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Sample records for monterey bay area

  1. Analysis of Marketing and Customer Satisfaction in Base Housing Communities of the Monterey Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    in Seattle, Washington. The company claims to be based on four basic principles : “exceptional people, strong customer service, market knowledge, and...FtOrd.html Keller, K., & Kotler , P. (2009). A framework for marketing management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Office of...SUBTITLE Analysis of Marketing and Customer Satisfaction in Base Housing Communities of the Monterey Bay Area 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S

  2. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  3. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  4. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Monterey Bay, Salinas Valley, and adjacent highland areas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the groundwater basins around Monterey Bay, the Salinas Valley, and the highlands adjacent to the Salinas Valley constitute one of the study units.

  5. Monterey Bay Aquarium Volunteer Guide Scheduling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    TERMS 15. NUMBER OF Monterey Bay Aquarium, linear programing, network design, multi commodity flow, resilience PAGES 17. SECURITY 18. SECURITY...Volunteers fill many roles that include Aquarium guides, information desk attendants, divers, and animal caregivers . Julie Packard, Executive Director of...further analyze the resiliency of the shifts to changes in staffing levels caused by no-shows or drop-ins. 3 While the guide program managers have

  6. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — One of the most important functions of the southern Monterey Bay coastal system is its role as a habitat for a unique flora and fauna. The beaches are habitat for...

  7. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — One of the most important functions of the southern Monterey Bay coastal system is its role as a habitat for a unique flora and fauna. The beaches are habitat for...

  8. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Monterey Bay, Salinas Valley, and adjacent highland areas, Southern Coast Ranges, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    The Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit covers approximately 7,820 square kilometers (km2) in Santa Cruz, Monterey, and San Luis Obispo Counties in the Central Coast Hydrologic Region of California. The study unit was divided into four study areas—Santa Cruz, Pajaro Valley, Salinas Valley, and Highlands. More than 75 percent of the water used for drinking-water supply in the Central Coast Hydrologic Region of California is groundwater, and there are more than 8,000 well driller’s logs for domestic wells (California Department of Water Resources, 2013).

  9. THE RESPONSE OF MONTEREY BAY TO THE 2010 CHILEAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence C. Breaker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary frequencies contained in the arrival sequence produced by the tsunami from the Chilean earthquake of 2010 in Monterey Bay were extracted to determine the seiche modes that were produced. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD were employed to extract the primary frequencies of interest. The wave train from the Chilean tsunami lasted for at least four days due to multipath arrivals that may not have included reflections from outside the bay but most likely did include secondary undulations, and energy trapping in the form of edge waves, inside the bay. The SSA decomposition resolved oscillations with periods of 52-57, 34-35, 26-27, and 21-22 minutes, all frequencies that have been predicted and/or observed in previous studies. The EEMD decomposition detected oscillations with periods of 50-55 and 21-22 minutes. Periods in the range of 50-57 minutes varied due to measurement uncertainties but almost certainly correspond to the first longitudinal mode of oscillation for Monterey Bay, periods of 34-35 minutes correspond to the first transverse mode of oscillation that assumes a nodal line across the entrance of the bay, a period of 26- 27 minutes, although previously observed, may not represent a fundamental oscillation, and a period of 21-22 minutes has been predicted and observed previously. A period of ~37 minutes, close to the period of 34-35 minutes, was generated by the Great Alaskan Earthquake of 1964 in Monterey Bay and most likely represents the same mode of oscillation. The tsunamis associated with the Great Alaskan Earthquake and the Chilean Earthquake both entered Monterey Bay but initially arrived outside the bay from opposite directions. Unlike the Great Alaskan Earthquake, however, which excited only one resonant mode inside the bay, the Chilean Earthquake excited several modes suggesting that the asymmetric shape of the entrance to Monterey Bay was an important factor and that the

  10. Monterey Bay ambient noise profiles using underwater gliders

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrayadula, Tarun K.; Miller, Chris W.; Joseph, John

    2013-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4799131 In 2012, during two separate week-long deployments, underwater gliders outfitted with external hydrophones profiled the upper 100-200 m of the Monterey Bay. The environment contained various noises made by marine mammals, ships, winds, and earthquakes. Unlike hydrophone receivers moored to a fixed location, moving gliders measure noise variability across a wide terrain. However, underwater mobile s...

  11. Underwater Gravity Survey of Northern Monterey Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    stations were occupied just above the swash zone. A complete Bouguer anomaly map was drawn and tied in with the previous land surveys and with one...covering the southern half of the bay. The isolines of the complete Bouguer anomaly indicate the relative vertical position of the basement complex Santa

  12. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart M of... - Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary... OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. A Appendix A to Subpart M of Part 922...

  13. Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and other managed areas around the country. The legal boundaries of These sanctuaries are...

  14. The monterey bay broadband ocean bottom seismic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uhrhammer

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the installation of a long-term buried ocean-floor broadband seismic station (MOBB in Monterey Bay, California (USA, 40km off-shore, at a water depth of 1000 m. The station was installed in April 2002 using a ship and ROV, in a collaborative effort between the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI and the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL. The station is located on the western side of the San Gregorio Fault, a major fault in the San Andreas plate boundary fault system. In addition to a 3-component CMG-1T seismometer package, the station comprises a current meter and Differential Pressure Gauge, both sampled at high-enough frequency (1 Hz to allow the study of relations between background noise on the seismometers and ocean waves and currents. The proximity of several land-based broadband seismic stations of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network allows insightful comparisons of land/ocean background seismic noise at periods relevant to regional and teleseismic studies. The station is currently autonomous. Recording and battery packages are exchanged every 3 months during scheduled one day dives. Ultimately, this station will be linked to shore using continuous telemetry (cable and/or buoy and will contribute to the earthquake notification system in Northern California. We present examples of earthquake and noise data recorded during the first 6 months of operation of MOBB. Lessons learned from these and continued recordings will help understand the nature and character of background noise in regional off-shore environments and provide a reference for the installation of future off-shore temporary and permanent broadband seismic stations.

  15. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP CEMEX Mine Dredge Pond 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Location of the CEMEX mine dredge pond at Lapis Sand Plant, Marina, CA. Southern Monterey Bay has been the most intensively mined shoreline in the U.S. Sand mining...

  16. Isotope systematic of contaminant leads in Monterey Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flegal, A.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Stephenson, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of stable lead ( 204 Pb, 206 Pb, 207 Pb, and 208 Pb) were utilized to identify a lead slag deposit as the principal source of contaminant lead in Monterey Bay. This point source had been indicated by anomalously high lead concentrations in native mussels (Mytilus californianus) near that deposit, which were orders of magnitude above the base-line concentration of the species (0.5 μg/g). Subsequent analyses revealed that the lead concentrations of both transplanted mussels and intertidal sediments were positively correlated with their proximity to the slag deposit. Complementary lead isotopic compositions substantiated those empirical correlations by demonstrating that the slag was the predominant source of contaminant lead in both the mussels and the sediments. Analyses of the digestive tracts of mussels from the slag deposit indicated that ingested slag particulates accounted for their elevated lead concentrations, while analyses of their gonads indicated that dissolved lead from other industrial sources was also being bioaccumulated by passive adsorption on exposed surfaces. Therefore, this study has demonstrated the potential of lead isotope systematics both to identify sources of lead contamination in marine organisms and to trace its biogeochemical cycle in the marine environment. 26 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  17. Study of Integrated USV/UUV Observation System Performance in Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    EMATT expendable mobile ASW training target MARS Monterey Accelerated Research System MBARI Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute PSD power ...Paula Travis, provided needed support as well. The Naval Postgraduate School faculty and staff are incredibly professional and knowledgeable . The...operation. 9 “The MARS observatory ‘science node’ (shown in orange) has eight ports, each of which can supply data and power connections for

  18. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and... SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. D Appendix D to... Sanctuary [Coordinates in this appendix are unprojected (Geographic Coordinate System) and are calculated...

  19. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Critical Erosion Sites 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — PWA and Griggs (2004) defined three risk categories to Monterey Regional Water Pollution Control Agency (MRWPCA) facilities between Marina and Wharf II. These risk...

  20. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Critical Erosion Sites 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — PWA and Griggs (2004) defined three risk categories to Monterey Regional Water Pollution Control Agency (MRWPCA) facilities between Marina and Wharf II. These risk...

  1. THE RESPONSE OF MONTEREY BAY TO THE GREAT TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE OF 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carroll

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of Monterey Bay to the Great Tohoku earthquake of 2011 is examined in this study. From a practical standpoint, although the resulting tsunami did not cause any damage to the open harbors at Monterey and Moss Landing, it caused extensive damage to boats and infrastructure in Santa Cruz Harbor, which is closed to surrounding waters. From a scientific standpoint, the observed and predicted amplitudes of the tsunami at 1 km from the source were 21.3 and 22.5 m based on the primary arrival from one DART bottom pressure recorder located 986 km ENE of the epicenter. The predicted and observed travel times for the tsunami to reach Monterey Bay agreed within 3%. The predicted and observed periods of the tsunami-generated wave before it entered the bay yielded periods that approached 2 hours. Once the tsunami entered Monterey Bay it was transformed into a seiche with a primary period of 36-37 minutes, corresponding to quarter-wave resonance within the bay. Finally, from a predictive standpoint, major tsunamis that enter the bay from the northwest, as in the present case, are the ones most likely to cause damage to Santa Cruz harbor.

  2. Cold seeps in Monterey Bay, California: Geochemistry of pore waters and relationship to benthic foraminiferal calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieskes, Joris, E-mail: jgieskes@ucsd.edu [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, IOD-0208, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0208 (United States); Rathburn, Anthony E. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, IOD-0208, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0208 (United States)] [Indiana State University, Department of Earth and Environmental Systems, Terre Haute, IN 47809 (United States); Martin, Jonathan B. [University of Florida, Department of Geological Sciences, Gainesville, FL 32611-2120 (United States); Perez, M. Elena [Indiana State University, Department of Earth and Environmental Systems, Terre Haute, IN 47809 (United States)] [The Natural History Museum, Department of Palaeontology, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Mahn, Chris [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, IOD-0208, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0208 (United States); Bernhard, Joan M. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Geology and Geophysics Department, MS52, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Day, Shelley [University of Florida, Department of Geological Sciences, Gainesville, FL 32611-2120 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > We describe the geochemistry of pore waters in the Clam Flats area of Monterey Bay. > The geochemical data are compared with the {delta}{sup 13}C chemistry of benthic foraminifera. > Living foraminifera indicate little effects of pore water low {delta}{sup 13}C (DIC) in the clam bed. > This phenomenon and its implications are discussed in detail. > Implications with regards to paleo-methane seepage are discussed. - Abstract: An extensive geochemical and biogeochemical examination of CH{sub 4} seeps in the Clam Flats area of Monterey Bay provides insight into the character of relationships between seep geochemistry and benthic foraminiferal geochemistry. The area is characterized by sulfide-rich fluids. Sulfide increases are associated with large increases in alkalinity, as well as small decreases in dissolved Ca and Mg. In addition, only small increases in NH{sub 4} are observed, but values of {delta}{sup 13}C of dissolved inorganic C are as low as -60 per mille at shallow depths (<3 cm). These observations indicate that all these processes are related to the bacterial oxidation of CH{sub 4}, which is transported upward by slow seepage of pore fluids. The geochemistry of the pore fluids should be relevant to the geochemistry of the carbonate tests of living and dead foraminifera. However, a profound disequilibrium of approximately an order of magnitude occurs between the {delta}{sup 13}C values of stained (cytoplasm-containing) foraminiferal carbonate and the C isotope values of ambient pore water dissolved inorganic C. Reasons are unclear for this isotopic disequilibrium, but have important implications for interpretations of foraminiferal carbonate as a paleoenvironmental proxy. Much fine scale work is needed to fully understand the relationships between the biogeochemistry of benthic foraminifera and the geochemistry of the pore waters where they live.

  3. Cold seeps in Monterey Bay, California: Geochemistry of pore waters and relationship to benthic foraminiferal calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieskes, Joris; Rathburn, Anthony E.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Perez, M. Elena; Mahn, Chris; Bernhard, Joan M.; Day, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We describe the geochemistry of pore waters in the Clam Flats area of Monterey Bay. → The geochemical data are compared with the δ 13 C chemistry of benthic foraminifera. → Living foraminifera indicate little effects of pore water low δ 13 C (DIC) in the clam bed. → This phenomenon and its implications are discussed in detail. → Implications with regards to paleo-methane seepage are discussed. - Abstract: An extensive geochemical and biogeochemical examination of CH 4 seeps in the Clam Flats area of Monterey Bay provides insight into the character of relationships between seep geochemistry and benthic foraminiferal geochemistry. The area is characterized by sulfide-rich fluids. Sulfide increases are associated with large increases in alkalinity, as well as small decreases in dissolved Ca and Mg. In addition, only small increases in NH 4 are observed, but values of δ 13 C of dissolved inorganic C are as low as -60 per mille at shallow depths ( 4 , which is transported upward by slow seepage of pore fluids. The geochemistry of the pore fluids should be relevant to the geochemistry of the carbonate tests of living and dead foraminifera. However, a profound disequilibrium of approximately an order of magnitude occurs between the δ 13 C values of stained (cytoplasm-containing) foraminiferal carbonate and the C isotope values of ambient pore water dissolved inorganic C. Reasons are unclear for this isotopic disequilibrium, but have important implications for interpretations of foraminiferal carbonate as a paleoenvironmental proxy. Much fine scale work is needed to fully understand the relationships between the biogeochemistry of benthic foraminifera and the geochemistry of the pore waters where they live.

  4. The last 1000 years of ocean change in Monterey Bay, California: insights from the marine sedimentary record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, V.; Addison, J. A.; Carlin, J.; Wagner, A. J.; Barron, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    In Monterey Bay, seasonal upwelling of cold nutrient-rich waters from the California Current sustains a diverse and abundant marine phytoplankton community, serving as the base of the local marine ecosystem, and contributing to atmospheric CO2 fixation. The response of this productive area to future climate change remains uncertain, thus this study looks to examine the Monterey Bay sediment record over the last millennia to provide perspective on future changes. To accomplish this, we examined biogenic sediment as a proxy for upwelling. While there is no existing sea surface temperature (SST) record for this time frame in Monterey Bay as an independent proxy of upwelling, we compare our data against the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) alkenone SST record, and the global PAGES Ocean2K SST synthesis products to examine variability associated with the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the Little Ice Age (LIA), and the recent onset of industrial-era warming. Utilizing a pair of newly acquired sediment cores from the southern nearshore sector of Monterey Bay, PS1410-08GC (36.42°N, 121.54°W, depth 85 m) and PS1410-09GC (36.46°N, 121.51°W, depth 71 m), we performed sedimentological and geochemical analyses including multi-sensor core logging, computerized tomography (CT) scans, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), biogenic silica (opal), and HCNS elemental analysis. Age control for each core was determined by linearly interpolating basal 14C dates, and both sites represent high sedimentation rate areas (PS1410-08GC: 0.75 mm/yr, PS1410-09GC: 1.2 mm/yr). Despite being from a highly productive region, both cores contain relatively low concentrations of TOC, opal, and CaCO3, with total mean biogenic fractions of 7.38% and 6.67% for PS1410-08GC and -09GC, respectively, indicating significant terrigenous input throughout both records. Both cores show a decrease in bulk density and an increase in biogenic material from the MCA into the LIA at 1500 CE. A sharp increase in Monterey Bay bulk

  5. 78 FR 16628 - Gulf of the Farallones and Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuaries Regulations on Introduced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Register on October 1, 2009 (74 FR 50740) concerning regulations on the introduction of introduced species... Sanctuaries (ONMS) conducted a joint review of the management plans for Gulf of the Farallones, Monterey Bay and Cordell Bank national marine sanctuaries (hereafter referred to as the ``Joint Management Plan...

  6. Analysis of Civilian Employee Attrition at the Naval Postgraduate School and Naval Support Activity - Monterey Bay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valverde, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    ...) and Naval Support Activity-Monterey Bay (NSA-MB) to determine what civilian non-faculty employee jobs are likely to be left vacant in the next three years due to attrition and to identify what training and skills will be needed by personnel whose...

  7. Evaluating the Addition of a Dinoflagellate Phytoplankton Functional Type Using Radiance Anomalies for Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houskeeper, H. F.; Kudela, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean color sensors have enabled daily, global monitoring of phytoplankton productivity in the world's oceans. However, to observe key structures such as food webs, or to identify regime shifts of dominant species, tools capable of distinguishing between phytoplankton functional types using satellite remote sensing reflectance are necessary. One such tool developed by Alvain et al. (2005), PHYSAT, successfully linked four phytoplankton functional types to chlorophyll-normalized remote sensing spectra, or radiance anomalies, in case-1 waters. Yet this tool was unable to characterize dinoflagellates because of their ubiquitous background presence in the open ocean. We employ a radiance anomaly technique based on PHYSAT to target phytoplankton functional types in Monterey Bay, a region where dinoflagellate populations are larger and more variable than in open ocean waters, and thus where they may be viable targets for satellite remote sensing characterization. We compare with an existing Santa Cruz Wharf photo-pigment time series spanning from 2006 to the present to regionally ground-truth the method's predictions, and we assess its accuracy in characterizing dinoflagellates, a phytoplankton group that impacts the region's fish stocks and water quality. For example, an increase in dinoflagellate abundance beginning in 2005 led to declines in commercially important fish stocks that persisted throughout the following year. Certain species of dinoflagellates in Monterey Bay are also responsible for some of the harmful algal bloom events that negatively impact the shellfish industry. Moving toward better tools to characterize phytoplankton blooms is important for understanding ecosystem shifts, as well as protecting human health in the surrounding areas.

  8. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  9. Coastal currents and mass transport of surface sediments over the shelf regions of Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, S.C.

    1970-01-01

    In Monterey Bay, the highest concentrations of medium and fine sands occur nearshore between ten and thirty fathoms. Silt and clay accumulate in greater depths. Contours of median diameter roughly parallel the isobaths. Fine-grained materials are supplied to the bay region from erosion of cliffs which partly surround Monterey Bay, from sediment laden river discharge, and from continual reworking of widespread Pleistocene and Recent sea floor sediments. These sediments in turn are picked up by coastal currents and distributed over the shelf regions by present day current regimes. Studies of bottom currents over the shelf regions and in Monterey Canyon have revealed patterns which vary with seasonal changes. Current patterns during August and September exhibit remarkable symmetry about the axis of Monterey Submarine Canyon. Central Shelf currents north and south of Monterey Canyon flowed northwest at an average rate of 0.2 knots and south at 0.3 knots respectively. On the North Shelf between January and March currents flowed east to southeast at 0.3-0.5 knots with mirror image patterns above the South Shelf during the same period. Irregular current flow in the canyon indicates a complex current structure with frequent shifts in counterclockwise and clockwise direction over very short periods of time. Bottom topography of the canyon complex often causes localization of canyon currents. One particular observation at a depth of 51 fathoms indicated up-canyon flow at a rate of 0.2 knots. Most of the observed currents are related to seasonal variations, upwelling, ocean swell patterns, and to changes in the California and Davidson currents. Changes in current regimes are reflected in the patterns of sediment distribution and transport. Sediment transport is chiefly parallel to the isobaths, particularly on the North and South Shelf regions. Complex dispersal patterns are observed near Monterey Canyon and Moss Landing Harbor jetties. Longshore currents move sediments

  10. Seismic stratigraphy and late Quaternary shelf history, south-central Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, J.L.; Clifton, H.E.; Mullins, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    The south-central Monterey Bay shelf is a high-energy, wave-dominated, tectonically active coastal region on the central California continental margin. A prominent feature of this shelf is a sediment lobe off the mouth of the Salinas River that has surface expression. High-resolution seismic-reflection profiles reveal that an angular unconformity (Quaternary?) underlies the entire shelf and separates undeformed strata above it from deformed strata below it. The Salinas River lobe is a convex bulge on the shelf covering an area of approximately 72 km2 in water depths from 10 to 90 m. It reaches a maximum thickness of 35 m about 2.5 km seaward of the river mouth and thins in all directions away from this point. Adjacent shelf areas are characterized by only a thin (2 to 5 m thick) and uniform veneer of sediment. Acoustic stratigraphy of the lobe is complex and is characterized by at least three unconformity-bounded depositional sequences. Acoustically, these sequences are relatively well bedded. Acoustic foresets occur within the intermediate sequence and dip seaward at 0.7?? to 2.0??. Comparison with sedimentary sequences in uplifted onshore Pleistocene marine-terrace deposits of the Monterey Bay area, which were presumably formed in a similar setting under similar processes, suggests that a general interpretation can be formulated for seismic stratigraphic patterns. Depositional sequences are interpreted to represent shallowing-upwards progradational sequences of marine to nonmarine coastal deposits formed during interglacial highstands and/or during early stages of falling sea level. Acoustic foresets within the intermediate sequence are evidence of seaward progradation. Acoustic unconformities that separate depositional sequences are interpreted as having formed largely by shoreface planation and may be the only record of the intervening transgressions. The internal stratigraphy of the Salinas River lobe thus suggests that at least several late Quaternary

  11. 77 FR 73322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern opacity standards related to multiple pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) emissions from several different types of sources, ranging from fugitive dust to gas turbines. We are approving a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  12. 77 FR 73392 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns opacity standards related to multiple pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) emissions from several different types of sources, ranging from fugitive dust to gas turbines. We are proposing to approve a local rule to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  13. Deep-sea faunal communities associated with a lost intermodal shipping container in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Josi R; DeVogelaere, Andrew P; Burton, Erica J; Frey, Oren; Lundsten, Lonny; Kuhnz, Linda A; Whaling, P J; Lovera, Christopher; Buck, Kurt R; Barry, James P

    2014-06-15

    Carrying assorted cargo and covered with paints of varying toxicity, lost intermodal containers may take centuries to degrade on the deep seafloor. In June 2004, scientists from Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) discovered a recently lost container during a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dive on a sediment-covered seabed at 1281 m depth in Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). The site was revisited by ROV in March 2011. Analyses of sediment samples and high-definition video indicate that faunal assemblages on the container's exterior and the seabed within 10 m of the container differed significantly from those up to 500 m. The container surface provides hard substratum for colonization by taxa typically found in rocky habitats. However, some key taxa that dominate rocky areas were absent or rare on the container, perhaps related to its potential toxicity or limited time for colonization and growth. Ecological effects appear to be restricted to the container surface and the benthos within ∼10 m. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 13468 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ...EPA is proposing to disapprove a revision to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns opacity standards related to multiple pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) emissions from several different types of sources, ranging from fugitive dust to gas turbine generators. We are proposing action on a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act). We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action.

  15. 75 FR 37727 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ...EPA is finalizing disapproval of a revision to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This action was proposed in the Federal Register on March 22, 2010. This revision concerns opacity standards related to multiple pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) emissions, from a wide variety of sources. Under authority of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act), this action identifies a deficiency that precludes approval of this SIP revision.

  16. Deployment of a Long-Term Broadband Seafloor Observatory in Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, P.; Neuhauser, D.; Stakes, D.; Romanowicz, B.; Ramirez, T.; Uhrhammer, R.

    2002-12-01

    MOBB (Monterey bay Ocean floor Broad Band project) is a collaborative project between the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) and the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL). Its goal is to install and operate a permanent seafloor broadband seismic station as a first step towards extending the on-shore broadband seismic network in northern California to the seaside of the North-America/Pacific plate boundary, providing better azimuthal coverage for regional earthquake and structure studies. The successful MOBB deployment took place 40km off shore at a water depth of 1000m during three dives on April 9-11, 2002. The seismometer was buried in a 60-cm deep caisson, which was later back filled with glass beads to stabilize the instrument. New tools, including a high-pressure water-jet excavator, were developed for the ROV Ventana to accomplish these tasks. The ocean-bottom MOBB station currently comprises a three-component seismometer package, a current-meter, and a recording and battery package. Data recovery dives, during which the recording and battery package will be exchanged, are planned every three months for the next three years. A differential pressure gauge (DPG) (Cox et al., 1984) will be deployed as part of the recording package during the next data recovery dive in September 2002. The station is currently recording data autonomously. Eventually, it will be linked to the planned (and recently funded) MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System; rl {http://www.mbari.org/mars/}) cable and provide real-time, continuous seismic data to be merged with the rest of the northern California real-time seismic system. The data are archived at the NCEDC for on-line availability, as part of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN). This project follows the 1997 MOISE experiment, in which a three-component broadband system was deployed for a period of three months, 40km off shore in Monterey Bay. MOISE was a cooperative program sponsored by MBARI, UC

  17. Navigating the Institutional and Pedagogical Challenges of the Service-Learning Leadership Minor at CSU Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite solid foundations for service-learning at California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB), the economic context of higher education in California, and in particular the CSU system, has created significant challenges for service-learning practitioners. This article provides an overview of the institutional foundations in place at CSUMB…

  18. A Vision in Progress. The Decision To Establish a Public University at Monterey Bay. An Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, William

    This report describes the decision-making process and problems encountered during the 48 months it took to establish a new university, California State University at Monterey Bay, on the site of Fort Ord, a recently closed military base. After an introduction, the report is organized in four sections, one for each phase of the process. The first…

  19. Sand mining impacts on long-term dune erosion in southern Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, E.B.; Sallenger, Abby; Sesto, Juan Conforto; Egley, L.; McGee, Timothy; Parsons, Rost

    2006-01-01

    Southern Monterey Bay was the most intensively mined shoreline (with sand removed directly from the surf zone) in the U.S. during the period from 1906 until 1990, when the mines were closed following hypotheses that the mining caused coastal erosion. It is estimated that the yearly averaged amount of mined sand between 1940 and 1984 was 128,000 m3/yr, which is approximately 50% of the yearly average dune volume loss during this period. To assess the impact of sand mining, erosion rates along an 18 km range of shoreline during the times of intensive sand mining (1940–1990) are compared with the rates after sand mining ceased (1990–2004). Most of the shoreline is composed of unconsolidated sand with extensive sand dunes rising up to a height of 46 m, vulnerable to the erosive forces of storm waves. Erosion is defined here as a recession of the top edge of the dune. Recession was determined using stereo-photogrammetry, and LIDAR and GPS surveys. Long-term erosion rates vary from about 0.5 m/yr at Monterey to 1.5 m/yr in the middle of the range, and then decrease northward. Erosion events are episodic and occur when storm waves and high tides coincide, allowing swash to undercut the dune and resulting in permanent recession. Erosion appears to be correlated with the occurrence of El Niños. The calculated volume loss of the dune in southern Monterey Bay during the 1997–98 El Niño winter was 1,820,000 m3, which is almost seven times the historical annual mean dune erosion of 270,000 m3/yr. The alongshore variation in recession rates appears to be a function of the alongshore gradient in mean wave energy and depletions by sand mining. After cessation of sand mining in 1990, the erosion rates decreased at locations in the southern end of the bay but have not significantly changed at other locations.

  20. Prey and plastic ingestion of Pacific Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis rogersii) from Monterey Bay, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly-Greenan, Erica L; Harvey, James T; Nevins, Hannahrose M; Hester, Michelle M; Walker, William A

    2014-08-15

    Marine plastic pollution affects seabirds, including Pacific Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis rodgersii), that feed at the surface and mistake plastic for prey or incidentally ingest it. Direct and indirect health issues can result, including satiety and possibly leading to inefficient foraging. Our objective was to examine fulmar body condition, identify cephalopod diet to species, enumerate and weigh ingested plastic, and determine if prey number and size were correlated with ingested plastics in beach-cast fulmars wintering in Monterey Bay California (2003, n=178: 2007, n=185). Fulmars consumed mostly Gonatus pyros, G. onyx, and G. californiensis of similar size for both years. We found a significant negative correlation between pectoral muscle index and average size of cephalopod beaks per stomach; a significant increase in plastic categories between 2003 and 2007; and no significant correlation between number and mass of plastic compared with number and size of prey for either year. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-scale responses of scattering layers to environmental variability in Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urmy, Samuel S.; Horne, John K.

    2016-07-01

    A 38 kHz upward-facing echosounder was deployed on the seafloor at a depth of 875 m in Monterey Bay, CA, USA (36° 42.748‧N, 122° 11.214‧W) from 27 February 2009 to 18 August 2010. This 18-month record of acoustic backscatter was compared to oceanographic time series from a nearby data buoy to investigate the responses of animals in sound-scattering layers to oceanic variability at seasonal and sub-seasonal time scales. Pelagic animals, as measured by acoustic backscatter, moved higher in the water column and decreased in abundance during spring upwelling, attributed to avoidance of a shoaling oxycline and advection offshore. Seasonal changes were most evident in a non-migrating scattering layer near 500 m depth that disappeared in spring and reappeared in summer, building to a seasonal maximum in fall. At sub-seasonal time scales, similar responses were observed after individual upwelling events, though they were much weaker than the seasonal relationship. Correlations of acoustic backscatter with oceanographic variability also differed with depth. Backscatter in the upper water column decreased immediately following upwelling, then increased approximately 20 days later. Similar correlations existed deeper in the water column, but at increasing lags, suggesting that near-surface productivity propagated down the water column at 10-15 m d-1, consistent with sinking speeds of marine snow measured in Monterey Bay. Sub-seasonal variability in backscatter was best correlated with sea-surface height, suggesting that passive physical transport was most important at these time scales.

  2. MOBB: a permanent ocean floor broadband seismic observatory in Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrhammer, R.; Romanowicz, B.; Stakes, D.; Neuhauser, D.; McGill, P.; Ramirez, T.

    2003-04-01

    The Monterey ocean bottom broadband station (MOBB) was installed on the seafloor in Monterey Bay, 40 km offshore, and at a depth of 1000m from the sea surface, on April 9-11, 2002. Its success capitalizes on the experience gained in the 1997 International MOISE experiment, conducted under similar conditions. The deployment took place during 3 dives on consecutive days and made use of MBARI's Point Lobos ship and ROV Ventana. The station is currently recording data autonomously. Eventually, it will be linked to the planned (and recently funded) MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System; \\url {http://www.mbari.org/mars/}) cable and provide real-time, continuous seismic data to be merged with the rest of the northern California real-time seismic system. The data are archived at the NCEDC for on-line availability, as part of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN). The ocean-bottom MOBB station currently comprises a three-component seismometer package, a current-meter, a DPG, and recording and battery packages. The seismic package contains a low-power (2.2W), three-component CMG-1T broadband seismometer system, built by Guralp, Inc., with a three-component 24-bit digitizer, a leveling system, and a precision clock. The seismometer package is mounted on a cylindrical titanium pressure vessel 54cm in height and 41 cm in diameter, custom built by the MBARI team and outfitted for underwater connection. Data recovery dives, during which the recording and battery package will be exchanged are planned every three months for the next 3 years. Three such dives have already taken place, on 06/27/02, 09/20/02 and on 01/07/03. Due to a software problem, data were lost during the time period 07/01/02 and 09/20/02. Many regional and teleseismic earthquakes have been well recorded and the mass position signals indicate that the instruments have progressively settled. Preliminary analysis of data retrieved during the 2002 summer and winter dives will be presented. In particular

  3. Electrical Resistivity Imaging of Seawater Intrusion into the Monterey Bay Aquifer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidlisecky, A; Moran, T; Hansen, B; Knight, R

    2016-03-01

    We use electrical resistivity tomography to obtain a 6.8-km electrical resistivity image to a depth of approximately 150 m.b.s.l. along the coast of Monterey Bay. The resulting image is used to determine the subsurface distribution of saltwater- and freshwater-saturated sediments and the geologic controls on fluid distributions in the region. Data acquisition took place over two field seasons in 2011 and 2012. To maximize our ability to image both vertical and horizontal variations in the subsurface, a combination of dipole-dipole, Wenner, Wenner-gamma, and gradient measurements were made, resulting in a large final dataset of approximately 139,000 data points. The resulting resistivity section extends to a depth of 150 m.b.s.l., and is used, in conjunction with the gamma logs from four coastal monitoring wells to identify four dominant lithologic units. From these data, we are able to infer the existence of a contiguous clay layer in the southern portion of our transect, which prevents downward migration of the saltwater observed in the upper 25 m of the subsurface to the underlying freshwater aquifer. The saltwater and brackish water in the northern portion of the transect introduce the potential for seawater intrusion into the hydraulically connected freshwater aquifer to the south, not just from the ocean, but also laterally from north to south. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  4. Imaging Saltwater Intrusion Along the Coast of Monterey Bay Using Long-Offset Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, M.; Knight, R. J.; Pidlisecky, A.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal regions represent a complex dynamic interface where saltwater intrusion moves seawater landward and groundwater discharge moves freshwater seaward. These processes can have a dramatic impact on water quality, affecting both humans and coastal ecosystems. The ability to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and salt water is a critical step in predicting and managing water quality in coastal regions. This is commonly accomplished using wells, which are expensive and provide point information, which may fail to capture the spatial complexity in subsurface conditions. We present an alternate method for acquiring data, long-offset Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), which is non-invasive, cost effective, and can address the problem of poor spatial sampling. This geophysical method can produce continuous profiles of subsurface electrical resistivity to a depth of 300 m, with spatial resolution on the order of tens of meters. Our research focuses on the Monterey Bay region, where sustained groundwater extraction over the past century has led to significant saltwater intrusion. ERT was acquired along 40 kilometers of the coast using the roll along method, allowing for continuous overlap in data acquisition. Electrodes were spaced every 22.2 m, with a total of 81 electrodes along the 1.8 km active cable length. The data show a complex distribution of fresh and salt water, influenced by geology, groundwater pumping, recharge, and land-use. While the inverted ERT resistivity profiles correspond well with existing data sets and geologic interpretations in the region, the spatial complexity revealed through the ERT data goes beyond what is known from traditional data sources alone. This leads us to conclude that this form of data can be extremely useful in informing and calibrating groundwater flow models, making targeted management decisions, and monitoring changes in subsurface salinities over time.

  5. Biomonitoring of marine vertebrates in Monterey Bay using eDNA metabarcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Andruszkiewicz

    Full Text Available Molecular analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA can be used to assess vertebrate biodiversity in aquatic systems, but limited work has applied eDNA technologies to marine waters. Further, there is limited understanding of the spatial distribution of vertebrate eDNA in marine waters. Here, we use an eDNA metabarcoding approach to target and amplify a hypervariable region of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene to characterize vertebrate communities at 10 oceanographic stations spanning 45 km within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS. In this study, we collected three biological replicates of small volume water samples (1 L at 2 depths at each of the 10 stations. We amplified fish mitochondrial DNA using a universal primer set. We obtained 5,644,299 high quality Illumina sequence reads from the environmental samples. The sequence reads were annotated to the lowest taxonomic assignment using a bioinformatics pipeline. The eDNA survey identified, to the lowest taxonomic rank, 7 families, 3 subfamilies, 10 genera, and 72 species of vertebrates at the study sites. These 92 distinct taxa come from 33 unique marine vertebrate families. We observed significantly different vertebrate community composition between sampling depths (0 m and 20/40 m deep across all stations and significantly different communities at stations located on the continental shelf (200 m bottom depth. All but 1 family identified using eDNA metabarcoding is known to occur in MBNMS. The study informs the implementation of eDNA metabarcoding for vertebrate biomonitoring.

  6. Long-term cliff retreat and erosion hotspots along the central shores of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laura J.; Griggs, Gary B.

    2002-01-01

    Quantification of cliff retreat rates for the southern half of Santa Cruz County, CA, USA, located within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, using the softcopy/geographic information system (GIS) methodology results in average cliff retreat rates of 7–15 cm/yr between 1953 and 1994. The coastal dunes at the southern end of Santa Cruz County migrate seaward and landward through time and display net accretion between 1953 and 1994, which is partially due to development. In addition, three critically eroding segments of coastline with high average erosion rates ranging from 20 to 63 cm/yr are identified as erosion ‘hotspots’. These locations include: Opal Cliffs, Depot Hill and Manresa. Although cliff retreat is episodic, spatially variable at the scale of meters, and the factors affecting cliff retreat vary along the Santa Cruz County coastline, there is a compensation between factors affecting retreat such that over the long-term the coastline maintains a relatively smooth configuration. The softcopy/GIS methodology significantly reduces errors inherent in the calculation of retreat rates in high-relief areas (e.g. erosion rates generated in this study are generally correct to within 10 cm) by removing errors due to relief displacement. Although the resulting root mean squared error for erosion rates is relatively small, simple projections of past erosion rates are inadequate to provide predictions of future cliff position. Improved predictions can be made for individual coastal segments by using a mean erosion rate and the standard deviation as guides to future cliff behavior in combination with an understanding of processes acting along the coastal segments in question. This methodology can be applied on any high-relief coast where retreat rates can be measured.

  7. Application of the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean to Phytoplankton Ecology Studies in Monterey Bay, CA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a demonstrator for technologies for the next generation of ocean color sensors, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO provides enhanced spatial and spectral resolution that is required to understand optically complex aquatic environments. In this study we apply HICO, along with satellite remote sensing and in situ observations, to studies of phytoplankton ecology in a dynamic coastal upwelling environment—Monterey Bay, CA, USA. From a spring 2011 study, we examine HICO-detected spatial patterns in phytoplankton optical properties along an environmental gradient defined by upwelling flow patterns and along a temporal gradient of upwelling intensification. From a fall 2011 study, we use HICO’s enhanced spatial and spectral resolution to distinguish a small-scale “red tide” bloom, and we examine bloom expansion and its supporting processes using other remote sensing and in situ data. From a spectacular HICO image of the Monterey Bay region acquired during fall of 2012, we present a suite of algorithm results for characterization of phytoplankton, and we examine the strengths, limitations, and distinctions of each algorithm in the context of the enhanced spatial and spectral resolution.

  8. The elements of a consumer-based initiative in contributing to positive environmental change: Monterey Bay Aquarium's Seafood Watch program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerly, Jennifer Dianto; Macfarlane, Victoria

    2009-09-01

    Monterey Bay Aquarium launched the Seafood Watch program in 2000. The program's Seafood Watch pocket guide is a simple tool that visitors can use to identify seafood from environmentally responsible sources. Since its inception, more than 2 million pocket guides have been distributed to Monterey Bay Aquarium visitors and 20 million have been distributed through partnerships across the United States. Partner institutions such as aquariums, conservation organizations, and businesses also conduct outreach and are working to influence their local seafood purveyors. An evaluation conducted in 2003 and 2004 assessed the program's strategies for increasing awareness and shifting consumer buying habits as they relate to sustainable seafood, including use of the pocket guide. Visitors who picked up pocket guides were surveyed immediately after their aquarium visit, and again four months later. The evaluation found that most visitors continued to use the guides and had changed their seafood buying habits in several respects. Those interviewed also reported some barriers to using the guides. The elements that appear to be critical to the success of the strategy with respect to changing consumer purchasing habits include: a focused distribution approach; providing credible and specific information on problems and solutions to increase action-related knowledge; providing a trigger or prompt that is available at the time of purchase; and reducing barriers to action, at the point of action, by working with seafood purveyors and the broader sustainable seafood movement to increase knowledge and available options. In response to the evaluation, Seafood Watch has strengthened these elements and expanded to help meet the needs of the broader sustainable seafood movement. A process of strategic planning, evaluation, cooperation among partners, and adaptability to the movement's natural evolution has proven to be critical to the program's success in contributing to the development of a

  9. Correction: Ryan, J., et al. Application of the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean to Phytoplankton Ecology Studies in Monterey Bay, CA, USA. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 1007–1025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Montes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of phytoplankton ecology in Monterey Bay, CA, USA, using the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO and other satellite remote sensing and in-situ observations, were presented in [1]. [...

  10. Connecting an Ocean-Bottom Broadband Seismometer to a Seafloor Cabled Observatory: A Prototype System in Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, P.; Neuhauser, D.; Romanowicz, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Monterey Ocean-Bottom Broadband (MOBB) seismic station was installed in April 2003, 40 km offshore from the central coast of California at a seafloor depth of 1000 m. It comprises a three-component broadband seismometer system (Guralp CMG-1T), installed in a hollow PVC caisson and buried under the seafloor; a current meter; and a differential pressure gauge. The station has been operating continuously since installation with no connection to the shore. Three times each year, the station is serviced with the aid of a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) to change the batteries and retrieve the seismic data. In February 2009, the MOBB system will be connected to the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) seafloor cabled observatory. The NSF-funded MARS observatory comprises a 52 km electro-optical cable that extends from a shore facility in Moss Landing out to a seafloor node in Monterey Bay. Once installation is completed in November 2008, the node will provide power and data to as many as eight science experiments through underwater electrical connectors. The MOBB system is located 3 km from the MARS node, and the two will be connected with an extension cable installed by an ROV with the aid of a cable-laying toolsled. The electronics module in the MOBB system is being refurbished to support the connection to the MARS observatory. The low-power autonomous data logger has been replaced with a PC/104 computer stack running embedded Linux. This new computer will run an Object Ring Buffer (ORB), which will collect data from the various MOBB sensors and forward it to another ORB running on a computer at the MARS shore station. There, the data will be archived and then forwarded to a third ORB running at the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory. Timing will be synchronized among MOBB's multiple acquisition systems using NTP, GPS clock emulation, and a precise timing signal from the MARS cable. The connection to the MARS observatory will provide real-time access to

  11. Preparing to predict: The Second Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN-II) experiment in the Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramp, S. R.; Davis, R. E.; Leonard, N. E.; Shulman, I.; Chao, Y.; Robinson, A. R.; Marsden, J.; Lermusiaux, P. F. J.; Fratantoni, D. M.; Paduan, J. D.; Chavez, F. P.; Bahr, F. L.; Liang, S.; Leslie, W.; Li, Z.

    2009-02-01

    The Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network Phase Two (AOSN-II) experiment was conducted in and offshore from the Monterey Bay on the central California coast during July 23-September 6, 2003. The objective of the experiment was to learn how to apply new tools, technologies, and analysis techniques to adaptively sample the coastal ocean in a manner demonstrably superior to traditional methodologies, and to use the information gathered to improve predictive skill for quantities of interest to end-users. The scientific goal was to study the upwelling/relaxation cycle near an open coastal bay in an eastern boundary current region, particularly as it developed and spread from a coastal headland. The suite of observational tools used included a low-flying aircraft, a fleet of underwater gliders, including several under adaptive autonomous control, and propeller-driven AUVs in addition to moorings, ships, and other more traditional hardware. The data were delivered in real time and assimilated into the Harvard Ocean Prediction System (HOPS), the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (JPL/ROMS). Two upwelling events and one relaxation event were sampled during the experiment. The upwelling in both cases began when a pool of cold water less than 13 °C appeared near Cape Año Nuevo and subsequently spread offshore and southward across the bay as the equatorward wind stress continued. The primary difference between the events was that the first event spread offshore and southward, while the second event spread only southward and not offshore. The difference is attributed to the position and strength of meanders and eddies of the California Current System offshore, which blocked or steered the cold upwelled water. The space and time scales of the mesoscale variability were much shorter than have been previously observed in deep-water eddies offshore. Additional process studies are needed to elucidate

  12. Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: an important control on shelf mud belts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Shaw, William J.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Bellingham, James G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and optical measurements taken over the mud belt on the southern continental shelf of Monterey Bay, California documented the frequent occurrence of suspended particulate matter features, the majority of which were detached from the seafloor, centered 9–33 m above the bed. In fall 2011, an automated profiling mooring and fixed instrumentation, including a thermistor chain and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, were deployed at 70 m depth for 5 weeks, and from 12 to 16 October a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle performed across-shelf transects. Individual SPM events were uncorrelated with local bed shear stress caused by surface waves and bottom currents. Nearly half of all observed SPM layers occurred during 1 week of the study, 9–16 October 2011, and were advected past the fixed profiling mooring by the onshore phase of semidiurnal internal tide bottom currents. At the start of the 9–16 October period, we observed intense near-bed vertical velocities capable of lifting particulates into the middle of the water column. This “updraft” event appears to have been associated with nonlinear adjustment of high-amplitude internal tides over the mid and outer shelf. These findings suggest that nonlinear internal tidal motions can erode material over the outer shelf and that, once suspended, this SPM can then be transported shoreward to the middle and shallow sections of the mud belt. This represents a fundamental broadening of our understanding of how shelf mud belts may be built up and sustained.

  13. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley study unit was investigated from July through October 2005 as part of the California Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 94 public-supply wells and 3 monitoring wells in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. Ninety-one of the public-supply wells sampled were selected to provide a spatially distributed, randomized monitoring network for statistical representation of the study area. Six wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry: three wells along a ground-water flow path were sampled to evaluate lateral changes, and three wells at discrete depths from land surface were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry with depth from land surface. The ground-water samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, pesticide degradates, nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, radioactivity, microbial indicators, and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, helium-4, and the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. In total, 270 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated for this study. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. In addition, regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. In this study, only six constituents, alpha radioactivity, N

  14. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, 2005-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000 square mile (2,590 km2) Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (MS) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in central California in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA MS study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers). The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 97 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the MS study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the MS study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or

  15. California State Waters Map Series—Monterey Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Maier, Katherine L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Greene, H. Gary; Davenport, Clifton W.; Endris, Charles A.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-06-10

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath bathymetry data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area lies within Monterey Bay in central California. Monterey Bay is one of the largest embayments along the west coast of the United States, spanning 36 km from its northern to southern tips (in Santa Cruz and Monterey, respectively) and 20 km along its central axis. Not only does it contain one of the broadest sections of continental shelf along California’s coast, it also contains Monterey Canyon, one of the largest and deepest submarine canyons in the world. Note that the California’s State Waters limit extends farther offshore between Santa Cruz and Monterey so that it encompasses all of Monterey Bay.The coastal area within the map area is lightly populated. The community of Moss Landing (population, 204) hosts the largest commercial fishing fleet in Monterey Bay in its harbor. The map area also includes parts of the cities of Marina (population, about 20,000) and Castroville (population, about 6,500). Fertile lowlands of the Salinas River and Pajaro River valleys largely occupy the inland part of the map area, and land use is primarily agricultural.The offshore part of the map area lies completely within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The

  16. Functional Comparison of the Naval Postgraduate School and Naval Support Activity, Monterey Bay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanft, Catherine

    1999-01-01

    .... By examining command flow diagrams, budgetary documents, and manpower listings, and conducting interviews with NPS and NSAMB personnel employed in these areas, the data acquired for this thesis...

  17. Variability of the internal tide on the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf and associated bottom boundary layer sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Kurt; Storlazzi, Curt; Cheriton, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    A 6-month deployment of instrumentation from April to October 2012 in 90 m water depth near the outer edge of the mid-shelf mud belt in southern Monterey Bay, California, reveals the importance regional upwelling on water column density structure, potentially accounting for the majority of the variability in internal tidal energy flux across the shelf. Observations consisted of time-series measurements of water-column currents, temperature and salinity, and near-bed currents and suspended matter. The internal tide accounted for 15–25% of the water-column current variance and the barotropic tide accounted for up to 35%. The subtidal flow showed remarkably little shear and was dominated by the 7–14 day band, which is associated with relaxations in the dominant equatorward winds typical of coastal California in the spring and summer. Upwelling and relaxation events resulted in strong near-bed flows and accounted for almost half of the current stress on the seafloor (not accounting for wave orbital velocities), and may have driven along-shelf geostrophic flow during steady state conditions. Several elevated suspended particulate matter (SPM) events occurred within 3 m of the bed and were generally associated with higher, long-period surface waves. However, these peaks in SPM did not coincide with the predicted resuspension events from the modeled combined wave–current shear stress, indicating that the observed SPM at our site was most likely resuspended elsewhere and advected along-isobath. Sediment flux was almost equal in magnitude in the alongshore and cross-shore directions. Instances of wave–current shear stress that exceeded the threshold of resuspension for the silty-clays common at these water depths only occurred when near-bed orbital velocities due to long-period surface waves coincided with vigorous near-bed currents associated with the internal tide or upwelling/relaxation events. Thus upwelling/relaxation dynamics are primarily responsible for

  18. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Bathymetry: Area B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution sonar data were collected over ultra-shallow areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  19. Monterey Bay Geoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    thought to be a flat disk. The first scientific hypothesis that the earth was spherical is credited to Thales of Milet in 600 B.C. or Pythagoras in 550...acceleration can be integrated over the surface, by Gauss’s theorem and gives: 35 v1 Wv2 <v3 Figure 12. Equipotential Surfaces and Gravity: V,, V2, V3 are...continuous derivatives where they satisfy Laplace’s equation. Stokes’ theorem states that a harmonic function outside a surface is uniquely determined by

  20. Sediment dynamics and the burial and exhumation of bedrock reefs along an emergent coastline as elucidated by repetitive sonar surveys: Northern Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C.D.; Fregoso, T.A.; Golden, N.E.; Finlayson, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Two high-resolution bathymetric and acoustic backscatter sonar surveys were conducted along the energetic emergent inner shelf of northern Monterey Bay, CA, USA, in the fall of 2005 and the spring of 2006 to determine the impact of winter storm waves, beach erosion, and river floods on biologically-important siliclastic bedrock reef habitats. The surveys extended from water depths of 4 m to 22 m and covered an area of 3.14 km2, 45.8% of which was bedrock, gravel, and coarse-grained sand and 54.2% was fine-grained sand. Our analyses of the bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data demonstrates that during the 6 months between surveys, 11.4% of the study area was buried by fine-grained sand while erosion resulted in the exposure of bedrock or coarse-grained sand over 26.5% of the study area. The probability of burial decreased with increasing water depth and rugosity; the probability of exhumation increased with increasing wave-induced near-bed shear stress, seabed slope and rugosity. Much of the detected change was at the boundary between bedrock and unconsolidated sediment due to sedimentation and erosion burying or exhuming bedrock, respectively. In a number of cases, however, the change in seabed character was apparently due to changes in sediment grain size when scour exposed what appeared to be an underlying coarser-grained lag or the burial of coarser-grained sand and gravel by fine-grained sand. These findings suggest that, in some places, (a) burial and exhumation of nearshore bedrock reefs along rocky, energetic inner shelves occurs over seasonal timescales and appears related to intrinsic factors such as seabed morphology and extrinsic factors such as wave forces, and (b) single acoustic surveys typically employed for geologic characterization and/or habitat mapping may not adequately characterize the geomorphologic and sedimentologic nature of these types of environments that typify most of the Pacific Ocean and up to 50% of the world's coastlines.

  1. Currents, temperature, conductivity, pressure, sigma-theta, and attenuation data from moorings deployed in Monterey Bay from platforms WILLIAM A. MCGAW, NOAA Ship McARTHUR, and POINT SUR from 1995-05-16 to 1998-08-17 (NODC Accession 0067571)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary data were part of a large, multi-disciplinary experiment to characterize the Sanctuary's geologic environment. These data...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS WASHINGTON in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1991-05-31 to 1991-07-11 (NODC Accession 0115000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115000 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS WASHINGTON in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary,...

  3. Isostatic gravity map of the Monterey 30 x 60 minute quadrangle and adjacent areas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Stiles, S.R.; Jachens, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    The digital dataset consists of one file (monterey_100k.iso) containing 2,385 gravity stations. The file, monterey_100k.iso, contains the principal facts of the gravity stations, with one point coded per line. The format of the data is described below. Each gravity station has a station name, location (latitude and longitude, NAD27 projection), elevation, and an observed gravity reading. The data are on the IGSN71 datum and the reference ellipsoid is the Geodetic Reference System 1967 (GRS67). The free-air gravity anomalies were calculated using standard formulas (Telford and others, 1976). The Bouguer, curvature, and terrain corrections were applied to the free-air anomaly at each station to determine the complete Bouguer gravity anomalies at a reduction density of 2.67 g/cc. An isostatic correction was then applied to remove the long-wavelength effect of deep crustal and/or upper mantle masses that isostatically support regional topography.

  4. Preparing to Predict: The Second Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN-II) Experiment in the Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-06

    MBARI buoy M2, profiling to 250 m depth (Figure 1). Instruments on board included a CTD, fluorometer, oxygen and nitrate sensors, bioluminescence, and...dimensional multiscale ocean variability: Massachusetts Bay. Journal of Marine Systems, Special issue on “Three-dimensional ocean circulation: Lagrangian...Oceanography”, T. Paluszkiewicz and S. Harper, Eds., Vol. 19, 1, 172-183. Liang, X.S. and Anderson, D.G.M. (2007) Multiscale Window Transform, SIAM J

  5. Analysis of a viral metagenomic library from 200 m depth in Monterey Bay, California constructed by direct shotgun cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Preston Christina M; Steward Grieg F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Viruses have a profound influence on both the ecology and evolution of marine plankton, but the genetic diversity of viral assemblages, particularly those in deeper ocean waters, remains poorly described. Here we report on the construction and analysis of a viral metagenome prepared from below the euphotic zone in a temperate, eutrophic bay of coastal California. Methods We purified viruses from approximately one cubic meter of seawater collected from 200m depth in Montere...

  6. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen.Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged.Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible.Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for

  7. Evaluating Bay Area Methane Emission Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jeong, Seongeun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    As a regulatory agency, evaluating and improving estimates of methane (CH4) emissions from the San Francisco Bay Area is an area of interest to the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). Currently, regional, state, and federal agencies generally estimate methane emissions using bottom-up inventory methods that rely on a combination of activity data, emission factors, biogeochemical models and other information. Recent atmospheric top-down measurement estimates of methane emissions for the US as a whole (e.g., Miller et al., 2013) and in California (e.g., Jeong et al., 2013; Peischl et al., 2013) have shown inventories underestimate total methane emissions by ~ 50% in many areas of California, including the SF Bay Area (Fairley and Fischer, 2015). The goal of this research is to provide information to help improve methane emission estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area. The research effort builds upon our previous work that produced methane emission maps for each of the major source sectors as part of the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project (http://calgem.lbl.gov/prior_emission.html; Jeong et al., 2012; Jeong et al., 2013; Jeong et al., 2014). Working with BAAQMD, we evaluate the existing inventory in light of recently published literature and revise the CALGEM CH4 emission maps to provide better specificity for BAAQMD. We also suggest further research that will improve emission estimates. To accomplish the goals, we reviewed the current BAAQMD inventory, and compared its method with those from the state inventory from the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the CALGEM inventory, and recent published literature. We also updated activity data (e.g., livestock statistics) to reflect recent changes and to better represent spatial information. Then, we produced spatially explicit CH4 emission estimates on the 1-km modeling grid used by BAAQMD. We present the detailed activity data, methods and derived emission maps by sector

  8. Managing small-scale commercial fisheries for adaptive capacity: insights from dynamic social-ecological drivers of change in Monterey Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Stacy E; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C; Carr, Mark H; Cinner, Joshua E; Crowder, Larry B; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C; Kittinger, John N; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience.

  9. Seasonal and Inter-Annual Patterns of Phytoplankton Community Structure in Monterey Bay, CA Derived from AVIRIS Data During the 2013-2015 HyspIRI Airborne Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S. L.; Thompson, D. R.; Kudela, R. M.; Negrey, K.; Guild, L. S.; Gao, B. C.; Green, R. O.; Torres-Perez, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    There is a need in the ocean color community to discriminate among phytoplankton groups within the bulk chlorophyll pool to understand ocean biodiversity, to track energy flow through ecosystems, and to identify and monitor for harmful algal blooms. Imaging spectrometer measurements enable use of sophisticated spectroscopic algorithms for applications such as differentiating among coral species, evaluating iron stress of phytoplankton, and discriminating phytoplankton taxa. These advanced algorithms rely on the fine scale, subtle spectral shape of the atmospherically corrected remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) spectrum of the ocean surface. As a consequence, these algorithms are sensitive to inaccuracies in the retrieved Rrs spectrum that may be related to the presence of nearby clouds, inadequate sensor calibration, low sensor signal-to-noise ratio, glint correction, and atmospheric correction. For the HyspIRI Airborne Campaign, flight planning considered optimal weather conditions to avoid flights with significant cloud/fog cover. Although best suited for terrestrial targets, the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has enough signal for some coastal chlorophyll algorithms and meets sufficient calibration requirements for most channels. However, the coastal marine environment has special atmospheric correction needs due to error that may be introduced by aerosols and terrestrially sourced atmospheric dust and riverine sediment plumes. For this HyspIRI campaign, careful attention has been given to the correction of AVIRIS imagery of the Monterey Bay to optimize ocean Rrs retrievals for use in estimating chlorophyll (OC3 algorithm) and phytoplankton functional type (PHYDOTax algorithm) data products. This new correction method has been applied to several image collection dates during two oceanographic seasons - upwelling and the warm, stratified oceanic period for 2013 and 2014. These two periods are dominated by either diatom blooms (occasionally

  10. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Central California (Including Monterey Bay Sanctuary), maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps have been developed for the coastal areas of Central California from Point Conception to Point Reyes National Seashore....

  11. Short-term variability of 7Be atmospheric deposition and watershed response in a Pacific coastal stream, Monterey Bay, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Christopher H.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Draut, Amy E.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Beryllium-7 is a powerful and commonly used tracer for environmental processes such as watershed sediment provenance, soil erosion, fluvial and nearshore sediment cycling, and atmospheric fallout. However, few studies have quantified temporal or spatial variability of 7Be accumulation from atmospheric fallout, and parameters that would better define the uses and limitations of this geochemical tracer. We investigated the abundance and variability of 7Be in atmospheric deposition in both rain events and dry periods, and in stream surface-water samples collected over a ten-month interval at sites near northern Monterey Bay (37°N, 122°W) on the central California coast, a region characterized by a rainy winters, dry summers, and small mountainous streams with flashy hydrology. The range of 7Be activity in rainwater samples from the main sampling site was 1.3–4.4 Bq L−1, with a mean (±standard deviation) of 2.2 ± 0.9 Bq L−1, and a volume-weighted average of 2.0 Bq L−1. The range of wet atmospheric deposition was 18–188 Bq m−2 per rain event, with a mean of 72 ± 53 Bq m−2. Dry deposition fluxes of 7Be ranged from less than 0.01 up to 0.45 Bq m−2 d−1, with an estimated dry season deposition of 7 Bq m−2 month−1. Annualized 7Be atmospheric deposition was approximately 1900 Bq m−2 yr−1, with most deposition via rainwater (>95%) and little via dry deposition. Overall, these activities and deposition fluxes are similar to values found in other coastal locations with comparable latitude and Mediterranean-type climate. Particulate 7Be values in the surface water of the San Lorenzo River in Santa Cruz, California, ranged from −1 to 0.6 Bq g−1, with a median activity of 0.26 Bq g−1. A large storm event in January 2010 characterized by prolonged flooding resulted in the entrainment of 7Be-depleted sediment, presumably from substantial erosion in the watershed. There were too few particulate 7Be data over the storm to accurately model a 7Be load

  12. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Critical Habitats, Wildlife Refuges, National Park lands, and other management areas in the Bristol Bay Subarea....

  13. San Francisco Bay Multi-beam Bathymetry: Area A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These multi-beam bathymetric data were collected over shallow subtidal areas in the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were...

  14. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Side Scan Imagery: Area A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter imagery data were collected over shallow subtidal areas in the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  15. Creating Safe Growth Strategies for the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report from a technical assistance project with the Association of Bay Area Governments to develop strategies to ensure that growth in the region is resilient to hazards such as earthquakes and sea level rise, but also affordable and transit accessible.

  16. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results, San Francisco Bay Area CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  17. Short-term variability of 7Be atmospheric deposition and watershed response in a Pacific coastal stream, Monterey Bay, California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conaway, Christopher H.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Draut, Amy E.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Beryllium-7 is a powerful and commonly used tracer for environmental processes such as watershed sediment provenance, soil erosion, fluvial and nearshore sediment cycling, and atmospheric fallout. However, few studies have quantified temporal or spatial variability of 7 Be accumulation from atmospheric fallout, and parameters that would better define the uses and limitations of this geochemical tracer. We investigated the abundance and variability of 7 Be in atmospheric deposition in both rain events and dry periods, and in stream surface-water samples collected over a ten-month interval at sites near northern Monterey Bay (37°N, 122°W) on the central California coast, a region characterized by a rainy winters, dry summers, and small mountainous streams with flashy hydrology. The range of 7 Be activity in rainwater samples from the main sampling site was 1.3–4.4 Bq L −1 , with a mean (±standard deviation) of 2.2 ± 0.9 Bq L −1 , and a volume-weighted average of 2.0 Bq L −1 . The range of wet atmospheric deposition was 18–188 Bq m −2 per rain event, with a mean of 72 ± 53 Bq m −2 . Dry deposition fluxes of 7 Be ranged from less than 0.01 up to 0.45 Bq m −2 d −1 , with an estimated dry season deposition of 7 Bq m −2 month −1 . Annualized 7 Be atmospheric deposition was approximately 1900 Bq m −2 yr −1 , with most deposition via rainwater (>95%) and little via dry deposition. Overall, these activities and deposition fluxes are similar to values found in other coastal locations with comparable latitude and Mediterranean-type climate. Particulate 7 Be values in the surface water of the San Lorenzo River in Santa Cruz, California, ranged from −1 to 0.6 Bq g −1 , with a median activity of 0.26 Bq g −1 . A large storm event in January 2010 characterized by prolonged flooding resulted in the entrainment of 7 Be-depleted sediment, presumably from substantial erosion in the watershed. There were too few particulate 7 Be data over the storm

  18. Tectonic framework of the Hanoe Bay area, southern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannaes, K.O.; Floden, T.

    1994-06-01

    The tectonic framework and the general geologic development of the Hanoe Bay, from the Scanian coast in the west to south of Oeland in the east, has been investigated by means of reflection seismic methods. The Hanoe Bay is in this paper subdivided into four areas of different geologic settings. These are: 1) The Hanoe Bay slope, which forms a southward dipping continuation of the rigid Blekinge coastal plain. 2) The eastward dipping Kalmarsund Slope, which southwards from Oeland forms the western part of the Paleozoic Baltic Syneclise. 3) The Mesozoic Hanoe Bay Halfgraben, which forms the central and southern parts of the Hanoe Bay. The ongoing subsidence of the Halfgraben is estimated to be in the order of 20-60 m during the Quaternary. 4) The Yoldia Structural Element, which forms a deformed, tilted and possibly rotated block of Paleozoic bedrock located east of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. Two tectonic phases dominate the post-Paleozoic development of the Hanoe Bay, these are: 1) The Early Kimmerian phase, which initiated subsidence and reactivated older faults. 2) The Late Cretaceous phase, which is the main subsidence phase of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. The tectonic fault pattern of the Hanoe Bay is dominated by three directions, i.e. NW-SE, NE-SW and WNW-ESE. The two main tectonic elements of the area are the Kullen-Christiansoe Ridge System (NW-SE) and the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone (NE-SW). Sinistral strike-slip movements in order of 2-3 km are interpreted to have occurred along the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone during the late Cretaceous. 20 refs, 19 figs

  19. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-08-18

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath bathymetry data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Offshore of Monterey map area in central California is located on the Pacific Coast, about 120 km south of San Francisco. Incorporated cities in the map area include Seaside, Monterey, Marina, Pacific Grove, Carmel-by-the-Sea, and Sand City. The local economy receives significant resources from tourism, as well as from the Federal Government. Tourist attractions include the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fisherman’s Wharf, and the many golf courses near Pebble Beach, and the area serves as a gateway to the spectacular scenery and outdoor activities along the Big Sur coast to the south. Federal facilities include the Army’s Defense Language Institute, the Naval Postgraduate School, and the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (operated by the Navy). In 1994, Fort Ord army base, located between Seaside and Marina, was closed; much of former army base land now makes up the Fort Ord National Monument, managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. In addition, part of the old Fort Ord is now occupied by California State University, Monterey Bay.The offshore part of the map area lies entirely within the Monterey Bay National

  20. Conservation of biodiversity in the Sango Bay area, southern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of biodiversity and socio-economic surveys carried out in the Sango Bay area of southern Uganda revealed high biodiversity values for some taxa in some sites. Use of this biodiversity and reliance on it by local communities was widespread. Biodiversity scores were given to all species and these were coupled with ...

  1. Solar for Your Present Home. San Francisco Bay Area Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, Charles S.; And Others

    This publication provides information about present uses of solar energy for space, water, and swimming pool heating that are practical for the San Francisco Bay area. It attempts to provide interested persons with the information needed to make decisions regarding installations of solar heating systems. The point of view taken is that any…

  2. Cost Benefit Analysis of the Monterey Pines Golf Course

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zielinski, Matthew

    2000-01-01

    ..., the government-operated course in the Monterey area. The main purpose of this thesis is to examine the costs and benefits of having a government-operated course in Monterey, where the golf market is extremely competitive, and to examine alternatives...

  3. Deformed glacial deposits of Passamaquoddy Bay area, New Brunswick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarapeli, S.

    1990-03-01

    The New Brunswick-Maine border area, centred around Passamaquoddy Bay, is characterized by a distinctly higher level of seismic activity compared with the very low level background activity of the region. In this same general area, post-glacial deformation including faulting, has been observed in glaciofluvial and ice contact deposits and the possibility that these structures may in some way related to neotectonic movements in the area has been suggested. A study was undertaken to document these structures and to investigate their origin. The studies show that structures related to collapse of sediments due to melting of buried ice masses are the most prominent post-depositional structures in the glacial sediments. A second group of structures includes failure phenomena such as slumping. These require the action of a mechanism leading to reduction of sediment strength which could be achieved by seismic shaking. However, such failure phenomena could also be brought about by non-seismic processes, thus a unique interpretation of the origin of these structures is difficult, if not impossible. Since seismic shaking is the most effective, regionally extensive trigger of a broad group of failure phenomena in soft sediments, the related structures are usually spread over a large area, but are restricted to a very short time gap. Although the establishment of such space and time relationships may be feasible, for example in extensive lake deposits, it is difficult to do so in patchy laterally variable deposits such as the glacial deposits in Passamaquoddy Bay area

  4. Monterey MRWPCA Interceptor Pipeline 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Monterey Interceptor between Seaside Pump Station and Monterey Beach Resort is buried in the dunes, approximately 100 to 175 feet from the dune bluff. Between...

  5. Monterey MRWPCA Interceptor Pipeline 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Monterey Interceptor between Seaside Pump Station and Monterey Beach Resort is buried in the dunes, approximately 100 to 175 feet from the dune bluff. Between...

  6. Ospreys Use Bald Eagle Nests in Chesapeake Bay Area

    OpenAIRE

    Therres, Glenn D.; Chandler, Sheri K.

    1993-01-01

    Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) share similar breeding habitat in the Chesapeake Bay area and elsewhere. The nests of these species are similar in size and appearance. Ospreys typically build large stick nests in dead trees or on man-made structures (C.J. Henny et al. 1974, Chesapeake Sci. 15:125-133; A.F. Poole 1989, Ospreys: a natural and unnatural history, Cambridge Univ. Press, NY), while Bald Eagles usually build larger nests in live trees (P.B. Woo...

  7. Seasonal and Inter-Annual Patterns of Chlorophyll and Phytoplankton Community Structure in Monterey Bay, CA Derived from AVIRIS Data During the 2013-2015 HyspIRI Airborne Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S. L.; Thompson, D. R.; Kudela, R. M.; Negrey, K.; Guild, L. S.; Gao, B. C.; Green, R. O.; Torres-Perez, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    There is a need in the ocean color community to discriminate among phytoplankton groups within the bulk chlorophyll pool to understand ocean biodiversity, track energy flow through ecosystems, and identify and monitor for harmful algal blooms. Imaging spectrometer measurements enable the use of sophisticated spectroscopic algorithms for applications such as differentiating among coral species and discriminating phytoplankton taxa. These advanced algorithms rely on the fine scale, subtle spectral shape of the atmospherically corrected remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) spectrum of the ocean surface. Consequently, these algorithms are sensitive to inaccuracies in the retrieved Rrs spectrum that may be related to the presence of nearby clouds, inadequate sensor calibration, low sensor signal-to-noise ratio, glint correction, and atmospheric correction. For the HyspIRI Airborne Campaign, flight planning considered optimal weather conditions to avoid flights with significant cloud/fog cover. Although best suited for terrestrial targets, the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has enough signal for some coastal chlorophyll algorithms and meets sufficient calibration requirements for most channels. The coastal marine environment has special atmospheric correction needs due to error introduced by aerosols and terrestrially sourced atmospheric dust and riverine sediment plumes. For this HyspIRI campaign, careful attention has been given to the correction of AVIRIS imagery of the Monterey Bay to optimize ocean Rrs retrievals to estimate chlorophyll (OC3) and phytoplankton functional type (PHYDOTax) data products. This new correction method has been applied to several image collection dates during two oceanographic seasons in 2013 and 2014. These two periods are dominated by either diatom blooms or red tides. Results to be presented include chlorophyll and phytoplankton community structure and in-water validation data for these dates during the two seasons.

  8. Petroleum possibilities of the James Bay Lowland area: Drilling in the James Bay Lowland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martison, N W

    1954-12-31

    Interest in the possible occurrence of petroleum and natural gas in the James Bay lowland arises from the presence there of Palaeozoic sedimentary formations resembling those in south-western Ontario. The first part of this report reviews earlier geologic surveys conducted in the lowland and reports results of field work and drill core studies 1946-51. It describes the area`s topography, climate, stratigraphy and palaeontology (Ordovician to Lower Cretaceous, plus Pleistocene and recent glacial deposits), structural geology, and evidence of petroleum. Lists of fossils and correlations are included. The appendices include a list of fossil locations and drill logs. The second part details the drilling programs carried out in the lowland by the Ontario Dept. of Mines, including detailed logs, as well as drilling carried out by some other organisations.

  9. 33 CFR 334.860 - San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Amphibious Base; restricted area. 334.860 Section 334.860 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area. (a) The Area. The water of the Pacific Ocean in Middle San Diego Bay in an area extending from the northern and eastern boundary of the Naval Amphibious...

  10. 33 CFR 162.15 - Manhasset Bay, N.Y.; seaplane restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manhasset Bay, N.Y.; seaplane... Bay, N.Y.; seaplane restricted area. (a) The restricted area. An area in Manhasset Bay between the... line bearing 166°50′ true from latitude 40°50′17.337 N, longitude 73°43′03.877 W, which point is on the...

  11. Status, trends, and changes in freshwater inflows to bay systems in the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program study area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, W.H.; Mosier, J. G.; Bush, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to quantify current (1983–93) mean freshwater inflows to the six bay systems (open water and wetlands) in the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program study area, to test for historical temporal trends in inflows, and to quantify historical and projected changes in inflows. The report also addresses the adequacy of existing data to estimate freshwater inflows.

  12. 33 CFR 334.310 - Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; navy amphibious training area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; navy amphibious training area. 334.310 Section 334.310 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....310 Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; navy amphibious training area. (a) The restricted area. Beginning...

  13. Determining Marine Renewable Energy Areas in the Bay of Fundy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, R.; Roc, T.; O'Flaherty-Sproul, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Bay of Fundy has the world's highest tides and several excellent sites for the development of in-stream tidal energy. In particular, Minas Passage in the upper Bay of Fundy has been identified as a site with the theoretical potential to produce over 2000 MW of power. Recently, the Nova Scotia government has enacted legislation to define Marine Renewable Energy Areas where tidal energy will be developed. As part of this process, the practical potential of the regions in the upper Bay of Fundy must be accurately quantified. To assist in this process, we have conducted a practical resource assement of the region. The resource asssesment includes an analysis of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the region. The assessment uses the simulations data from a high-resolution, multi-layered, unstructured-grid, coastal-ocean model (FVCOM). The numerical model has been validated through comparison to numerous measurements of tdial flow from ADCPs, surface drifters and X-band radar. The simulations data is used to estimate the power production of different turbine technologies across the study area. The technologies will have varying hub-height and power curves. Other characteristics of the flow (i.e., water depth, variation in flow) will be used to determine if sites are more or less suitable for turbine deployment. As well, the numerical data will be used to design practical layouts for turbine farms, that have suitable spacing of turbines to allow deployment and minimize the interaction of wakes. The final output will be a prediction of the number of turbines and the power production of an array for a given region. The results of the analysis of the simulation data will be processed into a series of GIS layers. These will be combined with other indications of suitability for deployment of a turbine array: for example, geo-technical, marine conditions, environmental factors, social factors, proximity to on-shore infrastructure etc. The final GIS tool will allow the user

  14. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1...

  15. The End of Monterey Submarine Canyon Incision and Potential River Source Areas-Os, Nd, and Pb Isotope Constraints from Hydrogenetic Fe-Mn Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, T. A.; Nielsen, S.; Ehrenbrink, B. P. E.; Blusztajn, J.; Hein, J. R.; Paytan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Monterey Canyon off central California is the largest submarine canyon off North America and is comparable in scale to the Grand Canyon. The age and history of the Monterey Canyon are poorly constrained due to thick sediment cover and sediment disruption from turbidity currents. To address this deficit we analyzed isotopic proxies (Os, Pb, Nd) from hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts, which grow over millions of years on elevated rock surfaces by precipitation of metals from seawater. Fe-Mn crusts were studied from Davidson Seamount near the base of the Monterey submarine fan, the Taney Seamount Chain, and from Hoss Seamount, which serves as a regional control (Fig.). Fe-Mn crusts were dated using Os isotope ratios compared to those that define the Cenozoic Os isotope seawater curve. Four Fe-Mn crust samples from Davidson and Taney Seamounts deviate from the Os isotopic seawater curve towards radiogenic values after 4.5±1 Ma. Osmium is well mixed in the global ocean and is not subject to significant diffusive reequilibration in Fe-Mn crusts. We therefore attribute deviations from the Os isotope seawater curve to large-scale terrestrial input that ended about 4.5±1 Ma. The two Davidson samples also show more radiogenic Nd isotope values from about 4.5±1 Ma. Lead isotopes in one Davidson Seamount crust, measured by LA-ICPMS, deviate from regional values after 4.5±1 Ma for about 500 ka towards terrestrial sources. The Taney Seamount Fe-Mn crust does not deviate from regional Nd nor Pb isotope values due to its greater distance from Monterey Canyon and the shorter marine residence times of Nd and Pb. Isotope plots of our crust data and compiled data for potential source rocks indicate that the river that carved Monterey Canyon carried sediment with values closer to the Sierra Nevada than to a Colorado Plateau source, with cessation of major riverine input occurring approximately 4.5±1 Ma, an age that we interpret as the end of the Monterey Canyon

  16. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Liu; Jing Li; Qianmei Zhang; Hualin Xu; Fanghong Xu

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the ways in which levels of invasions by alien species are correlated with environmental factors is helpful to manage the negative impacts of these invasive species. Two tropical coastal areas in South China, Shenzhen Bay and Leizhou Bay, are national nature reserves, but they are threatened by invasive plants. Here, we investigated the level of...

  17. [Mercury concentration of fish in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Kashima, Y; Matsui, M; Okabe, T; Doi, R

    2001-07-01

    Total mercury in the muscles of three fish species was analyzed in fish caught in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea areas, Sagami Bay and Choshi. Tokyo Bay is a semi-closed sea area surrounded by Tokyo, Kanagawa and Chiba prefectures. Sagami Bay and Choshi are open to the Pacific Ocean. A total of 412 fish consisting of northern whiting (Sillago japonica), flatfish (Limanda yokohamae) and sardine (Sardinops melanosticta) were caught in these areas over a 6 months period from November 1998 to April 1999. Total mercury concentration ranged from 0.008-0.092 microgram/g (wet wt.) in northern whiting, 0.006-0.065 microgram/g in flatfish and 0.001-0.045 microgram/g in sardine. All concentrations were below the restriction limit of fish mercury in Japan, 0.4 microgram/g of total mercury concentration. A significant correlation was found between mercury concentrations and body length or body weight in northern whiting and flatfish, irrespective of the sea area. A correlation was also found between mercury concentration in fish and their feeding habits: among the 3 species caught in the same area, crustacean feeding northern whiting had the highest, polychaete feeding flatfish moderate, and plankton feeding sardine had the lowest mercury concentration. In a comparison of mercury concentration in the same species caught in different sea areas, a higher concentration was noted in fish caught in the semi-closed sea area of Tokyo Bay, than in fish caught in the open sea areas of Sagami Bay and Choshi. This difference was most marked in fish caught at the bottom of Tokyo Bay and we considered that the mercury concentration of seawater and sediment in these areas was the cause of mercury accumulation in fish. These findings suggest that improved water quality control and environmental monitoring is necessary in semi-closed sea areas such as Tokyo Bay.

  18. California Counties and San Francisco Bay Area Watershed Boundaries, California, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data layers represent CA counties and the Bay Area Watersheds. These data layers aid in identifying counties and watersheds where the grant projects occur.

  19. San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) climate change adaptation assessment pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District : (BART) infrastructure and to develop and implement adaptation strategies against those impacts. Climate change haza...

  20. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Sixth Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration that includes 13 advanced-d...

  1. Analysis of Level of Technogenic Impact on Water Area of Uglovoy Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, V. I.; Petrova, E. A.; Losev, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    Industrial effluent discharge and man-induced soil fills play a decisive role in increased pollutant concentrations. Several areas which are unfavorable in terms of the heavy metal and oil product content have been identified by the environmental monitoring results in the Uglovoy Bay in February 2015. Maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) of heavy metals and oil products were exceeded in the northeastern part of the Uglovoy Bay in locations where the Peschanka River and the Aerodromnaya River drain into the sea. Integral heavy-metal index calculations showed that this area is the most polluted in the Uglovoy Bay. Other significantly polluted areas were identified off the Zima Yuzhnaya settlement in the mouth of the bay and in vicinity of the low-level bridge.

  2. 75 FR 15343 - Regulated Navigation Area: Narragansett Bay, RI and Mount Hope Bay, RI and MA, Including the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ...: Narragansett Bay, RI and Mount Hope Bay, RI and MA, Including the Providence River and Taunton River AGENCY... River and Mount Hope Bay in the vicinity of the two Brightman Street bridges have not been adopted and... Island and Mt. Hope Bay, MA.'' The notice was prompted primarily by two events: (1) The U.S. Army Corps...

  3. Improved Storm Monitoring and Prediction for the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Chandrasekar, V.; Anderson, M.; Davis, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information (AQPI) System is a multi-faceted project to improve precipitation and hydrologic monitoring, prediction, and decision support for the San Francisco Bay Area. The Bay Area faces a multitude of threats from extreme events, including disrupted transportation from flooded roads and railroad lines, water management challenges related to storm water, river and reservoir management and storm-related damage demanding emergency response. The threats occur on spatial scales ranging from local communities to the entire region and time scales ranging from hours to days. These challenges will be exacerbated by future sea level rise, more extreme weather events and increased vulnerabilities. AQPI is a collaboration of federal, state and local governments with assistance from the research community. Led by NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory, in partnership with the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, USGS, and Scripps, AQPI is a four-year effort funded in part by a grant from the California Department of Water Resource's Integrated Regional Water Management Program. The Sonoma County Water Agency is serving as the local sponsor of the project. Other local participants include the Santa Clara Valley Water District, San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, and the Bay Area Flood Protection Agencies Association. AQPI will provide both improved observing capabilities and a suite of numerical forecast models to produce accurate and timely information for benefit of flood management, emergency response, water quality, ecosystem services, water supply and transportation management for the Bay Area. The resulting information will support decision making to mitigate flood risks, secure water supplies, minimize water quality impacts to the Bay from combined sewer overflows, and have improved lead-time on coastal and Bay inundation from extreme storms like Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). The project is expected to

  4. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in riverine and marine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaohui; Tang Jianhui; Chen Yingjun; Li Jun; Zhang Gan

    2011-01-01

    PCN congeners were analyzed in marine and riverine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China. Concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.12 to 5.1 ng g -1 dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 1.1 ng g -1 dw. The levels of PCNs varied largely, with industrial group approximately ten folds higher than those of the rural in riverine sediment. A strong impact by direct discharge from local factories was suggested. Similar compositional profiles were found within groups. High resemblance of compositional profiles between industrial samples and Halowax 1014 was observed. It was indicated that PCNs in riverine sediments were mainly from release of industrial usage, with additional contributions from industrial thermal process at certain sites. In marine sediments, it was suggested that PCNs along the coast of Laizhou Bay were mainly controlled by riverine input. While in the central bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - Highlights: → We investigated the PCN levels both in the riverine and marine surface sediments of Laizhou Bay. → PCN concentrations in the river sediments of industrial group were ten times higher than in the rural group. → Leakage from industrial materials and thermal processes were the major sources. → PCNs in the coastal sites were more influenced by the river discharge. → In the centre bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - A systematic sampling of riverine and marine sediments was conducted in Laizhou Bay area to investigate the distribution and possible sources of PCNs.

  5. 77 FR 62437 - Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking RNA Regulated Navigation Area I. Regulatory History and Information On July 25, 2012, we published a Notice of... Bay Columbus Day regulated navigation area (RNA), established in 2011 and contained in 33 CFR 165.779...

  6. Self-Nonself Recognition in the Colonial Protochordate Botryllus schlosseri from Mutsu Bay, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    RINKEVICH, BARUCH; SAITO, YASUNORI

    1992-01-01

    Wild Botryllus schlosseri collected from a 5 × 5 m area in Mutsu Bay (Aomori Prefecture, Japan) were tested for alloresponses in intrapopulation colony allorecognition assays (CAAs). Results indicate that rejection patterns are similar to those recorded previously in the populations from Monterey and Santa Barbara, California, from the Mediterranean coast of Israel, and from the Venetian lagoon, Italy. The only difference was the marked accumulation of bright-yellow blood cells in the tips of...

  7. Paleontology and stratigraphy of the Upper Triassic Kamishak Formation in the Puale Bay-Cape Kekurnoi-Alinchak Bay area, Karluk C-4 and C-5 quadrangle

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the paleontological character and stratigraphy of the Kamishak Formation in the Puale Bay–Cape Kekurnoi–Alinchak Bay area, Karluk C-4 and C-5...

  8. 78 FR 40651 - Regulated Navigation Area; Special Buzzards Bay Vessel Regulation, Buzzards Bay, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Carrier Program RNA Regulated Navigation Area RA Technical Risk Assessment VMRS Vessel Movement Reporting... avoid the fragmentation of regulatory regimes as a vessel transits across State [[Page 40652

  9. HEAVY METAL CONTENTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS AND SEAWATER AT TOTOK BAY AREA, NORTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyuzar Ilahude

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in north-eastern part of Tomini Bay, approximately 80 km south of Manado city, North Sulawesi. This area is closed to submarine tailing disposal system in Buyat Bay. Five marine sediment samples and four water samples from seawater and dig wells have been used for heavy metals (Hg, As, CN analyses by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. This study is a part of research conducted by Marine Geological Institute of Indonesia on morphological changes of seabed in the Totok Bay. The result shows that concentration of mercury (Hg in water samples taken from Ratatotok estuary is higher than standards stipulated Government Regulation (Peraturan Pemerintah/PP No. 82/2001. Meanwhile, concentration of arsenic (As is almost reaching its standard threshold, and conversely cyanide (CN concentration is low. This value of mercury (Hg concentration taken from Ratatotok estuary is much higher than water samples from of Buyat Bay estuary. Significant concentration of mercury (Hg analysed from those particular sampling sites indicated high mercury contamination. Therefore, further examination on ground water of dig wells is necessary, especially for mercury analysis (Hg. Furthermore, comparing the formerly obtained data of mercury concentration in the sediment, this particular study concludes that the sediments in the Totok Bay had contaminated by mercury from gold-processing of illegal mining.

  10. Evaluation and analysis of underground brine resources in the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, M.; Zhu, H. T.; Feng, J.; Zhao, Q. S.

    2016-08-01

    The southern coastal districts of Laizhou Bay are some of the most important areas for underground brine exploitation in Shandong Province. Recently, these areas have been gradually developed by the underground brine mining industry. Such economic interest has led to brine exploitation so that underground brine resources are running out. Based on this phenomenon, this study describes the supply, runoff and draining conditions of the area by collecting and organizing the background information of the studied area. Hydrogeological parameters are then calculated according to pumping tests, and the amount of sustainable resources in the coastal areas of the Southern Bank of Laizhou Bay are then calculated based on the uniform distribution of wells. Under the circumstances of underground brine mining, the exploitation potential of the underground brine is evaluated in accordance with the calculation results of exploitation quantum. Finally, suggestions are provided for the sustainable exploitation of underground brine in the area.

  11. Job Sharing in the Schools: A Study of Nine Bay Area Districts. A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Ways to Work, Palo Alto, CA.

    Under job sharing, two people share responsibility for one full-time position. Each person has a permanent, part-time job with salary and fringe benefits prorated according to hours worked. Job sharing has been available in some Bay Area school districts for the last four years. For this preliminary report, nine districts--Alum rock, Fremont,…

  12. 76 FR 31895 - Regulated Navigation Area; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... navigation area (RNA) in certain waters of the Magothy River, in Sillery Bay, Maryland, on July 23, 2011. This RNA is necessary to provide for the safety of life, property and the environment. This RNA... number is 202-366-9329. To avoid duplication, please use only one of these four methods. See the ``Public...

  13. Networked but No System: Educational Innovation among Bay Area Jewish Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin Ross, Renee

    2017-01-01

    A widely read article from this journal explores innovative Jewish educational programs, initiatives, and organizations, arguing that these share a comdmitment to being "learner-centered" and recommending that a system be created to foster collaboration among them (Woocher, 2012). Using five San Francisco Bay Area-based…

  14. 33 CFR 334.635 - Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hillsborough Bay and waters... Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.635 Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area...

  15. 33 CFR 162.20 - Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area. 162.20 Section 162.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.20 Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area. (a...

  16. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia. 334.300 Section 334.300 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.300 Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted...

  17. Hydrogeological Study of Mangrove Areas Around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gerson Cardoso da Silva Júnior;; Carlos Eduardo Braga; Ingrid de Carvalho Lage

    2003-01-01

    The study area covers part of the mangrove belt located around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Representing a continental-marine transition, the mangrove ecosystem is very susceptible to environmental variations and impacts. The vegetation cover plays an important role in prevention of erosion and contamination processes in those areas. An ongoing extensive research effort in the Petrochemical Complex of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, focuses on the man-induced cha...

  18. Uranium occurrences of the Thunder Bay-Nipigon-Marathon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the 1981, 1982 and 1983 field seasons an inventory of all known uranium occurrences in the North Central Region of Ontario was undertaken. Three major categories of uranium occurrences were identified: uranium associated with the rocks of the Quetico Subprovince; uranium associated with the Proterozoic/Archean unconformity; and uranium associated with alkalic and carbonatite rocks of Late Precambrian age. Occurrences associated with the Quetico Belt are in white, albite-quartz-muscovite pegmatites. Occurrences associated with the Proterozoic/Archean unconformity are usually of high gradee (up to 12% U 3 O 8 ), nearly always hematized and are related to fault or shear zones proximal to the unconformity. Although of high grade, many of the unconformity related occurrences are very narrow (<1 m). Alkalic and carbonatite rocks of Late Precambrian age are an important source of uranium but possible metallurgical problems might downgrade their potential. The Quetico Subprovince is anomalously high in background uranium, and therefore contains important source rocks for uranium. Areas that have the highest potential for uranium deposits in the North Central Region are the Nipigon Basin area, and the areas underlain by the Gunflint and Rove Formations. All the high grade vein-type uranium deposits related to the unconformity are found within the Nipigon Basin. 126 refs

  19. Bayes-Based Fault Discrimination in Wide Area Backup Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG, Z.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical analysis is an effective tool to finish the fault location for electric power system. In Bayesian discriminant analysis as a subbranch, by the research of several populations, one can calculate the conditional probability that some samples belong to these populations, and compare the corresponding probability. The sample will be classified as population with maximum probability. In this paper, based on Bayesian discriminant analysis principle, a great number of simulation examples have confirmed that the results of Bayesian fault discriminant in wide area backup protection are accurate and reliable.

  20. New fault picture points toward San Francisco Bay area earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent earthquakes and a new way of looking at faults suggest that damaging earthquakes are closing in on the San Francisco area. Earthquakes Awareness Week 1989 in northern California started off with a bang on Monday, 3 April, when a magnitude 4.8 earthquake struck 15 kilometers northeast of San Jose. The relatively small shock-its primary damage was the shattering of an air-control tower window-got the immediate attention of three U.S Geological Survey seismologists in Menlo Park near San Francisco. David Oppenheimer, William Bakun, and Allan Lindh had forecast a nearby earthquake in a just completed report, and this, they thought, might be it. 

  1. 33 CFR 334.778 - Pensacola Bay and waters contiguous to the Naval Air Station, Pensacola, FL; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pensacola Bay and waters... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.778 Pensacola Bay and waters contiguous to the Naval Air Station, Pensacola...

  2. Smart Parking Management Field Test: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In almost every major city in the U.S. and internationally, parking problems are ubiquitous. It is well known that the limited availability of parking contributes to roadway congestion, air pollution, and driver frustration and that the cost of expanding traditional parking capacity is frequently prohibitive. However, less research has addressed the effect of insufficient parking at transit stations on transit use. In the San Francisco Bay Area, parking has recently been at or near capacity a...

  3. Smart Parking Management Pilot Project: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan; Rodier, Caroline; Eaken, Amanda M.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents early findings from an application of advanced parking technologies to maximize existing parking capacity at the Rockridge BART station, which was launched in December 2004 in the East San Francisco Bay Area. The smart parking system includes traffic sensors that count the number of vehicles entering and exiting the parking lots at the station. A reservation system allows travelers to reserve spaces by Internet, personal digital assistant (PDA), phone, and cell phone. The...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1320 - Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1320 Kuluk Bay, Adak...: Beginning on shore at latitude 51°55′00″ N, longitude 176°33′09″ W; thence due east to latitude 51°55′00″ N, longitude 176°33′09″ W; thence due south to latitude 51°51′55″ N longitude 176°31′09″ W; thence due west to...

  5. Earthquakes and faults in the San Francisco Bay area (1970-2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Calzia, James P.; Walter, Stephen R.; Wong, Florence L.; Saucedo, George J.

    2004-01-01

    The map depicts both active and inactive faults and earthquakes magnitude 1.5 to 7.0 in the greater San Francisco Bay area. Twenty-two earthquakes magnitude 5.0 and greater are indicated on the map and listed chronologically in an accompanying table. The data are compiled from records from 1970-2003. The bathymetry was generated from a digital version of NOAA maps and hydrogeographic data for San Francisco Bay. Elevation data are from the USGS National Elevation Database. Landsat satellite image is from seven Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus scenes. Fault data are reproduced with permission from the California Geological Survey. The earthquake data are from the Northern California Earthquake Catalog.

  6. Metropolitan Transportation Commission, San Francisco Bay area : developing regional objectives and performance measures to improve system operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) uses an objectives-driven, performance-based approach in its transportation planning for the San Francisco Bay Area. This approach focuses attention on transportation investments of highest priority. T...

  7. 2010 Northern San Francisco Bay Area Lidar: Portions of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Solano, and Sonoma Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of northern San Francisco Bay, California. The project area consists of approximately 437 square miles...

  8. When it happens again: impact of future San Francisco Bay area earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M.; Boatwright, J.; Kornfield, L.; Scawthorn, C.; Rojahn, C.

    2005-12-01

    San Francisco Bay area earthquakes, like major floods and hurricanes, have the potential for massive damage to dense urban population centers concentrated in vulnerable zones-along active faults, in coastal regions, and along major river arteries. The recent destruction of Hurricane Katrina does have precedent in the destruction following the 1906 "San Francisco" earthquake and fire in which more than 3000 people were killed and 225,000 were left homeless in San Francisco alone, a city of 400,000 at the time. Analysis of a comprehensive set of damage reports from the magnitude (M) 7.9 1906 earthquake indicates a region of ~ 18,000 km2 was subjected to shaking of Modified Mercalli Intensity of VIII or more - motions capable of damaging even modern, well-built structures; more than 60,000 km2 was subjected to shaking of Intensity VII or greater - the threshold for damage to masonry and poorly designed structures. By comparison, Katrina's hurricane force winds and intense rainfall impacted an area of ~100,000 km2 on the Gulf Coast. Thus, the anticipated effects of a future major Bay Area quake to lives, property, and infrastructure are comparable in scale to Katrina. Secondary hazards (levee failure and flooding in the case of Katrina and fire following the 1906 earthquake) greatly compounded the devastation in both disasters. A recent USGS-led study concluded there is a 62% chance of one or more damaging (M6.7 or greater) earthquakes striking the greater San Francisco Bay area over the next 30 years. The USGS prepared HAZUS loss estimates for the 10 most likely forecast earthquakes which range in size from a M6.7 event on a blind thrust to the largest anticipated event, a M7.9 repeat of the 1906 earthquake. The largest economic loss is expected for a repeat of the 1906 quake. Losses in the Bay region for this event are nearly double those predicted for a M6.9 rupture of the entire Hayward Fault in the East Bay. However, because of high density of population along the

  9. COMPARING SEA LEVEL RESPONSE AT MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA FROM THE 1989 LOMA PRIETA EARTHQUAKE AND THE 1964 GREAT ALASKAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Breaker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two of the largest earthquakes to affect water levels in Monterey Bay in recent years were the Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPE of 1989 with a moment magnitude of 6.9, and the Great Alaskan Earthquake (GAE of 1964 with a moment magnitude of 9.2. In this study, we compare the sea level response of these events with a primary focus on their frequency content and how the bay affected it, itself. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA was employed to extract the primary frequencies associated with each event. It is not clear how or exactly where the tsunami associated with the LPE was generated, but it occurred inside the bay and most likely began to take on the characteristics of a seiche by the time it reached the tide gauge in Monterey Harbor. Results of the SSA decomposition revealed two primary periods of oscillation, 9-10 minutes, and 31-32 minutes. The first oscillation is in agreement with the range of periods for the expected natural oscillations of Monterey Harbor, and the second oscillation is consistent with a bay-wide oscillation or seiche mode. SSA decomposition of the GAE revealed several sequences of oscillations all with a period of approximately 37 minutes, which corresponds to the predicted, and previously observed, transverse mode of oscillation for Monterey Bay. In this case, it appears that this tsunami produced quarter-wave resonance within the bay consistent with its seiche-like response. Overall, the sea level responses to the LPE and GAE differed greatly, not only because of the large difference in their magnitudes but also because the driving force in one case occurred inside the bay (LPE, and in the second, outside the bay (GAE. As a result, different modes of oscillation were excited.

  10. MONITORING MANGROVE AREA IN BENOA BAY USING LANDSAT TM AND ETM + DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Made Ari Sugianthi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystems are crucial for the management of some coastal resources in Indonesia. Thisresearch used Landsat TM 1994, Landsat ETM+ 2002 with the purpose to know mangrove area change foreight years, mangrove density and accuracy of image as source of data to mangrove area in Benoa Bay. Fromimage analysis that using maximum likelihood method, the mangrove is classified into 3 classes i.e.:mangroves with high density, medium density and low density. For the ground check, used single plotmethod by using 6 trees.The extent of mangrove area in Benoa Bay were 447.69 ha in 1994 and 622.08 ha in 2002. Thechange of the extent of mangrove area during 8 years (1994 – 2002 increased by 174.41 ha. The area ofdensities in 1994, high density was 225.15 ha, medium density was 122.48 ha and low density was 130.05ha. In 2002, high density was 262.8 ha, medium density was 265.95 ha, and low density was 133.30 ha.Based on the regression analysis between mangrove density and the value of interpretation, the density ofmangrove in Benoa Bay which the criteria of high density is 364.723 – 466.311 tree/ha, medium density is237.738 - 364.723 tree/ha and low density is 186.944 – 237.738 tree/ha. The determination coefficient (r2was 0.6312. Based on the regression analysis in 2002 used in interpretation of mangrove density in 1994,which the criteria of high density is 357.10 tree/ha –316.47 tree/ha, medium density is 273.29 tree/ha –316.47 tree/ha and low density is 252.98 tree/ha –273.29 tree/ha.The accuracy of the Landsat ETM+ 2002 for mangrove area classification in Benoa Bay was 90%.These values were above the acceptable limit of accuracy stated of 80 %, so that this classification accuracywas acceptable.

  11. A stratigraphic model to support remediation of groundwater contamination in the southern San Francisco Bay area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinpress, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Some early regional studies in the southern San Francisco Bay Area applied the term 'older bay mud' to Wisconsin and older deposits thought to be estuarine in origin. This outdated interpretation has apparently contributed to an expectation of laterally-continuous aquifers and aquitards. In fact, heterogeneous alluvial deposits often create complex hydrogeologic settings that defy simple remedial approaches. A more useful stratigraphic model provides a foundation for conducting site investigations and assessing the feasibility of remediation. A synthesis of recent regional studies and drilling results at one site on the southwest margin of the Bay indicate that the upper quaternary stratigraphy consists of four primary units in the upper 200 feet of sediments (oldest to youngest): (1) Illinoian glacial-age alluvium (an important groundwater source); (2) Sangamon interglacial-age deposits, which include fine-grained alluvial deposits and estuarine deposits equivalent to the Yerba Buena Mud (a regional confining layer); (3) Wisconsin glacial-age alluvial fan and floodplain deposits; and (4) Holocene interglacial-age sediments, which include fine-grained alluvial and estuarine deposits equivalent to the 'younger bay mud'. Remedial investigations generally focus on groundwater contamination in the Wisconsin and Holocene alluvial deposits. Detailed drilling results indicate that narrow sand and gravel channels occur in anastomosing patterns within a Wisconsin to Holocene floodplain sequence dominated by interchannel silts and clays. The identification of these small-scale high-permeability conduits is critical to understanding and predicting contaminant transport on a local scale. Discontinuous site-specific aquitards do not provide competent separation where stacked channels occur and the correlation of aquitards over even small distance is often tenuous at best

  12. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results. Fourth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-02

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The FCEBs in service at AC Transit are 40-foot, low-floor buses built by Van Hool with a hybrid electric propulsion system that includes a US Hybrid fuel cell power system and EnerDel lithium-based energy storage system. The buses began revenue service in May 2010.

  13. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Fifth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published four previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2015 through December 2015.

  14. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the early implementation experience for the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, the largest fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States. The ZEBA Demonstration group includes five participating transit agencies: AC Transit (lead transit agency), Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA), Golden Gate Transit (GGT), San Mateo County Transit District (SamTrans), and San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni). The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service.

  15. Modeling the Joint Labor-Commute Engagement Decisions of San Francisco Bay Area Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Ory, David T.; Mokhtarian, Patricia L.

    2005-01-01

    Using socio-demographic, personality, and attitudinal data from 1,680 residents of the San Francisco Bay Area, we develop and estimate binary, multinomial, and nested logit models of the choice to work or not, whether or not to work at home, and whether to commute all of the time or some of the time (either by only working part time, or by working a compressed work week, or by telecommuting some of the time). To our knowledge, these are the first models of all these choices simultaneously. Th...

  16. Improving Radar Quantitative Precipitation Estimation over Complex Terrain in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Chen, H.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2017-12-01

    A recent study by the State of California's Department of Water Resources has emphasized that the San Francisco Bay Area is at risk of catastrophic flooding. Therefore, accurate quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) and forecast (QPF) are critical for protecting life and property in this region. Compared to rain gauge and meteorological satellite, ground based radar has shown great advantages for high-resolution precipitation observations in both space and time domain. In addition, the polarization diversity shows great potential to characterize precipitation microphysics through identification of different hydrometeor types and their size and shape information. Currently, all the radars comprising the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) network are operating in dual-polarization mode. Enhancement of QPE is one of the main considerations of the dual-polarization upgrade. The San Francisco Bay Area is covered by two S-band WSR-88D radars, namely, KMUX and KDAX. However, in complex terrain like the Bay Area, it is still challenging to obtain an optimal rainfall algorithm for a given set of dual-polarization measurements. In addition, the accuracy of rain rate estimates is contingent on additional factors such as bright band contamination, vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) correction, and partial beam blockages. This presentation aims to improve radar QPE for the Bay area using advanced dual-polarization rainfall methodologies. The benefit brought by the dual-polarization upgrade of operational radar network is assessed. In addition, a pilot study of gap fill X-band radar performance is conducted in support of regional QPE system development. This paper also presents a detailed comparison between the dual-polarization radar-derived rainfall products with various operational products including the NSSL's Multi-Radar/Multi-Sensor (MRMS) system. Quantitative evaluation of various rainfall products is achieved

  17. Geology and natural history of the San Francisco Bay area: A field-trip guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Gordon, Leslie C.

    2001-01-01

    A National Association of Geoscience Teachers Far Western Section (NAGT-FWS) field conference is an ideal forum for learning about the geology and natural history of the San Francisco Bay area. We visit classic field sites, renew old friendships, and make new ones. This collection of papers includes field guides and road logs for all of the Bay-area trips held during the NAGT-FWS 2001 Fall Field Conference and supplemental chapters on other aspects of the area’s natural and human history. The trips touch on many aspects of the geology and natural hazards of the Bay area, especially urban problems associated with living on an active tectonic plate margin: earthquake faults, coastal erosion, landslides, and the utilization of land and natural resources. We hope this conference not only provides a two-day learning opportunity for conference participants but that students and educators will use this field guidebook for future teaching and research.Many thanks are due to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and San José State University (SJSU) for cohosting the conference. We are grateful to each of the field trip leaders for preparing the trips and writing the accompanying guides. We especially appreciate the many hours put in by the guidebook reviewers, Robert I. Tilling (USGS) and Paula Messina (SJSU), and to the USGS Western Publications Group for editing, layout, and web posting. Additional guidebook contributions include articles by John Galloway, Scott Starratt, Page Mosier, and Susan Toussaint. During the conference guest speakers include Robert I. Tilling (USGS Volcano Hazards Team) and Ross Stein (USGS Earthquake Hazards Team). Workshops prepared for the conference include GIS in the classroom, using USGS data by John Vogel (USGS) and Paula Messina (SJSU), and The Best of BAESI (Bay Area Earth Science Institute), a teacher training organization under the direction of Ellen Metzger (SJSU) and Richard Sedlock (SJSU). The conference provides an opportunity to

  18. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Sixth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published five previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2016 through December 2016.

  19. Breast cancer characteristics of Vietnamese women in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Scarlett S; Phan, John C; Lin, Albert Y

    2002-03-01

    To examine breast cancer characteristics of women of Vietnamese ancestry living in the San Francisco Bay Area in comparison with those of other racial or ethnic groups in the same area. Data were obtained from the population-based Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry, part of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. We included breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1988 to 1999 and compared the age at diagnosis, stage and histologic grade at diagnosis, estrogen- and progesterone-receptor status, and surgery types across racial or ethnic groups. We also modeled the effect of patient and clinical characteristics and hospital and physician on the racial or ethnic variations in surgery type. Vietnamese women were younger at diagnosis than other racial or ethnic subgroups (mean age, 51.0 years), with 49.6% of the diagnoses occurring in patients younger than 50. They were also significantly more likely to have received mastectomy for their in situ and localized tumors (61.1% having mastectomy) than women of other racial or ethnic groups. The increased likelihood of having mastectomy among Vietnamese women was not affected greatly by age, year of diagnosis, tumor stage, histologic grade, or physician, but was partly attributable to the hospital of diagnosis. The effects of a lower mean age at diagnosis and the reasons for an unexpectedly higher percentage of mastectomies in this Asian subgroup should be further explored.

  20. Sub-tidal benthic habitats of central San Francisco Bay and offshore Golden Gate area: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles; Vallier, Tracy; Golden, Nadine E.; Cross, Jeffery; Ryan, Holly F.; Dieter, Bryan; Niven, Eric; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Deep-water potential estuarine and marine benthic habitat types were defined from a variety of new and interpreted data sets in central San Francisco Bay and offshore Golden Gate area including multibeam echosounder (MBES), side-scan sonar and bottom grab samples. Potential estuarine benthic habitats identified for the first time range from hard bedrock outcrops on island and mainland flanks and some Bay floor

  1. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. (b) Definitions. As used in this section— COTP means the... person in charge of a vessel to which this notice applies shall obtain permission to cross within four... place during daylight hours, the vessel has only a single tow or no tow, the visibility at the bar is...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. 334.1160 Section 334.1160 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  3. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A rectangular...

  4. Distribution characteristics of radium isotopes and their influence factors in the water of Jiaozhou Bay area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Guo Zhanrong; Yuan Xiaojie; Zhang Bin; Ma Zhiyong; Liu Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background: The interaction between continental and oceanic process is much intense in coastal region. The terrestrial freshwater mixes with seawater here which leads to the chemical constituents in water undergo rapid change. Purpose: The aim is to analyze and study the distribution characteristics of 224 Ra and 226 Ra and their influence factors in the water of Jiaozhou Bay area. Methods: The water samples of 224 Ra and 226 Ra were collected from groundwater, river water and seawater around the Jiaozhou Bay from April to May, 2012. In the laboratory, the activities of 224 Ra absorbed on the Mn-fiber were measured through the continuous emanation method. Finally, the Mn-fiber was sealed for more than 7 days, and the activities of 226 Ra absorbed on the Mn-fiber were measured through the direct emanation method. Results: The results show that the activities of 224 Ra and 226 Ra in groundwater and river water are much higher in the granitic area which has higher concentration of 232 Th and 238 U. Because of mixing with seawater, the salinity of groundwater and river water in coastal region rises which leads to the increasing amounts of 224 Ra and 226 Ra desorbed from the particles, resulting in higher activities of 224 Ra and 226 Ra in coastal region. Affected by the input of river (dissolved and desorbed from suspended particles) and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), the activities of 224 Ra and 226 Ra are relatively higher in nearshore seawater, then with the decay of 224 Ra and mixing dilution effect of the offshore seawater, the activities of 224 Ra gradually decrease from nearshore region to the open ocean. The activities of 226 Ra in the seawater of Jiaozhou Bay remain high-level values, and there are only a few zones of low 226 Ra activities. The main reasons are that the activities of 226 Ra from terrestrial freshwater are close to those from offshore seawater and the half-life of 226 Ra is very long. Conclusion: The activities of 224 Ra and 226 Ra in

  5. Characterization of soil salinization in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifei; Xi, Min; Wang, Qinggai; Kong, Fanlong; Li, Yue

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the characteristics of soil salinization and the effects of main land use/land cover and other factors in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay are investigated. Soil samples were collected in the parallel coastal zone, vertical coastal zone and longitudinal profile depth in the area to determine the soil salt content. The correlation analysis and principal component analysis are used to address the general characteristics of soil salinization in the study area. In the horizontal direction, there are moderate salinization, severe salinization and saline soil state. The farther from the sea (within 1.1 km), the lower the soil salinization degree. In the direction of longitudinal profile depth, there are severe salinization and saline soil state, and the soil salt content is accumulated in the surface and bottom. The Na+ and Cl- are the dominant cation and anion, respectively, the distributions of which are consistent with that of salt content. All the salinization indexes, except for soil pH, are of moderate/strong variability. The invasion of Spartina alterniflora results in the increase of soil salt content and salinization degree, the effects of which are mainly determined by the physiological characteristics and the growth years. The degree of soil salinization increased significantly in the aquaculture ponds, which is mainly caused by the use of chemicals. The correlation between soil salt content and Na+, Cl- is particularly significant. From the results of principal component analysis, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42- could be used as main diagnostic factors for salinization in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay. The effects of NaCl and sulfate on salt content further affect the degree of salinization in the estuarine area.

  6. Total mercury in water and sediment from Honda Bay area in Palawan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, A.F.; Kapauan, P.A.; Tan, E.O.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-01-01

    This project is intended to pinpoint the sources of mercury contamination from the Honda Bay area in Palawan. Sampling sites were pinpointed which water and sediment samples were to be taken and kept in virgin polyethylene liter bottles. Analytical procedures were applied. The results of the analysis for total mercury content vary cosiderably from ml, less than 0.003 ng/9 to high of 0.419 ng/g with a considerable number of the sample going above the 0.100 ng/g level. Sediment samples also gave similar results, from a low of 0.004 ng/g to value higher than 2 ng/g round the jetty. It can be concluded, therefore, that the area surveyed is contaminated with mercury but not severely so. (author)

  7. Landscape pattern evolution of the north of Hangzhou bay coastal area in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Shuai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s in Shanghai,fast economic development,rapid urbanization,population explosion,all of these phenomena are driving radical changes in landscape pattern of coastal area.The landscape pattern evolution at the coastal regions of the north of the Hangzhou bay is analysed based on the landscape ecology theory and method by using Fragstats 3.3 software.3S technology is utilized to interpretate the sensing images at three phase in 1994,2003,2007,and selected two landscape index of the landscape level to study six town from time and space on the contrast analysis.The results show that farmland landscape is the dominant landscape in research area,landscape diversity is high and shows ascendant trend;For 13 years,six towns’(street fragmentation degree increase,the Luchaogang town has the highest degree of fragmentation.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the exterior caulk of San Francisco Bay Area buildings, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterhaus, Susan; McKee, Lester J; Yee, Donald; Kass, Jamie M; Wong, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Extensive evidence of the adverse impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has now been documented for over 40 years. Despite the ban on production and new use of PCBs in the United States in 1979, a number of fish consumption advisories remain in effect, and there remains considerable uncertainty regarding ongoing environmental sources and management alternatives. Using a blind sampling approach, 25 caulk samples were collected from the exterior of ten buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area and analyzed for PCBs using congener-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chlorine using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). PCBs were detected in 88% of the caulk samples collected from the study area buildings, with 40% exceeding 50 ppm. Detectable PCB concentrations ranged from 1 to 220,000 ppm. These data are consistent with previous studies in other cities that have identified relatively high concentrations of PCBs in concrete and masonry buildings built between 1950 and 1980. Portable XRF was not a good predictor of the PCB content in caulk and the results indicate that portable XRF analysis may only be useful for identifying caulk that contains low concentrations of Cl (≤ 10,000 ppm) and by extension low or no PCBs. A geographic information system-based approach was used to estimate that 10,500 kg of PCBs remain in interior and exterior caulk in buildings located in the study area, which equates to an average of 4.7 kg PCBs per building. The presence of high concentrations in the exterior caulk of currently standing buildings suggests that building caulk may be an ongoing source of PCBs to the San Francisco Bay Area environment. Further studies to expand the currently small international dataset on PCBs in caulking materials in buildings of countries that produced or imported PCBs appear justified in the context of both human health and possible ongoing environmental release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  9. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air Proving...

  10. Hydrogeological Study of Mangrove Areas Around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Cardoso da Silva Júnior;

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study area covers part of the mangrove belt located around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Representing a continental-marine transition, the mangrove ecosystem is very susceptible to environmental variations and impacts. The vegetation cover plays an important role in prevention of erosion and contamination processes in those areas. An ongoing extensive research effort in the Petrochemical Complex of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, focuses on the man-induced changes in the physical environment (soils, groundwater flow system, type and volumes of contaminants, geochemical aspects and the consequences on the neighboring mangrove ecosystem. This article describes the importance of hydrogeological studies in mangrove areas as part of an appropriate environmental assessment, taking as an example an industrial dumping area located in that Petrochemical Complex. Field work included extensive drilling and sampling to obtain basic geological and hydrogeological parameters and data in the pilot area, such as hydraulic conductivity and piezometric heads; emphasizing the tracking of possible contamination by industrial effluents and the marine influence; validation of the conceptual model with mathematical models (numerical and analytical models was carried out. Results show the great importance of well conducted and detailed hydrogeological studies to properly address environmental problems caused by industrial plants in mangrove areas.

  11. Real-Time GPS Monitoring for Earthquake Rapid Assessment in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, C.; Langbein, J. O.; Murray, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Science Center has deployed a network of eight real-time Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in the San Francisco Bay area and is implementing software applications to continuously evaluate the status of the deformation within the network. Real-time monitoring of the station positions is expected to provide valuable information for rapidly estimating source parameters should a large earthquake occur in the San Francisco Bay area. Because earthquake response applications require robust data access, as a first step we have developed a suite of web-based applications which are now routinely used to monitor the network's operational status and data streaming performance. The web tools provide continuously updated displays of important telemetry parameters such as data latency and receive rates, as well as source voltage and temperature information within each instrument enclosure. Automated software on the backend uses the streaming performance data to mitigate the impact of outages, radio interference and bandwidth congestion on deformation monitoring operations. A separate set of software applications manages the recovery of lost data due to faulty communication links. Displacement estimates are computed in real-time for various combinations of USGS, Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network stations. We are currently comparing results from two software packages (one commercial and one open-source) used to process 1-Hz data on the fly and produce estimates of differential positions. The continuous monitoring of telemetry makes it possible to tune the network to minimize the impact of transient interruptions of the data flow, from one or more stations, on the estimated positions. Ongoing work is focused on using data streaming performance history to optimize the quality of the position, reduce drift and outliers by switching to the best set of stations within the network, and

  12. Succession in rocky intertidal benthic communities in areas with different pollution levels at Guanabara Bay (RJ-Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Breves-Ramos, André; Lavrado, Helena Passeri; Junqueira, Andrea de Oliveira Ribeiro; Silva, Sérgio Henrique Gonçalves da

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the succession of intertidal benthic communities in two areas at Guanabara Bay, RJ, Brazil: Urca, an area submitted to moderated organic pollution and Catalão, an extremely polluted area. Three transects in each area were scraped one month before the beginning of this study in order to evaluate the recruitment (recruitment-treatments). Three other transects were monitored without manipulation (monitoring treatments). Species composition and re...

  13. Seasonal distribution of a podocopid ostracod in a thermally altered area of Tampa Bay, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiles, C.D.; Blake, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    As part of a general ecological survey to determine the effects of a thermal effluent, quantitative samples of living benthic ostracods were collected from November 1973 through June 1974 and during August 1974 in the vicinity of a power plant located on Tampa Bay, Florida. Sampling stations were in the areas of maximum thermal influence and at a control site. For each sampling period, samples taken for organic carbon, salinity, sediment and water temperature, and dissolved oxygen showed that the areas were quite similar, except for temperature, which was found to have the greatest difference among stations of the effluent and ambient areas on a monthly basis. This study concentrates on the distribution of Haplocytheridea setipunctata, the dominant ostracod in the study area. Significant differences between population means were detected for all months except May and June. Maximum numbers of living H. setipunctata occurred at all stations in June, with densities of 55,000 individuals/m 2 in the area of thermal influence. A positive correlation of temperature with population density was found to occur from March through June at all stations. Temperature was found to play a significant role in limiting populations during the warmer months of the year. Carapaces of this ostracod were found to be depleted of calcium carbonate in individuals occurring in the thermal effluent

  14. Slicing up the San Francisco Bay Area: Block kinematics and fault slip rates from GPS-derived surface velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Alessio, M. A.; Johanson, I.A.; Burgmann, R.; Schmidt, D.A.; Murray, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Observations of surface deformation allow us to determine the kinematics of faults in the San Francisco Bay Area. We present the Bay Area velocity unification (BA??VU??, "bay view"), a compilation of over 200 horizontal surface velocities computed from campaign-style and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1993 to 2003. We interpret this interseismic velocity field using a three-dimensional block model to determine the relative contributions of block motion, elastic strain accumulation, and shallow aseismic creep. The total relative motion between the Pacific plate and the rigid Sierra Nevada/Great Valley (SNGV) microplate is 37.9 ?? 0.6 mm yr-1 directed toward N30.4??W ?? 0.8?? at San Francisco (??2??). Fault slip rates from our preferred model are typically within the error bounds of geologic estimates but provide a better fit to geodetic data (notable right-lateral slip rates in mm yr-1: San Gregorio fault, 2.4 ?? 1.0; West Napa fault, 4.0 ?? 3.0; zone of faulting along the eastern margin of the Coast Range, 5.4 ?? 1.0; and Mount Diablo thrust, 3.9 ?? 1.0 of reverse slip and 4.0 ?? 0.2 of right-lateral strike slip). Slip on the northern Calaveras is partitioned between both the West Napa and Concord/ Green Valley fault systems. The total convergence across the Bay Area is negligible. Poles of rotation for Bay Area blocks progress systematically from the North America-Pacific to North America-SNGV poles. The resulting present-day relative motion cannot explain the strike of most Bay Area faults, but fault strike does loosely correlate with inferred plate motions at the time each fault initiated. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Environmental And Area Support Capability Analysis For Seaweed Mariculture Development In Hading Bay Of East Flores Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominikus K. Da Costa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract East Flores regency has adequate marine resources potentials to develop seaweed aquaculture area. Animportant aspect of seaweed aquaculture is the site selection. Site selection is based on the marine area extent and its ecological quality. The objectives of the study were to analyze the water ecology and its support capability and to determine the best site for continuous seaweed mariculture in Hading Bay of East Flores Regency. The study used descriptive method. It was conducted in Hading Bay Lewolema District East Flores Regency in March 2015. Data analysis was done using GIS based on area suitability value and the method applied in the mariculture was long line method. Total Hading Bay water territory was864676 ha. Site Awas135345 ha site B was 474222 ha and site C was 255108 ha. Area with S1 category was 729331 ha extended in Site B and C. Area with S2 category was 135345 ha as extended in Site A. Water territory support capability was 778208 ha. The number of seaweed mariculture units was 194552 units and seaweed territory capacity was 99. Hading Bay waster has the capacity and area support capability for K. alvareziiseaweed mariculture site. Site A was categorized S2 on suitability class and site B and C were categorized S1 on suitability class. The results showed different quality of water territory in those three sites was not significant and still in normal range of K. alvarezii seaweed mariculture development.

  16. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Third Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-05-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published two previous reports, in August 2011 and July 2012, describing operation of these buses. New results in this report provide an update covering eight months through October 2013.

  17. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: Second Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-07-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 new fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The first results report was published in August 2011, describing operation of these new FCEBs from September 2010 through May 2011. New results in this report provide an update through April 2012.

  18. Results of complex annual parasitological monitoring in the coastal area of Kola Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklin, V. V.; Kuklina, M. M.; Kisova, N. E.; Maslich, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The results of annual parasitological monitoring in the coastal area near the Abram-mys (Kola Bay, Barents Sea) are presented. The studies were performed in 2006-2007 and included complex examination of the intermediate hosts (mollusks and crustaceans) and definitive hosts (marine fish and birds) of the helminths. The biodiversity of the parasite fauna, seasonal dynamics, and functioning patterns of the parasite systems were investigated. The basic regularities in parasite circulation were assessed in relation to their life cycle strategies and the ecological features of the intermediate and definitive hosts. The factors affecting the success of parasite circulation in the coastal ecosystems were revealed through analysis of parasite biodiversity and abundance dynamics.

  19. User's guide to the LIRAQ model: an air pollution model for the San Francisco Bay Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    The Livermore Regional Air Quality (LIRAQ) model comprises a set of computer programs that have been integrated into an easily used tool for the air quality planner. To assemble and modify the necessary data files and to direct model execution, a problem formulation program has been developed that makes possible the setup of a wide variety of studies involving perturbation of the emission inventory, changes to the initial and boundary conditions, and different choices of grid size and problem domain. In addition to describing the types of air quality problems for which the LIRAQ model may be used, this User's Guide provides detailed information on how to set up and conduct model simulations. Also included are descriptions of the formats of input data files so that the LIRAQ model may be applied to regions other than the San Francisco Bay Area

  20. Understanding Urban Watersheds through Digital Interactive Maps, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, J. M.; Ticci, M. G.; Mulvey, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dense urbanization has resulted in the "disappearance" of many local creeks in urbanized areas surrounding the San Francisco Bay. Long reaches of creeks now flow in underground pipes. Municipalities and water agencies trying to reduce non-point-source pollution are faced with a public that cannot see and therefore does not understand the interconnected nature of the drainage system or its ultimate discharge to the bay. Since 1993, we have collaborated with the Oakland Museum, the San Francisco Estuary Institute, public agencies, and municipalities to create creek and watershed maps to address the need for public understanding of watershed concepts. Fifteen paper maps are now published (www.museumca.org/creeks), which have become a standard reference for educators and anyone working on local creek-related issues. We now present digital interactive creek and watershed maps in Google Earth. Four maps are completed covering urbanized areas of Santa Clara and Alameda Counties. The maps provide a 3D visualization of the watersheds, with cartography draped over the landscape in transparent colors. Each mapped area includes both Present and Past (circa 1800s) layers which can be clicked on or off by the user. The Present layers include the modern drainage network, watershed boundaries, and reservoirs. The Past layers include the 1800s-era creek systems, tidal marshes, lagoons, and other habitats. All data are developed in ArcGIS software and converted to Google Earth format. To ensure the maps are interesting and engaging, clickable icons pop-up provide information on places to visit, restoration projects, history, plants, and animals. Maps of Santa Clara Valley are available at http://www.valleywater.org/WOW.aspx. Maps of western Alameda County will soon be available at http://acfloodcontrol.org/. Digital interactive maps provide several advantages over paper maps. They are seamless within each map area, and the user can zoom in or out, and tilt, and fly over to explore

  1. Hierarchical Bayes Small Area Estimation under a Unit Level Model with Applications in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageena Nazir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To studied Bayesian aspect of small area estimation using Unit level model. In this paper we proposed and evaluated new prior distribution for the ratio of variance components in unit level model rather than uniform prior. To approximate the posterior moments of small area means, Laplace approximation method is applied. This choice of prior avoids the extreme skewness, usually present in the posterior distribution of variance components. This property leads to more accurate Laplace approximation. We apply the proposed model to the analysis of horticultural data and results from the model are compared with frequestist approach and with Bayesian model of uniform prior in terms of average relative bias, average squared relative bias and average absolute bias. The numerical results obtained highlighted the superiority of using the proposed prior over the uniform prior. Thus Bayes estimators (with new prior of small area means have good frequentist properties such as MSE and ARB as compared to other traditional methods viz., Direct, Synthetic and Composite estimators.

  2. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  3. Providing Specialty Care for the Poor and Underserved at Student-Run Free Clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Max Bolun; Xiong, Grace; Boggiano, Victoria Lynn; Ye, Patrick Peiyong; Lin, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the model of specialty clinics implemented at Stanford University's two student-run free clinics, Arbor Free Clinic and Pacific Free Clinic, in the San Francisco Bay Area. We describe our patient demographic characteristics and the specialty services provided. We discuss challenges in implementing specialty care at student-run free clinics.

  4. Phosphorus speciation, transformation, and preservation in the coastal area of Rushan Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zang, Jiaye; Zhao, Chenying; Yu, Zhigang; Xu, Bochao; Li, Jingxi; Ran, Xiangbin

    2016-09-15

    Phosphorus (P) speciation, burial, and transformation are poorly constrained under low-oxygen conditions. Sequential chemical extraction techniques, in-situ incubation, and laboratory incubation were employed to explore P cycling in the low-oxygen area of coastal Rushan. The study determined that the total P concentrations in the coastal area of Rushan Bay were higher than those of other China shelf seas, and largely affected by anthropogenic activities. The phosphate (DRP) fluxes in the study area calculated using an incubation method (0-1960μmolm(-2)day(-)(1)) and measured based on pore water gradients (1.5-50.4μmolm(-2)day(-)(1)) were both highly correlated with oxygen conditions. Sediment incubations showed that DRP diffusion from the sediment mainly originates from Fe-P and Auth-P dissolution and that Org-P recycling contributed only a small portion of the total released P pool. The benthic phosphate flux can be 60 times higher under low bottom-water oxygen levels of 63-150μmolL(-1) than under oxygen levels exceeding 150μmolL(-1) in the study area. The P accumulation rates and burial efficiencies in this study area ranged from 16.5-33.3μmolcm(-2)year(-1) and 81.1-83.4%, respectively, and were regulated by the oxygen level and diffusive DRP flux. This study indicates that low oxygen levels between 63 and 150μmol significantly govern P transformation and preservation in the sediment and P pools in the water column. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Red Oak Research and Demonstration Area in Phelps Township, North Bay, Ontario-2004 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Deugo; Andrée Morneault; Dianne Othmer; Megan Smith; Al Stinson; Murray Woods; Ian Kovacs; Ian Aho; Bill Parker; Rob Baker; Marinus Verwey; Guylaine Thauvette; Don Willis; Jeff Dech

    2006-01-01

    In July 2004, a large stand of red oak (Quercus rubra) was harvested in Phelps Township, North Bay District, North Bay, Ontario using the uniform shelterwood system. Most of the stand was harvested to retain 40 percent crown closure, while a very small portion was harvested to retain 70 percent crown closure. During tree marking, an active Northern...

  6. Temporal and spatial changes of microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Renhua; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Zheng, Wei; Wen, Donghui

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic activities usually contaminate water environments, and have led to the eutrophication of many estuaries and shifts in microbial communities. In this study, the temporal and spatial changes of the microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial community showed higher richness and biodiversity than the archaeal community in all sediments. Proteobacteria dominated in the bacterial communities of all the samples; Marine_Group_I and Methanomicrobia were the two dominant archaeal classes in the effluent receiving area. PCoA and AMOVA revealed strong seasonal but minor spatial changes in both bacterial and archaeal communities in the sediments. The seasonal changes of the bacterial community were less significant than those of the archaeal community, which mainly consisted of fluctuations in abundance of a large proportion of longstanding species rather than the appearance and disappearance of major archaeal species. Temperature was found to positively correlate with the dominant bacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and negatively correlate with the dominant archaea, Marine_Group_I; and might be the primary driving force for the seasonal variation of the microbial community. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Composition and diversity of larval fish in the mangrove estuarine area of Marudu Bay, Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezagholinejad, Sadaf; Arshad, Aziz; Amin, S M Nurul; Ara, Roushon

    2016-07-01

    The composition of fish larvae and their diversity in different habitats are very important for fisheries management. Larval fishes were investigated in a mangrove estuary of Marudu Bay, Sabah, Malaysia from October 2012 to September 2013 at five different sites. Monthly samples of fish larvae were collected at five sampling sites by a plankton net with a mouth opening of 40.5 cm in diameter. In total, 3879 larval fish were caught in the investigated area. The mean density of ichthyoplankton at this area was 118 larvae/100 m(3). The fish larval assemblage comprised of 20 families whereas 13 families occurred at St1, 16 at St2, 16 at St3, 12 at St4 and 16 at St5. The top major families were Sillaginidae, Engraulidae, Mugilidae and Sparidae with Sillaginidae consisted 44% of total larval composition. St3 with 143 larvae/100 m(3) had the highest density amongst the stations which was due to higher abundance of Sillaginidae. Shannon-Wiener diversity index represented significant variation during monsoon and inter-monsoon seasons, peaking in the months December-January and May-June. However, Shannon-Wiener index, evenness and family richness showed significant differences among stations and months (p < 0.05).

  8. 78 FR 45964 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Monterey Museum of Art, Monterey, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... projectile points, 38 pendants or beads, 3 fire-starters, 4 hand tools, 6 fishing weights, 37 carvings, 1... stone. In the 1978 Deed of Gift to the Monterey Museum of Art, Mr. Holman notes that the objects were...

  9. Geochemistry of peat over kimberlites in the Attawapiskat area, James Bay Lowlands, northern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Keiko H. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)], E-mail: khattori@uOttawa.ca; Hamilton, Stewart [Ontario Geological Survey, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 6B5 (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    The James Bay Lowlands, which is the SE part of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada, and within the Paleozoic limestone terrane, is covered mostly by peatlands. Peat samples were examined in the Attawapiskat area, a region of discontinuous permafrost, where more than 19 kimberlite pipes have been found beneath a cover of peat (2-4 m thick) and Quaternary sediments (up to 20 m thick) of Tyrell Sea clay beds and glacial tills. Pore water at a depth of 40 cm in the peat has a consistently low pH, <4, and high Eh, {approx}290 mV, in the areas over limestones far from kimberlites. On the other hand, peat pore water close to kimberlites has a high pH, up to 6.7, and low Eh, down to 49 mV; the values of pH and Eh are inversely correlated. The high pH and low Eh close to kimberlites suggest active serpentinization of olivine in the underlying kimberlites. The bulk compositions of peat indicate precipitation of secondary CaCO{sub 3} and Fe-O-OH. The secondary carbonate contains high concentrations of kimberlite pathfinder elements, such as Ni, rare earth elements (REE) and Y. The ratios of metal concentrations extracted by ammonium acetate solution at pH 5 (AA5) to those in a total digestion confirm that a majority of the divalent cations are hosted by the secondary carbonate, whereas tri-, tetra- and penta-valent cations are not. As these charged cations are not leached in Enzyme Leach, they are most likely adsorbed on Fe-O-OH. The compositions of peat show spatial variation with the distribution of kimberlites, suggesting that they are influenced by the underlying rocks even through there are thick layers of tills and sediments between the bedrocks and peat. However, elevated concentrations of pathfinder elements of kimberlites in bulk peat samples and AA5 leach are not necessarily directly above kimberlites. The diffused metal anomalies around kimberlites are attributed to the dissolution-precipitation of secondary phases (carbonates and Fe-O-OH) in acidic and reduced waters

  10. Airborne Quantification of Methane Emissions in the San Francisco Bay Area of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A.; Newman, S.; Martien, P. T.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Faloona, I. C.; Conley, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Area's air quality regulatory agency, has set a goal to reduce the region's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 80% below 1990 levels by 2050, consistent with the State of California's climate protection goal. The Air District maintains a regional GHG emissions inventory that includes emissions estimates and projections which influence the agency's programs and regulatory activities. The Air District is currently working to better characterize methane emissions in the GHG inventory through source-specific measurements, to resolve differences between top-down regional estimates (Fairley and Fischer, 2015; Jeong et al., 2016) and the bottom-up inventory. The Air District funded and participated in a study in Fall 2016 to quantify methane emissions from a variety of sources from an instrumented Mooney aircraft. This study included 40 hours of cylindrical vertical profile flights that combined methane and wind measurements to derive mass emission rates. Simultaneous measurements of ethane provided source-apportionment between fossil-based and biological methane sources. The facilities sampled included all five refineries in the region, five landfills, two dairy farms and three wastewater treatment plants. The calculated mass emission rates were compared to bottom-up rates generated by the Air District and to those from facility reports to the US EPA as part of the mandatory GHG reporting program. Carbon dioxide emission rates from refineries are found to be similar to bottom-up estimates for all sources, supporting the efficacy of the airborne measurement methodology. However, methane emission estimates from the airborne method showed significant differences for some source categories. For example, methane emission estimates based on airborne measurements were up to an order of magnitude higher for refineries, and up to five times higher for landfills compared to bottom-up methods, suggesting significant

  11. The impact of industrial anthropization on mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in mangrove areas of Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L

    2012-02-01

    The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.

  12. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Potential Sediment Sources 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Three main criteria are used as an initial basis for screening source locations; availability of large quantities of beach compatible sand, levels of contamination,...

  13. The challenges of managing protected areas in tourist spaces: Samborombón Bay [Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Rigonat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Samborombón Bay [province of Buenos Aires, Argentina] is an interfase between the river-sea area [the mouth of the Río de la Plata in the Argentine Sea] and the land. The southern coastal strip of the bay has been systematically marginalized by the valuation processes which have dominated the region of the Pampas. However, various protected areas have been set up over the last 30 years, within different public [federal, provincial, municipal] and private [NGOs] jurisdictions. This paper seeks to stress the problems which have arisen around the territory's valuation and the management of the said protected areas, within the framework of the dominant economic activities [cattle-raising, fishing and tourism

  14. A study of riders' noise exposure on Bay Area Rapid Transit trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Powell, Cynthia; King, Margaret Mary

    2011-02-01

    Excessive noise exposure may present a hazard to hearing, cardiovascular, and psychosomatic health. Mass transit systems, such as the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system, are potential sources of excessive noise. The purpose of this study was to characterize transit noise and riders' exposure to noise on the BART system using three dosimetry metrics. We made 268 dosimetry measurements on a convenience sample of 51 line segments. Dosimetry measures were modeled using linear and nonlinear multiple regression as functions of average velocity, tunnel enclosure, flooring, and wet weather conditions and presented visually on a map of the BART system. This study provides evidence of levels of hazardous levels of noise exposure in all three dosimetry metrics. L(eq) and L(max) measures indicate exposures well above ranges associated with increased cardiovascular and psychosomatic health risks in the published literature. L(peak) indicate acute exposures hazardous to adult hearing on about 1% of line segment rides and acute exposures hazardous to child hearing on about 2% of such rides. The noise to which passengers are exposed may be due to train-specific conditions (velocity and flooring), but also to rail conditions (velocity and tunnels). These findings may point at possible remediation (revised speed limits on longer segments and those segments enclosed by tunnels). The findings also suggest that specific rail segments could be improved for noise.

  15. Breast cancer among American Japanese in the San Francisco Bay area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J E

    1977-12-01

    The Japanese-American population was particularly well suited for the study of cancer occurrence because: 1) An American-born population as well as the immigrant Japanese-American population could be studied; 2) good cancer incidence and mortality data from Japan could be compared with data from the United States; and 3) some differences in the rate of occurrence of several specific cancer sites in Japan as compared with the United States were striking. The most significant of these involved the gastrointestinal tract and sex organs. Data were presented concerning cancer incidence rates for the Japanese-American population of the San Francisco Bay area. The high gastric rates for the Japanese in Japan were reduced in a stepwise fashion in the immigrant Japanese-American population to the American-born Japanese who were approaching the low rate of the United States. Colon cancer rates, which were low in Japan, approached the rates in the United States in both the immigrants from Japan and in Japanese Americans. The low rates of cancers of the breast, uterine corpus, and ovary of Japanese women in Japan and for prostate cancer among men rapidly approached the higher rates for these cancer sites that existed in the United States. A study of nutritional factors related to the increase of cancer of the breast in Japanese Americans is being conducted.

  16. Proposed tethered unmanned aerial system for the detection of pollution entering the Chesapeake Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J.; McKay, J.; Evans, W.; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This paper is based on a proposed unmanned aerial system platform that is to be outfitted with high-resolution sensors. The proposed system is to be tethered to a moveable ground station, which may be a research vessel or some form of ground vehicle (e.g., car, truck, or rover). The sensors include, at a minimum: camera, infrared sensor, thermal, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) camera, global positioning system (GPS), and a light-based radar (LIDAR). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of existing methods for pollution detection of failing septic systems, and to introduce the proposed system. Future work will look at the high-resolution data from the sensors and integrating the data through a process called information fusion. Typically, this process is done using the popular and well-published Kalman filter (or its nonlinear formulations, such as the extended Kalman filter). However, future work will look at using a new type of strategy based on variable structure estimation for the information fusion portion of the data processing. It is hypothesized that fusing data from the thermal and NDVI sensors will be more accurate and reliable for a multitude of applications, including the detection of pollution entering the Chesapeake Bay area.

  17. Iron, Oil, and Emeryville: Resource Industrialization and Metropolitan Expansion in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1850-1900

    OpenAIRE

    Lunine, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have largely overlooked the formative role of industry in both California's economic development and the San Francisco Bay Area's metropolitan expansion during the late nineteenth century. Beginning in the early 1880s, leading firms in San Francisco's specialized industries, such as the iron and chemicals sectors, dispersed to the metropolitan periphery. This process of industrial suburbanization created an integrative metropolitan economy, as well as individual suburbs. In this di...

  18. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations (SSMO). Australian Coastal Marine Areas. Volume 1. Area 1 - Princess Charlotte Bay. Area 2 - Cairns. Area 3 - Cumberland Islands. Area 4 - Rockhampton. Area 5 - Brisbane. Area 6 - Coffs Harbour. Area 7 - Sydney. Area 8 - Cape Howe NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    Weather Service Detachment Asheville, N. C. 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERf«) 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS National Climatic Center...Australian East Coast, Princess Charlotte Bay, Cairns, Cumberland Islands, Rockhampton, Brisbane, Coffs Harbour, Sydney and Cape Howe NE. ^ 20...OVER-ALL) 1»S«-1973 AREA 0006 COFFS HARBOUR 30.3S 193.36 fERCENT FR60UENCY OF MSATHER OCCURRENCE BY NINO OIRECTION

  19. Examining social supply among nonmedical prescription stimulant users in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Fiona; Murphy, Sheigla; Sales, Paloma; Lau, Nicholas

    2018-04-01

    In the US, prescription stimulants are prescribed for a variety of conditions including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Over the last two decades, dramatic increases in stimulant prescriptions have led to greater availability and increased risk for diversion and nonmedical use. Our own and other investigators' findings indicate that many drug "suppliers" do not fit into the traditional image of drug "dealers." These suppliers typically do not identify themselves as "dealers," but instead understand their drug distribution as sharing with people they know. Coomber and colleagues' (2007; 2013) concept of "social supply" raises the question: When friends supply or facilitate supply of drugs to friends, is this really dealing? Further, if dealing and supplying are distinct kinds of social transactions, should different types of criminal justice approaches be applied? Social supply extends our understanding of drug dealing as a complex social activity. In this article, we examine the issue of social supply among nonmedical users of prescription stimulants. We conducted a 36-month National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded project to conduct a qualitative, mixed methods study of 150 adult nonmedical prescription stimulant users in the San Francisco Bay Area. We explore intersecting factors, including life stage and social location, that contribute to decisions to use prescription stimulants nonmedically, motivations to use, knowledge about risks and benefits of prescription stimulant use, any adverse health or social consequences experienced, availability, acquisition and diversion of prescription stimulants, and differences in attitudes and behaviours. For this analysis, we rely on participants' narratives concerning prescription stimulant acquisition practices and how they understood these interactions, purchases, and exchanges with the suppliers of prescription stimulants in their social networks. The authors argue that acknowledging the

  20. Acquired Color Vision Defects and Hexane Exposure: A Study of San Francisco Bay Area Automotive Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Stella; Eisen, Ellen A; Bates, Michael N; Liu, Sa; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla; Hammond, S Katharine

    2016-06-01

    Occupational exposure to solvents, including n-hexane, has been associated with acquired color vision defects. Blue-yellow defects are most common and may be due to neurotoxicity or retinal damage. Acetone may potentiate the neurotoxicity of n-hexane. We present results on nonhexane solvent and hexane exposure and color vision from a cross-sectional study of 835 automotive repair workers in the San Francisco Bay Area, California (2007-2013). Cumulative exposure was estimated from self-reported work history, and color vision was assessed using the Lanthony desaturated D-15 panel test. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios for color vision defects. Acquired color vision defects were present in 29% of participants, of which 70% were blue-yellow. Elevated prevalence ratios were found for nonhexane solvent exposure, with a maximum of 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 2.00) for blue-yellow. Among participants aged ≤50 years, the prevalence ratio for blue-yellow defects was 2.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.56) in the highest quartile of nonhexane solvent exposure and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.72) in the highest category of exposure to hexane with acetone coexposure. Cumulative exposures to hexane and nonhexane solvents in the highest exposure categories were associated with elevated prevalence ratios for color vision defects in younger participants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. State of transition: Marijuana use among young adults in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Louisa M; Popova, Lucy; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-09-01

    California may vote on marijuana legalization in 2016. Young adults have the highest rates of marijuana use, but little is known about the correlates of use in this age group, including factors that may be affected by policy change. We investigated whether there are differences in marijuana use by sociodemographic characteristics, psychological distress, loneliness and social support, controlling for risk factors such as alcohol and cigarette use as well as perceived harm of marijuana. Bivariate and multivariable analysis of past 30day marijuana use using the 2014 San Francisco Bay Area Young Adult Health Survey, a probabilistic multi-mode survey of (N=1324) young adults (aged 18-26years) residing in Alameda and San Francisco Counties, stratified by race/ethnicity. 291 (27%) sample participants reported current marijuana use. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites (referent) Asian/Pacific Islander respondents were less likely to use marijuana (AOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22-0.80) while multiracial participants were twice as likely (AOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.06-4.85). Psychological distress was not related to marijuana use, but social support (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.08-1.88) and loneliness (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09-1.86) were. Perceived harm of marijuana was inversely related to marijuana use (AOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.51-0.70), while smoking cigarettes (AOR, 3.95; 95% CI, 2.28-6.84) and binge drinking (AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.24) were positively related. Legalization policies should include public education campaigns addressing potential harms of marijuana use particularly targeting multiracial young adults who also engage in other risk behaviors, such as cigarette smoking and binge drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. EVALUATION OF TROPHIC STATUS OF AGRAKHAN BAY (THE NORTH CASPIAN SEA AS A PART OF ECOLOGICAL MONITORING OF SPECIALLY PROTECTED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gadzhiev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Hydrochemical composition of waters of Agrakhan Bay (the North Caspian Sea, degree of pollution, structure and quantitative characteristics of phytoplankton, zooplankton and zoobenthos is given in the paper. Evaluation of a trophic status of the bay and seasonal trophodynamics are given as a result of study.Material and methods. The study is based on original materials from expeditions of 2012 (Autumn and 2013 (Spring and Summer in Agrakhan Bay. The complex materials are collected on stations with distance 3.5 km. Totally was made 16 marine stations, where samples of water, phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos were taken.Results. Agrakhan Bay is eutrophic by level of dissolved oxygen and its BOD. However, the oxygen deficiency is not observed. concentration of oxygen is high almost in all seasons, that has a beneficial effect on hydrobionts. Seasonal dynamics indicates that Agrakhansky bay is oligotrophic within a year, but its trophic status increases to mesotrophic and even to hypertrophic in some periods. The northern part ща the bay is eutrophic. Difference in trophic levels of different parts of the bay is the result of significant differences in depth and area of water surface.Conclusions. Anthropogenic impact on Agrakhan Bay increases its trophic status. Seasonal trophic level of Agrakhan Gulf except natural processes depends on the "purity" of the Terek River sediments, which are the main source of biogenic elements. Typically, the absolute concentration of biogenic elements in Agrakhan Bay increases with the increase of eutrophication.

  3. A GIS FOR THE ANTARCTIC SPECIALLY MANAGED AREA OF ADMIRALTY BAY,KING GEORGE ISLAND,ANTARCTICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACT A GIS is proposed as a tool for the managing plan for the Antarctic specially managed area (ASMA) in Admiralty Bay.The ASMA comprises the area considered to be within the glacial drainage basin of the bay.Furthermore,it includes part of SSSI No.8 adjacent to the area but outside of the glacial drainage basin.Three stations and six refuges are located in the area.Using a SPOT satellite image map,the limits of the ASMA are marked and its area is re_calculated.It consists of 362 km2,including 186 km2 island ice field and small cirque glaciers and 32 km2 ice_free field.The rest comprises water of the bay and a small adjacent area (8 km2) of the Bransfield Strait. The ASMA_GIS will consists of 12 data layers ranging from the physiographic settings to the biological and administrative features.All data will be implemented into Arc/Info GIS according to the cartographic guidelines of the SCAR WG_GGI.First,five plans of information will be realised using a topographic database compiled from various sources and data from the revised bathymetric chart published by the Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Survey and also including: 1) Limits of the ASMA and protected areas;2) Glaciological features (e.g.drainage basin limits) and 3) Human presence (e.g.stations and historical sites).These basic GIS layers will be operational in early 2001.Then,additional data on the remaining layers (e.g.hydrology,geology and geomorphology) will be included from published sources. The ASMA_GIS will form an important database for environmental monitoring and studies surveying temporal changes of features such as glacier front positions or bird breading sites.

  4. Operation of a real-time warning system for debris flows in the San Francisco bay area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Raymond C.; Mark, Robert K.; Barbato, Gary; ,

    1993-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) have developed an operational warning system for debris flows during severe rainstorms in the San Francisco Bay region. The NWS makes quantitative forecasts of precipitation from storm systems approaching the Bay area and coordinates a regional network of radio-telemetered rain gages. The USGS has formulated thresholds for the intensity and duration of rainfall required to initiate debris flows. The first successful public warnings were issued during a severe storm sequence in February 1986. Continued operation of the warning system since 1986 has provided valuable working experience in rainfall forecasting and monitoring, refined rainfall thresholds, and streamlined procedures for issuing public warnings. Advisory statements issued since 1986 are summarized.

  5. Temperature profile data from BATHYTHERMOGRAPH (XBT) from the CATALUNA and other platforms in BAY OF BISCAY and other areas: 19840914 to 19850923 (NODC Accession 8600110)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from the CATALUNA and ALCALA GALIANO in the Bay of Biscay and other areas. Data were collected from 14...

  6. Diurnal and Intra-Annual Variations in Greenhouse Gases at Fixed Sites in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S.; Guha, A.; Martien, P. T.; Bower, J.; Perkins, I.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Stevenson, E.; Hilken, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Area's air quality regulatory agency, has set a goal to reduce the region's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050, consistent with the State of California's climate goals. Recently, the Air District's governing board adopted a 2017 Clean Air Plan which lays out the agency's vision and includes actions to put the region on a path towards achieving the 2050 goal while also reducing air pollution and related health impacts. The Plan includes GHG rule-making efforts, policy initiatives, local government partnerships, outreach, grants, and incentives, encompassing over 250 specific implementation actions across all economic sectors to effect ambitious emission reductions in the region. To track trends in atmospheric observations of GHGs and associated species and monitor changes in regional emission patterns, the Air District has established a fixed site network (CO2, CH4, CO) of one generally upwind site (Bodega Bay - on the coast north of Marin County) and three receptor sites (Bethel Island - east of the major refineries, in the Sacramento River Delta; Livermore - east of the bulk of the East Bay cities; and San Martin - south of the major city of San Jose). Having collected over a year of data for each of the fixed sites, the Air District is now investigating spatial and temporal variations in GHG emissions. Concentrating on variations in diurnal cycles, we see the commonly observed pattern of seasonal changes in diurnal amplitude at all sites, with larger variations during the winter than the summer, consistent with seasonally varying daily changes in planetary boundary layer heights. Investigations explore the weekday/weekend effect on the diurnal patterns and the effect of seasonal wind direction changes on the intra-annual variations of the local enhancements. The Air District is beginning to investigate the ways in which the fixed site network reflects the dominant

  7. The deep biosphere in terrestrial sediments in the Chesapeake Bay area, Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eBreuker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For the first time quantitative data on the abundance of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya in deep terrestrial sediments are provided using multiple methods (total cell counting, quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR and catalyzed reporter deposition – fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH. The oligotrophic (organic carbon content of ~ 0.2 % deep terrestrial sediments in the Chesapeake Bay area at Eyreville, Virginia, USA, were drilled and sampled up to a depth of 140 m in 2006. The possibility of contamination during drilling was checked using fluorescent microspheres. Total cell counts decreased from 109 to 106 cells per g dry weight (dw within the uppermost 20 m depth, and did not further decrease with depth below. A significant proportion of the total cell counts could be detected with CARD-FISH within the uppermost 7 m depth. The CARD-FISH numbers for Bacteria were about an order of magnitude higher than those for Archaea. The dominance of Bacteria over Archaea was confirmed by Q-PCR. The down core quantitative distribution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA genes as well as functional genes involved in different biogeochemical processes was revealed by Q-PCR for the uppermost 10 m and for 80-140 m depth. Eukarya and the Fe(III- and Mn(IV-reducing bacterial group Geobacteriaceae were almost only found in the uppermost meter (arable soil, where reactive iron was detected in higher amounts. The bacterial candidate division JS-1 and the classes Anaerolineae and Caldilineae of the phylum Chloroflexi, highly abundant in marine sediments, were found up to the maximum sampling depth in high copy numbers at this terrestrial site as well. A similar high abundance of the functional gene cbbL encoding for the large subunit of RubisCO suggests that autotrophic microorganisms could be relevant in addition to heterotrophs. The functional gene aprA of sulfate reducing bacteria was found within distinct layers up to ca. 100 m depth

  8. The deep biosphere in terrestrial sediments in the chesapeake bay area, virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuker, Anja; Köweker, Gerrit; Blazejak, Anna; Schippers, Axel

    2011-01-01

    For the first time quantitative data on the abundance of Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya in deep terrestrial sediments are provided using multiple methods (total cell counting, quantitative real-time PCR, Q-PCR and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization, CARD-FISH). The oligotrophic (organic carbon content of ∼0.2%) deep terrestrial sediments in the Chesapeake Bay area at Eyreville, Virginia, USA, were drilled and sampled up to a depth of 140 m in 2006. The possibility of contamination during drilling was checked using fluorescent microspheres. Total cell counts decreased from 10(9) to 10(6) cells/g dry weight within the uppermost 20 m, and did not further decrease with depth below. Within the top 7 m, a significant proportion of the total cell counts could be detected with CARD-FISH. The CARD-FISH numbers for Bacteria were about an order of magnitude higher than those for Archaea. The dominance of Bacteria over Archaea was confirmed by Q-PCR. The down core quantitative distribution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA genes as well as functional genes involved in different biogeochemical processes was revealed by Q-PCR for the uppermost 10 m and for 80-140 m depth. Eukarya and the Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing bacterial group Geobacteriaceae were almost exclusively found in the uppermost meter (arable soil), where reactive iron was detected in higher amounts. The bacterial candidate division JS-1 and the classes Anaerolineae and Caldilineae of the phylum Chloroflexi, highly abundant in marine sediments, were found up to the maximum sampling depth in high copy numbers at this terrestrial site as well. A similar high abundance of the functional gene cbbL encoding for the large subunit of RubisCO suggests that autotrophic microorganisms could be relevant in addition to heterotrophs. The functional gene aprA of sulfate reducing bacteria was found within distinct layers up to ca. 100 m depth in low copy numbers

  9. Results of a modeling workshop concerning economic and environmental trends and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David B.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Johnson, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.; Staley, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade, the southern regions of the U.S. have experienced rapid change which is expected to continue into the foreseeable future. Growth in population, industry, and resource development has been attributed to a variety of advantages such as an abundant and inexpensive labor force, a mild climate, and the availability of energy, water, land, and other natural resources. While this growth has many benefits for the region, it also creates the potential for increased air, water, and solid waste pollution, and modification of natural habitats. A workshop was convened to consider the Mobile Bay area as a site-specific case of growth and its environmental consequences in the southern region. The objectives of the modeling workshop were to: (1) identify major factors of economic development as they relate to growth in the area over the immediate and longer term; (2) identify major environmental and resource management issues associated with this expected growth; and (3) identify and characterize the complex interrelationships among economic and environmental factors. This report summarizes the activities and results of a modeling workshop concerning economic growth and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area. The workshop was organized around construction of a simulation model representing the relationships between a series of actions and indicators identified by participants. The workshop model had five major components. An Industry Submodel generated scenarios of growth in several industrial and transportation sectors. A Human Population/Economy Submodel calculated human population and economic variables in response to employment opportunities. A Land Use/Air Quality Submodel tabulated changes in land use, shoreline use, and air quality. A Water Submodel calculated indicators of water quality and quantity for fresh surface water, ground water, and Mobile Bay based on discharge information provided by the Industry and Human

  10. Rainfall Estimation and Performance Characterization Using an X-band Dual-Polarization Radar in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Chen, H.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    The San Francisco Bay area is home to over 5 million people. In February 2016, the area also hosted the NFL Super bowl, bringing additional people and focusing national attention to the region. Based on the El Nino forecast, public officials expressed concern for heavy rainfall and flooding with the potential for threats to public safety, costly flood damage to infrastructure, negative impacts to water quality (e.g., combined sewer overflows) and major disruptions in transportation. Mitigation of the negative impacts listed above requires accurate precipitation monitoring (quantitative precipitation estimation-QPE) and prediction (including radar nowcasting). The proximity to terrain and maritime conditions as well as the siting of existing NEXRAD radars are all challenges in providing accurate, short-term near surface rainfall estimates in the Bay area urban region. As part of a collaborative effort between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory, Colorado State University (CSU), and Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD), an X-band dual-polarization radar was deployed in Santa Clara Valley in February of 2016 to provide support for the National Weather Service during the Super Bowl and NOAA's El Nino Rapid Response field campaign. This high-resolution radar was deployed on the roof of one of the buildings at the Penitencia Water Treatment Plant. The main goal was to provide detailed precipitation information for use in weather forecasting and assists the water district in their ability to predict rainfall and streamflow with real-time rainfall data over Santa Clara County especially during a potentially large El Nino year. The following figure shows the radar's coverage map, as well as sample reflectivity observations on March 06, 2016, at 00:04UTC. This paper presents results from a pilot study from February, 2016 to May, 2016 demonstrating the use of X-band weather radar for quantitative precipitation

  11. Report on Saginaw Bay Area Environmental Policy, Planning and Management survey. Final report, April 1991-March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, C.; Zhao, W.; Edens, T.C.

    1992-04-01

    An environmental policy, planning, and management survey was conducted in the Saginaw Bay area in the Fall of 1991. The survey identified unemployment, factory closure and environmental quality degradation as the major economic and environmental problems in the area. Surface water contamination, excessive nutrients and zebra mussel infestation were the most serious problems affecting water quality. Soil erosion, excessive fertilization and pesticide applications were the most important non-point sources of water pollution. Toxic chemicals, phosphorus, suspended solids, heavy metals were the major water pollutants in the area. Pollution cleanup, land use planning, and control of zebra mussels were identified as the top implementation priorities for the area. Recommendations made by the respondents for improving environmental quality are summarized in the report.

  12. Hydrographic features of the gas hydrate studies survey area of cruise AASGH4 in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Charyulu, R; Fernandes, W.A.; Gawde, S.; Almeida, A.M.

    /2006 Technical Report on ?Hydrographic features of the gas hydrate studies survey area of cruise AASGH4 in the Bay of Bengal? R.J.K. Charyulu, William Fernandes, Sandeep Gawde and A.M. Almeida National Institute of Oceanography, (C.S.I.R.) Dona Paula.... Methodology for CTD data collection i) The CTD System: The CTD (conductivity, Temperature, Depth) system used in the gas hydrates study onboard AA ?Siderenko? for water column hydrographic data collection consists of C,T,D primary sensors...

  13. Comparison of Monterey pine stress in urban and natural forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Joe R. McBride

    1991-01-01

    Monterey pine street trees within Carmel, California and its immediate vicinity, as well as forest-grown Monterey pine within adjacent natural stands, were sampled with regard to visual stress characteristics, and various environmental and biological variables. Two stress indices were computed, one hypothesized before data collection was based on relative foliage...

  14. Fish assemblages in a coastal bay adjacent to a network of marine protected areas in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pereira Cattani

    Full Text Available Abstract Baía Norte (North Bay in Santa Catarina State is considered a typical coastal bay and is surrounded by a network of Marine Protected Areas. The objectives of this study were to describe the composition of the demersal fish assemblage, identify seasonal and spatial structures on a fine scale and evaluate the role of habitat descriptors and abiotic variables affecting the fish assemblage structure. Seasonal samplings were conducted in 2005, using bottom trawls in six pre-established areas in Baía Norte in summer, fall, winter and spring. Simultaneously with each trawl, environmental data were collected with a multiparameter probe. Temporal and spatial differences in fish abundance were tested by a PERMANOVA. To illustratethe differences detected graphically we ran a canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP. The influence of environmental variables on the fish fauna was evaluated using a Distant Based Linear Model (DistLM with Akaike's information criterion (AIC. A total of 9,888 specimens, distributed in 27 families and 62 species, were collected. Citharichthys spilopterus was the most abundant species. PERMANOVA detected differences for abundance between seasons, areas and interaction among all the factors. The DISTLM selected temperature and pH. The results highlight seasonality as an important factor in the structuring of fish fauna of the study place.

  15. Are vegetated areas of mangroves attractive to juvenile and small fish? The case of Dongzhaigang Bay, Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mao; Huang, Zhenyuan; Shi, Fushan; Wang, Wenqing

    2009-11-01

    Well-developed aerial roots of mangroves make it difficult to study how fish utilize the mangrove forest as a habitat. In the present study, we compared the differences in fish assemblages in three major types of habitats of mangrove estuary (vegetated area, treeless mudflat, and creek) of a mangrove bay in Hainan Island, China, at different seasons during two consecutive years. Three types of gears, centipede net, gill net and cast net, were used in the different habitats of mangrove estuary and sampling efficiencies among gears were evaluated. Centipede nets were used in all the three types of habitats and cast nets and gill nets in treeless mudflats and creeks. Fish assemblages were dependent on gears used. Centipede net could efficiently catch fish occurring both inside and outside of vegetated areas efficiently. A total of 115 fish species in 51 families were collected. In terms of numbers of species per family, Gobiidae was the most diverse (17 species), followed by Mugilidae (5 species). Almost all of the fish were juvenile or small fish and few predators were recorded, implying low predation pressure in the bay. ANOVA analysis showed that significant seasonal and spatial variation existed in species richness, abundance, and biomass, which were less in the vegetated areas than those of treeless mudflats and creeks. The attraction of vegetated areas to fish was less than that of creeks and mudflats. Many species were specific to a particular habitat type, 4 species occurring exclusively in the creeks, 45 species occurring exclusively in the treeless mudflats, and 5 species occurring exclusively in the vegetated areas. The results indicated that mangrove estuaries were potentially attractive habitats for juvenile and small fish, but this attraction was accomplished by a connection of vegetated areas, treeless mudflats and creeks, not only by vegetated areas.

  16. Ambient Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Observations in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Fixed-site Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martien, P. T.; Guha, A.; Bower, J.; Perkins, I.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Stevenson, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District is the greater San Francisco Bay metropolitan area's chief air quality regulatory agency. Aligning itself with the Governor's Executive Order S-3-05, the Air District has set a goal to reduce the region's GHG emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The Air District's 2016 Clean Air Plan will lay out the agency's vision and actions to put the region on a path forward towards achieving the 2050 goal while also reducing air pollution and related health impacts. The 2016 Plan has three overarching objectives: 1) develop a multi-pollutant emissions control strategy, (2) reduce population exposure to harmful air pollutants, especially in vulnerable communities, and (3) protect climate through a comprehensive Regional Climate Protection Strategy. To accomplish one of 2016 Plan's control measures (SL3 - Greenhouse Gas Monitoring and Measurement Network), the Air District has set up a long-term, ambient GHG monitoring network at four sites. The first site is located north and upwind of the urban core at Bodega Bay by the Pacific Coast. It mostly receives clean marine inflow and serves as the regional background site. The other three sites are strategically located at regional exit points for Bay Area plumes that presumably contain well-mixed GHG enhancements from local sources. CO2 and CH4are being measured continuously at the fixed-sites, along with combustion tracer CO and other air pollutants. In the longer term, the network will allow the Air District to monitor ambient concentrations of GHGs and thus evaluate the effectiveness of its policy, regulation and enforcement efforts. We present data trends from the first year of operation of the fixed-site monitoring network including monthly and seasonal patterns, diurnal variations and regional enhancements at individual sites above background concentrations. We also locate an isotopic methane instrument (Picarro, G132-i) for a short duration (a week) at each of the

  17. An aerial radiological survey of the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station and surrounding area, Bay City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.M.

    1988-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS) near Bay City, Texas, during the period 25 March to 4 April 1988. The purpose of the 259-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates were observed up to 10μR/h over land. No areas of enhanced exposure rates were observed. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the plant were also acquired during the survey. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Long path optical extinction and meteorology in the San Francisco bay area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porch, W M; Galloway, T R; Green, T J; Ellsaesser, H W

    1981-01-01

    Comparison of night-time long path extinction (25 km) across San Francisco Bay and local meteorological measurements at Oakland Airport revealed a dominant role of boundary layer mixing on visibility. Inversion depth and inversion depth multiplied by wind speed were both strongly inversely correlated with night-time atmospheric extinction. Oakland Airport wind speed and humidity showed little correlation with the extinction measurements. Stellar extinction was also found to be sensitive to mixing depth. This is important as visibility and turbidity trend studies rarely include mixing depth measurements. These results indicate the importance of developing instruments to use the same light source for remote sensing of atmospheric constituents, wind and humidity.

  19. Study on the 90Sr absorption by agricultural plants grown in soil from Daya Bay and Qinshan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenhu; Hou Lanxin; Xu Shiming

    1991-03-01

    The soil around the Qinshan and Daya Bay nuclear power plants were used in this study. The 90 Sr was spread into the soil by irrigation. The amount of 90 Sr spread were 0.037, 0.37, 3.7 and 370 Bq per gram soil respectively. After being treated, the soil were employed to grow rice, wheat, rape, bean, asparagus lettuce, tomato and peas. The harvested plants were divided into seeds, stems and leaves, husks and roots to measure their radioactivity separately. The results showed that the amount of 90 Sr absorbed by the plants was directly proportional to the 90 Sr content in the soil. The absorbed 90 Sr was mainly distributed in the stems and leaves. The seeds absorbed the least amount of 90 Sr compared with the other portions. The old leaves absorbed greater 90 Sr than the buds. The accumulated 90 Sr per unit dry weight of all plants grown in the soil from Daya Bay area was greater than in the soil from Qinshan area. More than 80% of total 90 Sr was distributed in the top layer from 0 to 4 cm. The concentration factors of various plants were also given

  20. Repeated 1-cm Resolution Topographic and 2.5-mm Resolution Photomosiac Surveys of Benthic Communities and Fine Scale Bedforms in Monterey Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Hobson, B.; Thomas, H. J.; Henthorn, R.; Martin, E. J.; Bird, L.; Risi, M.; Troni, G.; Paull, C. K.; Rock, S.; Padial, J. A.; Hammond, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute has developed a low altitude, ROV-based seafloor mapping system that combines lidar laser ranging, multibeam sonar, and stereo photographic imagery. When operated at a 3-m altitude, this system maps seafloor topography with a 1-cm lateral resolution and simultaneously collects 2.5-mm resolution color photography. We have twice mapped an 80-m by 80-m area of a chemosynthetic clam community located at 2850-m depth in the Monterey Canyon axis. Both the topography and the photomosaics resolve changes in the clam community over a six-month interval. Many individual animals have moved, and tracks of those animals are visible in the lidar topography. No other changes in the seafloor at this site can be discerned. We have also performed single surveys of bedforms and scours at both 1850-m and 2850-m depths in Monterey Canyon. The highest resolution bathymetry data are collected using a 3DatDepth SL1 lidar laser scanner. This system has a 30° field of view and ranges continuously, achieving a 1 cm sounding spacing at a 3 m altitude and 0.3 m/s speed. Bathymetry data are also collected using a 400-kHz Reson 7125 multibeam sonar. This configuration produces 512 beams across a 135° wide swath; each beam has a 0.5° acrosstrack by 1.0° alongtrack angular width. At a 3-m altitude, the nadir beams have a 2.5 cm acrosstrack and 5 cm alongtrack footprint. Dual Prosilica GX1920 2.4 Mpixel color cameras provide color stereo photography of the seafloor. Illumination is provided by dual xenon strobes. The camera housings have been fitted with corrective optics achieving a 90° field of view with less than 1% distortion. At a 3-m altitude the raw image pixels have a 2.5 mm resolution. Position and attitude data are provided by a Kearfott SeaDevil Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated with a 300 kHz Teledyne RD Instruments Doppler velocity log (DVL). A separate Paroscientific pressure sensor is mounted adjacent to the INS. The INS

  1. Serum biomarkers of polyfluoroalkyl compound exposure in young girls in Greater Cincinnati and the San Francisco Bay Area, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinney, Susan M.; Biro, Frank M.; Windham, Gayle C.; Herrick, Robert L.; Yaghjyan, Lusine; Calafat, Antonia M.; Succop, Paul; Sucharew, Heidi; Ball, Kathleen M.; Kato, Kayoko

    2014-01-01

    PFC serum concentrations were measured in 6–8 year-old girls in Greater Cincinnati (GC) (N = 353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) (N = 351). PFOA median concentration was lower in the SFBA than GC (5.8 vs. 7.3 ng/mL). In GC, 48/51 girls living in one area had PFOA concentrations above the NHANES 95th percentile for children 12–19 years (8.4 ng/mL), median 22.0 ng/mL. The duration of being breast fed was associated with higher serum PFOA at both sites and with higher PFOS, PFHxS and Me-PFOSA-AcOH concentrations in GC. Correlations of the PFC analytes with each other suggest that a source upriver from GC may have contributed to exposures through drinking water, and water treatment with granular activated carbon filtration resulted in less exposure for SWO girls compared to those in NKY. PFOA has been characterized as a drinking water contaminant, and water treatment systems effective in removing PFCs will reduce body burdens. -- Highlights: • PFC serum concentrations were measured in 6–8 year-old girls. • Study sites in Greater Cincinnati (N = 353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 351). • The duration of being breast fed was associated with higher serum PFOA. • Lower PFOA in girls living in areas with granular activated carbon water treatment. -- Serum concentrations of PFCs in young girls were higher in girls who had been breast fed longer, and lower in girls in areas with granular activated carbon municipal water treatment

  2. Burial fluxes and source apportionment of carbon in culture areas of Sanggou Bay over the past 200 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sai; HUANG Jiansheng; YANG Qian; YANG Shu; YANG Guipeng; SUN Yao

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the burial fluxes and source appointment of different forms of carbon in core sediments collected from culture areas in the Sanggou Bay, and preliminarily analyzed the reasons for the greater proportion of inorganic carbon burial fluxes (BFTIC). The average content of total carbon (TC) in the Sanggou Bay was 2.14%. Total organic carbon (TOC) accounted for a small proportion in TC, more than 65% of which derived from terrigenous organic carbon (Ct), and while the proportion of marine-derived organic carbon (Ca) increased significantly since the beginning of large-scale aquaculture. Total inorganic carbon (TIC) accounted for 60%–75%of TC, an average of which was 60%, with a maximum up to 90% during flourishing periods (1880–1948) of small natural shellfish derived from seashells inorganic carbon (Shell-IC). The TC burial fluxes ranged from 31 g/(m2·a) to 895 g/(m2·a) with an average of 227 g/(m2·a), which was dominated by TIC (about 70%). Shell-IC was the main source of TIC and even TC. As the main food of natural shellfish, biogenic silica (BSi) negatively correlated with BFTIC through affecting shellfish breeding. BFTIC of Sta. S1, influenced greatly by the Yellow Sea Coastal Current, had a certain response to Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in some specific periods.

  3. Magnitude and frequency of flooding on small urban watersheds in the Tampa Bay area, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M.A.; Woodham, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Hydrologic data collected on nine small urban watersheds in the Tampa Bay area of west-central Florida and a method for estimating peak discharges in the study area are described. The watersheds have mixed land use and range in size from 0.34 to 3.45 square miles. Watershed soils, land use, and storm-drainage system data are described. Urban development ranged from a sparsely populated area with open-ditch storm sewers and 19% impervious area to a completely sewered watershed with 61% impervious cover. The U.S. Geological Survey natural-basin and urban-watershed models were calibrated for the nine watersheds using 5-minute interval rainfall data from the Tampa, Florida, National Weather Service rain gage to simulate annual peak discharge for the period 1906-52. A log-Pearson Type III frequency analysis of the simulated annual maximum discharge was used to determine the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year flood discharges for each watershed. Flood discharges were related in a multiple-linear regression to drainage area, channel slope, detention storage area, and an urban-development factor determined by the extent of curb and gutter street drainage and storm-sewer system. The average standard error for the regional relations ranged from + or - 32 to + or - 42%. (USGS)

  4. Carbon transport in Monterey Submarine Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, J.; Paull, C. K.; Xu, J. P.; Clare, M. A.; Gales, J. A.; Buck, K. R.; Lovera, C.; Gwiazda, R.; Maier, K. L.; McGann, M.; Parsons, D. R.; Simmons, S.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Talling, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine canyons are important conduits for sediment transport from continental margins to the abyss, but the rate, volume, and time scales of material transport have been measured only rarely. Using moorings with current meters, sediment traps (10 m above bottom) and optical backscatter sensors, we measured near-bottom currents, suspended sediment concentrations, and sediment properties at 1300 m depth in Monterey Canyon and at a non-canyon location on the continental slope at the same depth. Flow and water column backscatter were used to characterize "ambient" conditions when tidal currents dominated the flow field, and occasional "sediment transport events" when anomalously high down-canyon flow with sediment-laden waters arrived at the canyon mooring. The ambient sediment flux measured in sediment traps in Monterey Canyon was 350 times greater than measured at the non-canyon location. Although the organic carbon content of the canyon sediment flux during ambient periods was low (1.8 %C) compared to the slope location (4.9 %C), the ambient carbon transport in the canyon was 130 times greater than at the non-canyon site. Material fluxes during sediment transport events were difficult to measure owing to clogging of sediment traps, but minimal estimates indicate that mass transport during events exceeds ambient sediment fluxes through the canyon by nearly 3 orders of magnitude, while carbon transport is 380 times greater. Estimates of the instantaneous and cumulative flux of sediment and carbon from currents, backscatter, and sediment properties indicated that: 1) net flux is down-canyon, 2) flux is dominated by sediment transport events, and 3) organic carbon flux through 1300 m in Monterey Canyon was ca. 1500 MT C per year. The injection of 1500 MTCy-1 into the deep-sea represents ca. 260 km2 of the sediment C flux measured at the continental slope station (5.8 gCm-2y-1) and is sufficient to support a benthic community carbon demand of 5 gCm-2y-1 over 300 km2.

  5. Distribution of phytoplankton community in relation to environmental parameters in cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Madihah Jaffar; Rashed-Un-Nabi, Md.; Azharul Hoque, Md.

    2008-11-01

    This paper covers spatial and temporal variation in phytoplankton communities and physico-chemical water properties in the cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Sabah, Malaysia based on field measurement conducted during July 2005 to January 2006 to study the spatial and temporal variation in phytoplankton communities and physico-chemical water properties of the bay. Phytoplankton samples and water parameters data were collected from five different stations located inside the bay during Southwest, Interseasonal and Northeast monsoons. Forty phytoplankton genera, representatives of 23 families, were found in the study area with a mean abundance of 1.55 ± 1.19 × 10 6 cells L -1. Most of these genera belong to diatoms (82.17%), Dinoflagellates (17.55%) and cyanobacteria (0.29%). Three genera were found to be dominant (>10%) in phytoplankton abundance and these were Coscinodiscus spp. (36.38%), Chaetoceros spp (17.65%) and Bacteriastrum spp. (10.98%). The most dominant genus was Coscinodiscus spp. which showed high abundance during all monsoons and stations (except Station 3). Among the seven environmental parameters tested in this study, water temperature, pH and suspended sediment concentration were found to be significantly different between monsoons. On the other hand, no significant differences were found between stations for the studied physico-chemical parameters. A clear differences in phytoplankton densities were observed between monsoons and stations with higher mean abundances during interseasonal monsoon (2.40 ± 1.37 × 10 6 cells L -1) and at station five (2.05 ± 0.74 × 10 6 cells L -1), respectively. Conversely, the diversity indices, both Shannon-Wiener (H) and Pielou (J), showed no significant difference throughout stations and monsoons (except (H) for monsoons). Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) results demonstrated temporal differences in phytoplankton community structure with highly diverse phytoplankton assemblage. Through cluster analysis five

  6. Examining and Comparing Earthquake Readiness in East San Francisco Bay Area Communities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, N.; Bul, V.; Chavez, A.; Chin, W.; Cuff, K. E.; Girton, C.; Haynes, D.; Kelly, G.; Leon, G.; Ramirez, J.; Ramirez, R.; Rodriquez, F.; Ruiz, D.; Torres, J.

    2009-12-01

    Based on past experiences, the potential for casualties and mass destruction that can result from a high magnitude earthquake are well known. Nevertheless, given the East San Francisco Bay Area’s proximity to the Hayward and San Andreas faults, learning about earthquakes and disaster preparedness is of particular importance. While basic educational programs and materials are available both through emergency relief agencies and schools, little research has been done on their effectiveness. Because of the wide socioeconomic spread between communities in the East Bay, we decided to investigate understandings of issues related to disaster and earthquake preparedness among local populations based upon average household income. To accomplish this, we created a survey that was later uploaded to and implemented using Palm Treo Smart Phones. Survey locations were selected in such a way that they reflected the understandings of residents in a diverse set of socio-economic settings. Thus, these locations included a grocery store and nearby plaza in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA (zip=94601; median household income= 33,152), as well as the nearby town of Alameda, CA (zip=94502, median household income= 87,855). Preliminary results suggest that in terms of the objective questions on the survey, people from Alameda who participated in our study performed significantly better (difference in percentage correct greater than 10%) than the people from Fruitvale on two of the advanced earthquake knowledge questions. Interestingly enough, people in Fruitvale significantly outperformed people in Alameda on two of the basic earthquake knowledge questions. The final important finding was that while houses in Alameda tended to be newer and more often retrofitted than houses in Fruitvale, the people of the latter location tended to have a higher percentage of respondents claim confidence in the ability of their house to withstand a major earthquake. Based on preliminary results we

  7. Effectiveness of marine protected areas in managing the drivers of ecosystem change: a case of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machumu, Milali Ernest; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2013-04-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are being promoted in Tanzania to mitigate the drivers of ecosystem change such as overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts on marine resources. The effectiveness of MPAs in managing those drivers was assessed in three ecological zones, seafront, mangrove, and riverine of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, using Participatory Community Analysis techniques, questionnaire survey, checklist and fishery resource assessment methods. Eleven major drivers of ecosystem change were identified. Resource dependence had a major effect in all ecological zones of the park. The results indicated that the park's legislations/regulations, management procedures, and conservation efforts are reasonably effective in managing its resources. The positive signs accrued from conservation efforts have been realized by the communities in terms of increased catch/income, awareness and compliance. However, some natural and anthropogenic drivers continued to threaten the park's sustainability. Furthermore, implementation of resource use and benefit sharing mechanisms still remained a considerable challenge to be addressed.

  8. Monterey, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Monterey, California Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  9. Comparing sediment quality in Spanish littoral areas affected by acute (Prestige, 2002) and chronic (Bay of Algeciras) oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Caselles, C.; Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    The quality of sediments collected from two areas of the Spanish coast affected by different sources of contaminants has been compared in this study. The areas studied are the coast of Galicia affected by the oil spill from the tanker Prestige (November 2002) and the Gulf of Cadiz which suffers continuous inputs of contaminants from industries located in the area and from oil spills. Contamination by several chemicals (metals, PCBs and PAHs) that bind to sediments was analyzed, and two toxicity tests (Microtox[reg]) and amphipod 10-day bioassay) were conducted. PAHs were identified as the compounds responsible for the toxic effects. Results show differences between an acute impact related to the sinking of the tanker Prestige and the chronic impact associated with continuous oil spills associated with the maritime and industrial activities in the Bay of Algeciras, this being the most polluted part of the two coastal areas studied in this work. - Littoral sediments affected by low or moderated but continuous oil spills are more polluted than those affected by accidental oil spills such as the Prestige

  10. The morphology, processes, and evolution of Monterey Fan: a revisit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Field, Michael E.; Masson, Douglas G.

    2010-01-01

    Long-range (GLORIA) and mid-range (TOBI) sidescan imagery and seismic-reflection profiles have revealed the surface morphology and architecture of the complete Monterey Fan. The fan has not developed a classic wedge shape because it has been blocked for much of its history by Morro Fracture Zone. The barrier has caused the fan to develop an upper-fan and lower-fan sequence that are distinctly different from one another. The upper-fan sequence is characterized by Monterey and Ascension Channels and associated Monterey Channel-levee system. The lower-fan sequence is characterized by depositional lobes of the Ascension, Monterey, and Sur-Parkington-Lucia systems, with the Monterey depositional lobe being the youngest. Presently, the Monterey depositional lobe is being downcut because the system has reached a new, lower base level in the Murray Fracture Zone. A five-step evolution of Monterey Fan is presented, starting with initial fan deposition in the Late Miocene, about 5.5 Ma. This first stage was one of filling bathymetric lows in the oceanic basement in what was to become the upper-fan segment. The second stage involved filling the bathymetric low on the north side of Morro Fracture Zone, and probably not much sediment was transported beyond the fracture zone. The third stage witnessed sediment being transported around both ends of Morro Fracture Zone and initial sedimentation on the lower-fan segment. During the fourth stage Ascension Channel was diverted into Monterey Channel, thereby cutting off sedimentation to the Ascension depositional lobe.

  11. An empirical test of the 'shark nursery area concept' in Texas bays using a long-term fisheries-independent data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeschke, John T.; Stunz, Gregory W.; Sterba-Boatwright, Blair; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Using a long-term fisheries-independent data set, we tested the 'shark nursery area concept' proposed by Heupel et al. (2007) with the suggested working assumptions that a shark nursery habitat would: (1) have an abundance of immature sharks greater than the mean abundance across all habitats where they occur; (2) be used by sharks repeatedly through time (years); and (3) see immature sharks remaining within the habitat for extended periods of time. We tested this concept using young-of-the-year (age 0) and juvenile (age 1+ yr) bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas from gill-net surveys conducted in Texas bays from 1976 to 2006 to estimate the potential nursery function of 9 coastal bays. Of the 9 bay systems considered as potential nursery habitat, only Matagorda Bay satisfied all 3 criteria for young-of-the-year bull sharks. Both Matagorda and San Antonio Bays met the criteria for juvenile bull sharks. Through these analyses we examined the utility of this approach for characterizing nursery areas and we also describe some practical considerations, such as the influence of the temporal or spatial scales considered when applying the nursery role concept to shark populations.

  12. Environmental Assessment for Ongoing and Future Operations at U.S. Navy Dabob Bay and Hood Canal Military Operating Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    well as being cultivated in aquaculture operations in Puget Sound, including Hood Canal and Dabob Bay (Figure 3.4-2). Pacific oysters (Crassostrea...gigas) are widely cultivated in aquaculture operations in Puget Sound. Commercial oyster beds exist in Dabob Bay, mostly at the north end. Dabob Bay... Ecotoxicology of metals in aquatic sediments: binding and release, bioavailability, risk assessment, and remediation. Canadian Journal of

  13. Investigating the fate of microplastics in the San Diego Bay area: A paleoenvironmental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, R. M.; Hangsterfer, A.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2017-12-01

    Microplastics in marine waste surveys compare the observed amount of microplastic debris in the ocean with constructed models to determine availability of microplastics in the ocean. However, most of these studies have been constrained in the surface ocean and the surveys have found a substantial difference between estimated and observed amount of microplastic in the ocean. One possible reason could be that microplastics are settling along continental shelves or the ocean bottom. Via this research we have collected samples to study marine sediments (collected from increasing depth along the continental shelf around San Diego) for microplastics. Our goal is to determine the relationship between density and microplastic distribution. The main objective is to investigate sinks of microplastic (plastic products sizes less than 1 mm) along continental shelves; more specifically, this small study aims to investigate (a) what are the dominant types of microplastics (for example, heavy plastic or light plastic), (b) shapes of microplastics derived from commonly used heavy and light plastics, (c) is there specific locations (for example floating in water column vs. settling ocean floor along the continental shelves, which would be the first places where one might expect microplastics (that are delivered via river systems or from beaches) typically and finally, (d) is there any marine environmental preference between light and heavy microplastics. In this study, we provide observational evidence about the poorly understood fate of microplastics in the ocean as well as lend itself to the question: if and how long microplastics remain bioavailable. We have targeted four marine environments along San Diego that encompass several important connections between land and the ocean:Bays, river mouth, upwelling region and shelf. At each site listed above, we take four sets of 1-2ft cores: 20ft , 40ft, 60ft, 80ft. We combine traditional measurements (pH, salinity, density, DOC, N, P

  14. 77 FR 65521 - Determination of Attainment for the San Francisco Bay Area Nonattainment Area for the 2006 Fine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... available only at the hard copy location (e.g., copyrighted material), and some may not be publicly available at either location (e.g., CBI). To inspect the hard copy materials, please schedule an appointment... Monitoring Stations (SLAMS) in a nonattainment area and entered into the AQS database. Data from air monitors...

  15. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Richardson, Alaska as well as an adjacent portion of Eagle Bay in the Knik Arm. More specifically, the... affected waters of Eagle Bay and Eagle River in order to enhance safety and security. This portion of Eagle... B. Olson), 441 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20314-1000. Hand Delivery/Courier: Due to security...

  16. Trace/heavy metal pollution monitoring in estuary and coastal area of Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh and implicated impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam; Hossain, Md Maruf; Mallick, Debbrota; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2016-04-15

    Using artificial mussels (AMs), this study reports and compares time-integrated level of eleven trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn) in Karnafuli River estuary and coastal area of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Through this study, "hot spots" of metal pollution were identified. The results may demonstrate that the Karnafuli Estuary, and adjacent coastal area of Chittagong, Bangladesh are highly polluted by high risk metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, uranium). Agricultural, domestic and industrial wastes directly discharged into the waterways have been identified as the main causes of metal pollution in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The high level of metal pollution identified may impact on local water quality, and seafood catch, livelihoods of people and public health resulting from seafood consumption. There is a need for regular monitoring to ascertain that local water quality with respect to metal levels are within acceptable levels to safeguards both environmental health and public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. California; Bay Area Air Quality Management District; Proposed Approval of Stationary Sources New Source Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a proposed determination that CARB submitted rules on behalf of BAAQMD that satisfy part D of the Clean Air Act for areas under the jurisdiction of the BAAQMD.

  18. California; Bay Area Air Quality Management District; Determination To Defer Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a proposed determination that CARB submitted rules on behalf of BAAQMD that satisfy part D of the Clean Air Act for areas under the jurisdiction of the BAAQMD.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Source Detection and Attribution in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Mobile Measurement Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martien, P. T.; Guha, A.; Newman, S.; Young, A.; Bower, J.; Perkins, I.; Randall, S.; Stevenson, E.; Hilken, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Area's air quality regulatory agency, has set a goal to reduce the region's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 80% below 1990 levels by 2050, consistent with the State of California's climate goals. Recently, the Air District's governing board adopted a 2017 Clean Air Plan advancing the agency's vision and including actions to put the region on a path to achieving the 2050 goal while also reducing air pollution and related health impacts. The Plan includes GHG rule-making efforts, policy initiatives, local government partnerships, outreach, grants and incentives, encompassing over 250 specific implementation actions across all economic sectors to effect ambitious emission reductions in the region. To support the 2017 Plan, the Air District has built a mobile measurement platform (GHG research van) to perform targeted CH4 emissions hotspot detection and source attribution. Instruments in the van measure CH4, CO2 and N2O in ambient plumes. Coincident measurements of source tracers like isotopic methane (13C - CH4), CO and ethane (C2H6) provide the capability to distinguish between biogenic, combustion-based and fossil-based fugitive methane sources. We report observations of CH4 plumes from source-specific measurements in and around facilities including a wastewater treatment plant, a composting operation, a waste-to-energy anaerobic digestion plant and a few refineries. We performed leak surveys inside several electric utility-operated facilities including a power plant and an underground natural gas storage facility. We sampled exhaust from a roadway tunnel and computed fleet-averaged automobile-related CH4 and N2O emission factors. We used tracer-to-tracer emission ratios to create chemical signatures of emissions from each sampled source category. We compare measurement-based ratios with those used to derive the regional GHG inventory. Data from these and other sources will lead to an improved

  20. Families of miocene monterey crude oil, seep, and tarball samples, coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs to better assess their origins and distributions in coastal California. These samples were used to construct a chemometric (multivariate statistical) decision tree to classify 288 additional samples. The results identify three tribes of 13C-rich oil samples inferred to originate from thermally mature equivalents of the clayey-siliceous, carbonaceous marl and lower calcareous-siliceous members of the Monterey Formation at Naples Beach near Santa Barbara. An attempt to correlate these families to rock extracts from these members in the nearby COST (continental offshore stratigraphic test) (OCS-Cal 78-164) well failed, at least in part because the rocks are thermally immature. Geochemical similarities among the oil tribes and their widespread distribution support the prograding margin model or the banktop-slope-basin model instead of the ridge-and-basin model for the deposition of the Monterey Formation. Tribe 1 contains four oil families having geochemical traits of clay-rich marine shale source rock deposited under suboxic conditions with substantial higher plant input. Tribe 2 contains four oil families with traits intermediate between tribes 1 and 3, except for abundant 28,30-bisnorhopane, indicating suboxic to anoxic marine marl source rock with hemipelagic input. Tribe 3 contains five oil families with traits of distal marine carbonate source rock deposited under anoxic conditions with pelagic but little or no higher plant input. Tribes 1 and 2 occur mainly south of Point Conception in paleogeographic settings where deep burial of the Monterey source rock favored petroleum generation from all three members or their equivalents. In this area, oil from the clayey-siliceous and carbonaceous marl members (tribes 1 and 2) may overwhelm that from the lower

  1. Using Remote Sensing to Evaluate Wetland Recovery in the Northern Tampa Bay Area Following Reduction in Groundwater Withdrawals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Amor

    In the past, the Northern Tampa Bay Area (NTBA) wetlands saw severe declines in hydrologic conditions due to excessive groundwater withdrawal rates. Eventually these rates were reduced to allow the wetlands to recover. To monitor this recovery, the Southwest Florida Water Management district (SWFWMD) set up a fieldwork based scoring methodology, called the Wetlands Assessment Procedure (WAP). WAP has been used in many studies of the area since groundwater withdrawal reductions; with many of those studies finding the recovery to be mixed at best. However, these studies were very limited in the number of wetlands they could assess due to the limitations of fieldwork. Therefore, it was proposed that remotely sensed variables associated with water consumption and stress be used to assess the recovery of the NTBA wetlands, as remote sensing allows for efficient assessments of targets over large area. Utilizing ASTER imagery scenes from 2005 and 2014, 211 wetlands' remotely sensed responses of NDVI, Land Surface Temperature (LST), and Evapotranspiration (ET) were mapped and statistically examined for trends indicating improvement or decline. Furthermore, a subset of WAP scores for the two years were examined and compared to the remotely sensed values. The results were contradictory, with remotely sensed responses showing an improvement over the time period, WAP scores indicating a decline in hydrologic conditions, and the two methods showing little to no fit when modeled against each other. As such, it is believed at this time that the remotely sensed method is not suitable for measuring the indicators of wetland recovery used in the WAP methodology.

  2. On the formation of coastal polynyas in the area of Commonwealth Bay, Eastern Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Gerd; Gilmore, Dan; Curtis, Jan

    Antarctica's King George V Land and Adélie Land were first explored by Sir Douglas Mawson and his party during their 1911-1913 expedition. They were astounded by the strength of the katabatic wind, which is so dominant in this area. These strong offshore winds can move the sea ice away from shore, forming coastal polynya, not only in summer but even in midwinter. Poor visibility due to darkness and frequently occurring blowing snow make the study of these polynyas from land-based observations difficult. Recently, coverage of this area by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite imagery, which has a high resolution of 40 m (pixel size 12.5 m), gave additional insight into the characteristics of these polynyas. This high resolution is needed because the width of the polynya is small (10 km or so). Furthermore, of special importance is the fact that SAR data can be obtained during darkness and overcast conditions. Following original Russian work, we modified a simple model for wind-driven coastal polynyas, using actual meteorological data from our coastal automatic weather stations as input. Using mean monthly data for the stations, we show that coastal polynyas are to be expected in the windiest area (Cape Denison-Port Martin); while to the west (Dumont d'Urville) and east (Penguin Point), the average conditions do not produce them. Here, they occur only during strong and long-lasting storms. Our observational data of the polynyas as viewed from SAR and advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) confirm these findings.

  3. Hepatitis B and liver cancer knowledge and preventive practices among Asian Americans in the San Francisco Bay Area, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Charlotte A; Lin, Steven Y; So, Samuel K; Chang, Ellen T

    2007-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes liver cancer and disproportionately affects the Asian community in the U.S. In order to advance HBV and liver cancer awareness and prevention, it is important to identify existing gaps in knowledge and preventive practices among Asian Americans. Therefore, the authors administered a written questionnaire to 199 adults in the Asian-American community of the San Francisco Bay Area, California. Although the majority of adults had at least a college education, knowledge regarding HBV transmission, prevention, symptoms, risks, and occurrence was low. Fewer than 60% reported having been tested for HBV, only 31% reported having been vaccinated against HBV, and only 44% reported having had their children vaccinated. Asians, especially those born in China or Southeast Asia, had significantly poorer knowledge regarding HBV and liver cancer than non-Asians. Those with higher knowledge levels were significantly more likely to have been tested for HBV and to have had their children vaccinated. Younger adults, women, Caucasians, more highly educated individuals, those not born in China or Hong Kong, and those with a personal or family history of liver disease were more likely to have taken preventive action against HBV. Our results suggest that HBV and liver cancer knowledge among Asian Americans, especially Chinese Americans, is poor, and that better knowledge is associated with increased preventive practices. Thus, there is a need for increased HBV education and improved community-based interventions to prevent HBV-related liver disease in the high-risk Asian-American community.

  4. Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Trans*female Youth's Access to Health Care in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Elizabeth A; Jin, Harry; Auerswald, Colette L; Wilson, Erin C

    2017-08-01

    Trans*female youth (TFY) are an underserved population at risk for a variety of poor health outcomes, in part related to barriers to accessing health and mental health care. We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected with 250 TFY aged 16-24 years in the San Francisco Bay Area from 2012 to 2014. Logistic regression was used to test associations between sociodemographic variables and barriers to gender identity-based medical and mental health care. Having a history of unstable housing was associated with significantly higher odds of problems accessing both medical care (odds ratio: 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-4.13) and mental health care due to gender identity (odds ratio 2.65, 95% confidence interval: 1.08-6.45). Conversely, identifying as genderqueer/genderfluid, Latina, or living in dependent housing was associated with access to either medical or mental health care. Interventions are needed to address housing and discrimination barring access to health care among TFY. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Color Shaded-Relief and Surface-Classification Maps of the Fish Creek Area, Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Amoroso, Lee; Meares, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The northeastern part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has become an area of active petroleum exploration during the past five years. Recent leasing and exploration drilling in the NPRA requires the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage and monitor a variety of surface activities that include seismic surveying, exploration drilling, oil-field development drilling, construction of oil-production facilities, and construction of pipelines and access roads. BLM evaluates a variety of permit applications, environmental impact studies, and other documents that require rapid compilation and analysis of data pertaining to surface and subsurface geology, hydrology, and biology. In addition, BLM must monitor these activities and assess their impacts on the natural environment. Timely and accurate completion of these land-management tasks requires elevation, hydrologic, geologic, petroleum-activity, and cadastral data, all integrated in digital formats at a higher resolution than is currently available in nondigital (paper) formats. To support these land-management tasks, a series of maps was generated from remotely sensed data in an area of high petroleum-industry activity (fig. 1). The maps cover an area from approximately latitude 70?00' N. to 70?30' N. and from longitude 151?00' W. to 153?10' W. The area includes the Alpine oil field in the east, the Husky Inigok exploration well (site of a landing strip) in the west, many of the exploration wells drilled in NPRA since 2000, and the route of a proposed pipeline to carry oil from discovery wells in NPRA to the Alpine oil field. This map area is referred to as the 'Fish Creek area' after a creek that flows through the region. The map series includes (1) a color shaded-relief map based on 5-m-resolution data (sheet 1), (2) a surface-classification map based on 30-m-resolution data (sheet 2), and (3) a 5-m-resolution shaded relief-surface classification map that combines the shaded

  6. Marine bioearosol in the area of Gdańsk Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michalska

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Formation of bioaerosol is an important process of mass and energy exchange between sea and atmosphere by means of droplets of marine dust. Studies on aerosol activity of the sea was developed in the last decades of the 20 th century. Those studies revealed that concentrations of bacteria in aerosol droplets were hundreds times higher than their concentrations in superficial parts of seawater. The research also proved that aerosol activity of the sea can influence the sanitary condition of the air, especially at the seacoast areas. Surveys of air structure in coastal regions were performed on the Tricity beaches as well as in Sobieszewo and Komary. Atmospheric air sampling stations in the marine zone were located on the Gulf of Gdansk at the Vistula river mouth. Air samples were collected from the front platform on the ship R/V Baltica at 4m above the sea surface. The air samples were collected by filtration method using Sartorius apparatus. Airborne microbes were deposited onto sterile gelatine Sartorius filters. All filters were exposed directly towards the oncoming wind. After sampling, the exposed filters were placed onto the agar media on Petri plates and incubated. All measurement results were depicted in (CFU/m3 i.e. colony forming units in 1 m3 of the examined air. Meteorological measurements included: temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction. The obtained results revealed that statistically significant trends were observed between the total number of bacteria or moulds and a season of sampling. The greatest number of microorganisms was noted in spring and autumn. Correlation analysis showed that statistically significant relationship exists between microbial abundance and the wind direction or speed and location of sampling site. Large quantities of fungal spores was detected in the areas of Gdynia and Gdansk - Brzeêno when south-west winds were blowing from the land. The highest number of bacteria were observed at the sampling

  7. Coordinating water conservation efforts through tradable credits: A proof of concept for drought response in the San Francisco Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Patricia; Ajami, Newsha; Sun, Yujie

    2017-09-01

    Water utilities are increasingly relying on water efficiency and conservation to extend the availability of supplies. Despite spatial and institutional interdependency of many utilities, these demand-side management initiatives have traditionally been tackled by individual utilities operating in isolation. In this study, we introduce a policy framework for water conservation credits that enables collaboration at the regional scale. Under the proposed approach, utilities have the flexibility to invest in water conservation measures that are appropriate for their specific service area. When utilities have insufficient capacity for local cost-effective measures, they may opt to purchase credits, contributing to fund subsidies for utilities that do have that capacity and can provide the credits, while the region as a whole benefits from more reliable water supplies. This work aims to provide insights on the potential impacts of a water conservation credit policy framework when utilities are given the option to collaborate in their efforts. We model utility decisions as rational cost-minimizing actors subject to different decision-making dynamics and water demand scenarios, and demonstrate the institutional characteristics needed for the proposed policy to be effective. We apply this model to a counterfactual case study of water utility members of the Bay Area Water Supply and Conservation Agency in California during the drought period of June 2015 to May 2016. Our scenario analysis indicates that when the institutional structure and incentives are appropriately defined, water agencies can achieve economic benefits from collaborating in their conservation efforts, especially if they coordinate more closely in their decision-making.

  8. Seasonal functioning and dynamics of Caulerpa prolifera meadows in shallow areas: An integrated approach in Cadiz Bay Natural Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Juan J.; García-Sánchez, M. Paz; Olivé, Irene; García-Marín, Patricia; Brun, Fernando G.; Pérez-Lloréns, J. Lucas; Hernández, Ignacio

    2012-10-01

    The rhizophyte alga Caulerpa prolifera thrives in dense monospecific stands in the vicinity of meadows of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa in Cadiz Bay Natural Park. The seasonal cycle of demographic and biometric properties, photosynthesis, and elemental composition (C:N:P) of this species were monitored bimonthly from March 2004 to March 2005. The number of primary assimilators peaked in spring as consequence of the new recruitment, reaching densities up to 104 assimilators·m-2. A second peak was recorded in late summer, with a further decrease towards autumn and winter. Despite this summer maximum, aboveground biomass followed a unimodal pattern, with a spring peak about 400 g dry weight·m-2. In conjunction to demographic properties of the population, a detailed biometric analysis showed that the percentage of assimilators bearing proliferations and the number of proliferations per assimilator were maximal in spring (100% and c.a. 17, respectively), and decreased towards summer and autumn. The size of the primary assimilators was minimal in spring (May) as a result of the new recruitments. However, the frond area per metre of stolon peaked in early spring and decreased towards the remainder of the year. The thallus area index (TAI) was computed from two different, independent approaches which both produced similar results, with a maximum TAI recorded in spring (transient values up to 18 m2·m-2). The relative contribution of primary assimilators and proliferations to TAI was also assessed. Whereas the number of proliferations accounted for most of the TAI peak in spring, its contribution decreased during the year, to a minimum in winter, where primary assimilators were the main contributors to TAI. The present study represents the first report of the seasonal dynamics of C. prolifera in south Atlantic Spanish coasts, and indicates the important contribution of this primary producer in shallow coastal ecosystems.

  9. Ichthyofauna in an estuary of the Mataripe area, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Ferraz Dias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The community structure and dynamics as well as some biological parameters of selected species of the ichthyofauna of the Mataripe estuarine region affected by the Landulfo Alves Oil Refinery (RLAM were analyzed. Twenty stations were sampled with a gillnet in five different periods: August and December 2003, March and July/August 2004 and January 2005. Thirty-five actinopterygian species and one elasmobranch species were recorded, Oligoplites saurus, Diapterus rhombeus, Lutjanus synagris and Scomberomorus brasiliensis among them, on all the campaigns. A total of 1368 specimens, weighing 36.10 kg, were caught. The ichthyofauna total biomass was greater, in weight, on the eastern side of the study region, especially at the stations close to the shoals/reefs and the rocky bottom. A similar pattern was also observed for the diversity values. In general, low evenness and diversity were observed in the area studied, possibly as a result of the fishing gear used. D. rhombeus juveniles dominated in all but one of the samplings (July 2004, in which latter Cyclichthys spinosus was dominant. Carangids and species associated with consolidated bottoms were observed, although in small numbers, throughout the study period. In spite of the limitations imposed by the gear used for sampling, the estuarine area influenced by the RLAM was seen to play a role as a growth area for the great majority of species, especially the mojarra (D. rhombeus, but it offers no fishing potential due to the prevalence of young and small individuals. Evidence of imminent spawning was recorded for Pomadasys corvinaeformis in August 2003, and recent spawning in March 2004 for Oligoplites saurus. Further, mature individuals occurred in insufficient numbers to permit population level evaluation.A estrutura e dinâmica da ictiofauna amostrada na região estuarina de Mataripe sob a influência da Refinaria Landulpho Alves-Mataripe (RLAM foi analisada. Vinte estações foram amostradas com

  10. [Pollution by heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage waters of the sea area of Daya Bay and assessment on potential ecological risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shan-Nan; Li, Chun-Hou; Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Xiao, Ya-Yuan; Lin, Lin; Huang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to gain a clear understanding on the status of pollution by heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage and the potential ecological risk caused by heavy metal pollution in the sea area of Daya Bay. The contents and spatial distributions of heavy metals including Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, As and Hg in seawater, sediment and fishes collected from Daya Bay were analyzed. The comprehensive pollution index (CPI) and ecological risk indexes (ERIs) were used to evaluate the contaminated severity and potential ecological risks of heavy metals in seawater and sediment. The results showed that the contents of these heavy metals, except for those of Zn and Pb, in several stations set in Daya Bay from 2011 to 2012 were relatively low, which were lower than the quality standard of class I according to the China National Standard Criteria for Seawater Quality, suggesting that the seawater in Daya Bay has not been polluted yet by these heavy metals. The average CPI of heavy metals in seawater during flooding season (0.72) was higher than that during dry season (0.38) whereas the average CPI of heavy metals in sediment during dry season (7.77) was higher than that during flooding season (5.70). Hg was found to be the primary contaminating heavy metal in sediment during dry season, which was followed by As and Zn whereas during flooding season, Hg was the primary contaminating metal in sediment, followed by Zn and Cu. The contents of these 7 heavy metals in fishes collected from the surveyed areas were lower than those of the standard requirements. A correlation analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the correlations between the midst of the heavy metals in sea water and the different periods. The ERIs of heavy metals in sediment during dry season (129.20) was higher than that during flooding season (102.86), and 25% of the sampling sites among all stations were under the risk of high-level alarm. The potential ERIs of heavy metals in sediment in

  11. Dental care for the underserved children of Monterey County: meeting the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R E

    1998-05-01

    With its expansive area, and the special needs of agricultural workers, Monterey County held significant challenges for setting up a children's health clinic. Part of the solution to addressing the county's unmet dental needs was the establishment of the Children's Miracle Network dental center in 1995. But working in the fields leaves little time for travel to appointments, so the dental center expanded to a mobile unit that can go where the need is. Understanding the special needs of one's community is crucial to establishing programs that can successfully address the state's needs for children's dental care.

  12. Memory and Nostalgia in Youth Music Cultures: Finding the Vibe in the San Francisco Bay Area Rave Scene, 2002-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen M Wu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the major commercial success of rave scenes in the San Francisco Bay Area, accompanied by an increasing crackdown on venues and promoters in the electronic dance music scene, this article follows the “death” of a rave scene and looks at some of the ways young people imagined and engaged with rave culture during that time. Looking specifically at how young people utilized remembrances and nostalgia to imbue their experiences with social meaning, the author provides a tentative case study on youth cultural formation in the late modern era. The article draws upon fieldwork and interviews conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2002-2004.

  13. Summer at the beach: spatio-temporal patterns of white shark occurrence along the inshore areas of False Bay, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Alison A; Photopoulou, Theoni; Durbach, Ian; Mauff, Katya; Meÿer, Michael; Kotze, Deon; Griffiths, Charles L; O'Riain, M Justin

    2018-01-01

    Understanding white shark ( Carcharodon carcharias ) habitat use in coastal areas adjacent to large cities, is an important step when formulating potential solutions to the conservation conflict that exists between humans and large predatory sharks. In this study, we present the findings of a 2.5-year study of white shark occurrence and movement patterns adjacent to the City of Cape Town in False Bay, South Africa, with a focus on spring and summer months. Fifty-one white sharks were monitored annually at three offshore and twelve inshore sites by VR2 acoustic receivers, over 975 days from 1 May 2005 to 31 December 2007. Occurrence patterns at inshore sites during spring and summer were analysed using a generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) with a spatial term (longitude, latitude), time of day and year included as explanatory variables for site use. We found that sharks occurred more frequently at inshore sites along the northern and northwestern shores, compared to the rest of the bay, and they transitioned most frequently between four adjacent beach sites that encompass the most popular recreational water use areas in Cape Town. There was significant diel variation, with higher shark occurrence around midday, and a peak in shark occurrence in 2005, when human-shark interactions also peaked. However, we found no effect of shark size on occurrence patterns at inshore sites. White sharks showed the highest levels of occurrence at specific inshore sites between Muizenberg and Strandfontein beach, and thus inclusion of these sites within False Bay's marine protected area (MPA) network or recognition as Ecological or Biological Significant Areas (EBSAs) should be a future consideration. These insights into white shark habitat use at inshore sites in False Bay are important for successfully applying the principles of marine spatial planning (MSP) and for making science-based policy decisions. Furthermore, this information can be used to reduce potential shark

  14. Radiocarbon Analysis to Calculate New End-Member Values for Biomass Burning Source Samples Specific to the Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Kirchstetter, T.; Fairley, D.; Sheesley, R. J.; Tang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Elemental carbon (EC), also known as black carbon or soot, is an important particulate air pollutant that contributes to climate forcing through absorption of solar radiation and to adverse human health impacts through inhalation. Both fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, via residential firewood burning, agricultural burning, wild fires, and controlled burns, are significant sources of EC. Our ability to successfully control ambient EC concentrations requires understanding the contribution of these different emission sources. Radiocarbon (14C) analysis has been increasingly used as an apportionment tool to distinguish between EC from fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources. However, there are uncertainties associated with this method including: 1) uncertainty associated with the isolation of EC to be used for radiocarbon analysis (e.g., inclusion of organic carbon, blank contamination, recovery of EC, etc.) 2) uncertainty associated with the radiocarbon signature of the end member. The objective of this research project is to utilize laboratory experiments to evaluate some of these uncertainties, particularly for EC sources that significantly impact the San Francisco Bay Area. Source samples of EC only and a mix of EC and organic carbon (OC) were produced for this study to represent known emission sources and to approximate the mixing of EC and OC that would be present in the atmosphere. These samples include a combination of methane flame soot, various wood smoke samples (i.e. cedar, oak, sugar pine, pine at various ages, etc.), meat cooking, and smoldering cellulose smoke. EC fractions were isolated using a Sunset Laboratory's thermal optical transmittance carbon analyzer. For 14C analysis, samples were sent to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for isotope analysis using an accelerated mass spectrometry. End member values and uncertainties for the EC isolation utilizing this method will be reported.

  15. How food insecurity contributes to poor HIV health outcomes: Qualitative evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Seligman, Hilary K; Napoles, Tessa; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2016-12-01

    Food-insecure people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) consistently exhibit worse clinical outcomes than their food-secure counterparts. This relationship is mediated in part through non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), sub-optimal engagement in HIV care, and poor mental health. An in-depth understanding of how these pathways operate in resource-rich settings, however, remains elusive. We aimed to understand the relationship between food insecurity and HIV health among low-income individuals in the San Francisco Bay Area using qualitative methods. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance from a non-profit organization. Interviews explored experiences with food insecurity and its perceived effects on HIV-related health, mental health, and health behaviors including taking ART and attending clinics. Thematic content analysis of transcripts followed an integrative inductive-deductive approach. Food insecurity was reported to contribute to poor ART adherence and missing scheduled clinic visits through various mechanisms, including exacerbated ART side effects in the absence of food, physical feelings of hunger and fatigue, and HIV stigma at public free-meal sites. Food insecurity led to depressive symptoms among participants by producing physical feelings of hunger, aggravating pre-existing struggles with depression, and nurturing a chronic self-perception of social failure. Participants further explained how food insecurity, depression, and ART non-adherence could reinforce each other in complex interactions. Our study demonstrates how food insecurity detrimentally shapes HIV health behavior and outcomes through complex and interacting mechanisms, acting via multiple socio-ecological levels of influence in this setting. The findings emphasize the need for broad, multisectoral approaches to tackling food insecurity among urban poor PLHIV in the United States. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. Metals and pesticides in commercial bivalve mollusc production areas in the North and South Bays, Santa Catarina (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R V; Garbossa, L H P; Campos, C J A; Vianna, L F de N; Vanz, A; Rupp, G S

    2016-04-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals were quantified in mussels Perna perna and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in 28 cultivation sites in the North and South Bays, SC (Brazil). Concentrations of pesticides were also quantified in these bivalve, water and sediment samples collected in 14 cultivation sites on four occasions in the period October 2012-October 2013. Pesticides were not detected in any of the mussel, oyster, water or sediment samples. The South Bay was found to be generally more contaminated with As while the North Bay showed higher concentrations of Ni. Concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection of the method (0.5mg/kg) in all samples. Mussels accumulated more As and Ni than oysters, while the opposite was observed for Cu. Metal concentrations were below the maximum levels for foodstuffs specified in the Brazilian legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Succession in rocky intertidal benthic communities in areas with different pollution levels at Guanabara Bay (RJ-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Breves-Ramos

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe and compare the succession of intertidal benthic communities in two areas at Guanabara Bay, RJ, Brazil: Urca, an area submitted to moderated organic pollution and Catalão, an extremely polluted area. Three transects in each area were scraped one month before the beginning of this study in order to evaluate the recruitment (recruitment-treatments. Three other transects were monitored without manipulation (monitoring treatments. Species composition and relative abundance were evaluated monthly between September and December, 2000. A total of 26 species was found at Urca and 13 at Catalão. The percent cover of the most abundant organisms was not similar between treatments at Urca after four months, while in Catalão, the similarity was 72% in the second month. The faster community development and recovery at the most polluted area was probably related to the existence of simple and resilient communities in more impacted areas.O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever e comparar a sucessão das comunidades bentônicas da região entre-marés, em duas áreas na Baía de Guanabara, RJ, Brasil: Urca, uma área sujeita a moderado nível de poluição orgânica, e Catalão, uma área extremamente poluída. Em cada área, três transectos verticais foram raspados um mês antes do início do estudo, para se avaliar o recrutamento dos organismos (tratamento Recrutamento, enquanto três outros transectos foram monitorados sem manipulação (tratamento Monitoramento. A porcentagem de cobertura dos organismos foi avaliada pelo método de interseção. A composição específica e a abundância relativa dos organismos foram avaliadas mensalmente entre Setembro e Dezembro de 2000. Um total de 26 espécies foi encontrado na Urca, enquanto 13 foram encontradas no Catalão. Após quatro meses, a composição específica observada no recrutamento na Urca foi muito similar (76% a observada no monitoramento. No Catalão, três meses

  18. Accumulation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in ponderosa pine and monterey pine seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Because ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and Monterey pone (P. radiata D Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. Ponderosa and Monterey pine seedlings were tested for their ability to accumulate 137 Cs and 90 Sr-characteristic radioisotopes of nuclear fallout-from contaminated soil. Seedlings were grown for 3 mo in 165 cm 3 sphagnum peat moss/perlite (1:1 V/V) in a growth chamber. In Exp. 1, seedling accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr after 1 mo of exposure was measured. In Exp. 2, seedling accumulation of the radioisotopes during different-length exposures was measured. Seedling accumulation of 137 CS and 90 Sr at different concentrations of the radioisotopes in the growth medium was measured in Exp. 3. Ponderosa pine accumulated 6.3% of the 137 Cs and I.5% of the 90 Sr present in the growth medium after 1 mo; Monterey pine accumulated 8.3% of the 137 Cs and 4.5% of the 90 Sr. Accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr by both coniferous species was curvilinearly related to duration of exposure. Accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr by both species increased with increasing concentration in the growth medium and correlated curvilinearly with radioisotope concentration in the growth medium. Large areas throughout the world are contaminated with 137 Cs and 90 Sr as a result of nuclear weapons testing or atomic reactor accidents. The ability of trees to sequester and store 137 Cs and 90 Sr introduces the possibility of using reforestation to remediate contaminated soils

  19. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all...

  20. Detection of erosion events using 10Be profiles: Example of the impact of agriculture on soil erosion in the Chesapeake Bay area (U.S.A.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valette-Silver, J.N.; Brown, L.; Pavich, M.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1986-01-01

    10 Be concentration, total carbon and grain-size were measured in cores collected in undisturbed estuarine sediments of three tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. These cores were previously studied by Davis and Brush for pollen content, age and sedimentation rate. In this work, we compare the results obtained for these various analyses. In the cores, we observed two increases in 10 Be concentration concomitant with two major changes in the pollen composition of the sediments. These two pollen changes each correspond to well-dated agricultural horizons reflecting different stages in the introduction of European farming techniques. In the Chesapeake Bay area, the agricultural development, associated with forest clearing, appears to have triggered the erosion, transport, and sedimentation into the river mouths of large quantities of 10 Be-rich soils. This phenomenon explains the observed rise in the sedimentation rate associated with increases in agricultural land-use. (orig.)

  1. SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF YELLOW-LEGGED GULL (LARUS CACHINNANS PALLAS, 1811 OF ISLANSDS OF OBITOCHNAYA BAY (NORTH-WEST AZOV SEA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubinina U.U.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considered territorial connection of Yellow-legged gull in breeding colony on islands Obitochnaya Bay. Analysis of the basic stages of the annual life cycle of Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811 with taking into account the seasonal characteristics of each age group of seagulls (young, immature, adult. Based on this data set direction and distance of displacement, among whom were identified intra-continental migrations, domestic migrations within the territory of Ukraine and migrations within the nesting area. Settlement species on islands Obitochnaya Bay characterized by: high degree conservatism of adult Yellow-legged gull a wide range in season after nesting migrations and variance of young birds, the exchange of individuals between neighbouring settlements and the establishment of new colonies at the expense of immature individuals.

  2. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  3. Simulation of ridesourcing using agent-based demand and supply regional models : potential market demand for first-mile transit travel and reduction in vehicle miles traveled in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we use existing modeling tools and data from the San Francisco Bay Area : (California) to understand the potential market demand for a first mile transit access service : and possible reductions in vehicle miles traveled (VMT) (a...

  4. Red Knots (Calidris canutus piersmai and C. c. rogersi) depend on a small threatened staging area in Bohai Bay, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, Danny I.; Yang, Hong-Yan; Hassell, Chris J.; Boyle, Adrian N.; Rogers, Ken G.; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Zheng-Wang; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-01-01

    We monitored numbers of Red Knots (Calidris canutus) staging in Bohai Bay, China (39 degrees 02'N, 118 degrees 15'E) on northward migration. Knots were identified to subspecies, and we systematically searched for colour-banded birds from the non-breeding grounds. We modelled migratory turnover, and

  5. Risk assessment of herbicides and booster biocides along estuarine continuums in the Bay of Vilaine area (Brittany, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caquet, Th; Roucaute, M; Mazzella, N; Delmas, F; Madigou, C; Farcy, E; Burgeot, Th; Allenou, J-P; Gabellec, R

    2013-02-01

    A 2-year study was implemented to characterize the contamination of estuarine continuums in the Bay of Vilaine area (NW Atlantic Coast, Southern Brittany, France) by 30 pesticide and biocide active substances and metabolites. Among these, 11 triazines (ametryn, atrazine, desethylatrazine, desethylterbuthylazine, desisopropyl atrazine, Irgarol 1051, prometryn, propazine, simazine, terbuthylazine, and terbutryn), 10 phenylureas (chlortoluron, diuron, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea, fenuron, isoproturon, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-urea, linuron, metoxuron, and monuron), and 4 chloroacetanilides (acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor, and metazachlor) were detected at least once. The objectives were to assess the corresponding risk for aquatic primary producers and to provide exposure information for connected studies on the responses of biological parameters in invertebrate sentinel species. The risk associated with contaminants was assessed using risk quotients based on the comparison of measured concentrations with original species sensitivity distribution-derived hazardous concentration values. For EU Water Framework Directive priority substances, results of monitoring were also compared with regulatory Environmental Quality Standards. The highest residue concentrations and risks for primary producers were recorded for diuron and Irgarol 1051 in Arzal reservoir, close to a marina. Diuron was present during almost the all survey periods, whereas Irgarol 1051 exhibited a clear seasonal pattern, with highest concentrations recorded in June and July. These results suggest that the use of antifouling biocides is responsible for a major part of the contamination of the lower part of the Vilaine River course for Irgarol 1051. For diuron, agricultural sources may also be involved. The presence of isoproturon and chloroacetanilide herbicides on some dates indicated a significant contribution of the use of plant protection products in

  6. Seasonal, Spatial Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from a Watershed Area in Gonghu Bay in Taihu Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface sediments from five stations within Gonghu Bay in Taihu Lake, China, were sampled for seasonal and spatial metal contamination analysis variations and ecological risks assessment from April 2009 to January 2010. The Contamination Factor (CF and geo-accumulation index (Igeo indicated that the sediments in Gonghu Bay ranged from unpolluted to moderately polluted, except for Cd. The one-way ANOVA analysis results showed that the Pb, Zn, Cr, and Cu concentrations were higher at station 3 (lake inlet and the Cr, Pb, and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in the spring. Additionally, using BCR¡¦s sequential extraction, the results showed that the fractionated metals Zn and Cd were observed as bioavailable fractions in the sediments, which could have potential moderate mobility in the water system. There was a significant increase in the bioavailable form during winter. The ratio of secondary and primary phrase (RSP decreased according to the order Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd > Cr. Finally, these results indicated that the sediments of Gonghu Bay were polluted by Cd, Zn, and Cu, which provides a scientific basis for effectively protecting sediments in watershed areas from long-term heavy metal accumulation.

  7. The distribution feature of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity in Prydz Bay and its north sea area during the austral summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子琳; 陈忠元

    2003-01-01

    The investigation of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity were carried out in three longitudinal sections (63°-69°12′S, 70°30′E, 73°E and 75(30′E) at December 18 -26, 1998 and January 12 -18, 1999 in Prydz Bay and its north sea area, Antarctica. The results showed that surface chlorophyll a concentration were 0.16 - 3.99 μg dm -3. The high values of chlorophyll a concentration ( more than 3.5 μg dm -3 ) were in Prydz Bay and in the west Ladies Bank. The average chlorophyll a concentration at sub-surface layer was higher than that at surface layer; its concentration at the deeper layers of 50 m decreased with increasing depth and that at 200 m depth was only 0.01 -0.95 μg dm-3. The results of size-fractionated chlorophyll a showed that the contribution of the netplanktion to total chlorophyll a was 56% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 24% and 20% respectively in the surveyed area. The potential primary productivity at the euphotic zone in the surveyed area was 0. 11 - 11.67 mgC m-3 h -1 and average value was 2.00 ±2.80 mgC m-3h-1. The in-situ productivity in the bay and the continental shelf was higher and that in the deep-sea area was lower. The assimilation number of ted primary productivity show that the contribution of the netplanktion to total productivity was 58% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 26% and 16% respectively. The cell abundance of phytoplankton was 1. 6 + 103 - 164. 8 + 103 cell dm-3 in the surface water.

  8. Sedimentary processes of the lower Monterey Fan channel and channel-mouth lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaucke, I.; Masson, D.G.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Gardner, J.V.

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of deposits, sediment transport pathways and processes on the lower Monterey Fan channel and channel-mouth lobe (CML) are studied through the integration of GLORIA and TOBI sidescan sonar data with 7-kHz subbottom profiler records and sediment cores for ground-truthing. The lower Monterey channel is characterised by an up to 30-m-deep channel with poorly developed levees and alternating muddy and silty muddy overbank deposits. The channel is discontinuous, disappearing where gradients are less than about 1:350. Ground-truthing of the large CML shows that the entire CML is characterised by widespread deposits of generally fine sand, with coarser sand at the base of turbidites. Sand is particularly concentrated in finger-like areas of low-backscatter intensity and is interpreted as the result of non-turbulent sediment-gravity flows depositing metres thick massive, fine sand. TOBI sidescan sonar data reveal recent erosional features in the form of scours, secondary channels, large flow slides, and trains of blocks at the distal end of the CML. Erosion is probably related to increasing gradient as the CML approaches Murray Fracture zone and to differential loading of sandy submarine fan deposits onto pelagic clays. Reworking of older flow slides by sediment transport processes on the lobe produces trains of blocks that are several metres in diameter and aligned parallel to the flow direction. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Early Holocene estuary development of the Hesselø Bay area, southern Kattegat, Denmark and its implication for Ancylus Lake drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Carina; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Bennike, Ole; Hübscher, Christian; Clausen, Ole Rønø

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution shallow seismic data, sediment core information, radiocarbon dating and sequence stratigraphy have been used to interpret the late glacial to early Holocene geological evolution of Hesselø Bay in the southern Kattegat, Denmark. A reconstruction of the early Holocene coastal environment and a description of coastal processes associated with a river outlet into the bay are presented. Weichselian glacial deposits form the lowermost interpreted unit, covered by late glacial (LG) and postglacial (PG, Holocene) sediments. A funnel-shaped estuary existed at the mouth of channels in the period 10.3-9.2 cal. ka BP; the channels drained water from south to north. The early PG is characterised by estuarine and coastal deposits. The early Holocene bars that developed in the estuary are preserved as morphological features on the present-day seabed, possibly as a result of rapid relative sea-level rise. The estuary existed simultaneously with the occurrence and drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The drainage of this lake occurred through the Dana River (palaeo-Great Belt channel) into the southern Kattegat and then into the study area. The level of the Ancylus Lake in the Baltic Sea region dropped significantly at about 10.2 cal. ka BP at the same time as the estuary developed in the Kattegat region. One outcome of the present study is an enhanced understanding of the Ancylus Lake drainage path. No evidence of major erosion is seen, which indicates non-catastrophic continuous water flow from the south without major drainage events of the Ancylus Lake to the southern Kattegat. During the Littorina transgression, coastal estuarine conditions characterized the Hesselø Bay area where elongated ridges formed a bar system. As the Littorina transgression continued, back-stepping of the bar system and coastline occurred. When the transgression breached the Great Belt threshold, flooding caused major erosion throughout the study area.

  10. Monitoring and evaluation of foods and waters in the planed emergency area of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant by γ spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Qiong; Guo Jianying; Shao Xianzhang; Zhao Qiufen

    1999-07-01

    The detection results of foods and waters that are adopted in the planed emergency area of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in 1996 and measured by γ spectrometry are reported and compared with the level of background radioactivity before the operation of the NPP. With national standards concerned, the detection results have been reviewed. And it is shown that there has been negligible radioactive environmental pollution found around NPP in the passed several years. Possible sources of slight level pollution of 110m Ag that is almost only detected are discussed. Some suggestions on detection programme and studies of methodology henceforth are put forward

  11. Don’t Work, Work at Home, or Commute? Discrete Choice Models of the Decision for San Francisco Bay Area Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Ory, D T; Mokhtarian, Patricia L

    2005-01-01

    Using socio-demographic, personality, and attitudinal data from 1,680 residents of the San Francisco Bay Area, we develop and estimate binary, multinomial, and nested logit models of the choice to work or not, whether or not to work at home, and whether to commute all of the time or some of the time (either by only working part time, or by working a compressed work week, or by telecommuting some of the time). To our knowledge, these are the first models of all these choices simultaneously. Th...

  12. Plastic litter in sediments from the Croatian marine protected area of the natural park of Telaščica bay (Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blašković, Andrea; Fastelli, Paolo; Čižmek, Hrvoje; Guerranti, Cristiana; Renzi, Monia

    2017-01-15

    This paper reports baseline levels of litter (macro, meso and microplastics) in sediments collected from different areas of the Croatian MPA of the Natural Park of Telaščica bay (Adriatic Sea, GSA n. 17). The distribution of total abundance according to size, for all analysed locations evidences that microplastics are the dominant fraction concerning item's numbers. In all analysed samples no macroplastics were found, while microplastics are 88.71% and mesoplastics are 11.29% of the total. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of tap water reveal structure of the San Francisco Bay Area's water system and adjustments during a major drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Brett J; Jameel, Yusuf; Chau, Thuan H; Mancuso, Christy J; Bowen, Gabriel J; Dufour, Alexis; Chesson, Lesley A; Ehleringer, James R

    2017-08-01

    Water availability and sustainability in the Western United States is a major flashpoint among expanding communities, growing industries, and productive agricultural lands. This issue came to a head in 2015 in the State of California, when the State mandated a 25% reduction in urban water use following a multi-year drought that significantly depleted water resources. Water demands and challenges in supplying water are only expected to intensify as climate perturbations, such as the 2012-2015 California Drought, become more common. As a consequence, there is an increased need to understand linkages between urban centers, water transport and usage, and the impacts of climate change on water resources. To assess if stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios could increase the understanding of these relationships within a megalopolis in the Western United States, we collected and analyzed 723 tap waters across the San Francisco Bay Area during seven collection campaigns spanning 21 months during 2013-2015. The San Francisco Bay Area was selected as it has well-characterized water management strategies and the 2012-2105 California Drought dramatically affected its water resources. Consistent with known water management strategies and previously collected isotope data, we found large spatiotemporal variations in the δ 2 H and δ 18 O values of tap waters within the Bay Area. This is indicative of complex water transport systems and varying municipality-scale management decisions. We observed δ 2 H and δ 18 O values of tap water consistent with waters originating from snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada Mountains, local precipitation, ground water, and partially evaporated reservoir sources. A cluster analysis of the isotope data collected in this study grouped waters from 43 static sampling sites that were associated with specific water utility providers within the San Francisco Bay Area and known management practices. Various management responses to the drought, such as

  14. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of aquifers underlying the San Lorenzo and San Leandro areas of the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Borchers, James W.; Leighton, David A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Fields, Latoya; Galloway, Devin L.; Michel, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    The East Bay Plain, on the densely populated eastern shore of San Francisco Bay, contains an upper aquifer system to depths of 250 feet below land surface and an underlying lower aquifer system to depths of more than 650 feet. Injection and recovery of imported water has been proposed for deep aquifers at two sites within the lower aquifer system. Successful operation requires that the injected water be isolated from surface sources of poor-quality water during storage and recovery. Hydraulic, geochemical, and isotopic data were used to evaluate the isolation of deeper aquifers. Ground-water responses to tidal changes in the Bay suggest that thick clay layers present within these deposits effectively isolate the deeper aquifers in the northern part of the study area from overlying surficial deposits. These data also suggest that the areal extent of the shallow and deep aquifers beneath the Bay may be limited in the northern part of the study area. Despite its apparent hydraulic isolation, the lower aquifer system may be connected to the overlying upper aquifer system through the corroded and failed casings of abandoned wells. Water-level measurements in observation wells and downward flow measured in selected wells during nonpumped conditions suggest that water may flow through wells from the upper aquifer system into the lower aquifer system during nonpumped conditions. The chemistry of water from wells in the East Bay Plain ranges from fresh to saline; salinity is greater than seawater in shallow estuarine deposits near the Bay. Water from wells completed in the lower aquifer system has higher pH, higher sodium, chloride, and manganese concentrations, and lower calcium concentrations and alkalinity than does water from wells completed in the overlying upper aquifer system. Ground-water recharge temperatures derived from noble-gas data indicate that highly focused recharge processes from infiltration of winter streamflow and more diffuse recharge processes from

  15. Evaluating Ambient Concentrations and Local Emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Comprehensive Fixed-site and Mobile Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A.; Bower, J. P.; Martien, P. T.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Stevenson, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (hence the Air District) is the greater San Francisco Bay metropolitan region's chief air quality regulatory agency. Aligning itself with Executive Order S-3-05, the Air District has set a goal to reduce the region's GHG emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The Air District's 10-point Climate Action Work Program lays out the agency's priorities, actions and coordination with regional stakeholders. The Program has three core objectives: (1) to develop a technical and monitoring program to document the region's GHG sources and related emissions, (2) to implement a policy and rule-based approach to control and regulate GHG emissions, and finally, (3) to utilize local governance, incentives and partnerships to encourage GHG emissions reductions.As part of the technical program, the Air District has set up a long term, ambient GHG monitoring network at four sites. The first site is located north and upwind of the urban core at Bodega Bay by the Pacific Coast. It mostly receives clean marine inflow and serves as the regional background site. The other three sites are strategically located at regional exit points for Bay Area plumes that presumably contain GHG enhancements from local sources. These stations are at San Martin, located south of the San Jose metropolitan area; at Patterson Pass at the cross section with California's Central Valley; and at Bethel Island at the mouth of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. At all sites, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are being measured continuously, along with combustion tracer CO and other air pollutants. The GHG measurements are performed with high precision and fast laser instruments (Picarro Inc). In the longer term, the network will allow the Air District to monitor ambient concentrations of GHGs and thus evaluate the effectiveness of its policy, regulation and enforcement efforts. We present data from the sites in their first few months of operation and

  16. Diffusion of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Across the Sediment-Water Interface and In Seawater at Aquaculture Areas of Daya Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangju Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the yearly increasing marine culture activities in floating cages in Daya Bay, China, the effects of pollution may overlap and lead to more severe water environmental problems. In order to track the impacts of the marine culture in floating cages on water environment, sediments and overlying water were sampled by cylindrical samplers at three representative aquaculture areas of Daya Bay. The water content, porosity, density of sediments as well as the vertical distributions of ammonia nitrogen and active phosphate in pore water along sediments depth were measured. The release rate and annual released quantity of the nutrients across sediment-water interface were calculated using Fick’s Law. A horizontal two-dimensional mathematical model was developed to compute the spatial and temporal distributions of the nutrients in seawater after being released across the sediment-water interface. The results showed that the sediments, with a high content and a large annual released quantity of nitrogen and phosphorus, constitute a potential inner source of seawater pollution. Influenced by tide and water depth, the scope of diffusion and migration of the nutrients appears as a long belt which is about 1 km long and 50 m wide. Seawater in this area is vulnerable to eutrophication.

  17. Acoustic Imaging of Selected Areas of Gdansk Bay with the Aid of Parametric Echosounder and Side-Scan Sonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grelowska Grażyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents and analyses the data recorded during sounding of the Gdansk Bay seabed with the aid of a parametric echosounder and a side-scan sonar. The accuracy of seabed structure examination, as a condition for obtaining valuable results, requires correct configuration of echolocation devices and proper calibration of peripheral devices, such as the survey unit geographical position sensor - GPS, the navigation unit, the MRU-Z sensor of pitch, roll and heave, and the sound velocity meter, which deliver the data to the bathymetric measurement system. Parametric seabed profilers deliver two types of data: the envelope, and the detailed echo signal without processing. The envelope is used for data visualisation in the form of online echograms, while the echo signal is stored for further analyses, to be performed using dedicated software or, after relevant conversion, in arbitrary programming environment1. The presented data analysis is illustrated by selected sample images recorded by the parametric echosounder and the side-scan sonar during Gdansk Bay sounding.

  18. Application of year-round atmospheric transmission data, collected with the MSRT multiband transmissometer during the FATMOSE trial in the False Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Arie N.; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Cohen, Leo H.; Fritz, Peter J.; Gunter, Willem H.; Vrahimis, George; October, Faith J.

    2011-09-01

    The FATMOSE trial (False Bay Atmospheric Experiment) is a continuation of the cooperative work between TNO and IMT on atmospheric propagation and point target detection and identification in a maritime environment, South Africa). The atmospheric transmission, being of major importance for target detection, was measured with the MSRT multiband optical/IR transmissometer over a path of 15.7 km over sea. Simultaneously a set of instruments was installed on a midpath lighthouse for collection of local meteorological data, including turbulence, scintillation, sea surface temperature and visibility. The multiband transmission data allow the retrieval of the size distribution (PSD) of the particles (aerosols) in the transmission path. The retrieved PSD's can be correlated with the weather data such as windspeed, wind direction, relative humidity and visibility. This knowledge will lead to better atmospheric propagation models. The measurement period covered nearly a full year, starting in November 2009 and ending in October 2010. The False Bay site is ideal for studies on propagation effects over sea because of the large variety of weather conditions, including high windspeed, expected from the South East with maritime air masses, as well as Northerly winds, expected to bring warm and dry air from the continent. From an operational point of view the False Bay area is interesting, being representative for the scenery around the African coast with warships in an active protecting role in the battle against piracy. The yearround transmission data are an important input for range performance calculations of electro-optical sensors against maritime targets. The data support the choice of the proper spectral band and contain statistical information about the detection ranges to be expected. In this paper details on the instrumentation will be explained as well as the methods of calibration and PSD retrieval. Data are presented for various weather conditions, showing

  19. Determination of the sedimentation rates in the Sepetiba bay northeastern area by using dating with the excesses 210 Pb radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, Cristiane Maria Sampaio

    1996-01-01

    210 Pb dating, using two modes of data analysis, CIC and CRS, was used to determine sedimentation in the North East part of Sepetiba Bay. 210 Pb was leached from samples using dilute HBr and subsequently separated onto anionic exchange columns, followed by re-extraction and precipitation as Pb CrO 4 . The original method was modified by the introduction of a pre-digestion step whose purpose was to liberate the lead bound as sulphide. The sedimentation rates found o.68 - 0.98 cm.y -1 were moderate, compared to other authors estimates. Dating using the CRS model showed a maximum rate of sedimentation in the period between 1954 and 1977, when the riverine input was probably at its greatest. The CRS model appears to be more applicable to the data, since it works over longer periods and allows for variations in sedimentation rate. (author)

  20. 78 FR 27126 - East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted Areas AGENCY: U.S. Army... read as follows: Sec. 334.665 East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, Restricted Areas...

  1. SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF THE TOKYO BAY AREA DURING THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE USING DOWNHOLE ARRAY RECORDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takaaki; Konagai, Kazuo; Katagiri, Toshihiko

    Underground motions within a hard diluvial stratum were obtained in the March 11th 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake at a downhole in the Tokyo Bay area, which has suffered serious sand-liquefaction over its long 42km2 stretch. The motions in the diluvial sand deposit are characterized by their (1) long dura-tion times with 6 to 8s components surpassing others, (2) moderate amplitude of 51.1 cm/s2 in PGA, which is estimated to have resulted in moderate average strains of 8 to 9 × 10-4 and 5 to 7 × 10-4 over shal-low -2 to -30m and deep -30 to -77m soil deposits, respectively. The peak strain reached in the interior of soil was estimated to be about 1.3 × 10-3.

  2. Concentrations and human health implications of heavy metals in wild aquatic organisms captured from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Huang, Hong-Hui; Lin, Qin

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in edible organisms from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea, were determined. Samples of 14 crustacean, fish, and shellfish species were collected and analyzed. The As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were 0.18-1.16, 0.002-0.919, 0.40-2.85, 0.07-4.10, 0.004-0.055, 0.14-1.19, 0.014-0.070, and 4.57-15.94μg/g wet weight, respectively. The As concentrations were higher than the Chinese maximum permissible levels in all of the fish and shellfish species and two crustacean species, indicating that consumption of these wild species by humans may pose health risks. However, calculations of the health risks posed to humans indicated that no significant adverse health effects would be associated with consuming these species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  4. Mississippi-Louisiana Estuarine Area Study: Salinity and Circulation at and Near Bay Boudreau in Biloxi Marshes Eastern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Bay Boudreau Plot of SALN4O6O*ATE. Legend: A a I obs, 5 2 abs, etc. 30+ A BA IANS A Ab At 20. AAM BC Be B A AAA A ACCA I B A A SALN4O66 I AA A BA A...Lake River R**2 Wt Pontchartrain R**2 wt Weights for Station 4 PO 0.60 0.24 LPO 0.48 0.19 P1 0.91 0.36 LPI 0.90 0.36 P2 0.56 0.22 LP2 0.59 0.23 P3 0.32...0.13 LP3 0.38 0.15 P4 0.10 0.04 LP4 0.17 0.07 Weights for Stations 5 and 8 PO 0.41 0.22 LPO 0.33 0.17 P1 0.70 0.37 LPI 0.75 0.40 P2 0.48 0.25 LP2 0.47

  5. Harmful algal blooms and Vibrio spp. association in fishing and marine farming areas of mollusk bivalves in Sechura and Pisco bays, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Orozco

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Between February 2010 and May 2014, 22 surveys in Pisco and 16 in Sechura were conducted; both are major areas for shellfish production and mariculture in Peru. The incidence of Vibrio in seawater was monitored during algal blooms and in their absence. Environmental parameters such as temperature and nutrients were measured. In Sechura, Pseudo-nitzschia seriata and Protoperidinium depressum caused algal blooms and were dominant throughout the evaluation period. The temperatures in this area ranged from 21.8 to 25.3 °C. In Pisco, the harmful algal bloom-forming Akashiwo sanguinea, Messodinium rubrum, and Prorocentrum minimum and the dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polikrykoides were most prevalent. Harmful algal blooms occurred when temperatures were between 17.1 and 23.3 °C, with phosphates ranging 1.22 - 6.85 µM and nitrates 0.15 - 7.85 µM. In May 2012, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium peruvianum caused an algal bloom, with temperatures ranging 18.0 to 23.2 °C, phosphate values from 0.73 to 11.56 µM, and nitrates from 0.76 to 9.81 µM. Coliforms were low, < 2 - 23 MPN/100 ml, in both bays throughout the study period. Vibrio alginolyticus was the dominant Vibrio spp. predominated in both bays, while V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus were detected in Pisco, where warmer sea temperatures are common and severe infections cases by seafood ingestion has been associated with a pathogen V. parahaemolyticus.

  6. Is drinking water a risk factor for endemic cryptosporidiosis? A case-control study in the immunocompetent general population of the San Francisco Bay Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadle Joelle

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidiosis, caused by Cryptosporidium, is an enteric illness that has received much attention as an infection of immunocompromised persons as well as in community outbreaks (frequently waterborne. There are, however, no studies of the risk factors for sporadic community-acquired cryptosporidiosis in the immunocompetent US population. We undertook a case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area as part of a national study sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to ascertain the major routes of transmission for endemic cryptosporidiosis, with an emphasis on evaluating risk from drinking water. Methods Cases were recruited from a population-based, active surveillance system and age-matched controls were recruited using sequential random-digit dialing. Cases (n = 26 and controls (n = 62 were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire that included information about the following exposures: drinking water, recreational water, food items, travel, animal contact, and person-to-person fecal contact, and (for adults sexual practices. Results In multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses no significant association with drinking water was detected. The major risk factor for cryptosporidiosis in the San Francisco Bay Area was travel to another country (matched odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 24.1 [2.6, 220]. Conclusion The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that drinking water is an independent risk factor for cryptosporidiosis among the immunocompetent population. These findings should be used to design larger studies of endemic cryptosporidiosis to elucidate the precise mechanisms of transmission, whether waterborne or other.

  7. Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Array Effects on Wave Current and Sediment Circulation: Monterey Bay CA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Jones, Craig; Magalen, Jason

    2014-09-01

    The goal s of this study were to develop tools to quantitatively characterize environments where wave energy converter ( WEC ) devices may be installed and to assess e ffects on hydrodynamics and lo cal sediment transport. A large hypothetical WEC array was investigated using wave, hydrodynamic, and sediment transport models and site - specific average and storm conditions as input. The results indicated that there were significant changes in sediment s izes adjacent to and in the lee of the WEC array due to reduced wave energy. The circulation in the lee of the array was also altered; more intense onshore currents were generated in the lee of the WECs . In general, the storm case and the average case show ed the same qualitative patterns suggesting that these trends would be maintained throughout the year. The framework developed here can be used to design more efficient arrays while minimizing impacts on nearshore environmen ts.

  8. BIOSPACE/DYABOLIC October 2010 Field Program, Monterey Bay, California Data Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    AU Fluorometer. After first reading samples were acidified with three drops of 5% HCl (to destroy the Chlorophyll) allowing the measurement of...DBCBLFOEB CJ BB BND-)#DBE CME JC 57$%2$0=$2B EKGE JKLMCJN DBCBLMKBN CN JJ 57$%2$0=$2C ENJE JKLMBO DBCBLMKMM JE F JO 57$%2$0=$2J EFBN JKLMEKK DBCBLMKMF JC

  9. 77 FR 64796 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... the Conservation Representative, and the Business and Tourism Activity Panel (``BTAP'') co-chaired by the Business/Industry Representative and Tourism Representative, each dealing with matters concerning...: Agriculture, At-Large (2), Business/Industry, Commercial Fishing, Conservation, Recreation, Recreational...

  10. Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary: Sanctuary Integrated Monitoring Network (SIMoN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sanctuary Integrated Monitoring Network (SIMoN) is an integrated, long-term program that takes an ecosystem approach to identify and understand changes to the...

  11. Wave energy converter effects on wave propagation: A sensitivity study in Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G.; Jones, C. A.; Roberts, J.; Magalen, J.; Ruehl, K.; Chartrand, C.

    2014-12-01

    The development of renewable offshore energy in the United States is growing rapidly and wave energy is one of the largest resources currently being evaluated. The deployment of wave energy converter (WEC) arrays required to harness this resource could feasibly number in the hundreds of individual devices. The WEC arrays have the potential to alter nearshore wave propagation and circulation patterns and ecosystem processes. As the industry progresses from pilot- to commercial-scale it is important to understand and quantify the effects of WECs on the natural nearshore processes that support a local, healthy ecosystem. To help accelerate the realization of commercial-scale wave power, predictive modeling tools have been developed and utilized to evaluate the likelihood of environmental impact. At present, direct measurements of the effects of different types of WEC arrays on nearshore wave propagation are not available; therefore wave model simulations provide the groundwork for investigations of the sensitivity of model results to prescribed WEC characteristics over a range of anticipated wave conditions. The present study incorporates a modified version of an industry standard wave modeling tool, SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore), to simulate wave propagation through a hypothetical WEC array deployment site on the California coast. The modified SWAN, referred to as SNL-SWAN, incorporates device-specific WEC power take-off characteristics to more accurately evaluate a WEC device's effects on wave propagation. The primary objectives were to investigate the effects of a range of WEC devices and device and array characteristics (e.g., device spacing, number of WECs in an array) on nearshore wave propagation using SNL-SWAN model simulations. Results showed that significant wave height was most sensitive to variations in WEC device type and size and the number of WEC devices in an array. Locations in the lee centerline of the arrays in each modeled scenario showed the largest potential changes in wave height. The SNL-SWAN model simulations for various WEC devices provide the basis for a solid model understanding, giving the confidence necessary for future WEC evaluations.

  12. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, Normal Model, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements, with missing values filled in by a normal model....

  13. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, 25 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 25 hour running average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  14. 76 FR 17109 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ...: Diving, Education (alternate), Research (alternate), Tourism (alternate) and Agriculture (alternate... Representative, the Sanctuary Education Panel (``SEP'') chaired by the Education Representative, the Conservation Working Group (``CWG'') chaired by the Conservation Representative, and the Business and Tourism Activity...

  15. 75 FR 61424 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ...-Large (1), Education, Diving, and Tourism. Applicants are chosen based upon their particular expertise...'') chaired by the Research Representative, the Sanctuary Education Panel (``SEP'') chaired by the Education... Business and Tourism Activity Panel (``BTAP'') chaired by the Business/Industry Representative, each...

  16. 75 FR 42379 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Education Panel (``SEP'') chaired by the Education Representative, the Conservation Working Group (``CWG'') chaired by the Conservation Representative, and the Business and Tourism Activity Panel (``BTAP'') chaired by the Business/Industry Representative, each dealing with matters concerning research, education...

  17. 76 FR 20324 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ...: Diving, Education (alternate), Research (alternate), Tourism (alternate) and Agriculture (alternate... Education Panel (``SEP'') chaired by the Education Representative, the Conservation Working Group (``CWG'') chaired by the Conservation Representative, and the Business and Tourism Activity Panel (``BTAP'') chaired...

  18. 78 FR 4390 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ...: Agriculture (1), Business/Industry (1), and Education (1). Applicants are chosen based upon their particular... Education Panel (``SEP'') chaired by the Education Representative, the Conservation Working Group (``CWG'') chaired by the Conservation Representative, and the Business and Tourism Activity Panel (``BTAP'') co...

  19. 78 FR 14271 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Representative and Tourism Representative, each dealing with matters concerning research, education, conservation... Panel (``RAP'') chaired by the Research Representative, the Sanctuary Education Panel (``SEP'') chaired by the Education Representative, the Conservation Working Group (``CWG'') chaired by the Conservation...

  20. 78 FR 16622 - Gulf of the Farallones and Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuaries Regulations on Introduced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... any organism that has been genetically modified (15 CFR 922.81). This final rule, combined with a... not apply if NOAA were willing and able to modify its regulations to except (i.e., allow) all state... Governor's concerns that would also meet NOAA's goals. For GFNMS, NOAA proposed to modify the regulations...

  1. Diurnal Sea Breeze Effects on Nearshore Temperature Variability in Southern Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    from multi-year, single-location measurements of the velocity profiles (Fewings et al. 2008; Lentz et al. 2008; Hendrickson and MacMahan 2009) to...shorter O(0-2 months) experiments with multi-location moorings (Hally- Rosendahl et al. 2015; Reniers et al. 2009). Direct approaches for accounting for...zone (~5m). Two cross-shore arrays were deployed to account for the spatial heterogeneity of cross- shore flows associated with rip currents on the

  2. Physical-Biological-Optics Model Development and Simulation for the Pacific Ocean and Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    distribution of underwater light field that can substantially affect phytoplankton photosynthesis and shortwave radiation near the surface. To...from Chai et al. (2002) was modified to include 31 state variables (Figure 1). With these new variables, the model can simulate photosynthesis ...improved by adding the dissolved pool and bacterial dynamics in the model. CDOC modeled as a colored byproduct of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is

  3. Biological Modulation of Upper Ocean Physics: Simulating the Biothermal Feedback Effect in Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-08

    context of geophysical forcing [see Longhurst, 1998]. However, the abundance of marine phytoplankton belies the inefficiency of photosynthesis as a...implicit bacterial respiration back to the ammonium compartment (NA). If the depth (z) is at the maximum depth increment then D(z) is returned to the NA(z... photosynthesis in situ, J. Plankton Res., 6, 275–294. Barron, C. N., A. B. Kara, H. E. Hurlburt, C. Rowley, and L. F. Smedstad (2004), Sea surface height

  4. 75 FR 53567 - Gulf of the Farallones, Monterey Bay and Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuaries Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... southwesterly bearing of 240[deg] true; (2) From mean high water to 3 nmi offshore between a line extending from..., off the northern California coast. The main feature of the sanctuary is Cordell Bank, an offshore... it intersects the mean high water line (MHWL). Because the southern boundary of the GFNMS is the same...

  5. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, Normal Model, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements, with missing values filled in by a normal...

  6. 75 FR 16074 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ...; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence... dealing with matters concerning research, education, conservation and human use. The working groups are...

  7. Signal Processing and Preliminary Results in the 1988 Monterey Bay Tomography Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    travels in a straight line from transmitter to receiver. Ocean acoustic tomography may have energy traveling along several curving paths with different... windstorm . 159 S Lgnoi I legn Ltude Squared Ste t Lon J 1 5DEC863 0 CO * C\\ (Mn 0. 00 0. 25 0.50e 0.75 1.00 1 .25 1.50e 1. 75 Sequence Repet L t (n T Line ...11, lines connecting the receivers to the transmitter would spread over an arc of about 45 degrees from north to northeast relative to the signal

  8. Bioacoustics of Monterey Bay Pinnipeds: Extraction of Information from Acoustic Signals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schusterman, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    ... of pinnipeds while developing and carrying out complementary independent investigations. During the award period, both students received specialized training in animal psychophysics, experimental design, and acoustic instrumentation and measurement...

  9. Using the Lagrangian Method to Track Trajectories of Fog And Mist in the Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    61 viii B. LESSONS LEARNED .............................................................................61 LIST OF...educational task such as this. Thank you for believing in me when I did not. To my children , Angel, Alec Aidan and Avery: thanks for holding down the fort and... movie scenes; from classic horror cinema to epic battle scenes in war movies , no one really knows what lurks beyond the misty veiled curtain, and

  10. Paleoseismic and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of the Central Coastal of Ecuador: Insights from Quaternary Geological Data for the Jaramijó bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunga, K.; Maurizio, M.; Garces, D.; Quiñonez, M. F.; Peña, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Late Holocene sequences of loose to weakly consolidated sand and clay sediments intercalated with volcanic-ash layers (particles transported by fall-out), are outcrops on a sea cliff in the Jaramijó bay area (situated 7 km away in the East direction from Manta city, Manabí, at the middle section of Ecuador's Pacific coastline). The main geomorphologic feature in the site is the wave-cut beach platform permanently exposed at the lowest tides and an 18 m-high coastal cliff retreat with an estimated rate of ca. 2.5 meter/year (Chunga, 2014). One of the most remarkable geoarchaeological evidences found in this outcrop, it is the remains of two large bones (ie., radius and radial) of the human forearm of ca. 800 years ago (with archaeological vestiges of the Manteña culture) covered by a 8 to 25 cm-thick volcanic ash layer, stratigraphically at the top, an erosive contact with chaotic deposition of medium to fine-grained sand which indicates a potential tsunami deposit. Moreover, several volcanic ash and lahar layers are well distinguished on the sea cliff, which are associated with pyroclastic products transported as lahars from the Quilotoa and Cotopaxi, Pululahua volcanic structures (northern Andes in Ecuador) situated at a distance between of 150-190 kilometers (Mothes and Hall, 2008; Usselman, 2006). It is not excluded that previous pre-Columbian cultures also have been displaced in the last 2,000 years by disastrous geological events such as subduction earthquakes, local tsunami and volcanic lahar-ash deposits. All of these stratigraphic and palaeoseismologic features will allow us to understand the catastrophic geological events that abruptly shaped the landscape, furthermore, to investigate the changes of moderate to high Late Holocene progradation rates of the Jaramijó bay coastline.

  11. A Global Talent Magnet: How a San Francisco/Bay Area Global Higher Education Hub Could Advance California's Comparative Advantage in Attracting International Talent and Further Build US Economic Competitiveness. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.9.11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, John; Edelstein, Richard; Hoareau, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    During the 2009-10 academic year international students generated more than $18.8 billion in net income into the US economy. California alone had nearly 100,000 international students with an economic impact of nearly $3.0 billion. In this paper, we outline a strategy for the San Francisco/Bay Area to double the number of international students…

  12. Distribution of creep in the northern San Francisco Bay Area illuminated by repeating earthquakes and InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funning, G.; Shakibay Senobari, N.; Swiatlowski, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Surface observations of fault creep in the region north of San Francisco Bay are sporadic. While there are long-standing instances of creep-affected infrastructure on the Maacama and Bartlett Springs faults, the lateral and depth extents of creep on these and other faults in the region remain a question. Here, we supplement this sparse existing observation set with additional information from repeating earthquake sequences (REs) and InSAR, to illuminate, and significantly improve our knowledge of, creep across the region. Repeating earthquakes have long been considered indicators of creep on faults. We present the results of an extensive similarity search through over 600,000 archived waveforms from 43,000 events using a fast algorithm; from this we can identify 39 periodic repeating sequences and over 80 nonperiodic repeated event groups. We compare these with decadal line-of-sight velocity measurements made by applying the StaMPS time series InSAR code to ERS and Envisat data covering the region, that can be used to identify surface creep on faults. On the Rodgers Creek, Maacama and Bartlett Springs faults, both InSAR and REs show corroborating evidence for creep at locations where it was previously inferred. The REs additionally provide information on its depth extent. On the Maacama fault, we find REs extending almost to the southern limit of the mapped fault trace, south of Cloverdale, suggesting that creep may be pervasive on the fault. We can also identify structural complexity both in the stepover region with the Rodgers Creek fault, and in the northern segment of the fault close to Willits, potentially indicating parallel and/or down-dip branching creeping structures in both locations. REs on the Bartlett Springs fault indicate creep that extends across the full down-dip width of the brittle fault; here the proximity of InSAR creep rate estimates and a shallow RE sequence may permit a calibration of the RE `creepmeter', allowing us to estimate creep rates

  13. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  14. Chesapeake Bay under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to extensive data obtained over its 13,000 km of shoreline, the Chesapeake Bay has been suffering a major, indeed unprecedented, reduction in submerged vegetation. Chesapeake Bay is alone in experiencing decline in submerged vegetation. Other estuary systems on the east coast of the United States are not so affected. These alarming results were obtained by the synthesis of the findings of numerous individual groups in addition to large consortium projects on the Chesapeake done over the past decade. R. J. Orth and R. A. Moore of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science pointed to the problem of the severe decline of submerged grasses on the Bay and along its tributaries. In a recent report, Orth and Moore note: “The decline, which began in the 1960's and accelerated in the 1970's, has affected all species in all areas. Many major river systems are now totally devoid of any rooted vegetation” (Science, 222, 51-53, 1983).

  15. Comparison between lead levels in dandelions grown in an ultra-clean lab environment (baseline) and those collected from the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojero, J.; Odigie, K. O.; Hibdon, S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study is aimed at establishing the baseline (natural) levels of lead in dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) grown in an ultra-clean environment. Dandelions have been used extensively as biomonitors of environmental lead levels since their distribution is global and they can be easily collected. However, industrial lead contamination is so pervasive that even dandelions from the most remote areas in the world may be contaminated with industrial lead. Therefore, this work will test the hypothesis that "natural" lead levels in dandelions are lower than any previously published values - by growing them in a HEPA filtered air (Class 100) trace metal clean room with high purity (18 MΩ cm) water. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of lead in the clean-room grown dandelions will be compared to values in literature and to those of lead in dandelions collected from San Francisco Bay Area. Lead is a dense, ductile, and highly malleable metal that is found naturally in our environment. Due to its properties it is currently highly used in building construction, in ceramic glazes, lead chromate and in PVC plastic used to coat electrical cords. The uses of lead have included paint, leather tanning, and being used as an additive to gasoline prior to the mid 1970's, as well as others. Due to its many uses, humans are susceptible to lead regularly through various means of exposure from air, water and soil, often leading to lead toxicity.

  16. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyessar Turdi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively. The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y. Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element–induced health risk (including for DW adults was higher than acceptable (10−6 and lower than priority risk levels (10−4 (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B. For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10−4, higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10−4.

  17. Distributions of dissolved monosaccharides and polysaccharides in the surface microlayer and surface water of the Jiaozhou Bay and its adjacent area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Ping; Yang, Gui-Peng; Lu, Xiao-Lan; Ding, Hai-Bing; Zhang, Hong-Hai

    2013-07-01

    Sea surface microlayer (SML) samples and corresponding bulk surface water (SW) samples were collected in the Jiaozhou Bay and its adjacent area in July and November 2008. The average concentrations of dissolved monosaccharides (MCHO) and polysaccharides (PCHO) revealed similar temporal variability, with higher concentrations during the green-tide period (in July) than during the non-green-tide period (in November). Average enrichment factors (EF) of MCHO and PCHO, defined as the ratio of the concentration in the SML to that in the SW, were 1.3 and 1.4 in July, respectively, while those values in November were 1.9 and 1.6. Our data also showed that the concentrations of MCHO and PCHO in the SML were strongly correlated with those in the SW, indicating that most of the organic materials in the SML came from the SW. The total dissolved carbohydrate concentrations (TDCHO) in the bulk surface water were closely correlated with salinity during the cruises (July: r=-0.580, n=18, P=0.01; November: r=-0.679, n=26, P<0.001), suggesting that riverine input had an important effect on the distribution of TDCHO in surface seawater of the study area.

  18. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-09-23

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element-induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10(-6)) and lower than priority risk levels (10(-4)) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10(-4), higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10(-4)).

  19. Pesticide occurrence and distribution in fog collected near Monterey, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomburg, C.J.; Glotfelty, D.E. (Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (USA)); Seiber, J.N. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The authors analyzed pesticides in air and fog in several fog events sampled near Monterey, CA, to determine whether the uptake of pesticides in advected oceanic fog was different from uptake in fog forming under stagnant inversion conditions in California's Central Valley in the winter. Data for several pesticides common to both ares showed that the pesticide content and distribution were remarkable similar in the two locations. The conversion of organophosphorus insecticides to their corresponding oxons, and aqueous-phase enrichment factors, were also very similar. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that enhanced pesticide concentration in fogwater is caused by strongly sorptive nonfilterable particles and colloids in the fog liquid that are derived from atmospheric particles.

  20. The epidemiology and surveillance response to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) among local health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enanoria, Wayne T A; Crawley, Adam W; Tseng, Winston; Furnish, Jasmine; Balido, Jeannie; Aragón, Tomás J

    2013-03-27

    Public health surveillance and epidemiologic investigations are critical public health functions for identifying threats to the health of a community. Very little is known about how these functions are conducted at the local level. The purpose of the Epidemiology Networks in Action (EpiNet) Study was to describe the epidemiology and surveillance response to the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) by city and county health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. The study also documented lessons learned from the response in order to strengthen future public health preparedness and response planning efforts in the region. In order to characterize the epidemiology and surveillance response, we conducted key informant interviews with public health professionals from twelve local health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area. In order to contextualize aspects of organizational response and performance, we recruited two types of key informants: public health professionals who were involved with the epidemiology and surveillance response for each jurisdiction, as well as the health officer or his/her designee responsible for H1N1 response activities. Information about the organization, data sources for situation awareness, decision-making, and issues related to surge capacity, continuity of operations, and sustainability were collected during the key informant interviews. Content and interpretive analyses were conducted using ATLAS.ti software. The study found that disease investigations were important in the first months of the pandemic, often requiring additional staff support and sometimes forcing other public health activities to be put on hold. We also found that while the Incident Command System (ICS) was used by all participating agencies to manage the response, the manner in which it was implemented and utilized varied. Each local health department (LHD) in the study collected epidemiologic data from a variety of sources, but only case reports

  1. Fission-track ages of the Tokai Group and associate formations in the east coast areas of Ise Bay and their significance in geohistory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makinouchi, Takeshi; Danhara, Toru; Isoda, Kunitoshi.

    1983-01-01

    Fission-track ages of volcanic ash layers within the Tokai Group and associate formations in the east coast areas of Ise Bay are obtained by grain-by-grain method with which individual ages for the respective zircon grains are measured. They are as follows; 1) a volcanic ash layer in the Karayama Formation (tentative age: 1.9 +- 0.4 Ma). Among the zircon grains in this layer, essential ones occupy only 1 per cent, and the others are accidental. 2) Ohtani volcanic ash layer (4.3 +- 0.6 Ma). 3) Kosugaya volcanic ash layer (4.0 +- 0.5 Ma). 4) Kaminoma volcanic ash layer (5.3 +- 0.4 Ma). 5) A volcanic ash layer in the Toyoura Formation seems to be older than 10 Ma. 6) Zircon grains in the Kofu volcanic ash layer (Tokai Group) include two types of spontaneous namely track, clear and vague ones. The latter vague tracks are shorter and thiner, and seem to suffer thermal annealing. The ages obtained have clarified the following Points; a) The tentative age, 1.9 Ma, of the ''Karayama'' volcanic ash layer suggests the existence of unknown Plio-Pleistocene sediment in the Nagoya area. b) The sedimentary basin of Lake Tokai was formed in the latest Miocene, about 6.5 Ma. Generation of the basin coincides approximately with the stage of synchronous and abrupt change in sedimentation rate in sedimentary basins on the Pacific side of central and southern Japan. c) The Tokai Group in Chita (Tokoname Group) intercalates the Gilbert/Epoch 5 boundary in the paleomagnetic chronology in the middle horizon of the group. d) Average rate of sedimentation is about 1 m/10 4 yrs in the marginal areas of the basin, and 3-5 m/10 4 yrs in the central areas. (author)

  2. 75 FR 8297 - Tongass National Forest, Thorne Bay Ranger District, Thorne Bay, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ..., Thorne Bay, AK AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Cancellation of Notice of intent to prepare an... Roberts, Zone Planner, Thorne Bay Ranger District, Tongass National Forest, P.O. Box 19001, Thorne Bay, AK 99919, telephone: 907-828-3250. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The 47,007-acre Kosciusko Project Area is...

  3. San Francisco Bay Area CHARG: Coastal Hazards Adaptation Resiliency Group, a Multi-Jurisdictional Collaboration to Develop Innovative Regional Solutions to Address Sea Level Rise and Improve Shoreline Resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, R.

    2017-12-01

    For a challenge as complex and far-reaching as sea level rise and improving shoreline resiliency, strong partnerships between scientists, elected officials, decision-makers, and the general public are the only way that effective solutions can be developed. The San Francisco Bay, like many similar sheltered water coastal environments (for example, Galveston Bay, Tampa Bay, or Venetian Lagoon) offers a unique opportunity for multiple jurisdictions to collaborate to address sea level rise on a regional basis. For the San Francisco Bay, significant scientific progress has been made in building a real-time simulation model for riverine and Bay hydrodynamics. Other major scientific initiatives, such as morphology mapping, shoreline mapping, and a sediment budget are also underway. In 2014, leaders from the Bay Area science, engineering, planning, policy, elected, and regulatory communities representing jurisdictions around the Bay joined together to address sea level rise. The group includes people from local, regional, state, and federal agencies and organizations. Together, CHARG (Coastal Hazards Adaptation Resiliency Group) established a collective vision and approach to implementing regional solutions. Decision-makers within many Bay Area jurisdictions are motivated to show demonstrable progress toward addressing sea level rise. However, the cost to implement shoreline resiliency solutions will be very large, and must be founded on strong science.CHARG is now tackling several key technical challenges. One is to develop science-based guidelines for local jurisdictions to determine when a project is local, sub-regional, or regional. Concurrently, several organizations are planning or implementing pilot shoreline resiliency projects and other programs. Many creative regional solutions are possible in a sheltered water environment that simply would not be feasible along the open coast. By definition, these solutions cannot be undertaken by one entity alone. Large

  4. Velocity and Attenuation Profiles in the Monterey Deep-Sea Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    a. 11 o n i n and depth. Sol ’^ a 11 e i"i u a 11 o >) a i::> 1 n Ci sediment for each of the f i...i. n c t ion o f f r e q u e n c; y...estimate of sea floor depth was obtained from an oceano - graphic map of the Monterey fan (’Oceanographic Data of the Monterey Deep Sea Fan’, 1st

  5. Automation in tube finishing bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Satyadev, B.; Raghuraman, S.; Syama Sundara Rao, B.

    1997-01-01

    Automation concept in tube finishing bay, introduced after the final pass annealing of PHWR tubes resulted in integration of number of sub-systems in synchronisation with each other to produce final cut fuel tubes of specified length, tube finish etc. The tube finishing bay which was physically segregated into four distinct areas: 1. tube spreader and stacking area, 2. I.D. sand blasting area, 3. end conditioning, wad blowing, end capping and O.D. wet grinding area, 4. tube inspection, tube cutting and stacking area has been studied

  6. The application of stereo-video technology for the assessment on population change of black rockfish Sebastes schlegeli in a vessel reef area in Haizhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Xu, Qinzeng; Zhang, Yingqiu; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of population structure and abundance of fish assemblages associated with artificial reefs (ARs) is an important aspect of AR management. In the present study, we used a Dive-Operated Stereo Video (stereo-DOV) technique to assess the population structure and abundance of Sebastes schlegeli associated with two metallic, and three wooden, vessel reefs in Haizhou Bay during 2012 and 2013. The study used video systems to obtain length measurements and estimates of abundance. The size composition of S. schlegeli differed among reefs and individuals around vessel reefs were all adults, with total lengths (TL) of >20 cm. Juvenile fish were encountered by divers in a rocky area near the island away from the vessel reefs. The largest individual S. schlegeli (with the highest TL) among five reefs were found around a metallic vessel reef in both 2012 and 2013. TL of S. s chlegeli from all reefs increased by an average of 3.2 cm ( P<0.05) from 2012 to 2013, with an estimated mean weight increase of 250.4 g ( P<0.05). The video survey also indicated a decrease in the biomass of schools near two metallic vessels between the years. Stereo-video technology was found to be suitable for rockfish surveys around the reefs.

  7. One-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network Land-Cover Classification of Multi-Seasonal Hyperspectral Imagery in the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Guidici

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a 1-D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN architecture was developed, trained and utilized to classify single (summer and three seasons (spring, summer, fall of hyperspectral imagery over the San Francisco Bay Area, California for the year 2015. For comparison, the Random Forests (RF and Support Vector Machine (SVM classifiers were trained and tested with the same data. In order to support space-based hyperspectral applications, all analyses were performed with simulated Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI imagery. Three-season data improved classifier overall accuracy by 2.0% (SVM, 1.9% (CNN to 3.5% (RF over single-season data. The three-season CNN provided an overall classification accuracy of 89.9%, which was comparable to overall accuracy of 89.5% for SVM. Both three-season CNN and SVM outperformed RF by over 7% overall accuracy. Analysis and visualization of the inner products for the CNN provided insight to distinctive features within the spectral-temporal domain. A method for CNN kernel tuning was presented to assess the importance of learned features. We concluded that CNN is a promising candidate for hyperspectral remote sensing applications because of the high classification accuracy and interpretability of its inner products.

  8. Report on earth science studies at the Mt. Riiser-Larsen area, Amundsen Bay, Enderby Land, 2000-2001 (JARE-42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Funaki

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Five members of the summer party of the 42nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-42 stayed in the Mt. Riiser-Larsen area, Amundsen Bay, Enderby Land, Antarctica, from December 18, 2000 to February 18, 2001 for paleomagnetism, geochronology, electromagnetic and magnetic surveys. A resident hut was built beside the generator hut constructed by JARE-38 in the camp. For the paleomagnetic study, 741 samples from 86 sites were collected in addition to the data of susceptibility and distribution of magnetite-quartz gneiss. 187 samples of felsic gneisses and basic dike rocks were collected for the geochronology. The high conductivity layer between 8 and 28 km was elucidated by the magnetotelluric method applied to samples obtained from 5 sites on the moraine field and 1 site on Richardson Lake. Strong magnetic anomalies up to 7000 nT were observed along gneissosity and dike intrusions by the magnetic survey. The weather was relatively mild during 63 days, although the maximum wind speed reached 50.7m/s. The camp was maintained without major accidents or trouble. After the work was completed, the camp facilities at Mt. Riiser-Larsen and Tonagh Island were completely withdrawn for environmental protection.

  9. Mex Bay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... surveys to assess the vulnerability of the most important physical and eutrophication parameters along. El- Mex Bay coast. As a result of increasing population and industrial development, poorly untreated industrial waste, domestic sewage, shipping industry and agricultural runoff are being released to the.

  10. Distribution and geochemical speciation of heavy metals in sediments from coastal area suffered rapid urbanization, a case study of Shantou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yongmin; Yang, Yang; Gu, Jiguang; Zhao, Jiangang

    2013-03-15

    Eight metals in sediment samples at 15 sites from the Shantou Bay were analyzed with BCR sequential extraction protocol to obtain the metal distribution patterns in the bay. The results showed that the heavy metal pollutions in upper bay were more severe than in middle and down reaches of the bay. Both total and non-residual fractions of metals with a exception of Mn showed a seaward decrease trend. More than 54% of the total concentrations of Cd, Mn and Zn existed in the acid soluble fraction. Ni, Co, Cr and Fe mainly (more than 51%) occurred in the residual fraction. While Pb and Cu dominantly presented in the reducible (50%) and oxidable (33%) fraction respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the heavy metals in the non-residual fractions resulted from largely anthropogenic sources, including river input, city runoff and port discharge. These contributing sources are highlighted by cluster analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Suprabenthic assemblages from the Capbreton area (SE Bay of Biscay). Faunal recovery after a canyon turbidity disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, Inmaculada; Sorbe, Jean Claude

    2017-12-01

    In the Capbreton area, suprabenthic assemblages were sampled with a sledge towed over the bottom, at different sites located within the upper part of a 'gouf-type' canyon (8 hauls between 642 m and 797 m, on the axis of the thalweg or on flat perched flank terraces such as site K), on the northern adjacent open slope (2 hauls between 500 and 567 m) and on the northern adjacent shelf margin (2 hauls between 151 m and 158 m). A multivariate analysis carried on the faunal data discriminated different assemblages in this area: a near-canyon shelf assemblage (55 species, mainly amphipods and decapods; 3496 ind./100 m2, 40% mysids; dominant species: Nyctiphanes couchii, Leptomysis gracilis, Weswoodilla rectirostris, Anchialina agilis, Scopelocheirus hopei and Philocheras bispinosus); an open slope assemblage (111 species, mainly amphipods and isopods; 249 ind./100 m2, 36% amphipods; dominant species: Disconectes phalangium, Munnopsurus atlanticus and Boreomysis arctica); a canyon E assemblage (129 species, mainly amphipods, mysids and cumaceans; 1172 ind./100 m2, 58% amphipods; dominant species: Melphidippa sp. B, Chelator insignis); a canyon E' assemblage (107 species, mainly amphipods and mysids; 507 ind./100 m2, 73% amphipods; dominant species: Cleonardopsis carinata, Bonnierella abyssorum, Rhachotropis caeca and Arcturopsis giardi); and a temporary canyon assemblage at site K (34 species, mainly amphipods and mysids; 899 ind./100 m2, 85% amphipods; dominant species: Tmetomyx similis, Caeconyx caeculus, Nebalia sp. A and Cleonardopsis carinata). Site K was sampled only four months after a turbidity event, detected on sediment cores (18 cm thick Bouma sequence) taken during the same cruise and triggered by the violent storm ('ouragan Martin', wind up to 200 km/h) which affected the French Atlantic coast on 27 December 1999. The corresponding suprabenthic assemblage showed evidence of deep structural changes after this catastrophic event, characterized by relative low

  12. Evaluation of mangrove ecosystem service functions of Ximen Island Marine Specially Protected Areas in Yueqing Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. G.; Sun, L.; Tan, Y. H.; Shi, A. Q.; Cheng, J.

    2017-08-01

    Taking the mangrove ecosystem of Ximen Island National Marine Specially Protected Areas as the research object, the ecological service value of the mangrove forest was evaluated and analyzed using a market value method, an ecological value method and a carbon tax method. The results showed that the ecosystem service value of the mangrove forest on Ximen Island is worth a total of 16,104,000 CNY/a. Among the value of individual ecosystem services, the direct value of material production function and leisure function reached 1,385,000 CNY/a, with a ratio of 8.6%. The indirect value of disturbance regulation, gas regulation, water purification, habitat function and culture research reached 14,719,000 CNY/a, with a ratio of 91.4%. Among the above sub-items, the proportion of disturbance regulation value, habitat function value and cultural research function value reached 78.8%, which reflects the important scientific value and ecological value of the Ximen Island mangrove ecosystem, especially its vital importance in providing a habitat for birds and playing a role in disaster prevention and mitigation.

  13. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24h post mainshock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014M=6.0 West Napa earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M= 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  14. Diagenetic and compositional controls of wettability in siliceous sedimentary rocks, Monterey Formation, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kristina M.

    Modified imbibition tests were performed on 69 subsurface samples from Monterey Formation reservoirs in the San Joaquin Valley to measure wettability variation as a result of composition and silica phase change. Contact angle tests were also performed on 6 chert samples from outcrop and 3 nearly pure mineral samples. Understanding wettability is important because it is a key factor in reservoir fluid distribution and movement, and its significance rises as porosity and permeability decrease and fluid interactions with reservoir grain surface area increase. Although the low permeability siliceous reservoirs of the Monterey Formation are economically important and prolific, a greater understanding of factors that alter their wettability will help better develop them. Imbibition results revealed a strong trend of decreased wettability to oil with increased detrital content in opal-CT phase samples. Opal-A phase samples exhibited less wettability to oil than both opal-CT and quartz phase samples of similar detrital content. Subsurface reservoir samples from 3 oil fields were crushed to eliminate the effect of capillary pressure and cleansed of hydrocarbons to eliminate wettability alterations by asphaltene, then pressed into discs of controlled density. Powder discs were tested for wettability by dispensing a controlled volume of water and motor oil onto the surface and measuring the time required for each fluid to imbibe into the sample. The syringe and software of a CAM101 tensiometer were used to control the amount of fluid dispensed onto each sample, and imbibition completion times were determined by high-speed photography for water drops; oil drop imbibition was significantly slower and imbibition was timed and determined visually. Contact angle of water and oil drops on polished chert and mineral sample surfaces was determined by image analysis and the Young-Laplace equation. Oil imbibition was significantly slower with increased detrital composition and faster

  15. Construction of transmission pipeline across Osaka bay area -pipeline construction by shield tunnel under seabed-; Construction d'un gazoduc dans la zone de la baie d'Osaka - tunnel de protection sous-marin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashi, AIhara [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Osaka Gas has been constructing a transmission gas pipeline across Osaka Bay Area with Osaka Port that has busy traffic. The company met several technical problems on the construction-design with measures against the subsidence of reclaimed land, anti-seismic measures, for example, in designing the pipeline construction by shield tunnel under seabed. This paper introduces the solutions to the technical problems. (authors)

  16. The psycho-sociological impact of a large technological development on a rural area with specific reference to the Mossel Bay area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waal, H.S. de.

    1989-05-01

    The public acceptability of large technological developments was studied. A socio-economic baseline profile of the community was compiled in an attempt to measure the inherent ability of a community to adjust to changes brought about by large developments. The framework within which the study was conducted included the demographic composition, the economic activity, the infrastructure of the private and public sectors, the organisational composition of the community, the expectations members of the community had in respect of the possible developments, the attitudes of the community towards itself, as well as towards outsiders and finally, the degree of solidarity that exists amongst them in respect of these attitudes. With information regarding the intended developments, certain extrapolations were made in respect of possible tendencies and changes that may come about in the demographic composition of the community. In the light of these predictions certain potential future problems were identified and pre-emptive recommendations were made accordingly. Of the most important observations that can be made is the fact that the methods used were adequate to achieve a detailed baseline profile of the community, its qualities, attitudes and expectations. The detail was sufficient to enable the researcher to compare the communities living in the different residential areas. Information gathered from interviews with leading figures turned out to be a useful tool in the verification of data gathered by way of questionnaires. 71 figs., 110 tabs., 176 refs

  17. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: San Francisco Bay/Monterey (CA) WFO - Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital elevation model (DEM) is a part of a series of DEMs produced for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's Sea...

  18. Application of State of the Art Modeling Techniques to Predict Flooding and Waves for a Coastal Area within a Protected Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm L. Spaulding

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs are developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA to provide guidance in establishing the risk to structures and infrastructure from storm surge sand associated waves in the coastal zone. The maps are used by state agencies and municipalities to help guide coastal planning and establish the minimum elevation and construction standards for new or substantially improved structures. A summary of the methods used and a comparison with the results of 2013 FIRM mapping are presented for Warwick, Rhode Island (RI, a coastal community located within Narragansett Bay. Because of its location, Warwick is protected from significant coastal erosion and wave attacks, but is subject to surge amplification. Concerns surrounding the FEMA methods used in the 2013 FIRM analysis are put in context with the National Research Council’s (NRC 2009 review of the FEMA coastal mapping program. New mapping is then performed using state of the art, fully coupled surge and wave modeling, and data analysis methods, to address the NRC concerns. The new maps and methodologies are in compliance with FEMA regulations and guidelines. This new approach makes extensive use of the numerical modeling results from the recent US Army Corp of Engineers, North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (NACCS, 2015. Revised flooding maps are presented and compared to the 2013 FIRM maps, to provide insight into the differences. The new maps highlight the importance of developing better estimates of surge dynamics and the advancement in nearshore mapping of waves in flood inundated areas by the use of state of the art, two-dimensional, wave transformation models.

  19. Planktonic copepod community in the neritic area south western part of Tunis bay influenced by Meliane river supplies (south western Mediterranean sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Lamine, Y.; Daly Yahia Kefi, O.; Daly Yahia, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Tunis bay is located in the North Estern coast of Tunisia and receives in its Western part flows from Meliane River. Our study aims to describe the composition and the spatiotemporal distribution of planktonic copepods in the bay in order to identify the effect of the Meliane River supplies on the community. A grid of 19 stations was investigated monthly from July 2004 to December 2004 using a 160 μm mesh size plankton net, towed obliquely from the bottom to the surface. The planktonic co...

  20. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  1. Estimation and Simulation of Inter-station Green's Functions in the Beppu-Bay Area, Oita Prefecture, Southwest Japan: the Effect of Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, T.; Yoshimi, M.; Komatsu, M.; Takenaka, H.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous long-term observations of ambient noise (microseisms) were performed from August 2014 to February 2017 in the Beppu-Bay area, Oita prefecture, to investigate S-wave velocity structure of deep sedimentary basin (Hayashida et al., 2015SSJ; Yoshimi and Hayashida, 2017WCEE). The observation array consists of 12 broadband stations with an average spacing of 12 km. We applied the seismic interferometry technique to the ambient noise data and derived nine-component ambient noise cross-correlation functions (Z-R, Z-T, Z-Z, R-R, R-T, R-Z, T-R, T-T, and T-Z components) between 66 pairs of stations (distance of 6.4 km to 65.2 km). We assumed the stacked cross-correlation functions as "observed Green's functions" between two stations and estimated group velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves in the frequency between 0.2 and 0.5 Hz (Hayashida et al., 2017AGU-JpGU). Theoretical Green's functions for all stations pairs were also calculated using the finite difference method (HOT-FDM, Nakamura et al., 2012BSSA), with an existing three-dimensional basin structure model (J-SHIS V2) with land and seafloor topography and a seawater layer (Okunaka et al., 2016JpGU) and a newly constructed basin structure model of the target area (Yoshimi et al., 2017AGU). The comparisons between observed and simulated Green's functions generally show good agreements in the frequency range between 0.2 and 0.5 Hz. On the other hand, both observed and simulated Green's functions for some station pairs whose traverse lines run across the deeper part of the sedimentary basin (> 2000 m) show prominent later phases that might be generated and propagated inside the basin. This indicates that the understanding of the phase generation and propagation processes can be a key factor to validate the basin structure model and we investigated the characteristics of the later phases, such as its particle motions and arrival times, using observed and simulated Green's functions in detail. Acknowledgements

  2. Computational Approach for Improving Three-Dimensional Sub-Surface Earth Structure for Regional Earthquake Hazard Simulations in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-25

    In our Exascale Computing Project (ECP) we seek to simulate earthquake ground motions at much higher frequency than is currently possible. Previous simulations in the SFBA were limited to 0.5-1 Hz or lower (Aagaard et al. 2008, 2010), while we have recently simulated the response to 5 Hz. In order to improve confidence in simulated ground motions, we must accurately represent the three-dimensional (3D) sub-surface material properties that govern seismic wave propagation over a broad region. We are currently focusing on the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) with a Cartesian domain of size 120 x 80 x 35 km, but this area will be expanded to cover a larger domain. Currently, the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) has a 3D model of the SFBA for seismic simulations. However, this model suffers from two serious shortcomings relative to our application: 1) it does not fit most of the available low frequency (< 1 Hz) seismic waveforms from moderate (magnitude M 3.5-5.0) earthquakes; and 2) it is represented with much lower resolution than necessary for the high frequency simulations (> 5 Hz) we seek to perform. The current model will serve as a starting model for full waveform tomography based on 3D sensitivity kernels. This report serves as the deliverable for our ECP FY2017 Quarter 4 milestone to FY 2018 “Computational approach to developing model updates”. We summarize the current state of 3D seismic simulations in the SFBA and demonstrate the performance of the USGS 3D model for a few selected paths. We show the available open-source waveform data sets for model updates, based on moderate earthquakes recorded in the region. We present a plan for improving the 3D model utilizing the available data and further development of our SW4 application. We project how the model could be improved and present options for further improvements focused on the shallow geotechnical layers using dense passive recordings of ambient and human-induced noise.

  3. Spatial and temporal genetic homogeneity of the Monterey Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus concolor, in the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Magallón-Gayón

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The genetic homogeneity of the Monterey Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus concolor population in the Gulf of California was confirmed using nine nuclear microsatellite loci in combination with mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences. Samples were collected from the upper and central Gulf areas, representing the two main biogeographical regions of the Gulf. The analyses support the existence of a single panmictic population of S. concolor inhabiting the Gulf of California which in terms of fishery management represents a single genetic stock. Additionally, the contemporary effective population size estimated for the S. concolor population (Ne = 3056.9 was high and similar to another pelagic species. The gene flow seems to be bidirectional between the upper and central Gulf, which coincides with the seasonal movements between both regions related to spawning and feeding activities. A population expansion event was detected, which agrees with a colonization-expansion hypothesis of the S. concolor population in the Gulf.

  4. Application of year-round atmospheric transmission data, collected with the MSRT multiband transmissometer during the FATMOSE trial in the False Bay area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.N. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Cohen, L.H.; Fritz, P.J.; Gunter, W.H.; Vrahimisb, G.; Faith, J.

    2011-01-01

    The FATMOSE trial (False Bay Atmospheric Experiment) is a continuation of the cooperative work between TNO and IMT on atmospheric propagation and point target detection and identification in a maritime environment (South Africa). The atmospheric transmission, being of major importance for target

  5. Geologic Map of the Cascade Head Area, Northwestern Oregon Coast Range (Neskiwin, Nestucca Bay, Hebo, and Dolph 7.5 minute Quadrangles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snavely, Parke D.; Niem, Alan; Wong, Florence L.; MacLeod, Norman S.; Calhoun, Tracy K.; Minasian, Diane L.; Niem, Wendy

    1996-01-01

    The geology of the Cascade Head area bridges the geology in the Tillamook Highlands to the north (Wells and others, 1994; 1995) with that of the Newport Embayment on the south (Snavely and others, 1976 a,b,c). The four 7.5-minute quadrangles (Neskowin, Nestucca Bay, Hebo, and Dolph) which comprise the Cascade Head area include significant stratigraphic, structural, and igneous data that are essential in unraveling the geology of the northern and central part of the Oregon Coast Range and of the adjacent continental shelfEarlier studies (Snavely and Vokes, 1949) were of a broad reconnaissance nature because of limited access in this rugged, densely forested part of the Siuslaw National Forest. Also, numerous thick sills of late middle Eocene diabase and middle Miocene basalt mask the Eocene stratigraphic relationships. Previous mapping was hampered by a lack of precise biostratigraphic data. However, recent advances in biostratigraphy and radiometric age dating and geochemistry have provided the necessary tools to decipher stratigraphic and structural relationships in the Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rock sequences (W.W. Rau, personal communication, 1978 to 1988; Bukry and Snavely, 1988). Many important stratigraphic and igneous relationships are displayed within the Casacde Head area: (1) turbidite sandstone of the middle Eocene Tyee Formation, which is widespread in the central and southern part of the Oregon Coast Range (Snavely and others, 1964), was not deposited in the western part of the Cascade Head, and is of limited extent north of the map area (Wells and others, 1994); (2) the late middle Eocene Yamhill Formation, which crops out along the west and east flank of the Oregon Coast Range, overlaps older strata and overlies an erosional unconformity on the lower Eocene Siletz River Volcanics (Snavely and others, 1990; 1991); (3) thick sills of late middle Eocene diabase (43 Ma) are widespread in the Cascade Head area and also form much of the eastern

  6. Creating a monthly time series of the potentiometric surface in the Upper Floridan aquifer, Northern Tampa Bay area, Florida, January 2000-December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terrie M.; Fouad, Geoffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    In Florida’s karst terrain, where groundwater and surface waters interact, a mapping time series of the potentiometric surface in the Upper Floridan aquifer offers a versatile metric for assessing the hydrologic condition of both the aquifer and overlying streams and wetlands. Long-term groundwater monitoring data were used to generate a monthly time series of potentiometric surfaces in the Upper Floridan aquifer over a 573-square-mile area of west-central Florida between January 2000 and December 2009. Recorded groundwater elevations were collated for 260 groundwater monitoring wells in the Northern Tampa Bay area, and a continuous time series of daily observations was created for 197 of the wells by estimating missing daily values through regression relations with other monitoring wells. Kriging was used to interpolate the monthly average potentiometric-surface elevation in the Upper Floridan aquifer over a decade. The mapping time series gives spatial and temporal coherence to groundwater monitoring data collected continuously over the decade by three different organizations, but at various frequencies. Further, the mapping time series describes the potentiometric surface beneath parts of six regionally important stream watersheds and 11 municipal well fields that collectively withdraw about 90 million gallons per day from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Monthly semivariogram models were developed using monthly average groundwater levels at wells. Kriging was used to interpolate the monthly average potentiometric-surface elevations and to quantify the uncertainty in the interpolated elevations. Drawdown of the potentiometric surface within well fields was likely the cause of a characteristic decrease and then increase in the observed semivariance with increasing lag distance. This characteristic made use of the hole effect model appropriate for describing the monthly semivariograms and the interpolated surfaces. Spatial variance reflected in the monthly

  7. Food insecurity, chronic illness, and gentrification in the San Francisco Bay Area: An example of structural violence in United States public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Hufstedler, Lee Lemus; Seligman, Hilary K; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2015-10-01

    Food insecurity continues to be a major challenge in the United States, affecting 49 million individuals. Quantitative studies show that food insecurity has serious negative health impacts among individuals suffering from chronic illnesses, including people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Formulating effective interventions and policies to combat these health effects requires an in-depth understanding of the lived experience and structural drivers of food insecurity. Few studies, however, have elucidated these phenomena among people living with chronic illnesses in resource-rich settings, including in the United States. Here we sought to explore the experiences and structural determinants of food insecurity among a group of low-income PLHIV in the San Francisco Bay Area. Thirty-four semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance from a local non-profit in San Francisco and Alameda County, California, between April and June 2014. Interview transcripts were coded and analysed according to content analysis methods following an inductive-deductive approach. The lived experience of food insecurity among participants included periods of insufficient quantity of food and resultant hunger, as well as long-term struggles with quality of food that led to concerns about the poor health effects of a cheap diet. Participants also reported procuring food using personally and socially unacceptable strategies, including long-term dependence on friends, family, and charity; stealing food; exchanging sex for food; and selling controlled substances. Food insecurity often arose from the need to pay high rents exacerbated by gentrification while receiving limited disability income--​a situation resulting in large part from the convergence of long-standing urban policies amenable to gentrification and an outdated disability policy that constrains financial viability. The experiences of food insecurity described by participants in this

  8. The evolving fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tourte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties has contributed significantly to the agricultural vibrancy of the two counties and the state of California. Dramatic growth in strawberry, raspberry and blackberry production has been documented over the last 50 years, and most notably since the 1980s. Factors influencing this growth include innovations in agricultural practices and heightened consumer demand. Here, we review the historical context for the berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. Organic production, production economics and challenges for the future are also discussed.

  9. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, B J; Dickson, D L; Dickson, H L

    1992-03-01

    McKinley Bay is a shallow protected bay along the eastern Beaufort Sea coast which provides an important habitat for diving ducks. Since 1979, the bay has been the site of a winter harbor and support base for oil and gas exploraton in the Beaufort Sea. Aerial surveys for bird abundance and distribution were conducted in August 1991 as a continuation of long-term monitoring of birds in McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, a nearby area used as a control. The main objectives of the 1991 surveys were to expand the set of baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers, and to determine if numbers of diving ducks had changed since the initial 1981-85 surveys. On the day with the best survey conditions, the population of diving ducks at McKinley bay was estimated at ca 32,000, significantly more than 1981-85. At Hutchison Bay, there were an estimated 11,000 ducks. As in previous years, large numbers of diving ducks were observed off Atkinson Point at the northwest corner of McKinley Bay, at the south end of the bay, and in the northeast corner near a long spit. Most divers in Hutchison Bay were at the west side. Diving ducks, primarily Oldsquaw and scoter, were the most abundant bird group in the study area. Observed distribution patterns of birds are discussed with reference to habitat preferences. 16 refs., 7 figs., 30 tabs.

  10. Effects of November 8, 1980 earthquake on Humboldt Bay Power Plant and Eureka, California area. Reconnaissance report 13 Nov-14 Nov 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, K.S.; Rooney, V.; Chokshi, N.C.

    1981-06-01

    On November 8, 1980, an earthquake of a reported surface wave magnitude of 7.0 occurred off the coast of California, west of Eureka and the Humboldt Bay Power Plant. Three NRC staff members visited the site the following week to survey any damage associated with the earthquake, with the objective of using collected data to assist the NRR staff in ongoing seismic evaluations of older operating nuclear power plant facilities. This report contains their observations. They concluded that the effects of the earthquake on Humboldt Bay Power Plant Unit 3 were minimal and did not endanger the health and safety of the public. They recommended that improvements be made to seismic recording equipment and that generic preparation for future post-earthquake reconnaissance trips be made before the actual occurrence of earthquakes

  11. Early Holocene estuary development of the Hesselø Bay area, southern Kattegat, Denmark and its implication for Ancylus Lake drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carina; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Jensen, Jørn Bo

    2017-01-01

    environment and a description of coastal processes associated with a river outlet into the bay are presented. Weichselian glacial deposits form the lowermost interpreted unit, covered by late glacial (LG) and postglacial (PG, Holocene) sediments. A funnel-shaped estuary existed at the mouth of channels......High-resolution shallow seismic data, sediment core information, radiocarbon dating and sequence stratigraphy have been used to interpret the late glacial to early Holocene geological evolution of Hesselø Bay in the southern Kattegat, Denmark. A reconstruction of the early Holocene coastal...... in the period 10.3–9.2 cal. ka BP; the channels drained water from south to north. The early PG is characterised by estuarine and coastal deposits. The early Holocene bars that developed in the estuary are preserved as morphological features on the present-day seabed, possibly as a result of rapid relative sea...

  12. Elemental analysis of Uranouchi bay seabed sludge using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, M. Hasnat; Narusawa, Tadashi; Nishiyama, Fumitaka; Sumi, Katsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Elemental analyses were carried out for the seabed sludge collected from Uranouchi bay (Kochi, Japan) using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Seabed-sludge contamination with heavy metals as well as toxic elements becomes one of the most serious environmental problems. The aim of the present study is to investigate the polluted areas in the bay by heavy and toxic elements. As a results of analyses of samples collected from eleven different places in the bay, seventeen elements including toxic ones were detected. The results suggest that the center region of the bay is seriously contaminated by heavy and toxic elements in comparison with the other areas in the bay. (author)

  13. 11th Annual Mine Warfare Technology Symposium, May 6-8, 2014 - Monterey, CA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Program Executive Office Littoral Combat Ships (PEO LCS), OPNAV (N95), and The Consortium for Robotics and Unmanned Systems Education and Research (CRUSER) are pleased to announce the ELEVENTH International Mine Warfare Technology Symposium in Monterey, California, May 6-8, 2014.

  14. Latent infection by Fusarium circinatum influences susceptibility of monterey pine seedlings to pitch canker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra L. Swett; Thomas R. Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Pitch canker, caused by Fusarium circinatum, is a serious disease affecting Pinus radiata D. Don (Monterey pine) in nurseries, landscapes, and native forests. A typical symptom of pitch canker is canopy dieback resulting from girdling lesions on terminal branches (Gordon et al. 2001). More extensive dieback can result from...

  15. The design and development of a management information system for the Monterey Navy Flying Club.

    OpenAIRE

    George, Derek R.

    1986-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis provides a Management Information System for the Monterey Navy Flying Club. It supplies the tools necessary to enable the club manager to maintain all club records and generate required administrative and financial reports. http://archive.org/details/designdevelopmen00geor Commander, United States Navy

  16. 75 FR 59963 - Safety Zone: Monte Foundation Firework Display, Monterey, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone: Monte Foundation Firework Display, Monterey, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Monte Foundation Firework Display. This safety zone is established to ensure the safety of participants... be completed. Because of the dangers posed by the pyrotechnics used in this fireworks display, the...

  17. 76 FR 47237 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Monterey County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCA9300000 L58790000 EU0000; CACA 50168-14] Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Monterey County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of realty action. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM...

  18. 33 CFR 110.120 - San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.120 San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif. (a) Area A-1. Area A-1 is the water area bounded by the San Luis Obispo County wharf, the shoreline, a line drawn...

  19. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  20. Corpus ChristiEast Matagorda Bay 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of habitat utilization were compared among transplanted and natural Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Halls Lake area of Chocolate Bay in the Galveston...

  1. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  2. Paleoenvironment interpretation of a 1760 years B.P. old sediment in a mangrove area of the Bay of Guanabara, using pollen analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Ortrud M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A sediment sample was obtained at 122 cm from the top of a drilling core in the Guapimirim mangrove, Bay of Guanabara, and analyzed using pollen analysis. This muddy core reached a sandy ground at 133 cm. 14C datation got the age of 1760 ? 50 years B.P. The most frequent pollen grains were mangrove species of Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia schaueriana. "Restinga" and tropical rain forest vegetation was recognized behind the mangrove. After the last sea transgression at 2500 years B.P., the water level lowered to its actual size, allowing the installation of this mangrove.

  3. Paleoenvironment interpretation of a 1760 years B.P. old sediment in a mangrove area of the Bay of Guanabara, using pollen analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Ortrud M.; São-Thiago, Luiz E.U.; Barros, Marcia A.

    2006-01-01

    A sediment sample was obtained at 122 cm from the top of a drilling core in the Guapimirim mangrove, Bay of Guanabara, and analyzed using pollen analysis. This muddy core reached a sandy ground at 133 cm. 14C datation got the age of 1760 ± 50 years B.P. The most frequent pollen grains were mangrove species of Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia schaueriana. "Restinga" and tropical rain forest vegetation was recognized behind the mangrove. After the last sea transgression at...

  4. A Glance at Bohai Bay Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shoubai

    1995-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil industry keeps on developing in 1994. The oil production of Bohai Bay Oil Province located in East China also keeps on growing. Geologically,the total area of Bohai Bay Basin is about 200 000 km2 and the main structural units are: Liaohe Depression, Huanghua Depression,Jizhong Depression, Linqing Depression, Jiyang Depression, Changwei Depression, Bozhong Depression,Chengning Uplift and Cangjing Uplift (see figure 1). Area of the main structural units is listed in following:

  5. 76 FR 28309 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon Bay streets due to unscheduled bridge... schedules during the peak tourist and navigation seasons to provide for the efficient movement of vehicular... between Lake Michigan and Green Bay. The area experiences a significant increase in vehicular and vessel...

  6. Persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in penguins of the genus Pygoscelis in Admiralty Bay - An Antarctic specially managed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montone, Rosalinda C; Taniguchi, Satie; Colabuono, Fernanda I; Martins, César C; Cipro, Caio Vinícius Z; Barroso, Hileia S; da Silva, Josilene; Bícego, Márcia C; Weber, Rolf R

    2016-05-15

    Persistent organic pollutants were assessed in fat samples of the Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua), Chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarcticus) and Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae) penguins collected during the austral summers of 2005/06 and 2006/07 in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. The predominant organic pollutants were PCB (114 to 1115), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (60.1 to 238.7), HCB (penguins. Chicks of all three species showed similar profiles of PCB congeners, with predominance of lower chlorinated compounds. The distribution of PAHs was similar in all birds, with a predominance of naphthalene and alkyl-naphthalene, which are the main constituents of arctic diesel fuel. These data contribute to the monitoring of the continued exposure to organic pollutants in the Antarctic biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. POTENTIAL HAZARDS OF SEDIMENT IN KENDARI BAY, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Adi Kristanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kendari bay is located in front of Kendari city. There are two harbors in the inner part of bay which very important to support economic activities such as shipping and passenger transportation. The result of coastal characteristic mapping and physical oceanography survey show various coastal morphology, vegetation, weathering processes, sedimentation, currents, and water depth and sea floor morphology. Kendari bay is an enclosed bay; the area is wide in the inner part and narrow in mouth of bay (outlet, the morphology look like a bottle’s neck. Numerous mouth rivers are concentrate around the bay. The rivers load material from land since erosion on land is intensive enough. There is indication that sediment supplies from land trough river mouth not equivalent with outlet capacity. Sediment load is trapped in the inner bay caused the outlet morphology. So high sediment rate play an important role in the process of shallow of water depth in Kendari bay. This condition make the Kendari bay is a prone area of sediment hazard due to height rate of sedimentary process. Therefore, to anticipate the hazards, precaution should be taken related to the Kendari bay as the center of activities in southeast of Sulawesi. The further survey is needed such as marine geotechnique and on land environmental to collect data, which can be used as database for development planning. Key words: Potential hazard, sediment, Kendari Bay Teluk

  8. The completed Management Information System for the Monterey Navy Flying Club.

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, James M.

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis provides a completed Management Information System for the Monterey Navy Flying Club. The software package was designed to operate upon an IBM PC-XT or PC-AT or 100% compatible microcomputer wjiich has 384K of main memory. Specific hardware requirements are discussed in chapter one. This software package supplies the necessary tools for the club manager to maintain all club records and generate required a...

  9. The timing of sediment transport down Monterey Submarine Canyon, offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Thomas; Paull, Charles K.; Ussler, William III; McGann, Mary; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Lundsten, Eve M.

    2013-01-01

    While submarine canyons are the major conduits through which sediments are transported from the continents out into the deep sea, the time it takes for sediment to pass down through a submarine canyon system is poorly constrained. Here we report on the first study to couple optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of quartz sand deposits and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C ages measured on benthic foraminifera to examine the timing of sediment transport through the axial channel of Monterey Submarine Canyon and Fan, offshore California. The OSL ages date the timing of sediment entry into the canyon head while the 14C ages of benthic foraminifera record the deposition of hemipelagic sediments that bound the sand horizons. We use both single-grain and small (∼2 mm area) single-aliquot regeneration approaches on vibracore samples from fining-upward sequences at various water depths to demonstrate relatively rapid, decadal-scale sand transport to at least 1.1 km depth and more variable decadal- to millennial-scale transport to a least 3.5 km depth on the fan. Significant differences between the time sand was last exposed at the canyon head (OSL age) and the timing of deposition of the sand (from 14C ages of benthic foraminifera in bracketing hemipelagic sediments) are interpreted as indicating that the sand does not pass through the entire canyon instantly in large individual events, but rather moves multiple times before emerging onto the fan. The increased spread in single-grain OSL dates with water depth provides evidence of mixing and temporary storage of sediment as it moves through the canyon system. The ages also indicate that the frequency of sediment transport events decreases with distance down the canyon channel system. The amalgamated sands near the canyon head yield OSL ages that are consistent with a sub-decadal recurrence frequency while the fining-upward sand sequences on the fan indicate that the channel is still experiencing events with a 150

  10. San Francisco Bay Long Term Management Strategy for Dredging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Francisco Bay Long Term Management Strategy (LTMS) is a cooperative effort to develop a new approach to dredging and dredged material disposal in the San Francisco Bay area. The LTMS serves as the Regional Dredging Team for the San Francisco area.

  11. Accumulation and distribution of trace metals and radionuclides in marine organisms (particularly Tapes decussatus L.) in the Izmir bay area, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldiay, R.; Uysal, H.

    1976-01-01

    The shell fish Tapes decussatus has economic importance as a product from Izmir bay. The concentrations of trace metals (Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe, Pb, Co, Cr, Hg, Cd) in this organism have been determined in relation to different localities with polluted and non-polluted waters. Measurement of levels and trends of these trace elements are important in the context of public health. Seasonal as well as spatial variation of 65 Zn and 115 Cd in the organs and tissues of T. decussatus were determined. A comparison of the concentration of trace elements in natural conditions with that in laboratory conditions was made using radioisotopes. The concentrations of trace elements in T. decussatus varied according to the tissues and organs of the body, the size of the animal, the locality of sampling and the season of the year. Bio-concentrations of radioactive 65 Zn and 115 Cd were also observed to vary according to the tissues and organs of the animal. Pathways of the trace elements were also studied using radioisotopes ( 65 Zn and 115 Cd). The effects of toxicity of the stable elements on their uptake and loss were also determined. The toxic effects of different concentrations on the uptake and loss of 65 Zn and 115 Cd were studied. (author)

  12. 77 FR 3919 - Overflight Regulations for the Channel Islands, Monterey Bay, Gulf of the Farallones, and Olympic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... the word out to pilot associations. Other outreach strategies would likely include press releases, presentations to flight clubs, articles in general aviation magazines, and flyers/posters at local airports. The...

  13. 78 FR 20093 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Business and Tourism Activity Panel (``BTAP'') co-chaired by the Business/Industry Representative and Tourism Representative, each dealing with matters concerning research, education, conservation and human...'') chaired by the Research Representative, the Sanctuary Education Panel (``SEP'') chaired by the Education...

  14. 77 FR 49862 - Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company-Assignment of Lease Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... and operating rights over a 31.0-mile rail line (the Line) owned by Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP... becoming a Class III rail carrier, Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC & Permian Basin Rys.--Continuance in Control...'s approval jurisdiction and will not result in SCCRTC acquiring a common carrier obligation with...

  15. 77 FR 46985 - Revisions of Boundaries for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary; Intent To Prepare an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... current sanctuary boundaries, and would support the Administration's focus on growing travel and tourism... related to and located within such properties. The term includes properties of traditional religious and...

  16. Community composition, structure, and interrelationships in the marine intertidal Endocladia muricata – Balanus glandula association in Monterey Bay, California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glynn, Peter W.

    1965-01-01

    Studies of the community composition, structure and species interrelationships of the Endocladia-Balanus association were carried out on the rocky shores at the Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, California, over the period 1959—1961. The organisms making up this biotic association form a

  17. Water Mass Bio-optical Properties in the Monterey Bay Region: Fluorescence-based Inference of Shifts in Phytoplankton Photophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    spectro - photometric filter pad measurements of particle absorption against the bottle chl measurements provided an empirical fit that was applied... UV #pV< . ■ ’•’■$& iBiftfc .v. . . . . 1 . . . . 1 .,-,1 .... 10 15 20 5 10 15 Temperature (°C) 20 Figure 12. (a) Historical

  18. Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave Fields: A Modeling Sensitivity Study in Monterey Bay CA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Grace Chang; Jason Magalen; Craig Jones

    2014-08-01

    A n indust ry standard wave modeling tool was utilized to investigate model sensitivity to input parameters and wave energy converter ( WEC ) array deploym ent scenarios. Wave propagation was investigated d ownstream of the WECs to evaluate overall near - and far - field effects of WEC arrays. The sensitivity study illustrate d that b oth wave height and near - bottom orbital velocity we re subject to the largest pote ntial variations, each decreas ed in sensitivity as transmission coefficient increase d , as number and spacing of WEC devices decrease d , and as the deployment location move d offshore. Wave direction wa s affected consistently for all parameters and wave perio d was not affected (or negligibly affected) by varying model parameters or WEC configuration .

  19. 33 CFR 334.200 - Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to Cedar Point; aerial and surface firing range and target area, U...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degrees 09 minutes 26 seconds identified as Hannibal Target. (3) The regulations. Nonexplosive projectiles and bombs will be dropped at frequent intervals in the target areas. Hooper and Hannibal target areas...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Green Bay, WI Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) dataset comprises 936 km2 around the city of Green Bay, surrounding towns, tribal lands and rural areas in...

  1. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal areas of Bristol Bay...

  2. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer Study Unit, 2012–13: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen; Wright, Michael

    2018-05-30

    component of this study—the understanding assessment—identified the natural and human factors that potentially affect groundwater quality by evaluating land-use characteristics, measures of location, geologic factors, groundwater age, and geochemical conditions of the shallow aquifer. An additional component of this study was a comparison of MS-SA water-quality results to those of the GAMA Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Groundwater Basins study unit. This study unit covered much of the same areal extent as the MS-SA, but assessed the deeper, public drinking-water aquifer system.Relative concentrations (sample concentration divided by the benchmark concentration) were used to evaluate concentrations of constituents in groundwater samples relative to water-quality benchmarks for those constituents that have Federal or California benchmarks, such as maximum contaminant levels. For organic and special-interest constituents, relative concentrations were classified as high, greater than 1.0; moderate, greater than 0.1 and less than or equal to 1.0; or low, less than or equal to 0.1. For inorganic constituents, relative concentrations were classified as high, greater than 1.0; moderate, greater than 0.5 and less than or equal to 1.0; or low, less than or equal to 0.5. A relative concentration greater than 1.0 indicates that the concentration was greater than a benchmark. Aquifer-scale proportions were used to quantify regional-scale groundwater quality. The aquifer-scale proportions are the areal percentages of the shallow aquifer system where relative concentrations for a given constituent or class of constituents were high, moderate, or low.Inorganic constituents were measured at high and moderate relative concentrations more frequently than organic constituents. In the MS-SA study unit, inorganic constituents with benchmarks were detected at high relative concentrations in 51 percent of the study unit. The greatest proportions of high relative concentrations of trace

  3. Bay of Fundy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The highest tides on Earth occur in the Minas Basin, the eastern extremity of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, where the tide range can reach 16 meters when the various factors affecting the tides are in phase. The primary cause of the immense tides of Fundy is a resonance of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine system. The system is effectively bounded at this outer end by the edge of the continental shelf with its approximately 40:1 increase in depth. The system has a natural period of approximately 13 hours, which is close to the 12h25m period of the dominant lunar tide of the Atlantic Ocean. Like a father pushing his daughter on a swing, the gentle Atlantic tidal pulse pushes the waters of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine basin at nearly the optimum frequency to cause a large to-and-fro oscillation. The greatest slosh occurs at the head (northeast end) of the system. The high tide image (top) was acquired April 20, 2001, and the low tide image (bottom) was acquired September 30, 2002. The images cover an area of 16.5 by 21 km, and are centered near 64 degrees west longitude and 45.5 degrees north latitude. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying

  4. 33 CFR 165.1182 - Safety/Security Zone: San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Suisun Bay, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone: San... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY... Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1182 Safety/Security Zone: San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1050 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1050 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to... at 50 FR 42696, Oct. 22, 1985; 51 FR 25198, July 11, 1986, as amended at 62 FR 17557, Apr. 10, 1997] ...

  6. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage effluent, continental and coastal waters from the Northwestern Mediterrean Sea: Comparison between two contrasted catchment areas (Marseilles Bay and Vermeille coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigue, Catherine; Ferretto, Nicolas; Méjanelle, Laurence; Tedetti, Marc; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Goutx, Madeleine

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed from sewage treatment plant waters and surface waters collected in continental (rivers), harbour and off-shore marine sites from Marseilles Bay and Vermeille coastal areas between 2009 and 2013 (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, France). After collection, water samples were first filtered on glass fiber filters, then PAHs from the dissolved phase were extracted using liquid-liquid or solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, while those from particles were treated according to Bligh and Dyer method. After a possible purification step, extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Regardless of the study area, dissolved and particulate PAH (18 parents + alkylated homologues) concentration averages were 150.2 ± 140.5 ng l-1and 39.4 ± 71.2 ng l-1, respectively. Interestingly, the concentration in dissolved PAHs was on average 3.8 higher than the concentration in particulate PAHs. In addition, a gradient of PAH concentrations was observed from coastal waters with the highest values in harbours and outlet sewage effluents and the lowest values in off-shore marine waters. Intermediate concentrations were recorded in continental waters. In the Marseilles Bay, dissolved PAH concentrations were significantly higher and associated to increased signatures of unburned and combusted fossil fuels, mainly from heating, during the cold period (November-April). In contrast, unburned petroleum signature dominated in the warm period (May-October), emphasizing the intense shipping traffic and urban/industrial activities occurring in one of the largest Mediterranean harbour and city. Conversely, in the Vermeille coastal waters, dissolved PAH concentrations were higher during the warm period when particulate PAHs displayed the lowest concentrations, suggesting a seasonal related partition between dissolved and particulate PAHs. In addition, in the Vermeille coastal waters, PAHs were dominated by

  7. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  8. Numerical Simulation of Recent Turbidity Currents in the Monterey Canyon System, Offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimsund, S.; Xu, J.; Nemec, W.

    2007-12-01

    The method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used, in the form of a 3D numerical model (Flow- 3D®), to perform a full-scale simulation of turbidity currents measured in December 2002 by three moorings in the Soquel and Monterey canyons. The model was verified by simulation of laboratory flows, and was upscaled to the Monterey Canyon system on the basis of high-resolution bathymetric data and flow measurements. The measured velocity profiles were sufficient to assess the flow thickness, initial velocity and duration in the canyon head zone. A computational grid with a highest feasible resolution was used, and both bathymetry and hydrostatic pressure were accounted for. The volumetric sediment concentration and exact grain- size composition of the flows were unknown, and thus a range of values for the initial concentration and bed roughness were assumed and assessed on a trial-and-error basis. The simulations reveal the behavior of a turbidity current along its descent path, including its local hydraulic characteristics (the 3D field of velocity, sediment concentration, shear stress, strain rate, and dynamic viscosity, as well as the magnitude of velocity and turbulent shear). The results confirm that the velocity structure of turbidity current is highly sensitive to variation in seafloor topography. The December 17th flow in the Soquel Canyon appears to have lost capacity by dilution over a relatively short distance and shown significant velocity fluctuations, which is attributed to the rugged topography of the canyon floor. A major loss of momentum occurred when the flow plunged at high angle into the Monterey Canyon, crashing against its bend's southern wall. The December 20th flow in the Monterey Canyon, in contrast, developed a considerably longer body and strongly accelerated towards the canyon's sharp second bend before crashing against its western wall. The mooring data show a down-canyon decline of velocity and suggest gradual waning, but the

  9. Foreign Language Folio. A Guide to Cultural Resources and Field Trip Opportunities in the San Francisco Bay Area for Teachers and Students of Foreign Languages, 1983-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Tony, Ed.; O'Connor, Roger, Ed.

    A listing of San Francisco area cultural resources and opportunities of use to foreign language teachers is presented. Included are the following: museums and galleries, schools, art sources, churches, clubs, cultural centers and organizations, publications and publishing companies, restaurants, food stores and markets, travel and tourism,…

  10. Biological marker distribution in coexisting kerogen, bitumen and asphaltenes in Monterey Formation diatomite, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Ruth, E.; Huizinga, B. J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1986-01-01

    Organic-rich (18.2%) Monterey Formation diatomite from California was studied. The organic matter consist of 94% bitumen and 6% kerogen. Biological markers from the bitumen and from pyrolysates of the coexisting asphaltenes and kerogen were analyzed in order to elucidate the relationship between the various fractions of the organic matter. While 17 alpha(H), 18 alpha(H), 21 alpha(H)-28,30-bisnorhopane was present in the bitumen and in the pryolysate of the asphaltenes, it was not detected in the pyrolysates of the kerogen. A C40-isoprenoid with "head to head" linkage, however, was present in pyrolysates of both kerogen and asphaltenes, but not in the bitumen from the diatomite. The maturation level of the bitumen, based on the extent of isomerization of steranes and hopanes, was that of a mature oil, whereas the pyrolysate from the kerogen showed a considerably lower maturation level. These relationships indicate that the bitumen may not be indigenous to the diatomite and that it is a mature oil that migrated into the rock. We consider the possibility, however, that some of the 28,30-bisnorhopane-rich Monterey Formation oils have not been generated through thermal degradation of kerogen, but have been expelled from the source rock at an early stage of diagenesis.

  11. Mycosporine-like amino acids and xanthophyll-cycle pigments favour a massive spring bloom development of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum in Grande Bay (Argentina), an ozone hole affected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreto, José I.; Carignan, Mario O.; Montoya, Nora G.; Cozzolino, Ezequiel; Akselman, Rut

    2018-02-01

    In Grande Bay (Southern Patagonian Shelf) in a eutrophic and recirculating area slightly stratified during spring, we observed an intense (up to 1 × 107 cells L- 1) and shallow, quasi mono-specific bloom of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. Peridinin was the most abundant carotenoid, but the relative amounts of the xanthophyll cycle carotenoids (diadinoxanthin + diatoxanthin = DT) to light-harvesting pigments were high (DT/Chl a ratio = 0.32 and DT/peridinin ratio = 0.40). Shinorine, usujirene, palythene, mycosporine-serine-glycine methyl ester and palythenic acid were the primary mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), followed by mycosporine-glycine, palythine, and porphyra-334. The ΣMAAs/Chl a ratios (up to 27.9 nmol/nmol) were in the upper range reported either in nutrient-replete dinoflagellate cultures or natural populations. We monitored, from space (using satellite ocean colour data), the spatial and temporal bloom variability (from September 22 to October 31, 2005) using an approach to discriminate dinoflagellate from diatom blooms. The results indicated that an intense diatom bloom started in early spring but was rapidly replaced by an intense bloom of the dinoflagellate P. minimum, although the nutrient concentrations were apparently not limiting. The most notorious change in this period was a sharp increase in the levels of solar UVB radiation (UVB index 9.0) as a consequence of the overpass of the polar vortex over this area. We postulated that the synthesis and accumulation of MAAs and xanthophyll pigments, were competitive advantages for the opportunistic red tide dinoflagellate P. minimum over the sensitive diatoms, favouring the development of their surface blooms in this seasonally solar UVB radiation (UVBR) affected area.

  12. Numerical Study on the Effect of Air–Sea–Land Interaction on the Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixuan Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We have performed large-eddy simulations (LES to study the effect of complex land topography on the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL in coastal areas. The areas under investigation are located at three beaches in Monterey Bay, CA, USA. The sharp-interface immersed boundary method is employed to resolve the land topography down to grid scale. We have considered real-time and what-if cases. In the real-time cases, measurement data and realistic land topographies are directly incorporated. In the what-if cases, the effects of different scenarios of wind speed, wind direction, and terrain pattern on the momentum flux at the beach are studied. The LES results are compared with simulations using the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS and field measurement data. We find that the land topography imposes a critical influence on the ABL in the coastal area. The momentum fluxes obtained from our LES agree with measurement data. Our results indicate the importance of capturing the effects of land topographies in simulations.

  13. Occurrence and distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water and sediment of a tropical coastal area (Bay of Bengal coast, Bangladesh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Raknuzzaman, Mohammad; Islam, Md Saiful; Negishi, Junya; Nakamichi, Shihori; Sekine, Makoto; Tokumura, Masahiro; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2016-11-15

    This study reports the first evidence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface waters and sediments collected from the coastal area of Bangladesh. Fifteen target PFAAs, including C4-14-PFCAs (perfluoroalkyl carboxylates) and C4, C6, C8, and C10-PFSAs (perfluoroalkyl sulfonates), were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS. The ΣPFAAs in surface water and sediment samples were in the range of 10.6 to 46.8ng/L and 1.07 to 8.15ng/gdw, respectively. PFOA in water (3.17-27.8ng/L) and PFOS in sediment samples (0.60-1.14ng/gdw) were found to be the most abundant PFAAs, and these concentrations were comparable to or less than most other reported values, particularly those recorded from the coastal areas of China, Japan, Korea and Spain. The majority of the monitored PFAAs did not show clear seasonal variation. The southeastern part (Cox's Bazar and Chittagong) of the Bangladeshi coastal area was more contaminated with PFAAs than the southern (Meghna Estuary) and southwestern parts (Sundarbans). Industrial and municipal wastewater effluents, ship breaking and port activities were identified as potential sources of the PFAA contamination in this region. Field-based sediment water distribution coefficients (KD) were calculated and corrected for organic carbon content (KOC), which reduced the variability between samples. The values of log KD (1.63-2.88) and log KOC (4.02-5.16) were higher than previously reported values, which may indicate that the partitioning of PFAAs in a tropical coastal ecosystem is different from other ecosystems, such as temperate and sub-tropical regions. Although a preliminary environmental hazard assessment indicated that PFOA or PFOS levels do not currently exceed the acute safety thresholds, we should keep in mind that they are bioavailable and can accumulate in the food chain. Therefore, the ubiquity of PFAAs in the coastal area of Bangladesh warrants further studies characterizing their specific sources and the potential long-term risks they present to both

  14. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  15. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  16. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  17. Roebuck Bay Invertebrate and bird Mapping 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Pearson, Grant B.; Hickey, Robert; Dittmann, Sabine; Rogers, Danny I.; Folmer, Eelke; Honkoop, Pieter; Drent, Jan; Goeij, Petra de; Marsh, Loisette

    2006-01-01

    1. This is a report on a survey of the benthic ecology of the intertidal flats along the northern shores of Roebuck Bay in June 2006. In the period 11-20 June we mapped both the invertebrate macrobenthic animals (those retained by a 1 mm sieve) over the whole of the northern intertidal area of

  18. Monitoring of bird abundance and distribution at McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, Northwest Territories, 1981 to 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, B J; Dickson, D L

    1994-04-01

    McKinley Bay has been identified as a preferred site for a harbor to support oil and gas production in the Beaufort Sea. As the bay is a molting area for several species of diving duck, a study was initiated to monitor the effect of harbor development on birds using the bay. Baseline information on the natural annual fluctuations in the number of birds were collected for nine years at McKinley Bay and eight years at neighboring Hutchinson Bay, an area chosen as the control. The final report of the predevelopment phase of the monitoring study is presented, including results of the 1993 surveys and a summary of results of all years of surveys. There were significantly more diving ducks in McKinley Bay in early August 1990 to 1993, on average, than from 1981 to 1985. No statistically significant change in total diving ducks was noted at Hutchinson Bay. Numbers of species of divers varied substantially between years at the two bays but not to the same degree. Significantly more Pacific loons, red-throated loons, and northern pintails were recorded in the 1990-1993 surveys at McKinley Bay than in earlier surveys. Potential explanations for the large between-year fluctuations in diving duck numbers are discussed. The variations may be due to bird responses to changes in the physical environment or related to the limitations of the aerial survey techniques used. Because of the large natural fluctuations in numbers of molting diving ducks using these bays in early August, it will be difficult to detect future impacts of industrial disturbance, even when sources of survey bias are minimized. It is concluded that aerial surveys of molting diving ducks in the two bays are unsuitable for monitoring the effects of industrial development. 41 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. Delaware Bay, Delaware Sediment Distribution 2003 to 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 38 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2003 to 2004 along the middle to lower Delaware Bay Coast. The bottom sediment map...

  20. Changing Salinity Patterns in Biscayne Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2004-01-01

    Biscayne Bay, Fla., is a 428-square-mile (1,109-square-kilometer) subtropical estuarine ecosystem that includes Biscayne National Park, the largest marine park in the U.S. national park system (fig. 1). The bay began forming between 5,000 and 3,000 years ago as sea level rose and southern Florida was flooded. Throughout most of its history, the pristine waters of the bay supported abundant and diverse fauna and flora, and the bay was a nursery for the adjacent coral-reef and marine ecosystems. In the 20th century, urbanization of the Miami-Dade County area profoundly affected the environment of the bay. Construction of powerplants, water-treatment plants, and solid-waste sites and large-scale development along the shoreline stressed the ecosystem. Biscayne National Monument was established in 1968 to ?preserve and protect for the education, inspiration, recreation and enjoyment of present and future generations a rare combination of terrestrial, marine, and amphibious life in a tropical setting of great natural beauty? (Public Law 90?606). The monument was enlarged in 1980 and designated a national park.

  1. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tain?; C?novas, Alba; de Paula, S?rgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rog?rio de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of...

  2. Environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Giovana De Oliveira Fistarol; Felipe H. Coutinho; Ana Paula Barbosa Moreira; Tainá eVenas; Alba eCanovas; Sergio E M de Paula Jr; Ricardo eCoutinho; Rodrigo L de Moura; Jean L Valentin; Denise R Tenenbaum; Rodolfo eParanhos; Rogerio eValle; Rogerio eValle; Cristiane eTHOMPSON; Paulo eSalomon

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of...

  3. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY...: Notice of availability of program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The... through the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  4. CCN Properties of Organic Aerosol Collected Below and within Marine Stratocumulus Clouds near Monterey, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akua Asa-Awuku

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The composition of aerosol from cloud droplets differs from that below cloud. Its implications for the Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN activity are the focus of this study. Water-soluble organic matter from below cloud, and cloud droplet residuals off the coast of Monterey, California were collected; offline chemical composition, CCN activity and surface tension measurements coupled with Köhler Theory Analysis are used to infer the molar volume and surfactant characteristics of organics in both samples. Based on the surface tension depression of the samples, it is unlikely that the aerosol contains strong surfactants. The activation kinetics for all samples examined are consistent with rapid (NH42SO4 calibration aerosol. This is consistent with our current understanding of droplet kinetics for ambient CCN. However, the carbonaceous material in cloud drop residuals is far more hygroscopic than in sub-cloud aerosol, suggestive of the impact of cloud chemistry on the hygroscopic properties of organic matter.

  5. Identification of a new marine algal species Pyropia nitida sp. nov. (Bangiales: Rhodophyta) from Monterey, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Leeanne K; Morales, Karina M; Hughey, Jeffery R

    2016-07-01

    An unidentified marine red algal species classified in Pyropia J. Agardh was discovered from Monterey, CA. Morphological, barcode, and complete mitochondrial genome analysis of the alga support its recognition as a new species, Pyropia nitida sp. nov. The species is a high-intertidal, winter annual that is lanceolate in shape, monostromatic, and dioecious. Based on CO1 sequences, P. nitida is closely allied with the P. nereocystis clade. The mitogenome of P. nitida is 35 313 bp in length and contains 53 genes, including two ribosomal RNAs, 24 transfer RNAs, four ribosomal proteins, two ymfs, four ORFs, and 17 genes involved in electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. The results support the recognition of P. nitida as distinct from the morphologically similar P. lanceolata.

  6. The timing of sediment transport down Monterey Submarine Canyon, offshore California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Thomas; Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W., III

    2014-01-01

    luminescence (OSL) ages of quartz sand deposits and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C ages measured on benthic foraminifera to examine the timing of sediment transport through the axial channel of Monterey Submarine Canyon and Fan, offshore California. The OSL ages date the timing of sediment entry...... dates with water depth provides evidence of mixing and temporary storage of sediment as it moves through the canyon system. The ages also indicate that the frequency of sediment transport events decreases with distance down the canyon channel system. The amalgamated sands near the canyon head yield OSL......While submarine canyons are the major conduits through which sediments are transported from the continents out into the deep sea, the time it takes for sediment to pass down through a submarine canyon system is poorly constrained. Here we report on the first study to couple optically stimulated...

  7. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York...

  8. Ensonifying Change: Repeat Ultra-High-Resolution Surveys in Monterey Canyon before and after Passage of a Turbidity Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Carvajal, C.; Thomas, H. J.; Maier, K. L.; Parsons, D. R.; Simmons, S.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents are one of the primary means of global sediment transport, yet our understanding of how they interact with the seafloor is hindered by the limited number of direct measurements. The Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE; October 2015 - April 2017) has made great strides in addressing this issue by providing direct measurements of turbidity currents and detailed observations of the resulting seafloor change in Monterey Canyon, offshore California. Here we focus on a section of the canyon at 1850-m water depth, where a Seafloor Instrument Node (SIN) recorded passage of three turbidity currents using a range of sensors, including three upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profilers. The fastest event at this site had a maximum velocity of 2.8 m/s, and dragged the 430-Kg SIN 26 m down-canyon. Repeat mapping surveys were conducted four times during the CCE, utilizing a prototype ultra-high-resolution mapping system mounted on the ROV Doc Ricketts. The survey platform hosts a 400-kHz Reson 7125 multibeam sonar, a 3DatDepth SL1 subsea LiDAR, two stereo color cameras, and a Kearfott SeaDevil INS. At a survey altitude of 2.5 m above the bed, the system provides remarkable 5-cm resolution multibeam bathymetry, 1-cm resolution LiDAR bathymetry, and 2-mm resolution photomosaics, and can cover a 100-m2 survey area. Surveys of the SIN site prior to and after the fastest event show areas of net deposition/erosion of 60 cm and 20 cm, respectively. Net deposition occurred in the topographic lows between bedforms, while erosion was focused on the bedform crests. At the end of the experiment, transects of sediment cores were taken by ROV within areas of net deposition. The cores show a variety of sedimentary facies, including muds, sands, gravel, and organic rich layers. Gravel layers have sharp erosive bases. The repeat surveys document the dynamic nature of flute-like scours as the flow events erode and deposit material along the canyon floor, as well as the

  9. San Francisco Bay Area Cargo Forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    typically moved by container.* Trend line regression equations were developed from this data that show a long and stable history of high growth on...216.7 2 A Mazda 65.4 35.4 50.6 75.3 i56.5 Subaru 41.6 18.4 80.8 103.2 :27.9 Fiat 100.5 51.5 63.5 50.4 53.9 Volvo 60.3 43.9 46.8 50.9 56.) Total 1,577.0

  10. Geochemistry of sediments in the Back Bay and Yellowknife Bay of the Great Slave Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudroch, A.; Joshi, S.R.; Sutherland, D.; Mudroch, P.; Dickson, K.M.

    1989-01-01

    Gold mining activities have generated wastes with high concentrations of arsenic and zinc in the vicinity of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Some of the waste material has been discharged into Yellowknife Bay of Great Slave Lake. Concentrations of arsenic and zinc were determined in sediment cores collected at the depositional areas of Yellowknife Bay. Sedimentation rates were estimated using two different radiometric approaches: the depth profiles of cesium 137 and lead 210. Geochemical analysis of the sediment cores indicated input of similar material into sampling areas over the past 50 yr. Age profiles of the sediment constructed from the radionuclide measurements were used to determine historical trends of arsenic and zinc inputs into Yellowknife Bay. The historical record was in good agreement with implemented remedial actions and the usage patterns of both elements. 16 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, B J; Dickson, D L; Dickson, H L

    1991-03-01

    Monitoring surveys of bird abundance and distribution were conducted in 1990 at McKinley Bay in the Northwest Territories, the site of a winter harbour for drillships and the proposed location for a major year-round support base for oil and gas exploration. Primary objectives of the survey were to determine whether diving duck numbers had changed since the initial phase of the study from 1981-1985, and to provide additional baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers. Three aerial surveys at each bay were carried out using techniques identical to those in previous years. On 5 August 1990, when survey conditions were considered best of the three surveys, more than twice as many diving ducks were found in McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay than on average during the five years of 1981-1985. Old squaw and scooters comprised ca 90% of the diving ducks observed, and both species showed significant increases in numbers. The increase in abundance of diving ducks was likely unrelated to industrial activity in the area since a similar increase occurred in the control area, Hutchinson Bay. Many factors, including both environmental factors such as those affecting nesting success and timing of the moult, and factors related to the survey methods, could be involved in causing the large fluctuations observed. 9 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, B.J.; Dickson, D.L.; Dickson, H.L.

    1991-01-01

    Monitoring surveys of bird abundance and distribution were conducted in 1990 at McKinley Bay in the Northwest Territories, the site of a winter harbour for drillships and the proposed location for a major year-round support base for oil and gas exploration. Primary objectives of the survey were to determine whether diving duck numbers had changed since the initial phase of the study from 1981-1985, and to provide additional baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers. Three aerial surveys at each bay were carried out using techniques identical to those in previous years. On 5 August 1990, when survey conditions were considered best of the three surveys, more than twice as many diving ducks were found in McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay than on average during the five years of 1981-1985. Old squaw and scooters comprised ca 90% of the diving ducks observed, and both species showed significant increases in numbers. The increase in abundance of diving ducks was likely unrelated to industrial activity in the area since a similar increase occurred in the control area, Hutchinson Bay. Many factors, including both environmental factors such as those affecting nesting success and timing of the moult, and factors related to the survey methods, could be involved in causing the large fluctuations observed. 9 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Urban Noise Modelling in Boka Kotorska Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Nikolić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic is the most significant noise source in urban areas. The village of Kamenari in Boka Kotorska Bay is a site where, in a relatively small area, road traffic and sea (ferry traffic take place at the same time. Due to the specificity of the location, i.e. very rare synergy of sound effects of road and sea traffic in the urban area, as well as the expressed need for assessment of noise level in a simple and quick way, a research was conducted, using empirical methods and statistical analysis methods, which led to the creation of acoustic model for the assessment of equivalent noise level (Leq. The developed model for noise assessment in the Village of Kamenari in Boka Kotorska Bay quite realistically provides data on possible noise levels at the observed site, with very little deviations in relation to empirically obtained values.

  14. Observations and a linear model of water level in an interconnected inlet-bay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Ganju, Neil K.; Butman, Bradford; Signell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A system of barrier islands and back-barrier bays occurs along southern Long Island, New York, and in many coastal areas worldwide. Characterizing the bay physical response to water level fluctuations is needed to understand flooding during extreme events and evaluate their relation to geomorphological changes. Offshore sea level is one of the main drivers of water level fluctuations in semienclosed back-barrier bays. We analyzed observed water levels (October 2007 to November 2015) and developed analytical models to better understand bay water level along southern Long Island. An increase (∼0.02 m change in 0.17 m amplitude) in the dominant M2 tidal amplitude (containing the largest fraction of the variability) was observed in Great South Bay during mid-2014. The observed changes in both tidal amplitude and bay water level transfer from offshore were related to the dredging of nearby inlets and possibly the changing size of a breach across Fire Island caused by Hurricane Sandy (after December 2012). The bay response was independent of the magnitude of the fluctuations (e.g., storms) at a specific frequency. An analytical model that incorporates bay and inlet dimensions reproduced the observed transfer function in Great South Bay and surrounding areas. The model predicts the transfer function in Moriches and Shinnecock bays where long-term observations were not available. The model is a simplified tool to investigate changes in bay water level and enables the evaluation of future conditions and alternative geomorphological settings.

  15. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material... ........................ 9 THE RICHARDS BAY PIPELINE ........................................ 16 Environmental considerations ................................... 16 - Phosphogypsum disposal ................................... 16 - Effects of fluoride on locally occurring...

  16. Bayes and Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, F.

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation consists of research in three subjects in two themes—Bayes and networks: The first studies the posterior contraction rates for the Dirichlet-Laplace mixtures in a deconvolution setting (Chapter 1). The second subject regards the statistical inference in preferential attachment

  17. 33 CFR 165.757 - Safety Zones; Ports of Ponce, Tallaboa, and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico and Limetree Bay, St. Croix...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Tallaboa, and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico and Limetree Bay, St. Croix, U.S.V.I. 165.757 Section 165.757... Guayanilla, Puerto Rico and Limetree Bay, St. Croix, U.S.V.I. (a) Location. The following areas are... Bay, St. Croix, U.S.V.I. A 100-yard radius surrounding all Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG) vessels with...

  18. 75 FR 54771 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Bay, Chesapeake Bay, Buckroe Beach Park, Hampton, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... navigable waters of the Chesapeake Bay within the area bounded by a 210-foot radius circle centered on... are technical standards (e.g., specifications of materials, performance, design, or operation; test... cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. This rule is categorically excluded, under...

  19. Sustainable development in the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of projects planned for the James Bay/Hudson Bay region, and the expected environmental impacts of these projects. The watershed of James Bay and Hudson Bay covers well over one third of Canada, from southern Alberta to central Ontario to Baffin Island, as well as parts of north Dakota and Minnesota in the U.S.A. Hydroelectric power developments that change the timing and rate of flow of fresh water may cause changes in the nature and duration of ice cover, habitats of marine mammals, fish and migratory birds, currents into and out of Hudson Bay/James Bay, seasonal and annual loads of sediments and nutrients to marine ecosystems, and anadromous fish populations. Hydroelectric projects are proposed for the region by Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. In January 1992, the Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (CARC), the Environmental Committee of Sanikuluaq, and the Rawson Academy of Arctic Science will launch the Hudson Bay/James Bay Bioregion Program, an independent initiative to apply an ecosystem approach to the region. Two main objectives are to provide a comprehensive assessment of the cumulative impacts of human activities on the marine and freshwater ecosystems of the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion, and to foster sustainable development by examining and proposing cooperative processes for decision making among governments, developers, aboriginal peoples and other stakeholders. 1 fig

  20. NUMERICAL MODELS AS TOOLS TO UNDERSTAND THE DYNAMICS IN BAYS: CASE OF STUDY CHETUMAL BAY, QUINTANA ROO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Avalos-Cueva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study performed the simulation of currents generated by the wind on the Bay of Chetumal, Quintana Roo through the use of a stationary shallow-water model. A homogeneous climatic wind was used for the entire Bay, with a velocity of 3m·s-1 , and directions North, South, Northeast, Northwest, East, Southeast, Southwest and West. The results showed a rather complex dynamics in Chetumal Bay, in which important turns were observed in deep areas, with speeds reaching up to 13 cm·s-1 .

  1. New technological developments provide deep-sea sediment density flow insights: the Monterey Coordinated Canyon Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, T. C.; Kieft, B.; Chaffey, M. R.; Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Herlien, R.; Bird, L.; Klimov, D.; Paull, C. K.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Caress, D. W.; Sumner, E. J.; Simmons, S.; Parsons, D. R.; Talling, P.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Xu, J.; Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Monterey Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE) deployed an array of instruments along the Monterey Canyon floor to characterize the structure, velocity and frequency of sediment flows. CCE utilized novel technologies developed at MBARI to capture sediment flow data in unprecedented detail. 1. The Seafloor Instrument Node (SIN) at 1850 meters depth housed 3 ADCPs at 3 different frequencies, CTD, current meter, oxygen optode, fluorometer/backscatter sensor, and logged data at 10 second intervals or faster. The SIN included an acoustic modem for communication with shore through a Wave Glider relay, and provided high-resolution measurements of three flow events during three successive deployments over 1.5 years. 2. Beachball-sized Benthic Event Detectors (BEDs) were deployed on or under the seafloor to measure the characteristics of sediment density flows. Each BED recorded data from a pressure sensor and a 3-axis accelerometer and gyro to characterize motions during transport events (e.g. tumble vs rotation). An acoustic modem capable of operating through more than a meter of sediment enabled communications with a ship or autonomous surface vehicle. Multiple BEDs were deployed at various depths in the canyon during CCE, detecting and measuring many transport events; one BED moved 9 km down canyon in 50 minutes during one event. 3. Wave Glider Hot Spot (HS), equipped with acoustic and RF modems, acted as data relay between SIN, BEDs and shore, and acoustically located BEDs after sediment density flows.. In some cases HS relayed BED motion data to shore within a few hours of the event. HS provided an acoustic console to the SIN, allowing shore-based users to check SIN health and status, perform maintenance, etc. 4. Mapping operations were conducted 4 times at the SIN site to quantify depositional and erosional patterns, utilizing a prototype ultra-high-resolution mapping system on the ROV Doc Ricketts. The system consists of a 400-kHz Reson 7125 multibeam sonar, a 3

  2. Teaching Sustainability and Resource Management Using NOAA's Voices Of The Bay Community Fisheries Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hams, J. E.; Uttal, L.; Hunter-Thomson, K.; Nachbar, S.

    2010-12-01

    that the lab was more enjoyable than the typical lab exercises and the hands-on nature of the activity made the concept of sustainable fishing more real to them. The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries and the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary sponsor professional development workshops to selected faculty to introduce the VOICES OF THE BAY fisheries education curriculum and assist with implementation in the classroom. Classroom materials are also available on the website http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/education/voicesofthebay.html or by contacting voicesofthebay@noaa.gov.

  3. Assessment for water quality by artificial neural network in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, artificial neural network such as a self-organizing map (SOM) was used to assess for the effects caused by climate change and human activities on the water quality in Daya Bay, South China Sea. SOM has identified the anthropogenic effects and seasonal characters of water quality. SOM grouped the four seasons as four groups (winter, spring, summer and autumn). The Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to the next April and southwesterly from May to September have also an important influence on the water quality in Daya Bay. Spatial pattern is mainly related to anthropogenic activities and hydrodynamics conditions. In spatial characteristics, the water quality in Daya Bay was divided into two groups by chemometrics. The monitoring stations (S3, S8, S10 and S11) were in these area (Dapeng Ao, Aotou Harbor) and northeast parts of Daya Bay, which are areas of human activity. The thermal pollution has been observed near water body in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (S5). The rest of the monitoring sites were in the south, central and eastern parts of Daya Bay, which are areas that experience water exchanges from South China Sea. The results of this study may provide information on the spatial and temporal patterns in Daya Bay. Further research will be carry out more research concerning functional changes in the bay ecology with respect to changes in climatic factor, human activities and bay morphology in Daya Bay.

  4. Seafloor geomorphology of western Antarctic Peninsula bays: a signature of ice flow behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Munoz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glacial geomorphology is used in Antarctica to reconstruct ice advance during the Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent retreat across the continental shelf. Analogous geomorphic assemblages are found in glaciated fjords and are used to interpret the glacial history and glacial dynamics in those areas. In addition, understanding the distribution of submarine landforms in bays and the local controls exerted on ice flow can help improve numerical models by providing constraints through these drainage areas. We present multibeam swath bathymetry from several bays in the South Shetland Islands and the western Antarctic Peninsula. The submarine landforms are described and interpreted in detail. A schematic model was developed showing the features found in the bays: from glacial lineations and moraines in the inner bay to grounding zone wedges and drumlinoid features in the middle bay and streamlined features and meltwater channels in the outer bay areas. In addition, we analysed local variables in the bays and observed the following: (1 the number of landforms found in the bays scales to the size of the bay, but the geometry of the bays dictates the types of features that form; specifically, we observe a correlation between the bay width and the number of transverse features present in the bays. (2 The smaller seafloor features are present only in the smaller glacial systems, indicating that short-lived atmospheric and oceanographic fluctuations, responsible for the formation of these landforms, are only recorded in these smaller systems. (3 Meltwater channels are abundant on the seafloor, but some are subglacial, carved in bedrock, and some are modern erosional features, carved on soft sediment. Lastly, based on geomorphological evidence, we propose the features found in some of the proximal bay areas were formed during a recent glacial advance, likely the Little Ice Age.

  5. Seafloor geomorphology of western Antarctic Peninsula bays: a signature of ice flow behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Yuribia P.; Wellner, Julia S.

    2018-01-01

    Glacial geomorphology is used in Antarctica to reconstruct ice advance during the Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent retreat across the continental shelf. Analogous geomorphic assemblages are found in glaciated fjords and are used to interpret the glacial history and glacial dynamics in those areas. In addition, understanding the distribution of submarine landforms in bays and the local controls exerted on ice flow can help improve numerical models by providing constraints through these drainage areas. We present multibeam swath bathymetry from several bays in the South Shetland Islands and the western Antarctic Peninsula. The submarine landforms are described and interpreted in detail. A schematic model was developed showing the features found in the bays: from glacial lineations and moraines in the inner bay to grounding zone wedges and drumlinoid features in the middle bay and streamlined features and meltwater channels in the outer bay areas. In addition, we analysed local variables in the bays and observed the following: (1) the number of landforms found in the bays scales to the size of the bay, but the geometry of the bays dictates the types of features that form; specifically, we observe a correlation between the bay width and the number of transverse features present in the bays. (2) The smaller seafloor features are present only in the smaller glacial systems, indicating that short-lived atmospheric and oceanographic fluctuations, responsible for the formation of these landforms, are only recorded in these smaller systems. (3) Meltwater channels are abundant on the seafloor, but some are subglacial, carved in bedrock, and some are modern erosional features, carved on soft sediment. Lastly, based on geomorphological evidence, we propose the features found in some of the proximal bay areas were formed during a recent glacial advance, likely the Little Ice Age.

  6. Eutrophication influence on phytoplankton community composition in three bays on the eastern Adriatic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Bužančić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the influence of eutrophication pressure on the phytoplankton community structure, abundance and biodiversity in the investigated bays with different hydromorphological features. Šibenik Bay is a highly stratified estuary of the karstic river Krka; Kaštela Bay is a semi-enclosed coastal bay, which is influenced by the relatively small river Jadro; and Mali Ston Bay is located at the Neretva River estuary, the largest river on the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea. All of the areas are affected by urban pressure, which is reflected in the trophic status of the waters. The greatest anthropogenic influence was found in Kaštela Bay while the lowest influence was found in Mali Ston Bay. In this study, the highest biomass concentration and maximum abundance of phytoplankton were recorded at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence. Those stations show a dominance of abundance compared to the biomass and a dominance of opportunistic species, which is reflected in the lower biodiversity of phytoplankton community. Diatoms were the most represented group of the phytoplankton community in all three bays, followed by the dinoflagellates. Diatoms that were highlighted as significant for the difference between the bays were Skeletonema marinoi in Šibenik Bay, Leptocylindrus minimus in Kaštela Bay and the genus Chaetoceros spp. in Mali Ston Bay. Dinoflagellates were more abundant at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence, and most significant were Prorocentrum triestinum in Kaštela Bay and Gymnodinium spp. in Šibenik Bay and Mali Ston Bay.

  7. Sediment Characterization in St. Alban's Bay, VT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethercutt, S.; Manley, T.; Manley, P.

    2017-12-01

    St. Alban's Bay within Lake Champlain is plagued with harmful algal blooms. With future intensification due to climate change, a multidisciplinary program (BREE-Basin Resilience to Extreme Events) was initiated in 2016. In order to assess the mobilization of harmful nutrients from sediment resuspension events and riverine input, 74 sediment samples were collected in a grid fashion throughout St. Alban's Bay. Sediments were deflocculated and analyzed using a LA920 Horiba laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer to define the frequency of sediment sizes from clay to sand. Gridded surfaces of mean sortable silt percentage, silt percentage, sand percentage, and clay percentage were used to represent the sediment distribution of the region. A plot of diameter versus frequency showed the bimodal nature of some of the sediments, with one peak at about 10 microns diameter (silt) and the second at about 525 microns diameter (sand). The data showed an extremely low percentage of clay relative to that of sand and silt. The highest frequencies of sortable silt, which represents the most easily mobilized particle size, are found in the deepest areas of the bay, suggesting that these regions are where dominant bottom flow occurs. The high occurrence of sortable silt in the St. Alban's Bay does suggest that sediment mobilization, and therefore nutrient mobilization has the potential to occur. These data combined with high-resolution multibeam and hydrodynamic data will allow for future models of water flow and remobilization studies in the future.

  8. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2006-06-30

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  9. USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-02-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper

  10. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-09-29

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  11. Small hydro-electric potential west Poverty Bay region. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    This study has identified six schemes in the Bay of Plenty Electric Power Board area and two in the Poverty Bay Electric Power Board area, of which five and one respectively are below the economic limit of $2400/kW suggested by the Ministry of Works and Development as of December 1979. Of these, only three appear both economic and environmentally acceptable.

  12. Water quality of Tampa Bay, Florida, June 1972-May 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Carole L.; Goodwin, Carl R.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the water quality of Tampa Bay, Florida, was initiated in 1970 to provide background information to evaluate the effects of widening and deepening the ship channel to the port of Tampa. This report provides results of water-quality sampling in the bay from 1972 to 1976, prior to dredging. Measurements of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, specific conductance, biochemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon were made as well as measurements for several nutrient, metal, and pesticide parameters. Many parameters were measured at as many as three points in the vertical. These data indicate that Tampa Bay is well-mixed vertically with little density stratification. Time histories of average temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, specific conductance and nutrient values within four subareas of Tampa Bay are given to reveal seasonal or other trends during the period of record. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, specific conductance, nutrient, biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and metal data are also presented as areal distributions. Nutrient concentrations were generally higher in Hillsborough Bay than in other sub-areas of Tampa Bay. Biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and total organic nitrogen distribution patterns show regions of highest concentrations to be along bay shorelines near population centers. Of the metals analyzed, all were present in concentrations of less than 1 milligram per liter. (USGS)

  13. Studies of movement of sediments in Santos bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, J.V.; Aun, P.E.; Bomtempo, V.L.; Salim, L.H.; Minardi, P.S.P.; Santos, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the years of 1973, 74, 80, 81 and 85 several studies were performed at Santos bay, using radioactive tracers, with the following main objectives: to evaluate the behaviour (on the bottom and in suspension) of the mixture of silt and clay which is dredged from the estuary and from its access channel and dumped at pre-determined sites, in the bay and surrounding regions, with the objective of optimizing dredging disposal operations; to quantify the movement of sandy sediments on the bottom, in 3 areas of the bay, in summer and winter conditions, to obtain pertinent information related to the siltation of the access channel. As results of these studies, it was found that: the ancient dumping site, near Itaipu Point, in the western limit of the bay, was inadequate, since the material could return to the bay and to the estuary. The dumping site was moved to a region at the south of Moela Island, located eastwards relative to the bay, which brought substantial economies in dredging works; the bottom sediment transport was quantified, following clouds of tagged materials for about 8 months, thus obtaining important conclusions about transport rates in different regions of the bay. An analysis of the intervening hydrodynamic agents is also presented. (author) (L.J.C.)

  14. Moisture Adsorption and Thermodynamic Properties of California Grown Almonds (Varieties: Nonpareil and Monterey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zuo Taitano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moisture adsorption characteristics of California grown almonds (Nonpareil: pasteurized and unpasteurized almonds; Monterey: pasteurized, unpasteurized and blanched almonds were obtained using the gravimetric method over a range of water activities from 0.11 to 0.98 at 7-50ºC. The weights of almonds were measured until samples reached a constant weight. The relationship between equilibrium moisture content and water activity was established using the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer model. The diffusion coefficient of water in almond kernels was calculated based on Ficks second law. The monolayer moisture value of almonds ranged from 0.020 to 0.035 kg H2O kg-1 solids. The diffusion coefficient increased with temperature at a constant water activity, and decreased with water activity at a constant temperature. The thermodynamic properties (net isosteric heat, differential enthalpy and entropy were also determined. The net isosteric heat of adsorption decreased with the increasing moisture content, and the plot of differential enthalpy versus entropy satisfied the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. The adsorption process of almond samples was enthalpy driven over the range of studied moisture contents.

  15. Triggering of frequent turbidity currents in Monterey Canyon and the role of antecedent conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, M. A.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Talling, P.; Barry, J.; Maier, K. L.; Parsons, D. R.; Simmons, S.; Gales, J. A.; Gwiazda, R.; McGann, M.; Paull, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents pose a hazard to seafloor infrastructure, deliver organic carbon and nutrients to deep-sea communities, and form economically important deposits. Thus, determining the tempo of turbidity current activity and whether different triggers result in different flow modes is important. Identification of specific triggers is challenging, however, because most studies of turbidity currents are based on their deposits. New direct monitoring of flows and environmental conditions provides the necessary temporal constraints to identify triggering mechanisms. The Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE) in Monterey Canyon, offshore California is the most ambitious attempt yet to measure turbidity flows and their triggers. The CCE provides precise constraint on flow timing, initiation, and potential triggers based on measurements at 7 different instrumented moorings and 2 metocean buoys. Fifteen turbidity flows were measured in 18 months; with recorded velocities >8 m/s and run-outs of up to 50 km. Presence of live estuarine foraminifera within moored sediment traps suggests that that flows originated in water depths of Turbidity currents are thought to be triggered by processes including earthquakes, river floods and storm waves. Here we analyse seismicity, local river discharge, internal tides, wave height, direction and period data. We identify no clear control of any of these individual variables on flow timing. None of the recorded earthquakes (

  16. Effects of pruning in Monterey pine plantations affected by Fusarium circinatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezos, D.; Lomba, J. M.; Martinez-Alvarez, P.; Fernandez, M.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O'Donnell (1998) is the causal agent of Pitch Canker Disease (PCD) in Pinus species, producing damage to the main trunk and lateral branches as well as causing branch dieback. The disease has been detected recently in northern Spain in Pinus spp. seedlings at nurseries and in Pinus radiata D. Don adult trees in plantations. Fusarium circinatum seems to require a wound to enter the tree, not only that as caused by insects but also that resulting from damage by humans, i.e. mechanical wounds. However, the effects of pruning on the infection process have yet to be studied. The aim of the present study was to know how the presence of mechanical damage caused by pruning affects PCD occurrence and severity in P. radiata plantations. Fifty P. radiata plots (pruned and unpruned) distributed throughout 16 sites affected by F. circinatum in the Cantabria region (northern Spain) were studied. Symptoms of PCD presence, such as dieback, oozing cankers and trunk deformation were evaluated in 25 trees per plot and related to pruning effect. A significant relationship between pruning and the number of cankers per tree was observed, concluding that wounds caused by pruning increase the chance of pathogen infection. Other trunk symptoms, such as the presence of resin outside the cankers, were also higher in pruned plots. These results should be taken into account for future management of Monterey Pine plantations. (Author) 36 refs.

  17. Sediment concentrations, flow conditions, and downstream evolution of two turbidity currents, Monterey Canyon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingping; Octavio E. Sequeiros,; Noble, Marlene A.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of turbidity currents to carry sand and coarser sediment from shallow to deep regions in the submarine environment has attracted the attention of researchers from different disciplines. Yet not only are field measurements of oceanic turbidity currents a rare achievement, but also the data that have been collected consist mostly of velocity records with very limited or no suspended sediment concentration or grain size distribution data. This work focuses on two turbidity currents measured in Monterey Canyon in 2002 with emphasis on suspended sediment from unique samples collected within the body of these currents. It is shown that concentration and grain size of the suspended material, primarily controlled by the source of the gravity flows and their interaction with bed material, play a significant role in shaping the characteristics of the turbidity currents as they travel down the canyon. Before the flows reach their normal or quasi-steady state, which is defined by bed slope, bed roughness, and suspended grain size, they might pass through a preliminary adjustment stage where they are subject to capacity-driven deposition, and release heavy material in excess. Flows composed of fine (silt/clay) sediments tend to be thicker than those with sands. The measured velocity and concentration data confirm that flow patterns differ between the front and body of turbidity currents and that, even after reaching normal state, the flow regime can be radically disrupted by abrupt changes in canyon morphology.

  18. 137Cs and 210Pb distribution in Manila Bay sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sta. Maria, Efren J.; Madrid, Jordan F.; Olivares, Ryan U.; Bulos, Adelina DM; Dayaon, Jennyvi P.; Asa, Anie Day DC; Sombrito, Elvira Z.

    2011-01-01

    Two radionuclides were measured in surface sediment samples taken from geographically distributed sections of Manila Bay, namely cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and lead-210 ( 210 Pb). Results indicated a noticeable change in the radioactivity concentration levels in sediments collected in 2005 and 2010, with a median concentration of 1.0 and 2.64 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Higher levels of 137 Cs radioactivity were measured in the northern and inner portion of the bay adjacent to major river systems, agricultural and highly industrialized urban areas. 137 Cs isotope increased in activity in most of the samples especially in the northwestern areas of Bataan and Pampanga with five times more than the activity from the first sampling measurements. Nevertheless, radioactivity concentrations observed in surface sediments along the bay are within the range of radioactivity in several areas monitored in the Northern Hemisphere. The country has been frequented by tropical cyclones and storms that have caused erosion, which may have introduced elevated material input in the bay. In addition, wind-driven circulation especially in the shallower areas of the bay is a possibility for the substantial sediment movement and accumulation along this coast. Conversely, areas with higher 137 Cs have lower values of 210 Pb. In an undisturbed environment, 210 Pb deposition values are assumed nearly constant. Hence, changes in the radioactivity concentration levels of these radionuclides can be an indicator of pollution input from land-based sources, sediment movement and reworking in the coastal areas. At present, there is very limited information on the radioactivity level of various radioisotopes in Manila Bay.The data obtained are benchmark values against which changes that will be occurring in the bay can be assessed. (author)

  19. Timber resource statistics for the central coast resource area of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1996-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Central Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Monterey, San Benito, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, and Ventura Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multi-resource inventory. The inventory...

  20. Holocene evolution of Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, L.E.; Twichell, D.C.; Poore, R.Z.

    2009-01-01

    A program of geophysical mapping and vibracoring was conducted to better understand the geologic evolution of Apalachicola Bay. Analyses of the geophysical data and sediment cores along with age control provided by 34 AMS 14C dates on marine shells and wood reveal the following history. As sea level rose in the early Holocene, fluvial deposits filled the Apalachicola River paleochannel, which extended southward under the central part of the bay and seaward across the continental shelf. Sediments to either side of the paleochannel contain abundant wood fragments, with dates documenting that those areas were forested at 8,000 14C years b.p. As sea level continued to rise, spits formed of headland prodelta deposits. Between ???6,400 and ???2,500 14C years b.p., an Apalachicola prodelta prograded and receded several times across the inner shelf that underlies the western part of the bay. An eastern deltaic lobe was active for a shorter time, between ???5,800 and 5,100 14C years b.p. Estuarine benthic foraminiferal assemblages occurred in the western bay as early as 6,400 14C years b.p., and indicate that there was some physical barrier to open-ocean circulation and shelf species established by that time. It is considered that shoals formed in the region of the present barrier islands as the rising sea flooded an interstream divide. Estuarine conditions were established very early in the post-glacial flooding of the bay. ?? 2009 US Government.

  1. Stereo photo series for quantifying natural fuels.Volume XIII: grasslands, shrublands, oak-bay woodlands, and eucalyptus forests in the East Bay of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton S. Wright; Robert E. Vihnanek

    2014-01-01

    Four series of photographs display a range of natural conditions and fuel loadings for grassland, shrubland, oak-bay woodland, and eucalyptus forest ecosystems on the eastern slopes of the San Francisco Bay area of California. Each group of photos includes inventory information summarizing vegetation composition, structure, and loading; woody material loading and...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1187 Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the... Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, in San Francisco Bay, California. (b... siren, radio, flashing light, or other means, the operator of a vessel shall proceed as directed. [COTP...

  3. Social and environmental impacts of the James Bay hydroelectric project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornig, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The book, which is an analysis and not an advocacy, examines the anatomy of the controversy that has swirled around the James Bay project - the La Grande and Great Whale projects combined - from the 1970s to the 1990s, and seeks, in the process, to determine whether there are lessons that can be learned from such an analysis that are applicable to other cases as well as to James Bay itself. The contributors are interested, at one and the same time, in finding ways to integrate the knowledge of natural scientists and social scientists to deepen the understanding of human/environment relations and to link science and policy to encourage a productive dialogue between practitioners and scholars in this increasingly important area of inquiry. The contributor's papers include the following: introduction to the issues; hydroelectric power development at James Bay: establishing a frame of reference; James Bay: environmental considerations for building large hydroelectric dams and reservoirs in Quebec; elevated mercury in fish as a result of the James Bay hydroelectric power development: perception and reality; the Cree people of James Bay: assessing the social impacts of hydroelectric dams and reservoirs; culture, social change, and Cree opposition to the James Bay hydroelectric development; and the impact of James Bay hydroelectric development on the art and craft of the James Bay Cree. The authors of the volume have attempted to stand back and examine just a few of these issues from the perspective of a variety of disciplines, and their purpose is to inform and stimulate thoughtful consideration by providing an overall perspective that might might serve to broaden the context in which specific issues can be debated. refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  4. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  5. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  6. Defining a data management strategy for USGS Chesapeake Bay studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    The mission of U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Chesapeake Bay studies is to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Collective USGS efforts in the Chesapeake Bay watershed began in the 1980s, and by the mid-1990s the USGS adopted the watershed as one of its national place-based study areas. Great focus and effort by the USGS have been directed toward Chesapeake Bay studies for almost three decades. The USGS plays a key role in using “ecosystem-based adaptive management, which will provide science to improve the efficiency and accountability of Chesapeake Bay Program activities” (Phillips, 2011). Each year USGS Chesapeake Bay studies produce published research, monitoring data, and models addressing aspects of bay restoration such as, but not limited to, fish health, water quality, land-cover change, and habitat loss. The USGS is responsible for collaborating and sharing this information with other Federal agencies and partners as described under the President’s Executive Order 13508—Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed signed by President Obama in 2009. Historically, the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies have relied on national USGS databases to store only major nationally available sources of data such as streamflow and water-quality data collected through local monitoring programs and projects, leaving a multitude of other important project data out of the data management process. This practice has led to inefficient methods of finding Chesapeake Bay studies data and underutilization of data resources. Data management by definition is “the business functions that develop and execute plans, policies, practices and projects that acquire, control, protect, deliver and enhance the value of data and information.” (Mosley, 2008a). In other words, data management is a way to preserve, integrate, and share data to address the needs of the Chesapeake Bay studies to better

  7. Humic Substances from Manila Bay and Bolinao Bay Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Llaguno

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The C,H,N composition of sedimentary humic acids (HA extracted from three sites in Manila Bay and six sites in Bolinao Bay yielded H/C atomic ratios of 1.1-1.4 and N/C atomic ratios of 0.09 - 0.16. The Manila Bay HA's had lower H/C and N/C ratios compared to those from Bolinao Bay. The IR spectra showed prominent aliphatic C-H and amide I and II bands. Manila Bay HA's also had less diverse molecular composition based on the GC-MS analysis of the CuO and alkaline permanganate oxidation products of the humic acids.

  8. Derivation of Delaware Bay tidal parameters from space shuttle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Quanan; Yan, Xiaohai; Klemas, V.

    1993-01-01

    The tide-related parameters of the Delaware Bay are derived from space shuttle time-series photographs. The water areas in the bay are measured from interpretation maps of the photographs with a CALCOMP 9100 digitizer and ERDAS Image Processing System. The corresponding tidal levels are calculated using the exposure time annotated on the photographs. From these data, an approximate function relating the water area to the tidal level at a reference point is determined. Based on the function, the water areas of the Delaware Bay at mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW), below 0 m, and for the tidal zone are inferred. With MHW and MLW areas and the mean tidal range, the authors calculate the tidal influx of the Delaware Bay, which is 2.76 x 1O 9 m 3 . Furthermore, the velocity of flood tide at the bay mouth is determined using the tidal flux and an integral of the velocity distribution function at the cross section between Cape Henlopen and Cape May. The result is 132 cm/s, which compares well with the data on tidal current charts

  9. Evolution and Submarine Landslide Potential of Monterey Canyon Head, Offshore Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, K. L.; Johnson, S. Y.; Hart, P. E.; Hartwell, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    Monterey Canyon, offshore central California, incises the shelf from near the shoreline to 30 km seaward where axial water depths approach 2,000 m. It is one of the world's most studied submarine canyons, yet debate continues concerning its age, formation, and associated geologic hazards. To address these issues, the USGS, with partial support from the California Seafloor Mapping Program, collected hundreds of kilometers of high-resolution, mini-sparker, single-channel (2009 and 2011 surveys) and multichannel (2015 survey) seismic-reflection profiles near the canyon head. The seismic data were combined with multibeam bathymetry to generate a geologic map of the proximal canyon, which delineates numerous faults and compound submarine landslide headwall scarps (covering up to 4 km2) along canyon walls. Seismic-reflection data reveal a massive ( 100 km2 lateral extent) paleochannel cut-and-fill complex underlying the proximal canyon. These subsurface cut-and-fill deposits span both sides of the relatively narrow modern canyon head, crop out in canyon walls, and incise into Purisima Formation (late Miocene and Pliocene) bedrock to depths of up to 0.3 s two-way travel time ( 240 m) below the modern shelf. We propose that the paleochannel complex represents previous locations of a migrating canyon head, and attribute its origin to multiple alternating cycles of fluvial and submarine canyon erosion and deposition linked to fluctuating sea levels. Thus, the canyon head imaged in modern bathymetry is a relatively young feature, perhaps forming in the last 20,000 years of sea-level rise. The paleocanyon deposits are significantly less consolidated than bedrock in deeper canyon walls, and therefore, are probably more prone to submarine landsliding. Nearby mapped faults occur within the active, distributed, San Andreas fault system, and earthquake-generated strong ground motions are likely triggers for past and future submarine landslides and potential associated tsunamis.

  10. Repeat Mapping in the Lower Monterey Submarine Canyon Sheds Light on Morphological Change During Discrete Sediment Density Flow Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K.; Lundsten, E. M.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.; Paull, C. K.; Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.; Gwiazda, R.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.; Parsons, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE), a multi-institutional collaboration effort, was designed to monitor the passage of sediment density flows along the axis of Monterey Canyon, offshore California, between 200 and 1850 m water depth. An array of moorings and sensors were deployed for three 6-month periods from October 2015 to April 2017. Aligned with the CCE deployments, repeat high-resolution multibeam bathymetric surveys of the Monterey Canyon floor were conducted with a mapping AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle). The AUV carried a Reson 7125 multibeam echosounder (vertical precision of 0.15 m and horizontal resolution of 1.0 m). An inertial navigation system combined with a Doppler velocity logger allowed the AUV to fly pre-programmed grids at 3 knots, while maintaining an altitude of 50 m above the seafloor, to obtain a nominal line spacing of 130 m. The floor and lower flanks of the canyon between 200 to 540 m and 1350 to 1880 m water depths were mapped six times during the CCE. These repeat maps are subtracted to create bathymetry difference grids to show morphological change. Coupling the sensor observations with the bathymetric surveys, the CCE successfully documented sediment density flow events as well as the associated changes in seafloor morphology. Between repeat surveys, three sediment density flow events reached the lower canyon, extending to at least 1850 m water depth. On January 15, 2016, a particularly large density flow traveled more than 50 km down Monterey Canyon. Unlike in the upper canyon where this event caused wholesale reorganization of geomorphological features, changes to the lower canyon morphology involved a more moderate re-sculpting of the features. The effect of a sediment density flow of known magnitude and duration on the seafloor morphology has never been documented in a deep-sea setting before.

  11. Measuring Macrobenthos Biodiversity at Oyster Aquaculture Sites in the Delaware Inland Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, M. J.; Ozbay, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Delaware Inland Bays consists of three shallow coastal bays located in the southern portion of Delaware. Anthropogenic activities have led to the degradation of water quality, because the bays are surrounded by highly developed areas and have low flushing rates. This results in loss of biodiversity and abundance of organisms. Ongoing degradation of the bays has led to a dramatic decline in local oyster populations since the late 1800s. Oysters are keystone species, which provide habitats for organisms and help to improve water quality. This study aims to find if the introduction of oyster aquaculture improves local biodiversity and abundance of macrobenthos. The study was conducted in Rehoboth Bay, Indian River Bay and Little Assawoman Bay. Aquaculture gear was placed at one location in each of the bays and 24 sediment core samples were taken once a month. From these core samples all worms were fixed and stained in a 10% Formalin Rose Bengal solution and preserved in 70% Ethanol for later identification. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of oyster tissue will also be performed to assess the health of the bay. The goals of this research are to better understand the role of oyster aquaculture in restoring the viability and health of the Delaware Inland Bays.

  12. Variation of phytoplankton biomass and primary production in Daya Bay during spring and summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xingyu; Huang Liangmin; Zhang Jianlin; Huang, Xiaoping; Zhang Junbin; Yin Jianqiang; Tan Yehui; Liu Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Environmental factors, phytoplankton biomass (Chl a) and primary production of two water areas in Daya Bay (Dapeng'ao Bay and Aotou Bay) were investigated during the transition period from spring to summer. Chl a ranged from 3.20 to 13.62 and 13.43 to 26.49 mg m -3 in Dapeng'ao Bay and Aotou Bay respectively, if data obtained during red tides are excluded. Primary production varied between 239.7 and 1001.4 mgC m -2 d -1 in Dapeng'ao Bay. The regional distribution of Chl a and primary production were mostly consistent from spring to summer in both bays. Seasonal transition characters have been found in Daya Bay from spring to summer, including high values of DO, nitrate and silicate. Size structures of phytoplankton and its primary production do not change very much from spring to summer, with micro-phytoplankton dominating and contributing about 50% of the whole. In Daya Bay, phytoplankton is limited by nitrogen in spring, and by phosphate in summer. Artificial impacts are evident from high temperature effluent from nuclear power stations, aquaculture and sewage. During the investigation, a red tide occurred in Aotou Bay, with a maximum Chl a of 103.23 mg m -3 at surface and primary production of 2721.9 mgC m -2 d -1 in the red tide center. Raised water temperature and nutrient supply from land-sources help to stimulate annual red tides

  13. A Geographical Information System to Manage the Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Marine Protected Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, K. L.; Hillier, M. C. J.; Thornborough, K. J.; Jenkyns, R.; Juniper, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Marine Protected Area (EHVMPA) is located approximately 250 km offshore of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Since its discovery in 1982, there have been hundreds of dives, samples collected, measurements made, and debris left behind at the EHVMPA. In 2003, the Canadian government declared the region as a Marine Protected Area (MPA) under Canada's Oceans Act, to be managed by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO). Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) operates a cabled observatory in the EHVMPA, and streams data in near real-time via the Internet to science communities worldwide. ONC's observatory data, combined with observations made during maintenance expeditions provides insight assisting the management and preservation of the MPA. In 2014, DFO partnered with ONC to build a geodatabase to enhance and inform the knowledge base of the EHVMPA Management Plan. The geodatabase, built in ArcGIS, contains data integrated from ONC's Oceans 2.0 database, third parties, and relevant publications. Layers include annual observatory infrastructure deployments, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dive tracks, sampling activity, anthropogenic debris, high-resolution bathymetry, observations of species of interest, and locations of hydrothermal vents. The combined data show both efforts to better understand the environment and the resulting stressors that impact the MPA. The tool also links observed features such as debris and biological observations to the time-correlated ROV dive video using ONC's SeaTube video viewing tool allowing for further analysis. Through 2017, the geodatabase will be maintained by ONC and enriched with expedition data from organizations such as Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, and the University of Washington. The end result is a tool that can integrate many types of data obtained from the MPA, and encourages systematic management of a remote, dynamic and fragile environment.

  14. Topobathymetric model of Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Brock, John C.; Howard, Daniel M.; Gesch, Dean B.; Bonisteel-Cormier, Jamie M.; Travers, Laurinda J.

    2013-01-01

    Topobathymetric Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are a merged rendering of both topography (land elevation) and bathymetry (water depth) that provides a seamless elevation product useful for inundation mapping, as well as for other earth science applications, such as the development of sediment-transport, sea-level rise, and storm-surge models. This 1/9-arc-second (approximately 3 meters) resolution model of Mobile Bay, Alabama was developed using multiple topographic and bathymetric datasets, collected on different dates. The topographic data were obtained primarily from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (NED) (http://ned.usgs.gov/) at 1/9-arc-second resolution; USGS Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data (2 meters) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/400/); and topographic lidar data (2 meters) and Compact Hydrographic Airborne Rapid Total Survey (CHARTS) lidar data (2 meters) from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) (http://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/data/coastallidar/). Bathymetry was derived from digital soundings obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geodas/geodas.html) and from water-penetrating lidar sources, such as EAARL and CHARTS. Mobile Bay is ecologically important as it is the fourth largest estuary in the United States. The Mobile and Tensaw Rivers drain into the bay at the northern end with the bay emptying into the Gulf of Mexico at the southern end. Dauphin Island (a barrier island) and the Fort Morgan Peninsula form the mouth of Mobile Bay. Mobile Bay is 31 miles (50 kilometers) long by a maximum width of 24 miles (39 kilometers) with a total area of 413 square miles (1,070 square kilometers). The vertical datum of the Mobile Bay topobathymetric model is the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). All the topographic datasets were originally referenced to NAVD 88 and no transformations

  15. The dynamics of İzmir Bay under the effects of wind and thermohaline forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayın, Erdem; Eronat, Canan

    2018-04-01

    The dominant circulation pattern of İzmir Bay on the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey is studied taking into consideration the influence of wind and thermohaline forces. İzmir Bay is discussed by subdividing the bay into outer, middle and inner areas. Wind is the most important driving force in the İzmir coastal area. There are also thermohaline forces due to the existence of water types of different physical properties in the bay. In contrast to the two-layer stratification during summer, a homogeneous water column exists in winter. The free surface version of the Princeton model (Killworth's 3-D general circulation model) is applied, with the input data obtained through the measurements made by the research vessel K. Piri Reis. As a result of the simulations with artificial wind, the strong consistent wind generates circulation patterns independent of the seasonal stratification in the bay. Wind-driven circulation causes cyclonic or anticyclonic movements in the middle bay where the distinct İzmir Bay Water (IBW) forms. Cyclonic movement takes place under the influence of southerly and westerly winds. On the other hand, northerly and easterly winds cause an anticyclonic movement in the middle bay. The outer and inner bay also have the wind-driven recirculation patterns expected.

  16. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass. 110.31 Section 110.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.31 Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at...

  17. 77 FR 65815 - Expansion of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Regulatory Changes, and Sanctuary Name...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    .... 070726412-1300-02] RIN 0648-BA24 Expansion of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Regulatory Changes, and Sanctuary Name Change; Notice of Effective Date AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries... geographical areas to the sanctuary and change the name of the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary (FBNMS or...

  18. 77 FR 60302 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag Miami, Biscayne Bay; Miami, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... received without jeopardizing the safety or security of people, places or vessels. 7. Unfunded Mandates... waters of Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL between Bayfront Park and the Intercontinental-Miami Hotel encompassed... Area. All waters of Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL between Bayfront Park and the Intercontinental-Miami Hotel...

  19. Thatcher Bay, Washington, Nearshore Restoration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breems, Joel; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Grossman, Eric E.; Elliott, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The San Juan Archipelago, located at the confluence of the Puget Sound, the Straits of Juan de Fuca in Washington State, and the Straits of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada, provides essential nearshore habitat for diverse salmonid, forage fish, and bird populations. With 408 miles of coastline, the San Juan Islands provide a significant portion of the available nearshore habitat for the greater Puget Sound and are an essential part of the regional efforts to restore Puget Sound (Puget Sound Shared Strategy 2005). The nearshore areas of the San Juan Islands provide a critical link between the terrestrial and marine environments. For this reason the focus on restoration and conservation of nearshore habitat in the San Juan Islands is of paramount importance. Wood-waste was a common by-product of historical lumber-milling operations. To date, relatively little attention has been given to the impact of historical lumber-milling operations in the San Juan Archipelago. Thatcher Bay, on Blakely Island, located near the east edge of the archipelago, is presented here as a case study on the restoration potential for a wood-waste contaminated nearshore area. Case study components include (1) a brief discussion of the history of milling operations. (2) an estimate of the location and amount of the current distribution of wood-waste at the site, (3) a preliminary examination of the impacts of wood-waste on benthic flora and fauna at the site, and (4) the presentation of several restoration alternatives for the site. The history of milling activity in Thatcher Bay began in 1879 with the construction of a mill in the southeastern part of the bay. Milling activity continued for more than 60 years, until the mill closed in 1942. Currently, the primary evidence of the historical milling operations is the presence of approximately 5,000 yd3 of wood-waste contaminated sediments. The distribution and thickness of residual wood-waste at the site was determined by using sediment

  20. Seven years of geomorphic change in the head of Monterey Canyon, CA: Steady state equilibrium or monotonic change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. P.; Kvitek, R. G.; Ross, E.; Iampietro, P.; Paull, C. K.; Sandersfeld, M.

    2010-12-01

    The head of Monterey submarine canyon has been surveyed with high-precision multibeam sonar at least once each year since September 2002. This poster provides a summary of changes between September 2002 and September 2008. Data were collected with a variety of Reson mulitbeam sonar heads, and logged with an ISIS data acquisition system. Vessel attitude was corrected using an Applanix POS MV equipped with an auxillary C-Nav 2050 GPS receiver. Data were processed and filtered and cleaned in Caris HIPS. Depth changes for various time spans were determined through raster subtraction of pairs of 3-m resolution bathymetric grids in ArcMap. The depth change analyses focused on the canyon floor, except where a landslide occurred on a wall, and where obvious gullying near the headwall had occurred during the time of our study. Canyon walls were generally excluded from analysis. The analysis area was 1,414,240 sq meters. The gross changes between 2002 and 2008 include net erosion of 2,300,000 m^3 +/- 800,000 m^3 of material from the canyon. The annualized rate of net sediment loss from this time frame agrees within an order of magnitude with our previously published estimates from earlier (shorter) time frames, so the erosion events seem to be moderate magnitude and frequent, rather than infrequent and catastrophic. The greatest sediment loss appears to be from lateral erosion of channel-bounding terraces rather than deepening or scouring of the existing channel axis. A single landslide event that occurred in summer 2003 had an initial slide scar (void) volume of 71,000 m^3. The scar was observed to increase annually, and had grown to approximately 96,000 m^3 by 2008. The initial slide was too small to be tsunamigenic. In contrast to the monotonic canyon axis widening, the shoreward terminus of the canyon (canyon lip) appears to be in steady state equilibrium with sediment supply entering the canyon from the littoral zone. The lip position, indicated by the clearly defined

  1. DEVELOP Chesapeake Bay Watershed Hydrology - UAV Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, S. D.; Baruah, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States, with a watershed extending through six states and the nation's capital. Urbanization and agriculture practices have led to an excess runoff of nutrients and sediment into the bay. Nutrients and sediment loading stimulate the growth of algal blooms associated with various problems including localized dissolved oxygen deficiencies, toxic algal blooms and death of marine life. The Chesapeake Bay Program, among other stakeholder organizations, contributes greatly to the restoration efforts of the Chesapeake Bay. These stakeholders contribute in many ways such as monitoring the water quality, leading clean-up projects, and actively restoring native habitats. The first stage of the DEVELOP Chesapeake Bay Coastal Management project, relating to water quality, contributed to the restoration efforts by introducing NASA satellite-based water quality data products to the stakeholders as a complement to their current monitoring methods. The second stage, to be initiated in the fall 2008 internship term, will focus on the impacts of land cover variability within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Multiple student led discussions with members of the Land Cover team at the Chesapeake Bay Program Office in the DEVELOP GSFC 2008 summer term uncovered the need for remote sensing data for hydrological mapping in the watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Program expressed in repeated discussions on Land Cover mapping that significant portions of upper river areas, streams, and the land directly interfacing those waters are not accurately depicted in the watershed model. Without such hydrological mapping correlated with land cover data the model will not be useful in depicting source areas of nutrient loading which has an ecological and economic impact in and around the Chesapeake Bay. The fall 2008 DEVELOP team will examine the use of UAV flown sensors in connection with in-situ and Earth Observation satellite data. To maximize the

  2. How well do basic models describe the turbidity currents coming down Monterey and Congo Canyon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartigny, M.; Simmons, S.; Heerema, C.; Xu, J. P.; Azpiroz, M.; Clare, M. A.; Cooper, C.; Gales, J. A.; Maier, K. L.; Parsons, D. R.; Paull, C. K.; Sumner, E. J.; Talling, P.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents rival rivers in their global capacity to transport sediment and organic carbon. Furthermore, turbidity currents break submarine cables that now transport >95% of our global data traffic. Accurate turbidity current models are thus needed to quantify their transport capacity and to predict the forces exerted on seafloor structures. Despite this need, existing numerical models are typically only calibrated with scaled-down laboratory measurements due to the paucity of direct measurements of field-scale turbidity currents. This lack of calibration thus leaves much uncertainty in the validity of existing models. Here we use the most detailed observations of turbidity currents yet acquired to validate one of the most fundamental models proposed for turbidity currents, the modified Chézy model. Direct measurements on which the validation is based come from two sites that feature distinctly different flow modes and grain sizes. The first are from the multi-institution Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE) in Monterey Canyon, California. An array of six moorings along the canyon axis captured at least 15 flow events that lasted up to hours. The second is the deep-sea Congo Canyon, where 10 finer grained flows were measured by a single mooring, each lasting several days. Moorings captured depth-resolved velocity and suspended sediment concentration at high resolution (turbidity currents; the modified Chézy model. This basic model has been very useful for river studies over the past 200 years, as it provides a rapid estimate of how flow velocity varies with changes in river level and energy slope. Chézy-type models assume that the gravitational force of the flow equals the friction of the river-bed. Modified Chézy models have been proposed for turbidity currents. However, the absence of detailed measurements of friction and sediment concentration within full-scale turbidity currents has forced modellers to make rough assumptions for these parameters. Here

  3. Contents of some heavy metals in plants from Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) and some small lakes in wilderness areas of Michigan's Upper Peninsula as analyzed by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.R.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jones, J.D.; Estabrook, G.F.; Ghosheh, N.S.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor; Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti

    1982-01-01

    The highest concentrations of heavy metals occured in plants collected near the mouth of the Saginaw River. The alga, Cladophora sp., and the flowering plant, Typha augustifolia (cat-tail), are notable for the high concentration of heavy metals. In addition, several other species that were sampled from small lakes in Michigan's Upper Peninsula contained higher concentrations of certain metals (Ba, Cr, Rb) than from any samples obtained from Saginaw Bay. Different organs of the same species, or of the same plant, such as cut-tail, vary widely in concentrations of the same element. A computer-derived analysis of our data is presented, and the implications of our results as they relate to pollution by heavy metals in fresh-water lakes is discussed. (author)

  4. Contents of some heavy metals in plants from Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) and some small lakes in wilderness areas of Michigan's Upper Peninsula as analyzed by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, J.R. (Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hill (USA)); Kaufman, P.B.; Jones, J.D.; Estabrook, G.F.; Ghosheh, N.S. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA); Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA). Michigan Memorial Phoenix Project; Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti (USA). Department of Biology)

    1982-01-01

    The highest concentrations of heavy metals occured in plants collected near the mouth of the Saginaw River. The alga, Cladophora sp., and the flowering plant, Typha augustifolia (cat-tail), are notable for the high concentration of heavy metals. In addition, several other species that were sampled from small lakes in Michigan's Upper Peninsula contained higher concentrations of certain metals (Ba, Cr, Rb) than from any samples obtained from Saginaw Bay. Different organs of the same species, or of the same plant, such as cut-tail, vary widely in concentrations of the same element. A computer-derived analysis of our data is presented, and the implications of our results as they relate to pollution by heavy metals in fresh-water lakes is discussed.

  5. Structure of the Kasbah fold zone (Agadir bay, Morocco). Implications on the chronology of the recent tectonics of the western High Atlas and on the seismic hazard of the Agadir area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mridekh, A.; Medina, F.; Mhammdi, N.; Samaka, F.; Bouatmani, R.

    2009-07-01

    Detailed re-interpretation of the north-eastern segment of a profile realized across the Agadir bay along a NE-SW trend and crosscutting the main structures, together with analysis of available isochron maps, allowed us to retrace the geological history of the offshore western High Atlas. Two tectonostratigraphic sequences were distinguished: Unit II, which displays a simple structure, laying un conformably on Unit I, with a more complex structure dominated by a reverse fault (F1) striking E-W with a dip to the north. Correlation to boreholes Souss-1 and AGM-1 allowed us to assign Unit I to the Triassic Palaeogene and Unit II to the Miocene Present. The NE fault block shows a ramp-flat fault plane (F2) with an overlying SW-vergent fold that can be interpreted as a fault-bend fold. Three main stages were distinguished: (1) during the Cretaceous, F1 could have been a syn depositional normal fault with the NE block moving downwards; (2) towards the beginning of the Tertiary, the displacement of plane F2 induced the development of a fault-bend fold and erosion of the forelimb and hinge of the fold; displacement along F2 was transferred to fault F1; (3) afterwards, during the Miocene, reverse motion of F1 deformed and tilted the plane F2 and accentuated the folded structure. This evolution is typical for a frontal basin above a fault-related fold. Evaluation of the thickness and bed depth differences shows that the largest growth rate was recorded in Late Miocene times. Seismic activity recorded in the Agadir bay appears to be clearly related to this fault zone, as inferred from focal mechanisms. Seismic moment evaluation suggests that earthquakes of magnitude Mw=6 are likely to occur, but could not be much larger because of the fault segmentation geometry of the High Atlas Front. (Author) 53 refs.

  6. Cambridge Bay: Six years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edworthy, J.

    1992-01-01

    The story of a wind energy project in Cambridge Bay, Northwest Territories, is presented from the perspective of the company that supplied the equipment and supported the project through its life. The project was intended to demonstrate the technical, economic, institutional, and operational issues and barriers to the use of wind power in remote communities. The system, involving four Carter Model 25 units each rated at 25 kW, was installed in 1987 and commissioned in January 1988. Shortly thereafter, the Northern Canada Power Commission (which requested the project in the first place) was taken over by the territorial administration, and employee continuity was disrupted. At about the same time, Federal support for the project decreased. Technical problems included a transformer failure, a generator failure, and a failed yaw tube which turned out to be lightly designed and poorly made. The Carter turbine company also went out of business, making spare parts difficult to obtain. The utility organization changed abruptly in summer 1991 with the arrival of a new area superintendent who did not support the project. The wind farm was shut down in 1992. The project generated a total of 160,982 kWh with over 71% availability. The positive and negative results from the project are summarized and recommendations are made for future Arctic wind power projects. 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: San Francisco Bay/Monterey (CA) WFO - Contra Costa, San Francisco, Alameda, San Mateo, and Santa Clara Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital elevation model (DEM) is a part of a series of DEMs produced for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's Sea...

  8. Comparison of Trajectories Generated by the NOAA Oil Spill Model to Trajectories Produced Using HF Radar-Derived Curents in Monterey Bay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    .... Trajectories produced by the NOAA/HAZMAT On-Scene Spill Model, using different combinations of surface currents and winds, were compared to trajectories generated using HF radar-derived surface currents...

  9. Oceanographic temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurements collected using bottle in Monterey Bay, California, January 1972 to April 1973 (NODC Accession 0014018)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and meteorological data were collected using bottle casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 19 January 1972 to 20 April 1973. Data were...

  10. Development of a Genome-Proxy Microarray for Profiling Marine Microbial Communities and its Application to a Time Series in Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    AutoGenprep 960 ( AutoGen , Holliston, Massachusetts) auto- mated extraction robot, followed by treatment to digest Eschehchia coli DNA with ATP-dependent...Acknowledgements We thank Joseph DeRisi and David Wang for advice about array design, Andrew Gracey and George Somero for microarray training , Dennis Ryan for...computational assis- tance, Penny Chisholm for incubator space and inocula for growing the Prochlorococcus cultures, and Matthew Sullivan for training

  11. Assessing the Impact of GODAE Boundary Conditions on the Estimate and Prediction of the Monterey Bay and California Central Coast Circulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Christopher A; Moore, Andrew M; Wunsch, Carl; Doyle, James D; Schwing, Franklin B; Foley, David

    2006-01-01

    ... coastline of this region also leave it exposed to the energetic circulation of the California Current System offshore and more generally to the stratification and transports of the eastern Pacific ocean...

  12. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  13. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  14. Organic carbon balance and net ecosystem metabolism in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, W.M.; Smith, E.M.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Boynton, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    The major fluxes of organic carbon associated with physical transport and biological metabolism were compiled, analyzed and compared for the mainstem portion of Chesapeake Bay (USA). In addition, 5 independent methods were used to calculate the annual mean net ecosystem metabolism (NEM = production - respiration) for the integrated Bay. These methods, which employed biogeochemical models, nutrient mass-balances anti summation of individual organic carbon fluxes, yielded remarkably similar estimates, with a mean NEM of +50 g C m-2 yr-1 (?? SE = 751, which is approximately 8% of the estimated annual average gross primary production. These calculations suggest a strong cross-sectional pattern in NEM throughout the Bay, wherein net heterotrophic metabolism prevails in the pelagic zones of the main channel, while net autotrophy occurs in the littoral zones which flank the deeper central area. For computational purposes, the estuary was separated into 3 regions along the land-sea gradient: (1) the oligohaline Upper Bay (11% of total area); (2) the mesohaline Mid Bay (36% of area); and (3) the polyhaline Lower Bay (53% of area). A distinct regional trend in NEM was observed along this salinity gradient, with net here(atrophy (NEM = 87 g C m-2 yr-1) in the Upper Bay, balanced metabolism in the Mid Bay and net autotrophy (NEM = +92 g C m-2 yr-1) in the Lower Bay. As a consequence of overall net autotrophy, the ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to total organic nitrogen (TON) changed from DIN:TON = 5.1 for riverine inputs to DIN:TON = 0.04 for water exported to the ocean. A striking feature of this organic C mass-balance was the relative dominance of biologically mediated metabolic fluxes compared to physical transport fluxes. The overall ratio of physical TOC inputs (1) to biotic primary production (P) was 0.08 for the whole estuary, but varied dramatically from 2.3 in the Upper Bay to 0.03 in the Mid and Lower Bay regions. Similarly, ecosystem respiration was

  15. Bird communities of contrasting semi-natural habitats of Lac bay, Bonaire, during the fall migration season, 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Bemmelen, van R.S.A.; Ligon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The mangrove and seagrass lagoon of Lac Bay on Bonaire covers an area of roughly 700 ha. It is home to endangered green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, and the Caribbean queen conch, Strombus gigas, and is a roosting and breeding area for several birds. Based on its nature values this 7 km2 bay has

  16. Recent results from Daya Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Ming-chung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing powerful nuclear reactors as antineutrino sources, high mountains to provide ample shielding from cosmic rays in the vicinity, and functionally identical detectors with large target volume for near-far relative measurement, the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has achieved unprecedented precision in measuring the neutrino mixing angle θ13 and the neutrino mass squared difference |Δm2ee|. I will report the latest Daya Bay results on neutrino oscillations and light sterile neutrino search.

  17. Direct sampling during multiple sediment density flows reveals dynamic sediment transport and depositional environment in Monterey submarine canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.; Paull, C. K.; Gwiazda, R.; Rosenberger, K. J.; McGann, M.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Barry, J.; Simmons, S.; Clare, M. A.; Carvajal, C.; Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Sumner, E.; Cartigny, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment density flows were directly sampled with a coupled sediment trap-ADCP-instrument mooring array to evaluate the character and frequency of turbidity current events through Monterey Canyon, offshore California. This novel experiment aimed to provide links between globally significant sediment density flow processes and their resulting deposits. Eight to ten Anderson sediment traps were repeatedly deployed at 10 to 300 meters above the seafloor on six moorings anchored at 290 to 1850 meters water depth in the Monterey Canyon axial channel during 6-month deployments (October 2015 - April 2017). Anderson sediment traps include a funnel and intervalometer (discs released at set time intervals) above a meter-long tube, which preserves fine-scale stratigraphy and chronology. Photographs, multi-sensor logs, CT scans, and grain size analyses reveal layers from multiple sediment density flow events that carried sediment ranging from fine sand to granules. More sediment accumulation from sediment density flows, and from between flows, occurred in the upper canyon ( 300 - 800 m water depth) compared to the lower canyon ( 1300 - 1850 m water depth). Sediment accumulated in the traps during sediment density flows is sandy and becomes finer down-canyon. In the lower canyon where sediment directly sampled from density flows are clearly distinguished within the trap tubes, sands have sharp basal contacts, normal grading, and muddy tops that exhibit late-stage pulses. In at least two of the sediment density flows, the simultaneous low velocity and high backscatter measured by the ADCPs suggest that the trap only captured the collapsing end of a sediment density flow event. In the upper canyon, accumulation between sediment density flow events is twice as fast compared to the lower canyon; it is characterized by sub-cm-scale layers in muddy sediment that appear to have accumulated with daily to sub-daily frequency, likely related to known internal tidal dynamics also measured

  18. Plant diversity and biomass of Marudu bay mangroves in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanum, F.; Kudus, K.A.; Saari, N.S

    2012-01-01

    The mangroves of Marudu Bay in the state of Sabah is situated at the tip of Borneo Island, and at the southern limit of the Coral Triangle whose waters hold the highest diversity of corals, fish, molluscks, crustaceans and marine plant species in the world. The ecosystem shows a deterioration due to unsustainable fishing, pollution and encroachment, and these are impacting the Marudu Bay coastal communities economically. Fishing is the major economic activity here. Realising the importance of conserving the mangroves to uplift the socio-economic livelihood of the coastal community, a resource inventory of the mangroves and its productivity study were carried out. A total of 16 plant species in 12 genera and 9 families were identified. It was also found that 0.7 ha is capable of capturing all the species in the mangrove forest. The mangrove forests of Marudu Bay are dominated by Rhizopora apiculata and R. mucronata. The highest Importance Value index (IVI) was given by Rhizophora mucronata. Total Above Ground Biomass (TAGB) for 1-ha of mangrove forest in Marudu Bay was estimated to be 98.4 t/ha. It was found in other parallel studies that the mangroves of Marudu Bay are productive ecosystems that provide valuable habitats, nurseries and spawning grounds for various commercially important species of fish and invertebrates such as shrimp besides many species of wildlife. The mangroves at Marudu Bay are not only aesthetically attractive but provide opportunities for ecotourism activities that can be undertaken by the local community inhabiting the area to uplift their meagre income, These activities include mangrove cruising, recreational fishing, educational tourism and mangrove honey production, amongst others. This way, the degradation of the mangrove in Marudu Bay can be halted and reversed. (author)

  19. The exotic mute swan (Cygnus olor) in Chesapeake Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    The exotic mute swan (Cygnus olor) has increased its population size in Chesapeake Bay (Maryland and Virginia) to approximately 4,500 since 1962 when five swans were released in the Bay. The Bay population of mute swans now represents 30% of the total Atlantic Flyway population (12,600) and has had a phenomenal increase of 1,200% from 1986 to 1999. Unlike the tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) that migrate to the Bay for the winter, the mute swan is a year-long resident, and, therefore, reports of conflicts with nesting native waterbirds and the consumption of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) have raised concerns among resource managers. Populations of black skimmers (Rynchops niger) and least terns (Sterna antillarum) nesting on beaches and oyster shell bars have been eliminated by molting mute swans. Although data on the reduction of SAV by nesting mute swans and their offspring during the spring and summer are limited, food habits data show that mute swans rely heavily on SAV during these months. Widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) constituted 56% and eel grass (Zostera marina) constituted 43% of the gullet food of mute swans. Other SAV and invertebrates (including bryozoans, shrimp, and amphipods) formed a much smaller amount of the food percentage (1%). Invertebrates are believed to have been selected accidently within the vegetation eaten by the swans. Corn (Zea mays) fed to swans by Bay residents during the winter probably supplement limited vegetative food resources in late winter. A program to control swan numbers by the addling of eggs and the killing of adult swans has been a contentious issue with some residents of the Bay area. A management plan is being prepared by a diverse group of citizens appointed by the Governor to advise the Maryland Department of Natural Resources on viable and optimum options to manage mute swans in the Maryland portion of Chesapeake Bay. Hopefully, the implementation of the plan will alleviate the existing conflicts to the

  20. A field study of littoral processes in Estero Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingler, J.R.; Anima, R.J.; Molzan, D.E.; Luepke, Gretchen; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Estero Bay, which lies on the central California coast, has rocky headlands at both ends and sandy beaches within it. The shoreline of the bay has adjusted to be in equilibrium with the predominant wave climate, which is from the northwest. Because of its present shoreline configuration, the net southward littoral transport found along much of the California coast does not occur within Estero Bay. Instead, the sand primarily moves on- and offshore with a reversing longshore component. This sand transport pattern produces a littoral cell within Estero Bay even though there is no submarine canyon in the area. The primary sand sinks for this cell appear to be the sand spit south of Morro Rock and the entrance to Morro Bay itself, although this opinion was not experimentally verified. Field work during one summer (1978) and the following winter (1979) produced baseline data on the profile of and grain-size distribution across the littoral zone. In the offshore part of the littoral zone we also studied ripple size and type, internal structure, depth of erosion, and mineralogy. Although these data, which were collected along nine transects spaced 2 km apart, are inadequate to yield transport and energy rates, they indicate a northward decrease in wave energy within Estero Bay and a mixing of the sediments in the offshore. Box core and rod height data from grid points in seven meters of water showed that on the order of a meter of erosion occurred in the central part of the bay between the two sampling periods. Offshore, the data were incomplete, but at one station, in 17 m of water, at least 20 cm of erosion occurred.

  1. Changes in Landscape Pattern of Wetland around Hangzhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenpeng; Li, Yuan; Xu, Dan; Zeng, Ying

    2018-04-01

    Hangzhou Bay is an important estuarial coastal wetland, which offers a large number of land and ecological resources. It plays a significant role in the sustainable development of resources, environment and economy. In this paper, based on the remote sensing images in 1996, 2005 and 2013, we extracted the coastal wetland data and analyzed the wetland landscape pattern of the Hangzhou Bay in the past 20 years. The results show that: (1) the area of coastal wetland is heading downwards in the recent decades. Paddy field and the coastal wetland diminish greatly. (2) the single dynamic degree of wetland of the Hangzhou Bay displays that paddy fields and coastal wetlands are shrinking, but lakes, reservoirs and ponds are constantly expanding. (3) the wetland landscape pattern index shows that total patch area of the coastal wetland and paddy fields have gradually diminished. The Shannon diversity index, the Shannon evenness index as well as the landscape separation index of the coastal wetlands in the Hangzhou Bay increase steadily. The landscape pattern in the study area has shown a trend of high fragmentation, dominance decreases, but some dominant landscape still exist in this region. (4) Urbanization and natural factors lead to the reduction of wetland area. Besides the pressure of population is a major threat to the wetland. The study will provide scientific basis for long-term planning for this region.

  2. Ecological studies of Ulva reticulata Forsskal in Chapora bay (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The patchy occurrence of Ulva reticulata Forskal along the west coast of India lead to its ecological studies. The total annual yield of . reticulata calculated for 3800 sq. m. area of the bay amounts to 6.74 tonnes wet weight and 0.932 tonnes dry...

  3. 33 CFR 110.95 - Newport Bay Harbor, Calif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 268° from Lido Isle East Light 2, this line being the northwest line of the main fairway; west of the... of a line bearing 268° from Newport Bay Channel Light 11, this line being the south line of the main... Channel Light 11, this line being the southerly line of the main fairway. Note: This area is reserved for...

  4. Principal Component Surface (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas inside Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). It was...

  5. Principal Component Surface (2011) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas inside Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). It was...

  6. Near real-time noise removal for the Monterey Ocean Bottom Broadband (MOBB) seismic station data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinois, M.; Zheng, Z.; Taira, T.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Monterey Ocean Bottom Broadband (MOBB) observatory, located 40 km offshore central California, at a water depth of 1000 m, provides important complementary coverage of the San Andreas Fualt system to the land-based network. First installed in 2002, it is arguably the longest lived ocean bottom broadband seismic station. It includes a three-component broadband Guralp CMG-1T seismometer and a collocated differential pressure gauge (DPG) to measure the local water pressure continuously, as well as a current meter. After 7 years of autonomous operation, in February 2009, MOBB was successfully connected to the MARS cable (http://www.mbari.org/mars), and the data have been available in real time at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (Romanowicz et al., 2009). However, the usage of MOBB data has been limited because of the noisy character of the data, in particular at periods of interest for regional moment tensor studies (20-100 sec), due to the ocean infragravity waves. Crawford and Webb (2000) demonstrated that there is a strong correlation between the water pressure and the vertical component of seafloor ground velocity in the infragravity wave band. Applying this to MOBB vertical component data, a transfer function (TF) was determined and utilized to successfully deconvolve the pressure-correlated noise from the vertical component of MOBB seismograms (Dolenc et al., 2007) in the period band 20-200 sec. Romanowicz et al. (2003, 2009) presented examples of how the cleaned MOBB data contribute to the determination of source parameters and regional structure. These past efforts, however, have been mostly case studies for illustration purpose. In this study, we systematically process all the available MOBB data since 2009 (because the cable was trawled, about a year of data is missing from February 2010 to June 2011). We calculate the TF over time and find that it is generally very stable, except for one change in 2010 due to an instrument replacement. Two

  7. Status of macrobenthic community of Manifa-Tanajib Bay System of Saudi Arabia based on a once-off sampling event

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal Viswanathan

    2011-06-01

    Shallow water bays located in the western Arabian Gulf experience harsh environmental conditions. Some of these bays, including Manifa-Tanajib Bay System (MTBS), were also exposed to the 1991 oil pollution event. This study investigates the status of the macrobenthos in MTBS during 2006. This bay system is characterized by very shallow inner bays with elevated salinity and temperature compared to the rest of the bay area. As a result mainly of the hyper salinity, the inner bay communities are distinct from the outer bay communities. Overall, fairly high species richness with several rare species was observed. High Shannon-Wiener diversity values and ABC plots indicated the healthy status of the polychaete communities, while BOPA index indicated slightly polluted status in 20% of the stations. The oil sensitive amphipods were not completely re-colonized in 20% of the stations, even after 15. years of recovery from the 1991 oil spill. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Whole-system metabolism and CO2 fluxes in a Mediterranean Bay dominated by seagrass beds (Palma Bay, NW Mediterranean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazeau, F.P.H.; Duarte, C.M.; Gattuso, J.P.; Barrón, C.; Navarro, N.; Ruiz, S.; Prairie, Y.T.; Calleja, M.; Delille, B.; Frankignoulle, M.; Borges, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Planktonic and benthic incubations (bare and Posidonia oceanica vegetated sediments) were performed at monthly intervals from March 2001 to October 2002 in a seagrass vegetated area of the Bay of Palma (Mallorca, Spain). Results showed a contrast between the planktonic compartment, which was on

  9. 76 FR 25548 - Safety Zone; Coast Guard Use of Force Training Exercises, San Pablo Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... disturbances to waterfowl and referenced a study by the USGS confirming foraging areas in San Pablo Bay are used by diving ducks. In the Consistency Determination, the USGS was contacted and determined that the...

  10. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Steller sea lions and seals in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal areas...

  11. Causal Bayes Model of Mathematical Competence in Kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar Tepeš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper authors define mathematical competences in the kindergarten. The basic objective was to measure the mathematical competences or mathematical knowledge, skills and abilities in mathematical education. Mathematical competences were grouped in the following areas: Arithmetic and Geometry. Statistical set consisted of 59 children, 65 to 85 months of age, from the Kindergarten Milan Sachs from Zagreb. The authors describe 13 variables for measuring mathematical competences. Five measuring variables were described for the geometry, and eight measuring variables for the arithmetic. Measuring variables are tasks which children solved with the evaluated results. By measuring mathematical competences the authors make causal Bayes model using free software Tetrad 5.2.1-3. Software makes many causal Bayes models and authors as experts chose the model of the mathematical competences in the kindergarten. Causal Bayes model describes five levels for mathematical competences. At the end of the modeling authors use Bayes estimator. In the results, authors describe by causal Bayes model of mathematical competences, causal effect mathematical competences or how intervention on some competences cause other competences. Authors measure mathematical competences with their expectation as random variables. When expectation of competences was greater, competences improved. Mathematical competences can be improved with intervention on causal competences. Levels of mathematical competences and the result of intervention on mathematical competences can help mathematical teachers.

  12. Phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics in Winyah Bay, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneillo, G. E.; Brooks, S. S.; Brown, S. L.; Woodford, K. M.; Wright, C. R.

    2016-02-01

    Winyah Bay is a coastal plain estuary located in South Carolina that has been classified for a moderate risk of Eutrophication by NOAA. Winyah Bay receives freshwater input from four rivers, the Waccamaw, Sampit, Black, and Pee Dee Rivers. The Waccamaw, Sampit and Black River are blackwater systems that discharge elevated amounts of colored dissolved organic matter. During the summer and fall of 2015, bioassay experiments were performed to simultaneously examine both light and nutrient (nitrogen & phosphate) limitation throughout Winyah Bay. Sampling stations near the mouth of the Waccamaw and Sampit Rivers showed that phytoplankton were light limited in the late summer instead of nutrient limited. These stations were located in the industrialized area of the bay and typically had the highest nutrient concentrations and highest turbidity, with Secchi depths typically less than 0.5 meters. Results indicated that phytoplankton may be nitrogen limited near the mouth of Winyah Bay, where nutrient concentrations and turbidity were observed to be lower than locations further upstream. There was also an observed dissolved oxygen and pH gradient during the summer of 2015. Dissolved oxygen levels less than 4.0 mg/L were routinely observed near the industrialized head of the estuary and corresponded with lower pH values.

  13. Carbon-isotope stratigraphy from terrestrial organic matter through the Monterey event, Miocene, New Jersey margin (IODP Expedition 313)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Linhao; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Hesselbo, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    documented from oceanic settings (i.e., lack of positive excursion of carbon-isotope values in terrestrial organic matter through the Langhian Stage). Factors that may potentially bias local terrestrial carbon-isotope records include reworking from older deposits, degradation and diagenesis, as well....../or reworking of older woody phytoclasts, but where such processes have occurred they do not readily explain the observed carbon-isotope values. It is concluded that the overall carbon-isotope signature for the exchangeable carbon reservoir is distorted, to the extent that the Monterey event excursion...... is not easily identifiable. The most likely explanation is that phytoclast reworking has indeed occurred in clinoform toe-of-slope facies, but the reason for the resulting relatively heavy carbon-isotope values in the Burdigalian remains obscure....

  14. Radionuclides and trace elements in middle Chesapeake Bay sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilas, M.

    1988-01-01

    Sediments play an important role in aquatic ecology by serving as a repository for radioactive substances and for soluble chemical pollutants that they may transport over considerable distances and may pass to a higher trophic level by way of bottom-feeding biota. The Chesapeake Bay is a moderately stratified, drowned river valley estuary. The oscillatory flood and ebb of the tidal currents are the most obvious motions in the bay and its tributary estuaries. It is considered that the distribution of most of the pollutants, once diluted by the mixing action of the tidal flow, remains relatively constant for many miles up and down the bay. This paper documents the present status of the radioactivity and of trace elements in sediment samples collected in March 1986 from and extended area around the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

  15. Seabird colonies in the Melville Bay, Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, David; Huffeldt, Nicholas Per

    This report describes the results of a survey for breeding and colonial seabirds in a hitherto un-surveyed area of Northwest Greenland - the Melville Bay. The results shall be included as background data for oil spill sensitivity mapping, preparation of environmental impact assessments of petroleum...... activities in Baffin Bay and for the regulation (by the Greenland government) of petroleum activities. The survey showed, that compared to other coasts of West Greenland, the Melville Bay holds only few breeding colonies and low numbers of breeding seabirds. The most widespread and numerous species...... is the black guillemot followed by the glaucous gull. However, one colony is of national significance – Sabine Øer, with high numbers of breeding Arctic terns and Sabine’s gulls. Other noteworthy observations were puffins on Thom Ø and many new Iceland gull colonies that extended the known northern breeding...

  16. The inauguration of Robert-Bourassa Park at James Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiquette, M.

    1997-01-01

    Robert Bourassa's contributions to the hydroelectric development at James Bay were acknowledged with the inauguration of a park in the ex-prime minister's name. Phase 1 of the James Bay hydroelectric project constituted the world's biggest construction site, employing more than 180,000 people from beginning to project completion. The James Bay project allowed Hydro-Quebec to gain one of the world's largest electric power utilities and to gain significant competitive edge over its competitors. The Robert Bourassa Park contains a picnic area and a visitor interpretation centre which describes the history of the project. A sequence of 5 signposts summarize the contributions that Robert Bourassa made to the megaproject which cost over $20.6 billion. The complex consists of 65 turbines which produce 15,235 megawatts of electricity. 1 fig

  17. Data from studies of previous radioactive waste disposal in Massachusetts Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, W.R.; Mardis, H.M.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies conducted in Massachusetts Bay during 1981 and 1982. Included are data from: (1) a side scan sonar survey of disposal areas in the Bay that was carried out by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for EPA; (2) Collections of sediment and biota by NOAA for radiochemical analysis by EPA; (3) collections of marketplace seafood samples by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for radioanalysis by both FDA and EPA; and (4) a radiological monitoring survey of LLW disposal areas by EPA to determine whether there should be any concern for public health resulting from previous LLW disposals in the Bay

  18. Zonasi Pemanfaatan Kawasan Perikanan Tangkap Di Teluk Banten (Zonation of Utilization Fishing Zone in Banten Bay)

    OpenAIRE

    Ernaningsih, D; Simbolon, Domu; Wiyono, Eko Sri; Purbayanto, Ari

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of fishing area in Banten Bay by various activities may cause multi sectors conflicts related to management of the bay. The integrated zone system in that area has not been established yet; therefore it is needed to be studied. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine fishing season and fishing ground; 2) determine indicators and criteria of fishing zone; 3) establish fishing zone. The study was conducted in four fish landing centers which are located in Karangantu, Terat...

  19. Use of Geographic Information Systems to examine cumulative impacts of development on Mobile Bay, AL and Galveston Bay, TX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosigno, P.F.; McNiff, M.E.; Watzin, M.C.; Ji, W.

    1993-01-01

    Databases from Mobile Bay, Alabama and Galveston Bay, Texas were compiled using ARC/INFO Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine the cumulative impacts from urbanization and industrialization on these two Gulf of Mexico estuaries. The databases included information on wetland habitats, pollution sources, metal contamination, bird-nesting sites, and oyster reefs, among others. A series of maps were used to represent the impacts within and between each ecosystem. These two estuaries share many similarities in the types of developmental pressures that each experience. However, difference in the magnitude of industrial activity, pollution loading, and urban growth coupled with distinct hydrodynamic and geochemical differences in sediment mineralogy, freshwater inflows and salinity regimens results in differing responses. With growing human population and extensive oil and gas development, the demands on Galveston Bay are quite different than those placed on Mobile Bay which has lower growth and less extensive oil and gas infrastructure. Mobile Bay tends to retain whatever contamination enters into the system because of the high levels of clay and organic carbon found in its sediment. Some of these chemicals bioaccumulate, posing an extra risk to natural resources. Geographic Information Systems provide natural resource managers with the technology to manage complex databases. The analytical and mapping capabilities of GIS can be used to consider cumulative effects in a regional context and to develop plans to protect ecologically sensitive areas

  20. Oceanographic data collected during the Davidson Seamount 2002 expedition on the RV Western Flyer, in the North Pacific Ocean, southwest of Monterey, California from May 17, 2002 - May 24, 2002 (NODC Accession 0072306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This spring, scientists explored the first "undersea island" to be called a seamount. Davidson seamount, located 120 km Southwest of Monterey, California, is one of...

  1. Impact of industrial pollution on recent dinoflagellate cysts in Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Hilal; Yürür, Emine Erdem; Uzar, Serdar; Küçüksezgin, Filiz

    2015-05-15

    The spatial distribution of dinoflagellate cysts was studied to understand the impact of industrial pollution on the surface sediment of Izmir Bay, Turkey. Forty two dinoflagellate cyst morphotypes belonging to 12 genera were identified and qualified at 12 sampling points. The cyst of Gymnodinium nolleri dominated the bay and had the highest abundance in most of the stations, following Spiniferites bulloideus and Lingulodinium machaerophorum. The highest cyst concentration was recorded in the inner part of the bay. Cyst concentration ranged between 384 and 9944 cyst g(-1) dry weight of sediment in the sampling area. Sediment metal concentrations were determined. Heavy metal levels in Izmir Inner Bay were higher than the Middle and Outer Bay. L. machaerophorum, Dubridinium caperatum and Polykrikos kofoidii showed significant positive correlation with some metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) and organic carbon content. However, there was no significant correlation between dinoflagellate cyst abundance and sediment type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of mineral magnetic concentration data as a particle size proxy: a case study using marine, estuarine and fluvial sediments in the Carmarthen Bay area, South Wales, U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, C A; Walden, J; Neal, A; Smith, J P

    2005-07-15

    Compositional (non-magnetic) data can correlate strongly with particle size, which deems it appropriate as a particle size proxy and, therefore, a reliable means of normalising analytical data for particle size effects. Previous studies suggest magnetic concentration parameters represent an alternative means of normalising for these effects and, given the speed, low-cost and sensitivity of the measurements may, therefore, offer some advantages over other compositional signals. In this work, contemporary sediments from a range of depositional environments have been analysed with regard to their mineral magnetic concentration and textural characteristics, to observe if the strength and nature of the relationship identified in previous studies is universal. Our data shows magnetic parameters (chi(LF), chi(ARM) and SIRM) possess contrasting relationships with standard textural parameters for sediment samples collected from marine (Carmarthen Bay), estuarine (Gwendraeth Estuary) and fluvial (Rivers Gwendraeth Fach and Gwendraeth Fawr) settings. Magnetic concentrations of sediments from both the marine and estuarine environments are highly influenced by the magnetic contribution of finer particle sizes; Gwendraeth Fawr River sediments are influenced by the magnetic contribution of coarser particle sizes, while sediments from the Gwendraeth Fach River are not influenced significantly by any variations in textural properties. These results indicate mineral magnetic measurements have considerable potential as a particle size proxy for particular sedimentary environments, which in certain instances could be useful for geochemical, sediment transport, and sediment provenance studies. However, the data also highlight the importance of fully determining the nature of the relationship between sediment particle size and magnetic properties before applying mineral magnetic data as a particle size proxy.

  3. 77 FR 2972 - Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application for Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene Thunder Bay Power Company Project No. 2404-095 Thunder Bay Power, LLC Midwest Hydro, Inc...

  4. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.125 Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship...

  5. 77 FR 38488 - Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY... restrict vessels from a portion of the St. Lawrence River during the Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence...

  6. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  7. Humboldt Bay Benthic Habitats 2009 Aquatic Setting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  8. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  9. South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  10. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  11. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  12. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  13. With Prudhoe Bay in decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Pollock, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Almost every day, it seems, someone is mentioning Prudhoe Bay---its development activities, the direction of its oil production, and more recently its decline rate. Almost as frequently, someone is mentioning the number of companies abandoning exploration in Alaska. The state faces a double-edged dilemma: decline of its most important oil field and a diminished effort to find a replacement for the lost production. ARCO has seen the Prudhoe Bay decline coming for some time and has been planning for it. We have reduced staff, and ARCO and BP Exploration are finding cost-effective ways to work more closely together through such vehicles as shared services. At the same time, ARCO is continuing its high level of Alaskan exploration. This article will assess the future of Prudhoe Bay from a technical perspective, review ARCO's exploration plans for Alaska, and suggest what the state can do to encourage other companies to invest in this crucial producing region and exploratory frontier

  14. Characterization of Dredged Sediments from Santander Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, M.; Ibanez, R.; Viguri, J.R.; Irabien, A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the physico- chemical characterisation of Santander Bay (North Spain) inter-tidal sediments, with the determination of levels of selected organic compounds pollution. A sampling strategy has been developed based on characteristic parameters of the study. The physico-chemical seasonal characterisation of sediments has been performed by determination of waster content, Ph, density, humidity, lost on ignition (LOI), particle size distribution, and chemical analysis of three categories of organic compounds (VOCs,EOX and PAHs) selected for its ubiquity, persistence and high potential of environmental hazard. The EOX analysis give a picture of the total load of organo halogen compounds in the estuarine area and the VOC and ph values obtained, allow the characterization of sediments in two areas in function of the closeness to the urban and industrial activities

  15. Distribution and behavior of major and trace elements in Tokyo Bay, Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki; Kimura, Ken-ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Fourteen major and trace elements in marine sediment core samples collected from the coasts along eastern Japan, i.e. Tokyo Bay (II) (the recess), Tokyo Bay (IV) (the mouth), Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay and the Northwest Pacific basin as a comparative subject were determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The sedimentation rates and sedimentary ages were calculated for the coastal sediment cores by the 210 Pb method. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) Lanthanoid abundance patterns suggested that the major origin of the sediments was terrigenous material. La*/Lu* and Ce*/La* ratios revealed that the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Mutsu Bay more directly reflected the contribution from river than those of other regions. In addition, the Th/Sc ratio indicated that the coastal sediments mainly originated in the materials from the volcanic island-arcs, Japanese islands, whereas those from the Northwest Pacific mainly from the continent. (2) The correlation between the Ce/U and Th/U ratios with high correlation coefficients of 0.920 to 0.991 indicated that all the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Funka Bay were in reducing conditions while at least the upper sediments from Tokyo Bay (IV) and Mutsu Bay were in oxidizing conditions. (3) It became quite obvious that the sedimentation mechanism and the sedimentation environment at Tokyo Bay (II) was different from those at Tokyo Bay (IV), since the sedimentation rate at Tokyo Bay (II) was approximately twice as large as that at Tokyo Bay (IV). The sedimentary age of the 5th layer (8∼10 cm in depth) from Funka Bay was calculated at approximately 1940∼50, which agreed with the time, 1943∼45 when Showa-shinzan was formed by the eruption of the Usu volcano. (author)

  16. Mobile Bay turbidity plume study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field transmissometer studies on the effect of suspended particulate material upon the appearance of water are reported. Quantitative correlations were developed between remotely sensed image density, optical sea truth data, and actual sediment load. Evaluation of satellite image sea truth data for an offshore plume projects contours of transmissivity for two different tidal phases. Data clearly demonstrate the speed of change and movement of the optical plume for water patterns associated with the mouth of Mobile bay in which relatively clear Gulf of Mexico water enters the bay on the eastern side. Data show that wind stress in excess of 15 knots has a marked impact in producing suspended sediment loads.

  17. Default Bayes factors for ANOVA designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.; Speckman, Paul L.; Province, Jordan M.

    2012-01-01

    Bayes factors have been advocated as superior to p-values for assessing statistical evidence in data. Despite the advantages of Bayes factors and the drawbacks of p-values, inference by p-values is still nearly ubiquitous. One impediment to the adoption of Bayes factors is a lack of practical

  18. Structure of the Kasbah fold zone (Agadir bay, Morocco. Implications on the chronology of the recent tectonics of the western High Atlas and on the seismic hazard of the Agadir area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaka, F.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Detailed re-interpretation of the north-eastern segment of a profile realized across the Agadir bay along a NE-SW trend and crosscutting the main structures, together with analysis of available isochron maps, allowed us to retrace the geological history of the offshore western High Atlas. Two tectonostratigraphic sequences were distinguished: Unit II, which displays a simple structure, laying unconformably on Unit I, with a more complex structure dominated by a reverse fault (F1 striking E-W with a dip to the north. Correlation to boreholes Souss-1 and AGM-1 allowed us to assign Unit I to the Triassic – Palaeogene and Unit II to the Miocene – Present. The NE fault block shows a ramp-flat fault plane (F2 with an overlying SW-vergent fold that can be interpreted as a fault-bend fold. Three main stages were distinguished: (1 during the Cretaceous, F1 could have been a syndepositional normal fault with the NE block moving downwards; (2 towards the beginning of the Tertiary, the displacement of plane F2 induced the development of a fault-bend fold and erosion of the forelimb and hinge of the fold; displacement along F2 was transferred to fault F1; (3 afterwards, during the Miocene, reverse motion of F1 deformed and tilted the plane F2 and accentuated the folded structure. This evolution is typical for a frontal basin above a fault-related fold. Evaluation of the thickness and bed depth differences shows that the largest growth rate was recorded in Late Miocene times. Seismic activity recorded in the Agadir bay appears to be clearly related to this fault zone, as inferred from focal mechanisms. Seismic moment evaluation suggests that earthquakes of magnitude Mw≥6 are likely to occur, but could not be much larger because of the fault segmentation geometry of the High Atlas Front.

    A partir de una detallada reinterpretación del segmento nororiental de un perfil que corta las principales estructuras de la bahía de Agadir a lo largo de una

  19. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from IRON PACIFIC, FLINDERS BAY and other platforms in the TOGA Area - Pacific from 1988-08-12 to 1990-12-28 (NODC Accession 9100115)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water depth and temperature data were collected as part of Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project from TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) using dozen...

  20. An Integrated Approach for Identifying Priority Contaminant in the Great Lakes Basin –Investigations in the Lower Green Bay/Fox River and Milwaukee Estuary Areas of Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Prioritization of chemicals was performed on two Areas of Concerns in the Great Lakes An integrated risk surveillance and monitoring approach was applied Bio-effect...