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Sample records for montana agricultural experiment

  1. Competency Commonalities and Accompanying Job Titles Derived from the Six Montana Agricultural Manpower Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberson, Max L.; And Others

    The report provides essential information for curriculum development relevant to manpower demands for agricultural production and agribusiness in Montana. It focuses on an analysis of 3,500 competency statements to determine the existence of duplication, commonalities, and uniqueness among 76 identified job titles derived from six Agricultural…

  2. Exploring Principals' Perceptions of Supervised Agricultural Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayfield, John; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of principals at high schools with agricultural education programs in regard to Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE). There is evidence that suggests that high school principals' attitudes may both directly and indirectly affect factors that influence school climate and student achievement. In this study,…

  3. Demographic consequences of inbreeding and outbreeding in Arnica montana: A field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijten, S.H.; Kery, M.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; Den, Nijs H.J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    1. The genetic constitution of populations may significantly affect demography. Founder populations or isolated remnants may show inbreeding depression, while established populations can be strongly adapted to the local environment. Gene exchange between populations can lead to better performance if heterozygosity levels are restored (heterosis), or to reduced performance if coadapted gene complexes are disrupted (outbreeding depression). 2. Five populations of the self-incompatible perennial Arnica montana (Asteraceae) were analysed for the demographic consequences of inbreeding and of intra- and interpopulation outcrossing, using both small and large populations as donors for the latter. We analysed seed production and seed weight and monitored growth, survival and flowering of offspring introduced as seeds and as 4-week-old seedlings in a 4-year field experiment. 3. Reduced seed set after selfing was probably due to the self-incompatibility system rather than to inbreeding depression. There was a significant increase for seed set after interpopulation crosses, which resulted from the alleviation of low mate availability in one of the small populations. 4. Significant inbreeding depression was observed for growth rates of plants introduced as seedlings. We found significant heterosis for flowering probability of plants introduced as seeds, but for plants introduced as seedlings, heterosis for seedling size and flowering probability was only marginally significant. Outbreeding depression was not observed. 5. The results of this study are important for reinforcement measures in small, remnant populations. Significant differences among populations for all measured fitness components suggest that reinforcement is best achieved using material from several populations. 6. The observed higher survival of seedlings as compared with seeds suggests that it is better to plant individuals than to sow. Sowing, however, is easier and cheaper, and was more likely to eliminate

  4. Leader Of Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station Succumbs To Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    MacInnis, Stewart

    2003-01-01

    Kriton Hatzios, who, as director of the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, oversaw Virginia Tech's rise to the top ranks of universities engaged in agricultural research, died today. He was 53.

  5. Experience and Ways of Low-carbon Agriculture Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinmin; ZHANG; Chunhong; QIN

    2013-01-01

    Firstly,the status quo of low-carbon agriculture development in China was analyzed,and then advanced experience of developed countries in low-carbon agriculture development was introduced,finally ways of developing low-carbon agriculture in China were put forward.

  6. Agricultural Experiences as Correlates of Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    medicine, agricultural engineering, fishery, animal/livestock production, forestry ... may affect the technological breakthrough needed by our country (Betz and Taylor,. 2006). .... critical thinking and empowers students with greater responsibility after being ..... Analysis of the continuing decline in use of supervised agricultural.

  7. Agricultural Mechanization in Ethiopian: Experience, Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    friew

    hectares even in sub moist zones where the window of operation time does not .... were established because of the pressing need for increased food crop production. ... The unit was a division in the Agricultural Engineering Department mainly ...

  8. Facilitating agricultural input distribution in Uganda - Experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    The input supply market however, suffered a setback as a result of the ... Ltd. redefined the approach emphasizing a demand driven input market by shifting ... Training of business entrepreneurs in business planning, ... The strategy to increase rural demand for agricultural inputs ..... During season 2004A, the basic fertilizers.

  9. Exploring the Paradox of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Elizabeth B.; Moore, Gary E.

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural teachers in North Carolina were surveyed to assess their attitudes toward Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) and to identify barriers to implementation of SAE in their schools. The teachers gave the politically correct answers about why SAE was important. The teachers indicated that SAE was important (8.46 on a 10 point scale)…

  10. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  11. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  12. Supervised Agricultural Experience: An Examination of Student Knowledge and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lauren J.; Rayfield, John; Moore, Lori L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate student Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) knowledge and participation. This descriptive study was conducted in 120 randomly selected agricultural education programs throughout four purposively selected states representative of the National FFA regions. Students completed a questionnaire assessing…

  13. Benefits of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs: A Synthesis of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David L.; Dyer, James E.

    1997-01-01

    A review of literature from 1964 to 1993 identified the benefits of supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs, including agriculture knowledge and positive work attitudes. Classroom, SAE, and Future Farmers of America complemented each other. The research base is state specific and fragmented and lacks cohesiveness. (SK)

  14. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  15. Barriers to Conducting Supervised Agricultural Experiences as Perceived by Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joey Blackburn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess preservice agriculture teachers’ perceptions of the importance of Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE and their views on barriers to conducting SAE. A census of the sophomore-level agricultural education course at Oklahoma State University was conducted to measure perceptions at the beginning and end of the course. This study was framed upon Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior. Results indicated that preservice teachers perceived SAE was an important component of agricultural education and important at the secondary school they attended. The greatest barrier to conducting SAE was their lack of familiarity with newer SAE categories. This was true at both the beginning and end of the course. It is recommended that preservice teachers receive instruction on and experiences in all types of SAE. This would increase the likelihood of preservice teachers perceiving they have control over this barrier regarding SAE implementation. This cohort of preservice teachers should be surveyed over time to determine change in their perceptions of barriers to SAE implementation as they progress in the agricultural education program and through their careers. Further, the views of in-service teachers should also be assessed to determine if perceived barriers differ with professional experience.

  16. Relationship of Supervised Agricultural Experience Program Participation and Student Achievement in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Jimmy G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Data from 537 high school students demonstrated the positive effect of participation in supervised agricultural experience (SAE) and Future Farmers of America (FFA) on agriscience achievement. FFA involvement and the scope of SAE were highly correlated. Student interest, socioeconomic status, and years of agriscience were related to achievement…

  17. Supervision of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs: A Synthesis of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, James E.; Williams, David L.

    1997-01-01

    A review of literature from 1964 to 1993 found that supervised agricultural experience (SAE) teachers, students, parents, and employers value the teachers' supervisory role. Implementation practices vary widely and there are no cumulative data to guide policies and standards for SAE supervision. (SK)

  18. A test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis in mountain lions: a management experiment in West-Central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hugh S.; Desimone, Richard; Hartway, Cynthia; Gude, Justin A.; Thompson, Michael J.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Hebblewhite, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are widely hunted for recreation, population control, and to reduce conflict with humans, but much is still unknown regarding the effects of harvest on mountain lion population dynamics. Whether human hunting mortality on mountain lions is additive or compensatory is debated. Our primary objective was to investigate population effects of harvest on mountain lions. We addressed this objective with a management experiment of 3 years of intensive harvest followed by a 6-year recovery period. In December 2000, after 3 years of hunting, approximately 66% of a single game management unit within the Blackfoot River watershed in Montana was closed to lion hunting, effectively creating a refuge representing approximately 12% (915 km2) of the total study area (7,908 km2). Hunting continued in the remainder of the study area, but harvest levels declined from approximately 9/1,000 km2 in 2001 to 2/1,000 km2 in 2006 as a result of the protected area and reduced quotas outside. We radiocollared 117 mountain lions from 1998 to 2006. We recorded known fates for 63 animals, and right-censored the remainder. Although hunting directly reduced survival, parameters such as litter size, birth interval, maternity, age at dispersal, and age of first reproduction were not significantly affected. Sensitivity analysis showed that female survival and maternity were most influential on population growth. Life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) demonstrated the effect of hunting on the population dynamics of mountain lions. In our non-hunted population, reproduction (kitten survival and maternity) accounted for approximately 62% of the variation in growth rate, whereas adult female survival accounted for 30%. Hunting reversed this, increasing the reliance of population growth on adult female survival (45% of the variation in population growth), and away from reproduction (12%). Our research showed that harvest at the levels implemented in this study did not

  19. DEVELOPING CURRICULUM MATERIALS FOR COOPERATIVE EXPERIENCE PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS INSTITUTE 1966 WORKSHOP REPORT (JUNE 6-JULY 15, 1966).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater. Research Foundation.

    THIRTY VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS FROM 11 STATES DEVELOPED THESE CURRICULUM MATERIALS FOR A 2-YEAR HIGH SCHOOL COOPERATIVE EXPERIENCE PROGRAM FOR OCCUPATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL SALES AND SERVICE, AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY, AND HORTICULTURE. A RATIONALE FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT, AN EXPLANATION OF THE CURRICULUM, AND AN EXPLANATION OF THE…

  20. Colombian experience in applying rules concerning agricultural biosecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Silva C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering has made possible the creation of Genetic Modified Organisms (GMOs, or transgenic crops. The growth around the world of transgenic crops areas for commercial purposes, such as soybean, maize, canola and cotton is being amazing: from 1.7 million hectares in 1996 to 52.6 million in 2001. Historically, not many technologies have reached, in such a short period of time, such a higher adoption. The use of these technologies, nevertheless their well-known benefits, has brought some worries related with biosafety. In Colombia the Colombian Institute for Agriculture and Cattle (ICA, its Spanish acronym in order to introduce GMOs to the country and prevent or minimize the potential risk for agriculture generated by this kind of organisms, has established two instruments: the Agreement 013/98, creating the National Technical Biosafety Committee (CTN, its Spanish acronym, intersectorial adviser organism; and the Resolution 3492/98, establishing procedures for introduction, production, reléase and marketing of GMOs for agricultural purposes. Under this regulations, ICA has approved five different requests involving eight events with GMOs: carnation for commercial multiplicación purposes; cotton and rice for evaluation genotype in field at a small scale; cassava, brachiaria, stylozantes, coffee and sugar cane for research in genetic improvement throughout genetic engineering techniques in confined handling. Based on the accomplished experience, the future will make improve the legal and institutional instruments, as well as technical and scientific capacity of the country in biosafety. 

  1. Value and Expectations of Supervised Agricultural Experiences as Expressed by Agriculture Instructors in Oklahoma Who Were Alternatively Certified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. Shane; Haynes, J. Chris

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to determine the value and expectations for student participation in supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs, as expressed by first-year, agricultural education teachers in Oklahoma who were alternatively certified. This study revealed that teachers in this study value the fact that…

  2. Perceptions Regarding Planning Activities and Supervision Strategies for Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swortzel, Kirk A.

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 71% of 150 Tennessee agriculture teachers surveyed indicated that those teaching in multiple departments, subscribing to "Agricultural Education Magazine," and including supervised agricultural experiences (SAE) in grading were more positive about planning. Those not having agricultural education in high school, including…

  3. Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    About this volumeMontana StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/) application that provides users with access to basin and streamflow characteristics for gaged and ungaged streams in Montana. Montana StreamStats was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Montana Departments of Transportation, Environmental Quality, and Natural Resources and Conservation. The USGS Scientific Investigations Report consists of seven independent but complementary chapters dealing with various aspects of this effort.Chapter A describes the Montana StreamStats application, the basin and streamflow datasets, and provides a brief overview of the streamflow characteristics and regression equations used in the study. Chapters B through E document the datasets, methods, and results of analyses to determine streamflow characteristics, such as peak-flow frequencies, low-flow frequencies, and monthly and annual characteristics, for USGS streamflow-gaging stations in and near Montana. The StreamStats analytical toolsets that allow users to delineate drainage basins and solve regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites in Montana are described in Chapters F and G.

  4. Searsville Sediment Experiment: What is the ideal agricultural soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, J.; Lo, D.; Patel, N.; Gu, S.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to decide whether or not the sediment located within Searsville Dam at the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is well suited for agricultural soil. By utilizing various combinations of sediment, farm soil, compost, and horse manure to grow basil plants, we underwent an exploratory study in order to better understand what type of materials and nutrients plants can best thrive within. Our general experiment protocol includes watering the crops with irrigation every day while young, and then limiting that water exposure to only Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays as they become more established. The basil is growing in pots filled with the different amounts of material, and are arranged randomly to prevent certain plants from getting more sunlight than others. The whole experiment plot is covered with a thin white fabric and secured with bricks and wood to keep out pests in the garden. In order to observe trends in the basil development, plant height and leaf number is recorded once every week. During the third week of the study we performed soil texture tests, and within the fourth week we calculated pH data. We discovered that the sediment our project focuses upon is 10-18% clay and 50% sand which categorizes it as loam, and the Stanford farm soil that serves as our control group contains 20-26% clay and 30% sand so it is a silt loam material. The pH tests also showed an average of 7.45 for sediment, 7.3 for farm soil, 7.85 for compost, and 7.65 for horse manure. By looking at all of the data recorded over the five-week time period, we have so far noticed that the 50% sediment and 50% horse manure combination consistently has the best height increase as well as leaf size and content. The 50% sediment and 50% compost mixture has also performed well in those terms, and is therefore a possibility for the best agricultural soil. However, future lab work conducted by Stanford students to examine the nutrient content of the basil tissue, along

  5. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  6. The Realization Path of Japan’s Agricultural Modernization and Its Precious Experience for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiu-guang; XIE Ping

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, the per capita arable land area is small, the natural resources are short, and agricultural production has the typical characteristics of the peasant economy. Even if there are many unfavorable conditions, the level of agricultural modernization of Japan has exceeded that of many developed countries. We conduct comparative analysis on the development characteristics of China’s agriculture and Japan’s agriculture, and summarize the realization path of Japan’s agricultural modernization. Based on the reality of China, we can draw on the following experience from Japan: establishing and improving the agricultural legislation for agriculture; improving the rural cooperative economic organizations; deepening the reform of the agricultural land property right system; increasing the government’s direct funds input of into agriculture; improving the agricultural technology extension system.

  7. Engineering and agronomy aspects of a long-term precision agriculture field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much research has been conducted on specific precision agriculture tools and implementation strategies, but little has been reported on long-term evaluation of integrated precision agriculture field experiments. In 2004 our research team developed and initiated a multi-faceted “precision agriculture...

  8. What Does an Inventory of Recent Innovation Experiences Tell Us about Agricultural Innovation in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triomphe, Bernard; Floquet, Anne; Kamau, Geoffrey; Letty, Brigid; Vodouhe, Simplice Davo; Ng'ang'a, Teresiah; Stevens, Joe; van den Berg, Jolanda; Selemna, Nour; Bridier, Bernard; Crane, Todd; Almekinders, Cornelia; Waters-Bayer, Ann; Hocde, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Within the context of the European-funded JOLISAA project (JOint Learning in and about Innovation Systems in African Agriculture), an inventory of agricultural innovation experiences was made in Benin, Kenya and South Africa. The objective was to assess multi-stakeholder agricultural innovation processes involving smallholders. Approach:…

  9. An Examination of University Agricultural Education Faculty Attitudes toward the Implementation of High Impact Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Odom, Summer F.; Sledd, James

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful learning is a goal across the broad field of agricultural education and high impact learning (HIL) experiences are a mechanism to facilitate that goal. The purpose of this study was to examine university agricultural education faculty attitudes toward the implementation of HIL. Faculty (n=85) from 10 agricultural education departments…

  10. Agricultural Production Experiences at School for the Urban Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Allen J.

    1980-01-01

    In vocational agriculture at Sycamore High School in Illinois, urban students start their vocational education with a basic understanding of production, which is the foundation for all agricultural industry. Future Farmers of America chapter-operated and school-owned facilities provide the resources to make these experiential programs possible.…

  11. Record Book for Supervised Occupational Experience Programs in Vocational Agriculture Placement. Missouri Agricultural Education Series, Volume 11, Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bob R.; And Others

    Copies of twelve recordkeeping forms are provided in this record book designed for use by vocational agriculture students in a supervised occupational experience program (SOEP). The forms are organized into three sections: (1) receipts and expenditures (money received, money paid out, cash flow, financial statement, and profit and loss statement);…

  12. 75 FR 66718 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... the existing motorized public access routes and prohibitions within the Blackfoot travel planning...

  13. Forest regions of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Arno

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, Montana is divided into eight geographic subdivisions called "forest regions," based on distributions of tree and undergrowth species and the relationship of these patterns to climate and topography. The regions serve as a geographic reference for describing patterns of forest vegetation across the State. Data on the distributions of plant...

  14. Arnica montana L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreas, Ch.H.

    1958-01-01

    Een eventuele veelvormigheid van de wolverlei, Arnica montana L., heeft in ons land, voor zover mij bekend, geen aanleiding gegeven tot een onderverdeling dezer soort. In Portugal is dat wel het geval; A. de Bolos beschreef in 1948 in het tijdschrift Agronomia Lusitanica 2 ondersoorten voor het Iber

  15. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  16. An Early Historical Examination of the Educational Intent of Supervised Agricultural Experiences (SAEs) and Project-Based Learning in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kasee L.; Rayfield, John

    2016-01-01

    Project-based learning has been a component of agricultural education since its inception. In light of the current call for additional emphasis of the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) component of agricultural education, there is a need to revisit the roots of project-based learning. This early historical research study was conducted to…

  17. Entry-Level Technical Skills that Agricultural Industry Experts Expected Students to Learn through Their Supervised Agricultural Experiences: A Modified Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jon W.; Edwards, M. Craig

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council's (NRC) Report (1988), Understanding Agriculture: New Directions for Education, called on secondary agricultural education to shift its scope and purpose, including students' supervised agricultural experiences (SAEs). The NRC asserted that this shift should create opportunities for students to acquire supervised…

  18. Analysis of the Continuing Decline in Use of Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Roger

    1997-01-01

    When responses from 135 of 222 New York secondary agriculture teachers were compared with a 1983 study, a 10% decrease in supervised agricultural experience (SAE) was found. Barriers were low level of summer employment, limited release time, less funding for transportation, and scheduling problems. A comprehensive overhaul of the concept and…

  19. An Assessment of Students' Perceptions toward Factors Influencing Supervised Agricultural Experience Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lauren J.; Rayfield, John; Moore, Lori L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate student perceptions toward factors influencing Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) participation. This descriptive study was conducted in 120 randomly selected agricultural education programs throughout four purposively selected states representative of the National FFA regions. Within each state…

  20. Developing a Model for Supervised Agricultural Experience Program Quality: A Synthesis of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, James E.; Osborne, Edward W.

    1996-01-01

    A literature review revealed the following: (1) there are no standard criteria to measure the quality of supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs; (2) teacher attitudes and past SAE experiences strongly influence quality; (3) the number of teachers with SAE experience is declining; and (4) school laboratory facilities are essential for…

  1. Social Organization in Montana. Montana Economic Study-Staff Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigart, Robert J.

    The four papers in this publication discusses Montana's social structure as it relates to culture, income, urbanism, and communal religious communities. "Montana Social Structure and Culture" includes rural and suburban life styles; the history of rural community organization; rural-small town communities; urban physical conditions;…

  2. Developing a Climate Change Boundary Organization: the Montana Adaptation Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, C. L.; Brooks, S.; Armstrong, T.; Bryan, B.

    2016-12-01

    Small-population large-area states like Montana are often challenged by a need to offer timely and relevant climate-change information that addresses diverse and widely dispersed stakeholder groups. In Montana, filling the gap between science and various types of decision-makers has motivated development of the first Montana Climate Assessment (MCA1), to be released in 2017 with a focus on climate-change impacts for agricultural, water and forestry sectors. To sustain and build on the MCA1 effort, we are also in the process of creating a Boundary Organization (defined by the National Academy of Sciences) called the Montana Adaptation Exchange (the Exchange); this entity will facilitate the flow of information across the boundaries between science, knowledge and implementation. In Montana, the Exchange brings scientists and practitioners together to seek solutions related to climate-change adaptation and other pressing environmental and social-economic challenges. The Montana Adaptation Exchange (1) is a collaborative partnership of members from the science and practitioner communities under a shared governance and participatory model; (2) presents research that has been vetted by the scientific community at large and represents the current state of knowledge; (3) allows for revision and expansion of assessments like the MCA; (4) communicates relevant, often technical, research and findings to a wide variety of resource managers and other stakeholders; (5) develops and maintains an extensive online database that organizes, regularly updates, and makes research data products readily available; and (6) offers an online portal and expert network of affiliated researchers and climate adaptation specialists to provide effective customer support. Boundary organizations, such as the Montana Adaptation Exchange, offer a scalable path to effectively move from "science to knowledge to action" while also allowing stakeholder needs to help inform research agendas.

  3. THE CUBAN WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE: RECOVERY OF EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Beatriz Arce-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author brings an analysis about Cuban rural women in development projects due to different historical moments of Cuban Revolution of Fidel Castro after 1959. An experience in the western part of the country, Holguin, is showed as an example of improvement of Cuban rural women participation in development local projects with gender perspective.

  4. Globalizing the Undergraduate Experience in Agricultural Leadership, Education, Extension, and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinert, Seth B.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2016-01-01

    University graduates are entering a workforce where global competencies are important; yet, a vast majority graduate with limited international educational experience. The purpose of this basic qualitative study was to describe themes of international educational experiences currently being offered to students of agricultural leadership,…

  5. Practice of Developing Low-carbon Leisure Agriculture in Agricultural Sci-tech Experiment and Demonstration Park: A Case Study of Xinglong Tropical Botanical Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan; OUYANG; Huasong; WU; Aiqin; LIU; Huan; YU; Hongmei; FU

    2013-01-01

    The Agricultural Science and Technology Experiment and Demonstration Park,as a unique tourist scenic spot,is a new model for the development of low-carbon leisure agriculture.In this paper,with Xinglong Tropical Botanical Park as a study case,the practice of developing a model of low-carbon agricultural science and technology tourism in the park is explored.Main measures for developing low-carbon leisure agriculture in Agricultural Science and Technology Experiment and Demonstration Park are summarized,including development of low carbon attractors,construction of low carbon facilities,strengthening low-carbon management,building low-carbon environment and so on,according to analysis on the models for development of low-carbon agricultural science tourism in this park.

  6. Does Prior Experience in Secondary Agricultural Mechanics Affect Pre-Service Agricultural Education Teachers' Intentions to Enroll in Post-Secondary Agricultural Mechanics Coursework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Trent; Perry, Dustin K.; Anderson, Ryan G.; Shultz, Matthew J.; Paulsen, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural mechanics coursework has historically been considered an important and necessary construct of the secondary agricultural education curriculum (Burris, Robinson, & Terry, 2005). With expectations of offering secondary agricultural mechanics coursework apparent, it is vital that agricultural education teachers be prepared to address…

  7. Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Capacity in Earth Observations for Agricultural Monitoring: The GEOGLAM Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Di Bella, C. M.; Becker Reshef, I.; Deshayes, M.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative has been working to strengthen the international community's capacity to use Earth observation (EO) data to derive timely, accurate, and transparent information on agriculture, with the goals of reducing market volatility and promoting food security. GEOGLAM aims to develop capacity for EO-based agricultural monitoring at multiple scales, from national to regional to global. This is accomplished through training workshops, developing and transferring of best-practices, establishing networks of broad and sustainable institutional support, and designing or adapting tools and methodologies to fit localized contexts. Over the past four years, capacity development activities in the context of GEOGLAM have spanned all agriculture-containing continents, with much more work to be done, particularly in the domains of promoting access to large, computationally-costly datasets. This talk will detail GEOGLAM's experiences, challenges, and opportunities surrounding building international collaboration, ensuring institutional buy-in, and developing sustainable programs.

  8. Libraries in Montana: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/montana.html Libraries in Montana To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Billings Billings Clinic Medical Library 2825 8th Avenue North Billings, MT 59107-5100 ...

  9. In pursuit of a science of agriculture: the role of statistics in field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-09-01

    Since the beginning of the twentieth century statistics has reshaped the experimental cultures of agricultural research taking part in the subtle dialectic between the epistemic and the material that is proper to experimental systems. This transformation has become especially relevant in field trials and the paper will examine the British agricultural institution, Rothamsted Experimental Station, where statistical methods nowadays popular in the planning and analysis of field experiments were developed in the 1920s. At Rothamsted statistics promoted randomisation over systematic arrangements, factorisation over one-question trials, and emphasised the importance of the experimental error in assessing field trials. These changes in methodology transformed also the material culture of agricultural science, and a new body, the Field Plots Committee, was created to manage the field research of the agricultural institution. Although successful, the vision of field experimentation proposed by the Rothamsted statisticians was not unproblematic. Experimental scientists closely linked to the farming community questioned it in favour of a field research that could be more easily understood by farmers. The clash between the two agendas reveals how the role attributed to statistics in field experimentation defined different pursuits of agricultural research, alternately conceived of as a scientists' science or as a farmers' science.

  10. American Indian High School Completion in Rural Southeastern Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Carol

    1995-01-01

    Factors related to dropping out were examined among Northern Cheyenne and Crow high school students living in three southeastern Montana communities and attending a Catholic school, a public school, or a tribal school. Place of residence, parental educational attainment, and school experiences were important variables, but their effects varied by…

  11. 78 FR 10507 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... approved pursuant to 30 CFR 732.17. Therefore, Montana advised that the minor grammatical changes will not.... Montana proposes changes to the Montana Strip and Underground Mine Reclamation Act (MSUMRA) that... conditions of approval in the April 1, 1980, Federal Register (45 FR 21560). You can also find later...

  12. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4

  13. Measuring the Interest of German Students in Agriculture: the Role of Knowledge, Nature Experience, Disgust, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Malte; Strack, Micha; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2015-06-01

    Modern knowledge-based societies, especially their younger members, have largely lost their bonds to farming. However, learning about agriculture and its interrelations with environmental issues may be facilitated by students' individual interests in agriculture. To date, an adequate instrument to investigate agricultural interests has been lacking. Research has infrequently considered students' interest in agricultural content areas as well as influencing factors on students' agricultural interests. In this study, a factorial design of agricultural interests was developed combining five agricultural content areas and four components of individual interest. The instrument was validated with German fifth and sixth graders ( N = 1,085) using a variance decomposition confirmatory factor analysis model. The results demonstrated a second-order factor of general agricultural interest, with animal husbandry, arable farming, vegetable and fruit cropping, primary food processing, and agricultural engineering as discrete content areas of agricultural interest. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that prior knowledge, garden experience, and disgust sensitivity are predictors of general agricultural interest. In addition, gender influenced interest in four of the five agricultural content areas. Implications are directed at researchers, teachers, and environmental educators concerning how to trigger and develop pupils' agricultural interests.

  14. Safety in High School Supervised Agricultural Experiences: Teachers' Training and Students' Injury Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, M L; Lawver, R G; Sorensen, T J

    2016-01-01

    This research study sought to gather evidence of school-based agriculture teachers' hazard perceptions, safety practices, training experiences, and awareness of student injuries related to supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs. Teachers agreed that students should follow safety guidelines developed by the National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Safety and Health during SAE work. Approximately 66% (f = 153) of teachers reported having general training in first aid, CPR, and AED. Twenty participants (8.6%) indicated having no safety certifications or training. Abrasions, lacerations, bites/stings, and burns accounted for a majority of the student SAE-related injuries that were reported. There were 82 participants (35.5%) who stated that no injuries had been reported or they were not aware of any injuries that occurred. The majority of teachers (66%) had received some form offirst aid or first response training, but fewer teachers had received safety training for ATVs (f = 25, 10.8%), tractors (f = 48, 20.7%), and livestock (f = 39, 16.8%). Results indicated a disparity between required safe work habits and the types of hazardous tasks students should be allowed to complete alone while participating in SAE activities. It appears most responding teachers in this study agreed to allow students to operate equipment and machinery alone. Recommendations for teachers include attending professional development training specific to SAE safety and keeping records of any risk assessments conducted during SAE supervision. Further development of best practices for SAE supervision and safety are needed to assist agricultural education professionals in protecting and shaping our future leaders in agriculture.

  15. Marigolds for Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolbaugh, Walt; Dunkel, Florence

    2003-01-01

    Describes a collaborative science research project designed to help build strong school and community relationships. Participating students joined with university scientists on a yearlong agriculturally-based research project to study the effect of marigolds on nematode management. (KHR)

  16. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Jing Tao; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE 06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE 06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/sq m. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy. Keywords: Vegetation, field experimentation, thematic mapper, NDWI, agriculture.

  17. Entry-Level Technical Skills That Teachers Expected Students to Learn through Supervised Agricultural Experiences (SAEs): A Modified Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jon W.; Edwards, M. Craig

    2012-01-01

    Supervised experiences are designed to provide opportunities for the hands-on learning of skills and practices that lead to successful personal growth and future employment in an agricultural career (Talbert, Vaughn, Croom, & Lee, 2007). In the Annual Report for Agricultural Education (2005-2006), it was stated that 91% of the respondents…

  18. Entry-Level Technical Skills That Teachers Expected Students to Learn through Supervised Agricultural Experiences (SAEs): A Modified Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jon W.; Edwards, M. Craig

    2012-01-01

    Supervised experiences are designed to provide opportunities for the hands-on learning of skills and practices that lead to successful personal growth and future employment in an agricultural career (Talbert, Vaughn, Croom, & Lee, 2007). In the Annual Report for Agricultural Education (2005-2006), it was stated that 91% of the respondents (i.e.,…

  19. Russian Observations of European Experience in Agricultural Development in 1840s (based on the printed output of the Imperial Agricultural Societies of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia I. Kuznetsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the nineteenth century, agriculture in Russia had reached the new level of development. The Imperial Agricultural Societies paid much attention to establishing relations with the foreign agricultural societies and kept up with their periodicals, issuing translations and abridgements of texts, which could be interesting to the Russian readers. This paper examines the articles on farming industry in Great Britain, France, German countries, Italy, and the USA, released in journals and transactions of Imperial Agricultural Societies of Russia in 1840s. The research draws on both reviews of European congresses or exhibitions, written by members of agricultural societies, and the articles written by foreign authors and published in translation. Such approach made it possible to specify the certain topics appealing to Russian farmers. Moreover, the study of the articles contributed by the Imperial Agricultural Societies helped to build a complete picture representing knowledge on history, theory and practice of foreign and Russian husbandry, shared by the Russian farmers in 1840s. It is also worth to mention that the effective work of agricultural journals in fact integrated Russian farming communities into the broad network of contacts, experience and knowledge exchange, which had been functioning in Europe in the first half of the XIXth century. Nevertheless, the research revealed that the articles in question almost lacked comparisons between Russian and European agriculture. The papers dealing with comparative analysis of the different European farming systems are characterized by noticeably restrained reaction of the editors and authors to the published information. They tended to show the advantages and disadvantages of the foreign farming without furnishing the Russian reader or the Russian authorities with any specific recommendations.

  20. A career in government: my experiences working for the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agricultural sector provides highly diverse career opportunities that include private companies, academic institutions, non-government organizations, and government agencies. One possible career path is with the Federal government which is one of the largest employers of scientists and engineers...

  1. Mobile Learning Bridging the Gap in Agricultural Extension Service Delivery: Experiences from Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga, Camilius; Mlozi, Malongo; Haug, Ruth; Tumbo, Siza

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous nature of mobile phones offers a noble environment where farmers can learn informally anywhere, anytime and at any location. This is an innovative way to address some of the weakness of conventional agricultural extension service. Few empirical studies have reported on the development of mobile phone application to support blended…

  2. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - Montana Wetland and Riparian Framework - Map Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Wetland and Riparian Framework represents the extent, type, and approximate location of wetlands, riparian areas, and deepwater habitats in Montana....

  3. Vegetation water content mapping in a diverse agricultural landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Tao, Jing; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2010-05-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE'06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE'06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/m2. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy.

  4. Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium are inversely correlated and related to agricultural practices in long-term field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna eZhalnina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land management, such as fertilization, liming, and tillage affects soil properties, including pH, organic matter content, nitrification rates, and the microbial community. Three different study sites were used to identify microorganisms that correlate with agricultural land use and to determine which factors regulate the relative abundance of the microbial signatures of the agricultural land-use. The three sites included in this study are the Broadbalk Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, the Everglades Agricultural Area, Florida, USA and the Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan, USA. The effects of agricultural management on the abundance and diversity of bacteria and archaea were determined using high throughput, barcoded 16S rRNA sequencing. In addition, the relative abundance of these organisms was correlated with soil features. Two groups of microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycle were highly correlated with land use at all three sites. The ammonia oxidizing-archaea, dominated by Ca. Nitrososphaera, were positively correlated with agriculture while a ubiquitous group of soil bacteria closely related to the diazotrophic symbiont, Bradyrhizobium, was negatively correlated with agricultural management. Analysis of successional plots showed that the abundance of ammonia oxidizing-archaea declined and the abundance of bradyrhizobia increased with time away from agriculture. This observation suggests that the effect of agriculture on the relative abundance of these genera is reversible. Soil pH and NH3 concentrations were positively correlated with archaeal abundance but negatively correlated with the abundance of Bradyrhizobium. The high correlations of Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium abundances with agricultural management at three long-term experiments with different edaphoclimatic conditions allowed us to suggest these two genera as signature microorganisms for agricultural land use.

  5. DOLUS LAKES ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, James E.; Avery, Dale W.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Dolus Lakes Roadless Area in southwestern Montana, was conducted. Much of the roadless area has probable and substantiated potential for resources of gold, silver, molybdenum, and tungsten. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of coal, oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Detailed geologic and geochemical studies are suggested to delineate exploration targets that could be tested by drilling.

  6. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) Initiative: Developing methods and best practices for global agricultural monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, C.; Jarvis, I.; Defourny, P.; Davidson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems differ significantly throughout the world, making a 'one size fits all' approach to remote sensing and monitoring of agricultural landscapes problematic. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) was established in 2009 to bring together the global scientific community to work towards a set of best practices and recommendations for using earth observation data to map, monitor and report on agricultural productivity globally across an array of diverse agricultural systems. These methods form the research and development component of the Group on Earth Observation Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative to harmonize global monitoring efforts and increase market transparency. The JECAM initiative brings together researchers from a large number of globally distributed, well monitored agricultural test sites that cover a range of crop types, cropping systems and climate regimes. Each test site works independently as well as together across multiple sites to test methods, sensors and field data collection techniques to derive key agricultural parameters, including crop type, crop condition, crop yield and soil moisture. The outcome of this project will be a set of best practices that cover the range of remote sensing monitoring and reporting needs, including satellite data acquisition, pre-processing techniques, information retrieval and ground data validation. These outcomes provide the research and development foundation for GEOGLAM and will help to inform the development of the GEOGLAM "system of systems" for global agricultural monitoring. The outcomes of the 2014 JECAM science meeting will be discussed as well as examples of methods being developed by JECAM scientists.

  7. 76 FR 47637 - Montana Disaster #MT-00062

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00062 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Montana (FEMA..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  8. 77 FR 47907 - Montana Disaster #MT-00067

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00067 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of MONTANA dated 08/02/2012. Incident: Ash Creek Fire. Incident Period: 06/25/2012 through 07/22/2012. Effective Date:...

  9. 77 FR 48198 - Montana Disaster #MT-00068

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00068 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Montana dated 08/06/2012. Incident: Dahl Fire. Incident Period: 06/26/2012 through 07/06/2012. Effective Date:...

  10. Field Experience Exchange Meeting for the Southern Region of National Agricultural Standardization Demonstration Area Held in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ An Experience Exchange Meeting of National Agricultural Standardization Demonstration Area was held in Chengdu, Sichuan Province during May 18~21,2004. This meeting was of great importance to the overall promotion of agricultural standardization demonstration area work, more than 100 representatives from quality & technology supervision bureaus of 15 provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government and some cities independently listed city in the state plan, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Water Resources, All-China Federation of Supply and Marketing Cooperatives, State Forestry Administration, State Grain Administration, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration etc.

  11. The Effects of the Student Teaching Experience on Cooperating Teachers in Secondary Agricultural Education Programs: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the effects of the student teaching experience on secondary agricultural education teachers. Eight of the thirteen participants in this study served as a cooperating teacher during the 2012 spring semester for pre-service teachers in agricultural education from a land-grant institution. Three of the participants had served as a cooperating teacher during either the 2010 or 2011 spring semester but had reported a negative student teachi...

  12. THE ANALYSIS OF EXPERIENCE OF DEVELOPED COUNTRIES IN THE APPLIANCE OF STATE SUPPORT IN THE SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fyliuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of state support in enhancing of the competitiveness of agricultural sector is determined. Mechanisms of state support of Germany are analyzed. A necessity of use of targeted financial support to the introduction of monitoring systems in domestic agriculture is proved. The questions of financial support for Ukrainian agricultural producers, which carried out in 16 major budget programs that cover all areas of agricultural enterprises, including the provision of interest-free loans to farmers, reduction of bank loans and insurance premiums, to provide assistance in buying of heavy agricultural machinery of domestic production are examined. The international experience of support and regulation of agriculture, including studies of state support of agriculture in Germany, which allows to solve the problems of agriculture, including efficient use of agricultural land, food security and creating a competitive market for agricultural products is overviewed.

  13. Land Policy for Sustainable Agricultural Land Development and Its Implementation: Experiences from West Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Noer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- Agriculture development in traditions requires land to grow the commodity, either for consumption and industrial commodities. In one hand, it implies that land as resources is understood as an important and high value to attain sustainable agriculture development. In the other hand, land for agricultural use is realized as lower value than land for commercial purposes. That results on land conversion from agriculture to non-agricultural land such as land for settlement, and tends to happen increasingly at alarming rate. It dares to food supply which may not meet the demand. The paper discusses about how problematical of land competition for settlement and agriculture have been taking place in West Sumatra Province in Indonesia. How regulation on land use planning at national level is being implemented at the provincial or sub district/city level with regard to sustainable land for food and agriculture development. It is argued that land policy for agriculture and settlement development planning should be laid into an integrated and sustainable development planning thought.  Keywords: food, non-agriculture, and sustainable land 

  14. Supervised Agricultural Experience Programmes (SAEP) and Work Linked Education (WLE): Panacea for Empowering Youths and Preventing Joblessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiwole, Remigius O.

    2015-01-01

    Youths from Nigerian schools and tertiary institutions are usually unemployable after schooling because they are not empowered with the required saleable skills to earn them a job or with which to establish as entrepreneurs. This paper examines the relevance of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programme (SAEP) and Work Linked Education (WLE) as…

  15. Impacts of a Faculty Abroad Experience on Teaching Style and Technology Use in a College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlin, M'Randa R.; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Lindner, James R.; Dooley, Kim E.

    2013-01-01

    Faculty abroad programs are becoming a popular method to provide faculty in colleges of agriculture with international experiences so they may internationalize their curricula. These programs also serve to provide experiential faculty development opportunities. Eight faculty members from Texas A&M University participated in a faculty abroad…

  16. MyAgRecord: An Online Career Portfolio Management Tool for High School Students Conducting Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emis, Larry; Dillingham, John

    Texas's online career portfolio management tool for high school students participating in supervised agricultural experience programs (SAEPs) was developed in 1998 by a committee of Texas high school teachers of agriscience and Texas Education Agency personnel. The career portfolio management tool reflects General Accepted Accounting Principles…

  17. Using Slovenian Experience in the Croatian Agricultural Policy Adjustment to EU Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornella Kumrić

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Strict EU requirements in politics, legislation and economics on new and future member states pose a great challenge for Croatia, which strives to become its member. Agriculture, being an important economic sector, needs to be considerably reformed in the process of adjustment to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP. The Croatia decided to use the Slovenian case for better understanding of the requirements and their fulfilment. The Slovenian agricultural policy reform included change from market price supports towards direct payments, and implementation of different structural, environmental and rural development measures. Slovenia has implemented numerous reforms, plans and laws. Slovenian four-year pre-accession negotiations with the EU in agricultural sector comprised: implementing the acquis communitaire, exceptions from the acquis, and the financial part. To achieve the best negotiation results, Slovenia collected detailed and reliable data and engaged professionals who negotiated the most favourable position for Slovenian agriculture in the European agricultural sector. The Croatian agricultural policy reform is underway, so there is a tendency of decreasing and phasing out the system of guaranteed prices, direct payments are being introduced, Croatia is included in trade integration processes, steps need to be taken for strengthening of competitive capacity of domestic products both in domestic and foreign markets, and rural development and the whole social situation in agricultural sector needs to be improved.

  18. Using Slovenian Experience in the Croatian Agricultural Policy Adjustment to EU Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornella Kumrić

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Strict EU requirements in politics, legislation and economics on new and future member states pose a great challenge for Croatia, which strives to become its member. Agriculture, being an important economic sector, needs to be considerably reformed in the process of adjustment to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP. The Croatia decided to use the Slovenian case for better understanding of the requirements and their fulfilment. The Slovenian agricultural policy reform included change from market price supports towards direct payments, and implementation of different structural, environmentaland rural development measures. Slovenia has implemented numerous reforms, plans and laws. Slovenian four-year pre-accession negotiations with the EU in agricultural sector comprised: implementing the acquis communitaire, exceptions from the acquis, and the financial part. To achieve the best negotiation results, Slovenia collected detailed and reliable data and engaged professionals who negotiated the most favourable position for Slovenian agriculture in the European agricultural sector. The Croatian agricultural policy reform is underway, so there is a tendency of decreasing and phasing out the system of guaranteed prices, direct payments are being introduced, Croatia is included in trade integration processes, steps need to be taken for strengthening of competitive capacity of domestic products both in domestic and foreign markets, and rural development and the whole social situation in agricultural sector needs to be improved.

  19. ORTHOIMAGERY, LAKE COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP acquires digital ortho imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in...

  20. 78 FR 44187 - Montana Disaster # MT-00079

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00079 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... have been determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Blaine,...

  1. Notes and comments on Montana Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of actual management actions, and plant community responses on Montana refuges during 1992. It is part of the moist-soil expert system...

  2. Adminstrative Boundary for Glacier National Park, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The current administrative boundary of Glacier National Park, Montana. This data is based on 1:24000 scale USGS quad mapping published in 1968, but was revised in...

  3. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership - Montana Cadastral Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Cadastral Database is comprised of taxable parcels (fee land) and public land (exempt property). It is not broken down into individual lots, for instance...

  5. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1998. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  6. Waterfowl production survey for Montana: July 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1980. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck...

  7. Watershed Boundaries - Watershed Boundary Database for Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer of the Subbasins (8-digit), Watersheds (10-digit), and Subwatersheds (12-digit) for Montana. This...

  8. Developing Programs of Supervised Agricultural Experience. Developing an SAE Program Using the Missouri Agricultural Record Book for Secondary Students. Analyzing the SAE Program Using the Missouri Farm Business Record Book. Instructor's Guide. Volume 21, Number 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admire, Myron

    This curriculum guide to the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program contains four units of insturctor's materials as follows: Unit 1: Developing an SAE Program; Unit 2: Using the Missouri Agricultural Record Book for Secondary Students; Unit 3: Analyzing the SAE Program; and Unit 4: Using the Missouri Farm Business Record Book. The…

  9. Soil apparent conductivity measurements for planning and analysis of agricultural experiments: A case study from Western-Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Sebastian; Wongleecharoen, Chalermchart; Lark, Richard Murray; Marchant, Ben Paul; Garré, Sarah; Herbst, Michael; Vereecken, Harry; Weihermueller, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    In agricultural experiments the success or failure of a potential improvement is generally evaluated based on the plant response, using proper experimental designs with sufficient statistical power. Because within-site variability can negatively affect statistical power, improvements in the experimental design can be achieved if this variation is well understood and incorporated into the experimental design, or if some surrogate variable is used as a covariate in the analysis. Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa), measured by electromagnetic induction (EMI) may be one source of this information. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of EMI-derived ECa measurements for planning and analysis of agricultural experiments. ECa and plant height measurements of maize (the response variable) were taken from an agricultural experiment in Western Thailand. A statistical model of these variables was used to simulate experiments with different designs and treatment effects. The simulated data were used to quantify the statistical power when testing three orthogonal contrasts. The following experimental designs were considered: a simple random design (SR), a complete randomized block design (CRB), and a complete randomized block design with spatially adjusted blocks on plot means of ECa (CRBECa). According to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) the smallest effect sizes could be detected using the CRBECa design, which suggests that ECa survey measurements could be used in the planning phase of an experiment to achieve efficiencies by better blocking. Also, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that larger power improvements could be achieved when ECa was used as a covariate in the analysis. We therefore recommend that ECa measurements should be used to describe subsurface variability and to support the statistical analysis of agricultural experiments.

  10. The Roles of Agriculture in the Development Process: Recent Experiences and Lessons from Ethiopia.

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Political and economic reforms have been implemented for a number of years to alter the institutional, infrastructural and financial/economic environment in which Ethiopian agriculture operates. Changing the environment in which agriculture operates may be an intermediate goal; at the end, the question remains; have the new reforms and policies had the capacity to improve the performance of the sector and its roles in the development process of the economy? And have they contributed to the ge...

  11. 76 FR 43259 - Southern Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... in Billings, Montana. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and... Grad Montana Hotel and Convention Center, 5500 Midland Road, Billings, MT. Written comments should...

  12. Science Inquiry Learning in Classrooms — Montana Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelsford, M. A.; Peters, J.; Grimberg, B. I.

    2010-04-01

    Montana's ABRC is working with rural school teachers in southwestern Montana. Astrobiology is a new and exciting subject for the teachers and its inter-disciplinary nature is very useful and rewarding for the teachers and their students.

  13. Urban Agriculture Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  14. Observations on a Montana water quality proposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.

    2006-01-12

    In May 2005, a group of petitioners led by the Northern Plains Resource Council (NPRC) submitted a petition to revise water quality requirements to the Montana Board of Environmental Review (BER). Under Montana law, the BER had to consider the petition and either reject it or propose it as a new regulation. In September 2005, the BER announced proposed changes to the Montana water quality regulations. The proposal, which included almost the exact language found in the petition, was directed toward discharges of water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production. The key elements of the proposal included: (1) No discharges of CBNG water are allowed to Montana surface waters unless operators can demonstrate that injection to aquifers with the potential for later recovery of the water is not feasible. (2) When operators can demonstrate the injection is not feasible, the CBNG water to be discharged must meet very strict technology-based limits for multiple parameters. (3) The Montana water quality standards for the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) would be evaluated using the 7Q10 flow (lowest 7-consecutive-day flow in a 10-year period) rather than a monthly flow that is currently used. (4) SAR and EC would be reclassified as ''harmful parameters'', thereby greatly restricting the ability for CBNG discharges to be allowed under Montana's nondegradation regulations. The proposed regulations, if adopted in their current form, are likely to substantially reduce the amount of CBNG production in Montana. The impact also extends to Wyoming CBNG production through much greater restrictions on water quality that must be met at the interstate border.

  15. Board of Regents' Montana University System (MUS) Strategic Plan 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana University System, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Montana University System Strategic Plan is the primary planning document of the Board of Regents. The Plan sets forth an agenda for higher education in Montana by delineating the strategic directions, goals, and objectives that guide the Montana University System (MUS). In July 2006, after several years of study, public dialogue, and internal…

  16. Embrapa's experience in the production and development of agriculture reference materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, A. R. A.; Souza, G. B.; Bossu, C. M.; Bianchi, S. R.; Verhalen, T. R.; Silva, P. T.; Peixoto, A. A. J.; Silva, C. S.

    2016-07-01

    The main challenge of Embrapa is to develop a model of genuine Brazilian tropical agriculture and livestock. To get this task, the quality of laboratories results is mandatory, increasing the demand for reference materials. Projects were proposed to produce reference materials to support the national agriculture laboratories and consolidate a network able to perform reliable and reproducible analytical testing laboratory within the internationally standards required. Reference materials were produced and available to interested laboratories and collaborative tests were conducted to obtain consensus values. The results and statistical evaluations were performed with the use of software developed by Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste.

  17. DEVELOPING THE NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK: KYRGYZ EXPERIENCE OF QUALIFICATIONS ANALYSIS IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мasuma I. Bashirova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals the research outcomes concerning the qualifications requirements of the Kyrgyz Republic’s agricultural sector; the significance of the given sector and lack of competent specialists determine the research relevance. The methodology bases of quantitative and qualitative human resources analysis involved a traditional sociological survey and innovative methods of functional analysis. The research findings can be used for balancing the labor marker supply and demand, and ensure, therefore, the effective personnel management in agricultural industry. On the other hand, the above findings can improve the vocational training programs and mechanisms of training quality assessment to align them with the employers’ requirements.

  18. Individual- and population-level effects of Odocoileus virginianus herbivory on the rare forest herb Scutellaria montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea R. Benson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Odocoileus virginianus  (white-tailed deer grazing can impact rare plant species dramatically given their risk for local extirpation and extinction. To determine if O. virginianus management could aid conservation of federally threatened Scutellaria montana  (large-flowered skullcap, we conducted an exclosure experiment across a large occurrence of this rare species in Catoosa County, Georgia, USA. We aimed to: (1 quantify the effects of O. virginianus  grazing on S. montana  individuals, and (2 evaluate the potential of O. virginianus  to influence S. montana  populations. A lesser percentage of S. montana  individuals protected from O. virginianus  were grazed than plants accessible to grazers and additional protection from smaller grazers did not reduce grazing, suggesting that O. virginianus  primarily do graze S. montana. But grazing did not significantly influence S. montana  individuals as evidenced by changes in stem height or the number of leaves per plant assessed during two single growing seasons or across those growing seasons. At the population-level, grazing impacts were buffered by a lack of grazer preferences for specific plant life stages. Although mostly not significant, our findings are biologically interesting given the numerous ecological concerns associated with O. virginianus abundance, including their demonstrated and proposed impact on rare plants.

  19. Photothermal experiments on condensed phase samples of agricultural interest : optical and thermal characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favier, J.P.

    1997-01-01


    A rapidly increasing number of photothermal (PT) techniques has had a considerable impact on agriculture and environmental sciences in the last decade. It was the purpose of the work described here to develop and apply new PT techniques in this specific field of research.

    Chapter

  20. Industrial Development Bonds for Financing Projects in Rural Areas. Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 216.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Stephen W.

    As one of several special reports on development possibilities for the agriculture and forestry sector of the Four Corners Economic Development Region, this monograph deals with the use of industrial development bonds as a means of resolving finance problems arising from inadequate or nonexistent credit in rural areas. Distinguishing between the…

  1. Innovation platforms: experiences with their institutional embedding in agricultural research for development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, M.L.W.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Sartas, M.; Lamers, D.; McCampbell, M.; Ogbonna, H.; Kaushik, P.; Atta-Krah, K.; Leeuwis, C.

    2016-01-01

    Innovation Platforms (IPs) are seen as a promising vehicle to foster a paradigm shift in agricultural research for development (AR4D). By facilitating interaction, negotiation and collective action between farmers, researchers and other stakeholders, IPs can contribute to more integrated, systemic i

  2. Paxton Revisited: The Essence of the Lived Experiences of Urban Agricultural Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Roberts, Richie; Whiddon, Ashley S.; Goossen, Carmelita E.; Kacal, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population and need for more food and agricultural knowledge has inspired city dwellers to explore urban cultivation practices such as vertical farming and community gardening. Ultra-modern approaches to growing crops and livestock in urban high-rise buildings has sparked the imagination of scientists, agriculturists, and…

  3. Perceptions of Teaching Ability during the Student Teaching Experience in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysher, Sheyenne; Robinson, J. Shane; Montgomery, Diane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the views student teachers in agricultural education at Oklahoma State University had regarding their 12-week student teaching internship. Using Q-methodology as a research approach, 28 interns rank-ordered a Q-set of 36 statements describing various aspects teacher responsibilities and performance. The…

  4. Exposure to a heat wave under food limitation makes an agricultural insecticide lethal: a mechanistic laboratory experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinh, Khuong Van; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2016-01-01

    Extreme temperatures and exposure to agricultural pesticides are becoming more frequent and intense under global change. Their combination may be especially problematic when animals suffer food limitation. We exposed Coenagrion puella damselfly larvae to a simulated heat wave combined with food...... limitation and subsequently to a widespread agricultural pesticide (chlorpyrifos) in an indoor laboratory experiment designed to obtain mechanistic insights in the direct effects of these stressors in isolation and when combined. The heat wave reduced immune function (activity of phenoloxidase, PO...... variables. While the immediate effects of the heat wave were subtle, our results indicate the importance of delayed effects in shaping the total fitness impact of a heat wave when followed by pesticide exposure. Firstly, the combination of delayed negative effects of the heat wave and starvation...

  5. Bioenergy in developing countries experiences and prospects: bioenergy and agriculture promises and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kammen, Daniel M

    2006-01-01

    "Biomass energy programs offer a wide range of potential benefits for developing countries. Already traditional biomass products like firewood, charcoal, manure, and crop residues provide the main source of household energy use for some 2–3 billion people in the developing world, and this demand is likely to grow in the years ahead. But new technologies for commercial energy production from biomass are emerging that could lead to dramatic new opportunities for agriculture and the rural sector...

  6. Status and Importance/Support for Supervised Occupational Experience Programs (SOEP) as Perceived by New York Vocational Agriculture Teachers and Their Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkey, Arthur L.; Sutphin, H. Dean

    A study examined the status of agricultural supervised occupational experience programs (SOEP) in the state of New York and also the attitudes of agricultural teachers and their building administrators toward SOEP. Two separate survey instruments were used to gather data for the study--one survey was mailed to 333 secondary vocational agriculture…

  7. Final report on the safety assessment of Arnica montana extract and Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Arnica Montana Extract is an extract of dried flowerheads of the plant, Arnica montana. Arnica Montana is a generic term used to describe a plant material derived from the dried flowers, roots, or rhizomes of A. montana. Common names for A. montana include leopard's bane, mountain tobacco, mountain snuff, and wolf's bane. Two techniques for preparing Arnica Montana Extract are hydroalcoholic maceration and gentle disintegration in soybean oil. Propylene glycol and butylene glycol extractions were also reported. The composition of these extracts can include fatty acids, especially palmitic, linoleic, myristic, and linolenic acids, essential oil, triterpenic alcohols, sesquiterpene lactones, sugars, phytosterols, phenol acids, tannins, choline, inulin, phulin, arnicin, flavonoids, carotenoids, coumarins, and heavy metals. The components present in these extracts are dependent on where the plant is grown. Arnica Montana Extract was reported to be used in almost 100 cosmetic formulations across a wide range of product types, whereas Arnica Montana was reported only once. Extractions of Arnica Montana were tested and found not toxic in acute toxicity tests in rabbits, mice, and rats; they were not irritating, sensitizing, or phototoxic to mouse or guinea pig skin; and they did not produce significant ocular irritation. In an Ames test, an extract of A. montana was mutagenic, possibly related to the flavenoid content of the extract. No carcinogenicity or reproductive/developmental toxicity data were available. Clinical tests of extractions failed to elicit irritation or sensitization, yet Arnica dermatitis, a delayed type IV allergy, is reported in individuals who handle arnica flowers and may be caused by sesquiterpene lactones found in the flowers. Ingestion of A. montana-containing products has induced severe gastroenteritis, nervousness, accelerated heart rate, muscular weakness, and death. Absent any basis for concluding that data on one member of a botanical

  8. Montana BioDiesel Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, Brent [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2017-01-29

    This initiative funding helped put Montana State University (MSU) in a position to help lead in the development of biodiesel production strategies. Recent shortages in electrical power and rising gasoline prices have focused much attention on the development of alternative energy sources that will end our dependence on fossil fuels. In addition, as the concern for environmental impact of utilizing fossil fuels increases, effective strategies must be implemented to reduce emissions or the increased regulations imposed on fossil fuel production will cause economic barriers for their use to continue to increase. Biodiesel has been repeatedly promoted as a more environmentally sound and renewable source of fuel and may prove to be a highly viable solution to provide, at the least, a proportion of our energy needs. Currently there are both practical and economic barriers to the implementation of alternative energy however the advent of these technologies is inevitable. Since many of the same strategies for the storage, transport, and utilization of biodiesel are common with that of fossil fuels, the practical barriers for biodiesel are comparatively minimal. Strategies were developed to harness the CO2 as feedstock to support the growth of biodiesel producing algae. The initiative funding led to the successful funding of highly rated projects in competitive national grant programs in the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy. This funding put MSU in a key position to develop technologies to utilize the CO2 rich emissions produced in fossil fuel utilization and assembled world experts concerning the growth characteristics of photosynthetic microorganisms capable of producing biodiesel.

  9. Connecting transport, agriculture and rural development: Experiences from Mhlontlo local municipality integrated infrastructure atlas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available (2000) The ABC of women worker’s rights and gender equality, ISBN 92-2- 110844-9 222 Johnston, B. & J. Mellor (1961). The role of agriculture in economic development, American Economic Review 51,566-593 Kilkenny, M. (1998) “Transport Costs and Rural... logistics costs have averaged approximately 15% over the past few years, which are almost double those of Europe (South African Annual State of Logistics, 2009). This is 211 despite the advent of cell phones technology which has been hailed by some...

  10. Assessment of functional state and adaptation reserves of machine operators in agriculture with different work experience in the profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Raikin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of hemodynamic parameters’ evaluation (blood pressure, heart rate, minute volume of blood, total peripheral vascular resistance and adaptation (adaptive capacity of the circulatory system, the index of physical condition, body mass index to job strains in machine operators of agriculture with a different experience in the profession are presented. It was found that 27 % of the patients – machine operators were in a state of unsatisfactory adaptation and 18.8 % in the state of failure of adaptation options when functional body reserves were sharply reduced, indicating that the work in hazardous conditions resulted in a significant deterioration of the functional state of exhaustion and adaptation reserves. It was found that the professional experience of 10 years or more is a risk factor for the health of machine workers in agriculture, causing the violation of functional state and exhaustion of adaptive reserves of an organism, as evidenced by a statistically significant correlation between the indicators of functional status and work experience in the profession.

  11. 76 FR 76111 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ...--Regulatory Planning and Review This rule is exempted from review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... to and additions of statutory definitions for ``approximate original contour,'' ``in situ coal..., Federal Register (45 FR 21560). You can also find later actions concerning Montana's program and...

  12. 77 FR 73965 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Section 503(a) of the Act permits a State to assume primacy for the regulation of surface coal mining and... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 926 Montana Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; withdrawal...

  13. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  14. 76 FR 64047 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... until 4 p.m., m.d.t. November 16, 2011. If requested, we will hold a public hearing on the amendment on November 14, 2011. We will accept requests to speak until 4 p.m., m.d.t. on November 1, 2011. ADDRESSES... . Edward L. Coleman, Bureau Chief, Industrial and Energy Minerals Bureau, Montana Department...

  15. 76 FR 64045 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... hearing, if one is requested. DATES: We will accept written comments on this amendment until 4 p.m., m.d.t... will accept requests to speak until 4 p.m., m.d.t. on November 1, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may submit... ; Edward L. Coleman, Bureau Chief, Industrial and Energy Minerals Bureau, Montana Department...

  16. Experience from use of GMOs in Argentinian agriculture, economy and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burachik, Moisés

    2010-11-30

    Argentina is the second largest grower of genetically modified (GM) crops. This high level of adoption of this new agricultural technology is the result of a complex combination of circumstances. We can identify four main causes that led to this: political support (from agriculture officials), ability to solve prevalent farmers' needs, economic and environmental factors and an early implementation of effective regulations. The political willingness to study this new technology and crops as well as the recruitment of sound professionals and scientists to perform the task was crucial. These professionals, with very diverse backgrounds, created the necessary regulatory framework to work with these new crops. Farmers played a decisive role, as adopting this new technology solved some of their agronomic problems, helped them perform more sustainable agronomic practices and provided economic benefits. Nonetheless, all these advancements had not been possible without a rational, science-based and flexible regulatory framework that would make sure that the GM crops were safe for food, feed and processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Montana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Montana State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Montana.

  18. Past experience with the EU Common Agricultural Policy and future challenges for landscape development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Jens Peter; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Busck, Anne Gravsholt;

    and land use through the Common Agricultural Policies (CAP) and several other policies, however it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between effects of EU policies and the general trends on the European continent. In a Danish perspective, the formal effects of EU membership have been effectuated since...... the accession to the EU by 1973, however the trend towards intensification and industrialisation have emerged since the 2nd world war. Since 1973, landscape challenge have changed from intensification to debates on marginalisation in the early 1980s, introduction of the environmental policies in the mid 1980s...... with focus on the aquatic environment and lately towards a focus on biodiversity in respect to implementation of the habitats directive. A conglomerate of policy causes and effects on landscape changes is described in details from Denmark in the period from 1973-2014, and with specific analysis of data...

  19. Supporting Innovation in Organic Agriculture: A European Perspective Using Experience from the SOLID Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padel, Susanne; Vaarst, Mette; Zaralis, K.

    2015-01-01

    the alternative framework of innovation systems describing innovation as the outcome of stakeholder interaction and examples from the SOLID (Sustainable Organic Low-Input Dairying) project to discuss the role of farmers, researchers and knowledge exchange for innovation. We used a farmer-led participatory...... quality forage is vitally important, but farmers showed a lack of confidence in the reliability of forage production both in quantity and quality. We conclude that the systems framework improves the understanding of innovation processes in organic agriculture. Farmer-led research is an effective way...... to bring together the scientific approach with the farmers’ practical and context knowledge in finding solutions to problems experienced by farmers and to develop sustainability....

  20. Interdependence of soil and agricultural practice in a two - year phytoremediation in situ experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaichi, Eucharia; Onyeike, Eugene; Frac, Magdalena; Iwo, Godknows

    2016-04-01

    A two - year plant - based soil clean - up was carried out at a crude oil spill agricultural site in a Niger Delta community in Nigeria to access further clean - up potentials of Cymbopogon citratus. Applied diagnostic ratios identified mixed petrogenic and pyrogenic sources as the main contributors of PAHs. Up to 90.8% sequestration was obtained for carcinogenic PAHs especially Benz (a) pyrene in a 2 - phase manner. A community level approach for assessing patterns of sole carbon source utilization by mixed microbial samples was employed to differentiate spatial and temporal changes in the soil microbial communities. In relation to pollution, soil conditioning notably decreased the lag times and showed mixed effects for colour development rates, maximum absorbance and the overall community pattern. For rate and utilization of different carbon substrates in BIOLOG wells, after day 3, in comparison to control soil communities, contamination with hydrocarbons and associated types increased amines and amides consumption. Consumption of carbohydrates in all polluted and unamended regimes decreased markedlyin comparison to those cultivated with C. citratus. We found a direct relationship between cellulose breakdown, measurable with B-glucosidase activity, organic matter content and CO2 realease within all soils in the present study. Organic amendment rendered most studied contaminants unavailable for uptake in preference to inorganic fertilizer in both study years. Generally, phytoremediation improved significantly the microbial community activity and thus would promote ecosystem restoration in relation to most patronised techniques. Supplementation with required nutrients, in a long - term design would present many ecological benefits. Keywords: Agricultural soils; Recovery; Hydrocarbon pollution; Ecology; Management practice.

  1. Fundamental Experiment to Determine Escape Countermeasures for Frogs Falling into Agricultural Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Keiji; Mori, Atsushi; Koizumi, Noriyuki; Takemura, Takeshi

    Frogs often drown in agricultural canals with deep concrete walls, which are installed commonly in paddy fields after land improvement projects in Japan, because they cannot escape after falling into the canal. Therefore, countermeasures that enable frogs to escape from canals are required in some rural areas. An experimental canal with partially sloped walls was used as an escape countermeasure to investigate the preferable angle of slope for the walls, water depth and flow velocity that enables Tokyo Daruma Pond Frogs (Rana porosa porosa), which have no adhesive discs, to easily escape. Walls with slopes of 30-45 degrees allowed 50-60% of frogs to escape from the experimental canals, frogs especially easily climbed the 30 degree sloped walls. When the water depth was 5 cm or flow velocity was greater than 20 cm/s, approximately 80% of the frogs moved downstream and reached the sloped walls because the frogs' toes did not reach the bottom of the canal. However, if the depth was 2 cm and the flow velocity was 5 cm/s, only 4% of the frogs climbed the sloped walls because they could move freely. The frogs appeared to not be good at long-distance swimming and could not remain a long-time under running water. Therefore, walls sloped less than 30 degrees and control of both water depth and flow velocity appears important for enabling frogs to easily escape from canals.

  2. Long-term field-scale experiment on using lime filters in an agricultural catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkkala, Teija; Ventelä, Anne-Mari; Tarvainen, Marjo

    2012-01-01

    The River Yläneenjoki catchment in southwest Finland is an area with a high agricultural nutrient load. We report here on the nutrient removal performance of three on-site lime-sand filters (F1, F2, and F3), established within or on the edge of the buffer zones. The filters contain burnt lime (CaO) or spent lime [CaO, Ca(OH), and CaCO]. Easily soluble lime results in a high pH level (>11) and leads to an efficient precipitation of soluble phosphorus (P) from the runoff. Water samples were taken from the inflow and outflow of each site in different hydrological situations. The length of the monitoring period was 4 yr for F1, 6 yr for F2, and 1.5 yr for F3. F1 and F2 significantly reduced the suspended solids (SS), total P (PTOT), and dissolved reactive P (DRP) in the treated water. The proportional reduction (%) varied but was usually clearly positive. Filter F3 was divided into two equal parts, one containing burnt lime and the other spent lime. Both filter parts removed PTOT and SS efficiently from the water; the burnt-lime part also removed DRP. The mixed-lime part removed DRP for a year, but then the efficiency decreased. The effect of filters on nitrogen compounds varied. We conclude that sand filters incorporating lime can be used together with buffer zones to reduce both P and SS load to watercourses.

  3. Government Districts, Other - Montana Administrative Boundary Web Mapping Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Montana Administrative Boundaries Map Service includes the following boundaries: State, County, Incorporated City/Town, Reservation, School Districts, Tax Increment...

  4. Nitrous oxide emissions from European agriculture – an analysis of variability and drivers of emissions from field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Rees

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide emissions from a network of agricultural experiments in Europe were used to explore the relative importance of site and management controls of emissions. At each site, a selection of management interventions were compared within replicated experimental designs in plot-based experiments. Arable experiments were conducted at Beano in Italy, El Encin in Spain, Foulum in Denmark, Logården in Sweden, Maulde in Belgium, Paulinenaue in Germany, and Tulloch in the UK. Grassland experiments were conducted at Crichton, Nafferton and Peaknaze in the UK, Gödöllö in Hungary, Rzecin in Poland, Zarnekow in Germany and Theix in France. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured at each site over a period of at least two years using static chambers. Emissions varied widely between sites and as a result of manipulation treatments. Average site emissions (throughout the study period varied between 0.04 and 21.21 kg N2O-N ha−1 yr−1, with the largest fluxes and variability associated with the grassland sites. Total nitrogen addition was found to be the single most important determinant of emissions, accounting for 15% of the variance (using linear regression in the data from the arable sites (p 2O emissions within sites that occurred as a result of manipulation treatments was greater than that resulting from site-to-site and year-to-year variation, highlighting the importance of management interventions in contributing to greenhouse gas mitigation.

  5. Seasonal fluctuations of bacterial community diversity in agricultural soil and experimental validation by laboratory disturbance experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Christoph; Wehrli, Bernhard; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2008-08-01

    Natural fluctuations in soil microbial communities are poorly documented because of the inherent difficulty to perform a simultaneous analysis of the relative abundances of multiple populations over a long time period. Yet, it is important to understand the magnitudes of community composition variability as a function of natural influences (e.g., temperature, plant growth, or rainfall) because this forms the reference or baseline against which external disturbances (e.g., anthropogenic emissions) can be judged. Second, definition of baseline fluctuations in complex microbial communities may help to understand at which point the systems become unbalanced and cannot return to their original composition. In this paper, we examined the seasonal fluctuations in the bacterial community of an agricultural soil used for regular plant crop production by using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling (T-RFLP) of the amplified 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene diversity. Cluster and statistical analysis of T-RFLP data showed that soil bacterial communities fluctuated very little during the seasons (similarity indices between 0.835 and 0.997) with insignificant variations in 16S rRNA gene richness and diversity indices. Despite overall insignificant fluctuations, between 8 and 30% of all terminal restriction fragments changed their relative intensity in a significant manner among consecutive time samples. To determine the magnitude of community variations induced by external factors, soil samples were subjected to either inoculation with a pure bacterial culture, addition of the herbicide mecoprop, or addition of nutrients. All treatments resulted in statistically measurable changes of T-RFLP profiles of the communities. Addition of nutrients or bacteria plus mecoprop resulted in bacteria composition, which did not return to the original profile within 14 days. We propose that at less than 70% similarity in T-RFLP, the bacterial communities risk to

  6. Mitigating Agricultural Diffuse Pollution: Learning from The River Eden Demonstration Test Catchment Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaney, S. M.; Barker, P. A.; Haygarth, P.; Quinn, P. F.; Aftab, A.; Barber, N.; Burke, S.; Cleasby, W.; Jonczyk, J. C.; Owen, G. J.; Perks, M. T.; Snell, M. A.; Surridge, B.

    2016-12-01

    Freshwater systems continue to fail to achieve their ecological potential and provide associated ecological services due to poor water quality. A key driver of the failure to achieve good status under the EU Water Framework Directive derives from non-point (diffuse) pollution of sediment, phosphorus and nitrogen from agricultural landscapes. While many mitigation options exist, a framework is lacking which provides a holistic understanding of the impact of mitigation scheme design on catchment function and agronomics. The River Eden Demonstration Test Catchment project (2009-2017) in NW England uses an interdisciplinary approach including catchment hydrology, sediment-nutrient fluxes and farmer attitudes, to understand ecological function and diffuse pollution mitigation feature performance. Water flow (both surface and groundwater) and quality monitoring focused on three ca. 10km2 catchments with N and P measurements every 30 minutes. Ecological status was determined by monthly diatom community analysis and supplemented by macrophyte, macroinvertebrate and fish surveys. Changes in erosion potential and hydrological connectivity were monitored using extensive Landsat images and detailed UAV monitoring. Simulation modelling work utilised hydrological simulation models (CRAFT, CRUM3 and HBV-Light) and SCIMAP based risk mapping. Farmer behaviour and attitudes have been assessed with surveys, interviews and diaries. A suite of mitigation features have been installed including changes to land management - e.g. aeriation, storage features within a `treatment train', riparian fencing and woodland creation. A detailed dataset of the integrated catchment hydrological, water quality and ecological behaviour over multiple years, including a drought period and an extreme rainfall event, highlights the interaction between ecology, hydrological and nutrient dynamics that are driven by sediment and nutrients exported within a small number of high magnitude storm events. Hence

  7. Planning an integrated agriculture and health program and designing its evaluation: Experience from Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Donald C; Levin, Carol; Loechl, Cornelia; Thiele, Graham; Grant, Frederick; Girard, Aimee Webb; Sindi, Kirimi; Low, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Multi-sectoral programs that involve stakeholders in agriculture, nutrition and health care are essential for responding to nutrition problems such as vitamin A deficiency among pregnant and lactating women and their infants in many poor areas of lower income countries. Yet planning such multi-sectoral programs and designing appropriate evaluations, to respond to different disciplinary cultures of evidence, remain a challenge. We describe the context, program development process, and evaluation design of the Mama SASHA project (Sweetpotato Action for Security and Health in Africa) which promoted production and consumption of a bio-fortified, orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP). In planning the program we drew upon information from needs assessments, stakeholder consultations, and a first round of the implementation evaluation of a pilot project. The multi-disciplinary team worked with partner organizations to develop a program theory of change and an impact pathway which identified aspects of the program that would be monitored and established evaluation methods. Responding to the growing demand for greater rigour in impact evaluations, we carried out quasi-experimental allocation by health facility catchment area, repeat village surveys for assessment of change in intervention and control areas, and longitudinal tracking of individual mother-child pairs. Mid-course corrections in program implementation were informed by program monitoring, regular feedback from implementers and partners' meetings. To assess economic efficiency and provide evidence for scaling we collected data on resources used and project expenses. Managing the multi-sectoral program and the mixed methods evaluation involved bargaining and trade-offs that were deemed essential to respond to the array of stakeholders, program funders and disciplines involved.

  8. Combining experimentalist knowledge with modelling approaches to evaluate a controlled herbicide application experiment in an agricultural headwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Lorenz; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Doppler, Tobias; Reichert, Peter; Stamm, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Although only a small fraction of the herbicide mass sprayed on agricultural fields reaches the stream in usual conditions, concentrations in streams may reach levels proven to affect organisms. Therefore, diffuse pollution of water bodies by herbicides in catchments dominated by agricultural land-use is a major concern. The process of herbicide wash off has been studied through experiments at lab and field scales. Fewer studies are available at the scales of small catchments and larger watersheds, as the lack of spatial measurements at these scales hinders model parameterization and evaluation. Even fewer studies make explicit use of the combined knowledge of experimentalists and modellers. As a result, the dynamics and interactions of processes responsible for herbicide mobilization and transport at the catchment scale are insufficiently understood. In this work, we integrate preexisting experimentalist knowledge aquired in a large controlled herbicide application experiment into the model development process. The experimental site was a small (1.2 km2) agricultural catchment with subdued topography (423 to 473 m a.s.l.), typical for the Swiss Plateau. The experiment consisted of an application of multiple herbicides, distributed in-stream concentration measurements at high temporal resolution as well as soil and ponding water samples. The measurements revealed considerable spatio-temporal variation in herbicide loss rates. The objective of our study is to better understand the processes that caused this variation. In an iterative dialogue between modellers and experimentalists, we constructed a simple hydrological model structure with multiple reservoirs, considering degradation and sorption of herbicides. Spatial heterogeneity was accounted for through Hydrological Response Units (HRUs). Different model structures were used for dinstinct HRUs to account for spatial variability in the perceived dominant processes. Some parameters were linked between HRUs to

  9. Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and

  10. WEST PIONEER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    The West Pioneer Wilderness Study Area is in the Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana. A mineral-resource study of the area identified eight areas with molybdenum potential, four areas with gold-silver potential, one area with tungsten potential, and one area with barite potential. Several small mines were encountered, but none were accessible for the purposes of resource evaluation. No energy resources were identified in the study.

  11. Experiences and Lessons for Africa from China's Success in Agricultural Development%中国农业发展对非洲的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小云; 郭占锋; 武晋

    2011-01-01

    China and African countries are both agricultural countries mainly based on smallholders' family agriculture,while they have different achievements in agricultural development over the past 30 years.The main factors that influence agricultural development between China and Africa are the followings:the historical and cultural background;the agricultural technology production pattern;the agricultural development strategies,policies and the capacity of implementation;the organizational system of agricultural science and technology extension;the external learning mechanism and external support conditions.African countries should learn from experiences of China in agricultural development in the agricultural production pattern;agricultural development strategies and policies;agricultural extension and technology diffusion system and so on.For the mode of China-Africa agricultural cooperation in the future,China should help African countries strengthen agricultural research and extension support system;increase investment in the field of agricultural development in Africa and explore the new model of triangular cooperation from 'China-West Countries-Africa'.%中国和大多非洲国家是基于小农家庭经营为主体的农业国家,但近30年来中非农业发展成就迥异。影响中非农业发展的主要因素有:历史文化背景;农业技术生产模式;农业发展战略、政策和执行能力;农业科技推广组织系统;外部学习机制和外部支持状况。中国农业发展在农业生产模式、农业发展战略和政策、农业科技推广和技术扩散体系等方面,值得非洲国家借鉴。在未来中非农业合作层面,中国应帮助非洲国家加强农业研究与推广支持体系建设;加大对非洲农业发展领域的投资;探索中-西-非三方合作新模式。

  12. Role of Library and Information Professionals as Teachers and Trainers in Agricultural Education : an Experience of the Kerala Agricultural University, India

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, A. T.; Abdul Razak, C.; Humayoon Kabir, K.

    2006-01-01

    One of the important reasons for the under utilization of electronic information is the lack of requisite level of working knowledge and consumption skills among customers and information intermediaries. So, the conventional user education programmes need be redefined and reengineered with more emphasis on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). It should be designed in such a way to provide confidence to the users in locating desired information. There are 38 Agricultural Univ...

  13. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Alternative Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior alternative school student frequency distributions. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 274 alternative school students in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 274 due to nonresponse and percents may not total 100 percent due to…

  14. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for students with disabilities. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 1,672 high school students with disabilities in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 1,672 due to nonresponse and…

  15. 76 FR 63323 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...-L13200000-EL0000-P; MTM 97988] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land... described below in Musselshell County, Montana, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will...

  16. 77 FR 2316 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land... described below in Musselshell County, Montana, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will...

  17. Tipificación de "Arnica montana" L. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Gallego, Pedro Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Se designa un lectótipo para Arnica montana L. (Asteraceae) a partir del material original de Linneo conservado en el herbario UPS-BURSER. A lectotype for Arnica montana L. (Asteraceae) is designated from Linnaeus’ original material preserved in the UPS-BURSER herbarium.

  18. Nitrous oxide emissions from European agriculture; an analysis of variability and drivers of emissions from field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Rees

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide emissions from a network of agricultural experiments in Europe and Zimbabwe were used to explore the relative importance of site and management controls of emissions. At each site, a selection of management interventions were compared within replicated experimental designs in plot based experiments. Arable experiments were conducted at Beano in Italy, El Encin in Spain, Foulum in Denmark, Logården in Sweden, Maulde in Belgium, Paulinenaue in Germany, Harare in Zimbabwe and Tulloch in the UK. Grassland experiments were conducted at Crichton, Nafferton and Peaknaze in the UK, Gödöllö in Hungary, Rzecin in Poland, Zarnekow in Germany and Theix in France. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured at each site over a period of at least two years using static chambers. Emissions varied widely between sites and as a result of manipulation treatments. Average site emissions (throughout the study period varied between 0.04 and 21.21 kg N2O-N ha−1 yr−1, with the largest fluxes and variability associated with the grassland sites. Total nitrogen addition was found to be the single most important determinant of emissions, accounting for 15% of the variance (using linear regression in the data from the arable sites (p < 0.0001, and 77% in the grassland sites. The annual emissions from arable sites were significantly greater than those that would be predicted by IPCC default emission factors. Variability in N2O within sites that occurred as a result of manipulation treatments was greater than that resulting from site to site and year to year variation, highlighting the importance of management interventions in contributing to greenhouse gas mitigation.

  19. CWEX (Crop/Wind-Energy Experiment): Measurements of the interaction between crop agriculture and wind power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajewski, Daniel Andrew

    The current expansion of wind farms in the U.S. Midwest promotes an alternative renewable energy portfolio to conventional energy sources derived from fossil fuels. The construction of wind turbines and large wind farms within several millions of cropland acres creates a unique interaction between two unlike energy sources: electric generation by wind and bio-fuel production derived from crop grain and plant tissues. Wind turbines produce power by extracting mean wind speed and converting a portion of the flow to turbulence downstream of each rotor. Turbine-scale turbulence modifies fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture, and other gaseous constituents (e.g. carbon dioxide) between the crop canopy and the atmospheric boundary layer. Conversely, crop surfaces and tillage elements produce drag on the hub-height wind resource, and the release of sensible and latent heat flux from the canopy or soil influences the wind speed profile. The Crop-Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX) measured momentum, energy, and CO2 fluxes at several locations within the leading line of turbines in a large operational wind farm, and overall turbines promote canopy mixing of wind speed, temperature, moisture, and carbon dioxide in both the day and night. Turbine-generated perturbations of these fluxes are dependent on several factors influencing the turbine operation (e.g. wind speed, wind direction, stability, orientation of surrounding turbines within a wind park) and the cropland surface (e.g. crop type and cultivar, planting density, chemical application, and soil composition and drainage qualities). Additional strategies are proposed for optimizing the synergy between crop and wind power.

  20. A Response to "A Description of Merger Applied to the Montana State University Context."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ronald P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Contains three responses to Stephen L. Coffman's article appearing in the same issue, "A Description of Merger Applied to the Montana State University Context": one from the chancellor of Montana State University-Billings, one from the president of Montana State University-Bozeman, and one from the commissioner of the Montana State University…

  1. Agricultural Commodity Exchanges and the Development of Grain Markets and Trade in Africa: A Review of Recent Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne, T.S.; Sturgess, Chris; Kopicki, Ron; Sitko, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Vibrant agricultural commodity exchanges will greatly enhance the performance of Africa’s agricultural sectors and contribute to overall economic development. Yet specific conditions in grain markets are required for agricultural commodity exchanges to develop.1 The absence or short-lived nature of many of these conditions explains why commodity exchanges for staple grains have remained stunted in Sub-Saharan Africa despite strong interest in their development by the international donor commu...

  2. Some biological compounds, radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. sub sp. montana from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emre, I.; Kursat, M.; Yilmaz, O.; Erecevit, P.

    2011-07-01

    This study determined some biological compounds (fatty acid compositions, lipid-soluble vitamins, sterols, flavonoids), radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was found that palmitic acid (C16:0; 8.54+-0.13-3.05+-0.04%), oleic acid (C18:1 n9, 22.41+-0.8-18.83+-0.1%) and a-inolenic acid were the dominant fatty acids in both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was concluded that both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contained stigmasterol and ergosterol as well as beta-sitosterol. The present findings show that Nepeta italica L. contains morin, catechin, naringin and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contains morin, naringenin as major flavonoids. It was also determined that methanol extracts of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana were most effective against DPPH radicals. The results of the present study show that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts in the seeds of N. italica L. and S. montana L. subsp. montana prevented the growth of the microorganisms used in the tests at different ratios. (Author).

  3. Some biological compounds, radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emre, I.; Kursat, M.; Yilmaz, O.; Erecevit, P.

    2011-07-01

    This study determined some biological compounds (fatty acid compositions, lipid-soluble vitamins, sterols, flavonoids), radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was found that palmitic acid (C16:0; 8.54+-0.13-3.05+-0.04%), oleic acid (C18:1 n9, 22.41+-0.8-18.83+-0.1%) and a-inolenic acid were the dominant fatty acids in both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was concluded that both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contained stigmasterol and ergosterol as well as beta-sitosterol. The present findings show that Nepeta italica L. contains morin, catechin, naringin and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contains morin, naringenin as major flavonoids. It was also determined that methanol extracts of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana were most effective against DPPH radicals. The results of the present study show that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts in the seeds of N. italica L. and S. montana L. subsp. montana prevented the growth of the microorganisms used in the tests at different ratios. (Author).

  4. Walking the Pens: A Case Study of Secondary Agriculture Teachers’ Experiences Using a Serious Digital Game in an Introductory Animal Science Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Bunch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In a world where knowledge is a click away, today’s students need information delivered in ways that meet their expectations as digital natives. Serious digital games are one way to meet the demand. This particularistic case study sought to understand agriculture teachers’ experiences using a serious digital game in an introductory animal science course. Three themes emerged from the data collected: 1 the real-world context provided by the game; 2 the game’s potential to promote students’ agricultural awareness; and 3 teachers’ positioning of the game as a secondary teaching approach. Based on these findings, it can be recommended that professional development opportunities be created for teachers to learn how to use serious digital games more effectively in other situations. Inservice workshops focused on using digital games as a primary approach to teaching secondary agricultural education curricula, especially when simulations are necessary for teaching content. Because agricultural literacy was an unintended outcome, future research should focus intentionally on the impact serious digital games have on agricultural literacy.

  5. Northwest Montana [Waterfowl Production Area] Narrative report: Fical year 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1975 fiscal year. The report begins by...

  6. Northwest Montana Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Protection : Advance Design : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn A.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the habitat protection process developed to mitigate for certain wildlife and wildlife habitat losses due to construction of Hungry Horse and Libby dams in northwestern Montana.

  7. Montana National Wildlife Refuges: Contaminant issues of concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to: (1) identify specific contaminant issues of concern for each Montana refuge and wetland management district; (2) summarize the...

  8. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks 2008 Avian Influenza Surveillance Project Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the work performed by Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (FWP) during the 2008 surveillance period. The objectives of the project were to employ...

  9. Planning and accomplishment narrative: Northwest Montana Waterfowl Production Area [1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This planning and accomplishments narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1973 calendar year....

  10. Building Points - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework - Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Map service for the Montana Structures MSDI Framework. The service will only display at scales of 1:100,000 or larger. Structures are grouped into general categories...

  11. Building Points - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework - Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Map service for the Montana Structures MSDI Framework. The service will only display at scales of 1:100,000 or larger. Structures are grouped into general categories...

  12. Land Use and Land Cover - Montana Land Cover Framework 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This statewide land cover theme is a baseline digital map of Montana's natural and human land cover. The baseline map is adapted from the Northwest ReGAP project...

  13. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  14. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  15. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  16. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  17. Bone foreshafts from a clovis burial in southwestern montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahren, L; Bonnichsen, R

    1974-10-11

    Formal and functional analyses of bone artifacts from a Clovis burial in southwestern Montana suggest that they were constructed to serve as (detachable or nondetachable) foreshafts for attaching fluted projectile points to lance shafts.

  18. [Predator disease sampling results in Montana 1993-1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains data from predator disease sampling in Montana for the reintroduction of black-footed ferrets at Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge....

  19. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: May 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  20. Rainfall simulation experiments to study sediment redistribution using rare earth element oxides as tracers under conventional and conservation agricultural practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Adrienn; Jakab, Gergely; Sipos, Péter; Karlik, Máté; Madarász, Balázs; Zacháry, Dóra; Szabó, Judit; Szalai, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) have very favourable characteristics for being ideal sediment tracers as they are characterised by strong binding to soil particles, low mobility, low background concentration in soils, environmental benignity, high analytical sensitivity and they can be detected relatively easily and inexpensively in soils. The group of REEs consist of 16 elements with similar chemical properties, but at the same time, they are clearly distinguishable enabling multiple tracking of sediment deriving from different parts of the studied area, as well as mapping redistribution processes by appropriate designing of subareas marked by different REEs. In this study, rainfall simulation experiments were carried out to compare the loss and redistribution of soil sediments in two plots under conventional and conservation agricultural practices. Five different rainfall intensities (up to 80 mm/h) were applied to both plots. Sources and pathways of sediments within the two plots were studied using REE-oxides as tracers. Approximately 1,000 mg/kg of Er2O3, Ho2O3 and Sm2O3 (calculated to the upper 1 cm of the soil) were dispersed to the soil surface with banded distribution; each transversal band covered the third of the surface are of the plots. Concentration of the REE-oxides in the sediment leaving the plots, and that of the surface soil before and after the experiment were analysed by X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry. Significant sediment losses were found for both plots after the experiments, with slightly different characteristics between the conventional and conservation ones. Highest difference in loss of added REEs was found in the upper third of the plots with 81 ± 19% in the conventional and 71 ± 21% in the conservation ones. These values have been equalized downwards with almost complete losses in the lower third of the plots (99 ± 2% and 97 ± 4%, respectively). Only very small part of the removed sediment has been accumulated in the lower parts of the

  1. The Marysville, Montana Geothermal Project. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-09-01

    This report describes the exploration of an anomalous site near Marysville, Montana, where the geothermal heat flow is about 10 times the regional average. The site arouses scientific interest because there are no surface manifestations such as young volcanics, hot springs, geysers, etc., within 20 miles of it. Also, there is significant economic interest in exploring the source of heat as a potential for the generation of electricity. Included herein are independent sections prepared by each contractor. Consequently, there is some overlapping information, generally presented from different viewpoints. The project consists of geophysical surveys in 1973 and 1974, the drilling of the deep well in the summer of 1974 to a depth of 6790 feet, the coring and logging of the well, the supporting scientific studies, and the data analysis. Since so much data are available on the Marysville system, it can serve as a testing and research area to help locate and understand similar systems. (GRA)

  2. US hydropower resource assessment for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Montana.

  3. Nitrogen turnover, crop use efficiency and soil fertility in a long-term field experiment amended with different qualities of urban and agricultural waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2017-01-01

    in a long-term field experiment with repeated application of different urban and agricultural organic waste amendments. Soils from the CRUCIAL field experiment in Denmark, in which diverse types of urban (human urine, sewage sludge, composted household waste) and agricultural wastes (cattle slurry, farmyard...... carbon, improved with the application of organic wastes. Cattle manure, sewage sludge and composted household waste in single or accelerated rates of application increased soil total N by 13–131% compared to the mineral fertiliser NPK treatment. The highest net N mineralisation capacity was observed...... for the accelerated rate of composted household waste, followed by all the other organic waste amendments and with the lowest net N mineralisation in the NPK-only and the unfertilised treatments. In soils amended for 11 years with NPK, human urine, cattle slurry, sewage sludge, cattle farmyard manure, cattle deep...

  4. Montana StreamStats—A method for retrieving basin and streamflow characteristics in Montana: Chapter A in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.; Sando, Steven K.; Sando, Roy

    2016-04-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides streamflow characteristics and other related information needed by water-resource managers to protect people and property from floods, plan and manage water-resource activities, and protect water quality. Streamflow characteristics provided by the USGS, such as peak-flow and low-flow frequencies for streamflow-gaging stations, are frequently used by engineers, flood forecasters, land managers, biologists, and others to guide their everyday decisions. In addition to providing streamflow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations, the USGS also develops regional regression equations and drainage area-adjustment methods for estimating streamflow characteristics at locations on ungaged streams. Regional regression equations can be complex and often require users to determine several basin characteristics, which are physical and climatic characteristics of the stream and its drainage basin. Obtaining these basin characteristics for streamflow-gaging stations and ungaged sites traditionally has been time consuming and subjective, and led to inconsistent results.StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system application that was created by the USGS to provide users with access to an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resource planning and management. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain streamflow and basin characteristics for USGS streamflow-gaging stations and user-selected locations on ungaged streams. The USGS, in cooperation with Montana Department of Transportation, Montana Department of Environmental Quality, and Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, completed a study to develop a StreamStats application for Montana, compute streamflow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations, and develop regional regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites. Chapter A of this Scientific Investigations Report describes the Montana Stream

  5. 75 FR 57059 - Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat... received from the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation (DNRC) a Final...

  6. 77 FR 12581 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana AGENCY: Environmental... the state of Montana has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program by...

  7. 75 FR 69434 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana AGENCY: Environmental... the State of Montana has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Primacy Program...

  8. The Montana Wild Virus Hunt | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health: The Montana Wild Virus Hunt Follow us The Montana Wild Virus Hunt Blake Wiedenheft is a ... their passion for health and science. What is the focus of your research? Viruses that infect bacteria ( ...

  9. A resurrection experiment finds evidence of both reduced genetic diversity and potential adaptive evolution in the agricultural weed Ipomoea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuester, Adam; Wilson, Ariana; Chang, Shu-Mei; Baucom, Regina S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the negative economic and ecological impact of weeds, relatively little is known about the evolutionary mechanisms that influence their persistence in agricultural fields. Here, we use a resurrection approach to examine the potential for genotypic and phenotypic evolution in Ipomoea purpurea, an agricultural weed that is resistant to glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in current-day agriculture. We found striking reductions in allelic diversity between cohorts sampled nine years apart (2003 vs. 2012), suggesting that populations of this species sampled from agricultural fields have experienced genetic bottleneck events that have led to lower neutral genetic diversity. Heterozygosity excess tests indicate that these bottlenecks may have occurred prior to 2003. A greenhouse assay of individuals sampled from the field as seed found that populations of this species, on average, exhibited modest increases in herbicide resistance over time. However, populations differed significantly between sampling years for resistance: some populations maintained high resistance between the sampling years whereas others exhibited increased or decreased resistance. Our results show that populations of this noxious weed, capable of adapting to strong selection imparted by herbicide application, may lose genetic variation as a result of this or other environmental factors. We probably uncovered only modest increases in resistance on average between sampling cohorts due to a strong and previously identified fitness cost of resistance in this species, along with the potential that nonresistant migrants germinate from the seed bank.

  10. Converting Experiences in “Communities of Practice”: “Educational” Migration in Denmark and Achievements of Ukrainian Agricultural Apprentices’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skvirskaja, Vera

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at ‘educational’ migration instigated by the Danish programme of agricultural apprenticeships, which since the late 1990s has brought many young Ukrainians to rural Denmark. It discusses discrepancies between the logic of achievement implied by the programme’s ideology on the one...

  11. Just How Much Can School Pupils Learn from School Gardening? A Study of Two Supervised Agricultural Experience Approaches in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okiror, John James; Matsiko, Biryabaho Frank; Oonyu, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    School systems in Africa are short of skills that link well with rural communities, yet arguments to vocationalize curricula remain mixed and school agriculture lacks the supervised practical component. This study, conducted in eight primary (elementary) schools in Uganda, sought to compare the learning achievement of pupils taught using…

  12. Availability, Price, and Quality of Fruits and Vegetables in 12 Rural Montana Counties, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Ahmed, Selena; Smith, Teresa; Houghtaling, Bailey; Jenkins, Mica; Margetts, Miranda; Schultz, Daniel; Stephens, Lacy

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the consumer food environment in rural areas by using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Stores (NEMS-S) to measure the availability, price, and quality of fruits and vegetables. We randomly selected 20 grocery stores (17 rural, 3 urban) in 12 Montana counties using the 2013 US Department of Agriculture's rural-urban continuum codes. We found significant differences in NEMS-S scores for quality of fruits and vegetables; of 6 possible points, the mean quality score was 4.5; of rural stores, the least rural stores had the highest mean quality scores (6.0). Intervention strategies should aim to increase fruit and vegetable quality in rural areas.

  13. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  14. Field experiments of Controlled Drainage of agricultural clay soils show positive effects on water quantity (retention, runoff) and water quality (nitrate leaching).

    Science.gov (United States)

    schipper, peter; stuyt, lodewijk; straat, van der, andre; schans, van der, martin

    2014-05-01

    Despite best management practices, agriculture is still facing major challenges to reduce nutrients leaching to the aquatic environment. In deltas, most of total nutrient losses from artificially drained agricultural soils are discharged via drains. Controlled drainage is a promising measure to prevent drainage of valuable nutrients, improve water quality and agricultural yield and adapt to climate change (reduce peak runoff, manage water scarcity and drought). In The Netherlands, this technique has attracted much attention by water managers and farmers alike, yet field studies to determine the expected (positive) effects for Dutch conditions were scarce. Recently, a field experiment was set up on clay soils. Research questions were: how does controlled, subsurface drainage perform on clay soils? Will deeper tile drains function just as well? What are the effects on drain water quality (especially with respect to nitrogen and salt) and crop yield? An agricultural field on clay soils was used to test different tile drainage configurations. Four types of tile drainage systems were installed, all in duplicate: eight plots in total. Each plot has its own outlet to a control box, where equipment was installed to control drain discharge and to measure the flow, concentrations of macro-ions, pH, nitrogen, N-isotopes and heavy metals. In each plot, groundwater observation wells and suction cups are installed in the saturated and vadose zones, at different depths, and crop yield is determined. Four plots discharge into a hydrologic isolated ditch, enabling the determination of water- and nutrient balances. Automatic drain water samplers and innovative nitrate sensors were installed in four plots. These enable identification and unravelling so-called first flush effects (changes in concentrations after a storm event). Water-, chloride- and nitrogen balances have been set up, and the interaction between groundwater and surface water has been quantified. The hydrological

  15. Karyomorphometric analysis of Fritillaria montana group in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Samaropoulou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fritillaria Linnaeus, 1753 (Liliaceae is a genus of geophytes, represented in Greece by 29 taxa. Most of the Greek species are endemic to the country and/or threatened. Although their classical cytotaxonomic studies have already been presented, no karyomorphometric analysis has ever been given. In the present study, the cytological results of Fritillaria montana Hoppe ex W.D.J. Koch, 1832 group, which includes F. epirotica Turrill ex Rix, 1975 and F. montana are statistically evaluated for the first time. Further indices about interchromosomal and intrachromosomal asymmetry are given. A new population of F. epirotica is also investigated, while for F. montana, a diploid individual was found in a known as triploid population. Paired t-tests and PCoA analysis have been applied to compare the two species.

  16. Montana 2010 Avian Influenza Surveillance Project Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services (WS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated and...

  17. Montana 2006 Avian Influenza Surveillance Project Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the summer of 2006, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated a nationwide avian influenza...

  18. Montana 2009 Avian Influenza Surveillance Project Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services (WS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated and...

  19. Agriculture: Newsroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  20. Cuticular hydrocarbons of Drosophila montana: geographic variation, sexual dimorphism and potential roles as pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jackson H; Etges, William J; Schmitt, Thomas; Hoikkala, Anneli

    2014-02-01

    Sexual selection within populations can play an important role in speciation when divergence in mating signals and their corresponding preferences occur along different coevolutionary trajectories in different populations. In insects, one potential target of sexual selection is the blend of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which often show intra- and interspecific variation, sexual dimorphism and may act as pheromones. In Drosophila montana, a cold-adapted, circumboreal member of the Drosophila virilis species group, flies from different populations have been found to show significant premating isolation as well as variation in male mating signal (song) and female preference. While the role of male courtship song in mate choice has been studied extensively, CHCs in this species have received little attention. In this study, we identified most of the CHCs found on the cuticle of D. montana and characterized population divergence and sexual dimorphism of CHC profiles among flies established from three natural populations - one European and two North American. We also studied their potential role as pheromones by analyzing CHCs of flies used in female-choice mating experiments. We report significant population×sex effects on CHC profiles, as well as significant relationships between some CHC principal components and particular mating behaviours, such as female attractiveness and male mating success, providing evidence that CHCs may play a role in mate choice in this species. The study also provides evidence for variation in the degree to which CHCs play a role in chemical communication among these populations, which may have an influence on the speciation process itself, and could be due to variation in interactions with other closely-related species that occur sympatrically with D. montana in some, but not other, parts of its distribution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. History and legal reality of cooperatives in Cuba. Approaching new non-agricultural cooperatives in Pinar del Río from practical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio José Rivera Gort

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Presently work is valued the historical development of the artificial regulation of the cooperative in Cuba, making emphasis in the juridicalinstitutional platform in that the current process of expansion of the figure is sustained toward other sectors of the national economy besides the agricultural one. In a beginning their artificial regulation is characterized in each one of the stages by those that it has crossed and next the analysis is centered in the practical experience of the Pinar del Río, with those recently orchestrated ones Urban Cooperatives, during the process for its constitution and later operation.Received: 31.05.2015Accepted: 30.07.2015

  2. Flavonoids from the aerial parts of Onobrychis montana subsp. scardica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORIS PEJIN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Rutin (1, main constituent and two flavone C-glycosides, vitexin (2 and vitexin 2''-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (3 were isolated from the aerial parts of Onobrychis montana subsp. scardica. They were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV–Vis spectroscopy (procedure with shift reagents, and high resolution ESI-MS. A relatively high content of 1 (5.27 mg/g of dry plant material, measured by HPLC, indicated O. montana subsp. scardica as a new natural source of this biologically active compound. The isolated flavonoid compounds might be of value as chemotaxonomic markers.

  3. Decision Support System Research and Development Network for Agricultural and Natural Resource Management in Thailand: A TRF-DSS Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaworn Onpraphai

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the Decision Support System (DSS, which is an area informatics approach to area studies, and the research network complex based on DSS’s application in Thailand. In particular, the paper presents and discusses current activities of the DSS research network at the national level in Thailand rather than being a theoretical and analytical study of the DSS mechanism or its cases. DSS has wide applications in Thailand, extending to various fields such as agricultural and natural resource management, economic and social management, historical and cultural preservation, and so on. DSS generally refers to a support system embedded into a computer system for providing intellectual resources with the appropriate numerical model necessary for decision making in production activities. Agricultural and natural resources have been the foundation of social and economic development in Thailand since the country’s first national plan in the 1960s. Decision making to maintain agricultural productivity as well as to protect natural resources requires well-integrated data sets. The Thailand Research Fund (TRF established a DSS research and development network (TRF-DSS in 2002 to help various research teams in Thailand develop DSS tools and components for addressing agricultural and natural resource management issues. Using a “systems” approach, the DSS framework allows researchers and users to identify and integrate key components as well as to define databases and model-base management systems. This paper focuses on the TRF-DSS research and development network, which consists of 12 universities, two line agencies in Thailand, and a line agency in Cambodia. During 2002–10, a total of 59 research projects were granted a budget allocation of 140.1 million baht, and a budget of 15.4 million baht was allocated to support activities of the network. In addition, 10 projects were funded to carry out postproject activities, with a

  4. Temperature is the key to altitudinal variation of phenolics in Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Andreas; Sareedenchai, Vipaporn; Heller, Werner; Seidlitz, Harald K; Zidorn, Christian

    2009-05-01

    Plants in alpine habitats are exposed to many environmental stresses, in particular temperature and radiation extremes. Recent field experiments on Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO indicated pronounced altitudinal variation in plant phenolics. Ortho-diphenolics increased with altitude compared to other phenolic compounds, resulting in an increase in antioxidative capacity of the tissues involved. Factors causing these variations were investigated by climate chamber (CC) experiments focusing on temperature and ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. Plants of A. montana L. cv. ARBO were grown in CCs under realistic climatic and radiation regimes. Key factors temperature and UV-B radiation were altered between different groups of plants. Subsequently, flowering heads were analyzed by HPLC for their contents of flavonoids and caffeic acid derivatives. Surprisingly, increased UV-B radiation did not trigger any change in phenolic metabolites in Arnica. In contrast, a pronounced increase in the ratio of B-ring ortho-diphenolic (quercetin) compared to B-ring monophenolic (kaempferol) flavonols resulted from a decrease in temperature by 5 degrees C in the applied climate regime. In conclusion, enhanced UV-B radiation is probably not the key factor triggering shifts in the phenolic composition in Arnica grown at higher altitudes but rather temperature, which decreases with altitude.

  5. Methods for estimating streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites in western Montana based on data through water year 2009: Chapter G in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.; Sando, Roy; Sando, Steven K.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, developed regional regression equations based on basin and streamflow characteristics for streamflow-gaging stations through water year 2009 that can be used to estimate streamflow characteristics for ungaged sites in western Montana. The regression equations allow estimation of low-flow frequencies; mean annual and mean monthly streamflows; and the 20-, 50-, and 80-percent durations for annual and monthly duration streamflows for ungaged sites in western Montana that are unaffected by regulation.

  6. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  7. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Nonpublic Accredited Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for nonpublic accredited schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 349 high school students in Nonpublic Region during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 349 due to nonresponse and percents may…

  8. A new fauna from the Colorado group of southern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeside, John B.

    1925-01-01

    This paper describes a small but interesting fauna collected in 1921 by W. T. Thorn, Jr., Gail F. Moulton, T. W. Stanton, and K. C. Heald in the Crow Indian Reservation in southern Montana. The locality is in sec. 36, T. 6 S., R. 32 E., Big Horn County, and is 2 miles east of the Soap Creek oil field.

  9. Thymol derivatives from hairy roots of Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weremczuk-Jezyna, I; Kisiel, W; Wysokińska, H

    2006-09-01

    Five known thymol derivatives were isolated from roots of Arnica montana transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 9402. The compounds were characterized by spectral methods. The pattern of thymol derivatives in light-grown hairy roots was slightly different from that in dark-grown ones. This is the first report on the presence of thymol derivatives in hairy roots of the plant.

  10. Methylated Flavonoids from Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merfort, I

    1984-02-01

    From the flowers of ARNICA CHAMISSONIS Less, subsp. FOLIOSA var. INCANA, the methylated flavonoids acacetin, pectolinarigenin, hispidulin, jaceosidin, 6-methoxykaempferol, and betuletol have been isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Except for acacetin, the same flavonoids were identified in the flowers of ARNICA MONTANA L. Betuletol was found for the first time in the family of Asteraceae.

  11. On-site energy consumption at softwood sawmills in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Total on-site energy requirements for wood product manufacturing are generally not well understood or publicly available, particularly at subregional scales, such as the state level. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in Montana to develop a profile of all on-site energy consumption. Energy use is delineated by fuel type on a production basis...

  12. Essential oil of Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Mihailo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil isolated from flowers of Arnica montana and A chamissonis grown on Tara mountain and neighbourhood of Užice was analyzed. Three samples of A. montana and three of A. chamissonis were tested. The oil was isolated by distillation in a Clevenger type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography. The content of the oil was lower than 0.1% (up to 0.08% in all the samples. Among about hundred recorded constituents, 84 were identified and quantified. Sum of contents of identified components ranged between 96.1 and 98.8%. The most abundant constituents of the A. montana oil were p-caryophyllene (31.5-34.6%, germacrene D (12.5-16.3%, trans-a-ionone (3.9-4.3% and decanal (2.7-5.3%, while, in the case of A. chamissonis these were germacrene D (18.0-38.3%, a-pinene (6.6-19.1%, p-cymene (2.9-9.0% and P-caryophyllene (2.7-4.7%. Along with detail chemical analysis of essential oil of these two commercially important herbal drugs it should be noticed that gas chromatographic technique can be used for differentiation of A. montana and A. chamissonis.

  13. Recovery based on plot experiments is a poor predictor of landscape-level population impacts of agricultural pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John; Kjær, Lene; Hommen, Udo

    2014-01-01

    are restricted to plot-scale experiments. Here, we use agent-based modelling of 2 contrasting invertebrates, a spider and a beetle, to assess how area of pesticide application and environmental half-life (DT50) affect the assessment of recovery at the plot scale and impact the population at the landscape scale....... Small-scale plot experiments were simulated for pesticides with different application rates and DT50s. The same pesticides were then evaluated at the landscape scale (10 x 10 km) assuming continuous year-on-year usage. Our results show that recovery time estimated from plot experiments is a poor...... indicator of long-term population impact at the landscape level and that the spatial scale of pesticide application strongly determines population-level impact. This raises serious doubts as to the utility of plot-recovery experiments in pesticide regulatory risk assessment for population-level protection...

  14. The Potential of a Multimedia Open Educational Resource Module in Enhancing Effective Teaching and Learning in a Postgraduate Agricultural Program: Experience From AgShare Project Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassen, Jemal Yousuf

    2013-01-01

    Graduate programs in agriculture in developing countries such as in Ethiopia are often designed in cognizance of the need for skilled manpower for agricultural development. In Ethiopia, the contribution of graduates of agricultural graduate programs to the attempt to transform smallholder agriculture has become a matter of urgency in the face of…

  15. Theme: Innovative Curriculum Ideas and Practices in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen theme articles discuss the following: curriculum ideas and innovations in agricultural education, agricultural literacy, Supervised Agricultural Experience, active learning, locating agricultural education resources, distance and web-based instruction, principles of forest management, professional development, and service learning. (JOW)

  16. Implementation of diabetes prevention programs in rural areas: Montana and south-eastern Australia compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Prasuna; Hernan, Andrea L; Vanderwood, Karl K; Arave, Diane; Niebylski, Mark L; Harwell, Todd S; Dunbar, James A

    2011-06-01

    To identify the key elements that enabled the Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Project (GGT DPP) and the Montana Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes Prevention (CDDP) programs successful establishment and implementation in rural areas, as well as identifying specific challenges or barriers for implementation in rural communities. Focus groups were held with the facilitators who delivered the GGT DPP in Australia and the Montana CDDP programs in the USA. Interview questions covered the facilitators' experiences with recruitment, establishing the program, the components and influence of rurality on the program, barriers and challenges to delivering the program, attributes of successful participants, and the influence of community resources and partnerships on the programs. Four main themes emerged from the focus groups: establishing and implementing the diabetes prevention program in the community; strategies for recruitment and retention of participants; what works in lifestyle intervention programs; and rural-centred issues. The results from this study have assisted in determining the factors that contribute to developing, establishing and implementing successful diabetes prevention programs in two rural areas. Recommendations to increase the likelihood of success of programs in rural communities include: securing funding early for the program; establishing support from community leaders and developing positive relationships with health care providers; creating a professional team with passion for the program; encouraging participants to celebrate their small and big successes; and developing procedures for providing post-intervention support to help participants maintain their success. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  17. Permeation of bioactive constituents from Arnica montana preparations through human skin in-vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekko, I A; Bonner, M C; Bowen, R D; Williams, A C

    2006-09-01

    This study investigated and characterised transdermal permeation of bioactive agents from a topically applied Arnica montana tincture. Permeation experiments conducted over 48 h used polydimethylsiloxane (silastic) and human epidermal membranes mounted in Franz-type diffusion cells with a methanol-water (50:50 v/v) receptor fluid. A commercially available tincture of A. montana L. derived from dried Spanish flower heads was a donor solution. Further donor solutions prepared from this stock tincture concentrated the tincture constituents 1, 2 and 10 fold and its sesquiterpene lactones 10 fold. Permeants were assayed using a high-performance liquid chromatography method. Five components permeated through silastic membranes providing peaks with relative retention factors to an internal standard (santonin) of 0.28, 1.18, 1.45, 1.98 and 2.76, respectively. No permeant was detected within 12 h of applying the Arnica tincture onto human epidermal membranes. However, after 12 h, the first two of these components were detected. These were shown by Zimmermann reagent reaction to be sesquiterpene lactones and liquid chromatography/diode array detection/mass spectrometry indicated that these two permeants were 11,13-dihydrohelenalin (DH) analogues (methacrylate and tiglate esters). The same two components were also detected within 3 h of topical application of the 10-fold concentrated tincture and the concentrated sesquiterpene lactone extract.

  18. Online educational repositories for promoting agricultural knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Costopoulou

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Towards promoting sustainable agriculture and economic growth, the development of the agricultural workforce and set up of innovative agricultural systems are required. Agricultural educational repositories are systems used for storing, reusing and sharing agricultural learning resources. They contribute to agricultural education at different educational levels and target groups. Thus, this paper firstly provides an overview of Institutional repositories (IRs and Open Access Archives (OAAs in Greece and agricultural repositories worldwide. Also, it describes the agricultural repositories that provide access to educational content in Greek and presents experiences from the establishment of Agricultural University of Athens’ (AUA repository.

  19. Mountain plover responses to plague in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Stephen J; Smith, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Plague is a bacterial (Yersinia pestis) disease that causes epizootic die-offs in black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations in the North American Great Plains. Through their grazing and burrowing, prairie dogs modify vegetation and landscape structure on their colonies in ways that affect other grassland species. Plague epizootics on prairie dog colonies can have indirect effects on species associated with colonies. The mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) preferentially nests on black-tailed prairie dog colonies and is thus negatively impacted by the loss of prairie dogs. We studied the effects of plague and colony spatial characteristics on the occupancy of 81 prairie dog colonies by nesting plovers in Phillips County, Montana, during a 13-year period (1995-2007). We used a robust design patch occupancy model to investigate how colony occupancy and extinction and colonization rates were affected by plague history, colony size, and colony shape. Here extinction and colonization rates refer to the probability that a colony loses/gains plovers in a subsequent nesting season, given that it had/lacked plovers in that breeding season. Colony occupancy was best explained by a model with no annual variation or plague effects. Colony extinction rates were driven by a combination of a quadratic of colony area, a 3-year plague response, and a measure of colony shape. Conversely, colonization rates were best explained by a model with a 4-year plague response. The estimated annual proportion of colonies occupied by plovers was 0.75 (95% confidence interval = 0.57-0.87). Estimated extinction probability ranged from a low of 0.07 (standard error [SE] = 0.02) in 2002 to a high of 0.25 (SE = 0.03) in 1995; colonization probability ranged from 0.24 (SE = 0.05) in 2006 to 0.35 (SE = 0.05) in 2000. Our results highlight how a bird that depends on prairie dogs for nesting habitat responds to plague history and other spatial characteristics of the colony. Ultimately

  20. Suicide Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Attempted Suicide. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  1. Smokers Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Current Smoking. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  2. Sports Team Participation: A Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Sports Team Participation. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  3. Students with Special Needs: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Special Education Assistance. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  4. Gender dimensions of rural employment in agriculture and public works programmes experiences from South Africa: Differentiated pathways out of poverty

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available rural livelihoods (Department of Public Works, 1997). It also addresses gender dimensions of the projects. As methodology, a mixed-method approach was employed to assess the experiences and impacts of the Siyatentela 56 (Mpumalanga Province), Gundo Lashu...

  5. Design and experiment on auto leveling control system of agricultural implements%农机具自动调平控制系统设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡炼; 林潮兴; 罗锡文; 杨伟伟; 许奕; 周浩; 张智刚

    2015-01-01

    To ensure agricultural implement level can improve the quality of work in agricultural machinery operation process. In order to maintain the level of agricultural implements in the field working, an agricultural implement auto leveling control system was developed. Real-time roll angle of tractor was obtained from tractor roll angle sensing system. The core algorithm of tractor roll angle sensing system was the Kalman filtering algorithm of tractor roll angle, which fused an accelerometer and gyroscope data to obtain the real-time roll angle of tractor. The leveling hydraulic cylinder elongation was measured using a straight-line displacement sensor. And the relative roll angle conversion function between agricultural implements and tractor was established. Then by controlling the electromagnetic directional valve, the agricultural implement was kept leveling. This article introduced the principle and structure of agricultural implement auto leveling control system, and the Kalman filtering algorithm of tractor roll angle and the relative roll angle conversion function were analyzed in detail. The tractor roll angle’s Kalman fusion algorithm was tested in SGT320E three-axis turntable platform, and the experiment of agricultural implement auto leveling control system was carried out in the paddy field based on a matching 1PJ-3.0 laser leveler for paddy field. The leveler featured a specially designed leveling plow connected to an ISEKI PG6 transplanter by means of a hydraulically driven three-point linkage. The auto leveling controller used the Proportional-Derivative (PD) control algorithm to calculate pulse width, modulating for driving two ordinary hydraulic solenoid valves as actuators to regulate the plow’s leveling. In order to evaluate the precision of tractor roll angle sensing system and auto leveling control system, 2 inertial reference systems (MTi-300) were installed in the transplanter and plow, respectively. Results showed that, the tractor roll

  6. Atoms in Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Thomas S. [University of Tennessee

    1965-01-01

    Agriculture benefits from the applications of research. Radioactive techniques have been used to study soils, plants, microbes, insects, farm animals, and new ways to use and preserve foodstuffs. Radioactive atoms are not used directly by farmers but are used in research directed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Atomic Energy Commission, by the agricultural experiment stations of the various states, and by numerous public and private research institutions. From such research come improved materials and methods which are used on the farm.

  7. Recovery based on plot experiments is a poor predictor of landscape-level population impacts of agricultural pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Christopher John; Kjaer, Lene Jung; Hommen, Udo; Høye, Toke Thomas; Preuss, Thomas G; Sibly, Richard M; van Vliet, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Current European Union regulatory risk assessment allows application of pesticides provided that recovery of nontarget arthropods in-crop occurs within a year. Despite the long-established theory of source-sink dynamics, risk assessment ignores depletion of surrounding populations and typical field trials are restricted to plot-scale experiments. In the present study, the authors used agent-based modeling of 2 contrasting invertebrates, a spider and a beetle, to assess how the area of pesticide application and environmental half-life affect the assessment of recovery at the plot scale and impact the population at the landscape scale. Small-scale plot experiments were simulated for pesticides with different application rates and environmental half-lives. The same pesticides were then evaluated at the landscape scale (10 km × 10 km) assuming continuous year-on-year usage. The authors' results show that recovery time estimated from plot experiments is a poor indicator of long-term population impact at the landscape level and that the spatial scale of pesticide application strongly determines population-level impact. This raises serious doubts as to the utility of plot-recovery experiments in pesticide regulatory risk assessment for population-level protection. Predictions from the model are supported by empirical evidence from a series of studies carried out in the decade starting in 1988. The issues raised then can now be addressed using simulation. Prediction of impacts at landscape scales should be more widely used in assessing the risks posed by environmental stressors.

  8. Vineyard weeds control practices impact on surface water transfers: using numerical tracer experiment coupled to a distributed hydrological model to manage agricultural practices spatial arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, F.; Moussa, R.

    2009-04-01

    In rural basins, agricultural landscape management highly influences water and pollutants transfers. Landuse, agricultural practices and their spatial arrangements are at issue. Hydrological model are widely used to explore impacts of anthropogenic influences on experimental catchments. But planning all spatial arrangements leads to a possible cases count which cannot be considered. On the basis of the recent « numerical experiment » approach, we propose a « numerical tracer function » which had to be coupled to a distributed rainfall-runoff model. This function simulate the transfer of a virtual tracer successively spread on each distributed unit inside the catchment. It allows to rank hydrological spatial units according to their hydrological contribution to the surface flows, particularly at the catchment outlet. It was used with the distributed model MHYDAS in an agricultural context. The case study concerns the experimental Roujan vine-growing catchment (1km², south of France) studied since 1992. In this Mediterranean context, we focus on the soil hydraulic conductivity distributed parameter because it highly depends on weed control practices (chemical weeding induces a lot more runoff than mechanical weeding). We checked model sensitivity analysis to soil hydraulic conductivity spatial arrangement on runoff coefficient, peak discharge and catchment lag-time. Results show (i) the use of the tracer function is more efficient than a random approach to improve sensitivity to spatial arrangements from point of view of simulated discharge range, (ii) the first factor explaining hydrological simulations variability was practices area ratio, (iii) variability induced by practices spatial arrangements was significant on runoff coefficient and peak discharge for balanced practices area ratio and on lag-time for low area ratio of chemical weeding practices. From the actual situation on the experimental Roujan catchment (40% of tilled and 60% of non tilled vineyard

  9. "More drop per crop" when moving from gravitational to drip irrigated agriculture? Experiences from a North Moroccan case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, N.; Gaspart, F.; Vanclooster, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to save agricultural water, the famous FAO's "more crop per drop" has been taken literally in many arid or semi-arid places around the world and policies that aim improving "efficiencies" (irrigation efficiency…) have been implemented, often leading to the promotion of water saving technologies. In 1865, studying coal consumption, W.S. Jevons highlighted that improving coal use efficiency could, as a paradox, lead to higher global coal use. Many economists later extended this idea to resource saving technologies in general, showing that, due to the "rebound effect", the adoption of more efficient technologies, in terms of use of resources, could lead to a higher global consumption of this resource if this adoption didn't go with adjustment measures. Regarding these considerations, the emerging question is to which extent water saving technologies (i.e. that aim improving water related efficiencies) are appropriate to save water at large scale. Our study addresses this question through the analysis of the conversion from surface to drip irrigation in Triffa's irrigated perimeter (Morocco). We aim addressing this question using the detailed analysis of two data sets. First, available data were collected for every farm within the study area from the local administrations. Second, interviews were conducted with farmers to complete the dataset and to characterize their behavior. This allowed assessing water related efficiencies at farm scale. Subsequently, models were implemented to link efficiencies with general attributes and thereby identify the main drivers of water related efficiencies in the study area. Finally, these models were used to upscale farm-scale assessment to the perimeter scale. Our results show that, under current conditions, moving from surface to drip irrigation leads to higher global water withdrawal. However, the aforementioned "rebound effect" does not allow explaining the higher pressure because of contextual specificities. Deeper

  10. Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion: Chapter 6 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janis L.

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion comprises numerous intermountain valleys and low-elevation foothill prairies spread across the western half of Montana, on both sides of the Continental Divide (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). The ecoregion, which covers approximately 64,658 km2 (24,965 mi2), includes the Flathead Valley and the valleys surrounding Helena, Missoula, Bozeman, Billings, Anaconda, Dillon, and Lewistown (fig. 1). These valleys are generally characterized by shortgrass prairie vegetation and are flanked by forested mountains (Woods and others, 1999); thus, the valleys’ biotas with regards to fish and insects are comparable. In many cases, the valleys are conduits for some of the largest rivers in the state, including Clark Fork and the Missouri, Jefferson, Madison, Flathead, Yellowstone, Gallatin, Smith, Big Hole, Bitterroot, and Blackfoot Rivers (fig. 2). The Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion also includes the “Rocky Mountain front,” an area of prairies along the eastern slope of the northern Rocky Mountains. Principal land uses within the ecoregion include farming, grazing, and mining. The valleys serve as major transportation and utility corridors and also contain the majority of Montana’s human population. The Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion extends into 17 mostly rural counties throughout western Montana. Only three of the counties—Carbon, Yellowstone, and Missoula—are part of a metropolitan statistical area with contiguous built-up areas tied to an employment center. Nearly two-thirds of Montana residents live in nonmetropolitan counties (Albrecht, 2008). Ten of the counties within the ecoregion had population growth rates greater than national averages (9–13 percent) between 1970 and 2000 (table 1). Ravalli and Gallatin Counties had the highest growth rates. Population growth was largely due to amenity-related inmigration and an economy dependent on tourism

  11. Map showing areas with potential for talc deposits in the Gravelly, Greenhorn, and Ruby ranges and the Henrys Lake Mountains of southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Berg, Richard B.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.

    1998-01-01

    For the last several years, Montana has been the leading talc producing state in the United States (U.S. Geological Survey, 1996). For example, in 1992 Montana supplied about 40 percent of the U.S. mine production of talc (Virta, 1992). All of this production has come from the large deposits of high purity talc in the southwestern part of the state. All Montana talc is currently (1997) extracted from four mines, each within the study area of this map—the open pit operations of the Treasure State, Regal, and Yellowstone mines and the underground operation of the Beaverhead mine (see map numbers 1-4 on list and map to the left). The related mineral chlorite is mined at the Antler mine, located nearby, but outside of the study area in the Highland Mountains. Montana talc has at least two market advantages: (1) some deposits are very large and near surface, allowing economic mining by open pit methods; and (2) the deposits are of high purity and lack tremolite or other amphibole mineral contaminants (such as absestos) that occur in some other talc-rich deposits. Talc from southwest Montana is used in ceramics, paint, paper, plastics, cosmetics, rubber, roofing, flooring, caulking, and agricultural applications. The talc is also used in the processes of recycling paper and plastics. Talc was first discovered in the early 1900's at the present site of the Yellowstone mine (Perry, 1948, p. 9). Modest production began in 1942 from shallow pits and adits, supplying steatite (massive, compact, high-purity) talc that was used to make ceramic insulators. The southwest Montana talc industry grew to become a significant part of the region's economy; this history is described by Perry (1948), Olson (1976), and Berg (1997). Exploration and development are likely to continue for the foreseeable future for several reasons: (1) mines are active in the area at present and an infrastructure for talc processing exists; (2) large changes in domestic and export talc markets are not

  12. VOLATILE COMPOUNDS OF WATER-ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SATUREJA MONTANA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Paliy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied a composition and content of volatile compounds of Satureja montana L. extract. It was established that concentration of volatile compounds in water-ethanol extract of S. montana amounted to 325 mg/100g. The principal component of the extract is carvacrol. It was shown that the extract of Satureja montana represents high biological value

  13. Using column experiments to examine transport of As and other trace elements released from poultry litter: Implications for trace element mobility in agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Oluyinka; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2017-08-01

    Trace elements are added to poultry feed to control infection and improve weight gain. However, the fate of these trace elements in poultry litter is poorly understood. Because poultry litter is applied as fertilizer in many agricultural regions, evaluation of the environmental processes that influence the mobility of litter-derived trace elements is critical for predicting if trace elements are retained in soil or released to water. This study examined the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in poultry litter leachate on the fate and transport of litter-derived elements (As, Cu, P and Zn) using laboratory column experiments with soil collected from the Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic, USA), a region of intense poultry production. Results of the experiments showed that DOC enhanced the mobility of all of the studied elements. However, despite the increased mobility, 60-70% of Zn, As and P mass was retained within the soil. In contrast, almost all of the Cu was mobilized in the litter leachate experiments, with very little retention in soil. Overall, our results demonstrate that the mobility of As, Cu, Zn and P in soils which receive poultry litter application is strongly influenced by both litter leachate composition, specifically organic acids, and adsorption to soil. Results have implications for understanding fate and transport of trace elements released from litter application to soil water and groundwater, which can affect both human health and the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Green Algae from Coal Bed Methane Ponds as a Source of Fertilizer for Economically Important Plants of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsakin, O. R.; Apple, M. E.; Zhou, X.; Peyton, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Tongue River Basin of northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana is the location of natural gas reserves and coal bed methane (CBM) acreage. Although the water that emanates from CBM extraction varies with site, it is generally of higher quality than the waters produced by conventional oil and gas wells, in part because it is low in volatile organic compounds. However, since CBM water contains dissolved solids, including sodium (Na), bicarbonate (HCO3) and chloride (Cl) ions, the water must be treated before it can be discharged into the river or wetlands, or used for stock ponds or irrigation. Several ponds have been constructed to serve as a holding facility for CBM water. Algae from the CBM ponds of the Tongue River Basin have the potential to be utilized as fertilizer on economically important plants of Montana. Two very important crop plants of Montana are wheat, Triticum aestivum, and potatoes, Solanum tuberosum. To explore this potential, isolates of unicellular green algae (Chlorella sp.) from the CBM ponds were cultured in aerated vessels with Bold's Basic Growth Medium and natural and/or supplemental light. Algal biomass was condensed in and collected from a valved funnel, after which cell density was determined via light microscopy and a hemacytometer. Algal/water slurries with known nutrient contents were added to seedlings of hard winter wheat, T.aestivum, grown in a greenhouse for three months before harves. When compared to wheat provided with just water, or with water and a commercially available fertilizer, the wheat fertilized with algae had a higher chlorophyll content, more tillers (side shoots), and a higher ratio of influorescences (groups of flowers) per stem. In a related experiment, Ranger Russet seed potatoes, S. tuberosum were given just water, water and Hoagland's nutrient solution, or water with algae in order to compare aboveground growth and potato production among the treatments. The results of this study suggest that

  15. Baxter v. Montana, libertarianism, and end-of-life: the ripe time for a paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, James H

    2010-09-01

    Baxter v. Montana (2009 WL 5155363 [Mont. 2009]) is a recent decision from the Montana Supreme Court that provides new legal insight into the societal issue of aid in dying. This case involves interests of persons with terminal illness, medical practitioners, law enforcement, legislative and judicial bodies, as well as the citizens of Montana. A summary judgment ruling at the Montana district court level was based almost entirely on a constitutional fundamental rights analysis. In contrast, the Montana Supreme Court affirming decision was based almost entirely on a statutory rights analysis. Both rulings from the Montana courts support the position that licensed prescribers in Montana who provide aid in dying assistance to terminally ill patients have some immunity from criminal prosecution. Each side in the case argued what they believed to be the intents and purposes of the people of Montana. Baxter v. Montana illustrates different methods to determine the will of the people concerning aid in dying and public policy. This case very subtly suggests a paradigm shift may be occurring in aid in dying policy.

  16. Agricultural experts’ attitude towards precision agriculture: Evidence from Guilan Agricultural Organization, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying factors that influence the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding precision agriculture plays an important role in developing, promoting and establishing precision agriculture. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding the implementation of precision agriculture. A descriptive research design was employed as the research method. A research-made questionnaire was used to examine the agricultural experts’ attitude toward precision agriculture. Internal consistency was demonstrated with a coefficient alpha of 0.87, and the content and face validity of the instrument was confirmed by a panel of experts. The results show that technical, economic and accessibility factors accounted for 55% of the changes in attitudes towards precision agriculture. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences between participants in terms of gender, field of study, extension education, age, experience, organizational position and attitudes, while education levels had a significant effect on the respondent’s attitudes.

  17. Montana Organization for Research in Energy (MORE) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, Jerry

    1999-12-31

    MORE is a consortium of educational, governmental, and industrial partners in cooperation with the state's Tribal colleges. Formed in 1994, the objectives are to develop and promote energy-related research and education in the state of Montana and the Northwestern region. Specifically, they set out to: (1) promote collaboration and cooperation among Montana's Colleges and Universities; (2) maximize use of existing personnel and resources; (3) foster partnerships with industries, state agencies, and tribal nations; and (4) enhance energy research and training. The 1st Implementation Grant consisted of Management and Coordination, Human Outreach, and two Research Clusters Petroleum Reservoir Characterization and Wind Energy. Overall, they consider this program to have been highly successful. That conclusion was mirrored by the DOE site reviewers, and by invitations from Dr. Matesh Varma, the DOE/EPSCoR National Program Director, to present their programs and outcomes as models for other states the National DOE/EPSCoR meetings.

  18. Bioactivity and phytochemical characterization of Arenaria montana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The bioactivity (antioxidant and cytotoxic activities) of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Arenaria montana L., a plant commonly used in Portuguese folk medicine, was evaluated and compared. Furthermore, the phytochemical composition was determined regarding hydrophilic (sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds) and lipophilic (fatty acids and tocopherols) compounds, in order to valorize this plant material as a functional food/nutraceutical. Fructose, oxalic acid, methyl-luteolin 2...

  19. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  20. Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  1. 76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... affordable prices can attract businesses and jobs to a state or region, and higher health-insurance prices.... *Attorney of Record. FOR PLAINTIFF STATE OF MONTANA: Steve Bullock, Attorney General of Montana. James...

  2. Cooperative Recovery Initiative: Bull Trout Restoration: Restoring Cold, Clean, Complex and Connected Habitat in the Blackfoot River Watershed of Montana.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat degradation and the effects of climate change are the biggest threats to bull trout in the Blackfoot River watershed of Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife &...

  3. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  4. Biofuels in agriculture - How the daily work is affected, rules and experiences; Biodrivmedel inom lantbruket - Hur det vardagliga arbetet paaverkas, regler och erfarenheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eksvaerd, Jan

    2012-07-01

    Approximately 5% of transport fuels for Swedish vehicles 2010 came from renewable biomass. EU wants the share within the EU to reach 10% in 2020. LRF is working towards the goal that 20% of transport fuels in Sweden should be renewable by 2020. The reason is that carbon dioxide emissions need to fall sharply and that a declining and uncertain supply of fossil fuels contributes to higher costs. What biofuel to be used in different vehicles will differ. Today, biogas, ethanol, RME (rapeseed methyl ester) and on some vehicles also DME (dimethyl ether) are used. In agriculture, the RME is the only practical option today, although there are a couple of biogas and rapeseed oil tractors. In this report rules and experiences of diesel is compared with five potential biofuels: RME, biogas (both compressed and liquid), DME, ethanol and methanol. For FT-diesel from biomass (made from methane via Ficher-Tropf method) the same rules apply as for fossil diesel. The report contains: a) brief background information on these biofuels, b) practical experience and views on the use of them, and c) the different rules that apply to storage, transportation and small tractor operation of the various fuels. Examples are also given of the differences between different fuels in their everyday work. Ethanol, methanol, DME and FT-diesel can be produced from both fossil and biomass feedstock. The term biogas is used, however, consistently for methane produced by anaerobic digestion of biomass.

  5. Preliminary assessment report for Fort William Henry Harrison, Montana Army National Guard, Helena, Montana. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuWaldt, J.; Meyer, T.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at a Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) property near Helena, Montana. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort William Henry Harrison property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

  6. Stratigraphy and geologic history of the Montana group and equivalent rocks, Montana, Wyoming, and North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, James R.; Cobban, William Aubrey

    1973-01-01

    During Late Cretaceous time a broad north-trending epicontinental sea covered much of the western interior of North America and extended from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean. The sea was bounded on the west by a narrow, unstable, and constantly rising cordillera which extended from Central America to Alaska and which separated the sea from Pacific oceanic waters. The east margin of the sea was bounded by the low-lying stable platform of the central part of the United States.Rocks of the type Montana Group in Montana and equivalent rocks in adjacent States, which consist of eastward-pointing wedges of shallow-water marine and nonmarine strata that enclose westward-pointing wedges of fine-grained marine strata, were deposited in and marginal to this sea. These rocks range in age from middle Santonian to early Maestrichtian and represent a time span of about 14 million years. Twenty-nine distinctive ammonite zones, each with a time span of about half a million years, characterize the marine strata.Persistent beds of bentonite in the transgressive part of the Claggett and Bearpaw Shales of Montana and equivalent rocks elsewhere represent periods of explosive volcanism and perhaps concurrent subsidence along the west shore in the vicinity of the Elkhorn Mountains and the Deer Creek volcanic fields in Montana. Seaward retreat of st randlines, marked by deposition of the Telegraph Creek, Eagle, Judith River, and Fox Hills Formations in Montana and the Mesaverde Formation in Wyoming, may be attributed to uplift in near-coastal areas and to an increase in volcaniclastic rocks delivered to the sea.Rates of transgression and regression determined for the Montana Group in central Montana reveal that the strandline movement was more rapid during times of transgression. The regression of the Telegraph Creek and Eagle strandlines averaged about 50 miles per million years compared with a rate of about 95 miles per million years for the advance of the strand-line during

  7. The Revelation from the Experience of Brazil’s Agricultural Specialized Production at Scale%巴西农业专业化与规模化对我国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高京平; 邢飞; 吴亚超

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a big agricultural export country in the world.During less than 30 years,Brazil became the world granary from an agri-cultural import country via the process of agricultural specialized production at scale.The achievement Brazil has made is valuable experiences for China’s agricultural development.%巴西是农牧业大国,巴西政府在发展农业的进程中,走出了专业化生产、规模化经营的道路,在不到30年的时间内,巴西从一个粮食进口国转变为世界大粮仓之一,这其中的发展经验与历程值得我国学习和借鉴。

  8. Propagation and Introduction of Arnica montana L. into Cultivation: A Step to Reduce the Pressure on Endangered and High-Valued Medicinal Plant Species

    OpenAIRE

    Sugier, Danuta; Sugier, Piotr; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Arnica montana (L.) is an endangered and endemic medicinal plant species in Europe. The pressure on natural sources of this plant is alleviated by a suitable use of arnica resources in the European region and introduction into cultivation. The objective of this study was to describe the impact of different ways of plant propagation and introduction on the growth and reproduction mode of this species. During the six consecutive years of the field experiment, the vegetative and reproductive tra...

  9. A field experiment with variable-suction multi-compartment samplers to measure the spatio-temporal distribution of solute leaching in an agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, E.; Hogervorst, F. A. N.; de Rooij, G. H.

    2009-04-01

    Solutes spread out in time and space as they move downwards from the soil surface with infiltrating water. Solute monitoring in the field is often limited to observations of resident concentrations, while flux concentrations govern the movement of solutes in soils. A recently developed multi-compartment sampler is capable of measuring fluxes at a high spatial resolution with minimal disturbance of the local pressure head field. The objective of this paper is to use this sampler to quantify the spatial and temporal variation of solute leaching below the root zone in an agricultural field under natural rainfall in winter and spring. We placed two samplers at 31 and 25 cm depth in an agricultural field, leaving the soil above undisturbed. Each sampler contained 100 separate cells of 31 × 31 mm. Water fluxes were measured every 5 min for each cell. We monitored leaching of a chloride pulse under natural rainfall by frequently extracting the collected leachate while leaving the samplers buried in situ. This experiment was followed by a dye tracer experiment. This setting yielded information that widely surpassed the information that can be provided by separate anionic and dye tracer trials, and solute transport monitoring by coring or suction cups. The detailed information provided by the samplers showed that percolation at the sampling depth started much faster (approximately 3 h after the start of rainfall) in initially wet soil (pressure head above - 65 cm) than in drier soil (more than 14 h at pressure heads below - 80 cm). At any time, 25% of the drainage passed through 5-6% of the sampled area, reflecting the effect of heterogeneity on the flow paths. The amount of solute carried by individual cells varied over four orders of magnitude. The lateral concentration differences were limited though. This suggests a convective-dispersive regime despite the short vertical travel distance. On the other hand, the dilution index indicates a slight tendency towards

  10. Stroke Knowledge among Urban and Frontier First Responders and Emergency Medical Technicians in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Michael J.; Oser, Carrie; Gohdes, Dorothy; Fogle, Crystelle C.; Dietrich, Dennis W.; Burnett, Anne; Okon, Nicholas; Russell, Joseph A.; DeTienne, James; Harwell, Todd S.; Helgerson, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess stroke knowledge and practice among frontier and urban emergency medical services (EMS) providers and to evaluate the need for additional prehospital stroke training opportunities in Montana. Methods: In 2006, a telephone survey of a representative sample of EMS providers was conducted in Montana. Respondents were stratified…

  11. 75 FR 4698 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Administrative Rules of Montana. Revisions include minor editorial and grammatical changes, updates to the... minor editorial and grammatical changes, and update the citations and references to Federal laws and... Montana; they make minor editorial and grammatical changes, update the citations and references to...

  12. 75 FR 3993 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... the Administrative Rules of Montana; they include minor editorial and grammatical changes, updates to... minor editorial and grammatical changes, update the citations and references to federal and state laws... Rules of Montana; they make minor editorial and grammatical changes, update the citations and...

  13. Scheduling Recess before Lunch: Exploring the Benefits and Challenges in Montana Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bark, Katie; Stenberg, Molly; Sutherland, Shelly; Hayes, Dayle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the "Montana Recess Before Lunch Survey" was to explore benefits, challenges, and factors associated with successful implementation of Recess Before Lunch (RBL), from the perspective of school principals. Methods: An online written questionnaire was distributed to all (N = 661) Montana elementary and…

  14. 75 FR 3489 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... Montana Resource Advisory Council will be held on March 4, 2010, in Billings, MT. The meeting will start... in Montana. At these meetings, topics will include: Miles City and Billings Field Office manager..., 2010. M. Elaine Raper, District Manager. BILLING CODE 4310-DN-P...

  15. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students on or near a Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students on or near a reservation. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 720 high school American Indian students on or near a reservation in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions…

  16. [Special use permit for predator disease study associated with Montana black-footed ferret reintroduction, summer 1994 : Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a memorandum providing the Montana Black-Footed Ferret Working Group with information on the proposed predator collection that will happen...

  17. Some Biological Compounds, Radical Scavenging Capacities and Antimicrobial Activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erecevit, Pınar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determined some biological compounds (fatty acid compositions, lipid-soluble vitamins, sterols, flavonoids, radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was found that palmitic acid (C16:0; 8.54±0.13- 3.05±0.04%, oleic acid (C18:1 n9, 22.41±0.8-18.83±0.1% and α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n3;39.56±0.67-77.04±2.07% were the dominant fatty acids in both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was concluded that both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contained stigmasterol (630.07±1.81µg/g, 80.74±0.71µg/g, respectively and ergosterol (1.11±0.14µg/g, 161.32±0.63µg/g respectively as well as beta-sitosterol (2.93±0.03 µg/g. The present findings show that Nepeta italica L. contains morin (37.79±1.09μg/g, catechin (124.39±2.23µg/g, naringin (475.96±3.57µg/g and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contains morin (188.41±2.53µg/g, catechin (64.14±1.86μg/g, naringenin (38.34±1.78μg/g as major flavonoids. It was also determined that methanol extracts of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana were most effective against DPPH radicals. The results of the present study show that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts in the seeds of N. italica L. and S. montana L. subsp. montana prevented the growth of the microorganisms used in the tests at different ratios.Este estudio ha determinado algunos compuestos biológicos (ácidos grasos, vitaminas liposolubles, esteroles y flavonoides, capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres, y actividades antimicrobianas de las semillas de Nepeta italica L. y Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. Se encontró que el ácido palmítico (C16:0; 8.54±0.13-3.05±0.04%, ácido oleico (C18:1 n9, 22.41±0.8-18.83±0.1% y α-linolénico (C18:3 n 3;39.56±0.67-77.04±2.07% eran mayoritarios en ambas semillas de Nepeta italica L. y Sideritis

  18. Agricultural risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens; Oksen, Arne; Larsen, Torben U.

    2005-01-01

    A new model for risk management in agriculture is described in the paper. The risk model is constructed as a context dependent process, which includes four main phases. The model is aimed at agricultural advisors, who wish to facilitate and disseminate risk management to farmers. It is developed...... and tested by an action research approach in an attempt to make risk management more applicable on family farms. Our obtained experiences indicate that farmers don’t apply probabilistic thinking and other concepts according to formal decision theory....

  19. Montana Integrated Carbon to Liquids (ICTL) Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiato, Rocco; Sharma, Ramesh; Allen, Mark; Peyton, Brent; Macur, Richard; Cameron, Jemima

    2013-09-30

    Integrated carbon-to-liquids technology (ICTL) incorporates three basic processes for the conversion of a wide range of feedstocks to distillate liquid fuels: (1) Direct Microcatalytic Coal Liquefaction (MCL) is coupled with biomass liquefaction via (2) Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation and Isomerization (CHI) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or trigylceride fatty acids (TGFA) to produce liquid fuels, with process derived (3) CO{sub 2} Capture and Utilization (CCU) via algae production and use in BioFertilizer for added terrestrial sequestration of CO{sub 2}, or as a feedstock for MCL and/or CHI. This novel approach enables synthetic fuels production while simultaneously meeting EISA 2007 Section 526 targets, minimizing land use and water consumption, and providing cost competitive fuels at current day petroleum prices. ICTL was demonstrated with Montana Crow sub-bituminous coal in MCL pilot scale operations at the Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota (EERC), with related pilot scale CHI studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center (PARC). Coal-Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Fuel samples were evaluated at the US Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) in Dayton and greenhouse tests of algae based BioFertilizer conducted at Montana State University (MSU). Econometric modeling studies were also conducted on the use of algae based BioFertilizer in a wheat-camelina crop rotation cycle. We find that the combined operation is not only able to help boost crop yields, but also to provide added crop yields and associated profits from TGFA (from crop production) for use an ICTL plant feedstock. This program demonstrated the overall viability of ICTL in pilot scale operations. Related work on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a Montana project indicated that CCU could be employed very effectively to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the MCL/CHI process. Plans are currently being made to conduct larger-scale process

  20. Helenalin Acetate in in vitro Propagated Plants of Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarz, J; Stojakowska, A; Dohnal, B; Kisiel, W

    1993-02-01

    Propagated "IN VITRO" shoots and plantlets of ARNICA MONTANA L. (Asteraceae) have been shown to produce sesquiterpene lactones, i.e. helenalin and 11,13-dihydrohelenalin esters. The compounds were detected in green organs only; roots of the plantlets contained no sesquiterpene lactones. The helenalin acetate content in leaves of the plantlets (0.073% dry wt) was 4-times higher than in proliferated shoots (0.016% dry wt). The best rate of shoot multiplication was achieved on MS medium, supplemented with NAA 0.5mg/l and Kn 2.5 mg/l (formation of 22 shoots within 8 weeks).

  1. Immunologically active polysaccharides of Arnica montana cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhlmann, J; Zenk, M H; Wagner, H

    1991-01-01

    From the nutrition medium of Arnica montana cell cultures two homogeneous polysaccharides, an acidic arabino-3,6-galactan-protein with mean Mr of 100,000 and a neutral fucogalactoxyloglucan with mean Mr of 22,500 have been isolated by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and Sephacryl S-400 column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated mainly by methylation analysis, partial acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The fucogalactoxyloglucan shows a pronounced enhancement of phagocytosis in vivo. The arabino-3,6-galactan-protein displays a strong anticomplementary effect and stimulates macrophages to excrete the tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha).

  2. Flavonoid Glycosides from Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merfort, I; Wendisch, D

    1987-10-01

    Five flavonoid glycosides were identified from flowers of ARNICA MONTANA, four from A. CHAMISSONIS subsp. FOLIOSA var. INCANA. The structures were established on the basis of total acid hydrolysis and spectral data (UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS) as hispidulin 7- O-beta-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3- O-beta-glucoside, 3- O-beta- D-glucopyranosides of spinacetin, 6-methoxykaempferol and patuletin and querectin 3- O-(6''- O-acetyl)-beta- D-glucopyranoside. The latter compound can serve as distinctive marker between these two ARNICA species. The (1)H-NMR spectra in CD (3)OD are discussed.

  3. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  4. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  5. A Reflight of the Explorer-1 Science Mission: The Montana EaRth Orbiting Pico Explorer (MEROPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Obland, M.; Hunyadi, G.; Jepsen, S.; Larsen, B.; Kankelborg, C.; Hiscock, W.

    2001-05-01

    Montana State University's interdisciplinary Space Science and Engineering Laboratory (SSEL) under support from the Montana NASA Space Grant Consortium is engaged in an earth orbiting satellite student design and flight project. The Montana EaRth Orbiting Pico Explorer (MEROPE) will carry a modern-day reproduction of the scientific payload carried on Explorer-1. On February 1, 1958 the United States launched its first earth orbiting satellite carrying a 14 kg scientific experiment built by Professor James Van Allen's group at the State University of Iowa (now The University of Iowa). The MEROPE student satellite will carry a reproduction, using current-day technology, of the scientific payload flown on Explorer-1. The CubeSat-class satellite will use currently available, low cost technologies to produce a payload-carrying satellite with a total orbital mass of 1 kg in a volume of 1 cubic liter. The satellite is to be launched in late 2001 into a 600 km, 65° inclination orbit. MEROPE will utilize passive magnetic orientation for 2-axis attitude control. A central microprocessor provides timing, controls on-board operations and switching, and enables data storage. Body mounted GaAs solar arrays are expected to provide in excess of 1.5 W. to maintain battery charge and operate the bus and payload. The Geiger counter will be operated at approximately 50% duty cycle, primarily during transits of the earth's radiation belts. Data will be stored on board and transmitted approximately twice per day to a ground station located on the Bozeman campus of the Montana State University. Owing to the 65° inclination, the instrument will also detect the higher energy portion of the electron spectrum responsible for the production of the Aurora Borealis. This paper describes both the technical implementation and design of the satellite and its payload as well as the not inconsiderable task of large team organization and management. As of March 2001, the student team consists of

  6. Hydrogeologic data for the northern Rocky Mountains intermontane basins, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, DeAnn M.; Lawlor, Sean M.; Briar, D.W.; Tresch, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began a Regional Aquifer- System Analysis of the Northern Rocky Mountains Intermontane Basins of western Montana and central and central and northern Idaho in 1990 to establish a regional framework of information for aquifers in 54 intermontane basins in an area of about 77,500 square miles. Selected hydrogeologic data have been used as part of this analysis to define the hydro- logic systems. Records of 1,376 wells completed in 31 of the 34 intermontane basins in the Montana part of the study area are tabulated in this report. Data consist of location, alttiude of land surface, date well constructed, geologic unit, depth of well, diameter of casing, type of finish, top of open interval, primary use of water, water level, date water level measured, discharge, specific capacity, source of discharge data, type of log available, date water-quality parameters measured, specific conductance, pH, and temperature. Hydrographs for selected wells also are included. Locations of wells and basins are shown on the accompanying plate.

  7. Chemical characteristics of the major thermal springs of Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1976-07-01

    Twenty-one thermal springs in western Montana were sampled for chemical, isotope, and gas compositions. Most of the springs issue dilute to slightly saline sodium-bicarbonate waters of neutral to slightly alkaline pH. A few of the springs issue sodium-mixed anion waters of near neutral pH. Fluoride concentrations are high in most of the thermal waters, up to 18 miligrams per litre, while F/Cl ratios range from 3/1 in the dilute waters to 1/10 in the slightly saline waters. Most of the springs are theoretically in thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite and fluorite. Nitrogen is the major gas escaping from most of the hot springs; however, Hunters Hot Springs issue principally methane. The deuterium content of the hot spring waters is typical of meteoric water in western Montana. Geothermal calculations based on silica concentrations and Na-K-Ca ratios indicate that most of the springs are associated with low temperature aquifers (less than 100/sup 0/C). Chalcedony may be controlling the silica concentrations in these low temperature aquifers even in ''granitic'' terranes.

  8. Cropland Field Monitoring: MMV Page 1 Montana Cropland Enrolled Farm Fields Carbon Sequestration Field Sampling, Measurement, Monitoring, and Verification: Application of Visible-Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (VNIR) and Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Spangler; Ross Bricklemyer; David Brown

    2012-03-15

    There is growing need for rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods to measure, and verify soil organic carbon (SOC) change for national greenhouse gas accounting and the development of a soil carbon trading market. Laboratory based soil characterization typically requires significant soil processing, which is time and resource intensive. This severely limits application for large-region soil characterization. Thus, development of rapid and accurate methods for characterizing soils are needed to map soil properties for precision agriculture applications, improve regional and global soil carbon (C) stock and flux estimates and efficiently map sub-surface metal contamination, among others. The greatest gains for efficient soil characterization will come from collecting soil data in situ, thus minimizing soil sample transportation, processing, and lab-based measurement costs. Visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are two complementary, yet fundamentally different spectroscopic techniques that have the potential to meet this need. These sensors have the potential to be mounted on a soil penetrometer and deployed for rapid soil profile characterization at field and landscape scales. Details of sensor interaction, efficient data management, and appropriate statistical analysis techniques for model calibrations are first needed. In situ or on-the-go VisNIR spectroscopy has been proposed as a rapid and inexpensive tool for intensively mapping soil texture and organic carbon (SOC). While lab-based VisNIR has been established as a viable technique for estimating various soil properties, few experiments have compared the predictive accuracy of on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Eight north central Montana wheat fields were intensively interrogated using on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Lab-based spectral data consistently provided more accurate predictions than on-the-go data. However, neither in situ

  9. Study of University Agricultural Experiment Station from the Early Days of the Republic Till the Anti-Japanese War (1912 -1937)%民初至抗战前大学农事试验场述论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑛

    2012-01-01

    阐述了从民国初年到抗战前大学农事试验场的创办情况,从改进和培育优良品种、繁殖和推广改良品种、交流农事试验和推广经验几方面述叙了大学农事试验场的农事活动,最后分析了大学农事试验场的成效和局限性.%The paper studied the establishment of university agricultural experimental stations from the early days of the republic China till the anti-Japanese war, and then introduced the agricultural activities in those stations, such as the introduction and cultivation of excellent cultivars, the breeding and popularization of good varieties, and the exchange of agricultural experiments and experiences, etc. , finally analyzed the effectiveness and constraints of the university agricultural experimental stations.

  10. Altitudinal variation of phenolic contents in flowering heads of Arnica montana cv. ARBO: a 3-year comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitaler, Renate; Winkler, Andrea; Lins, Isabella; Yanar, Sema; Stuppner, Hermann; Zidorn, Christian

    2008-03-01

    In continuation of our studies of altitudinal effects on secondary metabolite profile of flowering heads from taxa of the Asteraceae, we investigated phenolic contents and radical scavenging potential from cultivated plants of Arnica montana cv. ARBO during the growing seasons 2003, 2004, and 2005. By conducting experiments on potted plants, we excluded that differences in phenolic contents from plants grown at different altitudes were related primarily to differences in soil composition at these sites. To assess altitudinal and interseasonal variation, plants of A. montana cultivar ARBO were grown in nine experimental plots at altitudes between 590 and 2,230 m at Mount Patscherkofel near Innsbruck, Austria. In all growing seasons and regardless of the soil the plants were grown in, the proportion of flavonoids with vicinal-free hydroxy groups in ring B to flavonoids lacking this feature, and the total amount of caffeic acid derivatives, significantly increased with elevation. These increases of antioxidant phenolics corresponded to an increase of the radical scavenging potential of extracts from plants grown at different altitudes. The results are discussed in regard to previous studies that suggest that enhanced UV-B radiation and decreased temperatures trigger augmented biosynthesis of UV-absorbing and antioxidant phenolics in higher plants.

  11. Theme: Teaching Physical Science Applications in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Edward W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes "Preparing Teachers to Teach Agriscience" (Osborne); "Physical Sciences and Agriculture" (Buriak); "Using Experiments to Teach Agriculture" (Miller); "Oooh-Ahhh: So That's How It Works!" (Loschen); "Keeping Agriculture in Agriscience" (Moss); "Sharpening Twist Drills" (McHargue, Hood); and "Safety in the Agriscience Laboratory"…

  12. Readership Study of an Agricultural Magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ted

    Since the fall of 1957, the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station has published a semi-scientific quarterly magazine, "Louisiana Agriculture," to present information on the station's research to Louisiana citizens, particularly public officials, members of the agribusiness sector, science-oriented farmers, agriculture and science teachers, and…

  13. Runoff experiment and adapted SfM photogrammetry to assess rill erosion in Mediterranean agricultural fields from a holistic point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronz, Oliver; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Seeger, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    In Mediterranean agricultural fields, more research is needed to quantify soil loss and to assess runoff generation caused by unsuitable land management strategies (García-Díaz et al., 2017; Keesstra et al., 2016). Nowadays, farmers are increasing the generation of rills and, consequently, enhancing several sub-processes related to soil erosion by water such as headcut retreats, piping or cracks joint to mass movements (Marzolff and Poesen, 2009; Poesen et al., 2003; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2015). This complex problem under different spatiotemporal scales hinders a reliable forecasting of its final consequences (Prasuhn, 2011; Salome et al., 2014). Several researchers pay more attention to point observations, but no to general and connected overviews of processes related to forms and the quantitative functioning of all elements. Therefore, the main goal of this study is to characterize and quantify the rill erosion generated by these degradation processes. To achieve this goal, two runoff experiments were carried out with two repetitions (dry and wet conditions) under extreme conditions (Wirtz et al., 2013, 2012, 2010): a motor driven pump discharged a water inflow up to ˜4.2 l s-1 maintained during between 4 and 6 minutes (≈1000 litres). Additionally, a 3D-captation of the rill by an adapted SfM photogrammetry was performed to assess: i) clear visible zonation of geomorphological (structural) connectivity features; ii) runoff and sediment productions close to the catchment outlet under actual conditions; iii) topsoil-subsoil interaction and crusting crucial for runoff generation; and, iv) the area with evidence of (former) high erosion intensity now stable, but with remnant. García-Díaz, A., Bienes, R., Sastre, B., Novara, A., Gristina, L., Cerdà, A., 2017. Nitrogen losses in vineyards under different types of soil groundcover. A field runoff simulator approach in central Spain. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 236, 256-267. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2016.12.013 Keesstra

  14. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 8, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The States of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming compose the 392,764-square-mile area of Segment 8, which is in the north-central part of the continental United States. The area varies topographically from the high rugged mountain ranges of the Rocky Mountains in western Montana and Wyoming to the gently undulating surface of the Central Lowland in eastern North Dakota and South Dakota (fig. 1). The Black Hills in southwestern South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming interrupt the uniformity of the intervening Great Plains. Segment 8 spans the Continental Divide, which is the drainage divide that separates streams that generally flow westward from those that generally flow eastward. The area of Segment 8 is drained by the following major rivers or river systems: the Green River drains southward to join the Colorado River, which ultimately discharges to the Gulf of California; the Clark Fork and the Kootenai Rivers drain generally westward by way of the Columbia River to discharge to the Pacific Ocean; the Missouri River system and the North Platte River drain eastward and southeastward to the Mississippi River, which discharges to the Gulf of Mexico; and the Red River of the North and the Souris River drain northward through Lake Winnipeg to ultimately discharge to Hudson Bay in Canada. These rivers and their tributaries are an important source of water for public-supply, domestic and commercial, agricultural, and industrial uses. Much of the surface water has long been appropriated for agricultural use, primarily irrigation, and for compliance with downstream water pacts. Reservoirs store some of the surface water for flood control, irrigation, power generation, and recreational purposes. Surface water is not always available when and where it is needed, and ground water is the only other source of supply. Ground water is obtained primarily from wells completed in unconsolidated-deposit aquifers that consist mostly of sand and gravel, and from wells

  15. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins...

  16. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  17. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  18. MT—Impacts of Oil Exploration and Production to the Northeast Montana Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Northeast Montana Wetland Management District provides habitat for numerous different species of breeding waterfowl and migrating shorebirds, including the...

  19. Montana Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions: 2014 Field Implementation Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2014 the Avian Science Center (ASC) at the University of Montana (UM) participated in the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR) program for a...

  20. 75 FR 4036 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Administrative Rules of Montana. Revisions include minor editorial and grammatical changes, updates to the citations and references to federal and state laws and regulations, other minor changes to conform...

  1. 40 CFR 272.1351 - Montana State-Administered Program: Final Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Annotated (MCA) 2005, Title 25, “Civil Procedure”: Chapter 20, “Rules of Civil Procedure”, Rule 24(a). (iii) Montana Code Annotated (MCA) 2005, Title 27, “Civil Liability, Remedies, and Limitations”: Chapter...

  2. Final report on biogeochemical cycling of selenium in Benton Lake, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The biogeochemical cycling of selenium in Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana was very complicated. Selenium accumulation in sediment was a...

  3. Saline seep impacts on Hailstone and Halfbreed National Wildlife Refuges in south-central Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Elevated salt and selenium levels in groundwater and in saline seeps within the Lake Basin of northern Stillwater County, Montana have impacted water quality on...

  4. 77 FR 43046 - Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Forest Service Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS AGENCY: Forest.... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to: Center Horse Landscape Restoration Project Leader, USDA Forest Service..., Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose and Need for Action The Center Horse...

  5. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins...

  6. The Story of Story Mill-A Montana Community Working to Restore Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story Mill, a 55-acre site on the outskirts of Bozeman, Montana, has undergone several transformations in recent history. The place is virtually a “mill of stories” with respect to land use, but originally it was a wetland.

  7. Northwest Montana Wetlands Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with...

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of Arnica montana 6cH: preclinical study in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, S B; Ferreira, L R; Perazzo, F F; Carvalho, J C

    2004-04-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of Arnica montana 6cH was evaluated using acute and chronic inflammation models. In the acute, model, carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema, the group treated with Arnica montana 6cH showed 30% inhibition compared to control (P < 0.05). Treatment with Arnica 6cH, 30 min prior to carrageenin, did not produce any inhibition of the inflammatory process. In the chronic model, Nystatin-induced oedema, the group treated 3 days previously with Arnica montana 6cH had reduced inflammation 6 h after the inflammatory agent was applied (P < 0.05). When treatment was given 6 h after Nystatin treatment, there was no significant inhibitory effect. In a model based on histamine-induced increase of vascular permeability, pretreatment with Arnica montana 6cH blocked the action of histamine in increasing vascular permeability.

  9. 6-O-Isobutyryl-tetrahydrohelenalin from the flowers of Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willuhn, G; Röttger, P M; Wendisch, D

    1984-02-01

    From the flowers of ARNICA MONTANA L., the helenanolides 6- O-isobutyryl-tetrahydrohelenalin and 2beta-ethoxy-6- O-isobutyryl-2,3-dihydrohelenalin were isolated and their structures established by spectroscopic methods.

  10. Wyodak-Anderson clinker in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana (prbclkg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representation of the Wyodak-Anderson clinker in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. This theme was created...

  11. Digital Geologic Map of Glacier National Park, Montana (NPS, GRD, GRE, GLAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of Glacier National Park, Montana is comprised of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with ancillary map text,...

  12. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Swan River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins...

  13. National Bison Range, Ninepipe, Pablo and Swan River NWR's, Northwest Montana Wetlands: 1976 [Narrative report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for National Bison Range, Ninepipe NWR, Pablo NWR, Swan River NWR, and Northwest Montana Wetlands outlines Refuge accomplishments during the...

  14. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Swan River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins...

  15. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins...

  16. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Swan River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins...

  17. Trace elements and organochlorines in sediments and fish from Missouri River reservoirs in Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is currently reviewing the application submitted by the Montana Power Company (MPC) for relicensing their...

  18. Effectiveness and Safety of Arnica montana in Post-Surgical Setting, Pain and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Morales-Medina, Julio César; Bellavite, Paolo; Rottigni, Valentina; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2016-01-01

    Arnica montana has been widely used as a homeopathic remedy for the treatment of several inflammatory conditions in pain management and postoperative settings. This review gives an overview of the therapeutic use of Arnica montana in the above-mentioned fields also focusing on its mechanisms of action learned from animal models and in vitro studies. Arnica montana is more effective than placebo when used for the treatment of several conditions including post-traumatic and postoperative pain, edema, and ecchymosis. However, its dosages and preparations used have produced substantial differences in the clinical outcome. Cumulative evidence suggests that Arnica montana may represent a valid alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, at least when treating some specific conditions.

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craciunescu Oana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100 mg/L A. montana and 10–500 mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10–300 mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders.

  20. Compilation of Water-Resources Data for Montana, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, P. B.; Berkas, W.R.; White, M.K.; Dodge, K.A.; Bailey, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Montana Water Science Center, in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, and Tribal governments, collects a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Montana each water year. This report is a compilation of Montana site-data sheets for the 2006 water year, which consists of records of stage and discharge of streams; water quality of streams and ground water; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; water levels in wells; and precipitation data. Site-data sheets for selected stations in Canada and Wyoming also are included in this report. The data for Montana, along with data from various parts of the Nation, are included in 'Water-Resources Data for the United States, Water Year 2006', which is published as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Data Report WDR-US-2006 and is available at http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wdr2006. Additional water year 2006 data collected at crest-stage gage and miscellaneous-measurement stations were collected but were not published. These data are stored in files of the U.S. Geological Survey Montana Water Science Center in Helena, Montana, and are available on request.

  1. The Montana ALE (Autonomous Lunar Excavator) Systems Engineering Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    On May 2 1-26, 20 12, the third annual NASA Lunabotics Mining Competition will be held at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This event brings together student teams from universities around the world to compete in an engineering challenge. Each team must design, build and operate a robotic excavator that can collect artificial lunar soil and deposit it at a target location. Montana State University, Bozeman, is one of the institutions selected to field a team this year. This paper will summarize the goals of MSU's lunar excavator project, known as the Autonomous Lunar Explorer (ALE), along with the engineering process that the MSU team is using to fulfill these goals, according to NASA's systems engineering guidelines.

  2. CENTENNIAL MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA AND IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkind, Irving J.; Ridenour, James

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey conducted within the Centennial Mountains Wilderness study area in Montana and Idaho showed large areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for phosphate. Byproducts that may be derived from processing the phosphate include vanadium, chromium, uranium, silver, fluorine, and the rare earths, lanthanum and yttrium. Results of a geochemical sampling program suggest that there is little promise for the occurrence of base and precious metals in the area. Although the area contains other nonmetallic deposits, such as coal, building stone, and pumiceous ash they are not considered as mineral resources. There is a probable resource potential for oil and gas and significant amounts may underlie the area around the Peet Creek and Odell Creek anticlines.

  3. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Ashton Quadrangle, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suekawa, H.S.; Merrick, D.; Clayton, J.; Rumba, S.

    1982-07-01

    The Ashton Quadrangle, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas containing environments favorable for uranium deposits, using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. General surface reconnaissance, radiometric traverses, and geochemical sampling were carried out in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric data were evaluated, and anomalies were examined in the field. Fourteen uranium occurrences were noted in the study area. Only one environment, the phosphorites of the Permian Phosphoria Formation, is considered favorable for uranium deposition. The unfavorable environments include: limestones, sandstones, coal and carbonaceous shales, volcanics, Precambrian metamorphics, and Tertiary basins. Unevaluated areas include the John D. Rockefeller Jr. Memorial Parkway and Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, where park service regulations prohibit detailed investigations.

  4. Shoot Tip Culture of Arnica montana for Micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchou, O; Nichterlein, K; Vömel, A

    1992-02-01

    Multiple shoots were regenerated from shoot tips of ARNICA MONTANA on MS and B5 media supplemented with BA (1 mg/l) and NAA (0.1 mg/l). Sections of 1-2 mm in length cultured from IN VITRO germinated seedlings regenerated 7.7 (mean) shoots on the MS medium, whereas sections cultured from greenhouse plants regenerated 9.0 (mean) shoots on the B5 medium within 6 weeks. Subsequent subcultures of shoots on the same media but without NAA resulted in similar or lower multiplication rates (1.6 to 3.1 in 3 weeks). Shoot development was promoted, whereas shoot initiation was simultaneously inhibited by the addition of activated charcoal to the media. Rooting was induced by culturing shoots from seedling as well as from greenhouse plant shoot tips on MS or B5 medium supplemented with NAA. The plantlets were transplanted into soil and grown successfully under greenhouse and field conditions.

  5. Study on the International Experience and Enlightenment of the Investment and Financing of Agricultural Infrastructure%农业基础设施投融资的国际经验及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2011-01-01

    The investment and financing of agricultural infrastructure is essential to agricultural development. Through the analysis on the investment and financing status of agricultural infrastructure in United States, France, Japan, Korea and India, their basic experiences are summarized , which brings lots of beneficial enlightenment and references for our investment policies, financing channels, operation modes and laws and regulations, and has important significance to promoting our agricultural infrastructure construction.%农业基础设施投融资对农业发展至关重要.通过对美国、法国、日本、韩国和印度的农业基础设施投融资状况的分析研究,总结各国农业基础设施投融资的基本经验,为我国投入政策、融资渠道、运作方式和法律法规等提供有益的启示和参考,对推进我国农业基础设施建设具有重要的借鉴意义.

  6. Wegener’s granulomatosis and environmental factors in Western Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Samuel Zeft

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to determine whether exposure to silica or other environmental factors is associated with developing Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG, in a geographically isolated region of Western Montana. We sought to identify and interview all cases of WG diagnosed during 1993-2006 among residents of a ten-county region of Western Montana, as well as a group of demographically similar controls (n=39 without autoimmune disease. In the interview, we ascertained occupational silica and other exposures (metals, solvents, pesticides, tobacco. We enumerated 32 cases of WG, of whom 27 were included in the case-control study. Overall, a history of silica exposure was not associated with WG (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.13-3.27, although there was a suggestion of increase in risk among persons with relatively recent (OR=2.67, 95% CI: 0.54-17.2, heavy (OR=1.82, 95% CI: 0.09-112.9, and prolonged (OR=1.53, 95% CI: 0.16-20.0 exposures. A history of having worked in the mining industry was associated with WG (six cases including three with no silica exposure, zero controls, lower 95% CI: 1.53. Risk was not associated with occupational or aerial pesticide exposure, but with residential rodenticide use (OR=12.15, 95% CI: 1.54-552. Occupational exposure to metals or solvents was not associated with WG, nor was a history of cigarette smoking. Results of earlier studies of WG support the hypothesis that silica exposure adversely influences the risk of developing WG. Our small study of WG failed to identify an association with silica overall, but the results are compat­ible with an increased risk in persons with relatively heavy, prolonged, and/or recent exposure.

  7. Urban Agriculture Experiences in World Cities and its Enlightenments to China%世界城市都市农业发展的经验借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋涛; 蔡建明; 刘军萍; 杨振山; 温婷

    2013-01-01

      世界城市是国家竞争力提升和城市化推进的主要载体,而都市农业则是世界城市可持续发展的重要方向。本文以世界城市、都市农业的概念入手,着重对伦敦、纽约、巴黎、东京和阿姆斯特丹五大世界城市的都市农业发展特点、历程、功能等方面进行系统梳理和总结。在此基础上提出了世界城市都市农业发展的现代产业化农业、多功能社区农园、生态绿地型农业三大模式,并给出了我国世界城市打造过程中都市农业的发展路径和政策建议。%  This paper summarizes concepts and characteristics of urban agriculture indus-try in world cities. Through a mass of foreign case studies in world cities as London, New York, Paris, Tokyo and Amsterdam, the essay analyzes characteristics and functions of urban agriculture in metropolitan development. The author puts forward three modes of urban agriculture development: modern agriculture industry mode, multi-purpose communi-ty garden mode, and ecological agriculture mode. Finally, suggestions of the urban agri-calture are given to China in building up World cities.

  8. Libby/Hungry Horse Dams Wildlife Mitigation : Montana Wildlife Habitat Protection : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop and obtain information necessary to evaluate and undertake specific wildlife habitat protection/enhancement actions in northwest Montana as outlined in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Three waterfowl projects were evaluated between September 1989 and June 1990. Weaver's Slough project involved the proposed acquisition of 200 acres of irrigated farmland and a donated conservation easement on an additional 213 acres. The proposal included enhancement of the agricultural lands by conversion to upland nesting cover. This project was rated the lowest priority based on limited potential for enhancement and no further action was pursued. The Crow Creek Ranch project involved the proposed acquisition of approximately 1830 acres of grazing and dryland farming lands. The intent would be to restore drained potholes and provide adjacent upland nesting cover to increase waterfowl production. This project received the highest rating based on the immediate threat of subdivision, the opportunity to restore degraded wetlands, and the overall benefits to numerous species besides waterfowl. Ducks Unlimited was not able to participate as a cooperator on this project due to the jurisdiction concerns between State and tribal ownership. The USFWS ultimately acquired 1,550 acres of this proposed project. No mitigation funds were used. The Ashley Creek project involved acquisition of 870 acres adjacent to the Smith Lake Waterfowl Production Area. The primary goal was to create approximately 470 acres of wetland habitat with dikes and subimpoundments. This project was rated second in priority due to the lesser threat of loss. A feasibility analysis was completed by Ducks Unlimited based on a concept design. Although adequate water was available for the project, soil testing indicated that the organic soils adjacent to the creek would not support the necessary dikes. The project was determined not feasible for mitigation

  9. Composition of leaf n-alkanes in three Satureja montana L. subspecies from the Balkan peninsula: ecological and taxonomic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoš, Tanja; Rajčević, Nemanja; Tešević, Vele; Matevski, Vlado; Janaćković, Pedja; Marin, Petar D

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the epicuticular leaf n-alkanes of eight populations of three Satureja montana subspecies (S. montana L. subsp. pisidica (Wettst.) Šilić, S. montana L. subsp. montana, and S. montana L. subsp. variegata (Host) P. W. Ball), from central and western areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 15 n-alkane homologs with chain-lengths ranging from C21 to C35 were identified. The main n-alkane in almost all samples was n-nonacosane (C29 ), but differences in the contents of three other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. The diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters were analyzed by several statistical methods (principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test). All tests showed a high correlation between the leaf n-alkane pattern and the geographical distribution of the investigated populations, confirming the differentiation between S. montana subsp. pisidica and the other two subspecies. The S. montana subsp. variegata and S. montana subsp. montana populations are geographically closer and their differentiation according to the leaf-n-alkane patterns was not clear, even though there was some indication of discrimination between them. Moreover, most of the bioclimatic parameters related to temperature were highly correlated with the differentiation of the coastal and the continental populations.

  10. Biological control of weeds: research by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: selected case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Paul C; DeLoach, C Jack; Wineriter, Susan A; Goolsby, John A; Sobhian, Rouhollah; Boyette, C Douglas; Abbas, Hamed K

    2003-01-01

    Research by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on biological control of weeds has been practiced for many years because of its inherent ecological and economic advantages. Today, it is further driven by ARS adherence to Presidential Executive Order 13112 (3 February 1999) on invasive species and to USDA-ARS policy toward developing technology in support of sustainable agriculture with reduced dependence on non-renewable petrochemical resources. This paper reports examples or case studies selected to demonstrate the traditional or classical approach for biological control programs using Old World arthropods against Tamarix spp, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) ST Blake and Galium spurium L/G aparine L, and the augmentative approach with a native plant pathogen against Pueraria lobata Ohwi = P montana. The examples illustrated various conflicts of interest with endangered species and ecological complexities of arthropods with associated microbes such as nematodes.

  11. Combining Crop Model and Remote Sensing Data at High Resolution for the Assessment of Rice Agricultural Practices in the South-Eastern France (Take 5 Experiment SPOT4-SPOT5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courault, D.; Ruget, F.; Talab-ou-Ali, H.; Hagolle, O.; Delmotte, S.; Barbier, J. M.; Boschetti, M.; Mouret, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    Crop systems are constantly changing due to modifications in the agricultural practices to respond to market changes, the constraints of the environment, the climate hazards... Rice cultivation practiced in the Camargue region (SE France) have decreased these last years, however rice plays a crucial role for the hydrological balance of the region and for crop systems desalinizing soils. The aim of this study is to analyze the potentialities of remote sensing data acquired at high spatial and temporal resolution (HRST) to identify the main agricultural practices and estimate their impact on rice production. A large dataset acquired over the Camargue from the Take5 experiment (SPOT4 in 2013 and SPOT5 in 2015), completed by Landsat data has been used. Two assimilation methods of HRST data were evaluated within a crop model. Results showed the impact of the spatial variability of practices on the yields. The sowing dates were retrieved from inverse procedures and gave satisfactory results compared to ground surveys.

  12. Agriculture ideas and modernization of agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kangmin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of agriculture has its own history from primitive agriculture, traditional agriculture to modem agriculture. Is it a historical road we must follow?Human being had experienced a long history of living on collection and hunting for about 2,000 to 3,000 millenniums since human being appeared on earth. After we settled down, another 10 millenniums passed. Human being began to cultivate crops and raise animals. Thus, we entered the primitive agriculture stage. The primitive agriculture lasted for 7,000 years to get our food security on primitive crop cultivation and animal raising.

  13. Cooperative Recovery Initiative: Bull Trout Restoration: Restoring Cold, Clean, Complex and Connected Habitat in the Blackfoot River Watershed of Montana Interim Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat degradation and the effects of climate change are the biggest threats to bull trout in the Blackfoot River watershed of Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife &...

  14. Cooperative Recovery Initiative: Bull Trout Restoration: Restoring Cold, Clean, Complex and Connected Habitat in the Blackfoot River Watershed of Montana Interim Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat degradation and the effects of climate change are the biggest threats to bull trout in the Blackfoot River watershed of Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife...

  15. A multi-case study of school gardens in Southwest Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly Ann

    Many children today spend little time outdoors exploring the natural world and a great deal of time inside viewing the television or playing video games. This new condition of childhood has many negative ramifications, such as poor social development, childhood obesity, and a lack of feeling connected to the environment. One instructional tool being used by some schools to address these rising concerns is a school garden. School gardens can provide an opportunity for students to experience learning in a real-world application, outside of the classroom walls. This qualitative multi-case study explores three school gardens in Southwest Montana and tells each of their unique stories. Through the process of participant observation, interviews, and the collection of multiple data sources, a thorough description is given of the history behind the gardens, how they have impacted the teachers and students, what challenges they have faced, and the common characteristics found in a successful school garden program. During the data analysis process, themes for each case study site were revealed. The results of this study found that each school garden was unique in character and purpose and that a number of dedicated garden supporters are essential to the success of a garden program. In conclusion, suggestions and resources were provided for practitioners interested in pursuing a garden program.

  16. BIODYNAMIC AGRICULTURE - ECO-FRIENDLY AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic agriculture is undoubtedly the oldest organized agricultural movement in the world. It is considered as an organic agricultural farming approach and determined as the oldest organized alternative agricultural movement in the world. In 1924 Rudolf Steiner – an Austrian natural scientist and philosopher, carried out a series of eight lectures in Koberwitz, currently Kobierzyce- Poland, where he formulated his visions on changes in agriculture and revealed his spiritual and scientific concepts about the connection between nature and agriculture by determining the important role of agriculture for the future of humanity and thus he became known as “the father of anthroposophy”. The great ecological effect of the application of the biodynamic agriculture is expressed in soil preservation and preservation of the living organisms in the soil, as well as maintenance of the natural balance in the vegetable and animal kingdom.

  17. MODERN FORMS OF MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarenko A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have performed an analysis of the effective use of agricultural lands in Russia, using the methods of scientific management, as a modern form of agricultural business management. The analysis of effective models of world agricultural business, management and support, as well as the domestic and the European model of agriculture was given as well. The article contains suggestions and developing of the most rational and effective management methods for agricultural business, on the basis of international and domestic experience in this area

  18. Streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter E in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter E of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, to provide an update of statewide streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana. Streamflow characteristics are presented for 408 streamflow-gaging stations in Montana and adjacent areas having 10 or more years of record. Data include the magnitude and probability of annual low and high streamflow, the magnitude and probability of low streamflow for three seasons (March–June, July–October, and November–February), streamflow duration statistics for monthly and annual periods, and mean streamflows for monthly and annual periods. Streamflow is considered to be regulated at streamflow-gaging stations where dams or other large-scale human modifications affect 20 percent or more of the contributing drainage basin. Separate streamflow characteristics are presented for the unregulated and regulated periods of record for streamflow-gaging stations with sufficient data.

  19. Agricultural Multifunctionality Evolution and Research into Issues concerning Agriculture,Countryside and Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin

    2012-01-01

    From the point of view of agricultural civilization, the history of human civilization is the history of the development of the agricultural civilization. Accompanied by social progress and development of the times, the function of agriculture also experiences the expansion and deepening. In terms of economy, there is a process from mechanized farming to industrialization, then to informatization, modernization and internationalization. The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation has also experienced and witnessed this process. In terms of "agriculture, countryside and farmers", the content is complex, diverse, profound, sharp, and changing, constantly testing and challenging our wisdom. When the Document No.1 in 2007 targeted modern agriculture, it indicated that new connotation was integrated into agricultural multifunctionality, standing at a new starting point. At present, the function of agriculture is still deepening; there are tremendous achievements and outstanding problems concurrently in issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers. We take the agricultural multifunctionality as breakthrough point for exploration and research.

  20. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  1. Agricultural Education at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Donald E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses educational reform in the context of agricultural education. Covers a recent report on agricultural education reform by the National Academy of Sciences, state legislative initiatives, and several recommendations for the future of agricultural education. (CH)

  2. Agricultural SWOT analysis and wisdom agriculture design of chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiangyu; Du, Shaoming; Yin, Guowei; Yu, Feng; Liu, Guicai; Gong, Jin; Han, Fujun

    2017-08-01

    According to the status of agricultural information, this paper analyzed the advantages, opportunities and challenges of developing wisdom agriculture in Chengdu. By analyzed the local characteristics of Chengdu agriculture, the construction program of Chengdu wisdom agriculture was designed, which was based on the existing agricultural informatization. The positioning and development theme of Chengdu agriculture is leisure agriculture, urban agriculture and quality agriculture.

  3. Not Your Family Farm: Apiculture in South-Central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Miles

    2012-01-01

    For having such a short history within North America, the honeybee has had an unprecedented impact on American agriculture and on localized ecosystems and economies. As a form of sustainable agriculture, apiculture extends into the realms of rural economies, farm culture, and society in the Great Plains. Because it enhances crops and small-town…

  4. The Exploring Research of Construction of Chinese Agricultural Products Cyber Marketing Development Model Based on Inner Mongolia Experiences%我国农产品网络营销发展模式探索研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔正; 王佳

    2012-01-01

      互联网的出现和普及,使得当今社会进入了一个网络沟通的时代,并逐渐成为人们不可或缺的生活内容之一。将网络营销运用于农产品对于我国这样的农业大国,是一条又快又好的“现代化道路”,不仅可以发展国内市场还可以开拓国际市场,大力提升我国农业方面在国际上的竞争地位,而且还会带动我国经济快速发展。从网络营销的相关理论展开论述,提出了网络营销的历史必然性,并且借鉴了美国为首的先进的农产品网络营销经验,同时总结我国的现状,特别是以内蒙古自治区为例的农业发展过程遇到的问题,采用从点到线和从局部到整体的分析思路,提出适合我国农产品的网络营销模式。%  The emergence and popularization of Internet ,making the society into a network communication era , and gradually becoming an indispensable part of the life of the people .As a large agricultural nation ,it is a quick and good way to lead to "Modernization" by adopting network marketing into agricultural products in our country .It is not only can develop domestic market ,explore the international market and make great efforts to enhance Chinese agriculture products in the international competitive position ,but also can lead to drive the rapid development of the national economy .Started from discussing the network marketing related theory first -ly ,the historical inevitability of network marketing was put forward ,and learned lessons from the U .S .-led ad-vanced agricultural network marketing experience ,it also summarized the present situation of our country ,es-pecially taking Inner Mongolia autonomous region as an example to analyze the problems of agricultural devel-opment process in China .It used point to the line and local to the whole analysis methods to try to explore suit -able China's agricultural network marketing development model .

  5. PLANT COMMUNITIES WITH ARNICA MONTANA IN NATURAL HABITATS FROM THE CENTRAL REGION OF ROMANIAN EASTERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MARDARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arnica montana is a species of European Union interest, whose harvest from the wild and exploitation should be made under certain management measures. In Romania it is a vulnerable species due to excessive collection. It is a species with European areal occuring in pastures, meadows, forest glades, shrubs communities of mountain to the subalpine regions and, isolated, up to the alpine belt. Most of the plant communities with Arnica montana are semi-natural, with a floristic composition in which there are numerous rare or threatened species also supporting the need of their conservation. Our study was focused on a numerical classification (hierarchical, using Flexible ß algorithm and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity based on 48 plots, of the plant communities with Arnica montana from the central region of Romanian Eastern Carpathians and on the investigation of the effect of some environmental variables (Ellenberg indicator values, altitude, heat load index on their floristic composition (100 m2 scale. Vegetation – environment relationship was assessed via detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis with Monte Carlo test. Six plant communities with Arnica montana were identified (communities of Festuca rubra with Agrostis capillaris, Festuca nigrescens, Vaccinium myrtillus, Nardus stricta, Vaccinium gaultherioides and Juniperus sibirica with a floristic composition mainly shaped by altitude, temperature and soil nitrogen content. Details related to location and sites characteristics, diagnostic species, floristic composition, presence of other rare or threatened species and Arnica montana abundance were presented for all these plant communities.

  6. Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force: a vehicle for integrated water resources management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, David D; Mueller, Gerald

    2010-11-01

    This article examines what is generally considered to be an unattainable goal in the western United States: integrated water resources management (IWRM). Specifically, we examine an organization that is quite unique in the West, Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force (Task Force), and we analyze its activities since its formation in 2001 to answer the question: are the activities and contributions of the Task Force working to promote a more strongly integrated approach to water resources management in Montana? After reviewing the concepts underlying IWRM, some of the issues that have been identified for achieving IWRM in the West, and the Montana system of water right allocation and issues it faces, we adapt Mitchell's IWRM framework and apply it to the analysis of the Task Force's activities in the context of IWRM. In evaluating the physical, interaction, and protocol/planning/policy components of IWRM, we find that the Task Force has been contributing to the evolution of Montana's water resources management towards this framework, though several factors will likely continue to prevent its complete realization. The Task Force has been successful in this regard because of its unique nature and charge, and because of the authority and power given it by successive Montana legislatures. Also critical to the success of the organization is its ability to help translate into policy the outcomes of legal and quasi-judicial decisions that have impacted the state's water resources management agency.

  7. Sesquiterpene lactones in Arnica montana: helenalin and dihydrohelenalin chemotypes in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nigel B; Burgess, Elaine J; Rodríguez Guitián, Manuel A; Romero Franco, Rosa; López Mosquera, Elvira; Smallfield, Bruce M; Joyce, Nigel I; Littlejohn, Roger P

    2009-05-01

    An analytical RPLC method for sesquiterpene lactones in Arnica montana has been extended to include quantitative analyses of dihydrohelenalin esters. LC-ESI-MS-MS distinguished the isomeric helenalin and dihydrohelenalin esters. The dihydrohelenalin esters have lower response factors for UV detection than do helenalin esters, which must be taken into account for quantitative analyses. Analyses of flowers from 16 different wild populations of A. montana in Spain showed differing proportions of helenalin and dihydrohelenalin esters. For the first time a chemotype with high levels of helenalin esters (total helenalins 5.2-10.3 mg/g dry weight) is reported in Spanish A. montana. These samples were from heath lands at high altitude (1330-1460 m), whereas samples from meadows and peat bogs at lower altitudes were the expected chemotype with high levels of dihydrohelenalin esters (total dihydrohelenalins 10.9-18.2 mg/g). The phenolic compounds, both flavonoid glycosides and caffeoylquinic acids, in Spanish A. montana are reported for the first time. The levels of several of these compounds differed significantly between samples from heath lands and samples from peat bogs or meadows, with the heath land samples being most similar to central European A. montana in their phenolic composition.

  8. 75 FR 55713 - Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Attainment Plan for Libby, MT PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... University of Arizona's Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory Facility to provide further evidence that... mass balance study (CMB) was conducted during the winter of 2003-2004 by the University of Montana... from chemical mass balance and Carbon 14 studies conducted by the University of Montana. In...

  9. Effectiveness of Written Materials in a Rehabilitative Program for Female Offenders: A Case Study at the Montana Women's Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Laura; Colling, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    This case study of the Therapeutic Community Program at Montana Women's Prison investigates the relationship between inmate reading levels and the self-help materials used for rehabilitative purposes within prison settings. The Therapeutic Community Handbook, published by the Montana Department of Corrections, is used as the primary method of…

  10. I Feel Like Touching Something That's Not There; Poems by Students in Elementary & Secondary Schools of Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, David, Ed.

    This book, a project of the Montana Arts Council Poets and Writers in the School program, is a collection of poems written by students in elementary and secondary schools of Montana. In addition to the poems, the book contains an essay on motivating and guiding students to write creatively, a list of resources for creative-writing teachers, an…

  11. Using the Rural-Urban Continuum to Explore Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Carl L.; Novilla, M. Lelinneth L. B.; Barnes, Michael D.; Eggett, Dennis; McKell, Chelsea; Reichman, Peter; Havens, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare 30-day prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among twelfth-grade students in Montana across a rural-urban continuum during 2000, 2002, and 2004. The methods include an analysis of the Montana Prevention Needs Assessment (N = 15,372) using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for risk…

  12. 75 FR 30850 - Final Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Recreation Planner, BLM Montana State Office, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, MT 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, (406) 896-5038. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background II... at 72 FR 19958 (April 20, 2007). The rules in the Notice of Camping Limits on Public Lands in...

  13. 75 FR 27551 - Commercial Energy of Montana, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Commercial Energy of Montana, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Commercial Energy of Montana, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that such application includes...

  14. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-06-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  15. Effectiveness of Written Materials in a Rehabilitative Program for Female Offenders: A Case Study at the Montana Women's Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Laura; Colling, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    This case study of the Therapeutic Community Program at Montana Women's Prison investigates the relationship between inmate reading levels and the self-help materials used for rehabilitative purposes within prison settings. The Therapeutic Community Handbook, published by the Montana Department of Corrections, is used as the primary method of…

  16. Conformational study reveals amino acid residues essential for hemagglutinating and anti-proliferative activities of Clematis montana lectin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bangmin Lu Bin Zhang Wei Qi Yanan Zhu Yan Zhao Nan Zhou Rong Sun Jinku Bao Chuanfang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Clematis montana lectin (CML), a novel mannose-binding lectin purified from C. montana Buch.-Ham stem (Ranunculaceae), has been proved to have hemagglutinat- ing activity in rabbit erythrocytes and apoptosis-inducing activity in tumor cells...

  17. EXPERIENCE AND INSPIRATION OF EXTERNAL AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS QUALITY AND SAFETY SUBSIDIES%国外农产品质量安全补贴的经验和启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修文彦; 李庆江; 侯丽薇; 廖超子

    2013-01-01

    安全农产品的生产由于采用了安全优质的投入品和更多生产经营方面的努力而需要更多的支持.我国农业生产和食品生产加工的分散性导致产品的质量存在更多的不可控因素,需要以建立农产品质量安全补贴机制来引导农民和食品生产企业提供安全食品.欧美等发达国家已经在农产品质量安全补贴方面付出了一些行动.该文分析了欧美等国在农产品质量安全补贴方面的基本做法和特点,提出我国尝试建立食品安全补贴机制的建议.%The production of agricultural product with safe and high quality needed more supports because it needed more inputs and efforts. China agricultural products producing and processing have more uncontrollable factors due to the dispersibility. Therefore, it is necessary to establish agriculture quality and safety subsidies mechanism to guide farmers and food-producers to provide safe food. The developed countries such as European Union and US etc. have adopted actions in agricultural production quality and safety subsidies. The article analyzed the experiences and features of subsidies in these countries and put forward some suggestions on establishing food safety subsidy mechanism in China.

  18. AGRICULTURAL TOURISM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN XI'AN CHANBA ECOLOGICAL DISTRICT UNDER EXPERIENCE ECONOMY PERSPECTIVE%体验经济视域下西安浐灞生态区农业旅游产品开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨引弟

    2016-01-01

    随着旅游业市场需求的不断转变,体验经济理论与旅游业的融合发展已经成为必然的趋势,也越来越受到国内外学者的重视.文章以西安浐灞生态区农业旅游产品为研究对象,从体验经济视角出发,分析了浐灞生态区农业旅游产品发展现状;揭示了其存在的农业产业规模小,农业产业化水平低、 农产品总量不足,农业旅游产品吸引力不足、 市场开发能力不强,景区基础设施建设简陋、 综合服务能力不强,开发缺乏前期规划、 没有与体验经济很好地融合等问题;最后,遵循因地制宜、 突出特色,市场向导、 注重营销,循序渐进、 逐步开发,创新技术、 注重管理,经济-社会-生态协调可持续发展等原则,探索了浐灞生态区农业旅游产品的开发模式,如重大有益事件带动模式、 特定功能带动模式、 交通带动模式、 产业带动模式、 优惠政策带动模式、 居住带动模式等.%With the change of tourism market demand, the integration of experience economy theory and tourism development has become an inevitable trend. Taking Xi'an Chanba Ecological District agricultural tourism product as an example, this article analyzed the status of agricultural tourism product development in Chanba ecological zone from the perspective of the experience economy, and revealed the existence problems of the agricultural indus-try such as small size, low level of agricultural industrialization, insufficient total agriculture products, inadequate agricultural tourism product, not market research, scenic shabby infrastructure, not strong comprehensive service capacity, the lack of pre-planning development, not integration with experience economy, and so on. Finally, following the principles of local conditions, features, market guide, focus marketing, gradual, progressive develop-ment, innovation and technology, focusing on management, economy-society-ecology coordinated and sustain

  19. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is a multi-purpose engineering test facility located in Butte, Montana, and is managed by MSE, Inc. WETO seeks to contribute to environmental research by emphasizing projects to develop heavy metals removal and recovery processes, thermal vitrification systems, and waste minimization/pollution prevention technologies. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of usable resources from waste. In one of WETO`s areas of focus, groundwater contamination, water from the Berkeley Pit, located near the WETO site, is being used in demonstrations directed toward the recovery of potable water and metal from the heavy metal-bearing water. The Berkeley Pit is part of an inactive copper mine near Butte that was once part of the nation`s largest open-pit mining operation. The Pit contains approximately 25 billion gallons of Berkeley Pit groundwater and surface water containing many dissolved minerals. As part of DOE/OST`s Resource Recovery Project (RRP), technologies are being demonstrated to not only clean the contaminated water but to recover metal values such as copper, zinc, and iron with an estimated gross value of more than $100 million. When recovered, the Berkeley Pit waters could benefit the entire Butte valley with new water resources for fisheries, irrigation, municipal, and industrial use. At WETO, the emphasis is on environmental technology development and commercialization activities, which will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management.

  20. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  1. Evolutionary trends in Triceratops from the Hell Creek Formation, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannella, John B; Fowler, Denver W; Goodwin, Mark B; Horner, John R

    2014-07-15

    The placement of over 50 skulls of the well-known horned dinosaur Triceratops within a stratigraphic framework for the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (HCF) of Montana reveals the evolutionary transformation of this genus. Specimens referable to the two recognized morphospecies of Triceratops, T. horridus and T. prorsus, are stratigraphically separated within the HCF with the T. prorsus morphology recovered in the upper third of the formation and T. horridus found lower in the formation. Hypotheses that these morphospecies represent sexual or ontogenetic variation within a single species are thus untenable. Stratigraphic placement of specimens appears to reveal ancestor-descendant relationships. Transitional morphologies are found in the middle unit of the formation, a finding that is consistent with the evolution of Triceratops being characterized by anagenesis, the transformation of a lineage over time. Variation among specimens from this critical stratigraphic zone may indicate a branching event in the Triceratops lineage. Purely cladogenetic interpretations of the HCF dataset imply greater diversity within the formation. These findings underscore the critical role of stratigraphic data in deciphering evolutionary patterns in the Dinosauria.

  2. Characterization and pharmacodynamic properties of Arnica montana complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šutovská, M; Capek, P; Kočmalová, M; Pawlaczyk, I; Zaczyńska, E; Czarny, A; Uhliariková, I; Gancarz, R; Fraňová, S

    2014-08-01

    A dark brown polymeric complex was isolated from flowering parts of medicinal plant Arnica montana L. by hot alkaline extraction followed by neutralization and multi-step extractions with organic solvents. It was recovered in 5.7% yield, on GPC showed two peaks of molecular mass of 9 and 3.5kDa. The compositional analyses of Arnica complex revealed the presence of carbohydrates (26%), uronic acids (12%), phenolics (1.25mM or 213mg of GAE/1g), and low protein content (∼1%). The carbohydrate moiety was rich mainly in rhamnogalacturonan and arabinogalactan. The antitussive tests showed the reduction of the cough efforts by Arnica complex, however, its total antitussive effect was lower compared with that of codeine, the strongest antitussive agent. The bronchodilatory activity of Arnica complex was similar to salbutamol, a classic antiasthmatic drug, and was confirmed by significantly decreased values of specific airways resistance in vivo and by considerably attenuated the amplitude of acetylcholine and histamine-induced contractions in vitro. Arnica complex did not show any cytotoxic effect on mouse fibroblast cultures and human lung cells, up to the dose of 500μg/mL.

  3. Grizzly bear density in Glacier National Park, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, K.C.; Stetz, J.B.; Roon, David A.; Waits, L.P.; Boulanger, J.B.; Paetkau, David

    2008-01-01

    We present the first rigorous estimate of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population density and distribution in and around Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana, USA. We used genetic analysis to identify individual bears from hair samples collected via 2 concurrent sampling methods: 1) systematically distributed, baited, barbed-wire hair traps and 2) unbaited bear rub trees found along trails. We used Huggins closed mixture models in Program MARK to estimate total population size and developed a method to account for heterogeneity caused by unequal access to rub trees. We corrected our estimate for lack of geographic closure using a new method that utilizes information from radiocollared bears and the distribution of bears captured with DNA sampling. Adjusted for closure, the average number of grizzly bears in our study area was 240.7 (95% CI = 202–303) in 1998 and 240.6 (95% CI = 205–304) in 2000. Average grizzly bear density was 30 bears/1,000 km2, with 2.4 times more bears detected per hair trap inside than outside GNP. We provide baseline information important for managing one of the few remaining populations of grizzlies in the contiguous United States.

  4. Agricultural Mechanics--A Stimulus to Vocational Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazan, Isais, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Through the study of agricultural mechanics or farm shop, students are able to discover their mechanical aptitudes and also develop a sense of satisfaction that comes with the experience of personal accomplishments at the Victoria-Stroman High School. Adults are encouraged to participate in the Specialist Program which is sponsored by the…

  5. THE USE OF EXPRESSIVE SPEECH ACTS IN HANNAH MONTANA SESSION 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Vita Handayani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe kinds and forms of expressive speech act in Hannah Montana Session 1. It belongs to descriptive qualitative method. The research object was expressive speech act. The data source was utterances which contain expressive speech acts in the film Hannah Montana Session 1. The researcher used observation method and noting technique in collecting the data. In analyzing the data, descriptive qualitative method was used. The research findings show that there are ten kinds of expressive speech act found in Hannah Montana Session 1, namely expressing apology, expressing thanks, expressing sympathy, expressing attitudes, expressing greeting, expressing wishes, expressing joy, expressing pain, expressing likes, and expressing dislikes. The forms of expressive speech act are direct literal expressive speech act, direct non-literal expressive speech act, indirect literal expressive speech act, and indirect non-literal expressive speech act.

  6. Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the threatened Arnica montana (Asteraceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwe, Virginia K.; Ismail, Sascha A.; Buser, Andres; Sossai, Esther; Borsch, Thomas; Muller, Ludo A. H.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed to investigate population genetic structure in the threatened species Arnica montana. • Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite markers with di-, tetra-, and hexanucleotide repeat motifs were developed for A. montana using 454 pyrosequencing without and with library-enrichment methods, resulting in 56,545 sequence reads and 14,467 sequence reads, respectively. All loci showed a high level of polymorphism, with allele numbers ranging from four to 11 in five individuals from five populations (25 samples) and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.192 to 0.648 across the loci. • Conclusions: This set of microsatellite markers is the first one described for A. montana and will facilitate conservation genetic applications as well as the understanding of phylogeographic patterns in this species. PMID:25606354

  7. Northwest Montana Libby/Hungry Horse Dams Wildlife Mitigation; Columbian Sharp-Tailed Grouse, 1990-1991 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, Michael G. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)]|[Montana Dept. of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Distribution, habitat use and survival of transplanted Columbian sharp-tailed grouse in the Tobacco Plains, Montana were studied from April, 1990 to August, 1991. For transplant purposes, 12 grouse (5 female and 7 male) were trapped on dancing grounds near Douglas Lake, British Columbia, Canada during spring, 1990. In April, 1991, trapping of 4 female and 2 male grouse for transplant occurred on the Sand Creek Wildlife Management Area in southeast Idaho while 3 additional males were transplanted from Douglas Lake. Minimum annual survival of transplanted grouse in the Tobacco Plains is relatively high (47%). High survival is possibly due to 2 factors: (1) topography and habitat characteristics that discourage dispersal and (2) the presence of limited but relatively good habitat. Two of 18 radio-equipped grouse dispersed out of the study area, while 2 others survived in the area for over 590 days. A negative correlation in distances moved between consecutive relocations and length of survival was seen in radio-equipped grouse in this study. Data collected during this study showed the importance of habitat associated with the Dancing Prairie Preserve. Three of 5 females transplanted in 1990 attempted to nest after being released. Nesting and brood rearing sites were characterized by dense grass cover with an average effective height {ge}20 cm. Shrub cover was associated only with brood rearing sites. Overall habitat use by transplanted Columbian Sharp-tailed grouse showed an apparent avoidance of agricultural land and use of other habitat types in proportion to their availability.

  8. Levantamento pedológico detalhado da estação experimental de Jundiaí, SP Detailed soil survey of the agricultural experiment station at Jundiaí, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valadares

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho descreve-se o levantamento pedológico detalhado da Estação Experimental de Jundiaí, São Paulo, que ocupa área de 142 ha. O levantamento dos solos foi executado ao nível de série, e identificaram-se nove unidades. São apresentadas as descrições e as análises de cinco Inceptisols, três Ultisols e dois Oxisols. Foi elaborado um mapa pedológico, na escala de 1:5.000.In this paper the detailed soil survey of the Agricultural Experiment Station at Jundiaí, State of São Paulo, is described. The soil survey was done at the series level for the 142 ha of the Agricultural Experiment Station. Nine soil units were identified, the description and analysis of 5 Inceptisols, 3 Ultisols and 2 Oxisols are given. A soil map at 1:5,000 scale is also presented.

  9. Journal of Integrative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Scope Journal of Integrative Agriculture (JIA), formerly Agricultural Sciences in China (ASC), founded in 2002, is an official publication of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS). JIA seeks to publish those papers that are influential and will significantly advance scientific understanding in agriculture fields worldwide.

  10. Theme: Agricultural Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeds, Jacquelyn P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six theme articles attempt to define and advocate agricultural literacy, review the status of K-8 agricultural literacy programs in states, discuss an Oklahoma study of agricultural literacy, clarify the meaning of sustainable agriculture, and describe the Future Farmers of America's Food for America program for elementary students. (SK)

  11. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  12. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  13. [Helenalin- and 11,13-Dihydrohelenalinester from Flowers of Arnica montana.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willuhn, G; Röttger, P M; Matthiesen, U

    1983-12-01

    From the flowers of ARNICA MONTANA L. 13 helenanolides were isolated and identified. They are shown to be 11,13-dihydrohelenalin ( 1), helenalin ( 2) and their ester derivatives 3-13 (see figure). The natural occurence of 6-O-isobutyryl-, 6-O-tigloyl-, 6-O-isovaleryl- and 6-O-(2-methyl)-butyrylhelenalin (compounds 9, 11, 12, 13) is reported for the first time. The qualitative sesquiterpene lactone composition in flowers of A. MONTANA from different regions was found to be variable.

  14. Phosphorus dynamics in Swedish agricultural soils as influenced by fertilization and mineralogical properties: Insights gained from batch experiments and XANES spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ann Kristin; Hesterberg, Dean; Klysubun, Wantana; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2016-10-01

    The soil chemistry of phosphorus (P) is important for understanding the processes governing plant availability as well as the risk of environmental losses of P. The objective of this research was to investigate both the speciation and the pH-dependent solubility patterns of P in clayey agricultural soils in relation to soil mineralogy and fertilization history. The study focused on soil samples from six fields that were subjected to different P fertilization regimes for periods of 45 to 57years. Soil P speciation was analyzed by P K-edge XANES spectroscopy and chemical fractionation, sorption isotherms were constructed, and dissolved P was measured as a function of pH. The XANES fitting results showed that organic P and P adsorbed to Fe and Al (hydr)oxides were common P constituents in all soils. Calcium phosphates were identified in five of six soil samples. The XANES results also indicated an increase in P adsorbed to Al and to a lesser extent Fe (hydr)oxides as a result of fertilization. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity from the P K-edge XANES analysis was most strongly correlated with HCl-digestible P (r=0.81***). Consistent with the XANES analysis, laboratory sorption isotherm models showed that the Freundlich sorption coefficient (KF) was most closely related to oxalate-extractable Al. Greater proportions of Ca phosphate in two of the heavily fertilized soils in combination with enhanced PO4 solubilization upon sample acidification indicated neoformation of Ca-phosphate precipitates. The results for the unfertilized soil samples generally showed a minimum in dissolved PO4 between pH6.5 and 7.5, with increases particularly at lower pH. This behavior can be explained either by the dissolution of Al-hydroxide-type sorbents or Ca phosphates at lower pH. In fertilized soils, there was no consistent trend in pH-dependent solubilization of P, with a complex relationship to solid-phase speciation. To conclude, inorganic P species changed most dynamically in

  15. Favorability for uranium in tertiary sedimentary rocks, southwestern Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wopat, M A; Curry, W E; Robins, J W; Marjaniemi, D K

    1977-10-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the basins of southwestern Montana were studied to determine their favorability for potential uranium resources. Uranium in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks was probably derived from the Boulder batholith and from silicic volcanic material. The batholith contains numerous uranium occurrences and is the most favorable plutonic source for uranium in the study area. Subjective favorability categories of good, moderate, and poor, based on the number and type of favorable criteria present, were used to classify the rock sequences studied. Rocks judged to have good favorability for uranium deposits are (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata and undifferentiated Tertiary rocks in the western Three Forks basin and (2) Oligocene rocks in the Helena basin. Rocks having moderate favorability consist of (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and lower Ruby River basins, (2) Oligocene rocks in the Townsend and Clarkston basins, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, and (4) all Tertiary sedimentary formations in the eastern Three Forks basin, and in the Grasshopper Creek, Horse Prairie, Medicine Lodge Creek, Big Sheep Creek, Deer Lodge, Big Hole River, and Bull Creek basins. The following have poor favorability: (1) the Beaverhead Conglomerate in the Red Rock and Centennial basins, (2) Eocene and Oligocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Townsend, Clarkston, Smith River, and Divide Creek basins, (4) Miocene through Pleistocene rocks in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and Lower Ruby River basins, and (5) all Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Boulder River, Sage Creek, Muddy Creek, Madison River, Flint Creek, Gold Creek, and Bitterroot basins.

  16. The experience of biology, agriculture and health students at the Universidade Católica Dom Bosco regarding the use of animals in class practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Odalia Rímoli

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The controversy arising in connection with the use of animals in practical classes has led to serious ethical discussions at universities in Brazil and around the world. In most cases, the students themselves who feel obliged to perform acts that are against their principles initiate these discussions. The above context motivated this research, which was carried out by means of a questionnaire distributed to one hundred students enrolled in biological, health and agricultural sciences at UCDB in Campo Grande, MS. The main objective was to analyze the students' opinions regarding this problem. It was noted that in general students did not know of any teaching materials that could be used as an alternative to the use of animals. Most of them (X = 85.8 ± 9.7 would prefer not to use animals in practical classes, mainly that are phylogenetically close to humans (mammals, if alternative methods were effective or available. Moreover, it was noted that most students (X = 65.7 ± 24.7 are worried about the controversy provoked by this matter, considering that many believe that this practice is fundamental for their profession and that the university should offer alternatives to those who are against the use of animals.

  17. Ground geophysical study of the Buckeye mine tailings, Boulder watershed, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, Robert R.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2000-01-01

    The Buckeye mine site is located in the Boulder River watershed along Basin Creek, in northern Jefferson County, Montana. This project is part of the Boulder River watershed Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative, and is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and Bureau of Land Management in the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the U.S. Forest Service in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The site includes a large flotation milltailing deposit, which extends to the stream and meadows below the mine. These tailings contain elevated levels of metals, such as silver, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. Metal-rich fluvial tailings containing these metals, are possible sources of ground and surface water contamination. Geophysical methods were used to characterize the sediments at the Buckeye mine site. Ground geophysical surveys, including electromagnetics, DC resistivity, and total field magnetic methods, were used to delineate anomalies that probably correlate with subsurface metal contamination. Subsurface conductivity was mapped using EM-31 and EM-34 terrain conductivity measuring systems. The conductivity maps represent variation of concentration of dissolved solids in the subsurface from a few meters, to an approximate depth of 30 meters. Conductive sulfides several centimeters thick were encountered in a shallow trench, dug in an area of very high conductivity, at a depth of approximately 1 to1.5 meters. Laboratory measurements of samples of the sulfide layers show the conductivity is on the order of 1000 millisiemens. DC resistivity soundings were used to quantify subsurface conductivity variations and to estimate the depth to bedrock. Total field magnetic measurements were used to identify magnetic metals in the subsurface. The EM surveys identified several areas of relatively high conductivity and detected a conductive plume extending to the southwest, toward the stream. This plume correlates well with the potentiometric surface and direction of

  18. Methods for estimating peak-flow frequencies at ungaged sites in Montana based on data through water year 2011: Chapter F in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Roy; Sando, Steven K.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, completed a study to update methods for estimating peak-flow frequencies at ungaged sites in Montana based on peak-flow data at streamflow-gaging stations through water year 2011. The methods allow estimation of peak-flow frequencies (that is, peak-flow magnitudes, in cubic feet per second, associated with annual exceedance probabilities of 66.7, 50, 42.9, 20, 10, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.2 percent) at ungaged sites. The annual exceedance probabilities correspond to 1.5-, 2-, 2.33-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals, respectively.

  19. Teaching Practice Experience for Undergraduate Student Teachers: A Case Study of the Department of Education at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msangya, Benedicto William; Mkoma, Stelyus L.; Yihuan, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Education is the key to development; however, it is impossible to think the quality of education without having academically qualified and professional responsible teachers. The main objective of this study was to examine the perspectives of undergraduate student teachers toward teaching practice experience as a tool of learning to teach. A…

  20. Revising the Depreciation and Investment Credit Lessons for Farm Management and Supervised Occupational Experience for Use in Missouri Programs of Vocational Agriculture. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Norman; And Others

    This project developed four lessons that reflect the 1981 tax laws as they relate to the use of investment credit and depreciation in farm accounting systems. Project staff reviewed tax laws and related materials and identified four lessons in farm management and supervised occupational experience that needed revision. Materials were then…

  1. Hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Flacourtia montana J. Grah leaf extract in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchu Joshy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flacourtia montana and its related species have been used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases. The present study evaluated the hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of F. montana methanolic extract. The hepatoprotective effect of F. montana was evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Administration of paracetamol (2 g/kg showed a significant biochemical and histological deterioration in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with F. montana (200 and 400 mg/kg b.wt. p.o significantly (P ⩽ 0.001 reduced the elevated levels of serum enzymes like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (AST, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and reversed the hepatic damage in the liver which evidenced the hepatoprotective activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of F. montana was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. F. montana (200 and 400 mg/kg showed a significant (P ⩽ 0.001 reduction in rat paw edema with 76.39% and 80.32%, respectively induced by carrageenan against the reference anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (10 mg/kg (83.10%. Oral administration of F. montana (200 and 400 mg/kg also significantly (P ⩽ 0.001 reduced the granuloma mass formation in cotton pellet granuloma method. The reducing power and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging were increased at increasing doses of F. montana. The results of the present study demonstrate that the methanolic extract of F. montana possess hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

  2. Evolution of organic matter fractions after application of co-compost of sewage sludge with pruning waste to four Mediterranean agricultural soils. A soil microcosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lomas, A L; Delgado, G; Párraga, J; Delgado, R; Almendros, G; Aranda, V

    2010-10-01

    The effect of co-compost application from sewage sludge and pruning waste, on quality and quantity of soil organic carbon (SOC) in four Mediterranean agricultural soils (South Spain), was studied in soil microcosm conditions. Control soil samples (no co-compost addition) and soils treated with co-composts to a rate equivalent of 140 Mg ha(-1) were incubated for 90 days at two temperatures: 5 and 35 degrees C. The significances of incubation temperature and the addition of co-compost, on the evolution of the different fractions of SOC, were studied using a 2(3) factorial design. The co-compost amendment increased the amounts of humic fractions: humic acids (HA) (1.9 times), fulvic acids (FA) (3.3 times), humin (1.5 times), as well as the free organic matter (1.4 times) and free lipids (21.8 times). Incubation of the soils enhanced its biological activity mainly in the amended soils and at 35 degrees C, leading to progressive SOC mineralization and humification, concomitant to the preferential accumulation of HA. The incubation results show large differences depending on temperature and soil types. This fact allows us to select suitable organic amendment for the soil when a rapid increase in nutrients through mineralization is preferred, or in cases intending the stabilization and preservation of the SOC through a process of humification. In soils with HA of more than 5 E(4)/E(6) ratio, the incubation temperature increased rates of mineralization and humification, whereas lower temperatures limited the extent of both processes. In these soils the addition of co-compost in spring or summer is the most recommendable. In soils with HA of lower E(4)/E(6) ratio (compost. The results suggest that proper recommendations for optimum organic matter evolution after soil amendment is possible after considering a small set of characteristics of soil and the corresponding soil organic matter fractions, in particular HA. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inflammatory Process Modulation by Homeopathic Arnica montana 6CH: The Role of Individual Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kawakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Arnica montana 6cH on the individual modulation of acute inflammation kinetics in rats were evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were inoculated with 1% carrageenan into the footpad and treated with Arnica montana 6cH, dexamethasone (4.0 mg/kg; positive control or 5% hydroalcoholic solution (negative control, per os, each 15 minutes, between 30 and 180 minutes after the irritant inoculation. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were done in order to get a panel of inflammatory positive cells for CD3 (T lymphocytes, CD45RA (B lymphocytes, CD18 (beta 2 integrin, CD163 (ED2 protein, CD54 (ICAM-1, and MAC 387 (monocytes and macrophages. The statistical treatment of data included a posteriori classification of animals from each group (N=20 in two subgroups presenting spontaneous precocious or late oedema. Animals that presented precocious oedema were less responsible to Arnica montana 6cH in relation to hemodynamic changes. Instead, rats that exhibited late oedema presented less intense oedema (P=.01, lower percentage of mast cell degranulation (P=.0001, and increase in lymphatic vessels diameter (P=.05. The data suggest an individually qualitative adjustment of inflammatory vascular events by Arnica montana 6cH.

  4. 78 FR 15681 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Dillon Ranger District; Montana; Birch, Willow, Lost Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Forest Service Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Dillon Ranger District; Montana; Birch, Willow, Lost... statement. SUMMARY: The Birch, Willow, Lost Project proposes to treat vegetation communities in the four sub.... FR 7476 (Lower Willow Creek) would have 1.7 miles Spot Reconstructed. FR 8200 (Willow Creek)...

  5. Regional ecological risk assessment for the introduction of Gambusia affinis (western mosquitofish) into Montana watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome J. Schleier; Sing Sharlene E.; Robert K. D. Peterson

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative risk assessment methodologies were used to assess the risk of establishment and consequent impacts on native minnows and species of concern (SOC) associated with the intentional or unintentional introduction of the mosquito biological control agent, Gambusia affinis, to various Montana watersheds. Gambusia affinis...

  6. 75 FR 67095 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Montana AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior (DOI). ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are extending the comment period for...

  7. 77 FR 26275 - Bonneville Power Administration; Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Bonneville Power Administration; Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project EIS AGENCY...``''sts for long-term transmission service. During the NOS process, utilities and power generators (including wind generators and power marketers) requested the use of BPA's transmission system to...

  8. HIV/AIDS among American Indians/Alaska Natives Living in Montana: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, K. Ann; Strike, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the epidemiology of HIV among AI/ANs in Montana. Barriers to HIV testing and motivations to test also were explored. Analysis of data revealed that there were no significant changes in regard to HIV/AIDS case rates, demographic characteristics, or risk behaviors of AI/ANs infected with HIV/AIDS since reporting began in 1985.…

  9. Protective effect of Satureja montana extract on cyclophosphamide-induced testicular injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Tawab, Azza M; Shahin, Nancy N; AbdelMohsen, Mona M

    2014-12-05

    The present study investigated the protective effect of Satureja montana extract against cyclophosphamide-induced testicular injury in rats. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract were 1.03% and 0.34%w/w of dry herb expressed as chlorogenic acid and quercetin, respectively. HPLC analysis identified caffeic, syringic and rosmarinic acids as the chief phenolic acids, and rutin as the major flavonoid in the extract. Oral daily administration of S.montana extract (50mg/kg/day) for 7days before and 7days after an intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (200mg/kg) restored the reduced relative testicular weight, serum testosterone level and testicular alkaline phosphatase activity, raised the lowered testicular sorbitol dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase activities, and decreased the elevated testicular hemoglobin absorbance. It also attenuated lipid peroxidation, restored the lowered glutathione content, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, and improved total antioxidant capacity. Moreover, S.montana extract mitigated testicular DNA fragmentation, decreased the elevated Fas and Bax gene expression, up-regulated the decreased Bcl-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) gene expression and normalized Akt1 protein level. Histopathological investigation confirmed the protective effects of the extract. Conclusively, S.montana extract protects the rat testis against cyclophosphamide-induced damage via anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic mechanisms that seem to be mediated, at least in part, by PPAR-γ and Akt1 up-regulation.

  10. School Readiness and Achievement of Crow Indian Children, First Through Fourth Grades, at Pryor, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joyce Martin

    The study was based on a year's work with Crow Indian children, grades 1-4, at Pryor, Montana. Five tests were given and evaluated: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, the Gesell Developmental Examination, the Lowenfeld Mosaic, and 3 selected tasks from Piaget. The 21 pupils used for this study were broken…

  11. The Crow Indian Reservation of Montana. Indian Affairs (No. 4). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoyos, Genevieve; DeHoyos, Auturo

    As a final report of a survey about manpower potential of the Crow Indian Reservation of Montana, this report gives a description of population characteristics, educational achievement, potential labor force, available skills of the labor force, and present employment conditions of the worker population on the reservation. The report also includes…

  12. Family Supports in Montana: Region III: Special Training for Exceptional People (STEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Pam

    Special Training for Exceptional People (STEP) is a private, nonprofit agency serving children with developmental disabilities (0-22 years) and their families in the south-central section of Montana, encompassing Billings and a Crow Indian Reservation. One of the services provided by STEP is specialized family care, to prevent placement out of…

  13. Annual Report of Indian Education in Montana. Johnson-O'Malley Activities, Fiscal Year 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Helena.

    During fiscal year 1978, the Montana Office of Public Instruction administered Johnson-O'Malley (JOM) Act funds totaling $684,200 for projects affecting 4,501 eligible students on the Crow, Fort Peck, Fort Belknap, and Rocky Boy's Indian Reservations. Funds were awarded on a per capita basis to provide supplemental educational programs for Indian…

  14. School Readiness and Achievement of Crow Indian Children, First Through Fourth Grades, at Pryor, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joyce Martin

    The study was based on a year's work with Crow Indian children, grades 1-4, at Pryor, Montana. Five tests were given and evaluated: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, the Gesell Developmental Examination, the Lowenfeld Mosaic, and 3 selected tasks from Piaget. The 21 pupils used for this study were broken…

  15. Perspectives and Future Directions Concerning Fresh, Whole Foods in Montana School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Byker Shanks, Carmen J.; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new USDA school meal standards, school nutrition programs may need to transition from a "heat and serve" meal preparation approach to increased scratch cooking and use of fresh, whole foods. This study aims to assess the attitudes, motivations, and barriers for Montana school nutrition professionals and key…

  16. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of Ruta montana L. essential oil from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambouche, N; Merah, B; Bellahouel, S; Bouayed, J; Dicko, A; Derdour, A; Younos, C; Soulimani, R

    2008-09-01

    The essential oil of aerial parts of Ruta montana L. growing in the Oran region in the west of Algeria was obtained by hydrodistillation with a 1.63% yield on a dry weight basis. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analyses were carried out to identify the chemical composition of R. montana essential oil. Moreover, spectrophotometric analyses were employed to highlight the scavenger capacity of this oil using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Twenty compounds were identified by GC and CG/MS analyses, and the bulk of the compounds of the oil were undecan-2-one (32.8%), nonan-2-one (29.5%), nonanol-2-acetate (18.2%), and psoralen (3.5%). The results obtained using the DPPH test show that R. montana essential oil possesses antiradical activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, a linear correlation (correlation coefficient R(2) = 0.971, P < .001) was found between the reduction of DPPH stable free radical and the concentration of R. montana essential oil.

  17. Perspectives and Future Directions Concerning Fresh, Whole Foods in Montana School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Byker Shanks, Carmen J.; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new USDA school meal standards, school nutrition programs may need to transition from a "heat and serve" meal preparation approach to increased scratch cooking and use of fresh, whole foods. This study aims to assess the attitudes, motivations, and barriers for Montana school nutrition professionals and key…

  18. The Roles of Principal Leadership Behaviors and Organizational Routines in Montana's Distinguished Title I Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Sean Niles

    2012-01-01

    This embedded multiple-case study addressed the lack of qualitative research on the contributions of principal leadership behaviors and organizational routines in Montana's distinguished Title I schools. This study was guided by the research question, "How do principal leadership behaviors and organizational routines contribute to the high…

  19. Fire ecology of Montana forest habitat types east of the Continental Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Fischer; Bruce D. Clayton

    1983-01-01

    Provides information on fire as an ecological factor for forest habitat types occurring east of the Continental Divide in Montana. Identifies "Fire Groups" of habitat types based on fire's role in forest succession. Describes forest fuels and suggests considerations for fire management.

  20. Quantifying social preferences toward woody biomass energy generation in Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Campbell; Tyron Venn; Nathaniel Anderson

    2015-01-01

    A significant amount of the forestland in Montana is in need of mechanical forest restoration treatments, which can improve forest health and reduce wildfire risk, but can be expensive to implement and produce little merchantable timber. One option for disposal of the small diameter material produced by these treatments is to utilize it to produce energy,...

  1. Social preferences toward energy generation with woody biomass from public forests in Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Campbell; Tyron J. Venn; Nathaniel M. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    In Montana, USA, there are substantial opportunities for mechanized thinning treatments on public forests to reduce the likelihood of severe and damaging wildfires and improve forest health. These treatments produce residues that can be used to generate renewable energy and displace fossil fuels. The choice modeling method is employed to examine the marginal...

  2. Potential effects of climate change on streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; Haj, Adel; Regan, R. Steven; Viger, Roland J.

    2016-01-01

    Study regionEastern and central Montana.Study focusFish in Northern Great Plains streams tolerate extreme conditions including heat, cold, floods, and drought; however changes in streamflow associated with long-term climate change may render some prairie streams uninhabitable for current fish species. To better understand future hydrology of these prairie streams, the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model and output from the RegCM3 Regional Climate model were used to simulate streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana, for a baseline period (water years 1982–1999) and three future periods: water years 2021–2038 (2030 period), 2046–2063 (2055 period), and 2071–2088 (2080 period).New hydrological insights for the regionProjected changes in mean annual and mean monthly streamflow vary by the RegCM3 model selected, by watershed, and by future period. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to increase (11–21%) for two of the four central Montana watersheds: Middle Musselshell River and Cottonwood Creek. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to decrease (changes of −24 to −75%) for Redwater River watershed in eastern Montana. Mean annual streamflows are projected to increase slightly (2–15%) for the 2030 period and decrease (changes of −16 to −44%) for the 2080 period for the four remaining watersheds.

  3. Soil remediation at natural gas mercury meter stations in Montana and northwestern Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larango, G.J. [Olympus Environmental, Incorporated, Billings, MT (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The Montana Power Company initiated voluntary soil assessment and remediation at natural gas meter stations reported to have contained a mercury manometer at some time during facility operation. Remedial sites were selected according to criteria developed from data collected during a Phase I Assessment of approximately 400 facilities. The Montana Power Company and the Montana Department of Environmental Quality agreed upon a soil cleanup action level of 23 parts per million Total Mercury. Remedial field work included an initial assessment with a mercury vapor analyzer to determine the areal extent of impact at each site, excavation of soil until laboratory analyses of confirmation samples met the cleanup action level, and disposal of the excavated soil. The mercury meters were typically housed in small sheds measuring less than 10 feet by 10 feet. Generally, the spilled mercury was confined to areas beneath or adjacent to the meters; but in some cases, mercury was detected in other areas inside and outside the sheds. Approximately 355 cubic yards of soil at 103 sites were excavated primarily by hand and occasionally with a backhoe, and placed in one-yard soil bags for disposal. Composite soil samples were collected from each soil bag and analyzed by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure for mercury to characterize the material as hazardous or non-hazardous. Bags characterized as non-hazardous were transported to an industrial landfill in Montana, while bags characterized as hazardous were transported to a facility in Tennessee where the mercury was recovered through a recycling process.

  4. 77 FR 2970 - Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC, Montana; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC, Montana; Notice of Availability of... 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed the application for license for the Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Project, located at the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation's Gibson dam on...

  5. 77 FR 7531 - Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... concrete plants, mineral crushers'' in new rule ARM 17.8.743(1)(b) as submitted by the State of Montana on... proposed an action for the above SIP revision submittals on September 26, 2011 (76 FR 59338). We accepted..., particulate matter, carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), lead, nitrogen oxides (NO X ) or any...

  6. Productivity and soil properties 45 years after timber harvest and mechanical site preparation in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke M. Cerise; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Paul McDaniel; Cole Mayn; Robert. Heinse

    2013-01-01

    Site preparation following timber harvests is widely used to increase seedling establishment postharvest. Historically, dozer piling and ripping were the most common forms of site preparation in the Intermountain West. Less commonly, terracing of hill slopes was another form of site preparation on the Bitterroot National Forest in western Montana from 1961-1970 on...

  7. 78 FR 76319 - Notice of Invitation-Coal Exploration License Application MTM 106757, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... through Friday, in the public room at the BLM Montana State Office, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, MT... Southgate Drive, Billings, MT 59101-4669 and Signal Peak Energy, LLC, 100 Portal Drive, Roundup, MT 59072... State Office coal Web site at http://www.blm.gov/mt/st/en/prog/energy/coal.html . A written notice...

  8. Inflammatory Process Modulation by Homeopathic Arnica montana 6CH: The Role of Individual Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ana Paula; Sato, Cesar; Cardoso, Thayna Neves; Bonamin, Leoni Villano

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Arnica montana 6cH on the individual modulation of acute inflammation kinetics in rats were evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were inoculated with 1% carrageenan into the footpad and treated with Arnica montana 6cH, dexamethasone (4.0 mg/kg; positive control) or 5% hydroalcoholic solution (negative control), per os, each 15 minutes, between 30 and 180 minutes after the irritant inoculation. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were done in order to get a panel of inflammatory positive cells for CD3 (T lymphocytes), CD45RA (B lymphocytes), CD18 (beta 2 integrin), CD163 (ED2 protein), CD54 (ICAM-1), and MAC 387 (monocytes and macrophages). The statistical treatment of data included a posteriori classification of animals from each group (N = 20) in two subgroups presenting spontaneous precocious or late oedema. Animals that presented precocious oedema were less responsible to Arnica montana 6cH in relation to hemodynamic changes. Instead, rats that exhibited late oedema presented less intense oedema (P = .01), lower percentage of mast cell degranulation (P = .0001), and increase in lymphatic vessels diameter (P = .05). The data suggest an individually qualitative adjustment of inflammatory vascular events by Arnica montana 6cH.

  9. Entrepreneurship in Montana. A Handbook for Integrating Entrepreneurship into All Vocational Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ronald R.

    This handbook was developed to provide vocational education teachers in Montana with information about entreprenuership so that they can integrate the concepts into their vocational courses. The guide provides a definition of entrepreneurship and describes the syllabus for entrepreneurship (ownership, location, financing, personnel, promotion,…

  10. 76 FR 14584 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Attainment Plan for Libby...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Attainment... ) national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for the Libby nonattainment area. The plan revision, herein... and transit projects are consistent with (``conform to'') the state air quality implementation plan...

  11. Phytochemical profile and anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of supercritical versus conventional extracts of Satureja montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filipa V M; Martins, Alice; Salta, Joana; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Mira, Delfina; Gaspar, Natália; Justino, Jorge; Grosso, Clara; Urieta, José S; Palavra, António M S; Rauter, Amélia P

    2009-12-23

    Winter savory Satureja montana is a medicinal herb used in traditional gastronomy for seasoning meats and salads. This study reports a comparison between conventional (hydrodistillation, HD, and Soxhlet extraction, SE) and alternative (supercritical fluid extraction, SFE) extraction methods to assess the best option to obtain bioactive compounds. Two different types of extracts were tested, the volatile (SFE-90 bar, second separator vs HD) and the nonvolatile fractions (SFE-250 bar, first and second separator vs SE). The inhibitory activity over acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase by S. montana extracts was assessed as a potential indicator for the control of Alzheimer's disease. The supercritical nonvolatile fractions, which showed the highest content of (+)-catechin, chlorogenic, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids, also inhibited selectively and significantly butyrylcholinesterase, whereas the nonvolatile conventional extract did not affect this enzyme. Microbial susceptibility tests revealed the great potential of S. montana volatile supercritical fluid extract for the growth control and inactivation of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, showing some activity against Botrytis spp. and Pyricularia oryzae. Although some studies were carried out on S. montana, the phytochemical analysis together with the biological properties, namely, the anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of the plant nonvolatile and volatile supercritical fluid extracts, are described herein for the first time.

  12. Al-Dulimi and Montana Management Inc. v. Switzerland / Stefan Kadelbach

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kadelbach, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtu lahendist asjas Al-Dulimi ja Montana Management Inc vs. Šveits, mis puudutas ÜRO julgeolekunõukogu resolutsiooni, millega pandi riikidele kohustus külmutada viivitamatult ka Iraagi vanemametnikele või nende äriühingutele kuuluv vara

  13. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students in urban schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 808 high school American Indian students in urban schools during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 808 due to…

  14. A quantitative approach to assessing the efficacy of occupant protection programs: A case study from Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Kezia; Stanley, Laura; Peck, Alyssa

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative evaluation of vehicle occupant protection programs is critical for ensuring efficient government resource allocation, but few methods exist for conducting evaluation across multiple programs simultaneously. Here we present an analysis of occupant protection efficacy in the state of Montana. This approach relies on seat belt compliance rates as measured by the National Occupant Protection Usage Survey (NOPUS). A hierarchical logistic regression model is used to estimate the impacts of four Montana Department of Transportation (MDT)-funded occupant protection programs used in the state of Montana, following adjustment for a suite of potential confounders. Activity from two programs, Buckle Up coalitions and media campaigns, are associated with increased seat belt use in Montana, whereas the impact of another program, Selective Traffic Enforcement, is potentially masked by other program activity. A final program, Driver's Education, is not associated with any shift in seat belt use. This method allows for a preliminary quantitative estimation of program impacts without requiring states to obtain any new seat belt use data. This approach provides states a preliminary look at program impacts, and a means for carefully planning future program allocation and investigation.

  15. The Fiscal Impact of Tax-Credit Scholarships in Montana. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Many states have enacted or are considering proposals to give tax credits for contributions that provide tuition scholarships for students in K-12 schools to attend the private or public schools of their choice. This study seeks to inform the public and policymakers about the implications for Montana if the state were to enact such a program. The…

  16. 1972-73 Program Evaluation of the Right to Read Program of Hardin, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin School District, MT.

    This paper presents an evaluation of the Hardin, Montana, School District's Right to Read program. Short descriptions of the results of the evaluation are presented for the areas of paragraph meaning, word meaning, interest/attitude, basic approach, instructional technique, student grouping, availability and skill of reading teachers, nonclassroom…

  17. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserve base in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David C.; Luppens, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated in-place resources of 1.07 trillion short tons of coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. Of that total, with a maximum stripping ratio of 10:1, recoverable coal was 162 billion tons. The estimate of economically recoverable resources was 25 billion tons.

  18. A Descriptive Study of Students with Disabilities at Montana State University Billings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Thomas Francis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze how the characteristics of age, major and type of disabilities for students who received services through Disability Support Services at Montana State University-Billings have changed from 1999 to 2011. Furthermore, this analysis contrasted local trends for types of disabilities with national…

  19. Endophytic Streptomyces in the traditional medicinal plant Arnica montana L.: secondary metabolites and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardecki, Tina; Brötz, Elke; De Ford, Christian; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Merfort, Irmgard

    2015-08-01

    Arnica montana L. is a medical plant of the Asteraceae family and grows preferably on nutrient poor soils in mountainous environments. Such surroundings are known to make plants dependent on symbiosis with other organisms. Up to now only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were found to act as endophytic symbiosis partners for A. montana. Here we identified five Streptomyces strains, microorganisms also known to occur as endophytes in plants and to produce a huge variety of active secondary metabolites, as inhabitants of A. montana. The secondary metabolite spectrum of these strains does not contain sesquiterpene lactones, but consists of the glutarimide antibiotics cycloheximide and actiphenol as well as the diketopiperazines cyclo-prolyl-valyl, cyclo-prolyl-isoleucyl, cyclo-prolyl-leucyl and cyclo-prolyl-phenylalanyl. Notably, genome analysis of one strain was performed and indicated a huge genome size with a high number of natural products gene clusters among which genes for cycloheximide production were detected. Only weak activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was revealed, but the extracts showed a marked cytotoxic activity as well as an antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis and Fusarium verticillioides. Altogether, our results provide evidence that A. montana and its endophytic Streptomyces benefit from each other by completing their protection against competitors and pathogens and by exchanging plant growth promoting signals with nutrients.

  20. Dispersal distance and achene quality of the rare anemochorous species Arnica montana L. : implications for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strykstra, RJ; Pegtel, DM; Bergsma, A

    1998-01-01

    In The Netherlands, Arnica montana (Asteraceae) is a, rare plant species. Future survival in The Netherlands depends on its; ability to disperse between source populations and habitats, newly created by man. Plumed Asteraceae achenes are often considered to disperse over large distances. Therefore,

  1. EXPERT SYSTEMS - DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAN Anca-Petruţa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the fact that specialty agricultural assistance is not always available when the farmers need it, we identified expert systems as a strong instrument with an extended potential in agriculture. This started to grow in scale recently, including all socially-economic activity fields, having the role of collecting data regarding different aspects from human experts with the purpose of assisting the user in the necessary steps for solving problems, at the performance level of the expert, making his acquired knowledge and experience available. We opted for a general presentation of the expert systems as well as their necessity, because, the solution to develop the agricultural system can come from artificial intelligence by implementing the expert systems in the field of agricultural insurance, promoting existing insurance products, farmers finding options in depending on their necessities and possibilities. The objective of this article consists of collecting data about different aspects about specific areas of interest of agricultural insurance, preparing the database, a conceptual presentation of a pilot version which will become constantly richer depending on the answers received from agricultural producers, with the clearest exposure of knowledgebase possible. We can justify picking this theme with the fact that even while agricultural insurance plays a very important role in agricultural development, the registered result got from them are modest, reason why solutions need to be found in the scope of developing the agricultural sector. The importance of this consists in the proposal of an immediate viable solution to correspond with the current necessities of agricultural producers and in the proposal of an innovative solution, namely the implementation of expert system in agricultural insurance as a way of promoting insurance products. Our research, even though it treats the subject at an conceptual level, it wants to undertake an

  2. Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Beijing Modern Urban Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We analyze development situations of Beijing modern urban agriculture from agricultural distribution,agricultural foundation and agricultural industrial system.Our research on challenges and opportunities of Beijing modern urban agriculture indicates that challenges include short of resources,deterioration of environment,and high production cost,and opportunities include large market space,advanced agricultural industrial experience and many other development opportunities.On the basis of these,we put forward development thought of Beijing modern urban agriculture in " the Twelfth Five Plan" period.We must improve foundation,integration and demonstration of agriculture;orient towards market and satisfy medium and high end market demands;actively cultivate and strengthen agricultural industrial level;create unique product brand;and raise added value of agricultural products.

  3. Where to Target Conservation Agriculture for African Smallholders? How to Overcome Challenges Associated with its Implementation? Experience from Eastern and Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Baudron

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the paper by Giller et al. (2009, the debate surrounding the suitability of conservation agriculture (CA for African smallholders has remained polarized between proponents and opponents. The debate also gave rise to a few studies that attempted to identify the “niche” where CA would fit in the region, but the insight offered by these studies has been limited. In this paper, we first analyze the rationale of adoption where it occurred globally to define “drivers” of adoption. Our analysis suggests that CA has first and foremost been adopted under the premises of being energy-saving (time and/or power, erosion-controlling, and water-use efficient, but rarely to increase yield. We then define the niche where CA fits, based on these drivers of adoption, as systems where (1 the energy available for crop establishment is limited and/or costly (including labor and draft power; (2 delayed planting results in a significant yield decline; (3 yield is limited or co-limited by water; and/or (4 severe erosion problems threaten the short- to medium-term productivity of farmland. In Eastern and Southern Africa, this niche appears rather large and likely to expand in the near future. When implemented within this niche, CA may still be limited by “performance challenges” that do not constitute drivers or barriers to adoption, but limitations to the performance of CA. We argue that most of these performance challenges can (and should be addressed by agronomic and socio-economic research, and provide four examples where the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT and its partners have been successfully alleviating four very different challenges through research and development (R&D in Eastern and Southern Africa. Finally, we describe an iterative and multi-scale R&D approach currently used by CIMMYT in Eastern and Southern Africa to overcome challenges associated with the implementation of CA by African smallholders. This

  4. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  5. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  6. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  7. Agriculture: Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  8. Urban Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbellini, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    John Bourne High School in Queens, New York, offers an agricultural program enrolling more than 400 students. The curriculum includes agricultural career exploration, plant and animal science, summer land laboratories, and a special education component. (SK)

  9. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban

  10. National Agriculture Imagery Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) acquires aerial imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in the continental U.S. A primary goal of the NAIP...

  11. Agriculture: Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  12. Agricultural Libraries and Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Keith W., Ed.; Pisa, Maria G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles address issues relating to agricultural libraries and information, including background on agricultural libraries and information, trend management, document delivery, reference services, user needs and library services, collection development, technologies for international information management, information sources,…

  13. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban a

  14. Field and microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of agricultural Cu treatment on the density and genetic structure of microbial communities in two different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjard, Lionel; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Nowak, Virginie; Lejon, David P H; Nouaïm, Rachida; Chaussod, Rémi

    2006-11-01

    The effects of Cu amendment on indigenous soil microorganisms were investigated in two soils, a calcareous silty clay (Ep) and a sandy soil (Au), by means of a 1-year field experiment and a two-month microcosm incubation. Cu was added as 'Bordeaux mixture' [CuSO(4), Ca(OH)(2)] at the standard rate used in viticulture (B1=16 kg Cu kg(-1) soil) and at a higher level of contamination (B3=48 kg Cu ha(-1) soil). More extractable Cu was observed in sandy soil (Au) than in silty soil (Ep). Furthermore, total Cu and Cu-EDTA declined with time in Au soil, whereas they remained stable in Ep soil. Quantitative modifications of the microflora were assessed by C-biomass measurements and qualitative modifications were assessed by the characterization of the genetic structure of bacterial and fungal communities from DNA directly extracted from the soil, using B- and F-ARISA (bacterial and fungal automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis). In the field study, no significant modifications were observed in C-biomass whereas microcosm incubation showed a decrease in B3 contamination only. ARISA fingerprinting showed slight but significant modifications of bacterial and fungal communities in field and microcosm incubation. These modifications were transient in all cases, suggesting a short-term effect of Cu stress. Microcosm experiments detected the microbial community modifications with greater precision in the short-term, while field experiments showed that the biological effects of Cu contamination may be overcome or hidden by pedo-climatic variations.

  15. Innovations in urban agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban agriculture, including food security, income generation and environmental management.

  16. Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and biomass as potential indices of environmental contamination at National Wildlife Refuges in Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and biomass were measured at wetland units on three National Wildlife Refuges in Montana and examined to determine if they were...

  17. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: January 1, 1971 - December 31, 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana Wetlands outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year....

  18. Final Environmental Assessment for Wide Area Coverage Construct Land Mobile Network Communications Infrastructure Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    to his vegetation type include common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), needle-and thread, phlox, lupine (Lupinus sp.), and buckwheat (Montana...Common species include common snowberry, Oregon grape (Berberis aquifolium), bluegrass, western wheatgrass, lupine , yarrow (Achillea millefolium

  19. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, *Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, *Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: January 1, 1968 - December 31, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana Wetlands outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year....

  20. Wyodak-Anderson coal zone study limit in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana (wabndg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representing the study area for the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. This theme...

  1. Literature review and database of relations between salinity and aquatic biota : applications to Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Long-term accumulation of salts in wetlands at Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Montana, has raised concern among wetland managers that increasing salinity...

  2. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: January 1, 1972 - December 31, 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report...

  3. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, *Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, *Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: January 1, 1969 - December 31, 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana Wetlands outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year....

  4. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: July 1, 1973 - June 30, 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1974 fiscal year. The report...

  5. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: January 1, 1970 - December 31, 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana Wetlands outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year....

  6. [Special use permit for predator disease study associated with Montana black-footed ferret reintroduction, summer 1994 : APHIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a memorandum providing the Montana Black-Footed Ferret Working Group with information on the proposed predator collection that will happen...

  7. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: July 1, 1974 - June 30, 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1975 fiscal year. The report...

  8. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND COMPETITION IN WORLD AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Duma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development

  9. Agricultural science and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... shaped agriculture and the role of science in agriculture will be discussed by analyzing some of the presumptions behind the concept of ecosystem services and the way animals are viewed. Finally, the concepts of animal welfare and sustainability will be explored to show how they make vivid the connection...... between agricultural science and ethics....

  10. Agricultural Fragility Estimates Subjected to Volcanic Ash Fall Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, H. J.; Lee, S.; Choi, S. H.; Yun, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    Korea. References Nimlos, T. J. and Hans, Z., The Distribution and Thickness of Volcanic Ash in Montana, Northwest Science, Vol. 56, No. 3, 1982. Wilson, T., Kaye, G., Stewart, C., and Cole, J., Impacts of the 2006 Eruption of Merapi Volcano, Indonesia, on Agriculture and Infrastructure, GNS Science Report, 2007.

  11. Development and experiences of photovoltaic water pumping for a drip irrigation in agriculture; Desarrollo y experiencias de sistemas de bombeo fotovoltaico para aplicaciones de riego tecnificado en la agricultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Sapiain, Raul; Torres, Ariel; Loose, Dirk [Centro de Energias Renovables, Arica (Chile); Hahn, Andreas [Eschborn (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The following paper shows results and experiences from a pilot project of photovoltaic water pumping for drip irrigation in agriculture of rural areas. The project participants are local farmers in direct co-operation with the Renewable Energy Centre of the University of Tarapaca and the German Agency for Technical Co-operation, GTZ. Activities focus on the planification, design, implementation and evaluation of four different pilot installations for the small and medium scale agriculture in different locations of the desert area of northern Chile. In the first phase, photovoltaic pumping systems were installed with water storage tanks and a drip irrigation systems were installed with water storage tanks and a drip irrigation system working only by gravity at very low operating pressures. In the second phase, a new system configuration was developed with a direct driven photovoltaic pumping system without water storage tank, the drip irrigation system here is directly connected to the pump with variable water flow and system pressure conditions. Part of the pilot project is a monitoring system, which allows a complete short term and long term evaluation under technical, agricultural and economical aspects. The measured data and obtained experiences shown so far interesting result as for example the high system's reliability, a good performance of the low pressure irrigation, an adequate matching between the solar pump and the drip irrigation in the direct driven system and a simple irrigation management and operation, compared with conventional pumping systems. The project's results could offer a new alternative for photovoltaic pumping systems in the productive agricultural sector of desert rural areas. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra los resultados y experiencias obtenidas en un programa piloto de bombeo fotovoltaico para nuevas aplicaciones de riego tecnificado en la agricultura de zonas rurales. En este programa el Centro de Energias Renovables

  12. Levantamento pedológico detalhado da estação experimental de Itararé, SP Detailed soil survey of the agricultural experiment station at Itararé, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bertoldo de Oliveira

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve o levantamento de solos ao nível de série, efetuado na Estação Experimental de Itararé, SP, que ocupa uma área de 495 ha. O relevo regional é representado por superfícies suavizadas esculpidas em material do Devoniano. O tipo climático é Cfa, segundo Koppen, e a vegetação primitiva, campos altimontanos. Foram observados 118 pontos em 50 dos quais foi coletado material para análise granulométrica e/ou química. Foram coletados, descritos e analisados 10 perfis e estabelecidas sete unidades de mapeamento pertencentes aos grandes grupos Inceptisol e Oxisol, e a um complexo indiscriminado.In this paper a description of a detailed soil survey in the Agricultural Experiment Station at Itararé, SP is given. The soil survey of the 495 ha of the Experiment Station was done at the series level. Seven soil units were identified and the description and analysis of four Inceptisols, and two Oxisols are presented. A soil map at 1:10,000 scale is also presented.

  13. How the Quantity of Agricultural Mechanics Training Received at the Secondary Level Impact Teacher Perceived Importance of Agricultural Mechanics Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasty, John; Anderson, Ryan G.; Paulsen, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    Preservice teacher candidates in agricultural education have expressed concerns with teaching agricultural mechanics content yet the number of required courses in agricultural mechanics has dwindled. To determine the root of current teachers' perceptions, it is important to look at the developmental experiences that have led to those perceptions.…

  14. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  15. Practice and Exploration of Leisure Agriculture Construction in Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaidong; WANG; Ming; LI; Lazhu; HAO; Maoyue; GE

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the basic information about Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park, and the practice concerning leisure agriculture; summarizes the experience obtained. Finally, some ideas are put forth for further construction and development of leisure agriculture in science and technology park as follows: making unified layout and rational planning; integrating the local tourism resources, to establish the system of leisure agriculture; creating features of leisure agriculture in the park; establishing the brand of leisure-oriented training base in science and technology park; carrying out exploration into operation mode of leisure agriculture in the park.

  16. Reorganization of Agricultural Extension toward Green Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering unsustainable agricultural conditions of Iran and organizational recession and inability of current extension organization to achieve sustainability, it seems that extension systems require a new organizational structure to achieve sustainability objectives. The purpose of the present study was to identify the most appropriate characteristics for extension organization toward green agriculture in Iran context. Approach: To fulfill this objective, a sample of 120 respondents was selected through simple random sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The response rate of questionnaire was 65.83% (N = 79. Appropriate descriptive statistics such as mean scores, standard deviations and variation ratio were used. Results: Extension experts believed that among important organizational characteristics of extension system for supporting green agriculture collaboration among research, extension, education organizations, farmers' associations, NGOs, rural credit agencies, transportation companies, considering local groups and learning organization had very high importance for supporting green agriculture. According to factor analysis, the implications for extension organization were categorized into two groups consisting: (1 Holistic organizations (2 Participatory organizations that those factors explained 67.54% of the total variance of the research variables. Conclusion: Identifying suitable extension mechanisms had important role for developing extension system. Therefore, identifying extension organizational characteristics for supporting green agriculture of Iran is one of the major approaches needs to be carefully thought and accurately implemented for the extension system development.

  17. MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE VS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz KUSZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the correlation between the need to modernise agriculture and sustainable development. Modernisation of agriculture aiming only at increasing the efficiency of production, if implemented in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, enabled reduction in the negative external effects. Modernisation of agriculture is supposed to ensure productivity growth without imposing any threats to the natural environment and the well-being of animals, reduced impoverishment in rural areas as well as to ensure food security, growth in the profitability of farms, improvement to the efficiency of use of natural resources. Therefore, in the near future, the agriculture – environment relation will be subject to change taking into account, on the one hand, concern about the natural environment, and, on the other, pressure on increasing the efficiency of production. The above challenges will be addressed by the need to implement efficient and, at the same time, environmentally-friendly production technologies and relevant legal instruments which oblige agricultural producers to protect the natural environment.

  18. MORE (Montana Organization for Research in Energy), MT DOE/EPSCoR. Progress performance report, traineeship activities: 30 September 1992--31 January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This report focuses on Montana`s Graduate Traineeship in Energy Program and covers the past 16 months. During this period, MORE established a graduate traineeship program in energy, released three calls for applications, and funded 26 graduates. The traineeship program stresses interdisciplinary training to prepare professionals for careers in energy-related fields. Preference is given to research projects involving interdisciplinary, intercampus, collaborative research with DOE national laboratories and Montana`s energy industries. The 26 trainee research projects, campus affiliation, host laboratory, and host scientist are summarized in this report.

  19. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced a...

  20. Ukraine Agricultural Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The agri-food sector is an important part of the Ukrainian economy. Agriculture could make an even larger contribution to economic growth and the vitality of rural areas in Ukraine than is currently the case. Ukraine has the agro-climatic potential to be a major player on world agricultural markets. Agricultural competitiveness in Ukraine also suffers from inadequate systems to test and do...

  1. Organic Agriculture and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanban, Leila; Davari, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. On the other hand, nanotechnology is a rapidly developing domain of research and practice, the terminology is in a state of flux and usage is evolving. Nano-applications are being applied across the entire agriculture and food sectors. In agriculture, for example, nano-pesticides and nano-sensors are changing ...

  2. Practice and Exploration of Leisure Agriculture Construction in Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, HuaiDong; Li, Ming; Hao, Lazhu; Ge, Maoyue

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the basic information about Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park, and the practice concerning leisure agriculture; summarizes the experience obtained. Finally, some ideas are put forth for further construction and development of leisure agriculture in science and technology park as follows: making unified layout and rational planning; integrating the local tourism resources, to establish the system of leisure agriculture; creating...

  3. The 1990 Montana initiative to increase cigarette taxes: lessons for other states and localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, R W; Males, M A; Nelson, D E

    1993-01-01

    In November 1990, voters in Montana defeated an initiative that would have increased the state's excise tax on a pack of cigarettes by 25 cents. The increased revenues were intended for tobacco education and research. Opponents of the measure, primarily tobacco companies, outspent proponents by more than 35 to 1. Their primary themes were opposition to new taxes and to a larger state bureaucracy. Based on the results of initiative campaigns in Montana and California, taxation initiatives are more likely to succeed if guidance is sought from leaders of similar campaigns in other states, tobacco control coalitions are built and funding secured early, and polling conducted before initiative measures are finalized. Other requirements for success include careful wording of the initiative, strong leadership, consideration of a paid petition drive, effective use of the news media, anticipating opposition arguments, and emphasizing the benefits of the tax increase in the campaign.

  4. Montana Rivers Information System : Edit/Entry Program User's Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks

    1992-07-01

    The Montana Rivers Information System (MRIS) was initiated to assess the state`s fish, wildlife, and recreation value; and natural cultural, and geologic features. The MRIS is now a set of data bases containing part of the information in the Natural Heritage Program natural features and threatened and endangered species data bases and comprises of the Montana Interagency Stream Fisheries Database; the MDFWP Recreation Database; and the MDFWP Wildlife Geographic Information System. The purpose of this User`s Manual is to describe to the user how to maintain the MRIS database of their choice by updating, changing, deleting, and adding records using the edit/entry programs; and to provide to the user all information and instructions necessary to complete data entry into the MRIS databases.

  5. Sesquiterpene lactone content in leaves of in vitro and field cultivated Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T J; Bomme, U; Alfermann, A W

    1998-04-01

    On the basis of GC and GC/MS analyses we report on the full qualitative and quantitative sesquiterpene lactone (STL) content of in vitro cultivated A. montana plantlets consisting of helenalin and 11alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin esters in approximately equal amounts. The accumulation of STL was shown to be correlated with tissue differentiation in the above-ground parts. The seasonal variation of STL content in leaves of A. montana cultivated in the proving field was investigated. Changes in the composition of the STL fraction were detected. While young plants accumulate mainly helenalin derivatives, the content of such compounds decreases to almost zero within about 6 weeks from the beginning of leaf formation while that of dihydrohelenalin type compounds increases at the same rate and remains constant for a longer period.

  6. Arnica montana gel in osteoarthritis of the knee: an open, multicenter clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuesel, Otto; Weber, Michel; Suter, Andy

    2002-01-01

    This open multicenter trial investigated the safety and efficacy of an Arnica montana fresh plant gel, applied twice daily, in 26 men and 53 women with mild to moderate osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. After 3 and 6 weeks, significant decreases in median total scores on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were evident in the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations (both P < .0001). Scores on the pain, stiffness, and function subscales also showed significant reductions at these timepoints. The overall local adverse-event rate of 7.6% included only one allergic reaction. Sixty-nine patients (87%) rated the tolerability of the gel as "good" or "fairly good," and 76% would use it again. Topical application of Arnica montana gel for 6 weeks was a safe, well-tolerated, and effective treatment of mild to moderate OA of the knee.

  7. Agriculture - reconciling ancient tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Atkinson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in agriculture has tended to be driven by factors other than environmental concerns. This may be changing, and perhaps the emphases of the two creation accounts in Genesis (responsible management or 'dominion', and active care may become more important. The paper examines a number of current developments in agriculture (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation, and organic versus industrial methodologies and discusses the issues they raise for agricultural productivity and the human communities dependent on farming. The questions raised are complex; we are faced with establishing a new paradigm for agricultural practice.

  8. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon...... and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...

  9. Malawi - Conservation Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The randomized control trial impact evaluation tests different strategies for communicating information about agricultural technologies to smallholder maize farmers...

  10. Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdo Bašić

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available After becoming self-standing state one of new needs of Croatia important for agricultural profession, farmers, policy makers and public needs was regionalization of agriculture. It is the analyse of state of agroecological conditions in agrosphere and based on results identification and territorial separation of agricultural regions as parts of agrosphere with similar conditions for plant and animal growing and similar farming systems. On this track within a special project we fi nished an inventory of agrosphere, result of which is Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture presented in this paper. Following wise message of old Chinese proverb cited above, the starting approach is the MFCAL concept (Multifunctional Character of Agriculture and Land, which means that apart from very important and primary economic, agriculture and agricultural land (soil in human life play other roles (functions of similar importance; environmental, social, cultural and spatial, as well as the role of shaping the cultural landscape as a factor of rural development. As well, we respect the point of view prevailing in EU that all natural resources used in agriculture but at the fi rst place soil as a major one, need sustainable use and efficient protection. Using the data on Land resource potential based primarily on data of General Soil Map of Croatia (GSM in a scale of 1:50 000 and results of our research in the period 2000 – 2003, the agrosphere of Croatia is divided in three agricultural regions; Pannonian with four, Mountain with two and Adriatic with three subregions.

  11. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher R. Keyes; Rubén Manso González

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA). Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicul...

  12. Limnological Investigations: Lake Koocanusa, Montana. Part 4. Factors Controlling Primary Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Lund (1965), Hutchinson (1967), Fogg (1975) and Wetzel (1975). Stadelmann et al. (1974) reported that the spring increase in primary productivity at a...Bighorn Lake-Yellowtail Dam, Montana. U.S.A. Freshwater Biology, vol. 5, p. 407-421. Stadelmann , P., J. E. Moore and E. Pickett (1974) Primary production...loading concept in limnology. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Hydrologic, vol. 37, p. 53-84. Vollenweider, R. A., M. Munawar and P. Stadelmann (1974) A

  13. A geologic and mineral exploration spatial database for the Stillwater Complex, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Parks, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    The Stillwater Complex is a Neoarchean, ultramafic to mafic layered intrusion exposed in the Beartooth Mountains in south-central Montana. This igneous intrusion contains magmatic mineralization that is variably enriched in strategic and critical commodities such as chromium, nickel, and the platinum-group elements. One deposit, the J-M Reef, is the sole source of primary production and reserves for platinum-group elements in the United States.

  14. Geologic map of the Dillon 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Idaho and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, E.T.; Lopez, D.A.; O'Neill, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The digital ARC/INFO databases included in this website provide a GIS database for the geologic map of the Dillon 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangle of southwest Montana and east-central Idaho. The geologic map was originally published as U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1803-H. This website directory contains ARC/INFO format files that can be used to query or display the geology of USGS Map I-1803-H with GIS software.

  15. A century of climate and ecosystem change in Western Montana: What do temperature trends portend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, G.T.; Graumlich, L.J.; Fagre, D.B.; Kipfer, T.; Muhlfeld, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    The physical science linking human-induced increases in greenhouse gasses to the warming of the global climate system is well established, but the implications of this warming for ecosystem processes and services at regional scales is still poorly understood. Thus, the objectives of this work were to: (1) describe rates of change in temperature averages and extremes for western Montana, a region containing sensitive resources and ecosystems, (2) investigate associations between Montana temperature change to hemispheric and global temperature change, (3) provide climate analysis tools for land and resource managers responsible for researching and maintaining renewable resources, habitat, and threatened/endangered species and (4) integrate our findings into a more general assessment of climate impacts on ecosystem processes and services over the past century. Over 100 years of daily and monthly temperature data collected in western Montana, USA are analyzed for long-term changes in seasonal averages and daily extremes. In particular, variability and trends in temperature above or below ecologically and socially meaningful thresholds within this region (e.g., -17.8??C (0??F), 0??C (32??F), and 32.2??C (90??F)) are assessed. The daily temperature time series reveal extremely cold days (??? -17.8??C) terminate on average 20 days earlier and decline in number, whereas extremely hot days (???32??C) show a three-fold increase in number and a 24-day increase in seasonal window during which they occur. Results show that regionally important thresholds have been exceeded, the most recent of which include the timing and number of the 0??C freeze/thaw temperatures during spring and fall. Finally, we close with a discussion on the implications for Montana's ecosystems. Special attention is given to critical processes that respond non-linearly as temperatures exceed critical thresholds, and have positive feedbacks that amplify the changes. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B

  16. Effects of aerially applied mexacarbate on western spruce budworm larvae and their parasites in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll B. Williams; Patrick J. Shea; Mark D. McGregor

    1979-01-01

    In tests on the Bitterroot National Forest, Montana, in 1965 and 1966, mexacarbate, aerially applied at the rate of 0.15 lb a.i./gal/acre (68.04 g a.iJ3.785 1/0.404 ha), killed about 90 percent of the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) populations. More parasitized budworm larvae survived treatments than nonparasitized.

  17. Geochemical and petrographic data for intrusions peripheral to the Big Timber Stock, Crazy Mountains, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2015-01-01

    The Paleocene Fort Union Formation hosts a compositionally diverse array of Eocene plugs, dikes, and sills arrayed around the Eocene Big Timber stock in the Crazy Mountains of south-central Montana. The geochemistry and petrography of the sills have not previously been characterized or interpreted. The purpose of this report is (1) to present available geochemical and petrographic data for several dozen samples of these rocks and (2) to provide a basic interpretive synthesis of these data.

  18. Les effets de l'Arnica Montana sur la coagulation sanguine. Essai clinique randomisé.

    OpenAIRE

    Baillargeon, L.; Drouin, J; Desjardins, L.; Leroux, D.; Audet, D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study, which took the form of a two-period cross-over clinical trial, was to determine whether a homeopathic substance, Arnica Montana, significantly decreased bleeding time (Simplate II) and to describe its impact on various blood coagulation tests. It was not shown that this substance had a significant impact on various parameters of blood coagulation in healthy volunteers in the period immediately following administration [corrected].

  19. [The effects of Arnica Montana on blood coagulation. Randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, L; Drouin, J; Desjardins, L; Leroux, D; Audet, D

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this study, which took the form of a two-period cross-over clinical trial, was to determine whether a homeopathic substance, Arnica Montana, significantly decreased bleeding time (Simplate II) and to describe its impact on various blood coagulation tests. It was not shown that this substance had a significant impact on various parameters of blood coagulation in healthy volunteers in the period immediately following administration [corrected].

  20. A geologic and mineral exploration spatial database for the Stillwater Complex, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Parks, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    The Stillwater Complex is a Neoarchean, ultramafic to mafic layered intrusion exposed in the Beartooth Mountains in south-central Montana. This igneous intrusion contains magmatic mineralization that is variably enriched in strategic and critical commodities such as chromium, nickel, and the platinum-group elements. One deposit, the J-M Reef, is the sole source of primary production and reserves for platinum-group elements in the United States.

  1. A Taxonomic Checklist of the Mosquitoes of Montana With Notes On New Geographic Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolston, Marni G; Johnson, Gregory D; Hokit, D Grant

    2016-12-01

    An updated checklist of 50 species of mosquitoes found in Montana is presented and includes 2 new records (Aedes niphadopsis and Anopheles walkeri) that can be added to the 2005 state list by Darsie and Ward. The results of a statewide mosquito surveillance program, conducted annually from 2004 to 2015, facilitated the establishment of an abundance rating of the species in the state and expanded the known geographic range for Coquillettidia perturbans, Ae. nigromaculis, and Culiseta minnesotae.

  2. Preliminary geologic investigation of the West Glendive lignite deposits, Dawson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banet, Arthur C.

    1979-01-01

    Four major lignite beds, all in the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene), occur in the West Glendive area, Dawson County, Montana. The Newton Ranch and Poverty Flats beds are in the Lebo Member and the Peuse and Kolberg Ranch beds are in the Tongue River Member. Correlation of the lignite beds across the area shows that the Peuse bed is the thickest and most extensive. Field mapping and drill-hole data indicate that folding and faulting are more common than previously reported.

  3. Evaluation of Eurasian Watermilfoil Control Techniques Using Aquatic Herbicides in Fort Peck Lake, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    cold winter condi- tions in Montana and other northern states, Eurasian watermilfoil is capable of overwintering under ice and rapidly emerges in the...River, fluctuations in depth of annual snow pack and timing of annual snow melt in its watershed can greatly impact seasonal lake-level elevations...Eurasian watermilfoil and curlyleaf pondweed using low doses of endothall combined with 2,4-D. ERDC/TN APCRP-CC-05. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer

  4. Towards Conservation Agriculture systems in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Boincean

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As the world population and food production demands rise, keeping agricultural soils and landscapes healthy and productive are of paramount importance to sustaining local and global food security and the flow of ecosystem services to society. The global population, expected to reach 9.7 billion people by 2050, will put additional pressure on the available land area and resources for agricultural production. Sustainable production intensification for food security is a major challenge to both industrialized and developing countries. The paper focuses on the results from long-term multi-factorial experiments involving tillage practices, crop rotations and fertilization to study the interactions amongst the treatments in the context of sustainable production intensification. The paper discusses the results in relation to reported performance of crops and soil quality in Conservation Agriculture systems that are based on no or minimum soil disturbance (no-till seeding and weeding, maintenance of soil mulch cover with crop biomass and cover crops, and diversified cropping s involving annuals and perennials. Conservation Agriculture also emphasizes the necessity of an agro-ecosystems approach to the management of agricultural land for sustainable production intensification, as well as to the site-specificity of agricultural production. Arguments in favor of avoiding the use of soil tillage are discussed together with agro-ecological principles for sustainable intensification of agriculture. More interdisciplinary systems research is required to support the transformation of agriculture from the conventional tillage agriculture to a more sustainable agriculture based on the principles and practices of Conservation Agriculture, along with other complementary practices of integrated crop, nutrient, water, pest, energy and farm power management.

  5. Financing Sustainable Agriculture Under Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ji-kun; WANG Yang-jie

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is facing great challenge in meeting global food security and is expected to face even greater challenge under climate change. The overall goal of this paper is to examine how ifnance can be used to achieve the joint objectives of development, mitigation of and adaptation to climate change in agriculture in developing world based on literature review. The results show that agriculture is much under invested and foreign aid also has not increased appropriately to assist developing countries to maintain sustainable agriculture under climate change. There are a wide range of areas in mitigation of and adaptation to climate change that need substantial investment. Major areas and successful cases mitigation of and adaptation to climate change in agriculture that have worked in developing countries are examined. A list of areas that have worked, could work and be scaled up or transferred is identiifed and discussed. This study concludes that mainstreaming agricultural mitigation and adaptation into agricultural development programs, enhancing local capacity, and considering different stakeholders’ needs are major experiences for successfully ifnancing sustainable agriculture under climate change.

  6. Strontium isotope systematics of mixing groundwater and oil-field brine at Goose Lake in northeastern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Preston, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater, surface water, and soil in the Goose Lake oil field in northeastern Montana have been affected by Cl−-rich oil-field brines during long-term petroleum production. Ongoing multidisciplinary geochemical and geophysical studies have identified the degree and local extent of interaction between brine and groundwater. Fourteen samples representing groundwater, surface water, and brine were collected for Sr isotope analyses to evaluate the usefulness of 87Sr/86Sr in detecting small amounts of brine. Differences in Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr are optimal at this site for the experiment. Strontium concentrations range from 0.13 to 36.9 mg/L, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values range from 0.71097 to 0.70828. The local brine has 168 mg/L Sr and a 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.70802. Mixing relationships are evident in the data set and illustrate the sensitivity of Sr in detecting small amounts of brine in groundwater. The location of data points on a Sr isotope-concentration plot is readily explained by an evaporation-mixing model. The model is supported by the variation in concentrations of most of the other solutes.

  7. Statistical summaries of streamflow in Montana and adjacent areas, water years 1900 through 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    In response to the need to have more current information about streamflow characteristics in Montana, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality, Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, and Bureau of Land Management, conducted a study to analyze streamflow data. Updated statistical summaries of streamflow characteristics are presented for 286 streamflow-gaging sites in Montana and adjacent areas having 10 or more years of record for water years 1900 through 2002. Data include the magnitude and probability of annual low and high flow, the magnitude and probability of low flow for three seasons (March-June, July-October, and November-February), flow duration of the daily mean discharge, and the monthly and annual mean discharges. For streamflow-gaging stations where 20 percent or more of the contributing drainage basin is affected by dams or other large-scale human modification, streamflow is considered regulated. Separate streamflow characteristics are presented for the unregulated and regulated periods of record for sites with sufficient data.

  8. Observations of brachygnathia superior (underbite in wild ruminates in Western Montana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Hoy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Beginning spring of 1995 until present, unusual developmental malformations have been observed on many species of vertebrate and documented on individuals of four species of wild ruminates. The most frequently observed of a variety of skeletal anomalies is brachygnathia superior, also called mandibular prognathia or more commonly, underbite, caused by underdevelopment in length and width of the premaxillary bone forward of the premolars. Facial anatomy was examined for bone and tooth malformations on 724 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus that were accident-killed or died of natural causes between January 1996 and December 2009 in northern Ravalli County in the Bitterroot Valley of west-central, Montana, USA. Smaller samples (145 total of hunter-killed elk (Cervis canadensis, mule deer (O. hemionus and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana from throughout Montana were examined for facial malformations in 2005-09. Incidences of underbite increased from none observed prior to spring of 1995 to more than 35% in 8 of 9 years since 2000 and over 70% in 2008 and 2009. This abnormality appeared abruptly, vastly exceeding expected and previously documented percentages in wild ruminates, and is a characteristic symptom of congenital hypothyroidism. Our data strongly indicates widespread interference with maternal and fetal thyroid hormone function has been occurring in wild ruminants in Montana since autumn 1994.

  9. Natural radioactivity in geothermal waters, Alhambra Hot Springs and nearby areas, Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Robert B.; Janzer, Victor J.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive hot springs issue from a fault zone in crystalline rock of the Boulder batholith at Alhambra, Jefferson County, in southwestern Montana. The discharge contains high concentrations of radon, and the gross alpha activity and the concentration of adium-226 exceed maximum levels recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Part of the discharge is diverted for space heating, bathing, and domestic use. The radioactive thermal waters at measured temperatures of about 60°C are of the sodium bicarbonate type and saturated with respect to calcium carbonate. Radium-226 in the rock and on fractured surfaces or coprecipitated with calcium carbonate probably is the principal source of radon that is dissolved in the thermal water and discharged with other gases from some wells and springs. Local surface water and shallow ground water are of the calcium bicarbonate type and exhibit low background activity. The temperature, percent sodium, and radioactivity of mixed waters adjacent to the fault zone increase with depth. Samples from most of the major hot springs in southwestern Montana have been analyzed for gross alpha and beta activity. The high level of radioactivity at Alhambra appears to be related to leaching of radioactive material from siliceous veins by ascending thermal waters and is not a normal characteristic of hot springs issuing from fractured crystalline rock in Montana.

  10. Annona montana fruit and leaves improve the glycemic and lipid profiles of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbalho, Sandra Maria; Soares de Souza, Maricelma da Silva; dos Santos Bueno, Patrícia Cincotto; Guiguer, Elen Landgraf; Farinazzi-Machado, Flávia Maria Vasques; Araújo, Adriano Cressoni; Meneguim, Carla Omete; Pascoal Silveira, Eliane; de Souza Oliveira, Natalia; da Silva, Beatriz Clivati; Barbosa, Sara da Silva; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório; Gonçalves, Priscilla Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Species of the family Annonaceae has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant in tropical regions of South and North America and in Africa. Annona montana is known popularly as false graviola and originates from tropical America and can be cultivated throughout Brazil. There are no studies in the literature that associate A. montana with the metabolic profile of animals. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to assess the effects of the consumption of pulp and leaves of this plant on the metabolic profile of Wistar rats. The animals, which were treated for 40 days, were divided into two control groups--treated with water via gavage and ad libitum, respectively, and two treated groups--one treated with leaf juice and the other with pulp juice of the fruit. Glycemia, lipids, and body weight were found to decrease and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) levels to increase in the animals treated with leaf juice. The group treated with pulp juice showed a reduction in lipids and augmented HDL-c. The use of A. montana may have beneficial effects in the prevention of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia and may thus contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Alleloppathic effects and insecticidal activity of the aqueous extract of Satureja montana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šućur Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of synthetic insecticides, herbicides and other pesticides has negative effects on the environment and on human and animal health. Therefore scientists are turning towards natural pesticides such as active components of plant extracts. Effect of two concentrations (0.1% and 0.2% of Satureja montana L. aqueous extract on lipid peroxidation process, as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX, PPX and CAT in leaves and roots of pepper and black nightshade seedlings were examined 24, 72 and 120h after the treatment. Our results showed that higher concentration of S. montana aqueous extract induced lipid peroxidation in black nightshade roots. Furthermore, significant increases of pyrogallol and guaiacol peroxidase were detected in black nightshade leaves treated with 0.2% S. montana aqueous extract. The second aim was to evaluate effectiveness of aqueous extract as contact toxicant against whitefly. It was observed that aqueous extract with concentration of 0.2% showed toxic effect with 68.33% mortality after 96h.

  12. Golden reputation wanted for a gold producer. The case of the Rosia Montana Gold Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George David

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate stakeholder communication often generates risks or even dangers to the organizations which are not aware of the importance of a proper flow of information to/from its publics. “Rosia Montana Gold Corporation”, a Canada-based company specialized in gold extraction, has initiated since 1996 a project to extract gold from the perimeter Rosia Montana (Western Carpathians, county of Alba, Romania. Although the technical documentation has been submitted back in 2004 to the authorities to be endorsed and approved, the approval is still pending due to a great amount of negative public perceptions often turned to hostile behaviors. In order to diminish this hostility, the company has started a huge communication campaign founded on factuality in its attempt to extract gold in Romania. However, the results are still unsatisfactory, even if the amount of negative perceptions has been lowered in a certain measure. In our paper we would like to analyze, based on the Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT and quantitative analysis methods, several influences produced by the organizational communication done so far over the organization itself, as well as over stakeholders such as the local community in Rosia Montana, public institutions, and non-governmental organizations.

  13. Clustering of agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Beranová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very specific branch which is characterized by very low financial performance while this characteristic is given mainly by external factors as market pricing of agricultural commodities on one side, and production costs of agricultural commodities on the other side. This way, agricultural enterprises recognize negative values of gross margin in the Profit and Loss Statement but positive value of operating profit after even there are items of costs which are deducted. These results are derived from agricultural production subsidies which are recognized as income in the P/L Statement. In connection with this fact, the government subsidies are a substantial component of financial performance of agricultural enterprises.Primary research proceeded on the statistical sample of one hundred agricultural companies, has shown that also other specifics influencing financial performance of these businesses exist here. In order to determine the influences, the cluster analysis has been applied at using more than 10 variables. This approach has led to construction of clusters (groups of agricultural business entities with different characteristics of the group. The objective of this paper is to identify the main determinants of financial performance of agricultural enterprises and to determine their influences under different economic characteristics of these business entities. For this purpose, the regression analysis has been subsequently applied on the groups of companies coming out from the cluster analysis. Besides the operating profit which is the main driving force of financial performance measured with the economic value added (EVA in agricultural enterprises, also capital structure and cost of capital have been observed as very strong influences on financial performance but these factors have different directions of their influence on the economic value added under different financial characteristics of agricultural

  14. Perspectives for Romania on adopting agricultural innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia DOVLEAC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlight the efforts Romania needs to do on the path of agricultural development through innovation. A smart, modern agriculture could contribute to a wide variety of economic, societal and environmental goals. Considering its potential in this sector, Romania should learn from the experience of other European countries how to manage its rich resources. Innovative technologies, products and practices can help make the most efficient and sustainable use of natural resources, and thereby improve farming process.

  15. Agricultura Apoiada pela Comunidade: poderia a experiência dos agricultores americanos ser útil para os agricultores urbanos brasileiros? Community Supported Agriculture: could the experience of American farmers be useful to Brazilian urban farmers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Castelo Branco

    2011-03-01

    ão principal para isso foi a impossibilidade deles garantirem a produção. Pesquisas posteriores deverão avaliar se a melhoria do sistema de produção poderia levar esses agricultores a se engajarem neste tipo de projeto.Community Supported Agriculture (CSA is an alternative food market used in Europe and in the USA. In this alternative market, farmers offer their production to consumers in the form of shares some months before they begin to produce their crops. Sometime later, during some months, consumers will receive the goods. Nowadays, several countries have a significant portion of their population that lives in poverty. Several public policies have been designed to reduce poverty in these countries and the stimulus to urban agriculture is one of these policies. However, poor urban farmers frequently have difficulties to purchase the inputs to continue with their food production. The continuous support of the local government associated to the continuous support of the local community could help those farmers to maintain their urban production. And for those poor urban farmers a CSA could be an alternative way of organization. The objective of this work was to get some information of CSAs from USA and find whether consumers and urban farmers from a poor Brazilian town would like to be engaged in this type of project. American CSAs generally occupied an area smaller than 2 ha, offered consumers different types of vegetables for at least four months and most of them used practices of organic production. However, there were several difficulties to run this project and the most important ones were planning and maintaining the production system. Some consumers from a town in Brazil were willing to engage in a CSA project mainly because they would receive fresh and organic products. Yet, poor urban farmers from this town did not show willingness to engage in a CSA project. Their main reason was that they were not able to control their production system. Further research

  16. The Urban Agriculture Circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.E.; Chambers, Joe; Sabas, Eva; Veen, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The lack of inclusion of urban agriculture in city planning directly affects the success of initiatives in this sector, which subsequently could impede fu-ture innovations. The poor representation of urban agriculture in planning can be attributed to a lack of understanding about its multi-functiona

  17. Agricultural Technology Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

    Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

  18. Legislature Abolishes Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      China's 2,600-year-old agricultural tax will be rescinded as of Jan. 1,2006, after China's top legislature voted on December 27 to adopt a motion on the regulations revoking the agricultural tax.……

  19. Good Wetland Agricultural Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Zingstra, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Within the Guiding Agriculture Wetland Interaction (GAWI) project the Driver!Pressure!State! Impact!Response (DPSIR) approach has been adopted to describe and analyse agriculture!wetland interactions. The DPSIR approach provides a consistent framework to analyse the complex causal chain among

  20. Agricultural lung diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity an...

  1. Biomass Resources: Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluts, Ingeborg N.; Brinkman, Marnix L. J.; de Jong, Sierk A.; Junginger, H. Martin

    2017-01-01

    Bioenergy is the single largest source of renewable energy in the European Union (EU-28); of this, 14% was produced from agricultural feedstocks in 2012. This chapter provides an overview of the current use (for bioenergy) and future potential of agricultural feedstocks for (amongst others)

  2. Conservation Agriculture in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Kertész

    2014-03-01

    Yield performance and stability, operating costs, environmental policies and programs of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, and climate change will likely be the major driving forces defining the direction and for the extension of CA in Europe. The role of agriculture in climate change mitigation in the EU is discussed in the paper.

  3. Theme: Marketing Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Bernie L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Consists of six articles on marketing agricultural education. Topics include (1) being consumer conscious, (2) cooperating with agribusiness, (3) preparing students for postsecondary education, (4) allowing concurrent enrollments, (5) saving the failing agricultural program, and (6) refocusing the curriculum toward agrimarketing. (CH)

  4. Agriculture Beyond Food: Experiences from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loffler, H.J.M.; Afiff, S.; Burgers, P.P.M.; Govers, C.; Heeres, H.J.; Karyanto, O.; Manurung, R.; Vel, J.A.C.; Visscher, S.; Zwaagstra, T.; Widyarani, R.

    2014-01-01

    The ABF programme addresses one of today’s major societal challenges, how to achieve a sustainable and inclusive biobased economy, with high-level scientific research on the thin lines between food and non-food, commodities and waste products, livelihood opportunities and risks, and local and global

  5. 农用超声雾化换能器参数优化设计与试验%Parameter optimization design and experiment of agricultural ultrasonic atomization transducer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建桃; 李晟华; 文晟; 兰玉彬; 廖贻泳; 张铁民

    2015-01-01

    diameter of the transducer within the setting range and maximize the atomization flow. In the atomization process, we chose the electrode diameter and the thickness of the ultrasonic vibrator as the design variables, the vibration amplitude of the ultrasonic vibrator as the objective function, and the driving frequency as the constraint condition. Secondly, penalty function was used to solve the optimization problem with inequality constraints. Meanwhile, the modal assurance criteria (MAC) were adopted to recognize the target modals intelligently by ANSYS finite element software. If the value of MAC was closed to 1, the target model was similar to the reference model. This indicated that the vibration along the axial direction was concentrated on the surface of the ultrasonic vibrator and the vibration amplitude was larger than other models. Thirdly, a prototype built based on the optimization results was manufactured to conduct the atomization flow measurement experiment and the droplet diameter measurement experiment. The measured resonant frequency of the optimized transducer was 1.53 MHz, which was very close to the simulated value of ANSYS finite element software (1.62 MHz) and the error was 5.9%. The measured resonant frequencies of the transducer before and after optimization were 1.56 and 1.53 MHz respectively. When the excitation frequency was at the resonant frequency 1.53 MHz, the atomization flow rate of the optimized agricultural ultrasonic atomization transducer reached the maximum. If the excitation frequency of the ultrasonic atomization transducer was lower or higher than the resonant frequency, the atomization flow rate would be reduced, which illustrated that the ultrasonic vibrator should work in the resonant frequency to make the transducer produce the largest amount of aerial fog. The maximal atomization flow rate of the agricultural ultrasonic atomization transducer increased from 1.20 to 1.29 g/min when applying an AC sine-wave voltage whose peak

  6. Identifying International Agricultural Concepts for Secondary Agricultural Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Nathan W.; Gates, Hailey; Stripling, Christopher T.

    2017-01-01

    The globalization of the agriculture industry has created an emerging need for agricultural education in the United States to take a more globalized approach to prepare students for future careers in agriculture. The purpose of this study was to identify international agricultural concepts for secondary agricultural education curriculum. A Delphi…

  7. Peak-flow frequency analyses and results based on data through water year 2011 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter C in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter C of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Transportation and the Montana Department of Natural Resources, to provide an update of statewide peak-flow frequency analyses and results for Montana. The purpose of this report chapter is to present peak-flow frequency analyses and results for 725 streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana based on data through water year 2011. The 725 streamflow-gaging stations included in this study represent nearly all streamflowgaging stations in Montana (plus some from adjacent states or Canadian Provinces) that have at least 10 years of peak-flow records through water year 2011. For 29 of the 725 streamflow-gaging stations, peak-flow frequency analyses and results are reported for both unregulated and regulated conditions. Thus, peak-flow frequency analyses and results are reported for a total of 754 analyses. Estimates of peak-flow magnitudes for 66.7-, 50-, 42.9-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities are reported. These annual exceedance probabilities correspond to 1.5-, 2-, 2.33-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals.

  8. Idaho and Montana non-fuel exploration database 1980-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, David A.; DiFrancesco, Carl A.; Porter, Kenneth E.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Causey, J. Douglas; Ferguson, William B.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a relational database containing information about mineral exploration projects in the States of Idaho and Montana for the years 1980 through 1997 and a spatial (geographic) database constructed using data from the relational database. The focus of this project was to collect information on exploration for mineral commodities with the exception of sand, gravel, coal, geothermal, oil, and gas. The associate databases supplied with this report are prototypes that can be used or modified as needed. The following sources were used to create the databases-serial mining periodicals; annual mineral publications; mining company reports; U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publications; an Idaho mineral property data base developed by Dave Boleneus, USGS, Spokane, Washington; Montana state publications; and discussions with representatives of Montana, principally the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology and the Department of Environmental Quality. Fifty commodity groups were reported between the 596 exploration projects identified in this study. Precious metals (gold, silver, or platinum group elements) were the primary targets for about 67 percent of the exploration projects. Information on 17 of the projects did not include commodities. No location could be determined for 51 projects, all in Idaho. During the time period evaluated, some mineral properties were developed into large mining operations (for example Beal Mountain Mine, Stillwater Mine, Troy Mine, Montana Tunnels Mine) and six properties were reclaimed. Environmental Impact Statements were done on four properties. Some operating mines either closed or went through one or more shutdowns and re-openings. Other properties, where significant resources were delineated by recent exploration during this time frame, await the outcome of important factors for development such as defining additional reserves, higher metal prices, and the permitting process. Many of these

  9. Contrastive Research on Domestic and Foreign Ecological Agriculture Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the first place,the definitions of ecological agriculture defined by scholars both at home and abroad are introduced.In the second place,the domestic and foreign ecological agriculture policies are expounded.Through contrastive research on the domestic and foreign ecological agriculture polices,the problems in the development of ecological agriculture in China are found.By mirroring the western experiences in developing ecological agriculture,the countermeasures and relevant suggestions are put forward from the perspective of government.The first one is to increase the subsidies from the government to ecological agriculture.The second one is to clarify the standard of ecological agriculture construction.The third one is to promote the industrialization of ecological agriculture.The fourth one is to strengthen the construction of ecological demonstration region and ecological village.

  10. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Gunderson, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize geology, coal resources, and coal reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area in southeastern Montana. This report represents the fourth assessment area within the Powder River Basin to be evaluated in the continuing U.S. Geological Survey regional coal assessment program. There are four active coal mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area: the Spring Creek and Decker Mines, both near Decker; the Rosebud Mine, near Colstrip; and the Absaloka Mine, west of Colstrip. During 2011, coal production from these four mines totaled approximately 36 million short tons. A fifth mine, the Big Sky, had significant production from 1969-2003; however, it is no longer in production and has since been reclaimed. Total coal production from all five mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area from 1968 to 2011 was approximately 1.4 billion short tons. The Rosebud/Knobloch coal bed near Colstrip and the Anderson, Dietz 2, and Dietz 3 coal beds near Decker contain the largest deposits of surface minable, low-sulfur, subbituminous coal currently being mined in the assessment area. A total of 26 coal beds were identified during this assessment, 18 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. The total original coal resource in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area for the 18 coal beds assessed was calculated to be 215 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource remaining after subtracting restrictions and areas of burned coal, are about 162 billion short tons. Restrictions included railroads, Federal interstate highways, urban areas, alluvial valley floors, state parks, national forests, and mined-out areas. It was determined that 10 of the 18 coal beds had sufficient areal extent and thickness to be evaluated for recoverable surface resources ([Roland (Baker), Smith, Anderson, Dietz 2, Dietz 3, Canyon, Werner

  11. Innovative Programs in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Developmental programs resulting from the increased emphasis on off-farm agricultural occupations and considered innovative by state wupervisors of agricultural education are described: (1) 17 high school vocational agriculture programs in horticulture, agricultural mechanics, forestry and conservation, agriculture and distribution, cooperative…

  12. Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Intake Diversion Dam Modification Lower Yellowstone Project, Montana Draft Supplement to the 26 April 2010 Environmental Assessment and Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    February 8, 2013 Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Intake Diversion Dam Modification Lower Yellowstone Project, Montana...Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Intake Diversion Dam Modification Lower Yellowstone Project, Montana Draft Supplement to the...Intake Project IEPR Final IEPR Report Intake Project IEPR Final IEPR Report Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the

  13. Kinematics analysis and experiment of multifunctional agricultural robot in greenhouse with three arms%三臂多功能棚室农业机器人的运动学分析及试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权龙哲; 张冬冬; 查绍辉; 奚德君; 王昊

    2015-01-01

    In Greenhouses, the management of fruits and vegetable production involves many tasks, such as picking, spraying, cutting and so on. However, the agricultural robots currently available mainly focus on one specific task. This research focused on a new multifunctional agricultural robot with three arms. Each of its robotic arms has its own function for a different end use. The robot not only can complete one task by collaboration of two different robotic arms but also can fulfill spraying, cutting and picking tasks in the same area. So by using such robot, output productivity can be improved effectively and the cost would be reduced. The robot comprises caterpillar chassis, height-adjustable torso, mechanical structure with three arms, machine-vision system and control system. When at the state of working, the robot uses its machine-vision system to recognize targets. At the moment when targets are found, the robot adjusts its position in order to do tasks correspondingly. Setting up kinematics model of the agricultural robot is the precondition of realizing the system multi-functions. In this paper, we set up the link coordinate system of agricultural robot based on D-H approach. Homogeneous transforming matrixes of adjacent link were established according to the linkage parameters and joint variables. Kinematics equations of visual system, cutting end effector, picking end effector and spraying end effector were deducted and solved, respectively. So the relationship between the position and posture of end effects and linkage parameters and joint variables were determined. The closed-form inverse kinematics was presented by algebraic method and the value of joint variables was calculated according to the certain position and posture of end effects. Kinematics experiments were carried out to verify the correctness of kinematics algorithm and accuracy in application. Matlab software was used to help the calculation of the enveloping space of end effects in the mode

  14. Agriculture and private sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The pa...

  15. Demographic consequences of inbreeding and outbreeding in Arnica montana: a field experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, S.H.; Kery, M.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; den Nijs, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    1. The genetic constitution of populations may significantly affect demography. Founder populations or isolated remnants may show inbreeding depression, while established populations can be strongly adapted to the local environment. Gene exchange between populations can lead to better performance if

  16. Temporal trends and stationarity in annual peak flow and peak-flow timing for selected long-term streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana through water year 2011: Chapter B in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Sando, Roy; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    A large-scale study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Transportation and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, was done to investigate general patterns in peak-flow temporal trends and stationarity through water year 2011 for 24 long-term streamflow-gaging stations (hereinafter referred to as gaging stations) in Montana. Hereinafter, all years refer to water years; a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is designated by the year in which it ends. The primary focus of the study was to identify general patterns in peak-flow temporal trends and stationarity that are relevant to application of peak-flow frequency analyses within a statewide gaging-station network.

  17. Marx’s Agricultural Intensive Management Thought and Its Guiding Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Through analyzing Marx’s agricultural intensive management thought,this paper points out that the existence and development of agricultural management mode experience historical course and the development of agricultural intensification depends on many objective conditions.On the basis of this,it discusses the guiding significance of Marx’s agricultural intensive management thought to China’s agricultural development.It is required to fully realize basic current situations of China’s agriculture,widely popularize agricultural mechanization and electrification,speed up artificial transformation of soil structure,promote chemical application of agriculture,make rational use of water resource,and spread improved seeds.

  18. VASCULAR PLANT SPECIES RELATIONSHIP AND GRASSLAND PRODUCTIVITY IN ARNICA MONTANA HABITATS IN THE LIMESTONE AREA OF GÂRDA DE SUS VILLAGE (APUSENI MOUNTAINS – ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Stoie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Apuseni Mountains region (Romania holds one of the most important romanian grassland areas with the medicinal species protected over Europe – Arnica montana. Following several studies on vegetation growing in the limestone region of Gârda de Sus village, one can conclude that there are some correlations between the species present in the Arnica montana habitats and also between those and the grasslands productivity. The coverage degree of every species was quantified by metric frame method. Arnica montana shows a weak positive correlation with the strong oligotrophic species within the studied grasslands. The habitats productivity show variable correlations with the vascular plants within the Arnica montana habitats. The Arnica montana presents no preferences for the productivity level of the grasslands where it grows, but only within a very restricted range of low productivity that characterize this grasslands.

  19. ICT and agriculture in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Balasubramanian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs have contributed in one way or the other to many transformations in contemporary society. The contexts and the impacts of such transformations are particularly significant for developing societies like India. The relevance of new computing technologies and their effective implementation in developing countries is widely debated, both at policy and community level. Needless to say, FOSS (Free Open Source Software has encouraged the participation of civil society, creating potential for developing specific information technology tools. In this context, the OSCAR-project (Open Source Simple Computer for Agriculture in Rural Areas is an initiative from European and South Asian Institutions to assist decision making in agriculture. OSCAR developed a weed identification system for the major weed species in rice-wheat cropping systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGPs covering Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. An integral part of the OSCAR-project is its applicability to three categories of potential users: farmers, extension officers, and, scientists and students in agricultural sciences. OSCAR was evaluated through extensive interactions with farmer groups, extension personnel, IT specialists, NGO and UN staff, government officials, scientific researchers and PhD students in various disciplines and MSc students from various programs in all the four IGP countries. The experience from OSCAR is helpful in understanding the larger contexts and the impact of ICT interventions in an interdisciplinary framework.

  20. Fifteen-Year Enrollment Trends Related to the Three Components of Comprehensive Agricultural Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick, Michael S.; Martin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the agricultural education enrollment trends in Iowa using 15 years of data collected from 1991 to 2005. It was found that agricultural education enrollment, Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) participation, and FFA membership have grown. Using annualized growth rates, agricultural education…

  1. Organic agriculture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dutch organic agriculture has unique characteristics and peculiarities. It is still a relatively small sector compared to conventional agriculture in the Netherlands. However, its market share is growing and organic agriculture leads the way in terms of sustainability and innovations

  2. New Research in Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The book is the proceedings from the bi-annual international scientific conference on organic agriculture. The chapters are: - plant and soil interactions, - animal production systems, - traditional knowledge in sustainable agriculture, - research, education and extension in sustainable agriculture...

  3. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  4. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  5. World Agricultural Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Monthly report on crop acreage, yield and production in major countries worldwide. Sources include reporting from FAS’s worldwide offices, official statistics of...

  6. Agriculture: Nurseries and Greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurseries and Greenhouses. Information about environmental requirements specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and vegetables.

  7. Nonpoint Source: Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural runoff as a nonpoint source category of pollution. Resouces to learn more a bout conservation practices to reduce water quality impacts from storm water run off and ground water infiltration

  8. Agricultural Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  9. Agricultural Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of injury from working with livestock Risk of electrocution to persons operating large equipment that can contact ... which identifies common agricultural hazards and provides safety solutions for employers and young workers to prevent accidents ...

  10. Collaboration in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Roland L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Theme articles discuss environment, food, agriculture, and renewal resources as they relate to science education, learning partnerships, collaboration in Kyrghyzstan, leadership development, opportunities for collaboration, networking, and the creation of a shared course between agribusiness and biology. (JOW)

  11. Collaboration in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Roland L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Theme articles discuss environment, food, agriculture, and renewal resources as they relate to science education, learning partnerships, collaboration in Kyrghyzstan, leadership development, opportunities for collaboration, networking, and the creation of a shared course between agribusiness and biology. (JOW)

  12. Journal of Agricultural Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mission Statement The mission of the "Journal of Agricultural Extension" is to publish ... diffusion and adoption of innovations; extension communication models and ... Socio-Economic Determinants of Cocoyam Farmer's Strategies for Climate ...

  13. Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

      Topics Animal Health Biotechnology Climate Solutions Conservation Disaster and Emergency Preparedness Employee Services Energy Environment and Natural Resources Ethics Farm Bill Food and Nutrition Food Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture ...

  14. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon...... and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  15. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    and is financed by consumers, while deficiency payments operate in the so-called low price system and are financed by taxpayers. In the high price system, support is given mainly by means of import regulations, etc., which ensure a relatively high domestic price. In the low price system, support is given by means...... in agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...... of direct support, while market prices are left undistorted at, or close to, world market level. The two different support systems have very different implications for agricultural production, financing, markets, and other aspects; still, there is an income transfer to agriculture in both systems. During...

  16. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  17. USSR Report, Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    rations for ruminant animals. Its preparation from corn of milky-waxy ripeness, assuming the observance of all of the technological requirements, makes...combines of the agricultural chemicals association or on the kolkhozes and sovkhozes for the preservation of liquid preservatives or special means of...Tatar combine of the agricultural chemicals association, liquid preserv- atives are kept in wide-diameter polytheylene pipes.. A storage unit with

  18. Scoping Agriculture, Wetland Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is identified as the main cause of wetland degradation and loss. Using a drivers, pressures, state changes, impacts and responses (DPSIR) framework to analyze 90 cases drawn from all parts of the world and all wetland types, this report assesses the character of agriculture - wetlands interactions (AWIs) and their impacts in socio-economic and ecosystem services terms. The report is a technical framework that is used to scope out the relevance and nature of AWIs, identify response...

  19. Water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Montana, October 1987 through September 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamke, J. N.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources programs and activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Montana consist principally of hydrological data collection and local, areal, or statewide hydrologic investigations. The work is supported by direct Federal funding, by transfer of funds from other Federal agencies, and by joint funding agreements with State or local agencies. The Montana District of the Geological Survey 's Water Resources Division conducts its hydrologic work through a headquarters office in Helena, and field offices in Helena, Billings, Fort Peck and Kalispell. This report describes the eighteen projects funded for fiscal years 1988 and 1989. In addition, it describes the operations of the Montana District, water conditions during water year 1988, activities in addition to regular programs, sources of publications and information, and lists reports published or released during the preceding 5 years. (USGS)

  20. Validating the breeding value for maternal gain from birth to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mike MacNeil

    42nd Congress of the South African Society for Animal Science ... USDA - Agricultural Research Service and Montana Agricultural Experiment Station, Fort Keogh Livestock and ..... Genetic history of Line 1 Hereford cattle at the United States.