismic data and auxiliary channels (differential pressure and current meter) since its installation on the ocean floor in Monterey Bay, at 1000 m water depth and 40 km off-shore. Operating autonomously for almost 7 years, the system was successfully connected to the MARS cable (www.mbari.org/mars) on February 26th, 2009, via a 3.6 km extension cable from the MARS science node. The system works as designed and is currently streaming data from seismic, pressure, and water-current sensors to the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, where it joins data from other broadband stations on land and is archived at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center. The availability of real-time MOBB broadband seismic data provides an opportunity for improving earthquake-monitoring capability in central California, particularly near the Santa Cruz Mountains segment of the San Andreas fault, and the San Gregorio fault. While buried in the mud, MOBB is affected by oceanic sources of noise, which are particularly strong in the infragravity wave band, and care must be taken to reduce this background noise in post-processing. We present examples of data analysis and illustrate how MOBB contributes to the determination of source parameters and regional structure.

  6. Biological marker distribution in coexisting kerogen, bitumen and asphaltenes in Monterey Formation diatomite, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Ruth, E.; Huizinga, B. J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1986-01-01

    Organic-rich (18.2%) Monterey Formation diatomite from California was studied. The organic matter consist of 94% bitumen and 6% kerogen. Biological markers from the bitumen and from pyrolysates of the coexisting asphaltenes and kerogen were analyzed in order to elucidate the relationship between the various fractions of the organic matter. While 17 alpha(H), 18 alpha(H), 21 alpha(H)-28,30-bisnorhopane was present in the bitumen and in the pryolysate of the asphaltenes, it was not detected in the pyrolysates of the kerogen. A C40-isoprenoid with "head to head" linkage, however, was present in pyrolysates of both kerogen and asphaltenes, but not in the bitumen from the diatomite. The maturation level of the bitumen, based on the extent of isomerization of steranes and hopanes, was that of a mature oil, whereas the pyrolysate from the kerogen showed a considerably lower maturation level. These relationships indicate that the bitumen may not be indigenous to the diatomite and that it is a mature oil that migrated into the rock. We consider the possibility, however, that some of the 28,30-bisnorhopane-rich Monterey Formation oils have not been generated through thermal degradation of kerogen, but have been expelled from the source rock at an early stage of diagenesis.

  7. Late Quaternary relative sea level in Southern California and Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Laura C.; Simms, Alexander R.

    2015-10-01

    Few records of late Quaternary relative sea level (RSL) are available for the Pacific coast of North America south of San Francisco Bay, a region where RSL data would be particularly useful for constraining vertical rates of tectonic motion. This paper provides the first regional, uplift-corrected late Quaternary RSL history for southern California derived from a compilation of 132 previously published and unpublished radiocarbon ages from nearshore, estuarine, and freshwater deposits in sediment cores from coastal southern California. We also provide a local, uplift-corrected RSL history for Monterey Bay, central California, generated from 48 radiocarbon ages from Elkhorn Slough and surrounding environments. Our resulting compilations show rapid sea-level rise from 15 ka which begins to decelerate to present mean sea level (PMSL) between 6 and 8 ka. Late Holocene (Bay in central California. Both rates of late Holocene RSL rise calculated are lower than recent RSL rates from southern California (˜1.61 ± 0.34 to 2.4 ± 1.04 mm a-1) and Monterey Bay (1.49 ± 0.95 mm a-1), derived from uplift-corrected, 20th century tide gauge data. This new RSL data fills geographical gaps in relative sea-level histories, as well as provides important datums for local tectonic processes.

  8. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Monterey Formation, Los Angeles Basin Province, California, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Le, Phuong A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 13 million barrels of oil, 22 billion cubic feet of gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Monterey Formation of the Los Angeles Basin Province, California.

  10. MOBB: a permanent ocean floor broadband seismic observatory in Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrhammer, R.; Romanowicz, B.; Stakes, D.; Neuhauser, D.; McGill, P.; Ramirez, T.

    2003-04-01

    The Monterey ocean bottom broadband station (MOBB) was installed on the seafloor in Monterey Bay, 40 km offshore, and at a depth of 1000m from the sea surface, on April 9-11, 2002. Its success capitalizes on the experience gained in the 1997 International MOISE experiment, conducted under similar conditions. The deployment took place during 3 dives on consecutive days and made use of MBARI's Point Lobos ship and ROV Ventana. The station is currently recording data autonomously. Eventually, it will be linked to the planned (and recently funded) MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System; \\url {http://www.mbari.org/mars/}) cable and provide real-time, continuous seismic data to be merged with the rest of the northern California real-time seismic system. The data are archived at the NCEDC for on-line availability, as part of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN). The ocean-bottom MOBB station currently comprises a three-component seismometer package, a current-meter, a DPG, and recording and battery packages. The seismic package contains a low-power (2.2W), three-component CMG-1T broadband seismometer system, built by Guralp, Inc., with a three-component 24-bit digitizer, a leveling system, and a precision clock. The seismometer package is mounted on a cylindrical titanium pressure vessel 54cm in height and 41 cm in diameter, custom built by the MBARI team and outfitted for underwater connection. Data recovery dives, during which the recording and battery package will be exchanged are planned every three months for the next 3 years. Three such dives have already taken place, on 06/27/02, 09/20/02 and on 01/07/03. Due to a software problem, data were lost during the time period 07/01/02 and 09/20/02. Many regional and teleseismic earthquakes have been well recorded and the mass position signals indicate that the instruments have progressively settled. Preliminary analysis of data retrieved during the 2002 summer and winter dives will be presented. In particular

  11. CCN Properties of Organic Aerosol Collected Below and within Marine Stratocumulus Clouds near Monterey, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akua Asa-Awuku

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The composition of aerosol from cloud droplets differs from that below cloud. Its implications for the Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN activity are the focus of this study. Water-soluble organic matter from below cloud, and cloud droplet residuals off the coast of Monterey, California were collected; offline chemical composition, CCN activity and surface tension measurements coupled with Köhler Theory Analysis are used to infer the molar volume and surfactant characteristics of organics in both samples. Based on the surface tension depression of the samples, it is unlikely that the aerosol contains strong surfactants. The activation kinetics for all samples examined are consistent with rapid (NH42SO4 calibration aerosol. This is consistent with our current understanding of droplet kinetics for ambient CCN. However, the carbonaceous material in cloud drop residuals is far more hygroscopic than in sub-cloud aerosol, suggestive of the impact of cloud chemistry on the hygroscopic properties of organic matter.

  12. Prey and plastic ingestion of Pacific Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis rogersii) from Monterey Bay, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly-Greenan, Erica L; Harvey, James T; Nevins, Hannahrose M; Hester, Michelle M; Walker, William A

    2014-08-15

    Marine plastic pollution affects seabirds, including Pacific Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis rodgersii), that feed at the surface and mistake plastic for prey or incidentally ingest it. Direct and indirect health issues can result, including satiety and possibly leading to inefficient foraging. Our objective was to examine fulmar body condition, identify cephalopod diet to species, enumerate and weigh ingested plastic, and determine if prey number and size were correlated with ingested plastics in beach-cast fulmars wintering in Monterey Bay California (2003, n=178: 2007, n=185). Fulmars consumed mostly Gonatus pyros, G. onyx, and G. californiensis of similar size for both years. We found a significant negative correlation between pectoral muscle index and average size of cephalopod beaks per stomach; a significant increase in plastic categories between 2003 and 2007; and no significant correlation between number and mass of plastic compared with number and size of prey for either year.

  13. Marine debris in central California: quantifying type and abundance of beach litter in Monterey Bay, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosevelt, C; Los Huertos, M; Garza, C; Nevins, H M

    2013-06-15

    Monitoring beach litter is essential for reducing ecological threats towards humans and wildlife. In Monterey Bay, CA information on seasonal and spatial patterns is understudied. Central California's coastal managers require reliable information on debris abundance, distribution, and type, to support policy aimed at reducing litter. We developed a survey method that allowed for trained citizen scientists to quantify the types and abundance of beach litter. Sampling occurred from July 2009-June 2010. Litter abundance ranged from 0.03 to 17.1 items m(-2). Using a mixed model approach, we found season and location have the greatest effect on litter abundance. Styrofoam, the most numerically abundant item, made up 41% of the total amount of litter. Unexpected items included fertilizer pellets. The results of this study provide a baseline on the types and abundance of litter on the central coast and have directly supported policy banning Styrofoam take out containers from local municipalities.

  14. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of cold seeps in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Orange, D.L.; Martin, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Samples from four geographically and tectonically discrete cold seeps named Clam Flat, Clamfield, Horseshoe Scarp South, and Tubeworm City, within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary were analyzed for their hydrocarbon content. The sediment contains gaseous hydrocarbons and CO2, as well as high molecular weight aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons with various combinations of thermogenic and biogenic contributions from petroleum, marine, and terrigenous sources. Of particular interest is the cold seep site at Clamfield which is characterized by the presence of thermogenic hydrocarbons including oil that can likely be correlated with oil-saturated strata at Majors Creek near Davenport, CA, USA. At Clam Flat, the evidence for thermogenic hydrocarbons is equivocal. At Horseshoe Scarp South and Tubeworm City, hydrocarbon gases, mainly methane, are likely microbial in origin. These varied sources of hydrocarbon gases highlight the diverse chemical systems that appear at cold seep communities. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cold seeps in Monterey Bay, California: Geochemistry of pore waters and relationship to benthic foraminiferal calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieskes, Joris, E-mail: jgieskes@ucsd.edu [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, IOD-0208, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0208 (United States); Rathburn, Anthony E. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, IOD-0208, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0208 (United States)] [Indiana State University, Department of Earth and Environmental Systems, Terre Haute, IN 47809 (United States); Martin, Jonathan B. [University of Florida, Department of Geological Sciences, Gainesville, FL 32611-2120 (United States); Perez, M. Elena [Indiana State University, Department of Earth and Environmental Systems, Terre Haute, IN 47809 (United States)] [The Natural History Museum, Department of Palaeontology, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Mahn, Chris [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, IOD-0208, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0208 (United States); Bernhard, Joan M. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Geology and Geophysics Department, MS52, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Day, Shelley [University of Florida, Department of Geological Sciences, Gainesville, FL 32611-2120 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > We describe the geochemistry of pore waters in the Clam Flats area of Monterey Bay. > The geochemical data are compared with the {delta}{sup 13}C chemistry of benthic foraminifera. > Living foraminifera indicate little effects of pore water low {delta}{sup 13}C (DIC) in the clam bed. > This phenomenon and its implications are discussed in detail. > Implications with regards to paleo-methane seepage are discussed. - Abstract: An extensive geochemical and biogeochemical examination of CH{sub 4} seeps in the Clam Flats area of Monterey Bay provides insight into the character of relationships between seep geochemistry and benthic foraminiferal geochemistry. The area is characterized by sulfide-rich fluids. Sulfide increases are associated with large increases in alkalinity, as well as small decreases in dissolved Ca and Mg. In addition, only small increases in NH{sub 4} are observed, but values of {delta}{sup 13}C of dissolved inorganic C are as low as -60 per mille at shallow depths (<3 cm). These observations indicate that all these processes are related to the bacterial oxidation of CH{sub 4}, which is transported upward by slow seepage of pore fluids. The geochemistry of the pore fluids should be relevant to the geochemistry of the carbonate tests of living and dead foraminifera. However, a profound disequilibrium of approximately an order of magnitude occurs between the {delta}{sup 13}C values of stained (cytoplasm-containing) foraminiferal carbonate and the C isotope values of ambient pore water dissolved inorganic C. Reasons are unclear for this isotopic disequilibrium, but have important implications for interpretations of foraminiferal carbonate as a paleoenvironmental proxy. Much fine scale work is needed to fully understand the relationships between the biogeochemistry of benthic foraminifera and the geochemistry of the pore waters where they live.

  16. Evaluating the Addition of a Dinoflagellate Phytoplankton Functional Type Using Radiance Anomalies for Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houskeeper, H. F.; Kudela, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean color sensors have enabled daily, global monitoring of phytoplankton productivity in the world's oceans. However, to observe key structures such as food webs, or to identify regime shifts of dominant species, tools capable of distinguishing between phytoplankton functional types using satellite remote sensing reflectance are necessary. One such tool developed by Alvain et al. (2005), PHYSAT, successfully linked four phytoplankton functional types to chlorophyll-normalized remote sensing spectra, or radiance anomalies, in case-1 waters. Yet this tool was unable to characterize dinoflagellates because of their ubiquitous background presence in the open ocean. We employ a radiance anomaly technique based on PHYSAT to target phytoplankton functional types in Monterey Bay, a region where dinoflagellate populations are larger and more variable than in open ocean waters, and thus where they may be viable targets for satellite remote sensing characterization. We compare with an existing Santa Cruz Wharf photo-pigment time series spanning from 2006 to the present to regionally ground-truth the method's predictions, and we assess its accuracy in characterizing dinoflagellates, a phytoplankton group that impacts the region's fish stocks and water quality. For example, an increase in dinoflagellate abundance beginning in 2005 led to declines in commercially important fish stocks that persisted throughout the following year. Certain species of dinoflagellates in Monterey Bay are also responsible for some of the harmful algal bloom events that negatively impact the shellfish industry. Moving toward better tools to characterize phytoplankton blooms is important for understanding ecosystem shifts, as well as protecting human health in the surrounding areas.

  17. Orbitally paced phosphogenesis in Mediterranean shallow marine carbonates during the middle Miocene Monterey event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Gerald; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Reuter, Markus; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-04-01

    During the Oligo-Miocene, major phases of phosphogenesis occurred in the Earth's oceans. However, most phosphate deposits represent condensed or allochthonous hemipelagic deposits, formed by complex physical and chemical enrichment processes, limiting their applicability for the study regarding the temporal pacing of Miocene phosphogenesis. The Oligo-Miocene Decontra section located on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy) is a widely continuous carbonate succession deposited in a mostly middle to outer neritic setting. Of particular interest are the well-winnowed grain to packstones of the middle Miocene Bryozoan Limestone, where occurrences of authigenic phosphate grains coincide with the prominent carbon isotope excursion of the Monterey event. This unique setting allows the analysis of orbital forcing on phosphogenesis, within a bio, chemo, and cyclostratigraphically constrained age-model. LA-ICP-MS analyses revealed a significant enrichment of uranium in the studied authigenic phosphates compared to the surrounding carbonates, allowing natural gamma-radiation (GR) to be used as a qualitative proxy for autochthonous phosphate content. Time series analyses indicate a strong 405 kyr eccentricity forcing of GR in the Bryozoan Limestone. These results link maxima in the GR record and thus phosphate content to orbitally paced increases in the burial of organic carbon, particularly during the carbon isotope maxima of the Monterey event. Thus, phosphogenesis during the middle Miocene in the Mediterranean was controlled by the 405 kyr eccentricity and its influence on large-scale paleoproductivity patterns. Rare earth element data were used as a tool to reconstruct the formation conditions of the investigated phosphates, indicating generally oxic formation conditions, which are consistent with microbially mediated phosphogenesis.

  18. The fate of eggs and larvae of three pelagic species, mackerel (Scomber scombrus, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus and sardine (Sardina pilchardus in relation to prevailing currents in the Bay of Biscay: Could they affect larval survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Alvarez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of eggs and larvae of three pelagic species, mackerel, horse mackerel and sardine, in the Bay of Biscay was studied in 1998, 2001 and 2004. The spatial distribution was clearly different between the years studied and corresponds quite precisely to different water circulation regimes. Mackerel and horse mackerel larvae are more affected by the prevailing currents than sardine, as their spawning grounds are located offshore, far from the shelf break where the current velocities are higher. Survival rates for mackerel and horse mackerel were higher in 2001, when the offshore larval transport was stronger. However, for sardine, the mortality rate hardly varied between years. The abundance of 25-day-old larvae, considered as an index of the survival rate, appears to be a good recruitment indicator, at least for 1998, 2001 and 2004. Our results did not support the hypothesis of Bakun (1996, which states that dispersion of early life stages towards open ocean waters should cause high larval mortality. At least under the conditions observed for the years studied, the retention of larvae offshore appears to have a positive effect on larval growth and/or survival.

  19. NOSBATC - bathymetric contour data for the Monterey Bay region from Point Ano Nuevo to Point Sur, California based on NOAA/NOS data (UTM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains bathymetric data as contours for the the greater Monterey Bay area between Point Ano Nuevo to the north and Point Sur to the south. NOSBATC are...

  20. NOSBATC - bathymetric contour data for the Monterey Bay region from Point Ano Nuevo to Point Sur, California based on NOAA/NOS data (UTM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains bathymetric data as contours for the the greater Monterey Bay area between Point Ano Nuevo to the north and Point Sur to the south. NOSBATC are...

  1. High-Resolution Multibeam, Sidescan, and Subbottom Surveys in and Around Monterey Canyon Using the MBARI Mapping AUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; McEwen, R.; Henthorn, R.; Kirkwood, W. J.; Thompson, D.; Paull, C. K.; McGill, P.

    2005-12-01

    During 2004 and 2005, MBARI has conducted several high-resolution bathymetry, sidescan, and subbottom profiler surveys in and around Monterey Canyon, Monterey Bay, California. These surveys were conducted using the new MBARI Mapping Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). This torpedo-shaped, 6000 m deep rated vehicle is equipped with a 200 kHz multibeam sonar, 110 kHz and 410 kHz chirp sidescan sonar, and a 2-16 kHz sweep subbottom profiler. The sonar package can also be mounted on ROV Ventana, allowing near-bottom bathymetric surveys of sites where extreme topography (e.g. the Monterey Canyon axis) preclude safe autonomous operation. The Mapping AUV is being used to monitor sediment transport through Monterey Canyon by conducting repeated high-resolution bathymetric surveys in the upper canyon. Upper Monterey Canyon is known to have frequent sediment transport events. Four sites have been selected with canyon axis depths of 300 m, 520 m, 1000 m, and 1400 m, respectively. Each survey nominally covers a 600 m by 600 m area with a 35 m line spacing and a 20 m altitude. We are achieving sub-meter lateral resolution and a vertical precision of 0.3 m. The combined bathymetry and backscatter successfully image fine scale channel features, including bedforms, small scarps and plunge pools, and undercutting of the inner canyon walls. All four sites have been surveyed at least once, and we will revisit these sites three times annually for the foreseeable future. We have also collected in excess of 170 km of subbottom profiles around and across the upper canyon. The subbottom profiler successfully images sediment structure to subsurface depths of as much as 50 m. These profiles demonstrate that the upper canyon walls are draped with sediment rather than exposing an erosional surface. Another Mapping AUV survey target is Smooth Ridge, located immediately north of Monterey Canyon and west of Soquel canyon. The upper reaches of Smooth Ridge are connected to the shelf across a

  2. Water mass bio-optical properties in the Monterey Bay region: Fluorescence-based inference of shifts in phytoplankton photophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, J. K.; Gould, R. W., Jr.; Penta, B.; Teague, W. J.; DeRada, S.; Chavez, F. P.; Arnone, R. A.

    2012-07-01

    A physical and bio-optical field survey of the Monterey Bay area was conducted during May-June 2008. The combined bio-optical and physical data may be summarized as a transition between two end-member states during the late spring to summer upwelling season: (1) the mesotrophic, nanoflagellate-dominated, low-salinity surface waters (chlorophyll-a ˜ 0.5-2 mg m-3; S 2 mg m-3; S > 33.8) of Monterey Bay and adjacent continental shelf areas. High-resolution and collocated spectrophotometric, fluorometric and CTD data obtained from a towed platform indicated low-salinity subarctic-origin surface waters intruded into Monterey Bay on 4 June. The dark in vivo fluorometry (IVF) phytoplankton response normalized to particle absorption at 676 nm (the apparent fluorescence efficiency, AFE) was nearly fourfold larger in this water mass type compared to higher salinity surface waters more typical of Monterey Bay. The collocated fluorescence and optical data were then used to estimate in situ irradiance values and determine apparent light saturation intensities (I'k) based on the remarkably consistent AFE water column inflection points. I'kvalues retrieved from the low-salinity surface waters were approximately half those obtained over the continental shelf. An analysis of concomitant HPLC data, in addition to historical data for the region, suggest these observed fluorescence trends may be indicative of taxon-specific variation in photophysiology. Specifically, the subarctic water mass-associated pelagic nanoflagellate group likely possesses a fundamentally different photosynthetic architecture than large diatoms prototypical of coastal upwelling regimes.

  3. COMPARING SEA LEVEL RESPONSE AT MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA FROM THE 1989 LOMA PRIETA EARTHQUAKE AND THE 1964 GREAT ALASKAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Breaker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two of the largest earthquakes to affect water levels in Monterey Bay in recent years were the Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPE of 1989 with a moment magnitude of 6.9, and the Great Alaskan Earthquake (GAE of 1964 with a moment magnitude of 9.2. In this study, we compare the sea level response of these events with a primary focus on their frequency content and how the bay affected it, itself. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA was employed to extract the primary frequencies associated with each event. It is not clear how or exactly where the tsunami associated with the LPE was generated, but it occurred inside the bay and most likely began to take on the characteristics of a seiche by the time it reached the tide gauge in Monterey Harbor. Results of the SSA decomposition revealed two primary periods of oscillation, 9-10 minutes, and 31-32 minutes. The first oscillation is in agreement with the range of periods for the expected natural oscillations of Monterey Harbor, and the second oscillation is consistent with a bay-wide oscillation or seiche mode. SSA decomposition of the GAE revealed several sequences of oscillations all with a period of approximately 37 minutes, which corresponds to the predicted, and previously observed, transverse mode of oscillation for Monterey Bay. In this case, it appears that this tsunami produced quarter-wave resonance within the bay consistent with its seiche-like response. Overall, the sea level responses to the LPE and GAE differed greatly, not only because of the large difference in their magnitudes but also because the driving force in one case occurred inside the bay (LPE, and in the second, outside the bay (GAE. As a result, different modes of oscillation were excited.

  4. Isotopic evidence for complex microbial ecosystems in the phosphate-rich interval of the Miocene Monterey Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiling, B. P.; Coleman, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The middle Miocene Monterey Formation has long been debated as a crucial global sink for organic carbon that led to global cooling. We evaluate proxies for the microbial ecosystem to investigate organic carbon burial within the phosphate-rich interval of the Monterey Formation at Naples Beach, California by combining mineralogical evidence with δ34S analyses of carbonate associated sulfate (CAS). All δ34S are below Miocene seawater values (~22‰, VCDT) and range from +12.2‰ to +18.5‰. δ34SCAS Sulfate reducing bacteria then consume the excess, residual sulfate, generating free H2S in the absence of available iron. H2S diffuses upward towards the sediment-water interface (an oxic-suboxic mixing zone) where H2S is oxidized to 34S-depleted sulfate either aerobically or coupled to nitrate reduction, and lowers seawater pH. The high phosphate content and low carbonate content of this interval of the Monterey Formation supports a model of precipitation in lower pH waters. Assuming a -40‰ fractionation of δ34S due to microbial sulfate reduction, we estimate at least a 10%-20% contribution of sulfate from sulfide oxidation to marine porewater sulfate. These results suggest that the phosphate-rich interval of the Monterey Formation housed a complex suite of iron and sulfate reducing bacteria as well as sulfide oxidizing bacteria, suggesting that significant organic carbon was consumed during early diagenesis and may account for low organic carbon content described in previous studies.

  5. Marine neotectonic investigation of the San Gregorio Fault Zone on the northern flank of Monterey Canyon, offshore central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, K. L.; Paull, C. K.; Brothers, D. S.; McGann, M.; Caress, D. W.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Gwiazda, R.

    2014-12-01

    The San Gregorio Fault Zone (SGFZ) is part of the North American-Pacific plate boundary and is thought to accommodate right-lateral offset up to 10 mm/yr. Because much of the SGFZ in Monterey Bay, central California, lies offshore in steep submarine canyon bathymetry, little is known of its recent activity. We provide initial direct evidence for faulting where the SGFZ has been interpreted based on canyon morphology to cross the northern flank of Monterey Canyon. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp subbottom profiles were acquired during 13 dives with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) from 2009-2014 on the northern flank of Monterey Canyon, extending from the shelf edge ~15 km offshore Santa Cruz to ~1850 m water depth. Chirp profiles resolve layered sediments up to ~40 m subsurface in this region, and no fault scarps or seafloor lineaments are visible in the 1-m resolution multibeam bathymetry. At least one subsurface fault is identified within the SGFZ by offset reflections across a discrete, nearly vertical fault. However, this fault is only imaged where mass wasting has exhumed older strata to within ~25 m of the seafloor. Numerous slumps scars on the seafloor and packages of chaotic internal reflectivity in chirp profiles suggest that submarine landslide processes dominate the study area. To constrain the age of reflections offset by the fault, MBARI's Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Doc Ricketts, sampled faces of slump scars where the offset reflections crop out using vibracores and horizontal push cores. Radiocarbon dating of foraminifera within these core samples is being used to constrain the last recorded movement on the fault. Application of AUV and ROV methods allows detailed neotectonic investigation of significant offshore structures, like the SGFZ, that contribute to hazard assessment.

  6. An Analysis of the Proposed Land Lease Agreement Between the Naval Postgraduate School and the City of Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    of outgrants to the City of Monterey, in January 2001. The proposal covered three distinct areas of NPS and three different real estate agreements...the Navy and a local government, particularly, the exchange of Navy properties ( real estate ) and/or services for moneys and/or services. Stakeholder...and SWOT analysis are used as methodologies and tools to study the land lease process. The objective is to describe the public-public partnership

  7. Can Vertical Migrations of Dinoflagellates Explain Observed Bioluminescence Patterns During an Upwelling Event in Monterey Bay, California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    transect (Figure 1). The REMUS transect began near Santa Cruz in the SA, ran out to the buoy Ml (Figure 1), and then returned back to shore. Inshore...Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo , California, USA. ’Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California...University, San Luis Obispo , CA 93407, USA. M. J. Oliver, College of Earth, Ocean and Environment, University of Delaware, 700 Pilottown Rd., Lewes, DE 19958, USA. 10 of 10

  8. Variation in the parasite community of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) from the Medalha lagoon in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Pereira, R; Paiva, F; Tavares, L E R

    2014-09-01

    In July 2009 and July 2010 (two dry periods separated by an atypically large flood in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil), 34 and 33 specimens of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus were collected, respectively, for the study of the metazoan parasite community of this species. Parasite ecological and community descriptors were calculated for both host samples, and possible similarities were tested statistically. Five species of metazoan parasites were identified, four of which were common to both host samples. A total of 61 metazoan parasites were collected from all fish hosts (17 specimens in July 2009 (mean: 0.5 ± 0.66 parasites/fish) and 44 specimens in July 2010 (mean: 1.33 ± 1.41 parasites/fish)). The nematode Procamallanus hilarii and the monogenean Anacanthorus sp. were the most prevalent and abundant species in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The mean total abundance and species richness were significantly higher in 2010. Parasite communities in both samples of T. nematurus were characterized by species with low prevalence, abundance, mean total abundance and species richness, thus indicating low parasite diversity. Significant differences in the prevalence and abundance of P. hilarii and Anacanthorus sp. between the two samples allowed the discrimination of infracommunities, which were united in two distinct groups. This appears to be the first evidence that the peculiar hydrological dynamics of the southern Pantanal wetland (Brazil) exert an important influence over the structure of the parasite community.

  9. The commercial fishing of sardines (Triportheus spp. landed in the fishery market of Porto Velho, Rondônia (1990-2004: Yield and general profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Jardim de Queiroz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The profile of sardine fishing, the Triportheus species, landed at the fishing market of Porto Velho (RO between 1990 and 2004, was established by analyzing variations in the intra- and inter-annual yield as well as the length and general characteristics of the fishing. The annual production varied from 15,372 to 78,340kg (average = 33,482kg, totaling 5.46% of the overall production during the studied period. These variations can be related to the changes in the fishermen’s effort, as a reflex to searching for alternatives for fishing, or related to the level of the river, since the greatest annual yields were preceded by years of having more intense flooding. The monthly production varied from 0 to 21,456kg (average=2,876kg. Greater values of production were obtained in periods of lower hydrological levels (dry season [r(Pearson= -0.53. p<0.0001]. The average capture per fisherman/day between 2003 and 2004 was 9.27kg. Rivers were the main environment from which the captures took place, mainly from the Jamari, Machado and Novo Aripuanã rivers, that are tributaries of the Madeira River. The lengths of the fishes varied from 70 to 380mm and presented a bimodal pattern, suggesting the presence of more than one species within the captures.

  10. Globalization, binational communities, and imported food risks: results of an outbreak investigation of lead poisoning in Monterey County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Margaret A; Hall, Celeste; Sanford, Eric; Diaz, Evie; Gonzalez-Mendez, Enrique; Drace, Kaitie; Wilson, Robert; Villalobos, Mario; Croughan, Mary

    2007-05-01

    Although the burden of lead poisoning has decreased across developed countries, it remains the most prevalent environmental poison worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the sources of an outbreak of lead poisoning in Monterey County, California. An investigation in 3 county health department clinics in Monterey County, California, was conducted between 2001 and 2003 to identify risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (> or = 10 microg/dL) among children and pregnant women. The prevalence of elevated blood lead levels was significantly higher in 1 of the 3 clinics (6% among screened children and 13% among prenatal patients). Risk factors included eating imported foods (relative risk [RR]=3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.2, 9.5) and having originated from the Zimatlan area of Oaxaca, Mexico, compared with other areas of Oaxaca (RR=4.0; 95% CI=1.7, 9.5). Home-prepared dried grasshoppers (chapulines) sent from Oaxaca were found to contain significant amounts of lead. Consumption of foods imported from Oaxaca was identified as a risk factor for elevated blood lead levels in Monterey County, California. Lead-contaminated imported chapulines were identified as 1 source of lead poisoning, although other sources may also contribute to the observed findings. Food transport between binational communities presents a unique risk for the importation of environmental hazards [corrected

  11. Geochemistry of phosphatic-shales and associated authigenic minerals of the Miocene Monterey Formation: Implications for paragenetic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, A.; Loyd, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Monterey Formation is a petroleum source and reservoir rock in California that was deposited in several basins during the tectonically-active Middle Miocene. The middle carbonaceous marl member of the Monterey Formation contains intervals of phosphatic-shales that are rhythmically cemented by dolomite as layers and concretions. Diagenetic minerals can form as the result of organic matter remineralization facilitated by microbes utilizing oxygen, nitrate, iron (III), sulfate and fermentation products as electron acceptors. Precipitation of phosphate and carbonate minerals tends to occur in suboxic-anoxic sediments, generally experiencing sulfate reduction, where degradation of organic matter yields alkalinity, sulfide and phosphate ions. Here, we present sulfur and carbon geochemical data in order to better characterize the conditions that led to the precipitation of phosphorous-rich minerals (e.g., carbonate-fluorapatite (CFA)) and dolomite that occur in close stratigraphic proximity. These data include concentration of CFA-associated sulfate, carbonate associated sulfate (CAS) and the respective δ°S values. The concentration of inorganic/organic carbon and associated δC values have been determined for CFA, dolomite and the host-shale, in order to further characterize the diagenetic environment of precipitation. These data indicate that authigenesis occurred in pore waters influenced by multiple microbial reactions, including respiration and methanogenesis reactions, and ultimately highlight the complexity of the Monterey diagenetic environment.

  12. Five Years of Data at the Monterey Ocean Bottom Broadband Seismic Station (MOBB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, D.; Romanowicz, B.; McGill, P.; Neuhauser, D.; Uhrhammer, R.

    2007-12-01

    We present an overview of the results obtained at MOBB in the past 5.5 years of its continuous operation. In particular we focus on the observations of the long-period ocean surface gravity waves (infragravity waves; 0.002 to 0.05 Hz) and different methods to remove the long-period background and signal-generated noise from the seismic observations. MOBB was installed 40 km offshore in the Monterey Bay at a water depth of 1000 m in April 2002 in collaboration between Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI). It is located west of the San Gregorio Fault and represents the first step towards extending the onshore broadband seismic network in northern California westward of the Pacific-North America plate boundary. MOBB comprises a three- component broadband seismometer Guralp CMG-1T, sensitive over a wide frequency range, from 50 Hz to 2.8 mHz (360 s), a water current meter measuring current speed and direction, and a differential pressure gauge. At present, the station is autonomous and the data are on average retrieved every 4 months using MBARI's remotely operated vehicle Ventana. Work is under way to connect it to the MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System) cable so that it will contribute continuous real time data to the northern California earthquake monitoring system. Lessons learned from the MOBB deployment as well as noise removal techniques that are specific to the ocean bottom installation will provide us reference for future installations of broadband seismic stations in the oceans. When compared to the quiet land stations, ocean bottom seismic station MOBB shows increased background noise in the band pass of interest for the study of regional and teleseismic signals. This is mainly due to deformation of the seafloor under the pressure forcing by infragravity waves. Also observed is additional signal- generated noise which is due to the reverberations in the shallow sedimentary layers as well as in the

  13. Seasonal Dynamics of Particle-Associated Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D. R.; Tolar, B. B.; Francis, C.

    2016-12-01

    Within the past decade, significant research has shed light on key players within the nitrogen cycle. Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) were discovered and found to be more abundant than ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria in marine systems, and therefore play a vital role in ammonia oxidation, the rate-limiting step in nitrification that converts NH3 to NO2-. Here we investigated seasonal dynamics of particle-associated (> 10 µm) AOA within Monterey Bay at Station M1 over a year-long sampling period from May 2015 to February 2016. We used quantitative PCR to amplify the archaeal amoA gene and collect data on the abundance of this gene at various depths (5-500 m). Our results indicate that particle-associated AOA are found throughout the upper water column in Monterey Bay, with archaeal amoA gene abundances ranging from 3.9 x 101 to 1.0 x 104 copies/L, with an average of 1.7 x 103 copies/L. Seasonal trends indicate that gene abundance is higher during the winter than in summer. We also quantified `shallow' versus `deep' ecotypes of water column AOA (WCA and WCB, respectively. These data will be compared to environmental data (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, etc.) collected during sampling. In comparison to the 0.2µm samples analyzed (mean = 2.2 x 107 copies/L; range = 2.4 x 104 to 1.1 x 108 copies/L), particle-associated archaeal amoA genes were on average 0.01% of the 0.2-10 µm size fraction. Although relatively small, the combined total abundance between the two size fractions may lead to additional correlations. Overall, particle-associated AOA may be important indicators of changing environmental conditions and provide seasonal context into abundance and distribution of these AOA. We also suggest that it may be a useful practice to analyze prefilters for AOA, as particle-associated AOA may contribute significantly to gene abundance estimates and possibly correlations with nitrification rates.

  14. Linking Planktonic Larval Abundance to Internal Bores at the Head of the Monterey Submarine Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, J.; Walter, R. K.; Steinbeck, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Variability in the physical coastal environment can play an important role in determining the spatio-temporal variation in abundance of planktonic organisms. Combining planktonic larval abundance estimates over the course of a year with concurrent temperature and current data, this study provides empirical data linking a locally predominant internal tidal feature to patterns of biological abundance in the very nearshore environment at the head of Monterey Submarine Canyon. The physical observations indicate the presence of seasonally-variable semidiurnal internal bores that result in the pumping of cold (subthermocline) waters onto the adjacent shelf. Analysis of the larval abundance data indicates an assemblage shift from a relatively abundant shelf assemblage of larval fishes to a reduced abundance assemblage that is concurrent with the semidiurnal cold water intrusions driven by the tidal pumping. Results suggest that the tidal period pumping of subthermocline waters by internal bores dilutes or displaces shelf waters and their associated planktonic larval community. This could have important ecological implications at these scales and may also be of interest when siting industrial facilities that require seawater for cooling or desalination, as it would potentially reduce their impact on regional planktonic communities by diluting their rates of entrainment.

  15. Electrical Resistivity Imaging of Seawater Intrusion into the Monterey Bay Aquifer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidlisecky, A; Moran, T; Hansen, B; Knight, R

    2016-03-01

    We use electrical resistivity tomography to obtain a 6.8-km electrical resistivity image to a depth of approximately 150 m.b.s.l. along the coast of Monterey Bay. The resulting image is used to determine the subsurface distribution of saltwater- and freshwater-saturated sediments and the geologic controls on fluid distributions in the region. Data acquisition took place over two field seasons in 2011 and 2012. To maximize our ability to image both vertical and horizontal variations in the subsurface, a combination of dipole-dipole, Wenner, Wenner-gamma, and gradient measurements were made, resulting in a large final dataset of approximately 139,000 data points. The resulting resistivity section extends to a depth of 150 m.b.s.l., and is used, in conjunction with the gamma logs from four coastal monitoring wells to identify four dominant lithologic units. From these data, we are able to infer the existence of a contiguous clay layer in the southern portion of our transect, which prevents downward migration of the saltwater observed in the upper 25 m of the subsurface to the underlying freshwater aquifer. The saltwater and brackish water in the northern portion of the transect introduce the potential for seawater intrusion into the hydraulically connected freshwater aquifer to the south, not just from the ocean, but also laterally from north to south.

  16. Resistivity imaging reveals complex pattern of saltwater intrusion along Monterey coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Meredith; Pidlisecky, Adam; Knight, Rosemary

    2017-08-01

    Electrical Resistivity Tomography data were acquired along 40 km of the Monterey Bay coast in central California. These data resulted in electrical resistivity images to depths of approximately 280 m.b.s.l., which were used to understand the distribution of freshwater and saltwater in the subsurface, and factors controlling this distribution. The resulting resistivity sections were interpreted in conjunction with existing data sets, including well logs, seismic reflection data, geologic reports, hydrologic reports, and land use maps from the region. Interpretation of these data shows a complex pattern of saltwater intrusion resulting from geology, pumping, and recharge. The resistivity profiles were used to identify geological flow conduits and barriers such as palaeo-channels and faults, localized saltwater intrusion from individual pumping wells, infiltration zones of surface fresh and brackish water, and regions showing improvements in water quality due to management actions. The use of ERT data for characterizing the subsurface in this region has led to an understanding of the spatial distribution of freshwater and saltwater at a level of detail unattainable with the previously deployed traditional well based salinity mapping and monitoring techniques alone. Significant spatial variability in the extent and geometry of intrusion observed in the acquired data highlights the importance of adopting continuous subsurface characterization methods such as this one.

  17. Moisture Adsorption and Thermodynamic Properties of California Grown Almonds (Varieties: Nonpareil and Monterey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zuo Taitano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moisture adsorption characteristics of California grown almonds (Nonpareil: pasteurized and unpasteurized almonds; Monterey: pasteurized, unpasteurized and blanched almonds were obtained using the gravimetric method over a range of water activities from 0.11 to 0.98 at 7-50ºC. The weights of almonds were measured until samples reached a constant weight. The relationship between equilibrium moisture content and water activity was established using the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer model. The diffusion coefficient of water in almond kernels was calculated based on Ficks second law. The monolayer moisture value of almonds ranged from 0.020 to 0.035 kg H2O kg-1 solids. The diffusion coefficient increased with temperature at a constant water activity, and decreased with water activity at a constant temperature. The thermodynamic properties (net isosteric heat, differential enthalpy and entropy were also determined. The net isosteric heat of adsorption decreased with the increasing moisture content, and the plot of differential enthalpy versus entropy satisfied the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. The adsorption process of almond samples was enthalpy driven over the range of studied moisture contents.

  18. Biomonitoring of marine vertebrates in Monterey Bay using eDNA metabarcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruszkiewicz, Elizabeth A; Starks, Hilary A; Chavez, Francisco P; Sassoubre, Lauren M; Block, Barbara A; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2017-01-01

    Molecular analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) can be used to assess vertebrate biodiversity in aquatic systems, but limited work has applied eDNA technologies to marine waters. Further, there is limited understanding of the spatial distribution of vertebrate eDNA in marine waters. Here, we use an eDNA metabarcoding approach to target and amplify a hypervariable region of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene to characterize vertebrate communities at 10 oceanographic stations spanning 45 km within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). In this study, we collected three biological replicates of small volume water samples (1 L) at 2 depths at each of the 10 stations. We amplified fish mitochondrial DNA using a universal primer set. We obtained 5,644,299 high quality Illumina sequence reads from the environmental samples. The sequence reads were annotated to the lowest taxonomic assignment using a bioinformatics pipeline. The eDNA survey identified, to the lowest taxonomic rank, 7 families, 3 subfamilies, 10 genera, and 72 species of vertebrates at the study sites. These 92 distinct taxa come from 33 unique marine vertebrate families. We observed significantly different vertebrate community composition between sampling depths (0 m and 20/40 m deep) across all stations and significantly different communities at stations located on the continental shelf (200 m bottom depth). All but 1 family identified using eDNA metabarcoding is known to occur in MBNMS. The study informs the implementation of eDNA metabarcoding for vertebrate biomonitoring.

  19. Effects of pruning in Monterey pine plantations affected by Fusarium circinatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezos, D.; Lomba, J. M.; Martinez-Alvarez, P.; Fernandez, M.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O'Donnell (1998) is the causal agent of Pitch Canker Disease (PCD) in Pinus species, producing damage to the main trunk and lateral branches as well as causing branch dieback. The disease has been detected recently in northern Spain in Pinus spp. seedlings at nurseries and in Pinus radiata D. Don adult trees in plantations. Fusarium circinatum seems to require a wound to enter the tree, not only that as caused by insects but also that resulting from damage by humans, i.e. mechanical wounds. However, the effects of pruning on the infection process have yet to be studied. The aim of the present study was to know how the presence of mechanical damage caused by pruning affects PCD occurrence and severity in P. radiata plantations. Fifty P. radiata plots (pruned and unpruned) distributed throughout 16 sites affected by F. circinatum in the Cantabria region (northern Spain) were studied. Symptoms of PCD presence, such as dieback, oozing cankers and trunk deformation were evaluated in 25 trees per plot and related to pruning effect. A significant relationship between pruning and the number of cankers per tree was observed, concluding that wounds caused by pruning increase the chance of pathogen infection. Other trunk symptoms, such as the presence of resin outside the cankers, were also higher in pruned plots. These results should be taken into account for future management of Monterey Pine plantations. (Author) 36 refs.

  20. Obtention of highly purified fractions of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from sardine oil by silver-resin chromatography. A semipreparative procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto, S.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Pure fractions of eicosapentaenoic acid (ERA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were obtained from silver-resin column chromatography of ERA+DHA concentrates obtained from sardine oil. Two types of silver-impregnated resins were assayed; Amberlite IR-118H and Dowex 50 W-HCR-W2.The Amberlite-silver column allows the separation of almost pure fractions (98.5% of ERA, being unable to separate DHA from other polyunsaturated fatty acids. The Dowex-silver column does not separate the ERA from the concentrate but allows the isolation of a highly purified fraction of DHA. The chromatographic procedure described may provide pure forms of two important n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for nutritional or pharmacological research or as substrates for the obtention of structured lipids.

    Mediante cromatografía en columna utilizando resinas impregnadas con ion plata se separaron fracciones puras de ácido eicosapentaenoico (EPA y ácido docosahexaenoico (DHA a partir de un concentrado de EPA+DHA obtenido de aceite de sardina. Se utilizaron dos tipos de resinas impregnadas con plata: Amberlite-IR 118H y Dowex 50 W-HCR-W2. La columna de Amberlite-plata permite la separación de fracciones casi puras de ERA (98,5%, siendo incapaz de separar el DHA de otros ácidos grasos poliinsaturados. La columna de Dowex-plata no separa el ERA a partir del concentrado, pero permite la obtención de una fracción de DHA de alta pureza. El procedimiento cromatográfico que se describe permite obtener fracciones puras de dos importantes ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de la serie n-3 que pueden ser utilizados para la investigación nutricional o farmacológica, o como sustratos para la obtención de lípidos estructurados.

  1. INTERESTERIFIKASI ENZIMATIS PALM STEARIN DAN MINYAK IKAN LEMURU UNTUK MEMBUAT LEMAK MARGARIN [Enzymatic Interesterification of Palm Stearin and Sardine oil to Produce Margarine-fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Hastuti

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic interesterification of Palm Stearin (PS and Sardine Oil (SO as source of Eicosa Pentaenoic Acid (EPA and Docosa Hexaenoic Acid (DHA have been of interest to modify the physical properties of the triglyceride. An attempt to enzymatic-restructure PS and SO to form Structured Lipid (SL which is suitable for margarine was investigated using immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and that from Candida antartica. The effect of reaction time course, ratio of PS/SO and ratio of enzyme/substrate were studied in the present study. At the end of interesterification, the enzyme was filtered from the reaction mixture through a filter paper. The Solid Fat Index (SFI was determined by dillatometry. The Slip Melting Point (SMP was determined by capillary tube method. Both of interesterification catalyzed by immobilized sn 1,3 specific lipase from R.miehei,and non specific lipase from C.antartica were found to decrease the SFI value at 10; 21.1 and 33.3°C. The SMP value was decrease from 58-50°C to 37-39°C. The change of these parameters were slightly faster in the reaction which catalyzed by lipase from R miehei than lipase from C.antartica . The more the utilization of the enzyme the faster the change were occurred, especially the increase of enzyme utilization from 2.5% to 5%, which decrease the SFI value at 33,30C. The decrease of the PS/SO ratio resulted in the decrease of SFI and SMP values. It was found that the most suitable SFI and SMP value for margarine fat is the SL formed by carrying out the enzymatic-interesterification of PS/SO with the ratio of 40/60 using enzyme 2.5% of the total fat, for 8 hours at 60°C.

  2. Effect of sardine proteins on hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity, in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaicheta, Nora; Labbaci, Fatima Z; Bouchenak, Malika; Boukortt, Farida O

    2016-01-14

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major risk factor of CVD. The effects of purified sardine proteins (SP) were examined on glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport in T2D rats. Rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks, and injected with a low dose of streptozotocin, were used. The diabetic rats were divided into four groups, and they were fed casein (CAS) or SP combined with 30 or 5% lipids, for 4 weeks. HFD-induced hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia in rats fed HFD, regardless of the consumed protein. In contrast, these parameters lowered in rats fed SP combined with 5 or 30% lipids, and serum insulin values reduced in SP v. CAS. HFD significantly increased total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in the liver and serum, whereas these parameters decreased with SP, regardless of lipid intake. Faecal cholesterol excretion was higher with SP v. CAS, combined with 30 or 5% lipids. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and HDL3-phospholipids (PL) were higher in CAS-HF than in CAS, whereas HDL2-cholesteryl esters (CE) were lower. Otherwise, LCAT activity and HDL2-CE were higher in the SP group than in the CAS group, whereas HDL3-PL and HDL3-unesterified cholesterol were lower. Moreover, LCAT activity lowered in the SP-HF group than in the CAS-HF group, when HDL2-CE was higher. In conclusion, these results indicate the potential effects of SP to improve glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport, in T2D rats.

  3. Phosphorus cycling in the red tide incubator region of Monterey Bay in response to upwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the cycling of phosphorus (P in the euphotic zone following upwelling in northeastern Monterey Bay (the Red Tide Incubator region of coastal California, with particular emphasis on how phytoplankton and bacteria mediate and respond to changes in P availability. In situ measurements of nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton community composition, and cell-specific alkaline phosphatase (AP activity (determined via enzyme labeled fluorescence assay were measured during 3 cruises. Upwelling led to a 10-fold increase in dissolved inorganic (DIP in surface waters, reaching ~0.5 mol L-1. This DIP was drawn down rapidly as upwelling relaxed over a period of 1 week. Relatively low ratios of nitrate to DIP uptake (~5:1 suggest that luxury P uptake was occurring as phytoplankton bloomed. Dissolved organic (DOP remained relatively constant (~0.3mol L-1 before and immediately following upwelling, but doubled as upwelling relaxed, likely due to phytoplankton excretion and release during grazing. This transition from a relatively high DIP:DOP ratio to lower DIP:DOP ratio was accompanied by a decline in the abundance of diatoms, which had low AP activity, toward localized, spatially-heterogeneous blooms of dinoflagellates in the genera Prorocentrum, Ceratium, Dinophysis, Alexandrium, and Scrippsiella that showed high AP activity regardless of ambient DIP levels. A nutrient addition incubation experiment showed that phytoplankton growth was primarily limited by nitrate, followed by DIP and then DOP, suggesting that P is a regulating, rather than limiting, nutrient in this region. AP activity was observed in bacteria associated with lysed cell debris and aggregates of particulate organic material, where it may serve to facilitate P regeneration, as well as affixed to the surfaces of intact phytoplankton cells, possibly indicative of close, beneficial phytoplankton-bacteria interactions.

  4. Imaging Saltwater Intrusion Along the Coast of Monterey Bay Using Long-Offset Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, M.; Knight, R. J.; Pidlisecky, A.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal regions represent a complex dynamic interface where saltwater intrusion moves seawater landward and groundwater discharge moves freshwater seaward. These processes can have a dramatic impact on water quality, affecting both humans and coastal ecosystems. The ability to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and salt water is a critical step in predicting and managing water quality in coastal regions. This is commonly accomplished using wells, which are expensive and provide point information, which may fail to capture the spatial complexity in subsurface conditions. We present an alternate method for acquiring data, long-offset Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), which is non-invasive, cost effective, and can address the problem of poor spatial sampling. This geophysical method can produce continuous profiles of subsurface electrical resistivity to a depth of 300 m, with spatial resolution on the order of tens of meters. Our research focuses on the Monterey Bay region, where sustained groundwater extraction over the past century has led to significant saltwater intrusion. ERT was acquired along 40 kilometers of the coast using the roll along method, allowing for continuous overlap in data acquisition. Electrodes were spaced every 22.2 m, with a total of 81 electrodes along the 1.8 km active cable length. The data show a complex distribution of fresh and salt water, influenced by geology, groundwater pumping, recharge, and land-use. While the inverted ERT resistivity profiles correspond well with existing data sets and geologic interpretations in the region, the spatial complexity revealed through the ERT data goes beyond what is known from traditional data sources alone. This leads us to conclude that this form of data can be extremely useful in informing and calibrating groundwater flow models, making targeted management decisions, and monitoring changes in subsurface salinities over time.

  5. Processing, mosaicking and management of the Monterey Bay digital sidescan-sonar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, P.S.; Isbrecht, J.; Galanis, P.; Gabel, G.L.; Sides, S.C.; Soltesz, D.L.; Ross, S.L.; Velasco, M.G.

    2002-01-01

    Sidescan-sonar imaging systems with digital capabilities have now been available for approximately 20 years. In this paper we present several of the various digital image processing techniques developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and used to apply intensity/radiometric and geometric corrections, as well as enhance and digitally mosaic, sidescan-sonar images of the Monterey Bay region. New software run by a WWW server was designed and implemented to allow very large image data sets, such as the digital mosaic, to be easily viewed interactively, including the ability to roam throughout the digital mosaic at the web site in either compressed or full 1-m resolution. The processing is separated into the two different stages: preprocessing and information extraction. In the preprocessing stage, sensor-specific algorithms are applied to correct for both geometric and intensity/radiometric distortions introduced by the sensor. This is followed by digital mosaicking of the track-line strips into quadrangle format which can be used as input to either visual or digital image analysis and interpretation. An automatic seam removal procedure was used in combination with an interactive digital feathering/stenciling procedure to help minimize tone or seam matching problems between image strips from adjacent track-lines. The sidescan-sonar image processing package is part of the USGS Mini Image Processing System (MIPS) and has been designed to process data collected by any 'generic' digital sidescan-sonar imaging system. The USGS MIPS software, developed over the last 20 years as a public domain package, is available on the WWW at: http://terraweb.wr.usgs.gov/trs/software.html.

  6. Application of the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean to Phytoplankton Ecology Studies in Monterey Bay, CA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a demonstrator for technologies for the next generation of ocean color sensors, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO provides enhanced spatial and spectral resolution that is required to understand optically complex aquatic environments. In this study we apply HICO, along with satellite remote sensing and in situ observations, to studies of phytoplankton ecology in a dynamic coastal upwelling environment—Monterey Bay, CA, USA. From a spring 2011 study, we examine HICO-detected spatial patterns in phytoplankton optical properties along an environmental gradient defined by upwelling flow patterns and along a temporal gradient of upwelling intensification. From a fall 2011 study, we use HICO’s enhanced spatial and spectral resolution to distinguish a small-scale “red tide” bloom, and we examine bloom expansion and its supporting processes using other remote sensing and in situ data. From a spectacular HICO image of the Monterey Bay region acquired during fall of 2012, we present a suite of algorithm results for characterization of phytoplankton, and we examine the strengths, limitations, and distinctions of each algorithm in the context of the enhanced spatial and spectral resolution.

  7. Continuous and Episodic Modern Sediment Accumulation on Monterey Fan: Evidence from Ddt, 137Cs and Excess 210Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiazda, R.; Paull, C. K.; Alexander, C. R.; Ussler, W.

    2012-12-01

    The mode and magnitude of fine-grained sediment accumulation on the Monterey Fan off the California central coast was investigated using pesticide concentrations and radioactive tracer profiles in sediment cores. DDT is a man-made pesticide that was used extensively in central California between 1945 and 1970. As such, its presence in marine sediments is a telltale sign of a modern sedimentation age. DDT and its metabolites, DDE and DDD, (collectively referred to as DDTr) were measured in fifty-five ~20cm-long sediment cores collected from the surface of the Monterey Fan up to 250 km to the south and 210 km to the west of the Monterey Canyon head, and in four transects across the Monterey Canyon channel at maximum water depths of 3160, 3380, 3580, and 3880 meters. Profiles of excess 210Pb (210Pbxs) and 137Cs were measured in 5 cores from the Fan to estimate recent sedimentation rates. Detectable levels of DDTr were observed in all but one of these cores, with DDTr concentrations characteristically highest at the surface and decreasing with depth. The area-normalized and depth-integrated DDTr content measured in all the cores in the Fan and in the deepest two channel transects was geographically fairly homogenous, with no statistical relationship between DDTr inventory and distance from the main channel crossing the Fan. The total sediment mass deposited on the Fan over the last 60 years, inferred from the total inventory of DDTr present in the area surveyed, is consistent with the amount of sediment delivered by the Salinas River over the same time period. 210Pbxs activities are fairly homogeneous within an uppermost layer of variable thickness (4.6-8cm) and decrease exponentially below it, but these exponential decreases are often interrupted by horizons with constant or increased 210Pbxs activity. Moreover, the coexistence of variable DDTr concentrations with homogeneous 210Pbxs activities in the top sediment indicates that the uniformity of 210Pbxs is not due

  8. The timing of sediment transport down Monterey Submarine Canyon, offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Thomas; Paull, Charles K.; Ussler, William III; McGann, Mary; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Lundsten, Eve M

    2013-01-01

    While submarine canyons are the major conduits through which sediments are transported from the continents out into the deep sea, the time it takes for sediment to pass down through a submarine canyon system is poorly constrained. Here we report on the first study to couple optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of quartz sand deposits and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C ages measured on benthic foraminifera to examine the timing of sediment transport through the axial channel of Monterey Submarine Canyon and Fan, offshore California. The OSL ages date the timing of sediment entry into the canyon head while the 14C ages of benthic foraminifera record the deposition of hemipelagic sediments that bound the sand horizons. We use both single-grain and small (∼2 mm area) single-aliquot regeneration approaches on vibracore samples from fining-upward sequences at various water depths to demonstrate relatively rapid, decadal-scale sand transport to at least 1.1 km depth and more variable decadal- to millennial-scale transport to a least 3.5 km depth on the fan. Significant differences between the time sand was last exposed at the canyon head (OSL age) and the timing of deposition of the sand (from 14C ages of benthic foraminifera in bracketing hemipelagic sediments) are interpreted as indicating that the sand does not pass through the entire canyon instantly in large individual events, but rather moves multiple times before emerging onto the fan. The increased spread in single-grain OSL dates with water depth provides evidence of mixing and temporary storage of sediment as it moves through the canyon system. The ages also indicate that the frequency of sediment transport events decreases with distance down the canyon channel system. The amalgamated sands near the canyon head yield OSL ages that are consistent with a sub-decadal recurrence frequency while the fining-upward sand sequences on the fan indicate that the channel is still experiencing events with a 150

  9. Breschini and Haversat, eds.: Analysis of South-Central California Shell Artifacts: Studies from Santa Cruz, Monterey, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Barbara Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Richard E.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of South-Central Californian Shell Artifacts: Studies from Santa Cruz, Monterey, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Barbara Counties. Gary S. Breschmi and Trudy Haversat, eds. Salinas: Coyote Press Archives of California Prehistory No. 23, 1988, xiv + 105 pp., 21 figs., 28 tables, $8.70, (paper).

  10. The elements of a consumer-based initiative in contributing to positive environmental change: Monterey Bay Aquarium's Seafood Watch program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerly, Jennifer Dianto; Macfarlane, Victoria

    2009-09-01

    Monterey Bay Aquarium launched the Seafood Watch program in 2000. The program's Seafood Watch pocket guide is a simple tool that visitors can use to identify seafood from environmentally responsible sources. Since its inception, more than 2 million pocket guides have been distributed to Monterey Bay Aquarium visitors and 20 million have been distributed through partnerships across the United States. Partner institutions such as aquariums, conservation organizations, and businesses also conduct outreach and are working to influence their local seafood purveyors. An evaluation conducted in 2003 and 2004 assessed the program's strategies for increasing awareness and shifting consumer buying habits as they relate to sustainable seafood, including use of the pocket guide. Visitors who picked up pocket guides were surveyed immediately after their aquarium visit, and again four months later. The evaluation found that most visitors continued to use the guides and had changed their seafood buying habits in several respects. Those interviewed also reported some barriers to using the guides. The elements that appear to be critical to the success of the strategy with respect to changing consumer purchasing habits include: a focused distribution approach; providing credible and specific information on problems and solutions to increase action-related knowledge; providing a trigger or prompt that is available at the time of purchase; and reducing barriers to action, at the point of action, by working with seafood purveyors and the broader sustainable seafood movement to increase knowledge and available options. In response to the evaluation, Seafood Watch has strengthened these elements and expanded to help meet the needs of the broader sustainable seafood movement. A process of strategic planning, evaluation, cooperation among partners, and adaptability to the movement's natural evolution has proven to be critical to the program's success in contributing to the development of a

  11. c180nc.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity C-1-80-NC in Monterey Bay, Northern California from 05/21/1980 to 05/22/1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with transit satellite navigation data was collected as part of field activity C-1-80-NC in Monterey Bay, Northern California from...

  12. Oceanographic data collected during the Davidson Seamount 2002 expedition on the RV Western Flyer, in the North Pacific Ocean, southwest of Monterey, California from May 17, 2002 - May 24, 2002 (NODC Accession 0072306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This spring, scientists explored the first "undersea island" to be called a seamount. Davidson seamount, located 120 km Southwest of Monterey, California, is one of...

  13. c180nc.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity C-1-80-NC in Monterey Bay, Northern California from 05/21/1980 to 05/22/1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with transit satellite navigation data was collected as part of field activity C-1-80-NC in Monterey Bay, Northern California from...

  14. Measurement of near-surface seismic compressional wave velocities using refraction tomography at a proposed construction site on the Presidio of Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is determining the feasibility of constructing a new barracks building on the U.S. Army Presidio of Monterey in Monterey, California. Due to the presence of an endangered orchid in the proposed area, invasive techniques such as exploratory drill holes are prohibited. To aid in determining the feasibility, budget, and design of this building, a compressional-wave seismic refraction survey was proposed by the U.S. Geological Survey as an alternative means of investigating the depth to competent bedrock. Two sub-parallel profiles were acquired along an existing foot path and a fence line to minimize impacts on the endangered flora. The compressional-wave seismic refraction tomography data for both profiles indicate that no competent rock classified as non-rippable or marginally rippable exists within the top 30 feet beneath the ground surface.

  15. Diagenetic Microcrystalline Opal Varieties from the Monterey Formation, CA: HRTEM Study of Structures and Phase Transformation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Sherry L.; Wenk, H.-R.; DeVincenzi, Don (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Microcrystalline opal varieties form as intermediary precipitates during the diagenetic transformation of biogenically precipitated non-crystalline opal (opal-A) to microquartz. With regard to the Monterey Formation of California, X-ray powder diffraction studies have shown that a decrease in the primary d-spacing of opal-CT toward that of cristobalite occurs with increasing diagenesis. The initial timing of opal-CT/quartz formation and the value of the primary opal-CT d-spacing, are influenced by the sediment. lithology. Transmission electron microscopy methods (CTEM/HRTEM) were used to investigate the structure of the diagenetic phases and establish transformation mechanisms between the varieties of microcrystalline opals in charts and porcelanites from the Monterey Formation. HRTEM images revealed that the most common fibrous varieties of microcrystalline opals contain varying amounts of structural disorder. Finite lamellar units of cristobalite-and tridymite-type. layer sequences were found to be randomly stacked in a direction perpendicular to the fiber axis. Disordered and ordered fibers were found to have coprecipitated within the same radial fiber bundles that formed within the matrix of the Most siliceous samples. HRTEM images, which reveal that the fibers within radial and lepispheric fiber bundles branch non-crystallographically, support an earlier proposal that microspheres in chert grow via a spherulitic growth mechanism. A less common variety of opal-CT was found to be characterized by non-parallel (low-angle) stacking sequences that often contain twinned lamellae. Tabular-shaped crystals of orthorhombic tridymite (PO-2) were also identified in the porcelanite samples. A shift in the primary d-spacing of opal-CT has been interpreted as an indication of solid-state ordering g toward a predominantly cristobalite structure, (opal-C). Domains of opal-C were identified as topotactically-oriented overgrowths on discrete Sections of opal-CT fibers and as

  16. Plankton in Monterey Bay: Optimization of optical sensor data from autonomous underwater vehicles with applications in plankton community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Diane E.

    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) equipped with oceanographic sensors demonstrate the capability to describe plankton communities in the marine environment. The vehicles collect data from the surface through the mixed layer for a variety of oceanographic parameters. The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute operates the Dorado upper-water-column AUV. The Dorado AUV collects data for 32 size-classes, from 1.25 to 250 mum, using a laser in-situ scattering and transmissometry (LISST-100X) instrument. The objective of this study is to analyze data from AUVs and laboratory work to inform sampling methods with applications in targeting specific classes of plankton, particularly harmful algal bloom species. The results of this study show that specific combinations of LISST-100X size class channels can be combined to reconstruct fluorescence data. This project includes laboratory tests with monocultures of phytoplankton on both a backscattering sensor that detects chlorophyll at 695 nm and on the forward scattering LISST-100X sensor. The results show a linear relationship between backscattered chlorophyll concentration and cell density for four monocultures of phytoplankton. The forward scattering lab experiments show distinct organism signatures for three genera of phytoplankton tested as monocultures.

  17. Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: an important control on shelf mud belts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Shaw, William J.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Bellingham, James G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and optical measurements taken over the mud belt on the southern continental shelf of Monterey Bay, California documented the frequent occurrence of suspended particulate matter features, the majority of which were detached from the seafloor, centered 9–33 m above the bed. In fall 2011, an automated profiling mooring and fixed instrumentation, including a thermistor chain and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, were deployed at 70 m depth for 5 weeks, and from 12 to 16 October a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle performed across-shelf transects. Individual SPM events were uncorrelated with local bed shear stress caused by surface waves and bottom currents. Nearly half of all observed SPM layers occurred during 1 week of the study, 9–16 October 2011, and were advected past the fixed profiling mooring by the onshore phase of semidiurnal internal tide bottom currents. At the start of the 9–16 October period, we observed intense near-bed vertical velocities capable of lifting particulates into the middle of the water column. This “updraft” event appears to have been associated with nonlinear adjustment of high-amplitude internal tides over the mid and outer shelf. These findings suggest that nonlinear internal tidal motions can erode material over the outer shelf and that, once suspended, this SPM can then be transported shoreward to the middle and shallow sections of the mud belt. This represents a fundamental broadening of our understanding of how shelf mud belts may be built up and sustained.

  18. Utilization of wasted sardine oil as co-substrate with pig slurry for biogas production--a pilot experience of decentralized industrial organic waste management in a Portuguese pig farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L; Duarte, E; Figueiredo, D

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to demonstrate in a pig farm and in real conditions, the possibilities to co-digest wasted sardine oil (WSO) and pig slurry (PS) at farm scale. A biogas mobile pilot plant, was set up in the farm and operated in real conditions during 4 months. Dynamic mesophilic (35-37 °C) continuous pilot trials were performed during four different periods of time. In each period a different organic loading rate (OLR) based on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was operated sequentially, with pig slurry (PS) (OLR = 1.6 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)) and with mixtures of WSO:PS with a volumetric composition (% v/v) of 2:98 (OLR = 3.0 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)), 3:97 (OLR = 3.7 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)) and 5:95 (OLR = 5.2 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)). Biomass adapted very fast in metabolise the WSO and biogas productivity was raised substantially for different compositions of WSO:PS. Process stability indicators pH and Total volatile fatty acids/bicarbonate alkalinity (T-VFA/BA) ratio, suggests that the co-digestion process was robust. It was concluded that WSO could be easily co-digested in farm scale biogas plants. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Preliminary report on geology and ground water of the Pajaro Valley area, Santa Cruz and Monterey counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, K.S.

    1972-01-01

    The Pajaro Valley area, California, covering about 120 square miles, extends from the southern part of Santa Cruz County to several miles south of the county line into Monterey County. It borders the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Santa Cruz Mountains on the east. The city of Watsonville is the largest center of population. Deposits that range in age from Pliocene to Holocene make up the ground-water reservoir. These include, from oldest to youngest, the Purisima Formation, Aromas Red Sands of Allen (1946), terrace deposits, alluvium, and dune sand. These deposits underlie an area of about 80 square miles and have a maximum thickness of about 4,000 feet. The alluvium yields most of the water pumped from wells in the area. Pre-Pliocene rocks underlie and form the boundaries of the ground-water reservoir. These rocks contain ground water in fractures and in sandstone beds. However, they are not an important source of ground water. There is close continuity between the geology of the Pajaro Valley area and that of the Soquel-Aptos area, which is contiguous on the north. Ground water in the Pajaro Valley area is derived from three sources: (1) Precipitation within the Pajaro Valley area that reaches the ground-water body by direct infiltration or by seepage from streams, (2) seepage from the Pajaro River as it crosses the Pajaro Valley carrying runoff which originates upstream from the valley, and (3) precipitation in the Soquel-Aptos area that infiltrates and then moves southeastward at depth into the Pajaro Valley area. Ground water in most wells in the Pajaro Valley area occurs under confined (artesian) conditions; the only exception is ground water in the upper, near-surface part of the alluvium and that in the dune sand. It moves south from the north part of the area and southwest away from the San Andreas fault toward and out under Monterey Bay. In the south part of the area, ground-water movement is almost due west. The San Andreas fault probably is the only

  20. Quantifying the Impacts of Systemic Acquired Resistance to Pitch Canker on Monterey Pine Growth Rate and Hyperspectral Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pitch canker, caused by Fusarium circinatum, is a disease affecting Monterey pine (Pinus radiata and many other pine species throughout the world. The impact of pitch canker on Pinus radiata may be limited by systemic acquired resistance (SAR, a phenomenon that elevates resistance to a pathogen after initial challenge by that pathogen or another microorganism. Allocation of resources to defense, as a consequence of SAR, is presumed to reduce resources available to support growth and reproduction, but specific fitness consequences associated with SAR in P. radiata have not been measured. To quantify impacts of SAR on growth rate, a 2 × 2 factorial experiment was established in which trees were either primed for SAR or unprimed, with half the trees in each of those two groups being inoculated with the pitch canker pathogen and the other half not inoculated. Priming for SAR was accomplished by inoculating one branch with F. circinatum and removing inoculated branches prior to subsequent challenge inoculations (= disease treatments. Disease treatments included three inoculations that were removed for measurement of lesion length, and three additional inoculations that remained on the tree as a representation of persistent disease. Control trees were mock inoculated with water. Main effects of priming and disease did not result in significant effects on growth rate. Based on hyperspectral canopy reflectance data, diseased trees were associated with higher difference vegetation index values and biomass. The absence of a negative impact on growth rate associated with SAR suggests that induction of resistance may have utility as a tool for management of pitch canker in plantations.

  1. Structural characterization of the fracture systems in the porcelanites: Comparing data from the Monterey Formation in California USA and the Sap Bon Formation in Central Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanapayont, Pitsanupong; Aydin, Atilla; Wongseekaew, Kanitsorn; Maneelok, Wichanee

    2016-09-01

    The fractures in the porcelanites from the Monterey Formation in California USA and the Sap Bon Formation in Central Thailand were documented for a comparative study of their modes, distribution, and their relationship to other structures such as folds and bedding planes. Both formations consist in thinly bedded stiff units that are prone to folding, flexural slip, and cross-bedding brittle fracturing under compression. There are two assemblages in the porcelanites. The first assemblage includes commonly vertical high-angle opening mode fractures, left-lateral strike-slip faults, normal faults, and thrust faults. The second one is sub-horizontal fractures which are associated with folds, bedding slip, and thrusts faults in both Monterey and Sap Bon formations. The structural architectures of these rocks and the associated groups of structures are remarkably similar in terms of both opening and shearing modes and their relationships with the bedding due to their depositional architecture and the compressional tectonic regimes, in spite of the fact that the two locations are more than ten thousand kilometers apart and have very different ages of deformation.

  2. Analysis of a viral metagenomic library from 200 m depth in Monterey Bay, California constructed by direct shotgun cloning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Christina M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viruses have a profound influence on both the ecology and evolution of marine plankton, but the genetic diversity of viral assemblages, particularly those in deeper ocean waters, remains poorly described. Here we report on the construction and analysis of a viral metagenome prepared from below the euphotic zone in a temperate, eutrophic bay of coastal California. Methods We purified viruses from approximately one cubic meter of seawater collected from 200m depth in Monterey Bay, CA. DNA was extracted from the virus fraction, sheared, and cloned with no prior amplification into a plasmid vector and propagated in E. coli to produce the MBv200m library. Random clones were sequenced by the Sanger method. Sequences were assembled then compared to sequences in GenBank and to other viral metagenomic libraries using BLAST analyses. Results Only 26% of the 881 sequences remaining after assembly had significant (E ≤ 0.001 BLAST hits to sequences in the GenBank nr database, with most being matches to bacteria (15% and viruses (8%. When BLAST analysis included environmental sequences, 74% of sequences in the MBv200m library had a significant match. Most of these hits (70% were to microbial metagenome sequences and only 0.7% were to sequences from viral metagenomes. Of the 121 sequences with a significant hit to a known virus, 94% matched bacteriophages (Families Podo-, Sipho-, and Myoviridae and 6% matched viruses of eukaryotes in the Family Phycodnaviridae (5 sequences or the Mimivirus (2 sequences. The largest percentages of hits to viral genes of known function were to those involved in DNA modification (25% or structural genes (17%. Based on reciprocal BLAST analyses, the MBv200m library appeared to be most similar to viral metagenomes from two other bays and least similar to a viral metagenome from the Arctic Ocean. Conclusions Direct cloning of DNA from diverse marine viruses was feasible and resulted in a distribution of virus

  3. Across-shore variability in plankton layering and abundance associated with physical forcing in Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevadjian, J. C.; McManus, M. A.; Ryan, J.; Greer, A. T.; Cowen, R. K.; Woodson, C. B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further our understanding of the role of the coastal physical oceanographic environment as a dynamic and constantly evolving habitat for plankton. Over a 3-week period in the summer of 2010, an array of moorings were deployed and shipboard and autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) surveys were conducted to investigate the association between physical processes and plankton distributions over the Monterey Bay, California inner shelf. Acoustic backscatter, chlorophyll-a fluorescence, and high-resolution zooplankton imagery data collected during the shipboard surveys were used to map the distributions of phytoplankton and zooplankton; and profiles of temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nitrate from the AUV characterized the physical and chemical environment. A synthesis of underway and moored time series data provided insight into the histories of water masses in the area, and facilitated tracking of internal wave groups as they propagated towards shore. A near-bottom intrusion of recently-upwelled water was found to be strongly influenced by the diurnal tide, resulting in daily across-shelf excursions past the mooring array at the 20-m isobath. Behind the leading edge of the intrusion, the water column was highly stratified in temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nitrate; and thin layers of phytoplankton and zooplankton persisted at the upper boundary of the intrusion. In ambient waters shoreward of the intrusion, stratification was weak; copepod, appendicularian, and gelatinous zooplankton abundances were relatively low; and phytoplankton and acoustic backscatter were broadly distributed throughout the lower half of the water column. The arrival of two shoreward-propagating internal wave groups observed during the shipboard survey corresponded with disparate responses in plankton distribution. In the wake of the first wave group, phytoplankton and zooplankton layers thinned or converged; in the wake of the second wave group, an eight

  4. Variability of the internal tide on the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf and associated bottom boundary layer sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Cheriton, Olivia M.

    2016-06-01

    A 6-month deployment of instrumentation from April to October 2012 in 90 m water depth near the outer edge of the mid-shelf mud belt in southern Monterey Bay, California, reveals the importance regional upwelling on water column density structure, potentially accounting for the majority of the variability in internal tidal energy flux across the shelf. Observations consisted of time-series measurements of water-column currents, temperature and salinity, and near-bed currents and suspended matter. The internal tide accounted for 15-25% of the water-column current variance and the barotropic tide accounted for up to 35%. The subtidal flow showed remarkably little shear and was dominated by the 7-14 day band, which is associated with relaxations in the dominant equatorward winds typical of coastal California in the spring and summer. Upwelling and relaxation events resulted in strong near-bed flows and accounted for almost half of the current stress on the seafloor (not accounting for wave orbital velocities), and may have driven along-shelf geostrophic flow during steady state conditions. Several elevated suspended particulate matter (SPM) events occurred within 3 m of the bed and were generally associated with higher, long-period surface waves. However, these peaks in SPM did not coincide with the predicted resuspension events from the modeled combined wave-current shear stress, indicating that the observed SPM at our site was most likely resuspended elsewhere and advected along-isobath. Sediment flux was almost equal in magnitude in the alongshore and cross-shore directions. Instances of wave-current shear stress that exceeded the threshold of resuspension for the silty-clays common at these water depths only occurred when near-bed orbital velocities due to long-period surface waves coincided with vigorous near-bed currents associated with the internal tide or upwelling/relaxation events. Thus upwelling/relaxation dynamics are primarily responsible for variability

  5. Constraining pathways of microbial mediation for carbonate concretions of the Miocene Monterey Formation using carbonate-associated sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Sean J.; Berelson, William M.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Hammond, Douglas E.; Corsetti, Frank A.

    2012-02-01

    Carbonate concretions can form as a result of organic matter degradation within sediments. However, the ability to determine specific processes and timing relationships to particular concretions has remained elusive. Previously employed proxies (e.g., carbon and oxygen isotopes) cannot uniquely distinguish among diagenetic alkalinity sources generated by microbial oxidation of organic matter using oxygen, nitrate, metal oxides, and sulfate as electron acceptors, in addition to degradation by thermal decarboxylation. Here, we employ concentrations of carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) and δ 34S CAS (along with more traditional approaches) to determine the specific nature of concretion authigenesis within the Miocene Monterey Formation. Integrated geochemical analyses reveal that at least three specific organo-diagenetic reaction pathways can be tied to concretion formation and that these reactions are largely sample-site specific. One calcitic concretion from the Phosphatic Shale Member at Naples Beach yields δ 34S CAS values near Miocene seawater sulfate (˜+22‰ VCDT), abundant CAS (ca. 1000 ppm), depleted δ 13C carb (˜-11‰ VPDB), and very low concentrations of Fe (ca. 700 ppm) and Mn (ca. 15 ppm)—characteristics most consistent with shallow formation in association with organic matter degradation by nitrate, iron-oxides and/or minor sulfate reduction. Cemented concretionary layers of the Phosphatic Shale Member at Shell Beach display elevated δ 34S CAS (up to ˜+37‰), CAS concentrations of ˜600 ppm, mildly depleted δ 13C carb (˜-6‰), moderate amounts of Mn (ca. 250 ppm), and relatively low Fe (ca. 1700 ppm), indicative of formation in sediments dominated by sulfate reduction. Finally, concretions within a siliceous host at Montaña de Oro and Naples Beach show minimal CAS concentrations, positive δ 13C values, and the highest concentrations of Fe (ca. 11,300 ppm) and Mn (ca. 440 ppm), consistent with formation in sediments experiencing

  6. Variability of the internal tide on the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf and associated bottom boundary layer sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Kurt; Storlazzi, Curt; Cheriton, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    A 6-month deployment of instrumentation from April to October 2012 in 90 m water depth near the outer edge of the mid-shelf mud belt in southern Monterey Bay, California, reveals the importance regional upwelling on water column density structure, potentially accounting for the majority of the variability in internal tidal energy flux across the shelf. Observations consisted of time-series measurements of water-column currents, temperature and salinity, and near-bed currents and suspended matter. The internal tide accounted for 15–25% of the water-column current variance and the barotropic tide accounted for up to 35%. The subtidal flow showed remarkably little shear and was dominated by the 7–14 day band, which is associated with relaxations in the dominant equatorward winds typical of coastal California in the spring and summer. Upwelling and relaxation events resulted in strong near-bed flows and accounted for almost half of the current stress on the seafloor (not accounting for wave orbital velocities), and may have driven along-shelf geostrophic flow during steady state conditions. Several elevated suspended particulate matter (SPM) events occurred within 3 m of the bed and were generally associated with higher, long-period surface waves. However, these peaks in SPM did not coincide with the predicted resuspension events from the modeled combined wave–current shear stress, indicating that the observed SPM at our site was most likely resuspended elsewhere and advected along-isobath. Sediment flux was almost equal in magnitude in the alongshore and cross-shore directions. Instances of wave–current shear stress that exceeded the threshold of resuspension for the silty-clays common at these water depths only occurred when near-bed orbital velocities due to long-period surface waves coincided with vigorous near-bed currents associated with the internal tide or upwelling/relaxation events. Thus upwelling/relaxation dynamics are primarily responsible for

  7. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, 2005-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000 square mile (2,590 km2) Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (MS) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in central California in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA MS study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers). The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 97 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the MS study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the MS study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or

  8. Long-term, High Frequency, High Precision pH Measurements on the MBARI deep-water FOCE Experiment at the MARS Cabled Observatory in Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, E. T.; Maughan, T.; Barry, J. P.; Brewer, P. G.; Headley, K. L.; Herlien, R.; Kirkwood, W. J.; Matsumoto, G. I.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Salamy, K. A.; Scholfield, J.; Shane, F. F.; Walz, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The MBARI deep-water FOCE experiment was deployed on the MARS cabled observatory in Monterey Bay on May 4th, 2011. It has been in continuous operation (excluding a few minor shore based power outages) ever since. During the fifteen months of deployment, we have been able to observe both the daily variation in pH in response to water mass movements associated with the semi-diurnal tides, internal waves and longer-term trends as a function of the seasonal variations in the water masses within the Monterey Bay Canyon. Our experimental site is located at 890 meters, just below the oxygen minimum for Monterey Bay, and we clearly see the anticipated inverse correlation between seawater temperature and pH. Daily variation in pH is on the order of 0.020-0.030 pH units with longer term trends adding an additional variation of similar magnitude. Instrumentation on this experiment included two CTDs with oxygen sensors (Sea-Bird 52). One CTD is mounted on the external FOCE framework to measure the background conditions, and one CTD is installed within the FOCE pH control area to monitor the experimentally manipulated conditions. In addition, 6 MBARI modified Sea-Bird 18 pH sensors were mounted on the FOCE apparatus. Four of these pH sensors monitored pH inside the experimental chamber and two monitored the external background seawater conditions. Although we originally intended to conduct several in situ CO2 enrichment experiments to study the impact of ocean acidification on the benthic biology and then recover the apparatus after one year, unanticipated changes in the ship schedule have left the FOCE experiment in place for nearly fifteen months at the time of this writing. Throughout this time period, all sensor data has been logged by the MBARI Shore-Side Data System (SSDS) resulting in the longest continuous record of high precision pH measurements in the intermediate water column. We present an analysis of the data obtained from this unique data set, and discuss our in

  9. Repeated 1-cm Resolution Topographic and 2.5-mm Resolution Photomosiac Surveys of Benthic Communities and Fine Scale Bedforms in Monterey Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Hobson, B.; Thomas, H. J.; Henthorn, R.; Martin, E. J.; Bird, L.; Risi, M.; Troni, G.; Paull, C. K.; Rock, S.; Padial, J. A.; Hammond, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute has developed a low altitude, ROV-based seafloor mapping system that combines lidar laser ranging, multibeam sonar, and stereo photographic imagery. When operated at a 3-m altitude, this system maps seafloor topography with a 1-cm lateral resolution and simultaneously collects 2.5-mm resolution color photography. We have twice mapped an 80-m by 80-m area of a chemosynthetic clam community located at 2850-m depth in the Monterey Canyon axis. Both the topography and the photomosaics resolve changes in the clam community over a six-month interval. Many individual animals have moved, and tracks of those animals are visible in the lidar topography. No other changes in the seafloor at this site can be discerned. We have also performed single surveys of bedforms and scours at both 1850-m and 2850-m depths in Monterey Canyon. The highest resolution bathymetry data are collected using a 3DatDepth SL1 lidar laser scanner. This system has a 30° field of view and ranges continuously, achieving a 1 cm sounding spacing at a 3 m altitude and 0.3 m/s speed. Bathymetry data are also collected using a 400-kHz Reson 7125 multibeam sonar. This configuration produces 512 beams across a 135° wide swath; each beam has a 0.5° acrosstrack by 1.0° alongtrack angular width. At a 3-m altitude, the nadir beams have a 2.5 cm acrosstrack and 5 cm alongtrack footprint. Dual Prosilica GX1920 2.4 Mpixel color cameras provide color stereo photography of the seafloor. Illumination is provided by dual xenon strobes. The camera housings have been fitted with corrective optics achieving a 90° field of view with less than 1% distortion. At a 3-m altitude the raw image pixels have a 2.5 mm resolution. Position and attitude data are provided by a Kearfott SeaDevil Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated with a 300 kHz Teledyne RD Instruments Doppler velocity log (DVL). A separate Paroscientific pressure sensor is mounted adjacent to the INS. The INS

  10. monterey_ca.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  11. Monterey Bay Geoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    B.C. (Dragomir et al. 1982) It was from these early studies of the earth’s shape and size that the study of the earth’s gravity began. Galileo Galilei ...feel the earth’s gravitational acceleration but not the centrifugal acceleration. The traditional unit of gravity is the gal, from Galileo , 1 gal - 1

  12. Flow and Chemistry Pulsations, Monterey: Implications for Stress Transient Modulations of Hydrologic and Geochemical Systems in the Greater San Andreas Fault Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K. M.; Fueri, E.; Hilton, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    Submarine fluid venting at continental shelf and slope regions has been recognized over the past ten years as an important, yet under-studied process in marine science. Seeps are now known to be a general feature of the hydrogeology of many tectonically active continental margins. The eastern Pacific margin is characterized by a variety of tectonic settings (i.e. convergent and strike-slip) where active venting of fluids and gases has been documented. Reports include vents off Alaska, Costa Rica, Monterey Bay, Eel River basin, and Heceta Bay, OR. Indications of seismic tremor, linked to hydrologic transience in the offshore regions of subduction zones have recently been published elsewhere (see Brown et al, EPSL 2005). We now address here the varying nature of submarine fluid discharges in a San Andreas strike-slip setting. A key element of the proposed work is the combined multidisciplinary measurement of fluid flow, seep temperatures, and dissolved noble gases and chemistry of the Monterey seep sites at Extrovert Cliff. The seeps are situated close to several active strike-slip faults including the Monterey and San Gregorio fault zones. Initial results of 2 week deployments in 2004 of flow meters at Extravert Cliff indicated high flow rates and elevated seep temperatures that vary by as much as a factor of 2 on diurnal time scales with subtle changes over longer periods (>2 weeks). There are also indicative chemical signals of deeply sourced fluids that vary widely with time that show the following signals: 1) Elevated abundances of both mantle derived Helium (3He) as well as 4He and 40Ar of radiogenic crustal relevant trace element components; 2) Altered fluid chemistry (including, Ca Mg, Li and B); 3) The fluid temperature, flow rates, and gas chemistry, in particular, vary with time. We have both long-term and sub-diurnal variations in flow and temperature as well as the 3He/4He ratios, helium concentration, CO2 concentration and d13C values perhaps influenced

  13. Investigation of late Pleistocene and Holocene activity in the San Gregorio fault zone on the continental slope north of Monterey Canyon, offshore central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Katherine L.; Paull, Charles K.; Brothers, Daniel; Caress, David W.; McGann, Mary; Lundsten, Eve M.; Anderson, Krystle; Gwiazda, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    We provide an extensive high‐resolution geophysical, sediment core, and radiocarbon dataset to address late Pleistocene and Holocene fault activity of the San Gregorio fault zone (SGFZ), offshore central California. The SGFZ occurs primarily offshore in the San Andreas fault system and has been accommodating dextral strike‐slip motion between the Pacific and North American plates since the mid‐Miocene. Our study focuses on the SGFZ where it has been mapped through the continental slope north of Monterey Canyon. From 2009 to 2015, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute collected high‐resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp sub‐bottom profiles using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Targeted samples were collected using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to provide radiocarbon age constraints. We integrate the high‐resolution geophysical data with radiocarbon dates to reveal Pleistocene seismic horizons vertically offset less than 5 m on nearly vertical faults. These faults are buried by continuous reflections deposited after ∼17.5  ka and likely following erosion during the last sea‐level lowstand ∼21  ka, bracketing the age of faulting to ∼32–21  ka. Clearly faulted horizons are only detected in a small area where mass wasting exhumed older strata to within ∼25  m of the seafloor. The lack of clearly faulted Holocene deposits and possible highly distributed faulting in the study area are consistent with previous interpretations that late Pleistocene and Holocene activity along the SGFZ may decrease to the south. This study illustrates the complexity of the SGFZ, offshore central California, and demonstrates the utility of very high‐resolution data from combined AUV (geophysical)–ROV (seabed sampling) surveys in offshore studies of fault activity.

  14. Paleoceanographic influences on compositional trends in the Monterey Formation, western Santa Barbara coastal area, California: Contrasts between banktop and distal slope settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.R. (Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States). Program in Geosciences)

    1992-01-01

    The modern ocean-atmosphere system, consisting of cold polar regions, strong latitudinal temperature gradient, and strong thermocline, evolved as a consequence of Miocene paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic transitions, which were contemporaneous with deposition of the organic-rich Monterey Formation. Deep sea records show mid-Miocene enrichment shifts in C-13 (ca17.5 to ca13.5 Ma), lagged by C-18 (beginning around 15 Ma), suggesting that reverse greenhouse cooling led to intensified cryosphere development. Graphic correlation of Sr isotope and biostratigraphic data indicates that the South Ellwood section contains a more continuous record of organic accumulation. At Naples, highest organic contents are associated with the hardground-bearing carbonaceous marl member, which is condensed between strata bearing Luisian and Early Mohnian benthic foraminifera. Duration of the condensed interval is unresolved by biostratigraphy and Sr isotope estimates over a wide time range (7.5 to 15.7 Ma), but ages younger than 13 Ma are generally inferred for timing of maximum organic carbon accumulation. In contrast, richest organic facies at South Ellwood occur within a 300 to 400 foot interval containing Relizian and Luisian fauna, spanning the 18 to 13 Ma interval. Stable isotope data from the South Ellwood section document a trend of C-13 enrichment on the order of 1% which closely follows, but slightly lags, deposition of richest organic strata. Distinct enrichment in [delta]O-18 begins near the peak of maximum carbon enrichment, and continues into the upper siliceous facies. Thus, the Monterey Hypothesis is supported by the more basinal South Ellwood record, while rejected in the Naples Beach banktop record.

  15. Currents, temperature, conductivity, pressure, sigma-theta, and attenuation data from moorings deployed in Monterey Bay from platforms WILLIAM A. MCGAW, NOAA Ship McARTHUR, and POINT SUR from 1995-05-16 to 1998-08-17 (NCEI Accession 0067571)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary data were part of a large, multi-disciplinary experiment to characterize the Sanctuary's geologic environment. These data...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS WASHINGTON in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1991-05-31 to 1991-07-11 (NODC Accession 0115000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115000 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS WASHINGTON in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary,...

  17. Influência da ingestão de sardinha nos níveis de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados da série ômega3 no leite materno The influence of sardine consumption on the omega-3 fatty acid content of mature human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose V. Patin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A proposta deste trabalho foi verificar a influência da ingestão de sardinha, alimento rico em ácidos graxos poliinsaturados da série ômega3, na composição do leite materno. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo avaliou 31 nutrizes acompanhadas no Hospital Guilherme Álvaro, as quais receberam 2 kg de sardinha fresca por duas vezes, em intervalos de 15 dias. Nos tempos 0, 15 e 30 dias, realizou-se inquérito alimentar de 24 horas e coleta de leite. Determinaram-se os ácidos graxos do leite materno por cromatografia a gás. Para análise estatística dos resultados, utilizaram-se testes não paramétricos, com nível de significância p OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate what effect the intake of sardines, rich in omega-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, has on the composition of breastmilk. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 31 nursing mothers under observation at the Hospital Guilherme Álvaro. Each was given 2 kg of fresh sardines twice with a 15-day interval. Milk was sampled and a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was applied on days 0, 15 and 30. Milk was assayed for fatty acid content by gas chromatography. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using nonparametric tests with significance set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The results demonstrate that the nutritional intake of the nursing mothers was adequate at all three sample points. With regard to the omega-3 series fatty acid content of the breastmilk, it was observed that regular consumption and shorter intervals between intake and milk collection resulted in higher concentrations of docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid at 15 and 30 days into the study. Fatty acids from the omega-3 and omega-6 series exhibited a significant correlation, r² was 0.58 and 0.59 at 15 and 30 days, respectively. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that incorporating fish into the diets of nursing mother during lactation, in the form of 100 g of

  18. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley study unit was investigated from July through October 2005 as part of the California Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 94 public-supply wells and 3 monitoring wells in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. Ninety-one of the public-supply wells sampled were selected to provide a spatially distributed, randomized monitoring network for statistical representation of the study area. Six wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry: three wells along a ground-water flow path were sampled to evaluate lateral changes, and three wells at discrete depths from land surface were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry with depth from land surface. The ground-water samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, pesticide degradates, nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, radioactivity, microbial indicators, and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, helium-4, and the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. In total, 270 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated for this study. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. In addition, regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. In this study, only six constituents, alpha radioactivity, N

  19. 美国MARS海底观测网络中国节点试验%Test China Node on Monterey Accelerated Research System(MARS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晓彤; 冯正平; 李德平; 周怀阳; 吴邦春; 吕枫; 吴正伟; 杨灿军; 李培良; 李德俊; 金波

    2011-01-01

    MARS海底观测网络是国际深海海底观测网络组网设备的主要试验场所。2011年4月21日,由接驳盒子系统、海底化学环境监测子系统和海底动力环境监测子系统等海底观测网络组网设备组成的中国节点与美国MARS海底观测网络主节点成功接并,检测和考验了我国深海海底观测网络组网关键设备的主要性能,中国成为第三个在MARS网上进行大规模组网设备测试的国家。到目前为止,中国节点在MARS网上的运行稳定,正源源不断从美国蒙特利湾海底传回各种观测数据,表明我国深海海底观测网络组网关键技术已取得了重要突破,基本达到了实际应用水平。实时、高分辨率和海量的数据特征为开展海洋科学研究提供了宝贵的资料,显示了利用海底观测网络开展海洋科学研究的巨大优势。%Monterey Accelerated Research System(MARS) is a main test bed for the deep-sea observatory instruments in the world.On April 14 th,2011,a China node,which consists of a junction box,a chemical environment system and a dynamical environment system,was installed on MARS successfully by R/V Western Flyer,R/V Point Lobos and ROV Ventana for long-term test at the seafloor of Monterey Bay.China became the third country who tested her deep-sea observatory instruments on MARS on a large scale.Up to date,China node works well on MARS.The instruments of China node are sending data back from the seafloor of Monterey Bay.China node test on MARS shows that Chinese observatory technologies have had great progresses in the recent four years,which can be applied to the construction of the deep-sea observatory in China.Real-time data from China node will benefit marine research and show great advantages of deep-sea observatory.

  20. Pacific sardine larvae distribution off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  1. Avaliação da utilização de embalagem em atmosfera modificada sobre a conservação de sardinhas (Sardinella brasiliensis Evaluation of the use of modied atmosphere packaging in sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Junger Teodoro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A vida útil dos alimentos perecíveis conservados em atmosfera normal é limitada principalmente pelo efeito do oxigênio atmosférico e o crescimento de microorganismos aeróbios produtores de alterações, que promovem mudanças de odor, sabor, cor e textura, conduzindo à perda da qualidade. A modificação da atmosfera prolonga significativamente a vida útil dos alimentos, quando comparados à refrigeração, podendo chegar a um aumento de três a quatro vezes. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da embalagem de sardinhas (Sardinella brasiliensis em atmosfera modificada. As amostras foram divididas em 8 lotes, embaladas com aproximadamente 1,5 L de ar (100%, CO2 (100%, 50/50 CO2/O2 e vácuo e termo-seladas, sendo armazenadas por um período de 22 dias. A cada 2 dias as amostras foram avaliadas quanto ao pH, bases voláteis totais (BVT e contagens totais de microrganismos heterotróficos aeróbios mesófilos. Os valores de pH aumentaram durante o tempo de estocagem, com exceção das amostras armazenadas em 100 e 50% CO2. A evolução de BVT foi compatível com outros parâmetros, como pH e contagem de bactérias totais, sendo sua evolução mais lenta nas amostras em que ocorreu o uso de atmosfera modificada. Os microrganismos mesófilos, nas atmosferas enriquecidas com CO2, apresentaram fases de latência e tempos de duplicação maiores, quando comparados com os das amostras em que não foi aplicado o método. Sob o ponto de vista microbiológico, as embalagens enriquecidas com CO2 demonstraram ser o melhor método de conservação, como também os resultados de BVT se encontraram dentro dos limites de 30 mg.100 g -1 de acordo com o estabelecido pela RIISPOA8. Recomenda-se o uso da atmosfera de 100% de CO2 como forma de conservação da sardinha por apresentar melhores parâmetros de vida útil.The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis packaged in a modified atmosphere. The

  2. Relationships between the distribution and stable isotopic composition of living benthic foraminifera and cold methane seep biogeochemistry in Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathburn, Anthony E.; PéRez, M. Elena; Martin, Jonathan B.; Day, Shelley A.; Mahn, Chris; Gieskes, Joris; Ziebis, Wiebke; Williams, David; Bahls, Amanda

    2003-12-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to explore the use of foraminifera as a means to assess modern and ancient methane release, we compared ambient pore water chemistry with the distribution and stable isotopic composition of living (rose Bengal stained) foraminifera in MBARI ROV Ventana tube cores taken from modern seepage areas (about 1000 m water depth) in Monterey Bay, California. Benthic foraminiferal isotopic differences between sites clearly indicate that methane-influenced pore waters affect foraminiferal distributions and carbonate isotope geochemistry. Carbon isotope signatures of living benthic foraminifera did not conform to the very negative (-30 to -48‰), methane-influenced carbon isotope values of the pore waters they live in. Instead, the influence of methane seep pore waters was reflected in the greater range and carbon isotopic variability of living seep foraminifera compared with published δ13C values of foraminifera living in nonseep habitats. It is not clear what relative influences biological, ecological, and physical factors have on the carbon isotopic signatures observed in seep foraminifera. Substantial carbon isotope differences can exist between individuals of the same seep species. For instance, δ13C values of living Globobulimina pacifica varied by as much as 2.9‰ between seeps within 8 km of each other, whereas δ13C values of living Uvigerina peregrina varied by as much as 1.95‰ within the same seep. Provided there is no diagenetic alteration of the test carbonate, isotopic results of individual seep foraminifera support the hypothesis that foraminifera can be used to assess past and present methane seepage.

  3. Sediment Dynamics and the Burial and Exhumation of Bedrock Reefs as Elucidated by High-resolution Repetitive Sonar Surveys: Northern Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C. D.; Fregoso, T. A.; Golden, N. E.; Finlayson, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    Two high-resolution bathymetric and acoustic backscatter sonar surveys were conducted along the energetic emergent inner shelf of northern Monterey Bay, CA, USA, in the fall of 2005 and the spring of 2006 to determine the impact of winter storm waves, beach erosion, and river floods on biologically-important bedrock reef habitats. The surveys extended from water depths of 4 m to 22 m and covered an area of 3.14 km2, of which 45.8% was bedrock, gravel, and coarse-grained sand and 54.2% was fine-grained sand. Our analysis of the bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data demonstrates that during the 6 months between surveys, 11.4% of the study area was buried by fine-grained sand while erosion exposed of bedrock or coarse-grained sand over 26.5% of the study area. The probability of burial decreased with increasing water depth and rugosity; the probability of exhumation increased with increasing seabed slope and rugosity. Much of the detected change was at the boundary between bedrock and unconsolidated sediment due to burial or exhumation of bedrock. In a number of cases, however, the change in seabed character was apparently due to fluctuations in sediment grain size, where scour exposed what appeared to be an underlying coarser-grained lag or fine-grained sand buried coarser-grained sand. These findings suggest that, in some places, (a) single acoustic surveys typically employed for geologic characterization and/or habitat mapping may not adequately characterize the geomorphology and sedimentologic nature of rocky, energetic inner shelves, and (b) burial and exhumation likely play a role in the life history of the numerous organisms that inhabit these reefs and thus information on the frequency and magnitude of such processes may better constrain our understanding of physical controls on benthic species' distribution patterns.

  4. Regional Analysis of Stormwater Runoff for the Placement of Managed Aquifer Recharge Sites in Santa Cruz and Northern Monterey Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Beganskas, S.; Fisher, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    We apply a USGS surface hydrology model, Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), to analyze stormwater runoff in Santa Cruz and Northern Monterey Counties, CA with the goal of supplying managed aquifer recharge (MAR) sites. Under the combined threats of multiyear drought and excess drawdown, this region's aquifers face numerous sustainability challenges, including seawater intrusion, chronic overdraft, increased contamination, and subsidence. This study addresses the supply side of this resource issue by increasing our knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of runoff that could provide water for MAR. Ensuring the effectiveness of MAR using stormwater requires a thorough understanding of runoff distribution and site-specific surface and subsurface aquifer conditions. In this study we use a geographic information system (GIS) and a 3-m digital elevation model (DEM) to divide the region's four primary watersheds into Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs), or topographic sub-basins, that serve as discretized input cells for PRMS. We then assign vegetation, soil, land use, slope, aspect, and other characteristics to these HRUs, from a variety of data sources, and analyze runoff spatially using PRMS under varying precipitation conditions. We are exploring methods of linking spatially continuous and high-temporal-resolution precipitation datasets to generate input precipitation catalogs, facilitating analyses of a variety of regimes. To gain an understanding of how surface hydrology has responded to land development, we will also modify our input data to represent pre-development conditions. Coupled with a concurrent MAR suitability analysis, our model results will help screen for locations of future MAR projects and will improve our understanding of how changes in land use and climate impact hydrologic runoff and aquifer recharge.

  5. Modificación en la composición de ácidos grasos del huevo al incluir aceite de sardina y ácido linoleico conjugado en dietas para gallinas ponedoras Modulation in egg fatty acids composition when laying hens diets are supplemented with sardine oil and conjugated linoleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Carrillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente el consumo regular de ácidos grasos omega 3 (C18:3 ALA, C20:5 EPA, C22:6 DHA y de ácido linoleico conjugado (C18:2 CLA es recomendado debido a la importancia que estos compuestos bioactivos tienen en la prevención y control de enfermedades cardiovasculares, diabetes y diferentes tipos de cáncer. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto sobre la composición en ácidos grasos del huevo cuando la dieta de las gallinas es suplementada con aceite de sardina y CLA. 240 gallinas Bovans White fueron distribuidas aleatoriamente en cuatro tratamientos con cinco réplicas de 12 aves cada una. Los tratamientos fueron: testigo (T1 con una dieta basal, la misma que T1 más 2,5% de aceite de sardina (T2, la misma que T2 pero adicionando 1% y 2% de CLA (T3 y T4 respectivamente. El ensayo experimental tuvo una duración de cuatro semanas. Al final de este período, 50 huevos de cada tratamiento fueron tomados para realizar la determinación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. Con respecto al tratamiento testigo, los resultados mostraron un incremento en la concentración total de ácidos grasos omega 3 (1,6% vs 6,0% del total de ácidos grasos y de CLA (0,7% vs 3-5% del total de ácidos grasos en el huevo de los tratamientos T3, T4 y T5 en conjunto, y una relación n6:n3 de 11:1 vs 1.3:1 (P The regular intake of omega 3 fatty acids (C18:3 ALA, C20:5 EPA, C22:6 DHA and conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2 CLA is currently recommended due to their importance in the prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and several types of cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing laying hens diets with sardine oil and CLA on egg fatty acid composition. 240 Bovans White hens were randomly distributed into four treatments with 5 replicates of 12 hens each one. The treatments consisted in a control diet (T1, T1 plus 2.5% of sardine oil (T2, and T2 padded with 1% and 2% of CLA (T3 and T4

  6. A study of the life history of brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis.: III. development of sardine larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Larvae and juveniles of S. brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, ranging from 6.4 mm to 35.5 mm, were identified from plankton samples taken in waters off the southern Brazilian coast from 1969 through 1971. Changes in the pattern of pigmentation, body proportions and formation of fin rays are described. During transformation stage a considerable advancement of the dorsal and anal fins was observed. Changes in body proportions are pronounced at the size of 19 mm. Complete ossification of all fin rays is attained at the size of 20 mm, but ossification of the ventral scutes is delayed and completed only at the size of 30 mm. Ossification of the vertebral column was completed at the size of about 16 mm.O presente trabalho é parte do projeto SOL e tem por objetivo descrever a morfologia das larvas da sardinha verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, com o intuito de determinar um padrão que possibilite a identificação das mesmas. São feitas considerações sobre a morfologia das larvas de outros clupeídeos existentes na região e ressaltadas as diferenças com relação as larvas de S. brasiliensis. Os resultados, posteriormente, serão usados como base para o estudo quantitativo da abundância de larvas de sardinha. O material foi coletado na costa sul do Brasil de 1969 a 1971, com uma rede de plâncton do tipo cônico-cilíndrico. Durante o desenvolvimento das larvas, foi observado um considerável deslocamento das bases das nadadeiras dorsal e anal, para uma posição mais anterior. Com o tamanho de 19 mm (comprimento padrão, ocorre uma mudança geral, considerável, nas proporções corporais. A ossificação de todos os raios das nadadeiras completa-se quando a larva atinge 20 mm, mas a ossificação dos escudos ventrais só se completa quando ela atinge 30 mm de comprimento. A ossificação das vertebras completa-se a 16 mm de comprimento. O tamanho de 19 mm foi considerado como o fim do estagio larval, e, apos este comprimento, consideramos a larva no estagio prejuvenil (=transformal.

  7. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-09-29

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  8. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2006-06-30

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  9. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-09-29

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  10. USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-02-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper

  11. USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-02-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper

  12. Short-term variability of 7Be atmospheric deposition and watershed response in a Pacific coastal stream, Monterey Bay, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Christopher H; Storlazzi, Curt D; Draut, Amy E; Swarzenski, Peter W

    2013-06-01

    Beryllium-7 is a powerful and commonly used tracer for environmental processes such as watershed sediment provenance, soil erosion, fluvial and nearshore sediment cycling, and atmospheric fallout. However, few studies have quantified temporal or spatial variability of (7)Be accumulation from atmospheric fallout, and parameters that would better define the uses and limitations of this geochemical tracer. We investigated the abundance and variability of (7)Be in atmospheric deposition in both rain events and dry periods, and in stream surface-water samples collected over a ten-month interval at sites near northern Monterey Bay (37°N, 122°W) on the central California coast, a region characterized by a rainy winters, dry summers, and small mountainous streams with flashy hydrology. The range of (7)Be activity in rainwater samples from the main sampling site was 1.3-4.4 Bq L(-1), with a mean (±standard deviation) of 2.2 ± 0.9 Bq L(-1), and a volume-weighted average of 2.0 Bq L(-1). The range of wet atmospheric deposition was 18-188 Bq m(-2) per rain event, with a mean of 72 ± 53 Bq m(-2). Dry deposition fluxes of (7)Be ranged from less than 0.01 up to 0.45 Bq m(-2) d(-1), with an estimated dry season deposition of 7 Bq m(-2) month(-1). Annualized (7)Be atmospheric deposition was approximately 1900 Bq m(-2) yr(-1), with most deposition via rainwater (>95%) and little via dry deposition. Overall, these activities and deposition fluxes are similar to values found in other coastal locations with comparable latitude and Mediterranean-type climate. Particulate (7)Be values in the surface water of the San Lorenzo River in Santa Cruz, California, ranged from erosion in the watershed. There were too few particulate (7)Be data over the storm to accurately model a (7)Be load, but the results suggest enhanced watershed export of (7)Be from small, mountainous river systems compared to other watershed types.

  13. Sediment dynamics and the burial and exhumation of bedrock reefs along an emergent coastline as elucidated by repetitive sonar surveys: Northern Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C.D.; Fregoso, T.A.; Golden, N.E.; Finlayson, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Two high-resolution bathymetric and acoustic backscatter sonar surveys were conducted along the energetic emergent inner shelf of northern Monterey Bay, CA, USA, in the fall of 2005 and the spring of 2006 to determine the impact of winter storm waves, beach erosion, and river floods on biologically-important siliclastic bedrock reef habitats. The surveys extended from water depths of 4 m to 22 m and covered an area of 3.14 km2, 45.8% of which was bedrock, gravel, and coarse-grained sand and 54.2% was fine-grained sand. Our analyses of the bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data demonstrates that during the 6 months between surveys, 11.4% of the study area was buried by fine-grained sand while erosion resulted in the exposure of bedrock or coarse-grained sand over 26.5% of the study area. The probability of burial decreased with increasing water depth and rugosity; the probability of exhumation increased with increasing wave-induced near-bed shear stress, seabed slope and rugosity. Much of the detected change was at the boundary between bedrock and unconsolidated sediment due to sedimentation and erosion burying or exhuming bedrock, respectively. In a number of cases, however, the change in seabed character was apparently due to changes in sediment grain size when scour exposed what appeared to be an underlying coarser-grained lag or the burial of coarser-grained sand and gravel by fine-grained sand. These findings suggest that, in some places, (a) burial and exhumation of nearshore bedrock reefs along rocky, energetic inner shelves occurs over seasonal timescales and appears related to intrinsic factors such as seabed morphology and extrinsic factors such as wave forces, and (b) single acoustic surveys typically employed for geologic characterization and/or habitat mapping may not adequately characterize the geomorphologic and sedimentologic nature of these types of environments that typify most of the Pacific Ocean and up to 50% of the world's coastlines.

  14. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner

    2004-04-29

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  15. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner

    2005-08-01

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  16. An Advanced Fracture Characterization and Well Path Navigation System for Effective Re-Development and Enhancement of Ultimate Recovery from the Complex Monterey Reservoir of South Ellwood Field, Offshore California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner

    2006-01-31

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  17. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner; Iraj Ershaghi

    2002-04-30

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful redevelopment and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  18. An Advanced Fracture Characterization and Well Path Navigation System for Effective Re-Development and Enhancement of Ultimate Recovery from the Complex Monterey Reservoir of South Ellwood Field, Offshore California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, Steve; Ershaghi, Iraj

    2006-06-30

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to over 10,000,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intended to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. In the first phase of the project, state of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic, interference tests and production logs were employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database were used in the construction of a new geologic model of the fracture network. An innovative fracture network reservoir simulator was developed to better understand and manage the aquifer’s role in pressure maintenance and water production. In the second phase of this project, simulation models were used to plan the redevelopment of the field using high angle wells. Correct placement of the wells is critical to intersect the best-developed fracture zones and to avoid producing large volumes of water from the water leg. Particula r attention was paid to those areas of the field that have not been adequately developed with the existing producers. In cooperation with the DOE and the PTTC, the new data and the new fracture simulation model were shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the methodologies developed in this project. This report presents a summary of all technical work conducted during Budget Periods I

  19. Clasificación acústica de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki mediante máquinas de vectores soporte en la zona centro-sur de Chile: efecto de la calibración de los parámetros en la matriz de confusión Acoustic classification of anchovy (Engraulis ringens and sardine (Strangomera bentincki using support vector machines in central-southern Chile: effect of parameter calibration on the confusion matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Robotham

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se clasificó la anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki detectadas mediante equipos acústicos en la zona centro-sur de Chile, mediante el método de Máquinas de Vectores Soporte (SVM. Para esto se utilizaron descriptores de cardúmenes extraídos desde ecogramas, que fueron clasificados como morfológicos, batimétricos, energéticos y posicional espacial. Para lograr clasificaciones precisas mediante la utilización de esta metodología, fue necesario optimizar parámetros correspondientes al Kernel-Gaussiano, γ y de penalización del modelo C, mediante el análisis del efecto de la calibración sobre las matrices de confusión resultantes de la clasificación de las especies analizadas. El método SVM ajustó correctamente el 95,3% de los cardúmenes de anchoveta y sardina común. Los parámetros óptimos del Kernel-Gaussiano γ y de penalización C obtenidos mediante la metodología propuesta fueron γ = 450 y C = 0,95, respectivamente. Los parámetros mencionados incidieron de manera importante en la matriz de confusión y los porcentajes de clasificación final, por lo que se sugiere establecer, en aplicaciones futuras de este método, un protocolo experimental de calibración. La sardina común fue la especie con menor error de clasificación en el conjunto de las matrices de confusión. El descriptor correspondiente a profundidad del fondo fue el más sensible al SVM, la segunda variable en importancia es el descriptor distancia a la costa.The support vector machines (SVM method was used to classify the anchovy (Engraulis ringens and common sardine (Strangomera bentincki species detected in south-central Chile by means of acoustic equipment. For this, descriptors of fish schools (morphology, bathymetry, energy, spatial position extracted from ecograms were used. In order to obtain precise classifications using this methodology, it was necessary to optimize the parameters Gaussian-Kernel γ and penalty term

  20. Health assessment of pine forest as affected by geothermal activities: Presence of Monterey pine aphid, Essigella californica (Essig (Homoptera: Aphidae associated with higher concentrations of boron on pine needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Arturo Del Rio Mora

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on assessments of the air pollution and deposition caused by geothermal fields on the forest health and presence of pests have been few documented to date. In the geothermal field "Los Humeros", located between the borders of the states of Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico was realized a forest health monitoring to know the assessment could have these emissions of sulphur (S and other two chemical elements measured by their concentrations on leaf tissues in the surrounding forests. For it were evaluated the forest healthy and pest insects registered at 20 stands of which were chosen completely at random 40 trees in total/site of the species Pinus montezumae and P. teocotein natural stands and plantations and picked up leaf tissue samples representatives per stand to determine the contents of sulphur (S, boron (B and arsenic (As representing each forest stand. The results of the study revealed that the presence of forest pests are not related to the proximity of the sites to emissions from stationary sources of emissions and moreover the amount of these 3 chemical substances monitored do not have none influence on the forest healthy sites condition, except for the Monterey pine aphid Essigella californica Essig, which seems to be directly associated with higher Boron content in the needles (mean=167.47±32.15, and peak 635.46 ppm and proximity of emission sources geothermal vents or where it is believed all these chemical elements are carried down by air currents to specific points and deposited in the stands. The general model obtained and with significance of R2=56.6 and P value 0.0033 for the presence of Monterey Pine aphid and the three main pollutants released from smoke plumes in geothermal systems is [D: Essigella]= -0.2088 + 1.880E-0.5 (A:SO4+ 0.002245 (B:B + 1.248 (C:As. The results suggest the use of aphid species as bioindicators of polluted sites.

  1. A recent increase of swift terns Thalasseus bergii off South Africa - The possible influence of an altered abundance and distribution of prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Robert J. M.

    2009-12-01

    In the 2000s, there were large increases in the numbers of swift terns Thalasseus bergii breeding in the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa, which are most plausibly attributed to good recruitment and to an increase in the proportion of mature birds breeding. Numbers increased coincidentally with a greatly increased abundance of two of the main prey species of swift terns, sardine Sardinops sagax and anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, and remained high as these resources decreased. After 2005, numbers of swift terns breeding in the north and central portions of the Western Cape decreased, whereas numbers breeding farther south in that province increased. This followed displacements to the south and east of sardine and anchovy. In southern Africa, swift terns show low fidelity to breeding localities, which enables a rapid adjustment of the location of breeding to an altered availability of prey. For two seabirds that feed mainly on sardine and anchovy, but once breeding show high fidelity to colonies, African penguin Spheniscus demersus and Cape gannet Morus capensis, proportions breeding in the south and east also increased, but there were substantial decreases in overall numbers breeding in the Western Cape.

  2. Composição em aminoácidos de silagens químicas, biológicas e enzimáticas preparadas com resíduos de sardinha Determination of amino-acid composition of silages prepared from sardine residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Floridalma MORALES-ULLOA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a composição em aminoácidos de silagens químicas, biológicas e enzimáticas elaboradas com resíduos de sardinha. Entre os aminoácidos essenciais a leucina apresentou valores mais altos para todas as silagens, a saber, em g/100g de proteína, 8,31 (química; 8,33 (protease 1 semana; 8,42 (pepsina, e 8,06 (inóculo L. plantarum + melaço 2 semanas, seguida pela lisina 6,46; 6,50 6,45, e 9,01; a fenilalanina com 5,32; 5,35 e 5,25 e 5,18. Destaque especial para o aumento na concentração de valina no decorrer do processo de ensilagem passando de 4,80 g/100g de proteína na matéria-prima para 7,67 na silagem química (3 semanas; 6,26 na silagem com meio inóculo de L.plantarum + melaço (48 horas; 6,27 na silagem protease (1 semana e 6,02 na silagem pepsina (2 semanas. A maior concentração de aminoácidos encontrados foi para o ácido glutâmico, que apresentou teor inicial de 15,20g/100g de proteína e posteriormente 14,02 na silagem química após 1 semana; 14,89 na silagem enzimática com protease (1 semana e 17,09 na silagem biológica com meio inóculo L.plantarum + melaço após 48 horas.The composition and amino-acid concentration of chemical, biological and enzymatic silages prepared from sardine residues, were determined. The essential amino-acid, leucine showed the highest values in all silages (8.31; 8,33 8.42; and 8.06 g/100g protein, followed by lysine (6.46, 6.50, 6.45 and 9,.01 g/100 protein, for chemical silage, protease silage after one week pepsin silage in the L. plantarum after 2 weeks respectively. Phenylalanine showed a value of 5.32g/100g protein in the chemical silages after one week, 5.35g/100g in the protease silage after one week, 5.25g/100g in the pepsin silage after two weeks and 5.18g/100g in the silage inoculated with L. plantarum plus its medium, also after two weeks. The increase in the valine during the silage processing deserves special mention, increasing from 4.80/100g protein in the raw

  3. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 12, 1996--February 11, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toronyi, R.M.

    1997-12-01

    The Buena Vista Hills field is located about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield, in Kern County, California, about two miles north of the city of Taft, and five miles south of the Elk Hills field. The Antelope Shale zone was discovered at the Buena Vista Hills field in 1952, and has since been under primary production. Little research was done to improve the completion techniques during the development phase in the 1950s, so most of the wells are completed with about 1000 ft of slotted liner. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization of the first phase of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. This is the first annual report of the project. It covers the period February 12, 1996 to February 11, 1997. During this period the Chevron Murvale 653Z-26B well was drilled in Section 26-T31S/R23E in the Buena Vista Hills field, Kern County, California. The Monterey Formation equivalent Brown and Antelope Shales were continuously cored, the zone was logged with several different kinds of wireline logs, and the well was cased to a total depth of 4907 ft. Core recovery was 99.5%. Core analyses that have been performed include Dean Stark porosity, permeability and fluid saturations, field wettability, anelastic strain recovery, spectral core gamma, profile permeametry, and photographic imaging. Wireline log analysis includes mineral-based error minimization (ELAN), NMR T2 processing, and dipole shear wave anisotropy. A shear wave vertical seismic profile was acquired after casing was set and processing is nearly complete.

  4. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 12, 1996--February 11, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toronyi, R.M.

    1997-12-01

    The Buena Vista Hills field is located about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield, in Kern County, California, about two miles north of the city of Taft, and five miles south of the Elk Hills field. The Antelope Shale zone was discovered at the Buena Vista Hills field in 1952, and has since been under primary production. Little research was done to improve the completion techniques during the development phase in the 1950s, so most of the wells are completed with about 1000 ft of slotted liner. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization of the first phase of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. This is the first annual report of the project. It covers the period February 12, 1996 to February 11, 1997. During this period the Chevron Murvale 653Z-26B well was drilled in Section 26-T31S/R23E in the Buena Vista Hills field, Kern County, California. The Monterey Formation equivalent Brown and Antelope Shales were continuously cored, the zone was logged with several different kinds of wireline logs, and the well was cased to a total depth of 4907 ft. Core recovery was 99.5%. Core analyses that have been performed include Dean Stark porosity, permeability and fluid saturations, field wettability, anelastic strain recovery, spectral core gamma, profile permeametry, and photographic imaging. Wireline log analysis includes mineral-based error minimization (ELAN), NMR T2 processing, and dipole shear wave anisotropy. A shear wave vertical seismic profile was acquired after casing was set and processing is nearly complete.

  5. Core descriptions, core photographs, physical property logs and surface textural data of sediment cores recovered from the continental shelf of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary during the research cruises M-1-95-MB, P-2-95-MB, and P-1-97-MB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzech, Kevin M.; Dahl, Wendy E.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2001-01-01

    In response to the 1992 creation of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS), the United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a multiyear investigation of the Sanctuary continental margin. As part of the investigative effort, this report summarizes the shipboard procedures, subsequent laboratory analyses, and data results from three seafloor sampling cruises conducted on the continental shelf between Monterey peninsula, CA and San Francisco, CA. The cruises were conducted in 1995 aboard the NOAA Ship McArthur (M-1-95-MB) and in 1995 and 1997 aboard the R/V Point Sur (P-2-95-MB and P-1-97-MB). Scientists and representatives from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC), and the San Jose State University Moss Landing Marine Laboratory (SJSU-MLML) supported the research effort. In this report we present sediment descriptions, sediment textural data, physical property logs, station metadata, and photographs of subcores from a total of three hundred and eighty four sample stations. At these sites either a box corer, MultiCore™r, grab sampler or a combination of these sampling devices were used to collect the sea floor sediments. The report is presented in an interactive web-based format with each mapped core station linked to the corresponding description and photo, and to a spreadsheet of surface texture and other sampling data.

  6. Impact of El Niño events on pelagic fisheries in Peruvian waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ñiquen, Miguel; Bouchon, Marilú

    2004-03-01

    Using data from stock assesment surveys on pelagic resources during El Niño events of 1972/73, 1982/83, 1997/98, we analyze biological changes on pelagic ecosystems and pelagic fisheries during different stages of development of El Niño phenomenon: emergence, full, final and post-Niño. Results indicate changes in spatial distribution of resources, their concentration and size structure. In anchovy (Engraulis ringens) a decrease in biomass was observed, which was estimated at 1.2 million tons in September 1998, the lowest throughout the 1990s. This resource showed an asymmetric distribution towards the south of Peru. Other pelagic resources increased their biomass during or after Niño events, primarily sardine (Sardinops sagax), jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), and longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus). At the end of the El Niño phenomenon we found less productivity but more diversity in the pelagic ecosystem. During the 1997/98 El Niño, the diversity index (Manual de Ecologia, 1a Edition, Editorial Trillas, Mexico, 267pp) increased from 0.87 to 1.23-1.70. In both the emergence stage and fully developed stages of El Niño we found large numbers of sardine and longnose anchovy present simultaneously. Size structure of sardine, jack mackerel, and pacific mackerel showed an increase in juveniles. Anchovy during El Niño showed a single modal group composed of adults, but the post-Niño phase indicated an increase in juveniles with an average length of 6-7 cm. In El Niño conditions spawning among anchovy was low, but among sardine and pacific mackerel it was high. We observed, for the first time during full spawning, juvenile sardines with a total length of 18-20 cm. The anchovy spawning season during the post-Niño phase was considerably lengthened, from April to December 1998. Drastic change occurred in fisheries when monospecific fisheries, based on anchovy before El Niño, became multispecific fisheries based on sardine, jack

  7. A fuzzy-logic tool for multi-criteria decision making in fisheries: the case of the South African pelagic fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, B.; Jarre, Astrid; Moloney, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    The present study presents an electronic decision-support tool that uses a fuzzy-logic model of expert knowledge to assist in multi-criteria decision-making in the context of an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF). The prototype model integrates the multiple goals and objectives related...... to the evaluation of the ecosystem performance of the South African sardine Sardinops sagax fishery into a NetWeaver knowledge base and provides intuitive visual outputs to communicate results to managers and stakeholders. The software tool was developed in a consultative process with key experts and follows...... on expert opinion. Results show that the model is robust and conservative. The strength of the approach lies in the ability to include variables that are difficult to measure. It provides a means of rendering value judgements explicit and transparent. The tool synthesises a large amount of information...

  8. Different Levels of Hypoxia Tolerance during Early Life History Stages of Key Fish Species from the Northern Benguela Upwelling Ecosystem Inferred from the Comparison of Eco-Physiological Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, S. J.; Imam, R. M.; Kunzmann, A.; Ekau, W.

    2016-02-01

    Global change factors such as a pronounced Oxygen Minimum Zone and the shoaling of hypoxic waters are assumed to play a major role in controlling the recruitment of fish stocks in Upwelling Systems by affecting the planktonic early life history stages. Ecological and ecophysiological traits in the larval stages of five key fish species in the Northern Benguela Upwelling System (Sardine, Sardinops sagax; Anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus; Cape horse mackerel, Trachurus capensis; Cape hake, Merluccius sp.; Pelagic goby, Sufflogobobius bibarbatus) were investigated during the GENUS (Geochemistry and Ecology of the Namibian Upwelling Ecosystem) research project . Analysis of vertical larval distributions in relation to the depth of hypoxic water layers showed gradual interspecific differences, suggesting lower hypoxia tolerance levels of the small pelagics Sardine and Anchovy. Cape horse mackerel juveniles and larvae exhibited very high tolerance levels to short-term hypoxia in respirometry stress experiments, close to the levels of the extremely hypoxia-tolerant Pelagic goby. In the latter two species, we also measured the highest activities of anaerobic enzymes (pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase) in early and late larval stages, compared to very low activities in Sardine larvae. A higher amount of anaerobic enzymatic activity is related to a higher capacity to break down metabolites that build up during phases of oxygen debt and thus help the larvae to quickly recover from hypoxia exposure. In consequence, a high hypoxia tolerance during their early life stages allows Cape horse mackerel and Pelagic goby to successfully reproduce in an environment characterized by frequent hypoxic events. The low hypoxia tolerance of Sardine larvae, eventually resulting in higher mortality rates, is likely to be an important factor to understand the poor reproductive success and continuing recruitment failures of this formerly dominant fish species of the NBUS during the last

  9. Oxygen: a fundamental property regulating pelagic ecosystem structure in the coastal southeastern tropical Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Bertrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the southeastern tropical Pacific anchovy (Engraulis ringens and sardine (Sardinops sagax abundance have recently fluctuated on multidecadal scales and food and temperature have been proposed as the key parameters explaining these changes. However, ecological and paleoecological studies, and the fact that anchovies and sardines are favored differently in other regions, raise questions about the role of temperature. Here we investigate the role of oxygen in structuring fish populations in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem that has evolved over anoxic conditions and is one of the world's most productive ecosystems in terms of forage fish. This study is particularly relevant given that the distribution of oxygen in the ocean is changing with uncertain consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A comprehensive data set is used to show how oxygen concentration and oxycline depth affect the abundance and distribution of pelagic fish. We show that the effects of oxygen on anchovy and sardine are opposite. Anchovy flourishes under relatively low oxygen conditions while sardine avoid periods/areas with low oxygen concentration and restricted habitat. Oxygen consumption, trophic structure and habitat compression play a fundamental role in fish dynamics in this important ecosystem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the ocean off Peru we suggest that a key process, the need to breathe, has been neglected previously. Inclusion of this missing piece allows the development of a comprehensive conceptual model of pelagic fish populations and change in an ocean ecosystem impacted by low oxygen. Should current trends in oxygen in the ocean continue similar effects may be evident in other coastal upwelling ecosystems.

  10. Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and other managed areas around the country. The legal boundaries of These sanctuaries are...

  11. Monterey, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Monterey, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Effect of buffaloαs1-casein polymorphism on the quality of semi-hard Monterey Jack-type cheese%水牛乳αs1酪蛋白多态性对类蒙特利杰克半硬质干酪品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 唐艳; 黄丽; 农皓如; 曾庆坤; 任大喜; 杨攀; 冯玲

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo analyze the effect ofαs1-casein genotype of water buffalo on the quality of semi-hard Monterey Jack-type cheese.MethodsThe genotype ofαs1-casein was analyzed byphase reversal-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), Monterey Jack-type cheese was made according to theαs1-casein genotypes, and the differences in composition, texture and color of cheese were compared.ResultsTwo types ofαs1-casein (AB and BB) were found in water buffalo milk. After makingMonterey Jack-type cheese used mixed sample as control group, fat content of BB type was lower than that of AB type. Hardness and springiness of BB type cheese were 41.21 N and 6.31 mm, which were significantly higher than those of AB type (29.45 N, 5.56 mm) and control group (38.21 N, 5.25 mm), moreover, the gumminess and chewiness of BB type cheese were also higher. For the colour and lustre,B value of BB type cheese was lower than that of AB type, which meant more yellow colour was found in AB type cheese.Conclusionαs1-casein polymorphism is found in Chinese water buffalo, and the quality of semi-hard Monterey Jack-type cheese could be effected byαs1-casein polymorphism.%目的:分析水牛乳αs1酪蛋白(αs1-casein)多态性对类蒙特利杰克干酪品质的影响。方法采用反相高效液相色谱法分析不同水牛乳样品αs1-casein的多态性,依据αs1-casein多态性制成半硬质类蒙特利杰克干酪,比较其在组成、质构和色差等方面的差异。结果水牛乳αs1-casein存在AB和BB两种表型。以混合样品为对照制成类蒙特利杰克干酪后,在干酪成份上, BB型干酪中乳脂肪含量显著低于AB型;在质构方面,BB型干酪的硬度和弹性分别为41.21 N和6.31 mm,显著高于AB型(29.45 N,5.56 mm)和混合组(38.21 N,5.25 mm),此外BB型具有更高的胶粘性和咀嚼性;在色泽方面, BB型干酪的B值显著低于AB组,表明黄色程度低于AB型。结论水牛乳αs1-casein存在多态性,且αs1-casein的多

  14. Influence of ocean winds on the pelagic ecosystem in upwelling regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykaczewski, Ryan R; Checkley, David M

    2008-02-12

    Upwelling of nutrient-rich, subsurface water sustains high productivity in the ocean's eastern boundary currents. These ecosystems support a rate of fish harvest nearly 100 times the global mean and account for >20% of the world's marine fish catch. Environmental variability is thought to be the major cause of the decadal-scale biomass fluctuations characteristic of fish populations in these regions, but the mechanisms relating atmospheric physics to fish production remain unexplained. Two atmospheric conditions induce different types of upwelling in these ecosystems: coastal, alongshore wind stress, resulting in rapid upwelling (with high vertical velocity, w); and wind-stress curl, resulting in slower upwelling (low w). We show that the level of wind-stress curl has increased and that production of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) varies with wind-stress curl over the past six decades. The extent of isopycnal shoaling, nutricline depth, and chlorophyll concentration in the upper ocean also correlate positively with wind-stress curl. The size structure of plankton assemblages is related to the rate of wind-forced upwelling, and sardine feed efficiently on small plankters generated by slow upwelling. Upwelling rate is a fundamental determinant of the biological structure and production in coastal pelagic ecosystems, and future changes in the magnitude and spatial gradient of wind stress may have important and differing effects on these ecosystems. Understanding of the biological mechanisms relating fisheries production to environmental variability is essential for wise management of marine resources under a changing climate.

  15. 21 CFR 133.153 - Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and curd. Part of the whey is drained off, and water or salt brine may be added. The curd is drained and placed in a muslin or sheeting cloth, formed into a ball, and pressed; or the curd is placed in a... ingredients may be used: (1) Dairy ingredients. Milk, nonfat milk, or cream, as defined in § 133.3, used...

  16. Ecology and Distribution of the Benthic Community on the Monterey Breakwater, Monterey, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Numbers given in Appendix C P Present Numbers were impossible to determine 99 APPENDIX C SPECIES LIST ANIMALS PORIFERA DEMOSPONGIAE Halisarca §R. Found...muscosa (Gould, 1846). Mopalia porifera pilsbry, 1893. Placiphorella velata Dall, 1879. Common in the rubble, especially on vertical surfaces buried by one

  17. Effects of Ocean Climate on Transboundary Movement of Coastal Pelagic Resources Between the EEZs of Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, T. R.; Garcia, J.; Sanchez, C.; Lo, N. C.; Charter, R.

    2007-05-01

    Interannual to multidecadal changes in ocean climate directly impact access to transboundary coastal pelagic resources between fisheries operating in U.S. and Mexican waters. This study provides a preliminary analysis of the scale of year-to-year shifts in the distribution of the Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caeruleus) with data from 2002 and 2003. One of the purposes of this initiative is to provide a template for collaborative research to guide regional policy development for responsible and sustainable utilization of the shared resource. This work is based on coordinated quarterly ocean surveys run by Mexican (the IMECOCAL program=Investigaciones Mexicanas de la Corriente de California) and U.S. scientists (the CalCOFI program=California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations) allowing us to evaluate the annual state of the pelagic ecosystem from northern California to southern Baja California. The subject of this study is the "subarctic stock" of the Pacific sardine which is centered off California in the U.S. and extends southwards to the region off central Baja California. Estimates of sardine biomass in U.S. and Mexican waters, based on the rates of egg production measured during the IMECOCAL and CalCOFI surveys of April 2002 and April 2003, show order of magnitude differences in the relative proportions of biomass in the Mexican EEZ that is associated with the contrasts in ocean climate resulting from the regional effects of El Niño during April 2003. Results indicate a significant northward shift of the sardine stock off Mexico during 2003: we estimate that approximately 20 percent of the total biomass of the stock was located in the Mexican EEZ during spring of 2002 while the shift in ocean climate resulted in the presence of only 2 percent of the biomass of the stock in Mexican waters during April, 2003. A second, more southerly sardine stock extended from southern to central Baja California in April, 2003, but it was out of reach of the fleet

  18. Dynamic height: A key variable for identifying the spawning habitat of small pelagic fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Rebecca G.; Checkley, David M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Small pelagic fishes off southern California exhibit interannual variations in the regions they occupy. An enhanced understanding of these fluctuations could improve fisheries management and predictions of fish's responses to climate change. We investigated dynamic height as a variable for identifying the spawning habitat of northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), and jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus). During cruises between 1998 and 2004, dynamic height was calculated from temperature and salinity profiles, while fish egg concentration was measured with obliquely towed bongo nets and the Continuous, Underway Fish Egg Sampler. Dynamic height ranged between 68 and 108 cm, with values increasing offshore. The greatest probability of encountering anchovy, sardine, and jack mackerel eggs occurred at dynamic heights of 79-83 cm, 84-89 cm, and 89-99 cm, respectively. Four mechanisms were proposed to explain how dynamic height affects egg distribution: (1) dynamic height is a proxy for upper water column temperature and salinity, which are known to influence spawning habitat. (2) Low dynamic heights are indicative of coastal upwelling, which increases primary and secondary productivity. (3) Egg concentration is greater at dynamic heights coincident with geostrophic currents that transport larvae to favorable habitats. (4) Eddies delineated by dynamic height contours retain eggs in productive habitats. To evaluate these mechanisms, a generalized linear model was constructed using dynamic height, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll, zooplankton volume, geostrophic currents, and eddies as independent variables. Dynamic height explained more variance than any other variable in models of sardine and anchovy spawning habitat. Together temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll accounted for 80-95% of the dynamic height effect, emphasizing the importance of the first two mechanisms. However, dynamic height remained statistically significant in the

  19. Artificial neural networks to forecast biomass of Pacific sardine and its environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisneros Mata, M.A.; Brey, T.; Jarre, Astrid

    1996-01-01

    We tested the forecasting performance of artificial neural networks (ANNs) using several time series of environmental and biotic data pertaining to the California Current (CC) neritic ecosystem. ANNs performed well predicting CC monthly 10-m depth temperature up to nine years in advance, using te...

  20. Human exposure to mercury, lead and cadmium through consumption of canned mackerel, tuna, pilchard and sardine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyere, H; Voegborlo, R B; Agorku, S E

    2015-07-15

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were determined in canned fish on the Ghanaian market. Total mercury was determined using an automatic mercury analyzer while cadmium and lead levels were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The metal contents in the samples, expressed in μg g(-1) (wet weight), varied from canned fish from the Ghanaian market have concentrations well below the permissible FAO/WHO for these toxic metals. Thus considering the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of Hg, Pb and Cd the levels obtained in this study are unlikely to constitute a significant exposure to the public through consumption of moderate amounts.

  1. Artificial neural networks to forecast biomass of Pacific sardine and its environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisneros Mata, M.A.; Brey, T.; Jarre, Astrid

    1996-01-01

    We tested the forecasting performance of artificial neural networks (ANNs) using several time series of environmental and biotic data pertaining to the California Current (CC) neritic ecosystem. ANNs performed well predicting CC monthly 10-m depth temperature up to nine years in advance, using te...

  2. Catch, effort and sampling strategies in the highly variable sardine fisheries around East Java, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pet, J.S.; Densen, van W.L.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Sukkel, M.; Setyohady, D.; Tumuljadi, A.

    1997-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns in the fishery for Sardinella spp. around East Java, Indonesia, were studied in an attempt to develop an efficient catch and effort sampling strategy for this highly variable fishery. The inter-annual and monthly variation in catch, effort and catch per unit of effort (

  3. Catch, effort and sampling strategies in the highly variable sardine fisheries around East Java, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pet, J.S.; Densen, van W.L.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Sukkel, M.; Setyohady, D.; Tumuljadi, A.

    1997-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns in the fishery for Sardinella spp. around East Java, Indonesia, were studied in an attempt to develop an efficient catch and effort sampling strategy for this highly variable fishery. The inter-annual and monthly variation in catch, effort and catch per unit of effort

  4. Oil sardine and Indian mackerel: Their fishery, problems and coastal oceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Shetye, S.R.; Nair, K.N.V.; Nair, S.R.S.

    -leading to the productivity are examined to find their relationship to the fishery. However, this study attempts to point out the drawbacks in our understanding and proposes research problems that could be pursued...

  5. A STUDY OF MARINE FOULING IN MONTEREY HARBOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIERS, *FOULING, *HARBORS, *MARINE BIOLOGY, CALIFORNIA, PACIFIC OCEAN, NAVAL RESEARCH, CRUSTACEA, ANIMALS, PERIODIC VARIATIONS, ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS, TIME, DISTRIBUTION, SEA WATER, PLATYHELMINTHES , OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA.

  6. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Potential Sediment Sources 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Three main criteria are used as an initial basis for screening source locations; availability of large quantities of beach compatible sand, levels of contamination,...

  7. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, MONTEREY COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  8. A Pad Router for the Monterey Silicon Compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    program and the final chip layout. In 1986, M. A. Malagon -Fajar [Ref. 6o completed a valuable study on the relationship between the compiler and its laywut...the first SC’?\\I)S i cells. and E. Malagon [Ref. 9] described the structure of the data-path and inserted 1.. the first SCMOS organelles. That same...organelles are stacked vertically to form a unit. A description of the MacPitts data-path design and rout- ing organization is presented by E. Malagon [Ref

  9. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Potential Sediment Sources 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Three main criteria are used as an initial basis for screening source locations; availability of large quantities of beach compatible sand, levels of contamination,...

  10. Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report/Statement. Appendices. Monterey Peninsula Water Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    device and trapping facility near the face cf the 8 3 88089 A3-7 FIGURE 3-3 -7/ .7-U mv I 1 . - a Cach agua Creek Site Are a V 0 2.5 5 I I 1L KilometersI...Reference 3 Logging residues Field 26-207 Sandberg (1974a) (Western) Laboratory 6-24 Sandberg (1974a) Field =80 Radke et al (1978) Laboratory 4 Fritschen

  11. Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report/Statement. Volume 2. Monterey Peninsula Water Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    Continued) Malacotharnus palmen var. luianus [Malvaceae Common Name: Arroyo Seco Bush Mallow Status: C2/IList 1B Habit: subshrubI1 Habitat: Chaparral...involucratus) Arroyo Seco Bush Mallow C2/ /List 1B L L L L L 0 (Malacothamnus palmeri var. lucianus) Carmel Valley Malacothrix C2/ /List IB 0 0 0 P 0...delivering constrction materials or supplies would be prohibited ftm taveling to or from the site during peak tirzific flow peso and would be haunted

  12. An Empty Donut Hole: the Great Collapse of a North American Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Bailey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma is North America's most abundant and lucrative natural fishery, and is the world's largest fishery for human food. The little-known demise of the "Donut Hole" stock of pollock in the Aleutian Basin of the central Bering Sea during the 1980s is the most spectacular fishery collapse in North American history, dwarfing the famous crashes of the northern cod and Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax. This collapse has received scant recognition and became evident only in 1993 when fishing was banned by an international moratorium; nearly 20 years later it has not recovered. The history of fishing in the North Pacific Ocean after World War II offers some insights into how the Donut Hole pollock fishery developed, and the societal and economic pressures behind it that so influenced the stock's fate. Overfishing was, without a doubt, the greatest contributor to the collapse of the Aleutian Basin pollock fishery, but a lack of knowledge about population biocomplexity added to the confusion of how to best manage the harvest. Unfortunately, the big scientific questions regarding the relationship of Donut Hole fish to other stocks are still unanswered.

  13. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region. PMID:27893826

  14. Molecular epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in British Columbia, Canada, reveals transmission from wild to farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Kyle A; Traxler, Garth S; Hawley, Laura M; Richard, Jon; Ross, Jay P; Lovy, Jan

    2013-05-27

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is a fish pathogen found throughout the Northern Hemisphere and is capable of infecting and causing mortality in numerous marine and freshwater hosts. In the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada, the virus has been detected for 20 yr with many occurrences of mass mortalities among populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes) and sardine Sardinops sagax as well as detections among cultured Atlantic Salmo salar and Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha salmon. We compared nucleotide sequence of the full glycoprotein (G) gene coding region (1524 nt) of 63 VHSV isolates sampled during its recorded presence from 1993 to 2011 from 6 species and a total of 29 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVa within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Of the 63 virus isolates, there were 42 unique sequences, each of which was ephemeral, being repeatedly detected at most only 1 yr after its initial detection. Multiple sequence types were revealed during single viral outbreak events, and genetic heterogeneity was observed within isolates from individual fish. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed a close genetic linkage between VHSV isolates obtained from pelagic finfish species and farmed salmonids, providing evidence for virus transmission from wild to farmed fish.

  15. No deep diving: evidence of predation on epipelagic fish for a stem beaked whale from the Late Miocene of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Olivier; Collareta, Alberto; Landini, Walter; Post, Klaas; Ramassamy, Benjamin; Di Celma, Claudio; Urbina, Mario; Bianucci, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Although modern beaked whales (Ziphiidae) are known to be highly specialized toothed whales that predominantly feed at great depths upon benthic and benthopelagic prey, only limited palaeontological data document this major ecological shift. We report on a ziphiid–fish assemblage from the Late Miocene of Peru that we interpret as the first direct evidence of a predator–prey relationship between a ziphiid and epipelagic fish. Preserved in a dolomite concretion, a skeleton of the stem ziphiid Messapicetus gregarius was discovered together with numerous skeletons of a clupeiform fish closely related to the epipelagic extant Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax). Based on the position of fish individuals along the head and chest regions of the ziphiid, the lack of digestion marks on fish remains and the homogeneous size of individuals, we propose that this assemblage results from the death of the whale (possibly via toxin poisoning) shortly after the capture of prey from a single school. Together with morphological data and the frequent discovery of fossil crown ziphiids in deep-sea deposits, this exceptional record supports the hypothesis that only more derived ziphiids were regular deep divers and that the extinction of epipelagic forms may coincide with the radiation of true dolphins. PMID:26354940

  16. Fish larvae from the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Aceves-Medina

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic composition of fish larvae was analysed from 464 plankton samples obtained during 10 oceanographic surveys in the Gulf of California between 1984 and 1988. We identified 283 taxa: 173 species, 57 genera, and 53 families. Tropical and subtropical species predominated except during the winter, when temperate-subarctic species were dominant. The most abundant species were the mesopelagic Benthosema panamense, Triphoturus mexicanus and Vinciguerria lucetia, but the coastal pelagic species Engraulis mordax, Opisthonema spp., Sardinops caeruleus and Scomber japonicus were also prominent. The taxonomic composition of the ichthyoplankton shows the seasonality of the Gulf as well as environmental changes that occurred between the 1984-1987 warm period and the 1956-1957 cool period previously reported. The presence of E. mordax larvae as one of the most abundant species in the Gulf provides evidence of the reproduction of this species two years before the development of the northern anchovy fishery and the decline of the sardine fishery in the Gulf of California.

  17. Coupling between the environment and the pelagic resources exploited off northern Chile: ecosystem indicators and a conceptual model Acoplamiento entre el ambiente y los recursos pelágicos explotados en el norte de Chile: un modelo conceptual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Yáñez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The eastern boundary of the Chile-Peru Current System constitutes one of the most biologically productive ecosystems in the world, due largely to coastal upwelling and the horizontal advection of nutrients. In this ecosystem, El Niño events are of great importance in the interannual variability of the environment. A change was observed in the environmental regime at the beginning of the 1970s with the onset of the 1972-1973 El Niño, marking an important decrease in the anchovy fishery (Engraulis ringens. After the mid-1970s, sardine (Sardinops sagax landings increased noticeably. A second regime shift at the end of the 1980s was seen mostly in the noticeable recovery of anchovy and the decline of sardine. Herein, we present an integrated conceptual model of the different local and large-scale phenomena that affect the marine environment off northern Chile and the distribution and abundance of pelagic resources. The model considers an analysis of environmental and bio-fishery data on different scales and describes how the interdecadal (associated with re-gime shifts and interannual (associated with El Niño events fluctuations in the Equatorial Pacific are mani-fested in the eastern South Pacific and, therefore, in the northern zone off Chile, affecting the annual eyele, the dynamic of the coastal trapped waves, and coastal upwelling. In this framework, interdecadal fluctuations play an important role in the anchovy-sardine-anchovy replacement sequence.El borde oriental del Sistema de Corrientes de Chile-Perú constituye uno de los ecosistemas de mayor productividad biológica del mundo, debido principalmente a la surgencia costera y advección horizontal de nutrientes. En este ecosistema, los eventos El Niño son de mayor importancia en la variabilidad interanual del ambiente. No obstante, un cambio de régimen ambiental es observado a inicio de los 70's el que hubiera comenzado con El Niño 1972-73 y que marca la gran disminución de la

  18. Dinámica poblacional de la sardina del pacifico Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842) (clupeiformes: clupeidae), en la costa oeste de la península de Baja California y el sur de California

    OpenAIRE

    Félix Uraga, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Tres stocks de sardina del Pacífico fueron identificados utilizando datos mensuales de captura y temperatura superficial del mar de Bahía Magdalena, Isla Cedros y Ensenada en México, y San Pedro en EUA. Un stock parece estar adaptado a temperaturas mayores de 22 ºC (stock cálido), otro a temperaturas entre 17-22 ºC (stock templado) y el tercero a temperaturas menores de 17 ºC (stock frío). Se elaboró un modelo conceptual para describir la distribución espacio temporal de est...

  19. PENGARUH KATALIS BASA (NaOH PADA TAHAP REAKSI TRANSESTERIFIKASI TERHADAP KUALITAS BIOFUEL DARI MINYAK TEPUNG IKAN SARDIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Probo Ningtyas

    2013-06-01

    The research purpose has studied the influence of NaOH concentration in transesterification process and examinate its effect on the quality of biofuels production, conversion, and physic quality. The variables that analysed was the effect of NaOH concentration as catalyst (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% from amount of oil and methanol in the transesterification reaction step. The result showed that the increasing NaOH concentration (0.5 - 1.5%, enhanced the biofuel conversion (%. The highest conversion of biofuels was achieved by using 1.50% NaOH (w/w with 45.34% biofuels conversion. The major component in the biofuels was methyl palmitate (20.31%. ASTM analysis data also supported that the biofuel product was in agreement with automotive diesel fuel specification.

  20. Prevalance and pathology of gastric tumours in Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) from Parangipettai coastal waters, southeast coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijayapoopathi Singaravel; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan; RamalingamVijayakumar; Kuzhanthaivel Raja

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To carry out the survey of prevalence of gastric tumour in Sardinella longiceps of Parangipettai coastal waters, south east coast of India for a period of one year. Methods: Fish samples were directly collected from fishermen and also from auction yard. The prevalence of gastric tumour, gross pathology, radiography, histopathology, morphometric and meristic characters were investigated. Results: A total of 31 stomach tumour infected individuals were collected during the study period. The gross morphology showed distended abdomen and the radiograph exhibited enlargement of stomach. Autopsy of the infected fish exhibited reddish multilobed tumourous growth on the stomach. Histologically, the tumour lesions were characterized by the differential rate of glandular epitheloid and mesenchymal cells, polymorphic and hyperchromatic nuclei and mitotic activity. No evidence of local invasion and distinct metastases were observed in these cases. Conclusions: The tumours were diagnosed as gastric adenoma, myofibroblastoma, lipoma and fibrosarcoma. Among them myofibroblastoma is highly prevalent.

  1. IMPLEMENTATION OF LEAN MANUFACTURING IN FISH CANNING COMPANY: A CASE STUDY OF A CANNED SARDINES PRODUCTION COMPANY IN MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Idrıssi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lean is a powerful tool, which can bring significant benefit to manufacturing industries by creating value through reduction of waste. Although the lean concept has become very popular in mass production industries such as the automotive industry, more recently the concept has been adopted in different batch processing industries and service sectors. The application of lean tools into the food processing industry has not received the same level of attention compared to the traditional manufacturing industries. The paper discusses how the lean concept could be applied to a fish manufacturing company. The paper first presents the lean concept tools. The empirical section discusses how a case company, operating as a contract manufacturer in the food industry, has applied the lean production concept and tools. In the case study, three analysis tools are examined and the structures of demand chains of different customers are presented. The delivery times will decrease and more flexibility will be needed from the contract manufacturer. The case study shows that much movement is possible toward the lean supply chain and partnership-based cooperation. By implementing the lean concept, food companies can increase customer value through cost reduction or through provision of additional value-enhanced services.

  2. Estructura territorial de la actividad pesquera en Guaymas, Sonora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Yurkievich

    2016-11-01

    declined in subsequent years, mostly due to the overexploitation of shrimp banks and the incorporation of private capital investors to the local shrimp economy; the downward trend of this fishery in Guaymas is still evident. For its part, sardine, particularly Monterey sardine, is the other important species in the economy in this sea port. It is captured to meet the demand for oil and fish meal. Since the 1960s, Guaymas has become Mexico’s sardine port, as this species is at the core of the territorial structure of fisheries in this city. A significant volume of sardine biomass has been captured in the last 50 years in Guaymas, resulting in the overexploitation of the resource which, along with water pollution, has led to the collapse of sardine populations. Nonetheless, stakeholders and authorities involved this fishery have obtained the international certification of local sardine catches. There are several enterprises located in Guaymas dedicated to the industrial processing of sardine. These are vertically integrated, so they can easily buy catches, process them and sell the manufactured products both in Mexico and abroad. Markets for these and other fishing products are located at a considerable distance from Guaymas, including Mexico City, Guadalajara, Mexicali and Chihuahua City, as well and several places in California, United States. The territorial structure of the fishing economy in this part of Mexico is arranged on a spatial platform constituted by high-volume and diverse annual catches, an integrated sea port that not only addresses the needs of this economy but also serves the robust industrial and agricultural sectors of Sonora. Shipyards, large enterprises (national and foreign involved in the fishing industry, banks, academic research centers and government offices can be added to the local fishing infrastructure. The geographical reach of the commercialization of fishing products (processed or otherwise, including several markets located far from this

  3. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: San Francisco Bay/Monterey (CA) WFO - Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital elevation model (DEM) is a part of a series of DEMs produced for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's Sea...

  4. TRAC-Monterey FY16 Work Program Development and Report of Research Elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Requirements Elicitation Interviews Interview Guide: 1. Describe a research requirement in the areas of topics, techniques , and methodologies. 2...any changes to priorities or additional projects that require immediate research. Work Program; Research Elicitation Unclassified UU UU UU UU 35 MAJ...conduct analysis for the Army. 1 Marks, Chris, Nesbitt, Peter. TRAC FY14 Research Requirements Elicitation . Technical Report TRAC-M-TM-13-059. 700 Dyer

  5. 76 FR 28453 - Cesar Chavez Special Resource Study-Alameda, Fresno, Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Monterey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... site for NPS Planning, Environment and Public Comment, and will be advertised in a newsletter which... National Park Service Cesar Chavez Special Resource Study--Alameda, Fresno, Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles..., Stanislaus, Tulare and Ventura Counties, CA, and Maricopa and Yuma Counties, AZ AGENCY: National Park...

  6. Analysis of Marketing and Customer Satisfaction in Base Housing Communities of the Monterey Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    culture and cohesion, accelerate the acculturation of junior personnel, and facilitate support of families of deployed personnel” (Buddin, 1999, p. 4...The policy gives military families less time and adds additional stress to the house hunting process, along with all the other worries of being

  7. The Response of Monterey Bay to the Great Tohoku Earthquake of 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    seismic , vertical motion of the seafloor produced a devastating tsunami that was felt over the entire Pacific basin. Tectonically generated vertical...megathrust rupture that occurred along the Japan Trench subduction zone with the Pacific Plate subducting beneath the plate that underlies northern...1977), Seismic Sea Waves - Tsunamis. Bulletin 198, Department of Fisheries and the Environment Fisheries and Marine Service. D.W. Friesen & Sons, Ltd

  8. 76 FR 1154 - Operating Industries, Inc., Superfund Site, Monterey Park, CA; Notice of Proposed CERCLA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ...., Beren Corporation, Beylik Drilling, Inc., Big Penny Car Wash General Partnership, Bimbo Bakeries USA... Metal Finishing Corp., dba Barron Anodizing, Cackle Fresh Egg Farms, Inc., Califone International, Inc...-interest to Lightolier, Inc., Geo Drilling Fluids, Inc., George O. Ladner, Jr., Trustee, Trepanier...

  9. California State Waters Map Series--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  10. Geotechnical Data Inventory, Southern California Coastal Zone, Cape San Martin (Monterey County) to Mexican Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Major drainage control features: There are eight major reservoirs in this drainage basin: Prado, Irvine Lake , Elsinore , Lake Mathews, Big Bear Lake ...not occur due to the lack of strong waves and currents. At Lake Elsinore for example, the perimeter of the lake can be subdivided into the separate...the adjacent shoroline. The mineralogy and the associated geology of the shoreline at Lake Elsinore can be subdivided into three groups as follows: 2

  11. The Relationship Between Sea Breeze Forcing and HF Radar-Derived Surface Currents in Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    and Mr. Richard Lind, to whom I owe great appreciation. I would like to thank Mr. Mike Cook again for making me an expert in Matlab . He also assisted...such as aircraft, lidar , radiosondes and wind profilers, have been used over the years to measure the horizontal and vertical movement of sea breeze...useful, and it was made easy due to the existing MATLAB HFR_Progs toolbox. Using harmonic analysis for winds was not a common idea, but it provided

  12. The timing of sediment transport down Monterey Submarine Canyon, offshore California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Thomas; Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W., III

    2014-01-01

    to demonstrate relatively rapid, decadal-scale sand transport to at least 1.1 km depth and more variable decadal- to millennial-scale transport to a least 3.5 km depth on the fan. Significant differences between the time sand was last exposed at the canyon head (OSL age) and the timing of deposition of the sand...

  13. Physical-Biological-Optics Model Development and Simulation for the Pacific Ocean and Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    inorganic nitrogen assimilation, and pigment synthesis processes separately associated with dynamic carbon-to- chlorophyll and carbon-to-nitrogen ratios...improved by adding the dissolved pool and bacterial dynamics in the model. CDOC modeled as a colored byproduct of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is...UV light in the upper water layer. The subsequent bacterial respiration and photobleached CDOC both can contribute to the budget of total CO2 (TCO2

  14. Generation of Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DODAF) Models Using the Monterey Phoenix Behavior Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific 53560 Hull Street San Diego ... Rivera 2009).The Rivera Group and NPS have executed a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to share NPS source code and update... Diego , CA: International Council on Systems Engineering. Jackson, Daniel. 2012. Software Abstractions. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Langford, Gary O

  15. BIOSPACE/DYABOLIC October 2010 Field Program, Monterey Bay, California Data Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    through 25 mm Whatman GFF (glass fiber filters) at 5-7 mm Hg pressure. The filters were then placed into glass scintillation vials with 10 ml of 90...profile flattened out. Samples were filtered through 25 mm Whatman glass fiber filters ( GFF ); the filters were stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 ˚C) until...some stations only surface samples were taken). Pre-cruise, 45 mm glass fiber filters ( GFF ) were ashed at 550°C for 15 minutes and weighed to constancy

  16. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, 1 hr, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 1 hour average of the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL...

  17. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, 25 hr, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 25 hour running average of the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  18. Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary: Sanctuary Integrated Monitoring Network (SIMoN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sanctuary Integrated Monitoring Network (SIMoN) is an integrated, long-term program that takes an ecosystem approach to identify and understand changes to the...

  19. Design and Implementation of a Patient Tracking and Recall System for Branch Dental Clinic Monterey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    properties of the MEMBER object. They associate each member with the properties of a specific activity and/or curriculum. PTARS Object Diagrams MEMBE...compound CURRICULUM object was transformed into the two relations MEMBER and CURRICULUM. 15 PTARS Relational Diagram ACTIVITY CURRICULUM =Iu Acronym...comprehensive graphics of application menus, reports, forms, recall letters, and screens. PTARS Menu Hierarchy MAIN IIELECT MENU L ATASASEI

  20. 75 FR 42379 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... upon their particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The MBNMS Advisory Council was established in March 1994 to assure continued public... vital role in decisions affecting the Sanctuary along the central California coast. The Advisory Council...

  1. Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project. Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report/Statement II. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Piperia sp.: MIPI 9A -223 POACEAE Agrosis halli: MP, LO, CS, M-L, C-L * Aira caiyophyilea: MP, LO, CS, C-S, CP, DO, M-1, C-L * Avena barbata: MP, LO, B, CS...butterfly flies from July to September. Morphologically , the adults fall within the -same range of variation from either host. On July 17, 1989 Victoria...wing markings and color patterns, although the differences are often subtle due to morphological variation in both subspecies. Like smithi, rildeni feeds

  2. Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Array Effects on Wave Current and Sediment Circulation: Monterey Bay CA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Jones, Craig; Magalen, Jason

    2014-09-01

    The goal s of this study were to develop tools to quantitatively characterize environments where wave energy converter ( WEC ) devices may be installed and to assess e ffects on hydrodynamics and lo cal sediment transport. A large hypothetical WEC array was investigated using wave, hydrodynamic, and sediment transport models and site - specific average and storm conditions as input. The results indicated that there were significant changes in sediment s izes adjacent to and in the lee of the WEC array due to reduced wave energy. The circulation in the lee of the array was also altered; more intense onshore currents were generated in the lee of the WECs . In general, the storm case and the average case show ed the same qualitative patterns suggesting that these trends would be maintained throughout the year. The framework developed here can be used to design more efficient arrays while minimizing impacts on nearshore environmen ts.

  3. 78 FR 16622 - Gulf of the Farallones and Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuaries Regulations on Introduced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... water line) from Bodega Head to Rocky Point in Marin County. For more information about GFNMS, see http... action for GFNMS. (See discussion in section IV below) II. Need for an Introduced Species Regulation in... bass (Morone saxatilis) released during catch and release activity; or (ii) species cultivated...

  4. California State Waters Map Series--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  5. 78 FR 5801 - Operating Industries, Inc. Superfund Site, Monterey Park, CA; Notice of Proposed CERCLA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Corradini Corporation, George J. Peckham, Jr., H.W. Hull & Sons, Inc., Hacienda Car Wash, Inc., Hiro's Transmission, Inc., International Paper Company, International Transportation Service, Inc., John Crane,...

  6. The Viability of Acoustic Tomography in Monitoring the Circulation of Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-29

    amplitude is pulse compression. Pulse compression has. been used extensively in RADAR applications but to a lesser extent in underwater sound transmission[5...plotting routines in MATLAB and SURFER. MATLAB is a product of The Mathworks, Inc. of Sherborn, MA and SURFER is a product of Golden Software, Inc. of... Raytracing Codes for Underwater Acous- tics," rn. submitted to IMACS, April, 1989. [43] Ziemer, Rodger E. and Peterson, Rodger I., Digital Communications

  7. Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Cleanup Plan, Ford Ord, Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-25

    6 Oliver P. Bardin and 380.60 / Ada May Bardin 7 Benjamin Rush Bingaman 1,687.74 / 8 Margaret A. Jacks, et al 602.08 1 9 Luisa Guidotti, et al...2,036.39 1 10 Maria Antonia Field 563.19 1 11 Stephen Joseph Field 1,018.02 1 April 1944 Key: I = Undocumented o45.sj Fort Ord, California - 25 March 1994...40CA~rt. sall &"a dfts cltaned sip. not meeuml ulatory rc4ulmmew for l~amatblllty, reaclivity, crawoivity, or Toxicity far znhuImsow r Moastfasial sad

  8. 78 FR 4390 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... helping develop policies, program goals, and identify education, outreach, research, long-term monitoring... Representative, and the Business and Tourism Activity Panel (``BTAP'') co-chaired by the Business/Industry Representative and Tourism Representative, each dealing with matters concerning research, education,...

  9. 76 FR 17109 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... capacity to the Sanctuary Superintendent and is instrumental in helping develop policies, program goals...), Tourism (alternate) and Agriculture (alternate). Applicants are chosen based upon their particular... Business and Tourism Activity Panel (``BTAP'') chaired by the Business/Industry Representative,...

  10. 78 FR 14271 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... helping develop policies, program goals, and identify education, outreach, research, long-term monitoring... Business and Tourism Activity Panel (``BTAP'') co-chaired by the Business/Industry Representative and Tourism Representative, each dealing with matters concerning research, education, conservation and...

  11. Synoptic-Scale Influence on the Monterey Bay Sea-Breeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    circulation often dictate circulation development more than the direct forcing terms. Studies such as Estoque (1962) and Arritt (1993) have demonstrated...penetration of the circulation ( Estoque , 1962). Along the eastern portion of the East Pacific Anticyclone, the immediate inland areas receive intense daytime...Marine Inversion Layer off the Central California Coast: Mesoscale Conditions." Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 335-351. Estoque , M.A., 1962: "The Sea Breeze as

  12. 1976 Navy Study on Superconductive Electronics, August 2-13, 1976, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    the projected performance of SCE radiometers is more than an order of magnitude greater than conventional technology. -127- 16. MICROWAVE ...GHz and 4-bit resolution in the near term, and significantly greater resolution in the next decade. Microwave /Millimeter Wave Electronics ~ SCE...variety of applications from magnetic anomaly detection and geothermal prospecting to biomedical research. The full potential of SCE systems in this

  13. Biological Modulation of Upper Ocean Physics: Simulating the Biothermal Feedback Effect in Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-08

    and S. C. Doney (1994), Oceanic vertical mixing: A review and a model with a nonlocal boundary layer para- meterization, Rev. Geophys., 32(4), 363–403...integrated ocean-atmosphere-biological modeling system. Ourmodel simulations show that a local phytoplankton bloommay impact upper ocean physics in such a way...perturbations in the local surface pressure gradients also arise as a result of the simulated biothermal warming of surface waters. The model evidence

  14. 77 FR 64796 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ...; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine... by the Research Representative, the Sanctuary Education Panel (``SEP'') chaired by the Education... Tourism Representative, each dealing with matters concerning research, education, conservation and human...

  15. Upwelling Dynamics off Monterey Bay: Heat Flux and Temperature Variability, and their Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Jamieson and the other donors to the Paul E. Gray Endowed Fund for UROP. 5 Table of contents Acknowledgements...viscous stress. In the surface Ekman layer, as the result of these stresses, the net transport is 90 degrees to the right of the wind in the northern...upward fluid motions). Upwelling can also occur in non-coastal areas. Equatorial upwelling occurs due to the opposite directions of Ekman drift

  16. 75 FR 16074 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ...'') chaired by the Conservation Representative, and the Business and Tourism Activity Panel (``ETAP'') chaired by the Business/Industry Representative, each dealing with matters concerning research,...

  17. Velocity and Attenuation Profiles in the Monterey Deep-Sea Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    depth as a function of range from FLIP is given below. 27 R. K. Brienzo Shol 3 Location Shot Radar Range Arrival Angle (D) Raytrace along...reflected energy does not mterfere with energy arriving along other paths of interest. The position of the shooting ship was monitored from FLIP by radar ...shot 15 radar range = 5834 meiers |—H—I—I—I—1—I—I—I—I—t—t—h-i—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I- ^ f f F f- f f f D »»*HJi

  18. Integrated hydrologic model of Pajaro Valley, Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Faunt, Claudia C.; Lear, Jonathan; Lockwood, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Increasing population, agricultural development (including shifts to more water-intensive crops), and climate variability are placing increasingly larger demands on available groundwater resources in the Pajaro Valley, one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. This study provided a refined conceptual model, geohydrologic framework, and integrated hydrologic model of the Pajaro Valley. The goal of this study was to produce a model capable of being accurate at scales relevant to water management decisions that are being considered in the revision and updates to the Basin Management Plan (BMP). The Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) was designed to reproduce the most important natural and human components of the hydrologic system and related climatic factors, permitting an accurate assessment of groundwater conditions and processes that can inform the new BMP and help to improve planning for long-term sustainability of water resources. Model development included a revision of the conceptual model of the flow system, reevaluation of the previous model transformed into MODFLOW, implementation of the new geohydrologic model and conceptual model, and calibration of the transient hydrologic model.

  19. 76 FR 5201 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Monterey County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... qualifications, including citizenship or corporation or partnership, must accompany the sealed bid. A bid to..., sale procedures and conditions, appraisal, planning and environmental documents, and a mineral...

  20. Data Base Management: Proceedings of a Conference, November 1-2, 1984 Held at Monterey, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-31

    written under UNIX (4.1 BSD) and is running on a VAX 11/780. It is written in C and uses the Curses screen management package. Data entry from the...e.g., awk or sed under Unix ) can easily perform conversions between different input and output formats. Recursive Reference and Expressions Certain...designed and written in accordance with prin- ciples outlined by Kernighan and Plauger [ Kernighan and Plauger 1976]. They are modular; each tool performs a

  1. Bureaucracies, communities and networks : interagency cooperation for Homeland Security In Monterey County

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Gerald R.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The federal government has undertaken a massive reorganization in order to create the Department of Homeland Security, and a parallel debate over how to organize homeland security functions has arisen at the State and Local government levels. In a time of severe budget constraints and rapidly changing threats, governments at all levels recognize the need for multiple government agencies, the private sector and nongovernmental organiza...

  2. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, Normal Model, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements, with missing values filled in by a normal model....

  3. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, Normal Model, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements, with missing values filled in by a normal...

  4. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, 25 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 25 hour running average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  5. 75 FR 53567 - Gulf of the Farallones, Monterey Bay and Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuaries Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... matter from a cruise ship except clean vessel engine cooling water, clean vessel generator cooling water... matter from a cruise ship except clean vessel engine cooling water, clean vessel generator cooling water... any material or other matter from a cruise ship except clean vessel engine cooling water, clean...

  6. 2013 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake and Pacific Sardine (SaKe 2015) (SH1507, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2015 SaKe survey will span the west coasts of the U.S. and Canada from approximately lat 32.8?N (San Diego) to approximately lat 54.65?N (Dixon Entrance,...

  7. 2013 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake and Pacific Sardine (SaKe 2015) (SH1507, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2015 SaKe survey will span the west coasts of the U.S. and Canada from approximately lat 32.8?N (San Diego) to approximately lat 54.65?N (Dixon Entrance,...

  8. 2013 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake and Pacific Sardine (SaKe 2013) (SH1305, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring (FRAM) division at the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC), the Fishery Resources...

  9. The influence of industrial-scale canning on cadmium and lead levels in sardines and anchovies from commercial fishing centres of the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitsopoulou, Augoustina; Georgantelis, Dimitrios; Kontominas, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The current study encompassed a survey on the levels of toxic trace elements in two highly consumed fish species in commercial fishing centres of western, central and eastern Mediterranean Sea. A Zeeman GTA-AAS graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry system was used throughout the study. Toxicological evaluation of the samples revealed a low Cd content in the raw samples, ranging between 0.003 and 0.027 mg kg⁻¹. Pb presented significantly higher values, from 0.037 to 0.297 mg kg⁻¹, occasionally reaching the limit of 0.3 mg kg⁻¹. Heavy metal levels were particularly higher in bones, thus raising queries about the safe consumption of fish intended to be eaten as a whole, a very common practice for small fish and canned products. The influence of industrial-scale canning showed that canning enhanced heavy metal levels by 35%-80%. The effect of canning depended on metal type and reduction of moisture loss after the steam-roasting step of the canning procedure.

  10. Trends in spatio-temporal distribution of Peruvian anchovy and other small pelagic fish biomass from 1966-2009 Tendencias espacio-temporales en la distribución de la biomasa de anchoveta peruana y de otros peces pelágicos pequenos entre 1966 y 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in abundance and distribution of anchovy and other species of pelagic fish of the Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS are driven by environmental forcing variations in different time and spatial scales between the coastal 'cold' ecosystem and the 'warm' oceanic one. Data to study these fluctuations have come mostly from the fishery to show how anchovy (Engraulis ringens increases when sardine (Sardinops sagax declines and vice versa. However, using acoustic data on latitudinal biomass we show that other species as mackerel (Scomber japonicus and jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi also follow the same opposed trend, then the fishery data hides the true dimension of the balance of abundance among species. Based on Hovmoller diagrams we scrutinized the changes in interannual latitudinal acoustic biomass, landings and influence of El Nino events from 1966 to 2009 in order to describe: 1 how the anchovy decadal distribution pattern moved from south to north since the 1960's; 2 how there have been produced concomitant changes in the latitudinal abundance and distribution of other species such as sardine, jack mackerel and mackerel before, during and after El Nino events; and 3 what was the overall effect of the succession of El Nino events on all these pelagic species. We concluded that: a every El Nino event has had an effect on the expansion or contraction of pelagic species distribution and abundance, with different latitudinal effects; and b the El Nino 1997-98 did not trigger but accelerated a decline phase on the abundance of sardine, jack mackerel and mackerel by a reduction of their ideal habitat due to an expansion of the coastal ecosystem caused by a shallower location of the upper limit of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ These findings observed using past data might be taken into consideration for fishery management purposes when considering future scenarios.Los cambios en la abundancia y distribución de anchoveta y de otras especies

  11. Biogeochemical and ecological impacts of boundary currents in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Raleigh R.; Beckley, Lynnath E.; Wiggert, Jerry D.

    2017-08-01

    , though local wind forcing can lead to transient near shore current reversals and localized coastal upwelling. The poleward direction of this eastern boundary current is unique. Due to its high kinetic energy the Leeuwin Current sheds anomalous, relatively high chlorophyll, warm-core, downwelling eddies that transport coastal diatom communities westward into open ocean waters. Variations in the Leeuwin transport and eddy generation impact many higher trophic level species including the recruitment and fate of rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus) larvae. In contrast, the transport of the Agulhas Current is very large, with sources derived from the Mozambique Channel, the East Madagascar Current and the southwest Indian Ocean sub-gyre. Dynamically, the Agulhas Current is upwelling favorable; however, the spatial distribution of prominent surface manifestations of upwelling is controlled by local wind and topographic forcing. Meanders and eddies in the Agulhas Current propagate alongshore and interact with seasonal changes in the winds and topographic features. These give rise to seasonally variable localized upwelling and downwelling circulations with commensurate changes in primary production and higher trophic level responses. Due to the strong influence of the Agulhas Current, many neritic fish species in southeast Africa coastal waters have evolved highly selective behaviors and reproductive patterns for successful retention of planktonic eggs and larvae. For example, part of the Southern African sardine (Sardinops sagax) stock undergoes a remarkable northward migration enhanced by transient cyclonic eddies in the shoreward boundary of the Agulhas Current. There is evidence from the paleoceanographic record that these currents and their biogeochemical and ecological impacts have changed significantly over glacial to interglacial timescales. These changes are explored as a means of providing insight into the potential impacts of climate change in the Indian Ocean.

  12. Carbon-isotope stratigraphy from terrestrial organic matter through the Monterey event, Miocene, New Jersey margin (IODP Expedition 313)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Linhao; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Hesselbo, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    The stratigraphic utility of carbon-isotope values from terrestrial organic matter is explored for Miocene siliciclastic sediments of the shallow shelf, New Jersey margin, USA (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] Expedition 313). These shallow marine strata, rich in terrestrial organic matte...

  13. Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on the Nearshore Environment: A Month-Long Study in Monterey Bay CA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Chang, Grace; Magalen, Jason; Jones, Craig

    2014-09-01

    A modified version of an indust ry standard wave modeling tool, SNL - SWAN, was used to perform model simulations for hourly initial wave conditio ns measured during the month of October 2009. The model was run with an array of 50 wave energy converters (WECs) and compared with model runs without WECs. Maximum changes in H s were found in the lee of the WEC array along the angles of incident wave dire ction and minimal changes were found along the western side of the model domain due to wave shadowing by land. The largest wave height reductions occurred during observed typhoon conditions and resulted in 14% decreases in H s along the Santa Cruz shoreline . Shoreline reductions in H s were 5% during s outh swell wave conditions and negligible during average monthly wave conditions.

  14. Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics (4th), Held in Monterey, California on March 22-24, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-24

    convolution [ Stremler , 1977]. An analogy exemplifying this phenomenon can be made to a simple series RC circuit with the relative analogies...electric fields," J. Atmos Sdi., 40, 2855, 1983. 9. Stremler , F. G., introductior to Communication Systems, Addison-Wesley, California, 1977. 10. Sunde

  15. Phytoplankton-Environmental Interactions in Reservoirs. Volume I. Papers Presented at Workshop, 10-12 April 1979, Monterey, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Scenedesmus. A number of genera appear to have a narrow range of total P values associated with dominant occurrence (e.g., Achnanthes , Actinastrum, and...luastrum 41 Achnanthes 144 *Aphanizomenon 103 Trachelomonas 41 Chiarnydomonas 140 Gymnodinium 101 *Coelosphaerium 40 *’olenkinia 16 Synedra 98 *Aphanizomenon...Staurastrum 91 Synedra 34 Surirella 99 Cymbella 91 Fragilaria 31 *Actinastrum 95 Gomphonemna 91 Gyrosigma 30 Treubaria 94 Euastrui 89 Achnanthes 29

  16. 77 FR 46985 - Revisions of Boundaries for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary; Intent To Prepare an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ..., address, etc.) voluntarily submitted by the commenter may be publicly accessible. Do not submit... Administration's focus on growing travel and tourism in the United States and in particular in the San Francisco...

  17. Proceedings of the Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference Held in Monterey, California on 31 October - 3 November 1989. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    charging code for low Earth orbit 0. G. Rodgers, R. L. Kessel, A. Etemadi and S. T. Brandon .... 240 Charge accumulation and ion focusing for dielectrics...anisotropy index is calculated [using techniques adapted from Sanderson and Page, 1974, Sanderson and Hynds, 1977, Higbie and Moomey, 1977] by fitting...p.86, 1981. ADA114426 Robbins,A., "Meteosat spacecraft charging investigations", final report, ESA c.ontract 3561/78F/CG/SC, 1979. 131 Sanderson T.R

  18. Conference Proceedings for Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (8th) held in Monterey, California on January 29 - 31 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    quartz optical fibre which has had a low reflectivity (-10%) aluminium coating applied to each end. Alternatively, we have used TiO2 coatings to...fiber. Multilayer films for the mirrors were deposited in a dc planar magnetron sputtering system. A seven-layer quarter-wave TiO2 /SiO2 stack on a...of APC is detected at a longer wavelength than 695 nm, the point beyond wh.ich bloking of excitation light occurs. The dose response curves for beta-2

  19. Symposium on Command and Control Research (1988) Held in Monterey, California on Jun 7-9, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-30

    fene updates of the Orange force dispositions. The update sequential anchoring and adjustment process, may show n2 change to Orange force locations or...where S - the system’can capitalize on a favorable cainge in state, thereby causing’thie ,valu6 of the pseudo-costate to rise. p1(t) -"The oscillation in...states., Indeed, oscillations in the value of by advancing the system along a trajectoty of intermediate the USED for a function typically signify the

  20. Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics (5th), Held in Monterey, California on March 20-24 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    V’U0O i ’I Figure 2.,Coax Problem Solved. 553 Figure 3. Hulticonductor Problema . Dirichiot boundary conditicv * The rgion Is discratize4 In a preproces...exproessons ot scattering center contributions, Allowing for officient coMPutation of the Scattered field for complex cargets. The Asymptotic solucion

  1. Conference Proceedings on Applied Computational Electromagnetics (3rd) Held in Monterey, California on 24-26 March 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Model Comparison for a Dihedral Corner Reflector " J.L. FathA.J. Terzuoli, E.G. Zelnio Air Force Institute of Technology "Quant m-Mechanical Techniques... radar cross section has been computed for a particular scatterer associated with a matrix A using a moment method code, we call the computation of the... radar cross section of a slightly perturbed scatterer a perturbed problem of A. ff the original problem has n unknowns, and the perturbed problem is

  2. Environmental Impact Statement for the New San Clemente Project, Monterey County, California - Regulatory Permit Application Number 16516S09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    rderal or 7nn native vegetation. Eucalyptus groves, grass covered nanks and new rip- rap areas aire examples of this habitat type. Riparian communities...focus of the conceptual mitigation plan is upon the riparian habitats. In essence the riparian proposal consists of a plan to revegetate degraded areas

  3. 77 FR 3919 - Overflight Regulations for the Channel Islands, Monterey Bay, Gulf of the Farallones, and Olympic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... altitude overflights can disrupt various marine mammal and seabird behavior patterns, including breeding... of parental protection. Indeed, given the connection between low overflights and disturbance, the... Circular AC 91-36D). The existing NOAA overflight regulations are not indicated on current FAA aeronautical...

  4. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Central California (Including Monterey Bay Sanctuary), maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps have been developed for the coastal areas of Central California from Point Conception to Point Reyes National Seashore....

  5. Water Conservation as a Way to Lessen the Impact of New Construction at the Presidio of Monterey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    34 Water , water , everywhere, but nary a drop to drink."’ The total quantity of water on the earth is approximately 326,000,000 cubic miles. But only 2.5...percent of this is fresh water and 75 percent of that fresh water is locked in the polar ice caps. Of the total water on the earth , only about 0.6...Reclamation and Reuse Systems in Commercial Buildings and Appartment Coxpleses," Water Reuse Sjmroslum IIWashington, D.C., August 1 8. 27. Brown and Caldwell

  6. Conference on Aerospace Transparent Materials and Enclosures Held in Monterey, California on 16-20 January 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    and W. R. Pinnell , AFWAL/FDER, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base REPAIR AND RESTORATION OF COMBAT DAMAGE TRANSPARENCIES 19.1 G. Renieri and D. Kovensky...AFWAL/MLSE, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base FRAMELESS AIRCRAFT TRANSPARENCY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT 507 William R. Pinnell , AFWAL/FDER, Wright-Patterson...14) indicated that in all cases , the V-22 windshield had a higher or an equal resolution when compared to the A-6E production windshield. The pilots

  7. Community composition, structure, and interrelationships in the marine intertidal Endocladia muricata – Balanus glandula association in Monterey Bay, California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glynn, Peter W.

    1965-01-01

    Studies of the community composition, structure and species interrelationships of the Endocladia-Balanus association were carried out on the rocky shores at the Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, California, over the period 1959—1961. The organisms making up this biotic association form a

  8. Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave Fields: A Modeling Sensitivity Study in Monterey Bay CA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Grace Chang; Jason Magalen; Craig Jones

    2014-08-01

    A n indust ry standard wave modeling tool was utilized to investigate model sensitivity to input parameters and wave energy converter ( WEC ) array deploym ent scenarios. Wave propagation was investigated d ownstream of the WECs to evaluate overall near - and far - field effects of WEC arrays. The sensitivity study illustrate d that b oth wave height and near - bottom orbital velocity we re subject to the largest pote ntial variations, each decreas ed in sensitivity as transmission coefficient increase d , as number and spacing of WEC devices decrease d , and as the deployment location move d offshore. Wave direction wa s affected consistently for all parameters and wave perio d was not affected (or negligibly affected) by varying model parameters or WEC configuration .

  9. Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference (38th) Held at Monterey, California on 15-18 October 1985. Program and Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-18

    U. of Bar, J. Bretagne , Internat’l Co U. de Paris-Sud, M. Bacal, Ecole Poly- technique, France TUESDAY AFTERNOON, 15 OCTOBER CA-11 ELECTRON...Chem. Phys., 73, 99 CA-10 Vibrational excitation in magnet" multicusp H2 discharges. C. GORSE, M. CAPITELLIP University of Bari, J. BRETAGNE ...il BRATES, N., DB-4 ESKIN, L.D., CB-8, CB-9 BRETAGNE , J., CA-1O BURROW, P.D., DA-3, DA-4 F C FALCONE, R., B-3 FERGUSON, E.E., EA-i CALEDONIA, G.E

  10. Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics (6th), Held in Monterey, California on March 19-22, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    creating an integrated, intelligent Boston : Academic Press, 1989. 6 [6) Riesbeck, C.K. and R.C. Schank, Inside Case-Based Reasoning, Hillsdale, NJ...34, presented at IEEE/Ninth Annual con- ference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Boston , Ma., Nov. 13-16 1987, pp.40-41. 10. Beckmann...34Foundations of the Mathematical Theory of Electromagnetic Waves Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1960. [9] Golub,G.H. and Van Loan,C.F., " Matriz Computations ", The

  11. Moments and Signal Processing: Proceedings of the Conference Held in Monterey, CA. on March 30-31 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-26

    tot,,•2y positivc (TP) if certain determinantal inequalities lh,11 ( Iailin 1938. ’p 11. 15). For instance, the functions exp(9x) and I(x < P) are TP...University of Pittsburgh Title: Probk ýility Calculations for Multivariate Pearson Families 1800-2000: " Social Hour," La Novia Terrace, Herrmann Hall 295

  12. 16TH Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics of the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Trueman C-130/Hercules HF Notch Antenna" David Gaudine 0940 "I-IF Towel-Bar Antenna Location Study Aboard an H3 Sikorsky Saad N. Tabet, Cart D. Myers...needed. For this reason an anatomically based model was obtained from Dr Om Gandhi of the University of Utah. This data is supported by programs, which...FRance, EDF-DER, Service IPN, D~partement SID, 1 Avenue du GCnrral-de-Gaulle, 92141 Clamart Cedex, May 1993. [8] C. M. Furse and 0. P. Gandhi

  13. 78 FR 20093 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... capacity to the Sanctuary Superintendent and is instrumental in helping develop policies, program goals... Working Group (``CWG'') chaired by the Conservation Representative, and the Business and Tourism Activity Panel (``BTAP'') co-chaired by the Business/Industry Representative and Tourism Representative,...

  14. Helicopter Guidance and Control Systems for Battlefield Support Held at Monterey, California on 8-11 May 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    processes: Gyro Accelerometer I S G2-Drift Coefficient Bias Drift Bias Error Scale Factor Error Scale Factor Error Input Axis Misalignment IA Misalignment G...leas ystimes d~jA mis au point en vol ou en cours de miss au point, les coefficients associ~s A ces caract~ristiques sont r~gulib- resent recalis au... frottement visqueux cauplage PA, etc...) Les trois coommandes de vol principales (manches :cyclique, collectif et palonnier) ont W d~coonpos~aes en trois

  15. Preparing to Predict: The Second Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN-II) Experiment in the Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-06

    Journal of Marine Systems , 40, 171-212 Bogden et al, 2001...dimensional multiscale ocean variability: Massachusetts Bay. Journal of Marine Systems , Special issue on “Three-dimensional ocean circulation: Lagrangian...System Using Multiply-Nested Ocean Models and Distributed Data Systems, Journal of Marine Systems , 56, 45-66. Paduan, J. D., and L. K.

  16. Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave Fields: Evaluation of SNL-SWAN and Sensitivity Studies in Monterey Bay CA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Chang, Grace; Magalen, Jason; Jones, Craig

    2014-09-01

    A modified version of an indust ry standard wave modeling tool was evaluated, optimized, and utilized to investigate model sensitivity to input parameters a nd wave energy converter ( WEC ) array deployment scenarios. Wave propagation was investigated d ownstream of the WECs to evaluate overall near - and far - field effects of WEC arrays. The sensitivity study illustrate d that wave direction and WEC device type we r e most sensitive to the variation in the model parameters examined in this study . Generally, the changes in wave height we re the primary alteration caused by the presence of a WEC array. Specifically, W EC device type and subsequently their size directly re sult ed in wave height variations; however, it is important to utilize ongoing laboratory studies and future field tests to determine the most appropriate power matrix values for a particular WEC device and configuration in order to improve modeling results .

  17. Environmental Impact Statement for the New San Clemente Project, Monterey County, California - Regulatory Permit Application Number 16516S09. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    include: Artemisla dourlaslana (Mugwort), Baeharls pi.uraris (Coyote Bush), Rubus vitifollus (Blackberry), Foeniculum vul-are (Sweet Fennel...Baccharis pilularis), blackberry, mule ft (Saccharis viminea), and sweet(fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare). The most extensive stands of this habitat type occur in

  18. Quaternary geologic map of the north-central part of the Salinas River Valley and Arroyo Seco, Monterey County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Arroyo Seco, a perennial drainage in the central Coast Range of California, records a sequence of strath terraces. These terraces preserve an erosional and depositional history, controlled by both climate change and regional tectonics. These deposits have been mapped and correlated on the basis of field investigations, digital terrain analysis, stream gradient profiles, evaluation of published regional soil maps, and satellite imagery. Seven of the strath terraces and associated alluvial fans have been dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) or infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). The OSL and IRSL dates on seven of the strath terraces and associated alluvial fans in Arroyo Seco are approximately >120 ka, >65 ka, 51–46 ka, 36–35 ka, 9 ka, and 2–1 ka. These dates generally fall within the range of ages reported from many well-dated marine terraces on the California coast that are formed during sea-level high stands. Tectonic movements, consistently upward, result in a constantly and slowly emerging coastline, however, the regional effects of climate change and resulting eustatic sea-level rises are interpreted as the driving mechanism for erosion and aggradation in Arroyo Seco.

  19. Water Mass Bio-optical Properties in the Monterey Bay Region: Fluorescence-based Inference of Shifts in Phytoplankton Photophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    dependence on temperature and salinity. Appi Opt. 36(24), 6035 6046, doi:10.1364/AO.36.006035. Pcnnington, J. T., and F. P. Chavez (2000), Seasonal...Part II. Integrating cavity measurements, Appi Opt., 36(33), 8710 8723, doi:l0.1364/AO.36.008710. Ramp, S. R., et al. (2009). Preparing to predict

  20. Proceedings of the Systems Reengineering Technology Workshop (4th) held in Monterey, California on February 8 - 10, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    includes the following: initial state of the system under SYSTEM DESIGN ANNOTATION I design; environmental conditions including acoustic, electromagnetic ...The operating systems are designed as state variables as well as global variables, semaphores highly optimized microkernels in which functionality...these constraints, hardware/software components, and the exploitation Decomposition of a system into a set of services microkernel based O.S. Strict

  1. The Annual Department of Defense Procurement Research Symposium (5th), held 17-19 Nov 76, Monterey, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    for both Chapman College, Orange , California, and California State University at San Bernardino. Mr. Templeman has 14 years of procurement experience...Xerox . 906 SLi.y .457 Dairy products 60-70 Soaps. etc. 60-70 Borden 1.023 Procter & Gamble 1.612 National Oairy 948 Colgate 531 Carnation * 456 .-Lee...percent increase in the salaries of the policemen of Orange , California to every three percent decline in rape, robbery, burglary and auto theft (6

  2. Computer Crime: A Peopleware Problem. Proceedings of a Conference Held in Monterey, California on October 25 - 26, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-26

    thrill, ego satisfaction, a craving for recognition and prestige, and boosting self - esteem as driving forces. The New York Times quoted one unnamed...personality characteristics, to include self - esteem , social skill, and mental status. Interestingly, early attempts to measure personality features were...behavior (computer-assisted or otherwise). In this model, risk is a function of(1) character traits (e. g., narcissism ), (2) degree of dissatisfaction

  3. Generating GraphML XML Files for Graph Visualization of Architectures and Event Traces for the Monterey Phoenix Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ebrary) Engineering Village 2 (Engineering Village 2) ENGnetBASE: Engineering Handbooks Online (CRCnetBASE) IEEE /IET Electronic Library ( IEEE Xplore ...Integrated Development Environment IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISCA International Society for Computers and Their Applications...Object-Oriented Systems. Addison-Wesley. Bowen, J., & Hinchey, M. (1995). Seven more myths of formal methods. Software, IEEE , 34-41. Brandes, U

  4. 75 FR 67620 - Temporary Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... cruise ship, tanker or HIV that is underway, anchored, or moored within the San Francisco Bay and Delta..., within 500 yards ahead, astern and extending 500 yards along either side of any cruise ship, tanker or..., astern and extending 500 yards along either side of any cruise ship, tanker or HIV that is...

  5. Microbial quality and safety of fresh and dried Rastrineobola argentea from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baniga, Zebedayo; Dalsgaard, Anders; Mhongole, Ofred J

    2017-01-01

    Rastrineobola argentea (silver cyprinid/sardines) is an important commercial fish species found in Lake Victoria. It is an important protein source for consumers in several African countries including Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted using standard methods to assess...... the bacteriological quality of fresh and dried sardines from Lake Victoria. Sardine samples were randomly collected from main landing sites and retail markets in the city of Mwanza. Total viable counts (TVC) in fresh sardines were in the range of 5.18–7.90 log10 cfu/g while those dried on racks contained 3...... sites contained 30% (n = 20) and those from the markets contained 15% (n = 20) Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. were not detected in sardines dried on racks. To conclude, sun drying of sardines on racks is an effective drying method providing a safe product for human consumption....

  6. Latitudinal variation in the recruitment dynamics of small pelagic fishes in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshiro

    2007-07-01

    The subarctic Oyashio Current flows south-westward and the subtropical Kuroshio Current flows north-eastward in the western North Pacific, converging in the waters off northern Japan to form the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition region. Some small pelagic fishes inhabit the subarctic or subtropical waters, and others seasonally migrate north and south across the major ocean fronts. Environmental conditions in the subarctic and transition waters are variable, whereas in the subtropical Kuroshio waters conditions are relatively stable. Latitudinally different environmental conditions may affect vital parameters and recruitment variability of small pelagic fishes inhabiting the various waters. Pacific saury Cololabis saira migrate seasonally from the Kuroshio to Oyashio waters and spawn in the transition waters in autumn and spring and in the Kuroshio waters in winter. During 1990-1999, the coefficients of variation (CVs) of daily growth rates (G) and instantaneous mortality coefficients (M) were large for larvae and juveniles spawned in the northern transition waters, but relatively small for those from the southern Kuroshio waters. The Pacific stock of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus spawns in the Kuroshio waters in spring and early summer and migrates to the subarctic Oyashio waters in summer for feeding, whereas the Tsushima Warm Current stock spawns in the East China Sea in spring and fish remain in the subtropical warm waters throughout their lifetime. The Pacific stock had CVs > 100% for the fish aged 0-5 during 1970-2002. In contrast, the Tsushima Warm Current stock had CVs of 34-40% during 1973-2002. Pacific herring Clupea pallasii, which inhabits subarctic waters, had CVs of 118-178% for the fish aged 3-8 y during 1910-1954. Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus, which spawn in the subtropical Kuroshio waters and migrate to the subarctic Oyashio waters in summer for feeding, had CVs > 120% for the fish aged 0-4 during 1976-2003. Contrasting with these subarctic

  7. Preservación y abundancia de escamas de peces en sedimentos del margen continental de Chile (21-36° S Fish scale preservation and abundance in sediments from the continental margin off Chile (21-36° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER A DÍAZ-OCHOA

    2008-12-01

    (Mo/Al, S/Al, Fe/Al using eight sediment cores taken from sites under the influence of the oxygen minimum zone off Chile (Iquique: 20°15' S, Mejillones Bay: 23° S, Concepción: 36° S. Off northern Chile (Iquique and Mejillones, fish scales from anchovy (Engraulis ringens and the Myctophidae family are dominant (mean = 90 and 120 scales 1,000 cm-3, respectively, whereas off central-southern Chile (Concepción, jack mackerel (Trachurus murphy scales are the most abundant (mean = 140 scales 1,000 cm-3. The abundance of hake (Merluccius gayi gayi and sardine (Sardinops sagax scales is approximately one order of magnitude lower than that of anchovy or jack mackerel. In general, the highest valúes and widest ranges of variation in the Mo/Al, S/Al, and Fe/Al ratios are found in Mejillones (Mo/Al ~ 0.8-12 mg g-1, S/Al 0.2-4.6 g g-1, Fe/Al 0.3-0.7 g g-1, followed by Iquique (Mo/Al ~ 0.2-1.8, S/Al 0.2-0.7, Fe/Al 0.5-0.8; Concepción has lower, less variable valúes (Mo/Al ~ 0.07, S/Al ~ 0.15, Fe/Al ~ 0.5. According to the Mo/Al ratio, used as an indicator of paleo-oxygenation, reducing conditions in the Mejillones Bay and Iquique sediments are relatively more intense than in those off Concepción. At all three sampling sites, the relationship between the abundance of anchovy scales and the logarithm of the Mo/Al ratio is statistically significant (r² = 0.46, P 1 mg g-1.

  8. Acquisition Research: Creating Synergy for Informed Change. Proceedings of the Annual Acquisition Research Symposium (5th) Held in Monterey, California on 14-15 May 2008. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    2006). The study of reform agendas and recommendations is an exercise in organizational evolution. Just as Darwin noted the beaks of the finches...maintenance) are carried out in South Australia. Minor war vessels are mostly home-ported and supported in Darwin and Cairns. The home-porting of...UNCLASSIFIED Acquisition Logistics Robotic Systems Joint Project Office PM UA MG Cartwright Funding Direction And Oversight OSD JGRE Mr. Melita Col Braden

  9. Sediment storage and transport in Pancho Rico Valley during and after the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, Coast Ranges of central California (Monterey County)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.F.; Mahan, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Factors influencing sediment transport and storage within the 156??6 km2 drainage basin of Pancho Rico Creek (PRC), and sediment transport from the PRC drainage basin to its c. 11000 km2 mainstem drainage (Salinas River) are investigated. Numeric age estimates are determined by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating on quartz grains from three sediment samples collected from a 'quaternary terrace a (Qta)' PRC terrace/PRC-tributary fan sequence, which consists dominantly of debris flow deposits overlying fluvial sediments. OSL dating results, morphometric analyses of topography, and field results indicate that the stormy climate of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition caused intense debris-flow erosion of PRC- tributary valleys. However, during that time, the PRC channel was backfilled by Qta sediment, which indicates that there was insufficient discharge in PRC to transport the sediment load produced by tributary-valley denudation. Locally, Salinas Valley alluvial stratigraphy lacks any record of hillslope erosion occurring during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, in that the alluvial fan formed where PRC enters the Salinas Valley lacks lobes correlative to Qta. This indicates that sediment stripped from PRC tributaries was mostly trapped in Pancho Rico Valley despite the relatively moist climate of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Incision into Qta did not occur until PRC enlarged its drainage basin by c. 50% through capture of the upper part of San Lorenzo Creek, which occurred some time after the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. During the relatively dry Holocene, PRC incision through Qta and into bedrock, as well as delivery of sediment to the San Ardo Fan, were facilitated by the discharge increase associated with stream-capture. The influence of multiple mechanisms on sediment storage and transport in the Pancho Rico Valley-Salinas Valley system exemplifies the complexity that (in some instances) must be recognized in order to correctly interpret terrestrial sedimentary sequences in tectonically active areas. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Workshop on Education in Computer Security (WECS7) (7th): Practical and Experimental Approaches to Information Security Education, Held in Monterey, California on 4-6 January 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Animated Simulator for Packet Sniffer 79 XIAOHONG YUAN, PERCY VEGA, JINSHENG XU, HUIMING YU, AND STEPHEN PROVIDENCE The Science of Information Protection... Jackson State University 103 HOUSSAIN KETTANI Two Successful Miniprojects in an Overview Information Assurance Course 107 JUDITH L. GERSTING...Rose Shumba, Carol Taylor, Mike Thompson, Percy Vega, James Walden, Daniel F. Warren, Alexander Wijesinha, Jinsheng Xu, Huiming Yu, Xiaohong Yuan

  11. Conference Proceedings: 14th Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, March 16-20, 1998. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    iSH dl = ( "- 2- ..... ½., 1 +k m . ) + (s.am + b"-s , (I’m .. ½.o+± _½bs-4 , (19) = + ,k- , 339 /12 ൒ 7 dA nde centre 9 Figure 1: TLM cell with...on a vector propagating wave can be seen, e. g., by locally expanding the wave in terms of a generalized Wilcox expansion [24], [25] in terms of the...Lett. , vol. 8. no. 6, pp. 323-324. 1995. [251 C. H. Wilcox , "An expansion theorem for electromagnetic fields," Comm. Pure Appl. Math., vol. 9, pp.115

  12. Conference Proceedings: Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics (ACES󈨢) (10th) Held in Monterey, California on March 21-26, 1994. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Ssndaiteir. John Wiley end SUS, 1331. 121 %ane S3 Johns. A "xwiitsicnl ecidmesd aede 1r the TIM usethod. IEEE Tiwecswes.m onlts- csem 2 smrp d Tadmainsgi...during ach iteration, the pulse at port p in Fig. 3a is scaled and injected into port p in Fig. 2. This technique works well for normally incident...ls and M12 are the offspring from thnew genes. One final rAp is to randomly mutate a 267 small peroeap of the bits. A mutation just changes a "!A to a

  13. A 4DVAR System for the Navy Coastal Ocean Model. Part 1: System Description and Assimilation of Synthetic Observations in Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM). NCOM is an opera- tional ocean model (primarily at the Naval Oceano- graphic Office) that has been validated ( Martin ...in section 5. 2. The model NCOM is described in the literature ( Martin 2000; Barron et al. 2006). The model domain used for this experiment contains...meridional velocity y as well as the baro - tropic velocities, and the Flather boundary conditions for elevation. 2086 MONTHLY WEATHER REV IEW VOLUME

  14. The New Great Game: Chinese Views on Central Asia. Proceedings of the Central Asia Symposium held in Monterey, CA on August 7-11, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    030205_ce_forum01.pdf> 7. Shanghai group aims to keep U.S. in check, by Sergei Blagov, http://www. atimes.com . 8. Clifford Geertz , The Interpretation of... Geertz (1973) to describe the strategic implications of culture and 150 cultural interplay in a changing regional context and its implications for...as Geertz (1973) defines it, it is a set of symbolic systems that serves not only to define and identify the culture and social structures, but also

  15. Proceedings of a Workshop on V/STOL Aircraft Aerodynamics. Volume I. Held at Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 16-18 May 1979,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-18

    proceedings of the workshop contain the papers presented in the five sessions and a transcript of the panel discussion. It is hoped that this...Variables, NASA TM X-62, 248, March 19 73. 5. A. Favre, Equations des Gaz Turbulents Compressibles, J. Mecan . 4, 361 (1965). 6. DR. Kotansk’ and W. IV

  16. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perri, Pasquale R.

    2001-04-04

    This report describes the evaluation, design, and implementation of a DOE funded CO2 pilot project in the Lost Hills Field, Kern County, California. The pilot consists of four inverted (injector-centered) 5-spot patterns covering approximately 10 acres, and is located in a portion of the field, which has been under waterflood since early 1992. The target reservoir for the CO2 pilot is the Belridge Diatomite. The pilot location was selected based on geology, reservoir quality and reservoir performance during the waterflood. A CO2 pilot was chosen, rather than full-field implementation, to investigate uncertainties associated with CO2 utilization rate and premature CO2 breakthrough, and overall uncertainty in the unproven CO2 flood process in the San Joaquin Valley.

  17. Proceedings of the Conference on the Design of Experiments in Army Research Development and Testing (35th) Held in Monterey California, California on 18-20 October 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    Medicine Public Health and Epidemiology, Blostatistics Biology Ecology Fisheries and Wildlife Environmental Sciences Pharmacology and Toxfocology Genetica ...transformation sending L to T, T to L and rI r to I - rIr 2 and vice versa. Molecular chemists and physicists go into ecstasy over such formulas as they say

  18. Conference Proceedings: Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics (ACES󈨢) (10th) Held in Monterey, California on March 21-26, 1994. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Richard Gordon "Optimized Bmckscauering Sidelobes From an Array of Strips Using a Genetic Algorithm" by R. Haupt and A. Ali 266 "Numerical...partitioned into only two regions. Note that Fig. 1 has been shown genetically to include an MM piece of the geometry embedded in the illuminated...noting and using the paitr--natchk.g (Mapping) algorith suggested above. The procedure ias alresady described but now the Pattern (Wn) is given s 2 The

  19. Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Safety of Systems (1st) held in Monterey, California on 15-16 Mar 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Computing, Organic Computing, Biomimetics, and Artificial Life, amongst others, is poised at the intersection of Computer Science, Engineering...discussion on biological apoptosis, where the body is at its most vulnerable during cell division. The principles of a Hearth -Beat Monitor (HBM) and

  20. Development of a Genome-Proxy Microarray for Profiling Marine Microbial Communities and its Application to a Time Series in Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    1263-1269. Garrido, P., Gonzalez-Toril, E., Garcia-Moyano, A., Moreno- Paz , M., Amils, R., and Parro, V. (2008) An oligonucleotide prokaryotic...Flavobacteria. Nature 445: 210-213. Gonzalez, J.M., Fernandez-Gomez, B., Femandez- Guerra , A., Gomez- Consamau, L., Sanchez, O., Coll-Llado, M. etal

  1. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Technical Documentation Division (21st) Held in Monterey, California on 23-25 May 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    34% "" """ J" 7N al .o , .t S -" 1 n every field of human activity there are those vih -o Award are judged on the basis of dam o .-stration of"-,.L ’ lead and...c 4 _ 0 M ci 0A 00 ft 0- 00 Oi ..- 4U 0u C, 0N L LA Z- ’ 3. - , 03 0e t- 4, V~ w*~* --- 00 03’’ 0 .0 w 3. 0- orAL ’-3. . ~ *0’ *Oe (U a a-, 0’’ r

  2. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: San Francisco Bay/Monterey (CA) WFO - Sonoma, Marin, Napa, and Solano Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital elevation model (DEM) is a part of a series of DEMs produced for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's Sea...

  3. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: San Francisco Bay/Monterey (CA) WFO - Contra Costa, San Francisco, Alameda, San Mateo, and Santa Clara Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital elevation model (DEM) is a part of a series of DEMs produced for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's Sea...

  4. Conference Proceedings: 7th Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, March 18-22, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    input files together with the respective NEC-BSC2 code omimarnd dato will be automatically generated for the visualiza- tion input file sequence...BODIES IN THlE RESONANCE REGION Lij M~Q. Cn-ia and Afonso M. Barbosa Centro de An~l~ise e Processamento de Sinais and Departarnento de Engenharia

  5. OSA Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography Held in Monterey, California on 10-12 April 1991. Volume 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-22

    projection optics that will be discussed nere. Only normal incidence types of designs, using mutti - layer coatings to get acceptable reflectance. will...temperature rise It is interesting to note that Invar, an of the mirror is not affected by the pulsing, only alloy iron and nickel , has a thermal

  6. Acquisition Research: Creating Synergy for Informed Change. Proceedings of the Annual Acquisition Research Symposium (5th) Held in Monterey, California on 14-15 May 2008. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    a desire to do sharpshooting, to turn up a scandal or to turn out the rascals.2 History has not recorded the extent to which Allen’s call for 1,000...from corporate practices in the post- Enron world, to more up-to-date and open government procurement practices. These trends have resulted in the...767 tankers from Boeing for $23.5 billion following a Pentagon procurement scandal , in which one of the key Air Force procurement officials

  7. Organization of the 1991 Society of America Photonic Science Topical Meeting Held in Monterey, California on September 26 - 28, 1991. 1991 Technical Digest Series, Volume 16, Conference Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Tokyo, Japan; Hiroo Yugami, sorbed dye molecules were investigated with spectral hole- Mareo Ishigame, Tohoku U., Japan. Persistent spectral hole...Hiroyuki - ThE7 Ambroz. M. - ThE2. FE1 Ishigame. Mareo - SA4 Andreico. M. Jý - FB5 Iwamoto, Takashi -ThE7 Arnold. Steven - FAl. FA2 Attenberger. T. -- FE9

  8. The Ecology of the Benthic and Endolithic Communities of a Rocky Reef in the Kelp Beds off Del Monte Beach, Monterey, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    laperousii Crepidula perforans Alloeocoela sp. Crepipatella lingulata ___________ exce isa StEylochus californicus Echinoidea Nemertea Strongylocentrotus pur...Usually found in burrows under the main ledge. Pseudostylochus burchami (Heath and McGregor, 1912). Stylochus californicus Hyman, 1953. NEMERTEA

  9. Nearshore continental shelf: Morphology, paleomorphology, and sediment transport based on high-resolution geophysical profiling of Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anima, Roberto Juan

    The intertwining of the shoreline with its coastal streams, headlands, pocket beaches, coves, and sea cliffs is tied to a nearshore with sea floor outcrops, shore-normal sand-filled low areas, subbottom channels, and variations in sediment texture. The stitching together of the two aspects of this high-energy environment was accomplished by geophysical surveying techniques that uncovered direct connections to each facet of the coastal area between Ano Nuevo and New Brighton Beach. What this work has accomplished is the expansion of our view of a high energy, active margin coastline in a way that reveals aspects of the nearshore that connect onshore coastal features, to previously unknown offshore features in a three dimensional view that incorporates morphology, processes, and time. This work gives a look at a nearshore that hints of a low sea level stand coastal scene not unlike our present. It uncovers relic stream channels that are direct ancestors of the present coastal streams. And finally, it proposes a conceptual model of how modern processes are constantly at work to shape and reshape this dynamic environment in order to fulfill its goal of moving sediment alongshore.

  10. 16TH Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics at the Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA, March 20-24, 2000, Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Masafumi Fujii**, Wolfgang J.R. Hoefer** *Dpto. Electricidad y Electr6nica. Univ. Valladolid 47011 Valladolid - SPAIN Tel: +34 983 423224 Fax: +34 983...Wolfgang J.R. Hoefer** *Dpto. Electricidad y Electr6nica. Univ. Valladolid 47011 Valladolid - SPAIN Tel: +34 983 423224 Fax: +34 983 423217 E-Mail

  11. Aerodynamic and Related Hydrodynamic Studies Using Water Facilities, Symposium of the Fluid Dynamics Panel Held in Monterey, California on 20-23 October 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    science and technoilogy elating to aerospace for the following purposes: - Exchanging of scientific and tchnical infoirmationt: - Continuously...correlation does not entirely eliminate the consequences of the stochastic variations in the motion of vortices. In periodic flow, the mobile separation

  12. Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography. Organization of the Photonics Science Topical Meetings Held in Monterey, California on May 10-12, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-10

    State Laser Driver for Projection X-ray Lithography Lloyd A. Hackel C. Brent Dane, Mark R. Hermann, Luis E. Zapata Lawrence Livermore National...WBI Wong, Alfred K - MA7 Wood, Obert R, 11 - MA2, TuA3, TuAS, WA8 Yamashita, voshio - TuA4 Zapata , Luis E. - WA6 Zernike, Frits, Jr - MA2, TuB...ApprovedPAGE 0MB No. 0704-0188 Public epcittng q rden lot 0is c¢ eCtion of nnformattor is estimaled to aiprage I hour per response. in lui ’.-g the lime for

  13. Oceanographic temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurements collected using bottle in Monterey Bay, California, January 1972 to April 1973 (NODC Accession 0014018)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and meteorological data were collected using bottle casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 19 January 1972 to 20 April 1973. Data were...

  14. United States - Japan Seminar on Quantum Mechanical Aspects of Quantum Electronics Held in Monterey, California on 21-24 July 1987,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    preparation and distribution of these Proceedings was supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research. Additional support for the Seminar arrangements came...8217 , %rLcd 2aserF’ ’I~S ofA Al #C* e. +- 3 / ielt JeE 4 Pu~& Fe~~j ~Lex 4 AIJ /77 z l 2e. e SSLs 4H3/ B w Aj/ 4- lIo - jt650 ehnot coi k3 iseis wer 4S...of interference in phase space (VU 13) and a summary. A paper on this topic is in preparation and will be available this fall. 0. ’°3 ".’, .9’ -238

  15. Proceedings of the 7th Annual TARDEC Ground Vehicle Survivability Symposium, March 26-28, 1996, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA Volume 1 - Unclassified Session Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Submitted J. Cardenas , U.S. Army TARDEC P-10 Ground Combat Vehicle Survivability Database Vol. 1 517 J. Olejar, C. Glausier, D. Brassard, K. Gantt, N. Funk... algebra . This change in methodology should go a long way toward alleviating the sampling problem that has been identi- fied in the IDA and SIRVICE studies

  16. Proceedings of the Annual Acquisition Research Symposium (2nd), Acquisition Research: The Foundation for Innovation, Held in Monterey, California on 18-19 May 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    141. Fox, W.M. (1990). An interview with Eric Trist, father of the sociotechnical systems approach. The Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 26(2...is consistent with the theory that firms following a conservative strategy rely more heavily on centralized control systems and on feed -forward...continuing management and technical problems in major acquisition programs including the F-22 Raptor and V-22 Osprey. Further, the effects of defense

  17. Information Management in the Department of Defense: The Role of Librarians. Proceedings of the Military Librarians Workshop (24th) 15-17 October 1980, held at Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    you, I have asked Paul Klinefelter to read my speech. Furthermore, I want to extend to you an invitation: If you are in Washington and wish to talk to...Challenge and the Opportunity, and what your role is. I’m familiar with the very honorable history of this Workshop and the considerable record of...accomplishment in its twenty-four year history . That oeriod has seen librarians and technical information specialists acquire an importance to the Defense

  18. Acquisition Research: Creating Synergy for Informed Change. Proceedings of the Annual Acquisition Research Symposium (3rd) Held in Monterey, California on 17-18 May 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-30

    Institute of Technology Michael Pennock, Georgia Institute of Technology Chair: Steven Kelman is Albert J. Weatherhead III and Richard W...Planning Presenter: Lt Col Steven P. Fraser (PhD) is an Associate Professor of Management at the United States Air Force Academy. He received his...Mentzer and Konrad1991; Pinker , Smith, and Booher, 1997; Rummler and Brache, 1995). The number of steps involved in each framework ranged from

  19. 76 FR 4854 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... as monitored stocks (jack mackerel, northern anchovy, and market squid). During public meetings each... sardine are landed with other CPS so as to minimize the targeting of Pacific sardine. In the event that an... greatly on market forces within the fishery, and on the regional availability of the resource to...

  20. Bioacoustic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    frequencies (Ching and Weston, 1971). RESULTS Measured resonance frequencies of absorption lines, which were attributed to adult (~ 1.3 khz) and juvenile ...of adult and juvenile sardines. These results suggest that bioacoustic absorption spectroscopy measurements permit isolation of juvenile from adult...from broadband tomographic transmission loss measurements over large areas . 2. Depths of sardines and contours of phytoplankton concentrations vs. time

  1. Many small pelagic fish species spawn in areas where their eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    interaction of upwelling plumes and shelf waves ... 9: Size frequency distributions of (a–c) anchovy larvae and (d–f) sardine larvae in the inshore, midshore ... Crawford. (1981) reported that, before the collapse of the sardine resource in ...

  2. Facts about Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gorse/iStock/Thinkstock.com Food Eggs, sardines, and salmon contain vitamin D. Most fluid milk and some brands of ... 2. Typical Vitamin D Content in Food Food Vitamin D in IU (mcg) Salmon, cooked, 3 oz. 320 (8) Sardines, canned in ...

  3. 75 FR 1745 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Copies of... for actively managed species (Pacific sardine and Pacific mackerel) are based on formulas applied to... ``Assessment of Pacific Sardine Stock for U.S. Management in 2010'' (see ADDRESSES). The formula in the CPS...

  4. [Determination of histamine content in canned fish products determined by the colorimetry method of Hardy and Smith].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windyga, B; Grochowska, A; Sciezyńska, H; Górecka, K; Fonberg-Broczek, M

    1992-01-01

    The content of histamine in 79 samples of imported canned fish products (sardines, mackerel) was determined. Histamine was assayed by colorimetric method of Hardy and Smith. In 18% of tested products (sardines) levels of histamine were exceeded 20 mg/100 of product. Usefulness of this method in routine quantitative determination of histamine content in canned fish products was documented.

  5. How sailfish use their bills to capture schooling prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, P.; Wilson, A.D.M.; Kurvers, R.H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    on prey. Here, we present the first unequivocal evidence of how the bill is used by Atlantic sailfish (Istiophorus albicans) to attack schooling sardines in the open ocean. Using high-speed video-analysis, we show that (i) sailfish manage to insert their bill into sardine schools without eliciting...

  6. Agent-Based Simulation and Analysis of a Defensive UAV Swarm Against an Enemy UAV Swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Monterey, California 9. CPT. Francisco J. Hederra Direccion de Investigacion , Programas y Desarrollo de la Armada Armada de Chile CHILE 10. CAPT Jeffrey Kline, USN(ret.) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 91

  7. 76 FR 22684 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Real Property Master Plan at the Presidio of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... critical habitat, housing, land use, population, public services, traffic circulation, and water usage. All... published locally. Copies of the DEIS are available at Chamberlain Library, Seaside; City of Monterey Public Library, Monterey; City of Pacific Grove Public Library, Pacific Grove; and Monterey County...

  8. Germinação de sementes de Bothriospora corymbosa (Rubiaceae) recuperadas do trato digestório de Triportheus angulatus (sardinha) no Lago Camaleão, Amazônia Central Seed germination of Bothriospora corymbosa (Rubiaceae) recouped of digestive tract of Triportheus angulatus (sardine) in Camaleão Lake, Central Amazonian

    OpenAIRE

    Lúcia Alencar Maia; Leocinira M. dos Santos; Pia Parolin

    2007-01-01

    Na Amazônia as áreas inundáveis são cobertas por florestas com alta diversidade de espécies arbóreas que proporcionam a ictiofauna frutos e sementes indispensáveis a sua alimentação. Alguns estudos de alimentação têm mostrado que a estrutura tegumentar de sementes encontradas no trato digestório de peixes, se apresentavam intactas. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo verificar se Triportheus angulatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) pode ser um agente dispersor de Bothriospora corymbosa (Bth) Hook. ...

  9. Nutrition and Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium and 400 to 600 I.U. of vitamin D daily in food and supplements. Milk products, cooked dark green leafy vegetables, dried beans, canned sardines or salmon and calcium-fortified juices and cereals are rich ...

  10. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in luck if you like sardines and canned salmon with bones. Almond milk. previous continue Working Calcium ... drinks, and cereals. Other Considerations for Building Bones Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption, so it's ...

  11. Vegetarian diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from these foods: Fatty fish, such as sardines, salmon, and mackerel (this only applies to pescetarians and semi-vegetarians) Egg yolks Foods that are fortified with vitamin D, such as orange juice, cow's milk, soymilk, ...

  12. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mackerel, lake trout, herring, sardines, albacore tuna and salmon. Some types of fish may contain high levels ... cholesterol. However, liver is rich in iron and vitamins. A small serving (3 ounces) is OK about ...

  13. Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Guide for Asian Women Aged 50 and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium-fortified rice calcium-fortified soy milk canned salmon with bones canned sardines with bones milk, yogurt, ... lactase pills, which make milk products more digestible. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. You need ...

  14. Osteomalacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These include foods that are naturally rich in vitamin D, such as oily fish (salmon, mackerel, sardines) and egg yolks. Also look for foods that are fortified with vitamin D, such as cereal, bread, milk and yogurt. ...

  15. make up.contents pg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    at times of major change between sardine and anchovy regimes ..... Sound in enormous quantities, and during their season, ...... bays, inlets and estuarine areas, being rarely found in ...... available for spawning anchovy (zooplankton biomass.

  16. Pelagic Nekton Distribution - Improving ecosystem-based fisheries management and integrated ecosystem assessments by linking long-term climatic forcing and the Pelagic Nekton Community in the Northern California Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pelagic nekton communities are among the most ecologically and economically important components of marine ecosystems worldwide. From sardines and anchovies to squid...

  17. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Neat Sardine Oil with Varies Blends on the Performance and. Emission Characteristics of ... petroleum based fuels have become increasingly important due to ... Rong-ji Li (2009) trasesterified fish oil to produce biodiesel and they ...

  18. NCCLME Ecosystem Indicators - Improving ecosystem-based fisheries management and integrated ecosystem assessments by linking long-term climatic forcing and the Pelagic Nekton Community in the Northern California Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pelagic nekton communities are among the most ecologically and economically important components of marine ecosystems worldwide. From sardines and anchovies to squid...

  19. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of cactus polyphenols extract on seafood preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Besbes, Nadia; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; Ben Khemis, Ines; Amri, Mohamed; Sadok, Saloua

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigated the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of polyphenols extracted from cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit-peels on sardine fillets during refrigerated storage. Biochemical, microbiological and sensorial indicators of treated sardine fillets; were studied comparatively to control lot. Microbial communities were characterized using phenotyping and molecular identification of bacterial isolates; and culture-independent method (PCR-TTGE) for fingerprinting of ba...

  20. A System for the Preference Evaluation of Cycle Menus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    Lemon Cookies 5. Sardines, Sea SI oped Potatoes, Peas and Carrots , 4,20 2-IG Pickled Beets and Onion Salad, Marble Cake 4. Meatbali...Bean Salad, Chocolate Chip Cookies 36. Sweet and Scur Pork, Fried Rice, Eggplant, Carrot Raisin & Celery Salad, Ice Cream 37. Barbecued Beef Cubes...Banana Split 99. Sweet & Sour Pork, Baked Potato, Carrots , Jellied Banana Salad, Chocolate Chip Cookies 100. Sardines, Fritters, French Fried Onion