WorldWideScience

Sample records for monoxide sulfur dioxide

  1. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide by carbon monoxide over iron oxide supported on activated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The selective reduction of sulfur dioxide with carbon monoxide to elemental sulfur was studied over AC-supported transition-metal oxide catalysts. According to the study, Fe2O3/AC was the most active catalyst among the 4 AC-supported catalysts tested. By using Fe2O3/AC, the best catalyst, when the feed conditions were properly optimized (CO/SO2 molar ratio = 2:1; sulfidation temperature, 400 °C; Fe content, 20 wt%; GHSV = 7000 mL g-1 h-1), 95.43% sulfur dioxide conversion and 86.59% sulfur yi...

  2. Solubility of Sulfur Dioxide in Sulfuric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K. K.; Compton, L. E.; Lawson, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    The solubility of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid was evaluated by regular solution theory, and the results verified by experimental measurements in the temperature range of 25 C to 70 C at pressures of 60 to 200 PSIA. The percent (wt./wt.) of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid is given by the equation %SO2 = 2.2350 + 0.0903P - 0.00026P 10 to the 2nd power with P in PSIA.

  3. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, Stephen R [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  4. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  5. RETENTION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE BY NYLON FILTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on laboratory studies, recovery efficiencies of sulfur dioxide (SO2) were determined for nylon filters. The nylon filters used in these experiments were found to retain SO2. A relatively uniform amount (1.7%) was recoverable from each nylon filter, independent of relative...

  6. Sulfur Dioxide Emission Control, Blockade and Drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the present status of sulfur dioxide emission from thermal plants in China, tells the main problems existing in its emission control and finally gives out suggestions to the problems, that is, to constitute complete standards and regulations and enhancesupervision accordingly.

  7. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  8. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862...

  9. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850–2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5° grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

  10. Formation of orthorhombic tin dioxide from mechanically milled monoxide powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamelas, F. J.

    2004-12-01

    X-ray scattering measurements are used to show that the metastable orthorhombic phase of tin dioxide is produced by the oxidation of mechanically milled litharge-phase tin monoxide. After milling to a grain size of approximately 20nm, followed by heating to 575°C, the fraction of the orthorhombic phase is approximately 80%. The orthorhombic phase was originally observed in high-pressure experiments, but more recently, it has been produced in a wide variety of thin-film and nanoparticle samples. The data presented here demonstrate the importance of small-grain-size tin monoxide as a precursor in the ambient-pressure synthesis of the orthorhombic phase. This result has practical importance in the production of tin dioxide gas sensors. A more fundamental observation is that the particle size of a precursor phase can have a marked effect on subsequent phases produced during oxidation. Lastly, a formula for determining the orthorhombic fraction in two-phase tin dioxide samples is developed using the method of standard additions.

  11. Biological effects data: Fluoride and sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Holton, R.L.; Ulbricht, R.J.; Morgan , J.B.

    1975-04-01

    The Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation has proposed construction of an aluminum reduction facility near Youngs Bay at Warrenton, Oregon. This report comprises one part of the final report to Alumax on a research project entitled, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies of Youngs Bay.'' It presents data pertaining to the potential biological effects of fluoride and sulfur dioxide, two potentially hazardous plant-stack emissions, on selected aquatic species of the area. Companion volumes provide a description of the physical characteristics the geochemistry, and the aquatic animals present in Youngs Bay and adjacent ecosystems. An introductory volume provides general information and maps of the area, and summarizes the conclusions of all four studies. The data from the two phases of the experimental program are included in this report: lethal studies on the effects of selected levels of fluoride and sulfur dioxide on the survival rate of eleven Youngs Bay faunal species from four phyla, and sublethal studies on the effects of fluoride and sulfur dioxide on the rate of primary production of phytoplankton. 44 refs., 18 figs., 38 tabs.

  12. Sulfur dioxide contributions to the atmosphere by volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, R E; Jepsen, A

    1973-11-01

    The first extensive measurements by remote-sensing correlation spectrometry of the sulfur dioxide emitted by volcanic plumes indicate that on the order of 10(3) metric tons of sulfur dioxide gas enter the atmosphere daily from Central American volcanoes. Extrapolation gives a minimum estimate of the annual amount of sulfur dioxide emitted from the world's volcanoes of about 10(7) metric tons.

  13. Combined effect of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide gases on mold fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochurova, A.I.; Karpova, T.N.

    1974-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide at 0.08% killed Penicillium expansum, Stemphylium macrosporium, and Botrytis cinerea within 24 hours. At 0.2%, it killed P. citrinum, Alternaria tenuis, and Fusarium moniliforme. Sulfur dioxide (at 0.04%) and Sulfur dioxide-carbon dioxide mixtures (at 0.02 and 5% respectively) completely suppressed the growth of P. citrinum, P. expansum, P. rubrum, A. tenuis, S. macrosporium, B. cinerea, and F. moniliforme in laboratory experiments. 1 table.

  14. Hypervalence in monoxides and dioxides of superalkali clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Elizabeth; Meloni, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    F2Li3, a superalkali cluster, is characterized as having a lower adiabatic ionization energy than its elemental alkali counterpart and, coupled with the presence of complex molecular orbitals, suggests promise for novel bonding possibilities. CBS-QB3 composite method was used to study three distinct cluster isomers, as well as their cationic (+1) and anionic (-1) species, to identify energetic trends and observe geometric changes. Oxides were then generated from these clusters, of which three distinct monoxides and nine dioxides were obtained upon structure optimization. Identical calculations were performed for the oxide species and their charged counterparts. Some of the most stable oxides produced appear to possess hypervalent lithium and oxygen atoms, forming unique structures with exceptional stability.

  15. Thermo Scientific Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, S. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. BNL has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  16. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. 180.444 Section 180.444 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. A tolerance is established as follows for...

  17. Effect of sulfur dioxide fumes on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Cracker, W.

    1930-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide injured the foliage of all the plants tested. Injury in the form of brown or withered areas usually appeared first along the margins of the leaves, then between the veins. Regions along the main veins frequently resisted high concentrations. After a one hour treatment in 3-4 ppm of SO/sub 2/ leaves were injured on tomato, salvia, coleus, geranium, castor bean, roses, and several other plants. The same plants in a slightly wilted condition were not injured by 8 ppm after a five hour treatment. Middle-aged leaves were more sensitive than either young or old leaves. Orchid foliage showed no injury after a four hour treatment in 70 ppm, but a high concentration for a longer period injured the leaves and some of the exposed roots.

  18. Personal Exposure Monitoring of Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Carbon Monoxide, including Susceptible Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. M. Harrison; C. A. Thornton; R. G. Lawrence; D. Mark; R. P. Kinnersley; J. G. Ayres

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the relation between personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and PM10, and exposures estimated from static concentrations of these pollutants measured within the same...

  19. Using broadband absorption spectroscopy to measure concentration of sulfur dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. S.; Zhang, Y. G.; Wu, S. H.; Lou, X. T.; Zhang, Z. G.; Qin, Y. K.

    2010-09-01

    A linear relationship between concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and optical parameter (OP) is established using the Beer-Lambert law. The SO2 measuring system is set up to measure the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the wavelength range 275-315 nm. Experimental results indicate that the detection limit of the sulfur dioxide measuring system is below 0.2 ppm per meter of path length, and the measurement precision is better than ±1%. The proposed SO2 measuring method features limited interference from other gases and dust, and high stability and short response time.

  20. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres. We construct analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios (from 0.1 to 100), we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if th...

  1. MONITORING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE IN THE GUINEA SAVANNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    for two seasons were one order of magnitude lower than those in the urban sites. ... KEY WORDS: Atmospheric photochemistry, Sulfur dioxide, Air pollution, Monitoring, Assessment ... In contrast to NO2, SO2 is deleterious to plant life [16, 14].

  2. A sulfur host based on titanium monoxide@carbon hollow spheres for advanced lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jintao; Guan, Buyuan; Wang, Da; Liu, Li-Min; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2016-10-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries show advantages for next-generation electrical energy storage due to their high energy density and cost effectiveness. Enhancing the conductivity of the sulfur cathode and moderating the dissolution of lithium polysulfides are two key factors for the success of lithium-sulfur batteries. Here we report a sulfur host that overcomes both obstacles at once. With inherent metallic conductivity and strong adsorption capability for lithium-polysulfides, titanium monoxide@carbon hollow nanospheres can not only generate sufficient electrical contact to the insulating sulfur for high capacity, but also effectively confine lithium-polysulfides for prolonged cycle life. Additionally, the designed composite cathode further maximizes the lithium-polysulfide restriction capability by using the polar shells to prevent their outward diffusion, which avoids the need for chemically bonding all lithium-polysulfides on the surfaces of polar particles.

  3. Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Tanya M.; Moore, Rachel L.; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K.; Elsey, Gordon M.; Taylor, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO2 over time, resulting in wines with little SO2 protection. Furthermore, SO2 and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO2 in wine require the SO2 to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring. PMID:23112627

  4. Sensing free sulfur dioxide in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Tanya M; Moore, Rachel L; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K; Elsey, Gordon M; Taylor, Dennis K

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO(2) over time, resulting in wines with little SO(2) protection. Furthermore, SO(2) and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO(2) in wine require the SO(2) to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring.

  5. Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis K. Taylor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2 is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO2 over time, resulting in wines with little SO2 protection. Furthermore, SO2 and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO2 in wine require the SO2 to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring.

  6. Photocatalytic Reaction of Sulfur Dioxide with Heptane in the Gas-phase Over Titanium Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The photocatalytic reaction of sulfur dioxide with heptane was carried out with the aid of UV-illuminated titanium dioxide ultrafine particles(UFP) at room temperature.The TiO2 UFP was prepared by means of colloidal chemical method.The structure and the surface state of the as-prepared TiO2 UFP via different heat-treatments were studied.As the calcining temperature decreased,the contents of hydroxyl on the surface increased,which could help to enhance the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 UFP.The mechanism of the photocatalytic reaction of sulfur dioxide with heptane was proposed,in which there was a competition of photocatalytic oxidation between sulfur dioxide and heptane over the TiO2 UFP.It is inferred that the reactive oxygen species play an important role in the photocatalytic reaction of sulfur dioxide with heptane.

  7. Selected constituents in the smokes of foreign commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide contents of the smokes of 220 brands of foreign commercial cigarettes are reported. In some instances, filter cigarettes of certain brands were found to deliver as much or more smoke constituents than their nonfilter counterparts. Also, data indicated that there can be a great variation in the tar, nicotine, or carbon monoxide content of the smoke of samples of a given brand of cigarettes, depending on the nation in which they are purchased. 24 tables.

  8. Advances in the study on endogenous sulfur dioxide in the cardiovascular system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Hong

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review summarized the current advances in understanding the role of the novel gasotransmitter,sulfur dioxide (SO2),in the cardiovascular system.Data sources Articles on the advances in the study of the role of endogenous sulfur dioxide in the cardiovascular system were accessed from PubMed and CNKI from 2003 to 2013,using keywords such as "endogenous sulfur dioxide" and "cardiovascular system".Study selection Articles with regard to the role of SO2 in the regulation of cardiovascular system were selected.Results Recently,scientists discovered that an endogenous SO2 pathway is present in the cardiovascular system and exerts physiologically significant effects,such as regulation of the cardiac function and the pathogenesis of various cardiopulmonary diseases such as hypoxic pulmonary hypertension,hypertension,coronary atherosclerosis,and cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury,in the cardiovascular system.Conclusions Endogenous SO2 is a novel member of the gasotransmitter family in addition to the nitric oxide (NO),carbon monoxide (CO),and hydrogen sulfide (H2S).Studies indicated that it has a role in regulating the cardiovascular disease.

  9. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... applicable to all areas notwithstanding the promulgation of SO2 national ambient air quality standards...

  10. Analysis of sulfur in deposited aerosols by thermal decomposition and sulfur dioxide analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masatoshi

    2005-07-15

    A thermal decomposition method that measures aerosol sulfur at the nanogram level directly from the collection substrate is described. A thermal decomposition apparatus was designed. A stainless steel strip was used as the aerosol collection substrate. A 0.1 mol/L MnCl2 solution was added as the thermal decomposition catalyst. Currents were passed through the strip where aerosol particles had been deposited. In this way, the strip was heated at 780 +/- 10 degrees C, and particulate sulfur was evaporated. A sulfur dioxide analyzer (SDA) with flame photometric detector (FPD) was used to detect gaseous sulfur. High sulfur recoveries from (NH4)2SO4 and other inorganic sulfates, such as NH4HSO4, K2SO4, MgSO4, and CaSO4, were obtained. From the sulfur blank and the calibration, a lower limited detection of 0.2 ng of sulfur and the determination range of 3.3-167 ng of sulfur were estimated. The method is effective for measuring the sulfate size distributions of urban aerosols in a small sample air volume of 50-60 L. The method is applicable to measuring the sulfur in aqueous extracts of size-segregated urban aerosols collected by impactor and comparing the results with the sulfate data measured by ion chromatography.

  11. Chemisorption of chlorine and sulfur dioxide on zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinokurov, A.A.; Derlyukova, L.E.; Evdokimov, V.I.

    1987-03-10

    The chemisorption of sulfur dioxide and chlorine on the surface of zinc oxide and the change in the electric conductivity of ZnO during the chemisorption process were studied. It was shown that both gases induce a negative charging of the surface of zinc oxide. The kinetics of the chemisorption of Cl/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ is described by the Zel'dovich-Roginskii equation. The mutual influence of sulfur dioxide and chlorine during successive chemisorption was investigated. It was shown that the nature of the mutual influence depends on the temperature and the sequence of action of the gases. The results obtained were analyzed from the standpoint of the electronic theory of chemisorption on semiconductors.

  12. Resistance to injury by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, J.; Wilson, L.G.; Filner, P.

    1982-08-01

    In Cucurbitaceae young leaves are resistant to injury from acute exposure to SO/sub 2/, whereas mature leaves are sensitive. After exposure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants to SO/sub 2/ at injurious concentrations, illuminated leaves emit volatile sulfur, which is solely H/sub 2/S. Young leaves emit H/sub 2/S many times more rapidly than do mature leaves. Young leaves convert approximately 10% of absorbed (/sup 35/S)SO/sub 2/ to emitted (/sup 35/S)H/sub 2/S, but mature leaves convert less than 2%. These results suggest that a high capability for the reduction of SO/sub 2/ to H/sub 2/S and emission of the H/sub 2/S is a part of the biochemical basis of the resistance of young leaves to SO/sub 2/.

  13. Observations of foliar injury to plants by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, A.K.; Chaphekar, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical changes in mature leaves indicated that Raphanus sativus, Commelina benghalensis and Medicago sativa were injured and Pennisetum typhoideum, Alternanthere ficoidea and Mangifera indica (seedlings) were not injured by sulfur dioxide fumigation. The highly susceptible plants like Raphanus, Medicago, and Commelina can be used for monitoring air quality in a polluted atmosphere. Uninjured species like Pennisetum on the other hand, may be grown in polluted areas for maintaining agricultural production. 9 references, 1 table.

  14. Reactions of Vanadocene-Carbyls with Carbon Monoxide, Xylylisocyanide and Carbon Dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieman, J.; Teuben, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Vanadocene-allyl Cp2V(η1-C3H5) (1a) reacts with strong π-acceptor substrate ligands such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and isonitriles. No reactions are observed with poorer π-acceptor substrates such as alkynes and nitriles. Reaction of 1a with CO gives Cp[η4-C5H5(C3H5)]V(CO)2, showing that

  15. Regional sulfur dioxide emissions: shall we achieve the goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X.; Shi, L.; Wang, M.; Wang, JY

    2017-01-01

    Although economic growth is slowing down in the new normal period, air pollution is still a very serious problem in China. The 15% binding goal of sulfur dioxide emission reduction from 2016 to 2020, as stipulated in the 13th Five-Year Plan, has been an ambitious target for the Chinese government. This paper studies the synthetic evaluation and forecasting analysis of sulfur dioxide in China by means of a “grey model” approach combined with the grey relational analysis methods, with the panel data of 31 provinces from 2005 to 2015. Grey analysis used to analyse a system with imperfect information, such that a variety of available solutions is reviewed, and the optimal solution is identified. Some encouraging results show that national emissions and a majority of provinces will achieve the target. Over time, the gap of regional differences is rapidly closing. According to the results of grey relational analysis, we find industrial structure and energy consumption have a more significant impact on sulfur dioxide emissions than GDP. Atmospheric treatment investment and environmental protection manpower play a more important role in emissions variation. Based on the findings, we should distinguish different factors and take different measures to protect the environment.

  16. Exposure experiments of trees to sulfur dioxide gas. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, A.

    1974-12-01

    The effects of gaseous sulfur dioxide on trees were studied. Twenty species of plant seedlings (70 cm in height) including Cedrus deodara, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Ginkgo biloba, Celmus parvifolia var. albo-marginata, Pinus thumbergii, P. densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, and Quercus myrsinaefolia, were exposed in a room to gaseous sulfur dioxide at 0.8 ppm for 7.5 hr/day (from 9 am to 4:30 pm) for 24 days at a temperature of 20-35 deg C and RH of 55-75%. Visible damage to plants was lighter in C.j. and Chamae cyparis obtusa, more severe in P.t., G.b., and C.d. The damage appeared earlier in G.b., Cinnamomum camphona, and Ilex rotunda, and the change of early symptoms was smaller in P.t., C.j., and C.o. The leaves of the 4-5th positions from the sprout were apt to be damaged. Although the sulfur content of exposed leaves increased markedly, that in other parts did not increase. Because of the high concentration of the gas and the short period of exposure, the absorption of sulfur into leaves should have differed from the situation in fields where longer exposure to lower concentrations of the gas would be expected. 6 references.

  17. RARE ISOTOPIC SPECIES OF SULFUR MONOXIDE: THE ROTATIONAL SPECTRUM IN THE THz REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattanzi, Valerio; Cazzoli, Gabriele; Puzzarini, Cristina, E-mail: lattanzi@mpe.mpg.de [Dipartimento di Chimica “Giacomo Ciamician,” Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2015-11-01

    Many sulfur-bearing species have been detected in different astronomical environments and have allowed us to derive important information about the chemical and physical composition of interstellar regions. In particular, these species have also been shown to trace and probe hot-core environment time evolution. Among the most prominent sulfur-bearing molecules is SO, the sulfur monoxide radical, one of the more ubiquitous and abundant, which is also observed in its isotopic substituted species such as {sup 34}SO and S{sup 18}O. Due to the importance of this simple diatomic system, and in order to face the challenge of modern radioastronomical facilities, an extension to the THz range of the rare isotopologues of sulfur monoxide has been performed. High-resolution rotational molecular spectroscopy has been employed to extend the available data set of four isotopic species, SO, {sup 34}SO, S{sup 17}O, and S{sup 18}O, up to the 1.5 THz region. The frequency coverage and spectral resolution of our measurements allowed a better constraint of the molecular constants of the four species considered, specifically focusing on the two oxygen-substituted isotopologues. Our measurements were also employed in an isotopically invariant fit including all of the available pure rotational and ro-vibrational transitions for all of the SO isotopologues, thus enabling accurate predictions of the rotational transitions at higher frequencies. We also provide comparisons with recent works performed on the same system, demonstrating the quality of our experiment and the improvement of the data sets for all of the species considered. Transition frequencies for this system can now be used with confidence by the astronomical community well into the THz spectral region.

  18. Laboratory measurements and modeling of molecular photoabsorption in the ultraviolet for planetary atmospheres applications: diatomic sulfur and sulfur monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Glenn

    2016-07-01

    Our research program comprises the measurement and modeling of ultraviolet molecular photoabsorption cross sections with the highest practical resolution. It supports efforts to interpret and model observations of planetary atmospheres. Measurement and modeling efforts on diatomic sulfur (S _{2}) and sulfur monoxide (SO) are in progress. S _{2}: Interpretations of atmospheric (Io, Jupiter, cometary comae) S _{2} absorption features are hindered by a complete lack of laboratory cross section data in the ultraviolet. We are working to quantify the photoabsorption spectrum of S _{2} from 240 to 300 nm based on laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations. We have constructed an experimental apparatus to produce a stable column of S _{2} vapor at a temperature of 800 K. High-resolution measurements of the absorption spectrum of the strong B - X system of S _{2} were completed using the NIST VUV-FTS at Gaithersburg, Maryland. These measurements are currently being incorporated into a coupled-channel model of the absorption spectrum of S _{2} to quantify the contributions from individual band features and to establish the mechanisms responsible for the strong predissociation signature of the B - X system. A successful coupled channels model can then be used to calculate the B - X absorption spectrum at any temperature. SO: There has been a long-standing need for high-resolution cross sections of sulfur monoxide radicals in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet regions, where the molecule strongly predissociates, for modeling the atmospheres of Io and Venus, and most recently for understanding sulfur isotope effects in the ancient (pre-O _{2}) atmosphere of Earth. We have produced a measurable column of SO in a continuous-flow DC discharge cell, using SO _{2} as a parent molecule. Photoabsorption measurements were recently recorded on the DESIRS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron, taking advantage of the high-resolution VUV-FTS on that beamline. A number of

  19. Simple spectrophotometric and titrimetric methods for the determination of sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogendra Kumar, M S; Gowtham, M D; Mahadevaiah; Agendrappa, G

    2006-05-01

    The proposed work describes a simple spectrophotmetric as well as a titrimetric method to determine sulfur dioxide. The spectrophotometric method is based on a redox reaction between sulfur dioxide and iodine monochloride obtained from iodine with chloramine-T in acetic acid. The reagent iodine monochloride oxidizes sulfur dioxide to sulfate, thereby reducing itself to iodine. Thus liberated iodine will also oxidize sulfur dioxide and reduce itself to iodide. The obtained iodide is expected to combine with iodine to form a brown-colored homoatomictriiodide anion (460 nm), which forms an ion-pair with the sulfonamide cation, providing exceptional color stability to the system under an acidic condition, and is quantitatively relatd to sulfur dioxide. The system obeys Beer's law in the range 5 - 100 microg of sulfur dioxide in a final volume of 10 ml. The molar absorptivity is 5.03 x 10(3) l mol(-1)cm(-1), with a relative standard deviation of 3.2% for 50 microg of sulfur dioxide (n = 10). In the titrimetric method, the reagent iodine monochloride was reduced with potassium iodide (10%) to iodine, which oxidized sulfur dioxide to sulfate, and excess iodine was determined with a thiosulfate solution. The volume difference of thiosulfate with the reagent and with the sulfur dioxide determined the sulfur dioxide. Reproducible and accurate results were obtained in the range of 0.1 - 1.5 mg of sulfur dioxide with a relative standard deviation of 1.2% for 0.8 mg of sulfur dioxide (n = 10).

  20. Implicit nucleophilic reagents in the sulfur dioxide-amine system. Sulfur trioxide treatment of azomethines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodrikov, I.V.; Krasnov, V.L.; Matyukov, E.V.; Chernov, A.N.; Verin, I.A.

    1988-03-20

    It was shown by x-ray crystallographic analysis that the products form the reaction of azomethines with the sulfur dioxide-methylamine system are methylammonium 1-aryl-1-(arylamino)methanesulfonates. In aqueous solutions of the latter the amine fragment is redistributed with the formation of arylammonium 1-aryl-1-(arylamino)methanesulfonates. It was established that all the obtained salts are in equilibrium with the azomethines in solutions. The form of the nucleophile taking part in the reaction with the azomethine is suggested on the basis of the data from the PMR spectra of the methylamine-sulfur dioxide system. It was established that in water at room temperature and, particularly, with acid catalysis the compounds undergo fragment transformations which lead finally to redistribution of the covalently bonded amine fragment between the anionic and cationic parts of the salt with the formation of arylammonium 1-aryl-1-(arylamino)methanesulfonates.

  1. Damages of satsuma mandarine due to soot and sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J.

    1976-01-01

    Small spots like a citrus melanose spot (disease spot by Diaporthe Citri) and relatively larger spots occurred on satsuma mandarine fruit due to soot of factories in Shikoku district in 1973. Thirteen kinds of soot collected from various districts of Japan were used for this experiment. Several soots showed pH 0.47 in 25% suspension and 1.60 in 1% suspension. These strong acid soots caused severe injuries with 2 mg per square centimeter of fruit surface, or injuries with 0.5 ml of 0.2% solution per fruit. Acidity of soot could be related to content of sulfur in fuel. Soot which was desulfurized by ammonia and contained much of ammonium also had a strong effect of fruit in spite of their rather weak acidity. Pure ammonium sulfide also caused severe injury on satusma mandarine fruit, and the salt diluted by 50% active carbon also injured fruit. A term of contact of soot on fruit was a factor for injury. Because sulfur content of leaves generally well indicate the integrating concentration of sulfur dioxide, sulfur content of satsuma mandarine leaves was determined, and the other nutritional elements of leaves and soils were also analyzed. According to leaf analysis, nutritional status of satsuma mandarine trees was normal, and content of nutritional elements of soils was also normal.

  2. Low level atmospheric sulfur dioxide pollution and childhood asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, R.Y.; Li, C.K. (Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong))

    1990-11-01

    Quarterly analysis (1983-1987) of childhood asthma in Hong Kong from 13,620 hospitalization episodes in relation to levels of pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, NO, O{sub 3}, TSP, and RSP) revealed a seasonal pattern of attack rates that correlates inversely with exposure to sulfur dioxide (r = -.52, P less than .05). The same cannot be found with other pollutants. Many factors may contribute to the seasonal variation of asthma attacks. We speculate that prolonged exposure (in terms of months) to low level SO{sub 2} is one factor that might induce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity and predispose to episodes of asthma.

  3. Detection of sulfur dioxide using a piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, O.M. [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    1997-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide was detected and determined in air by a piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor coated with 4-aminoantipyrine/1-hydroxyetil-2-heptadecenyl imidazol (amine 220) solution (1:1 v/v in chloroform). The analytical response curve is linear over the concentration range from 0.70 to 5.0 ppm of SO{sub 2}. Good linearities (r = 0.9990, 0.9995 and 0.9968) and sensitivities (18.0, 33.4 and 50.7 Hz/ppm) were found, respectively for exposure times of 30, 60 and 90 seconds. The sensor can be used for more than six months without loss in sensitivity and presented good reversibility and reproducibility. Among some possible interferents tested, only nitrogen dioxide and moisture caused major frequency changes.

  4. Selective sulfur dioxide adsorption on crystal defect sites on an isoreticular metal organic framework series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Albelo, L. Marleny; López-Maya, Elena; Hamad, Said; Ruiz-Salvador, A. Rabdel; Calero, Sofia; Navarro, Jorge A. R.

    2017-02-01

    The widespread emissions of toxic gases from fossil fuel combustion represent major welfare risks. Here we report the improvement of the selective sulfur dioxide capture from flue gas emissions of isoreticular nickel pyrazolate metal organic frameworks through the sequential introduction of missing-linker defects and extra-framework barium cations. The results and feasibility of the defect pore engineering carried out are quantified through a combination of dynamic adsorption experiments, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and density functional theory calculations. The increased sulfur dioxide adsorption capacities and energies as well as the sulfur dioxide/carbon dioxide partition coefficients values of defective materials compared to original non-defective ones are related to the missing linkers enhanced pore accessibility and to the specificity of sulfur dioxide interactions with crystal defect sites. The selective sulfur dioxide adsorption on defects indicates the potential of fine-tuning the functional properties of metal organic frameworks through the deliberate creation of defects.

  5. Effects of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on garden pea and string bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, A.G.

    1976-02-01

    Garden Peas (Pisum Sativum) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were exposed to 24 ppM of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/). Germination of bean seeds was delayed about 48 hours. On the 18th day after exposure none of the bean seedlings exposed to NO/sub 2/ survived while about 30 percent of the beans exposed to CO survived. The survival of the pea seedlings was not affected. No effect was noted on stem length. Formation of new leaves was decreased and dropping of old leaves was increased in both test species with more drastic effects noted in the beans. (JTE)

  6. Sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from comets at large heliocentric distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1992-01-01

    Using a simple model for outgassing from a small flat surface area, the sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, two species more volatile than water ice that are known to be present in comets, are calculated for a suddenly activated discrete source on the rotating nucleus. The instantaneous sublimation rate depends upon the comet's heliocentric distance and the Sun's zenith angle at the location of the source. The values are derived for the constants of CO and CO2 in an expression that yields the local rotation-averaged sublimation rate as a function of the comet's spin parameters and the source's cometocentric latitude.

  7. Cathodic reduction of sulfur dioxide in nonaqueous electrolytes. The effect of solution composition on the diffusion coefficient of sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shembel, E.M.; Ksenzhek, O.S.; Lituinova, V.I.; Lobach, G.A.

    1986-09-01

    The authors measured the diffusion coefficients of SO/sub 2/ in electrolytes based on propylene carbonate, acetonitrile, dimethylformamide and dimethylsulfoxide in order to estimate possible diffusion limitations with respect to SO/sub 2/ and to establish the influence exerted by the solvent type on the process. The diffusion coefficients were calculated from the limiting diffusion currents of steady-state polarization curves for sulfur dioxide reduction recorded at a gold microdisk electrode which had a diameter of 2 x 10/sup -3/ cm. In lithium salt solutions the potentiodynamic curves recorded at the microelectrode do not exhibit a limiting current but are characterized by a current maximum.

  8. Complex pollutions on plants caused by sulfur dioxide and pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komai, K.; Sato, S.

    1973-06-01

    In order to have some idea of the effects on plants of the coexistence of sulfur dioxide and pesticides, chloroplasts were studied. The Hill reaction and oxidative phosphorylation activities of spinach chloroplasts were measured against treatment with sulfur dioxide and pesticides under both conditions in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the influence of paedogenesis on chlorophyll biosynthesis and anthocyan in pigment biosynthesis was also examined. Spinach chloroplast fragments prepared after SO/sub 2/ treatment showed a marked decrease in activities in both the Hill reaction and oxidative phosphorylation conjugate with Hill reaction compared with chloroplast fragments with no treatment. These chloroplast fragments with treatment showed more decrease in activity with the addition of pesticides. The chloroplast fragments prepared after treatment with both SO/sub 2/ and pesticides showed a marked decrease in activities in both the Hill reaction and oxidative phosphorylation compared with those prepared after treatment with only SO/sub 2/ and those treated with only pesticides. They inhibited stronger reactions with organophosphates than with BHC. Moreover, those treated with both SO/sub 2/ and pesticides showed marked inhibition in reactions in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll and anthocyan in pigment.

  9. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and methane at an immobilized cobalt protoporphyrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Kortlever, Ruud; Kas, Recep; Birdja, Yuvraj Y.; Diaz-Morales, Oscar; Kwon, Youngkook; Ledezma-Yanez, Isis; Schouten, Klaas Jan P.; Mul, Guido; Koper, Marc T. M.

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide and water into useful products is a major challenge in facilitating a closed carbon cycle. Here we report a cobalt protoporphyrin immobilized on a pyrolytic graphite electrode that reduces carbon dioxide in an aqueous acidic solution at relatively low overpotential (0.5 V), with an efficiency and selectivity comparable to the best porphyrin-based electrocatalyst in the literature. While carbon monoxide is the main reduction product, we also observe methane as by-product. The results of our detailed pH-dependent studies are explained consistently by a mechanism in which carbon dioxide is activated by the cobalt protoporphyrin through the stabilization of a radical intermediate, which acts as Brønsted base. The basic character of this intermediate explains how the carbon dioxide reduction circumvents a concerted proton–electron transfer mechanism, in contrast to hydrogen evolution. Our results and their mechanistic interpretations suggest strategies for designing improved catalysts. PMID:26324108

  10. Sulfur balance of sulfur dioxide-ethanol-water fractionation of sugarcane straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiang; van Heiningen, Adriaan; Sixta, Herbert; Iakovlev, Mikhail

    2017-10-01

    The sulfur balance of SO2-ethanol-water (AVAP®) fractionation of sugarcane (SC) straw was investigated. Hydrogen sulfite and sulfite anions are nearly absent in the liquors, despite cations present in straw, whose effect is thus limited to neutralization of lignosulfonic acids decreasing the acidity. Higher degree of sulfonation was observed for dissolved straw lignin compared to wood lignin (0.8-0.9 vs. 0.25 S/C9). Sulfur dioxide amounts of 0.9-1.2, 4.1-4.3 and 44-49g per o.d.kg straw were bound to pulp, precipitated lignin and lignosulfonic acid, respectively, while the rest of SO2 was recovered by distillation from the spent fractionation suspensions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Histological study of soybeans injured by exposure to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, P. M.; Martinson, D. J.; Miller, J. E.

    1979-01-15

    Since it is now known that crop yields may be reduced by exposure to sulfur dioxide without accompanying visible damage, a technique for quantifying both visible and hidden damage to crop plants after exposure to SO/sub 2/ would be extremely useful. A preliminary histological study of soybean leaves exposed to SO/sub 2/ gas was undertaken to examine the possibility that a microscopic determination of cell death is related to SO/sub 2/ exposure and crop yield. Soybean leaf tissue samples were collected from two field plots which had been exposed to a gradient of acute SO/sub 2/ concentrations. The results from this preliminary investigation suggest that yield decreases will occur in soybeans when approximately 3.5 to 4% of the leaf cells are killed by SO/sub 2/ exposure during an acute episode and that cell death also results from chronic SO/sub 2/ exposures, even though visible damage is not observed. (JGB)

  12. Preservation of corn silage sugars with sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.D.; Peart, R.M.; Eckhoff, S.R.; Okos, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    The preservation of corn silage with sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) was studied using SO/sub 2/ dosage levels between 0.0% and 3.0% (w/w), and storage temperatures between 2/sup 0/C and 32/sup 0/C, SO/sub 2/ dosages of 0.3% and above were sufficient to prevent microbial growth in silage during storage in culture tubes for 3 to 6 months at temperatures from 2/sup 0/C and 22/sup 0/C. A dosage of 0.6% was required to preserve silage over 8 months in larger bags at room temperatures. Dry matter losses during ensilement were due to conversion and losses of water soluble sugars in the silage.

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed Addition of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Tetrachloride to 1-Octene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群健; 孙均华; 江焕峰; 欧阳小月; 程金生

    2003-01-01

    The Pd-catalyzed addition of carbon monoxide and carbon tetrachloride to 1-octene gave coadduct [alkyl 2-( 2, 2, 2-trichloroethyl)octanoate] as the major product in supercritical carbon dioxide by using pyridine as the base. It was found that the selectivity and the yield of coadduct were greatly affected by the pressure of carbon dioxide, the reaction temperature and the amounts of alcohol and base used.

  14. Ozonation of Sulfur Dioxide in Sulphuric Acid Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Limei; ZHANG Shuting; L(U) Xuebin; YU Xiaoyan; ZHI Suli

    2013-01-01

    In this study,the oxidation rates of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in sulphuric acid solution by ozone and oxygen were compared,and the oxidation mechanism of ozone on SO2 was investigated.The results showed that the oxidation-reduction potential of the acidic solution was enhanced,the transformation rate of sulfuric acid to sulphuric acid was increased and the absorption driving force was improved in the presence of ozone.By comparing the amount of sulfate ions measured in the experiments and the theoretical amount of sulfate ions calculated from the amount of ozone consumed in the reaction,it can be confirmed that oxygen free radicals from dissociation of ozone are reactive as an efficient oxidant and oxygen from ozone generator participates in the reaction with SO2.0.602tmol of effective oxygen was introduced into the reaction by one mole of ozone in 10.15 min at sulphuric acid concentration of 3% (by mass),SO2 concentration of 1.33% (by volume) and oxygen flow rate of 1.5 L·min-1 from ozone generator.

  15. Selective insertion of sulfur dioxide reduction intermediates on graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeres, Eduardo; Debacher, Nito A; Smaniotto, Alessandra; de Castro, Karen M; Benetoli, Luís O B; de Souza, Eduardo P; Moreira, Regina de F P M; Lopes, Cristiane N; Schreiner, Wido H; Canle, Moisés; Santaballa, J Arturo

    2014-04-22

    Graphite microparticles (d50 6.20 μm) were oxidized by strong acids, and the resultant graphite oxide was thermally exfoliated to graphene oxide sheets (MPGO, C/O 1.53). Graphene oxide was treated with nonthermal plasma under a SO2 atmosphere at room temperature. The XPS spectrum showed that SO2 was inserted only as the oxidized intermediate at 168.7 eV in the S 2p region. Short thermal shocks at 600 and 400 °C, under an Ar atmosphere, produced reduced sulfur and carbon dioxide as shown by the XPS spectrum and TGA analysis coupled to FTIR. MPGO was also submitted to thermal reaction with SO2 at 630 °C, and the XPS spectrum in the S 2p region at 164.0 eV showed that this time only the nonoxidized episulfide intermediate was inserted. Plasma and thermal treatment produced a partial reduction of MPGO. The sequence of thermal reaction followed by plasma treatment inserted both sulfur intermediates. Because oxidized and nonoxidized intermediates have different reactivities, this selective insertion would allow the addition of selective types of organic fragments to the surface of graphene oxide.

  16. Foliage plants for indoor removal of the primary combustion gases carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Mesick, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Foliage plants were evaluated for their ability to sorb carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, the two primary gases produced during the combustion of fossil fuels and tobacco. The spider plant (Chlorophytum elatum var. vittatum) could sorb 2.86 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in a 6 h photoperiod. The golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) sorbed 0.98 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in the same time period. In a system with the spider plant, greater than or equal to 99 percent of an initial concentration of 47 ppm NO2 could be removed in 6 h from a void volume of approximately 0.35 cu m. One spider plant potted in a 3.8 liter container can sorb 3300 micrograms CO and effect the removal of 8500 micrograms NO2/hour, recognizing the fact that a significant fraction of NO2 at high concentrations will be lost by surface sorption, dissolving in moisture, etc.

  17. Conversion of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by pulse dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taobo; Liu, Hongxia; Xiong, Xiang; Feng, Xinxin

    2017-01-01

    The conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon monoxide (CO) was investigated in a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor, and the effects of different process conditions on the CO2 conversion were investigated. The results showed that the increase of input power could optimize the conversion of CO2 to CO. The CO2 conversion and CO yield were negatively correlated with the gas flow rate, but there was an optimum gas flow rate, that made the CO selectivity best. The carrier gas (N2, Ar) was conducive to the conversion of CO2, and the effect of N2 as carrier gas was better than Ar. The conversion of CO2 to CO was enhanced by addition of the catalyst (5A molecular sieve).

  18. Compositional variability of the Venusian atmosphere above the clouds: sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcq, Emmanuel; Belyaev, Denis; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Encrenaz, Therese; Montmessin, Franck; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    The layers of the Venusian atmosphere located at cloud top level is a complex transitional region where intense solar radiation interacts with a fairly dense gaseous medium and particulate matter - ultimately, the cloud particles themselves are a by-product of this interaction. In a stark contrast with the lowermost troposphere, spatial and temporal variations in temperature and composition are easily noticeable. In this talk we will focus on two gaseous species, carbon monoxide (CO) and sulphur dioxide (SO _{2}), whose sources and sinks are reversed: whereas carbon monoxide is produced by photo-dissociation of the main atmospheric constituent CO _{2} and oxidised below the clouds, SO _{2} is destroyed by UV solar radiation above the clouds and replenished from the lower atmosphere. Yet, these two species exhibit very different variation patterns. SO _{2} temporal variations range from very rapid (within a few hours) and large (by a relative factor exceeding 10) variations to secular phases of increases and decreases spanning decades. Its average latitudinal distribution ranges from a decrease with increasing latitude during SO _{2}-rich phases and a possible reversal during SO _{2}-poor phases. In contrast, CO does not exhibit significant secular, nor short-term variability, but clear horizontal trends have been measured, both with respect to latitude and local solar time.

  19. Control strategy for sulfur dioxide and acid rain pollution inChinaa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Several factors, namely, coal-dominated primary energy mix, extensive economic development mode, inefficient energy utilization, end the imperfect environmental regulations, result in the serious urban sulfur dioxide pollution end large-scale sulfatetype acid precipitation in China. In 1995, China's sulfur dioxide emissions reached 23.70 Mt, and the areas affected by acid rain accounted for 40% of the territory. Chinese government accords considerable importance to the sulfur dioxide end acid rain contamination. New sets of environmental friendly policies have been promulgated. But enforcement of laws and regulations on SO2 emissions need to be further improved and broadened, especially those respond to market conditions. This paper focuses particular attention on the analysis of strategy, policies, and national actions which had or should be taken against sulfur dioxide emissions nationwide to achieve the environmental targets, on the basis of which gives the technical options in future.

  20. Electrochemical oxidation of wine polyphenols in the presence of sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhotkina, Olga; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2013-06-12

    Electrochemical oxidation of three representative wine polyphenols (catechin, caffeic acid, and quercetin) in the presence of sulfur dioxide in a model wine solution (pH = 3.3) was investigated. The oxidation was undertaken using chronoamperometry at a rotating glassy carbon rod electrode, and the reaction products were characterized by HPLC-MS. The mechanism of electrochemical oxidation of polyphenols in the presence of sulfur dioxide was proposed to be an ECEC mechanism. The polyphenols first underwent a one-electron oxidation to a semiquinone radical, which can be reduced back to the original polyphenol by sulfur dioxide, or further oxidized to the quinone form. In the cases of caffeic acid and catechin, the quinone combined with sulfur dioxide and produced new derivatives. The quercetin quinone underwent further chemical transformations, producing several new compounds. The proposed mechanisms were confirmed by digital simulation of cyclic voltammograms.

  1. INFLUENCE OF AUTOCHTHONOUS SACCHAROMYCES SPP. STRAINS ON THE SULFUR DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION IN WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip BELJAK

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the infl uence of 8 autochthonous yeasts strains on the sulfur dioxide formation. For this purpose grape must from the Traminer, Muller Turgau and Chardonnay grapes was used. Yeast strains used were cultivated at the Department for Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb. Five of them were H2S negative and three H2S positive. Tested yeast strains produced from 19 up to 45 mg/l of sulfur dioxide. The highest sulfur dioxide producer was one of the H2S positive yeast strains. The results indicated the initial sugar concentration to be very important for the ratio of sulfur dioxide production. Yeasts were more effi cient at higher sugar levels.

  2. Selected constituents in the smokes of U. S. commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    One hundred twenty-one brands of United States commercial cigarettes were analyzed for their deliveries of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide under standard analytical smoking conditions. The sample included both filter and nonfilter cigarettes. Comparisons of carbon monoxide deliveries over the range of observed tar deliveries indicated a very high correlation between CO and tar for filter cigarettes, but nonfilter cigarettes tended to produce much less CO than would have been predicted from their tar deliveries. Comparison of ORNL nicotine values for specific brands with those determined by the Federal Trade Commission yield no statistically significant differences between laboratories. 4 figures, 6 tables.

  3. TOMS measurement of the sulfur dioxide emitted during the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Walter, Louis S.; Schnetzler, Charles C.; Doiron, Scott D.

    1990-07-01

    The eruptions of Nevado del Ruiz in 1985 were unusually rich in sulfur dioxide. These eruptions were observed with the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) which can quantitatively map volcanic sulfur dioxide plumes on a global scale. A small eruption, originally believed to be of phreatic origin, took place on September 11, 1985. However, substantial amounts of sulfur dioxide from this eruption were detected with TOMS on the following day. The total mass of SO 2, approximately 9 ± 3 × 10 4 metric tons, was deposited in two clouds, one in the upper troposphere, the other possibly at 15 km near the stratosphere. The devastating November 13 eruptions were first observed with TOMS at 1150 EST on November 14. Large amounts of sulfur dioxide were found in an arc extending 1100 km from south of Ruiz northeastward to the Gulf of Venezuela and as an isolated cloud centered at 7°N on the Colombia-Venezuela border. On November 15 the plume extended over 2700 km from the Pacific Ocean off the Colombia coast to Barbados, while the isolated mass was located over the Brazil-Guyana border, approximately 1600 km due east of the volcano. Based on wind data from Panama, most of the sulfur dioxide was located at 10-16 km in the troposphere and a small amount was quite likely deposited in the stratosphere at an altitude above 24 km. The total mass of sulfur dioxide in the eruption clouds was approximately 6.6 ± 1.9 × 10 5 metric tons on November 14. When combined with quiescent sulfur dioxide emissions during this period, the ratio of sulfur dioxide to erupted magma from Ruiz was an order of magnitude greater than in the 1982 eruption of El Chichon or the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens.

  4. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.DAI; W.SUN; Q.TAN; Y.LIU; W.T.LU; H.C.GUO

    2016-01-01

    In this study,interval-parameter programming,two-stage stochastic programming (TSP),and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework,leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method.The ICTP method had several advantages:(i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration,and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties;(ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards;(iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk;and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs,as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming.The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system.The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels,for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers,and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  5. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes.

  6. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  7. Theoretical Study on Sulfur Dioxide Absorption with Citrate Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛娟琴; 洪涛; 王召启; 李林波

    2006-01-01

    The citrate absorption of SO2 is currently one of the most successful and economic methods to harness sulfur dioxide pollution.In order to theoretically elucidate the mechanism of SO2 absorption by citrate solution and provide theoretical instruction for experiments and industrial process, the theory of multi-buffer solution, combined with computer numerical calculation methods, was applied to study the distribution parameters of the components of the citrate solution in the process of SO2 absorption and the following results were obtained: (1) HCi2- and H2Ci- in the citrate solution played the dominant role in the absorption and desorption processes; (2) Through the calculation for the buffer capacity of citrate solution, it was found that the pH of the absorption and desorption solution should be in the range of 2~8, while at pH=4.5 the buffer capacity reached its maximum. Some valuable parameters were obtained, which are instructive to the ensuing experiments and industrial design.

  8. Smart battery controller for lithium sulfur dioxide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Terrill; Bard, Arnold; Testa, Bruce; Shader, William

    1992-08-01

    Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

  9. Modeling of calcium-based sorbent reactions with sulfur dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomanović Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of calcium sorbent reactions for simulation of sulfur dioxide reduction from pulverized coal combustion fl e gasses is developed, implemented within numerical code and validated against available measurements under controlled conditions. The model attempts to closely resemble reactions of calcination, sintering and sulfation, occurring during the sorbent particles motion in the furnace. The sulfation is based on PSSM (Partially Sintered Spheres Model, coupled with simulated particle calcination and sintering. Complex geometry of the particle is taken into account, with the assumption that it consists of spherical grains in contact with each other. Numerical simulations of drop down tube reactors were performed for both CaCO3 and Ca(OH2 sorbent particles and results were compared with available experimental data from literature. The sorbent reactions model will be further used for simulations of desulfurization reactions in turbulent gas-particle flow under coalcombustion conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in-house developed software tools

  10. Induced rhinovirus infection under controlled exposure to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, I. (Aarhus, Univ., Denmark); Jensen, P.L.; Reed, S.E.; Craig, J.W.; Proctor, D.F.; Adams, G.K.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction between short-term sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) exposure and experimentally induced rhinovirus infection was studied in thirty-two volunteers divided into two groups balanced with respect to age, antibody levels, and nasal mucous flow rates. One group was exposed to SO/sub 2/ at the threshold limit value (TLV) of 5 ppM during 4 hours; the other group served as controls exposed to pollution-free air under the same conditions. The SO/sub 2/ exposure caused a 50% decrease in nasal mucous flow rate in the anterior parts of the nose, but there was no difference in the number of colds which developed in the two groups. The group exposed to SO/sub 2/ had fewer symptoms and a possibly shorter incubation period (P = .06), and virus shedding was at a lower level but more persistent than in the control group. No differences were found in antibody response. The rhinovirus infection in the control group caused a gradual decrease in nasal mucus flow rate starting 2 days after the virus instillation, and after 5 days the rate was less than half its initial value. For future experiments on the interaction between airborne pollutants and rhinovirus infections, a virus challenge by aerosol inhalation is recommended. Our study supports an earlier observation that growth of influenza virus in the nasal cavity of mice was inhibited by exposure to SO/sub 2/ concentrations of 6 or 20 ppM.

  11. Photochemical ozone and nitric oxide formation in air-nitrogen dioxide mixtures containing sulfur dioxide or chlorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, J.S.; Springer, G.S.; Stedman, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of sulfur dioxide and chlorine on ozone and nitric oxide concentrations in nitrogen dioxide-air mixtures were studied. The presence of 0-10 ppM SO/sub 2/ produced no change in the air mixture. Addition of 1-15 ppm chlorine increased the ozone concentration in the air mixture. A reaction model describing the interactions of chlorine and NO/sub 2/ is presented. (1 diagram, 6 graphs, 30 references, 3 tables)

  12. Distribution of Hydrogen Peroxide, Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfuric Acid in Europa's Icy Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. W.

    2004-01-01

    Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) detected hydrogen peroxide, carbon dioxide and a hydrated material on Europa's surface, the latter interpreted as hydrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4*nH2O) or hydrated salts. Related compounds are molecular oxygen, sulfur dioxide, and two chromophores, one that is dark in the ultraviolet(UV) and concentrated on the trailing side, the other brighter in the UV and preferentially distributed in the leading hemisphere. The UV-dark material has been suggested to be sulfur.

  13. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Fourth quarterly technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

  14. Seasonal trends of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide over North Santa Clara, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Daniellys; Morales, Mayra C; de la Torre, Jorge B; Grau, Ricardo; Bencs, László; Van Grieken, René; Van Espen, Piet; Sosa, Dismey; Nuñez, Vladimir

    2013-07-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels were monitored simultaneously by means of Radiello passive samplers at six sites of Santa Clara city, Cuba, in the cold and the warm seasons in 2010. The dissolved ionic forms of NO2 and SO2 as nitrate and sulfite plus sulfate, respectively, were determined by means of ion chromatography. Analysis of NO2 as nitrite was also performed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. For NO2, significant t tests show good agreement between the results of IC and UV-Vis methods. The NO2 and SO2 concentrations peaked in the cold season, while their minimum levels were experienced in the warm season. The pollutant levels do not exceed the maximum allowable limit of the Cuban Standard 39:1999, i.e., 40 μg/m(3) and 50 μg/m(3) for NO2 and SO2, respectively. The lowest pollutant concentrations obtained in the warm season can be attributed to an increase in their removal via precipitation (scavenging) while to the decreased traffic density and industrial emission during the summer holidays (e.g., July and August).

  15. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  16. Gas-phase energies of actinide oxides -- an assessment of neutral and cationic monoxides and dioxides from thorium to curium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K.

    2009-08-10

    An assessment of the gas-phase energetics of neutral and singly and doubly charged cationic actinide monoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium is presented. A consistent set of metal-oxygen bond dissociation enthalpies, ionization energies, and enthalpies of formation, including new or revised values, is proposed, mainly based on recent experimental data and on correlations with the electronic energetics of the atoms or cations and with condensed-phase thermochemistry.

  17. Endogenously generated sulfur dioxide and its vasorelaxant effect in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-xu DU; Hong-fang JIN; Ding-fang BU; Xia ZHAO; Bin GENG; Chao-shu TANG; Jun-bao DU

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The present study was designed to explore the endogenous production and localization of the sulfur dioxide (SO2)/aspartate aminotransferase pathway in vas- cular tissues of rats and to examine its vasorelaxant effect on isolated aortic rings, as well as the possible mechanisms. Methods: The content of SO2 in the samples was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography with fluores- cence detection. Aspartate aminotransferase activity and its gene expression were measured by an enzymatic method and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Aspar- tate aminotransferase mRNA location in aorta was detected by in situ hybridization. The vasorelaxant effect of SO2 on isolated aortic rings of the rats was investigated in vitro. L-type calcium channel blocker, nicardipine, and L-type calcium channel agonist, Bay K8644, were used to explore the mechanisms by which SO2 relaxed the aortic rings. Results: Aorta had the highest SO2 content among the vascular tissues tested (P<0.01). The aortic aspartate aminotransferase mRNA located in endothelia and vascular smooth muscle cells beneath the endothelial layer. Furthermore, a physiological dose of the SO2 derivatives (Na2SO3/NaHSO3) re- laxed isolated artery rings slightly, whereas higher doses (1-12 mmol/L) relaxed rings in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with nicardipine elimi- nated the vasorelaxant response of the norepinephrine-contracted rings to SO2 completely. Incubation with nicardipine or SO2 derivatives successfully prevented vasoconstriction induced by Bay K8644. Conclusion: Endogenous SO2 and its derivatives have a vasorelaxant function, the mechanisms of which might involve the inhibition of the L-type calcium channel.

  18. Zeeman effect in sulfur monoxide. A tool to probe magnetic fields in star forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Coriani, Sonia; Gauss, Jürgen; Codella, Claudio; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; Cernicharo, José; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Context. Magnetic fields play a fundamental role in star formation processes and the best method to evaluate their intensity is to measure the Zeeman effect of atomic and molecular lines. However, a direct measurement of the Zeeman spectral pattern from interstellar molecular species is challenging due to the high sensitivity and high spectral resolution required. So far, the Zeeman effect has been detected unambiguously in star forming regions for very few non-masing species, such as OH and CN. Aims: We decided to investigate the suitability of sulfur monoxide (SO), which is one of the most abundant species in star forming regions, for probing the intensity of magnetic fields via the Zeeman effect. Methods: We investigated the Zeeman effect for several rotational transitions of SO in the (sub-)mm spectral regions by using a frequency-modulated, computer-controlled spectrometer, and by applying a magnetic field parallel to the radiation propagation (i.e., perpendicular to the oscillating magnetic field of the radiation). To support the experimental determination of the g factors of SO, a systematic quantum-chemical investigation of these parameters for both SO and O2 has been carried out. Results: An effective experimental-computational strategy for providing accurate g factors as well as for identifying the rotational transitions showing the strongest Zeeman effect has been presented. Revised g factors have been obtained from a large number of SO rotational transitions between 86 and 389 GHz. In particular, the rotational transitions showing the largest Zeeman shifts are: N,J = 2, 2 ← 1, 1 (86.1 GHz), N,J = 4, 3 ← 3, 2 (159.0 GHz), N,J = 1, 1 ← 0, 1 (286.3 GHz), N,J = 2, 2 ← 1, 2 (309.5 GHz), and N,J = 2, 1 ← 1, 0 (329.4 GHz). Our investigation supports SO as a good candidate for probing magnetic fields in high-density star forming regions. The complete list of measured Zeeman components is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  19. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, October--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1993-12-31

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range (400--650{degree}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2} formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

  20. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2002-10-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. The PFS product was used in pilot-scale tests at a municipal water treatment facility and gave good results in removal of turbidity and superior results in removal of disinfection byproduct precursors (TOC, DOC, UV-254) when compared with equal doses of ferric chloride.

  1. Heterogeneous uptake and oxidation of sulfur dioxide on volcanic ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmelle, P.; Rossi, M.

    2013-12-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of sulfur dioxide on volcanic ash is investigated at room temperatures using a Knudsen cell operated in a steady state. The ash specimens correspond to Eyjafjallajokull (2010), Tungrahua (2012), Pinatubo (1991) and Chaiten (2008) eruptions. The initial uptake coefficient of sulfur dioxide on the ash studied is found to be in the order of 0.001-0.01. Eyjafjallajokull ash exhibits the highest reactivity. The adsorption of sulfur dioxide on the ash surface is irreversible and is accompanied by an oxidation reaction into sulfate, presumably driven by oxidizing agents already present on the ash surface. The presence of adsorbed water does not seem to influence sulfur dioxide adsorption. There is no evidence for a significant dependence of sulfur dioxide uptake on ash composition. The high reactivity of Eyjafjallajokull ash is tentatively attributed to abundant free hydroxyl groups formed on the surface of the ash particles during their transit through the vertical eruption plume. The atmospheric implications of our study will be presented.

  2. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2004-11-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results

  3. Bromine monoxide / sulphur dioxide ratios in relation to volcanological observations at Mt. Etna 2006–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giuffrida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over a 3-yr period, from 2006 to 2009, frequent scattered sunlight DOAS measurements were conducted at Mt. Etna at a distance of around 6 km downwind from the summit craters. During the same period and in addition to these measurements, volcanic observations were made by regularly visiting various parts of Mt. Etna. Here, results from these measurements and observations are presented and their relation is discussed. The focus of the investigation is the bromine monoxide/sulphur dioxide (BrO / SO2 ratio, and its variability in relation to volcanic processes. That the halogen/sulphur ratio can serve as a precursor or indicator for the onset of eruptive activity was already proposed by earlier works (e.g. Noguchi and Kamiya 1963; Menyailov, 1975; Pennisi and Cloarec, 1998; Aiuppa et al., 2002. However, there is still a limited understanding today because of the complexity with which halogens are released, depending on magma composition and degassing conditions. Our understanding of these processes is far from complete, for example of the rate and mechanism of bubble nucleation, growth and ascent in silicate melts (Carroll and Holloway, 1994, the halogen vapour-melt partitioning and the volatile diffusivity in the melt (Aiuppa et al., 2009. With this study we aim to add one more piece to the puzzle of what halogen/sulphur ratios might tell about volcanic activities. Our data set shows an increase of the BrO / SO2 ratio several weeks prior to an eruption, followed by a decline before and during the initial phase of eruptive activities. Towards the end of activity or shortly thereafter, the ratio increases to baseline values again and remains more or less constant during quiet phases. To explain the observed evolution of the BrO / SO2 ratio, a first empirical model is proposed. This model suggests that bromine, unlike chlorine and fluorine, is less soluble in the magmatic melt than sulphur. By using the DOAS method to determine SO2, we actually

  4. Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide on Carbons Catalyzed by Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wido Schreiner

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The reduction of SO2 on different carbons in the presence of the nitrates and sulfides of sodium, potassium and calcium and potassium polysulfides was studied. The presence of salts increased the initial rate 2-5 fold for all of them and did not change the product distribution. The catalysis was not determined by the cation and there was no difference in the catalytic reactivity between nitrates and sulfides. The sulfur content of the activated carbon increased during the reaction on account of the stable reactive intermediates in the reduction of SO2. In the presence of NaNO3 or Na2S, the amount of sulfur incorporated was in the molar ratio Na:S = 3 ± 0.3, and the XPS spectra of the residual carbon showed an increase of ca. 9% of the non-oxidized form of sulfur in the intermediates. In the absence of salt, it is proposed that after the adsorption of SO2 on the carbon, a 1,3,2-dioxathiolane or 1,2-oxathietene 2-oxide are formed and that decompose to produce CO2 and atomic sulfur. The non-oxidized sulfur intermediate would be an episulfide 3, formed from the reaction of the atomic sulfur with the nearest double bond and followed by consecutive reactions of insertion of atomic sulfur to form a trisulfide. Extrusion of S2 from the trisulfide would regenerate the episulfide, establishing a sulfidedisulfide-trisulfide equilibrium that worked as a capture-release cycle of sulfur. In the presence of salt, the results are consistent with the assumption that the episulfide 3 reacts with the corresponding sulfide anion to form a disulfide anion, which upon reaction with atomic sulfur forms a trisulfide anion that decomposes releasing diatomic sulfur S2, transporting the sulfur and generating a thiolate that is part of the catalytic cycle.

  5. Simple spectrophotometry method for the determination of sulfur dioxide in an alcohol-thionyl chloride reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jinjian, E-mail: jinjian.zheng@merck.com; Tan, Feng; Hartman, Robert

    2015-09-03

    Thionyl chloride is often used to convert alcohols into more reactive alkyl chloride, which can be easily converted to many compounds that are not possible from alcohols directly. One important reaction of alkyl chloride is nucleophilic substitution, which is typically conducted under basic conditions. Sulfur dioxide, the by-product from alcohol-thionyl chloride reactions, often reacts with alkyl chloride to form a sulfonyl acid impurity, resulting in yield loss. Therefore, the alkyl chloride is typically isolated to remove the by-products including sulfur dioxide. However, in our laboratory, the alkyl chloride formed from alcohol and thionyl chloride was found to be a potential mutagenic impurity, and isolation of this compound would require extensive safety measures. As a result, a flow-through process was developed, and the sulfur dioxide was purged using a combination of vacuum degassing and nitrogen gas sweeping. An analytical method that can quickly and accurately quantitate residual levels of sulfur dioxide in the reaction mixture is desired for in-process monitoring. We report here a simple ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry method for this measurement. This method takes advantage of the dramatic change in the UV absorbance of sulfur dioxide with respect to pH, which allows for accurate quantitation of sulfur dioxide in the presence of the strong UV-absorbing matrix. Each sample solution was prepared using 2 different diluents: 1) 50 mM ammonium acetate in methanol +1% v/v hydrochloric acid, pH 1.3, and 2) 50 mM ammonium acetate in methanol +1% glacial acetic acid, pH 4.0. The buffer solutions were carefully selected so that the UV absorbance of the sample matrix (excluding sulfur dioxide) at 276 nm remains constant. In the pH 1.3 buffer system, sulfur dioxide shows strong UV absorbance at 276 nm. Therefore, the UV absorbance of sample solution is the sum of sulfur dioxide and sample matrix. While in the pH 4.0 buffer system, sulfur dioxide has

  6. Sulfur cathodes with hydrogen reduced titanium dioxide inverse opal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zheng; Zheng, Guangyuan; Li, Weiyang; Seh, Zhi Wei; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2014-05-27

    Sulfur is a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries with a high specific capacity of 1675 mAh/g. The rapid capacity fading, however, presents a significant challenge for the practical application of sulfur cathodes. Two major approaches that have been developed to improve the sulfur cathode performance include (a) fabricating nanostructured conductive matrix to physically encapsulate sulfur and (b) engineering chemical modification to enhance binding with polysulfides and, thus, to reduce their dissolution. Here, we report a three-dimensional (3D) electrode structure to achieve both sulfur physical encapsulation and polysulfides binding simultaneously. The electrode is based on hydrogen reduced TiO2 with an inverse opal structure that is highly conductive and robust toward electrochemical cycling. The relatively enclosed 3D structure provides an ideal architecture for sulfur and polysulfides confinement. The openings at the top surface allow sulfur infusion into the inverse opal structure. In addition, chemical tuning of the TiO2 composition through hydrogen reduction was shown to enhance the specific capacity and cyclability of the cathode. With such TiO2 encapsulated sulfur structure, the sulfur cathode could deliver a high specific capacity of ∼1100 mAh/g in the beginning, with a reversible capacity of ∼890 mAh/g after 200 cycles of charge/discharge at a C/5 rate. The Coulombic efficiency was also maintained at around 99.5% during cycling. The results showed that inverse opal structure of hydrogen reduced TiO2 represents an effective strategy in improving lithium sulfur batteries performance.

  7. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MOLASSES SAMPLE PREPARATION IN SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTENT DETERMINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Egorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Molasses is characterized as sugar production by-product from primary or secondary sacchariferous raw materials. The features of the appearance, the chemical composition, molasses and exit directions of its use, depending on the type of production, in which it is formed. The value of molasses is demonstrated according to its total composition as well as its use directions. Statistics on beet molasses amounts in Russia is presented. Described consumer market molasses in Russia and abroad with its exports. Shown regulations contain requirements for the quality and safety of molasses, including sulfur dioxide. The data on sulfur allergenic properties are presented. Showing source of the sulfur dioxide in the residual molasses number of processing aids and the impact of its level in the value of raw molasses for use in biotechnological processes and fodder production. The necessity to develop methodology for determining the sulfur dioxide content in the molasses to control its security. The iodometric method, which is used in practice for determination of sulphur dioxide in foods are characterized. Differences molasses and sugar as objects of iodometric determination of sulfur dioxide, which leads to the inability to ascertain the equivalence point. The variants eliminate interfering background of dark-colored foods common in analytical chemistry. Advantages and disadvantages of the background masking and stripping the determination of sulfur dioxide in the darkcolored products. It was characterized by clarifying sugar solutions in optical control methods. The hypothesis about preferability of its use in sample molasses preparation for equivalence point fixation in iodometric titration is suggested. The tasks of experimental research for the development of sample preparation algorithm molasses in determining the content of sulphurous acid.

  8. Data assimilation of satellite retrieved ozone, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide with ECMWF's Composition-IFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Inness

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Daily global analyses and 5 day forecasts are generated in the context of the European Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC project using an extended version of the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. IFS now includes modules for chemistry, deposition and emission of reactive gases, aerosols, and greenhouse gases, and the 4-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme makes use of multiple satellite observations of atmospheric composition in addition to meteorological observations. This paper describes the data assimilation setup of the new Composition-IFS (C-IFS with respect to reactive gases and validates analysis fields of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 for the year 2008 against independent observations and a control run without data assimilation. The largest improvement in CO by assimilation of MOPITT CO columns is seen in the lower troposphere of the Northern Hemisphere (NH Extratropics during winter, and during the South African biomass burning season. The assimilation of several O3 total column and stratospheric profile retrievals greatly improves the total column, stratospheric and upper tropospheric O3 analysis fields relative to the control run. The impact on lower tropospheric ozone, which comes from the residual of the total column and stratospheric profile O3 data, is smaller, but nevertheless there is some improvement particularly in the NH during winter and spring. The impact of the assimilation of OMI tropospheric NO2 columns is small because of the short lifetime of NO2, suggesting that NO2 observations would be better used to adjust emissions instead of initial conditions. The results further indicate that the quality of the tropospheric analyses and of the stratospheric ozone analysis obtained with the C-IFS system has improved compared to the previous "coupled" model system of MACC.

  9. Study on Control Strategy of Sulfur Dioxide Concentration in the Urban Area of Shijiazhuang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光军; 于立军; 范丽; 王宇新; 赵根喜

    2003-01-01

    Two Gaussian air quality dispersion models, the industrial source complex short-term model (ISCST3) with and without modification have been used to simulate the pollutant concentration distribution in urban areas based on the meteorological data and the emissions distribution of sulfur dioxide. The verified data show that the modified model is more accurate in the urban area of Shijiazhuang. Using the modified model predictions, the control strategies of sulfur dioxide in the urban area have been studied, and the result show that the second long-term (to 2010) strategy can mitigate air pollution significantly and maintain pollution levels within permissible limits.

  10. Review of the methods for determination of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentilizza, M.

    1974-01-01

    This literature survey describes and assesses assay methods based on determination of the atmospheric sulfate by oxidation (lead dioxide, turbidimetry, barium chloranilate, electrical conductivity analysis, acidimetry and thorine methods) or of the sulfite (determination in iodine or alkaline solution, with fuchsin, iodothiosulfate, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, etc.), based on measurement of sulfur dioxide (hydrogen flame emission spectrophotometry, gas chromatography), on adsorption on silica gel or in phenanthroline solution and on polarography.

  11. Simple spectrophotometry method for the determination of sulfur dioxide in an alcohol-thionyl chloride reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinjian; Tan, Feng; Hartman, Robert

    2015-09-03

    Thionyl chloride is often used to convert alcohols into more reactive alkyl chloride, which can be easily converted to many compounds that are not possible from alcohols directly. One important reaction of alkyl chloride is nucleophilic substitution, which is typically conducted under basic conditions. Sulfur dioxide, the by-product from alcohol-thionyl chloride reactions, often reacts with alkyl chloride to form a sulfonyl acid impurity, resulting in yield loss. Therefore, the alkyl chloride is typically isolated to remove the by-products including sulfur dioxide. However, in our laboratory, the alkyl chloride formed from alcohol and thionyl chloride was found to be a potential mutagenic impurity, and isolation of this compound would require extensive safety measures. As a result, a flow-through process was developed, and the sulfur dioxide was purged using a combination of vacuum degassing and nitrogen gas sweeping. An analytical method that can quickly and accurately quantitate residual levels of sulfur dioxide in the reaction mixture is desired for in-process monitoring. We report here a simple ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry method for this measurement. This method takes advantage of the dramatic change in the UV absorbance of sulfur dioxide with respect to pH, which allows for accurate quantitation of sulfur dioxide in the presence of the strong UV-absorbing matrix. Each sample solution was prepared using 2 different diluents: 1) 50 mM ammonium acetate in methanol +1% v/v hydrochloric acid, pH 1.3, and 2) 50 mM ammonium acetate in methanol +1% glacial acetic acid, pH 4.0. The buffer solutions were carefully selected so that the UV absorbance of the sample matrix (excluding sulfur dioxide) at 276 nm remains constant. In the pH 1.3 buffer system, sulfur dioxide shows strong UV absorbance at 276 nm. Therefore, the UV absorbance of sample solution is the sum of sulfur dioxide and sample matrix. While in the pH 4.0 buffer system, sulfur dioxide has

  12. Sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from comet nuclei at large distances from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1991-01-01

    One of the more attractive among the plausible scenarios for the major emission event recently observed on Comet Halley at a heliocentric distance of 14.3 AU is activation of a source of ejecta driven by an icy substance much more volatile than water. As prerequisite for the forthcoming detailed analysis of the imaging observations of this event, a simple model is proposed that yields the sublimation rate versus time at any location on the surface of a rotating cometary nucleus for two candidate ices: carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The model's variable parameters are the comet's heliocentric distance r and the Sun's instantaneous zenith angle z.

  13. Air pollution by sulfur dioxide in Poland - Impact on agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlesna, A. [Inst. of Soil Science & Plant Cultivation, Pulawy (Poland)

    2002-07-01

    After the Second World War there was a tremendous increase in SO{sub 2} emission in Poland due to fast industrialization and the use of low quality coal as energy source. High levels of SO{sub 2} pollution have resulted in negative effects on natural and agro-ecosystems. On the other hand SO{sub 2} has been beneficial as sulfur fertilizer for agro-ecosystems. From the end of the 1980's onwards there has been an ongoing decrease in SO{sub 2} emissions by a transformation of economy and legislation to reduce emissions, which already has affected the sulfur status of agro-ecosystems. From soil tests carried out in 1996 it became evident that over 70% of Polish soils have a low, 15% a medium and about 5% a high sulfur content. Since SO{sub 2} emissions are expected to further decrease in Poland, sulfur content of soils as well as plants needs to be monitored in order to guarantee optimized sulfur fertilization.

  14. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, October 1993--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400-650 {degrees}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought {open_quotes}Claus-alternative{close_quotes} for coal-fired power plant applications.

  15. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2 emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of Flue-Gas Desulfurization (FGD devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000–2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS are found to be highly correlated with the Surface Solar Radiation (SSR measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in

  16. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2 emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000–2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in

  17. Monitoring of sulfur dioxide emission resulting from biogas utilization on commercial pig farms in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Chen, Yen-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work tends to promote methane content in biogas and evaluate sulfur dioxide emission from direct biogas combustion without desulfurization. Analytical results of biogas combustion showed that combustion of un-desulfurized biogas exhausted more than 92% of SO₂ (P biogas (P biogas before any applications.

  18. The sampling of sulfur dioxide in air with impregnated filter paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huygen, C.

    1963-01-01

    A method is suggested for the sampling of sulfur dioxide in air with impregnated filter paper instead of bubblers. The best aqueous impregnating solution contained potassium hydroxide with glycerol or triethanolamine. The possibilities and limitations of the method are discussed. High collection eff

  19. Vapor-Liquid-Solid Equilibria of Sulfur Dioxide in Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereda, Selva; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The Extended UNIQUAC model for electrolyte systems, combined with the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state is used to describe the complex vapor-liquid-solid equilibria of sulfur dioxide in electrolyte solutions. Model parameters based on 1500 experimental data points are presented. The paramete...

  20. 75 FR 81471 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Executive Order Reviews I. Background On October 6, 2009, Minnesota submitted a site-specific sulfur dioxide... modeling used a receptor grid with 100 meter resolution. The resulting modeled SO 2 concentrations... effective February 28, 2011. V. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews Under the Clean Air Act,...

  1. Modified dry limestone process for control of sulfur dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shale, Correll C.; Cross, William G.

    1976-08-24

    A method and apparatus for removing sulfur oxides from flue gas comprise cooling and conditioning the hot flue gas to increase the degree of water vapor saturation prior to passage through a bed of substantially dry carbonate chips or lumps, e.g., crushed limestone. The reaction products form as a thick layer of sulfites and sulfates on the surface of the chips which is easily removed by agitation to restore the reactive surface of the chips.

  2. Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide on Carbons Catalyzed by Salts

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Abstract. The reduction of SO2 on different carbons in the presence of the nitrates and sulfides of sodium, potassium and calcium and potassium polysulfides was studied. The presence of salts increased the initial rate 2-5 fold for all of them and did not change the product distribution. The catalysis was not determined by the cation and there was no difference in the catalytic reactivity between nitrates and sulfides. The sulfur content of the activated carbon increased during the reaction o...

  3. SULFUR DIOXIDE AND AMMONIA GAS REDUCTION USING COCONUT CELLULOSE AND ACETYLATED CELLULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURJANI WONORAHARDJO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Some adsorbent materials were employed to reduce ammonia and carbon dioxide gases. Cellulose materials from nata de coco and grated coconut meat were packed in a column to be used as gas adsorbent. The effect of surface modification of cellulose by acetylation in order to enhance the sorption ability and capacity was also studied. Another factor that was tested was the column length. The characteristics of cellulose materials were done by electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and physical parameters such as water and ash contents as well as iodine sorption ability. The amount of ammonia and sulfur dioxide gases absorbed by the materials were analyzed by visible spectroscopy. The results showed that the cellulose material can be good adsorbent for basic gas like ammonia as well as acidic sulfur dioxide gases. Acetylation as a method of surface modification gave the proof of better sorption for both gases but was greater for ammonia. However, the column length gave greater impact in ammonia compared to sulfur dioxide. This study provides a better explanation of dynamics at surfaces, in the search for better adsorbents.

  4. Hysteresis Phenomena in Sulfur Dioxide Oxidation over Supported Vanadium Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masters, Stephen G.; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    1997-01-01

    Catalyst deactivation and hysteresis behavior in industrial SO2-oxidation catalysts have been studied in the temperature region 350-480 C by combined in situ EPR spectroscopy and catalytic activity measurements. The feed gas composition simulated sulfuric acid synthesis gas and wet/dry de......NOx'ed flue gas. The vanadium (IV) compound K4(VO)3(SO4)5 precipitated during all the investigated conditions hence causing catalyst deactivation. Hysteresis behavior of both the catalytic activity and the V(IV) content was observed during reheating....

  5. Passive diffusion sampling of sulfur dioxide in India: Impact assessment on arid areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Kumar; M. Mohan; R. Datta

    2002-01-01

    Environmental constraints have drastically limited options of sustainable developmentand have severely offset many developmental schemes. In this paper, possibilities of acidic depo-sition, as a counter measure of desertification, are analyzed. Seasonal data of ambient sulfur di-oxide, pH of rain water and soil acidity are collected for over an year and analyzed. Arid environ-ment of surrounding areas of Delhi is considered and analyzed. Though ambient sulfur depositionis well below critical level, it might not be truly indicative of plant survival in arid areas. Results maybe useful in arid area afforestation, and polluting industries relocation, which holds tremendouspotential vis-a-vis sustainable development.

  6. Using Demonstrations Involving Combustion and Acid-Base Chemistry to Show Hydration of Carbon Dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide, and Magnesium Oxide and Their Relevance for Environmental Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C. Frank, III; Webb, James W.; Rothenberger, Otis

    2016-01-01

    The nature of acidic and basic (alkaline) oxides can be easily illustrated via a series of three straightforward classroom demonstrations for high school and general chemistry courses. Properties of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and magnesium oxide are revealed inexpensively and safely. Additionally, the very different kinetics of hydration of…

  7. Using Demonstrations Involving Combustion and Acid-Base Chemistry to Show Hydration of Carbon Dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide, and Magnesium Oxide and Their Relevance for Environmental Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C. Frank, III; Webb, James W.; Rothenberger, Otis

    2016-01-01

    The nature of acidic and basic (alkaline) oxides can be easily illustrated via a series of three straightforward classroom demonstrations for high school and general chemistry courses. Properties of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and magnesium oxide are revealed inexpensively and safely. Additionally, the very different kinetics of hydration of…

  8. Emission rates of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska during the 1989-1990 eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, T.J.; Doukas, M.P.; Neal, C.A.; McGimsey, R.G.; Gardner, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates in the gas plume emitted from fumaroles in the summit crater of Redoubt Volcano were started on March 20, 1990 using the COSPEC method. During the latter half of the period of intermittent dome growth and destruction, between March 20 and mid-June 1990, sulfur dioxide emission rates ranged from approximately 1250 to 5850 t/d, rates notably higher than for other convergent-plate boundary volcanoes during periods of active dome growth. Emission rates following the end of dome growth from late June 1990 through May 1991 decreased steadily to less than 75 t/d. The largest mass of sulfur dioxide was released during the period of explosive vent clearing when explosive degassing on December 14-15 injected at least 175,000 ?? 50,000 tonnes of SO2 into the atmosphere. Following the explosive eruptions of December 1989, Redoubt Volcano entered a period of intermittent dome growth from late December 1989 to mid-June 1990 during which Redoubt emitted a total mass of SO2 ranging from 572,000 ?? 90,000 tonnes to 680,000 ?? 90,000 tonnes. From mid-June 1990 through May 1991, the volcano was in a state of posteruption degassing into the troposphere, producing approximately 183,000 ?? 50,000 tonnes of SO2. We estimate that Redoubt Volcano released a minimum mass of sulfur dioxide of approximately 930,000 tonnes. While COSPEC data were not obtained frequently enough to enable their use in eruption prediction, SO2 emission rates clearly indicated a consistent decline in emission rates between March through October 1990 and a continued low level of emission rates through the first half of 1991. Values from consecutive daily measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates spanning the March 23, 1990 eruption decreased in the three days prior to eruption. That decrease was coincident with a several-fold increase in the frequency of shallow seismic events, suggesting partial sealing of the magma conduit to gas loss that resulted in

  9. Histological responses of some plant leaves to hydrogen fluoride and sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.F.; Solberg, R.A.

    1956-12-01

    Dicotyledonous plants were fumigated with hydrogen fluoride and/or sulfur dioxide. Samples were taken of injured and control leaves, processed microtechnically, and examined microscopically. Histological responses to hydrogen fluoride and sulfur dioxide were indistinguishable. The spongy mesophyll and lower epidermis first collapsed, followed by distortion and chloroplast disruption in the palisade cells. The upper epidermis finally distorted and collapsed. Microscopically injured leaf tissues were selectively stained with safranin. Various postulates are discussed concerning the means and pathways by which a phytotoxic air pollutant may enter the leaf and produce injury therein. The evidence indicates that should fluoride enter a leaf in sub-phytotoxic concentrations, it is transported acropetally. Should phytotoxic levels be reached, visible marginal injury results.

  10. Systematization of published spectral data on sulfur dioxide molecule and its isotopologues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, S. S.; Akhlestin, A. Yu.; Kozodoev, A. V.; Lavrentiev, N. A.; Privezentsev, A. I.; Fazliev, A. Z.; Naumenko, O. V.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents a description of properties of published spectral data on spectral lines' parameters of sulfur dioxide molecule and its isotopologues. These data were acquired from more than 150 publications for a period of 50 years. Data properties as well as data sources classification according to validity and trust criteria are presented in a form of an ontological knowledge base on information resources. Data source properties values are computed during the assessment of validity and trust1. Published ro-vibrational transitions, energy levels, spectral lines' parameters, knowledge base on information resources of sulfur dioxide molecule and its isotopologues are available in the Internet accessible information system W@DIS (http://wadis.saga.iao.ru/).

  11. Effect of hydroxytyrosol on quality of sulfur dioxide-free red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, R; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; Garde-Cerdán, T; Puertas, B; Moreno-Rojas, J M; Gonzalo-Diago, A; Guerrero, R F; Ortiz, V; Cantos-Villar, E

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the feasibility of two commercial products enriched in hydroxytyrosol (HT) as alternative to sulfur dioxide in Syrah red wines was evaluated. The HT enriched products came from synthesis and from olive waste. Wines treated with HT were compared with wines treated with sulfur dioxide at two winemaking stages: bottling and after 6 months of storage in bottle. Minor differences were found in enological parameters and volatile composition (esters, alcohols and acids). Significant differences were observed in color related parameters and sensory analysis. HT wines improved color parameters as well as scents and tasting at bottling. However, after 6 months of storage in bottle HT wines were more oxidized than SO2 wines. The olfactometry profile of HT wines supported sensory analysis. HT wines showed new odorant zones from both the added product and oxidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and methane at an immobilized cobalt protoporphyrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, J.; Kortlever, R.; Kas, Recep; Mul, Guido; Koper, M.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide and water into useful products is a major challenge in facilitating a closed carbon cycle. Here we report a cobalt protoporphyrin immobilized on a pyrolytic graphite electrode that reduces carbon dioxide in an aqueous acidic solution at relatively low

  13. Effects of sulfur dioxide on resistance to bacterial infection in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay-Dupuis, E. (Hopital Claude Bernard, Paris, France); Bouley, G.; Blayo, M.C.

    1982-12-01

    Continuous exposure to approximately a 10-ppm concentration of sulfur dioxide for periods of up to 3 weeks reduced the resistance of female mice to infection by aerosol inoculation with Klebsiella pneumoniae. The mortality rate rose and survival time shortened in SO/sub 2/-exposed animals compared to controls. Insofar as these results can be extrapolated to humans, the SO/sub 2/ concentration used in this work is only found on certain industrial premises.

  14. On the stabilization of the carbonate dianion by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grein, F.; Chan, J.K.; Liko, I. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-11-15

    Dianions CO{sub 3}{sup 2}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2} and other multiply charged anions (MCA) such as PO{sub 4}{sup 3} are not electronically stable in the gas phase. As such, they decay to a lower charge anion by auto electron detachment. The stabilization of dianions and more highly charged anions by common gases was investigated in this study, with particular reference to the stabilization in the gas phase of the carbonate dianion by sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) molecules. Geometries of clusters were optimized by density functional theory (DFT) methods. This paper presented the geometries of different isomers of (SO{sub 2})n and (SO{sub 2})n, for which n = 1-4. Single-point CCSD and CCSD(T) energies at the DFT-optimized geometries were also obtained for n = 1-3. For n = 1 and 2, the monoanionic clusters were adiabatically more stable than the dianionic ones. They became less stable starting at n = 3. The CCSD adiabatic electron detachment energy of the dianionic cluster changed from -0.39 eV for n = 2 to +0.20 eV for n = 3. The vertical electron detachment energy became positive at n = 2, with a CCSD value of 1.35 eV. Many of the less stable dianionic, and most of the monoionic clusters were characterized by the transfer of an oxygen atom from CO{sub 3} to SO{sub 2}. It was concluded that a minimum of 3 water molecules are needed for the stabilization of the sulfate dianion by stepwise hydration. 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  15. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1995-06-01

    This project has investigated new metal oxide catalysts for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as CO. Significant progress in catalyst development has been made during the course of the project. We have found that fluorite oxides, CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, and rare earth zirconates such as Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} are active and stable catalysts for reduction Of SO{sub 2} by CO. More than 95% sulfur yield was achieved at reaction temperatures about 450{degrees}C or higher with the feed gas of stoichiometric composition. Reaction of SO{sub 2} and CO over these catalysts demonstrated a strong correlation of catalytic activity with the catalyst oxygen mobility. Furthermore, the catalytic activity and resistance to H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} poisoning of these catalysts were significantly enhanced by adding small amounts of transition metals, such as Co, Ni, Co, etc. The resulting transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalyst has superior activity and stability, and shows promise in long use for the development of a greatly simplified single-step sulfur recovery process to treat variable and dilute SO{sub 2} concentration gas streams. Among various active composite catalyst systems the Cu-CeO{sub 2} system has been extensively studied. XRD, XPS, and STEM analyses of the used Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalyst found that the fluorite crystal structure of ceria was stable at the present reaction conditions, small amounts of copper was dispersed and stabilized on the ceria matrix, and excess copper oxide particles formed copper sulfide crystals of little contribution to catalytic activity. A working catalyst consisted of partially sulfated cerium oxide surface and partially sulfided copper clusters. The overall reaction kinetics were approximately represented by a first order equation.

  16. Attribution of atmospheric sulfur dioxide over the English Channel to dimethyl sulfide and changing ship emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) was measured continuously from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) near Plymouth, United Kingdom, between May 2014 and November 2015. This coastal site is exposed to marine air across a wide wind sector. The predominant southwesterly winds carry relatively clean background Atlantic air. In contrast, air from the southeast is heavily influenced by exhaust plumes from ships in the English Channel as well as near Plymouth Sound. A new International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulation came into force in January 2015 to reduce the maximum allowed sulfur content in ships' fuel 10-fold in sulfur emission control areas such as the English Channel. Our observations suggest a 3-fold reduction in ship-emitted SO2 from 2014 to 2015. Apparent fuel sulfur content calculated from coincidental SO2 and carbon dioxide (CO2) peaks from local ship plumes show a high level of compliance to the IMO regulation (> 95 %) in both years (˜ 70 % of ships in 2014 were already emitting at levels below the 2015 cap). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is an important source of atmospheric SO2 even in this semi-polluted region. The relative contribution of DMS oxidation to the SO2 burden over the English Channel increased from about one-third in 2014 to about one-half in 2015 due to the reduction in ship sulfur emissions. Our diel analysis suggests that SO2 is removed from the marine atmospheric boundary layer in about half a day, with dry deposition to the ocean accounting for a quarter of the total loss.

  17. Adsorption of sulfur dioxide on ammonia-treated activated carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangun, C.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Economy, J.

    2001-01-01

    A series of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and ammonia-treated ACFs prepared from phenolic fiber precursors have been studied to elucidate the role of pore size, pore volume, and pore surface chemistry on adsorption of sulfur dioxide and its catalytic conversion to sulfuric acid. As expected, the incorporation of basic functional groups into the ACFs was shown as an effective method for increasing adsorption of sulfur dioxide. The adsorption capacity for dry SO2 did not follow specific trends; however the adsorption energies calculated from the DR equation were found to increase linearly with nitrogen content for each series of ACFs. Much higher adsorption capacities were achieved for SO2 in the presence of oxygen and water due to its catalytic conversion to H2SO4. The dominant factor for increasing adsorption of SO2 from simulated flue gas for each series of fibers studied was the weight percent of basic nitrogen groups present. In addition, the adsorption energies calculated for dry SO2 were shown to be linearly related to the adsorption capacity of H2SO4 from this flue gas for all fibers. It was shown that optimization of this parameter along with the pore volume results in higher adsorption capacities for removal of SO2 from flue gases. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Space-based detection of missing sulfur dioxide sources of global air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world--over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf--and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr-1, or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  19. Space-Based Detection of Missing Sulfur Dioxide Sources of Global Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world-over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf-and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr(exp -1), or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  20. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R; Martinez, Andrew S; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L; Wingen, Lisa M; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R; Gerber, R Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2015-11-03

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine-California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs.

  1. A vacuum-ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoelectron study of sulfur monoxide (SO) and its cation (SO+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chow-Shing; Wang, Hailing; Xu, Yuntao; Lau, Kai-Chung; Ng, C Y

    2011-04-14

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) spectroscopy has been applied to the study of the sulfur monoxide radical (SO) prepared by using a supersonically cooled radical beam source based on the 193 nm excimer laser photodissociation of SO(2). The vibronic VUV-PFI-PE bands for the photoionization transitions SO(+)(X(2)Π(1∕2); v(+) = 0) ← SO(X(3)Σ(-); v = 0); and SO(+)((2)Π(3∕2); v(+) = 0) ← SO(X(3)Σ(-); v = 0) have been recorded. On the basis of the semiempirical simulation of rotational branch contours observed in these PFI-PE bands, we have obtained highly precise ionization energies (IEs) of 83,034.2 ± 1.7 cm(-1) (10.2949 ± 0.0002 eV) and 83,400.4 ± 1.7 cm(-1) (10.3403 ± 0.0002 eV) for the formation of SO(+)(X(2)Π(1∕2); v(+) = 0) and SO(+)((2)Π(3∕2); v(+) = 0), respectively. The present VUV-PFI-PE measurement has enabled the direct determination of the spin-orbit coupling constant (A(0)) for SO(+)(X(2)Π(1∕2,3∕2)) to be 365.36 ± 0.12 cm(-1). We have also performed high-level ab initio quantum chemical calculations at the coupled-cluster level up to full quadruple excitations and complete basis set (CBS) extrapolation. The zero-point vibrational energy correction, the core-valence electronic correction, the spin-orbit coupling, and the high-level correction are included in the calculation. The IE[SO(+)(X(2)Π(1∕2,3∕2))] and A(0) predictions thus obtained are found to be in remarkable agreement with the experimental determinations.

  2. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide: A New Member of Gasotransmitter Family in the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaqian; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was previously regarded as a toxic gas in atmospheric pollutants. But it has been found to be endogenously generated from metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids in mammals through transamination by aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). SO2 could be produced in cardiovascular tissues catalyzed by its synthase AAT. In recent years, studies revealed that SO2 had physiological effects on the cardiovascular system, including vasorelaxation and cardiac function regulation. In addition, the pathophysiological effects of SO2 were also determined. For example, SO2 ameliorated systemic hypertension and pulmonary hypertension, prevented the development of atherosclerosis, and protected against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury. These findings suggested that endogenous SO2 was a novel gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and provided a new therapy target for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26839635

  3. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.: photosynthetic tissues and berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Considine

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on sulfite metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils and questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/ sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the ‘ambient’ environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO¬2 fumigation may extend for several months.

  4. Evaluation the Amount of Emission and Sulfur Dioxide Emission Factor from Tehran Oil Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavoshi B.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bachgrounds and Objectives: Oil, gas and petrochemical are known as important sources of air pollutants and emission of green house gases. About 99 percent of sulfur dioxide in the air is produced from human resources. Although several samples have been taken from industries and refineries' output by environmental experts and private companies, but accurate assessment is not available based on pollutant emissions on product levels (emission coefficients and on the total amount of the annual emission which, can be used as basic modeling of air pollution and planning.Materials and Methods: This study was cross sectional and the output of the chimney measured with Testo 350 XL system. Performance standard was determined based on ASTM D6522 EPACTMO30-41. The amounts of sulfur dioxide were measured from Tehran oil refinery's outlet from the beginning of the march 2007 till the year 2008 for 20 months. Sampling was carried out on averaged range (9 am to 14 pm.Results: The results showed that Northern Distillation unit produced pollutants' concentration more than 3 times in the southern Distillation unit. An emission of pollutants from Northern unit was, 2.8 times higher than the Southern unit. The northern emission factor was 5.6 times higher than the value obtained from southern unit. The Concentration, emissions and coefficient of sulfur dioxide in North catalyst convert unit were more than 2 times in comparison with the same South unit. These three factors in northern concentration breakers unit were 3, 2.6 and 2.6 times higher than the Southern concentration breakers unit‚ respectively.Discussion: Emission rate in all northern units is 2 to 3 times more than similar southern units. The production volumes in northern units are higher than the southern units and the southern units designed properly to remove more pollutants .The use of new technologies in production processes and application of the latest scientific resources can play a major role

  5. EVALUATION OF PROTON-CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR USE IN A SULFUR-DIOXIDE DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Colon-Mercado, H.

    2009-11-11

    The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDE's function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 C in 60 wt. % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 24 hours. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO{sub 2} transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO{sub 2} was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO{sub 2} transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO{sub 2} flux and SO{sub 2} transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO{sub 2} transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density versus a constant cell voltage (1V, 80 C in SO{sub 2} saturated 30 wt% H2SO{sub 4}). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO{sub 2} flux, SO{sub 2} transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

  6. Reducing the sulfur-dioxide binding power of sweet white wines by solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidane, Dorra; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Birot, Marc; Deleuze, Hervé

    2013-11-01

    The high sulfur-dioxide binding power of sweet white wines may be reduced by extracting the naturally present carbonyl compounds from wine that are responsible for carbonyl bisulphites formation. The carbonyl compounds mainly responsible for trapping SO2 are acetaldehyde, pyruvic acid, and 2-oxoglutaric acid. The method employed was selective solid phase extraction, using phenylsulfonylhydrazine as a scavenging agent. The scavenging function was grafted onto a support prepared from raw materials derived from lignin. This approach is more acceptable to winemakers than the polymer media previously reported, as it reduces the possible contamination of wine to molecules already present in the wine making process.

  7. Oxaldihydroxamic acid as a new reagent for the fixation of atmospheric sulfur dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Khana Rani; Gupta, V. K.

    In the present investigation 0.01 M aqueous oxaldihydroxamic acid has been used to stabilize the atmospheric sulfur dioxide. The collection efficiency of the reagent was found to be ~ 100% and the sulfite solution was stable for ⩾ 30 days at room temperature. The sulfite ion was estimated colorimetrically using acidified p-aminoazobenzene and formaldehyde. The pink coloured dye, λmax 505 nm, obeys Beer's law in the range of 0.1-1 ppm. The procedure has been optimized with respect to the acidity, time and reagent concentration. The method is simple, free from pH dependence and several commonly present air pollutants do not interfere.

  8. Remote sensing of sulfur dioxide (SO2) using the Lineate Imaging Near-Ultraviolet Spectrometer (LINUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Khoo, Sing Soong

    2005-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited The Lineate Image Near Ultraviolet Spectrometer (LINUS) is a spectral imager developed to operate in the 0.3-0.4 micron spectral region. The 2-D imager operates with a scan mirror, forming image scenes over time intervals of 10-20 minutes. Sensor calibration was conducted in the laboratory, and the system response to Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) gas was determined. The absorption profile for SO2 was measured, and curves of growth were construc...

  9. Formation of Hydrogen Sulfide in Wine: Interactions between Copper and Sulfur Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Marlize Z. Bekker; Smith, Mark E.; Smith, Paul A.; Eric N. Wilkes

    2016-01-01

    The combined synergistic effects of copper (Cu2+) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) on the formation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in Verdelho and Shiraz wine samples post-bottling was studied over a 12-month period. The combined treatment of Cu2+ and SO2 significantly increased H2S formation in Verdelho wines samples that were not previously treated with either Cu2+ or SO2. The formation of H2S produced through Cu2+ mediated reactions was likely either: (a) directly through the interaction of SO2 with ei...

  10. Contribution to the study of characteristics of Pelargonium resistance to an atmospheric pollutant, sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonte, J.; Bonte, C.; de Cormis, L.; Louguet, P.

    1977-01-01

    Eleven varieties of Pelargonium, subjected simultaneously to similar conditions of sulfur dioxide pollution, are arranged in ascending order of sensitivity. There is no relation between the relative susceptibility of the varieties to SO/sub 2/, the stomatal frequency and the dimensions of the stomatal apparatus. Nevertheless, a statistical comparative study of the stomatal movements of 2 Pelargonium, one resistant, the other sensitive, has shown that the closing rate of stomata and the reduction percentage of stomatal diffusive capacity are significantly different. These characteristics might be taken into consideration in the selection of varieties resistant to atmospheric pollution.

  11. Influence of sulfur dioxide on glycogenolysis in the lungs and liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vysocina, I.V.; Konstantinova, I.K.; Skvorcova, N.N.

    1974-04-01

    Report on research undertaken in white rats to determine the effect of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) inhalation on glycogenolysis. A concentration of 10mg/m/sup 3/ of SO/sub 2/ produced a dramatic fall in the pulmonary adenosine triphosphate level (to 3 times lower than the control value), while the lactic acid level was doubled. Anaerobic glycogenolysis in the lung homogenate tended to increase. No effect of SO/sub 2/ on anaerobic glycogenolysis in the liver tissue was observed at the concentration studied. The authors point to the carcinogenic effects of SO/sub 2/. (CIS Abstr.)

  12. [Significance of endogenous sulfur dioxide in the regulation of cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong Fang; DU, Shu Xu; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Su Qing; Tian, Yue; Bu, Ding Fang; Tang, Chao Shu; DU, Jun Bao

    2007-08-18

    Since the 1980's nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), the endogenous gas molecules produced from metabolic pathway, have been realized as signal molecules to be involved in the regulation of body homeostasis and to play important roles under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The researches on these endogenous gas signal molecules opened a new avenue in life science. To explore the new member of gasotransmitter family, other endogenous gas molecules which have been regarded as metabolic waste up to date, and their biological regulatory effects have been paid close attention to in the current fields of life science and medicine. Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) can be produced endogenously from normal metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. L-cysteine is oxidized via cysteine dioxygenase to L-cysteinesulfinate, and the latter can proceed through transamination by glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to beta-sulfinyl pyruvate which decomposes spontaneously to pyruvate and SO(2). In mammals, activated neutrophils by oxidative stress can convert H(2)S to sulfite through a reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-dependent process. The authors detected endogenous production of SO(2) in all cardiovascular tissues, including in heart, aorta, pulmonary artery, mesenteric artery, renal artery, tail artery and the plasma SO(2) content. As the key enzyme producing SO(2), GOT mRNA in cardiovascular system was detected and found to be located enriched in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells near the endothelial layer. When the normal rats were treated with hydroxamate(HDX), a GOT inhibitor, at a dose of 3.7 mg/kg body weight, the blood pressure (BP) went high markedly, the ratio of wall thickness to lumen radius was increased by 18.34%, and smooth muscle cell proliferation was enhanced. The plasma SO(2) level in the rats injected with 125 micromol/kg body weight SO(2) donor was

  13. GASP - THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF HELIUM, METHANE, NEON, NITROGEN, CARBON MONOXIDE, CARBON DIOXIDE, OXYGEN, AND ARGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    A computer program, GASP, has been written to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, fluorine, methane, neon, nitrogen, and oxygen. GASP accepts any two of pressure, temperature, or density as input. In addition, entropy and enthalpy are possible inputs. Outputs are temperature, density, pressure, entropy, enthalpy, specific heats, expansion coefficient, sonic velocity, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension. A special technique is provided to estimate the thermal conductivity near the thermodynamic critical point. GASP is a group of FORTRAN subroutines. The user typically would write a main program that invoked GASP to provide only the described outputs. Subroutines are structured so that the user may call only those subroutines needed for his particular calculations. Allowable pressures range from 0.l atmosphere to 100 to l,000 atmospheres, depending on the fluid. Similarly, allowable pressures range from the triple point of each substance to 300 degrees K to 2000 degrees K, depending on the substance. The GASP package was developed to be used with heat transfer and fluid flow applications. It is particularly useful in applications of cryogenic fluids. Some problems associated with the liquefication, storage, and gasification of liquefied natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas can also be studied using GASP. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and is available for implementation on IBM 7000 series computers. GASP was developed in 1971.

  14. Catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with carbon monoxide on copper-cobalt oxides supported on nano-titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Zhang, Junfeng; Huang, Yan; Tong, Zhiquan; Huang, Ming

    2009-01-01

    A series of copper-cobalt oxides supported on nano-titanium dioxide were prepared for the reduction of nitric oxide with carbon monoxide and characterized using techniques such as XRD, BET and TPR. Catalyst CuCoOx/TiO2 with Cu/Co molar ratio of 1/2, Cu-Co total loading of 30% at the calcination temperature of 350 degrees C formed CuCo2O4 spinel and had the highest activity. NO conversion reached 98.9% at 200 degrees C. Mechanism of the reduction was also investigated, N2O was mainly yielded below 100 degrees C, while N2 was produced instead at higher temperature. O2 was supposed to accelerate the reaction between NOx and CO for its oxidation of NO to give more easily reduced NO2, but the oxidation of CO by O2 to CO2 decreased the speed of the reaction greatly. Either SO2 or H2O had no adverse impact on the activity of NO reduction; however, in the presence of both SO2 and H2O, the catalyst deactivated quickly.

  15. GASP - THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF HELIUM, METHANE, NEON, NITROGEN, CARBON MONOXIDE, CARBON DIOXIDE, OXYGEN, AND ARGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    A computer program, GASP, has been written to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, fluorine, methane, neon, nitrogen, and oxygen. GASP accepts any two of pressure, temperature, or density as input. In addition, entropy and enthalpy are possible inputs. Outputs are temperature, density, pressure, entropy, enthalpy, specific heats, expansion coefficient, sonic velocity, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension. A special technique is provided to estimate the thermal conductivity near the thermodynamic critical point. GASP is a group of FORTRAN subroutines. The user typically would write a main program that invoked GASP to provide only the described outputs. Subroutines are structured so that the user may call only those subroutines needed for his particular calculations. Allowable pressures range from 0.l atmosphere to 100 to l,000 atmospheres, depending on the fluid. Similarly, allowable pressures range from the triple point of each substance to 300 degrees K to 2000 degrees K, depending on the substance. The GASP package was developed to be used with heat transfer and fluid flow applications. It is particularly useful in applications of cryogenic fluids. Some problems associated with the liquefication, storage, and gasification of liquefied natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas can also be studied using GASP. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and is available for implementation on IBM 7000 series computers. GASP was developed in 1971.

  16. Effect of Ethanol, Sulfur Dioxide and Glucose on the Growth of Wine Spoilage Yeasts Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Chandra

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was used to study the effect of three factors, sulfur dioxide, ethanol and glucose, on the growth of wine spoilage yeast species, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Seventeen central composite rotatable design (CCRD trials were designed for each test yeast using realistic concentrations of the factors (variables in premium red wine. Polynomial regression equations were fitted to experimental data points, and the growth inhibitory conditions of these three variables were determined. The overall results showed Sa. ludwigii as the most resistant species growing under high ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations, i.e., 15% (v/v/20 mg L-1, 14% (v/v/32 mg L-1 and 12.5% (v/v/40 mg L-1, whereas other yeasts did not survive under the same levels of ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations. The inhibitory effect of ethanol was primarily observed during longer incubation periods, compared with sulfur dioxide, which showed an immediate effect. In some CCRD trials, Sa. ludwigii and S. cerevisiae showed growth recovery after a short death period under the exposure of 20-32 mg L-1 sulfur dioxide in the presence of 11% (v/v or more ethanol. However, Sc. pombe and Z. bailii did not show such growth recovery under similar conditions. Up to 10 g L-1 of glucose did not prevent cell death under the sulfur dioxide or ethanol stress. This observation demonstrates that the sugar levels commonly used in wine to sweeten the mouthfeel do not increase wine susceptibility to spoilage yeasts, contrary to the anecdotal evidence.

  17. Experimental study on the temperature dependence of ultraviolet absorption cross-sections of sulfur dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The photoabsorption cross-sections of sulfur dioxide were measured in the spectral regions of 200-230 nm and 275 315 nm at 298-415 K,using a grating monochromator with a resolution of 0.2 nm.The discrete absorption cross-section is directly correlated with the number of quantum excited from the base state.The absorption cross-sections at the peaks of discrete bands decreased linearly with the increase of temperature,which corresponded to the decrease in the population of vibrational and rotational transitions from the base level to higher excitation levels.The absorption cross-section peaks decreased linearly when the temperature increased from 298 to 415 K,with relative drops of 74.0% and 75.8% at 200-230 nm and 275-315 nm,respectively.Another distinctive feature of sulfur dioxide absorption spectra in the above two spectral regions was the quasiperiodic structure of the absorption peaks,whose equal wavelength intervals were 1.53 nm and 1.95 nm,respectively.Red and blue shifts were not found at the absorption peak positions.

  18. OMI satellite observations of decadal changes in ground-level sulfur dioxide over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharol, Shailesh K.; McLinden, Chris A.; Sioris, Christopher E.; Shephard, Mark W.; Fioletov, Vitali; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.

    2017-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has a significant impact on the environment and human health. We estimated ground-level sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) using SO2 profiles from the Global Environmental Multi-scale - Modelling Air quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) model over North America for the period of 2005-2015. OMI-derived ground-level SO2 concentrations (r = 0. 61) and trends (r = 0. 74) correlated well with coincident in situ measurements from air quality networks over North America. We found a strong decreasing trend in coincidently sampled ground-level SO2 from OMI (-81 ± 19 %) and in situ measurements (-86 ± 13 %) over the eastern US for the period of 2005-2015, which reflects the implementation of stricter pollution control laws, including flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants. The spatially and temporally contiguous OMI-derived ground-level SO2 concentrations can be used to assess the impact of long-term exposure to SO2 on the health of humans and the environment.

  19. The distribution of sulfur dioxide and other infrared absorbers on the surface of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R.W.; Smythe, W.D.; Lopes-Gautier, R. M. C.; Davies, A.G.; Kamp, L.W.; Mosher, J.A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Leader, F.E.; Mehlman, R.; Clark, R.N.; Fanale, F.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer was used to investigate the distribution and properties of sulfur dioxide over the surface of Io, and qualitative results for the anti-Jove hemisphere are presented here. SO2, existing as a frost, is found almost everywhere, but with spatially variable concentration. The exceptions are volcanic hot spots, where high surface temperatures promote rapid vaporization and can produce SO2-free areas. The pervasive frost, if fully covering the cold surface, has characteristic grain sizes of 30 to 100 Urn, or greater. Regions of greater sulfur dioxide concentrations are found. The equatorial Colchis Regio area exhibits extensive snowfields with large particles (250 to 500 ??m diameter, or greater) beneath smaller particles. A weak feature at 3.15 ??m is observed and is perhaps due to hydroxides, hydrates, or water. A broad absorption in the 1 ??m region, which could be caused by iron-containing minerals, shows a concentration in Io'S southern polar region, with an absence in the Pele plume deposition ring. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Synthesis of cyclic sulfites from epoxides and sulfur dioxide with silica-immobilized homogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Yasumasa; Kiyosu, Takahiro; Mori, Goro; Choi, Jun-Chul; Fukaya, Norihisa; Sakakura, Toshiyasu; Yasuda, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-09

    Quaternary ammonium- and amino-functionalized silica catalysts have been prepared for the selective synthesis of cyclic sulfites from epoxides and sulfur dioxide, demonstrating the effects of immobilizing the homogeneous catalysts on silica. The cycloaddition of sulfur dioxide to various epoxides was conducted under solvent-free conditions at 100 °C. The quaternary ammonium- and amino-functionalized silica catalysts produced cyclic sulfites in high yields (79-96 %) that are comparable to those produced by the homogeneous catalysts. The functionalized silica catalysts could be separated from the product solution by filtration, thereby avoiding the catalytic decomposition of the cyclic sulfite products upon distillation of the product solution. Heterogenization of a homogeneous catalyst by immobilization can, therefore, improve the efficiency of the purification of crude reaction products. Despite a decrease in catalytic activity after each recycling step, the heterogeneous pyridine-functionalized silica catalyst provided high yields after as many as five recycling processes. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Behavior of lichens and mosses as affected by sulfur dioxide gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daessler, H.G.; Ranft, H.

    1969-01-01

    Smoking tests were carried out on 30 lichen and 20 moss species with sulfur dioxide in various concentrations to study the possible connection between the reduction of the lichen and moss flora and air pollution. The experiments resulted in different categories of damages to various species. The smokings were carried out in three series with daily exposure time of 6-9 hours. The respective concentrations for the three series of 22, 60 and 30 hours were 1.4; 0.6 and 3 ppm. The relative humidities for day and night were 70% and 90%, respectively, with temperatures of 10-15/sup 0/C and about 5/sup 0/C. In most lichens, discoloration was first found on the extremities and external parts of the thalli. Necrosis was manifest also inside the thallus with high concentrations. Parmelia furfuracea Ach. and Pamalina (farinacea) showed the highest sensitivity to sulfur dioxide, while Rhiocarpon geographicum Dc., Leanora vaia Ach. and Lecidea scalaris Hoffm. were found to be highly resistant. Judged from leaf damages, Sphagnum (spec.) Ana strepta orcadensis SCHIFFNER, Polytrichum commune I., and Polytrichum juniperinum WILLD were found to be most sensitive of all moss species. Pholia nutans LINDB. and Dicranella heteromalla SCHIMPER revealed fairly good resistance. Among lichens, Cetraria islandica, Cladonia rangiferina and arbuscula showed gradual discoloration. Active transpiration was observed even with high concentrations. The mosses showed brown to red colorations. Aged leaves and mosses from mountains were most sensitive.

  2. High-resolution photoabsorption cross section measurements of sulfur dioxide between 198 nm and 325 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Glenn; Smith, Peter; Blackie, Douglas; Blackwell-Whitehead, Richard; Pickering, Juliet; Rufus, James; Thorne, Anne

    Accurate photoabsorption cross section data at a range of temperatures are required for the incorporation of sulfur dioxide into atmospheric photochemical models. In addition to its role in the terrestrial atmosphere, sulfur dioxide is observed in significant concentrations in the atmospheres of Venus and Io. Our laboratory measurement program focuses on the very congested SO2 spectrum in the ultraviolet. Using the Imperial College UV Fourier transform spectrometer, we have recorded high-resolution (resolving power (λ/∆λ) = 450,000) absorption spectra in the 198 to 325 nm region over a range of temperatures from 160 K to 295 K. This high resolving power allows resolutions approaching those required to fully resolve the Doppler profile of SO2 in the UV. We have reported absolute photoabsorption cross sections at 295 K [Stark et al., JGR Planets 104, 16585 (1999); Rufus et al. JGR Planets 108, doi:10.1029/2002JE001931,(2003)]. Further measurements, at 160 K in the 198 to 200 nm region and at 195 K in the 220 to 325 nm region, have been recorded and analyzed. We present an overview of our new measured cross sections at temperatures and pressures comparable to those found in planetary atmospheres. This work was supported in part by NASA Grant NNG05GA03G, PPARC (UK), and the Leverhulme Trust.

  3. Sulfur dioxide and particulates as atmospheric pollution vectors. El dioxide de Azufre la materia particulada como vectores de la contaminacion atmosferica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabeza, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Samples taken from 1 st January 1990 till 31st December 1991 at different locations in Spain are presented. From these results and using priority lists and indexes suggested in the literature, the main conclusion is that sulfur dioxide and particulates are not a danger for the public health in the city of Aviles (one of the most contaminated cities in Spain). (Author)

  4. Absorption mechanism of carbon-nanotube paper- titanium dioxide as a multifunctional barrier material for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiyin Xu[1; Jiaren Yuan[1; Xinyong Tao[2; Bing Ding[1; Hui Dou[1; Xiaohong Yan[1,3; Yang xiao[1; Xiaogang Zhang[1

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries attract much interest as energy storage devices for their low cost, high specific capacity, and energy density. However, the insulating properties of sulfur and high solubility of lithium polysulfides decrease the utilization of active materials by the battery resulting in poor cycling performance. Herein, we design a multifunctional carbon-nanotube paper/titanium-dioxide barrier which effectively reduces active material loss and suppresses the diffusion of lithium polysulfides to the anode, thereby improving the cycling stability of lithium-sulfur batteries. Using this barrier, an activated carbon/sulfur cathode with 70% sulfur content delivers stable cycling performance and high Coulombic efficiency (-99%) over 250 cycles at a current rate of 0.5 C. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the synergistic effects of the carbon nanotube paper and titanium dioxide, involving the physical barrier, chemical adsorption from the binding formation of Ti-S and S-O, and other interactions unique to the titanium dioxide and sulfur species.

  5. Microbial reduction of sulfur dioxide with anaerobically digested municipal sewage biosolids as electron donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, P T; Sublette, K L

    1995-01-01

    A concentrated stream of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is produced by regeneration of the sorbent in certain new regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. We have previously proposed that this SO2 can be converted to elemental sulfur for disposal or byproduct recovery using a microbial/Claus process. In this process, two-thirds of the SO2-reducing gas stream would be contacted with a mixed culture containing sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), where SO2 would act as an electron acceptor with reduction to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). This H2S could then be recombined with the remaining SO2 and sent to a Claus unit to produce elemental sulfur. The sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, has been immobilized by coculture with flocforming heterotrophs from an anaerobic digester, resulting in a SO2-reducing floc that may be collected from the effluent of a continuous reactor for recycle by gravity sedimentation. The carbon and energy source for these cultures was anaerobically digested municipal sewage solids. The maximum specific activity for SO2 reduction in these cultures, in terms of dry weight of D. desulfuricans biomass, was 9.1 mmol of SO2/h.g. The stoichiometry with respect to the electron donor was 15.5 mg of soluble COD/mmol of SO2 reduced.

  6. Sulfur dioxide control by electric utilities: What are the gains from trade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Curtis Paul

    1999-11-01

    Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) established a market for transferable sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission allowances among electric utilities. This market offers firms facing high marginal pollution abatement costs the opportunity to purchase the tight to emit SO2 from firms with lower costs; as such, it is expected to yield cost savings compared to a command-and-control approach to environmental regulation. This thesis uses econometrically estimated marginal abatement cost functions for power plants affected by Title IV of the CAAA to evaluate the performance of the SO2 allowance market. Specifically, I investigate whether the much-heralded fall in the cost of abating SO2, compared to original estimates, can be attributed to allowance trading. I demonstrate that, for plants that use low-sulfur coal to reduce SO2 emissions, technical change and the fall in low sulfur coal prices have lowered marginal abatement cost curves by over 50% since 1985. This is the main source of cost reductions rather than trading per se. In the long run, allowance trading may achieve cost savings of 700-800 million per year compared to an "enlightened" command and control program characterized by a uniform emission rate standard. However, a comparison of potential cost savings in 1995 and 1996 with actual emissions costs suggest that most trading gains were unrealized in the first two years of the program.

  7. Sulfur dioxide from Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia: total flux and isotopic constraints on its origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stanley N.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Calvache V., Marta Lucia; Mendez F., Ricardo; Londoño C., Adela; García P., Nestor

    1990-07-01

    Nevado del Ruiz volcano has been releasing extraordinarily large volumes of sulfur dioxide gas from its Arenas crater since September, 1985 and probably since the renewal of volcanic activity began in late 1984. The combined release from eruptive and passive flux has been approximately (3.4 ± 1.0) × 10 6 metric tons in the four years after November, 1984. This value combined with data of others on pre-eruption sulfur content of the magma, allows the calculation of a minimum required volume of magma of 0.92 km 3. Consideration of the continued high flux and typical ratios of erupted to degassed magma indicate that the true minimum volume of magma involved is probably at least 4.6-9.2 km 3. A systematic study of the various species of sulfur in the volcanic plume and the hydrothermal system has provided a characterization of the geochemistry and sulfur-isotopic variation. Consideration has been given to five potential sources of the sulfur dioxide: dissolution of subvolcanic evaporites; remobilization and oxidation of native sulfur within summit crater fumaroles; large-scale release from the hydrothermal system by reduction of sulfate or water-rock interaction; assimilation and oxidation of a pre-existing sulfide deposit; and magmatic volatiles. The data are most realistically explained by the passage of magmatic gas through the hydrothermal system, with some disproportionation of sulfur dioxide to produce the high sulfate content and low pH of the waters. This model is also most consistent with the distribution of acid-sulfate-chloride hot springs, high chloride and fluoride content of the hydrothermal waters, sulfide deposition within the volcanic pile, and the transient increase in sulfate content of the acid-sulfate-chloride hot springs that reached a maximum approximately one year after the November, 1985 eruption. The magmatic model is in apparent conflict with the absence of general deformation from the time that data began to be collected, about one week

  8. Ambient nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide concentrations over a region of natural gas production, Northeastern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S. M. Nazrul; Jackson, Peter L.; Aherne, Julian

    2016-10-01

    The Peace River district of Northeastern British Columbia, Canada is a region of natural gas production that has undergone rapid expansion since 2005. In order to assess air quality implications, Willems badge passive diffusive samplers were deployed for six two-week exposure periods between August and November 2013, at 24 sites across the region to assess the ambient concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The highest concentrations of both species (NO2: 9.1 ppb, SO2: 1.91 ppb) during the whole study period (except the 1st exposure period), were observed in Taylor (Site 14), which is consistent with its location near major industrial sources. Emissions from industrial activities, and their interaction with meteorology and topography, result in variations in atmospheric dispersion that can increase air pollution concentrations in Taylor. However, relatively high concentrations of NO2 were also observed near the center of Chetwynd (site F20), indicating the importance of urban emissions sources in the region as well. Observations of both species from the other study sites document the spatial variability and show relatively high concentrations near Fort St. John and Dawson Creek, where unconventional oil and gas development activities are quite high. Although a few sites in Northeastern British Columbia recorded elevated concentrations of NO2 and SO2 during this investigation, the concentrations over the three-month period were well below provincial annual ambient air quality objectives. Nonetheless, given the limited observations in the region, and the accelerated importance of unconventional oil and gas extraction in meeting energy demands, it is imperative that monitoring networks are established to further assess the potential for elevated ambient concentrations associated with industrial emissions sources in the Peace River region.

  9. Effect of pH on sulfite oxidation by Thiobacillus thiooxidans cells with sulfurous acid or sulfur dioxide as a possible substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T L; Suzuki, I

    1994-02-01

    The oxidation of sulfite by Thiobacillus thiooxidans was studied at various pH values with changing concentrations of potassium sulfite. The optimal pH for sulfite oxidation by cells was a function of sulfite concentrations, rising with increasing substrate concentrations, while that by the cell extracts was unaffected. The sulfite oxidation by cells was inhibited at high sulfite concentrations, particularly at low pH values. The results from kinetic studies show that the fully protonated form of sulfite, sulfurous acid or sulfur dioxide, is the form which penetrates the cells for the oxidation.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Activation by Scandium Atoms and Scandium Monoxide Molecules: Formation and Spectroscopic Characterization of ScCO3 and OCScCO3 in Solid Neon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingnan; Qu, Hui; Chen, Mohua; Zhou, Mingfei

    2016-01-28

    The reactions of carbon dioxide with scandium monoxide molecules and scandium atoms are investigated using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy in solid neon. The species formed are identified by the effects of isotopic substitution on their infrared spectra as well as density functional calculations. The results show that the ground state ScO molecule reacts with carbon dioxide to form the carbonate complex ScCO3 spontaneously on annealing. The ground state Sc atom reacts with two carbon dioxide molecules to give the carbonate carbonyl complex OCScCO3 via the previously reported OScCO insertion intermediate on annealing. The observation of these spontaneous reactions is consistent with theoretical predictions that both the Sc + 2CO2 → OCScCO3 and ScO + CO2 → ScCO3 reactions are thermodynamically exothermic and are kinetically facile, requiring little or no activation energy.

  11. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR18 Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO ) Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes air quality designations for certain areas in the United States for the...

  12. Acute and chronic sulfur dioxide fumigation of Pi{tilde n}on pine seeds and seedlings: Data compilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo, M.L.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Gladney, E.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Bowker, R.G. [Alma Coll., MI (US). Dept. of Biology

    1993-09-01

    Pi{tilde n}on pine germinating seeds, emergent seedlings, and one-year-old seedlings were exposed to sulfur dioxide under both acute and chronic exposure conditions. These fumigations were conducted in order to determine the potential for damage to pi{tilde n}on pine in southwestern national parks and monuments where there is potential for exposure to elevated sulfur dioxide concentrations from smelters and power plants. Injury was apparent only in acute fumigations of one-year-old seedlings at ambient sulfur dioxide concentrations of greater than 3 ppm. Chronic fumigations were conducted only a ambient concentrations of 0.2 ppm. Pi{tilde n}on pine resistance was evidenced by lack of effect of fumigation on biomass and growth parameters. Growth rate data for both experimental and control seedlings were fit to a linear growth model with a correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.95). The results of this study agree with other data in the literature and indicate that damage from elevated sulfur dioxide concentrations in southwestern national parks and monuments is much more likely for other, more sensitive, species than for pi{tilde n}on pine.

  13. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  14. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  15. Limestone treatment for sulfur dioxide removal. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of limestone for the control of sulfur dioxide emmisions in flue gases. The various designs for flue gas desulfurization are discussed, including dry fluidized beds and wet scrubbers. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Taming sulfur dioxide: a breakthrough for its wide utilization in chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisseret, Philippe; Blanchard, Nicolas

    2013-09-07

    Although sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been used as a reagent for organic chemistry for more than one hundred years, being endowed with quite a distinct and varied reactivity profile, which allows the synthesis of a large range of compounds, its notorious toxicity as well as its gaseous state have impeded its frequent utilization by chemists. We summarize recent studies in this emerging area aimed at stimulating its utilization in organic (including organometallic) chemistry thanks to the development of innocuous, bench-stable reliable SO2 donors. Proof-of-concept experiments have also been recently performed in biology with the design of organic SO2 donors having controlled release profiles under physiological conditions, either active against mycobacteria or used for clarifying the role of endogenously produced SO2 in living cells.

  17. Impact of ozone and sulfur dioxide on the yield of agricultural crops. Technical bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerville, M.C.; Spruill, S.E.; Rawlings, J.O.; Lesser, V.M.

    1989-11-01

    The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) was formed in 1980 to assess the effects of air pollutants on major agricultural crop yields. NCLAN consisted of U. S. government and non-government organizations that conducted field experiments, crop yield modeling, and economic analyses. Ozone and sulfur dioxide were selected as the air pollutant treatments for NCLAN studies because they were known to cause damage to vegetation. Experimental methods and results from individual studies have been reported by the principal investigators in many publications. The purpose of the publication is to summarize the statistical methods used in the combined analyses, to present the polynomial and Weibull ozone dose-response equations determined in the combined analyses, and to summarize the effects of ozone on crop yields by presenting estimated relative yield losses for postulated levels of ozone pollution.

  18. The effect of sulfur dioxide on the response of rabbits to expiratory loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, P W; Freed, A N; Rex, K A

    1984-06-01

    The role of slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (PSR) in the reflex control of expiratory duration was investigated in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. Graded resistive and elastic loads were applied for single expirations to produce expiratory volume-time curves. The PSR were selectively blocked by administration of 200-400 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the inspired air of the rabbits. Volume-time curves were generated for pre-treatment, SO2 exposure, recovery and post-bilateral cervical vagotomy. SO2 exposure significantly reduced the volume-dependent modulation of expiratory duration from the pre-treatment levels. The response to the expiratory loads returned when the SO2 gas was removed. Vagotomy completely abolished any volume-dependent modulation of expiratory duration with expiratory loading. These results demonstrate that the response of rabbits to expiratory loads is vagally dependent. The hypothesis that PSR are the vagal afferents mediating this response is supported by these results.

  19. Controlled exposure of volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, W.S.; Fischer, D.A.; Shamoo, D.A.; Spier, C.E.; Valencia, L.M.; Anzar, U.T.; Hackney, J.D.

    1985-08-01

    Twenty-four volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) at 0, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm in an environmental control chamber. Exposures lasted 1 hr and included two 15-min exercise periods (mean exercise ventilation rate 18 liter/min). Pulmonary mechanical function was evaluated before exposures, after initial exercise, and at the end of exposure. Blood oxygenation was measured by ear oximetry before exposure and during the second exercise period. Symptoms were recorded throughout exposure periods and for 1 week afterward. No statistically significant changes in physiology or symptoms could be attributed to SO/sub 2/ exposure. Older adults with COPD seem less reactive to a given concentration of SO/sub 2/ than heavily exercising young adult asthmatics. This may be due to lower ventilation rates (i.e., lower SO/sub 2/ dose rates) and/or to lower airway reactivity in the COPD group.

  20. Degradation of sulfur dioxide using plasma technology; Degradacion de dioxido de azufre empleando tecnologia de plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada M, N.; Garcia E, R. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Pacheco P, M.; Valdivia B, R.; Pacheco S, J., E-mail: nadiaemz@yahoo.com.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the electro-chemical study performed for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) treatment using non thermal plasma coupled to a nano structured fluid bed enhancing the toxic gas removal and the adsorption of acids formed during plasma treatment, more of 80% of removal was obtained. Non thermal plasma was ignited by dielectric barrier discharge (Dbd). The research was developed through an analysis of the chemical kinetics of the process and experimental study of degradation; in each experiment the electrical parameters and the influence of carbon nano structures were monitored to establish the optimal conditions of degradation. We compared the theoretical and experimental results to conclude whether the proposed model is correct for degradation. (Author)

  1. Hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, Tilahun Awoke; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Wotango, Aselefech Sorsa; Pan, Chun-Jern; Chen, Hung-Ming; Haregewoin, Atetegeb Meazah; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we design hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite (MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S) as a positive electrode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host material is produced by a low-cost, hydrothermal and annealing process. The resulting conductive material shows dual microporous and mesoporous behavior which enhances the effective trapping of sulfur and polysulfides. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S composite material possesses rutile TiO2 nanotube structure with successful carbon doping while sulfur is uniformly distributed in the hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 composite materials after the melt-infusion process. The electrochemical measurement of the hybrid material also shows improved cycle stability and rate performance with high sulfur loading (61.04%). The material delivers an initial discharge capacity of 802 mAh g-1 and maintains it at 578 mAh g-1 with a columbic efficiency greater than 97.1% after 140 cycles at 0.1 C. This improvement is thought to be attributed to the unique hybrid nanostructure of the MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host and the good dispersion of sulfur in the narrow pores of the MC spheres and the mesoporous C-doped TiO2 support.

  2. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Responsive Characteristics of Hierarchical Zinc Oxide Nanoflowers to Sulfur Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide, SO2, is one of the most important decomposition byproducts of sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, under partial discharge in GIS apparatus. The sensing performances of semiconductor gas sensors can be improved by morphology tailoring. This paper reported the synthesis method, structural characterization, and SO2 responsive characteristics of hierarchical flower-shaped ZnO nanostructures. Hierarchical ZnO nanoflowers were successfully prepared via a facile and simple hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Planar chemical gas sensor was fabricated and its responsive characteristics towards SO2 were systematically performed. The optimum operating temperature of the fabricated sensor was measured to be about 260°C, and the corresponding maximum responses were 16.72 and 26.14 to 30 and 60 ppm of SO2. Its saturated gas concentration was 2000 ppm with a response value of 67.41. Moreover, a quick response and recovery feature (7 s and 8 s versus 80 ppm of SO2 and good stability were also observed. All results indicate that the proposed sensor is a promising candidate for detecting SF6 decomposition byproduct SO2.

  3. Constraining the sulfur dioxide degassing flux from Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica using unmanned aerial system measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xin; Johnson, Matthew S.; Jeong, Seongeun; Fladeland, Matthew; Pieri, David; Diaz, Jorge Andres; Bland, Geoffrey L.

    2016-10-01

    Observed sulfur dioxide (SO2) mixing ratios onboard unmanned aerial systems (UAS) during March 11-13, 2013 are used to constrain the three-day averaged SO2 degassing flux from Turrialba volcano within a Bayesian inverse modeling framework. A mesoscale model coupled with Lagrangian stochastic particle backward trajectories is used to quantify the source-receptor relationships at very high spatial resolutions (i.e., < 1 km). The model shows better performance in reproducing the near-surface meteorological properties and observed SO2 variations when using a first-order closure non-local planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme. The optimized SO2 degassing fluxes vary from 0.59 ± 0.37 to 0.83 ± 0.33 kt d- 1 depending on the PBL scheme used. These fluxes are in good agreement with ground-based gas flux measurements, and correspond to corrective scale factors of 8-12 to the posteruptive SO2 degassing rate in the AeroCom emission inventory. The maximum a posteriori solution for the SO2 flux is highly sensitive to the specification of prior and observational errors, and relatively insensitive to the SO2 loss term and temporal averaging of observations. Our results indicate relatively low degassing activity but sustained sulfur emissions from Turrialba volcano to the troposphere during March 2013. This study demonstrates the utility of low-cost small UAS platforms for volcanic gas composition and flux analysis.

  4. Dynamic analysis of sulfur dioxide monthly emissions in United States power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Kyung

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 marked a moving away from command-and-control air quality regulations towards a market-based approach, whereby polluters are assigned annual emission allowances, and are free to select the minimum-cost approach that will keep their actual annual emissions within this allowance limit. Within this context, the objectives of this research are to better understand (1) the temporal patterns of SO 2 emissions from power plants, and (2) the factors affecting fuel choice and SO2 emissions. Large power plant-related datasets from various sources are collected, processed, and combined for empirical analyses, to explain monthly fuel shipments, fuel consumptions, sulfur shipments, gross and net SO 2 emissions, and fuel choices. Because of the interdependency of these various sulfur dioxide, simultaneous equations estimation techniques are used. The empirical findings are as follows. First, forecasts of electricity demand and fuel prices are the main determinants of the amounts and types of fuel shipments. The relationship between fuel shipments and forecasted fuel needs is very strong for the current month, and gradually weakens over future months, due to forecasting difficulties and the costs of fuel inventories. Second, net SO2 emissions increase with allowances, although not proportionately, because of the likely effects of allowance banking and trading. Third, each plant reduces SO2 emissions gradually over time, to account for the future more stringent Phase II emissions constraints. Fourth, plants emit less in winter, possibly because higher electricity leads to reduced unit SO2 emission abatement costs. Finally, plants with an FGD usually consume more high-sulfur fuels due to their potential abatement capability. An integrated analysis of the effects of changing emission allowances and installing FGD is conducted through a simulation. Reducing allowances by 1% leads to an emissions reduction of 0.15% at the plant level

  5. Spatial and temporal variability of urban fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide above London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Tremper, Anja H.; Halios, Christoforos H.; Kotthaus, Simone; Bjorkegren, Alex; Grimmond, C. Sue B.; Barlow, Janet F.; Nemitz, Eiko

    2016-08-01

    We report on more than 3 years of measurements of fluxes of methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) taken by eddy-covariance in central London, UK. Mean annual emissions of CO2 in the period 2012-2014 (39.1 ± 2.4 ktons km-2 yr-1) and CO (89 ± 16 tons km-2 yr-1) were consistent (within 1 and 5 % respectively) with values from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, but measured CH4 emissions (72 ± 3 tons km-2 yr-1) were over two-fold larger than the inventory value. Seasonal variability was large for CO with a winter to summer reduction of 69 %, and monthly fluxes were strongly anti-correlated with mean air temperature. The winter increment in CO emissions was attributed mainly to vehicle cold starts and reduced fuel combustion efficiency. CO2 fluxes were 33 % higher in winter than in summer and anti-correlated with mean air temperature, albeit to a lesser extent than for CO. This was attributed to an increased demand for natural gas for heating during the winter. CH4 fluxes exhibited moderate seasonality (21 % larger in winter), and a spatially variable linear anti-correlation with air temperature. Differences in resident population within the flux footprint explained up to 90 % of the spatial variability of the annual CO2 fluxes and up to 99 % for CH4. Furthermore, we suggest that biogenic sources of CH4, such as wastewater, which is unaccounted for by the atmospheric emissions inventories, make a substantial contribution to the overall budget and that commuting dynamics in and out of central business districts could explain some of the spatial and temporal variability of CO2 and CH4 emissions. To our knowledge, this study is unique given the length of the data sets presented, especially for CO and CH4 fluxes. This study offers an independent assessment of "bottom-up" emissions inventories and demonstrates that the urban sources of CO and CO2 are well characterized in London. This is however not the case for CH4 emissions which are

  6. Two standardized methods for the determination of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere, and statistical study on analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anechina, P.; Alvarez, S.; Merchan, M.L.; De La Serna, J.

    1974-01-01

    The reliability of the thorin method for the measurement of atmospheric sulfur dioxide was evaluated. The calibration curve is obtained using a series of standard samples in duplicate, from 0 to 8 micrograms of SO/sub 2//ml. These standards samples are obtained by adding aliquots of 0.1 N solution of sulfuric acid to the absorption solution. The line of best fit is determined using the regression analysis by the method of minimal squares. Three control samples were measured daily from calculated volumes of 0.1 N solution H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, equivalents to 2, 5, and 8 micrograms of SO/sub 2//ml.

  7. Formation of Hydrogen Sulfide in Wine: Interactions between Copper and Sulfur Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlize Z. Bekker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The combined synergistic effects of copper (Cu2+ and sulfur dioxide (SO2 on the formation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S in Verdelho and Shiraz wine samples post-bottling was studied over a 12-month period. The combined treatment of Cu2+ and SO2 significantly increased H2S formation in Verdelho wines samples that were not previously treated with either Cu2+ or SO2. The formation of H2S produced through Cu2+ mediated reactions was likely either: (a directly through the interaction of SO2 with either Cu2+ or H2S; or (b indirectly through the interaction of SO2 with other wine matrix compounds. To gain better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the significant increases in H2S concentration in the Verdelho samples, the interaction between Cu2+ and SO2 was studied in a model wine matrix with and without the presence of a representative thiol quenching compound (4-methylbenzoquinone, 4MBQ. In these model studies, the importance of naturally occurring wine compounds and wine additives, such as quinones, SO2, and metal ions, in modulating the formation of H2S post-bottling was demonstrated. When present in equimolar concentrations a 1:1 ratio of H2S- and SO2-catechol adducts were produced. At wine relevant concentrations, however, only SO2-adducts were produced, reinforcing that the competition reactions of sulfur nucleophiles, such as H2S and SO2, with wine matrix compounds play a critical role in modulating final H2S concentrations in wines.

  8. Formation of Hydrogen Sulfide in Wine: Interactions between Copper and Sulfur Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Marlize Z; Smith, Mark E; Smith, Paul A; Wilkes, Eric N

    2016-09-10

    The combined synergistic effects of copper (Cu(2+)) and sulfur dioxide (SO₂) on the formation of hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) in Verdelho and Shiraz wine samples post-bottling was studied over a 12-month period. The combined treatment of Cu(2+) and SO₂ significantly increased H₂S formation in Verdelho wines samples that were not previously treated with either Cu(2+) or SO₂. The formation of H₂S produced through Cu(2+) mediated reactions was likely either: (a) directly through the interaction of SO₂ with either Cu(2+) or H₂S; or (b) indirectly through the interaction of SO₂ with other wine matrix compounds. To gain better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the significant increases in H₂S concentration in the Verdelho samples, the interaction between Cu(2+) and SO₂ was studied in a model wine matrix with and without the presence of a representative thiol quenching compound (4-methylbenzoquinone, 4MBQ). In these model studies, the importance of naturally occurring wine compounds and wine additives, such as quinones, SO₂, and metal ions, in modulating the formation of H₂S post-bottling was demonstrated. When present in equimolar concentrations a 1:1 ratio of H₂S- and SO₂-catechol adducts were produced. At wine relevant concentrations, however, only SO₂-adducts were produced, reinforcing that the competition reactions of sulfur nucleophiles, such as H₂S and SO₂, with wine matrix compounds play a critical role in modulating final H₂S concentrations in wines.

  9. Ru-OSO coordination photogenerated at 100 K in tetraammineaqua(sulfur dioxide)ruthenium(II) (±)-camphorsulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony E; Cole, Jacqueline M; d'Almeida, Thierry; Low, Kian Sing

    2012-02-06

    The photoinduced O-bound coordination mode in RuSO(2) complexes, previously observed only at 13 K, has been generated at 100 K in tetraammineaqua(sulfur dioxide)ruthenium(II) (±)-camphorsulfonate. This coordination state, often denoted MS1, decays to the η(2)-bound MS2 state, with an estimated half-life of 3.4(8) h and a long-lived population of 2.9(4)% at 120 K.

  10. Analysis of sulfur dioxide conversion process%二氧化硫转化过程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈岩; 王全贵; 张晓晶

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur trioxide sulfonation technology has been widely used in synthetic detergent industry in our country, for our detergent production technology and product quality improvement and development has played a positive role in promoting, and has been applied to the petroleum and chemical industries. Sulfur dioxide conversion unit is also caled sulfur trioxide preparation unit, and is an important part of the apparatus. This paper mainly describes the importance of the conversion of sulfur dioxide and the reaction process, ilustrating The conversion of sulfur dioxide can be realized in the industrial production must be the role of the catalyst.%三氧化硫磺化技术在我国合成洗涤剂工业中已广泛使用,为我国洗涤剂生产技术及产品质量的提高和发展起到了积极的推动作用,并已推广应用到石油和化工行业。二氧化硫转化单元也称为三氧化硫制备单元,是SO3磺化装置中的重要组成部分。文中着重描述了二氧化硫转化的重要性及其反应过程,说明了二氧化硫的转化必须在触媒的作用下才可以实现工业化生产的事实。

  11. Application of Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging to Detect Sulfur Dioxide Residual in the Fritillaria thunbergii Bulbus Treated by Sulfur Fumigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-fumigated Chinese medicine is a common issue in the process of Chinese medicines. Detection of sulfur dioxide (SO2 residual content in Fritillaria thunbergii Bulbus is important to evaluate the degree of sulfur fumigation and its harms. It helps to control the use of sulfur fumigation in Fritillaria thunbergii Bulbus. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI was explored as a rapid, non-destructive, and accurate technique to detect SO2 residual contents in Fritillaria thunbergii Bulbus. An HSI system covering the spectral range of 874–1734 nm was used. Partial least squares regression (PLSR was applied to build calibration models for SO2 residual content detection. Successive projections algorithm (SPA, weighted regression coefficients (Bw, random frog (RF, and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS were used to select optimal wavelengths. PLSR models using the full spectrum and the selected optimal wavelengths obtained good performance. The Bw-PLSR model was applied on a hyperspectral image to form a prediction map, and the results were satisfactory. The overall results in this study indicated that HSI could be used as a promising technique for on-line visualization and monitoring of SO2 residual content in Fritillaria thunbergii Bulbus. Detection and visualization of Chinese medicine quality by HSI provided a new rapid and visual method for Chinese medicine monitoring, showing great potential for real-world application.

  12. Direct effect of chlorine dioxide, zinc chloride and chlorhexidine solution on the gaseous volatile sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Sik; Park, Ji-Woon; Kim, Dae-Jung; Kim, Young-Ku; Lee, Jeong-Yun

    2014-11-01

    This study focused on the ability of aqueous anti-volatile-sulfur-compound (VSC) solutions to eliminate gaseous VSCs by direct contact in a sealed space to describe possible mode of action of anti-VSC agents. Twenty milliliters of each experimental solution, 0.16% sodium chlorite, 0.25% zinc chloride, 0.1% chlorhexidine and distilled water, was injected into a Teflon bag containing mixed VSCs, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide and mixed vigorously for 30 s. The VSC concentration was measured by gas chromatography before, immediately after, 30 min and 60 min after mixing. The sodium chlorite solution reduced the VSC concentration remarkably. After mixing, nearly all VSCs were eliminated immediately and no VSCs were detected at 30 and 60 min post-mixing. However, in the other solutions, the VSC concentration decreased by ∼30% immediately after mixing and there was no further decrease. The results suggest that sodium chlorite solution has the effect of eliminating gaseous VSCs directly. This must be because it can release chlorine dioxide gas which can react directly with gaseous VSCs. In the case of other solutions that have been proved to be effective to reduce halitosis clinically, it can be proposed that their anti-VSC effect is less likely due to the direct chemical elimination of gaseous VSCs in the mouth.

  13. Manipulating the Surface Chemistry of Quantum Dots for Sensitive Ratiometric Fluorescence Detection of Sulfur Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huihui; Zhu, Houjuan; Sun, Mingtai; Yan, Yehan; Zhang, Kui; Huang, Dejian; Wang, Suhua

    2015-08-11

    Herein, we report a novel approach to the rapid visual detection of gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO2) by manipulating the surface chemistry of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS)-modified quantum dots (QDs) using fluorescent coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (CCA) for specific reaction with SO2. The CCA molecules are attached to the surface amino groups of the QDs through electrostatic attraction, thus the fluorescence of CCA is greatly suppressed because of the formation of an ion-pair complex between the ATPS-modified QDs and CCA. Such an interaction is vulnerable to SO2 because SO2 can readily react with surface amino groups to form strong charge-transfer complexes and subsequently release the strongly fluorescent CCA molecules. The mechanism has been carefully verified through a series of control experiments. Upon exposure to different amounts of SO2, the fluorescent color of the nanoparticle-based sensor displays continuously changes from red to blue. Most importantly, the approach owns high selectivity for SO2 and a tolerance of interference, which enables the sensor to detect SO2 in a practical application. Using this fluorescence-based sensing method, we have achieved a visual detection limit of 6 ppb for gaseous SO2.

  14. Compact, DC-electrical biased sulfur dioxide sensing elements for use at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, David L [ORNL; Montgomery, Fred C [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Fabrication and operation of sensing elements for the detection of sulfur dioxide (SO_2) at high temperature (800 900 ^oC) is reported. The sensing elements consisted of three (two oxide and one Pt) electrodes on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates. To operate the elements, a DC current (typically about 0.1 mA) is driven between two of the electrodes and the voltage between one of these electrodes and the third electrode is used as the sensing signal. These sensing elements respond very strongly to SO_2, for example 2 ppm_V of SO_2 in a background of 7 vol% O_2, balance N_2 was found to produce a >10% change in the sensing signal, which could be easily detected. Sensing elements fabricated to be nominally identical were shown to yield qualitatively identical sensing behavior, and temperature, oxygen content, and flow were all found to strongly impact sensing performance. The impact of interferents, such as NO_x and CO, was evaluated and found to be relatively small in comparison to the SO_2 response. The sensing response, over a 1 month period, was very stable, with the ratio of the average change in sensing signal over one day to the average sensing signal magnitude being about 0.1%.

  15. Removal of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide by carbons impregnated with triethylenediamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Chun; Chang, Tsu-Hua; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2007-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) adsorption has long been considered to be a readily available technology for providing protection against exposure to acutely toxic gases. However, ACs without chemical impregnation have proven to be much less efficient than impregnated ACs in terms of gas removal. The impregnated ACs in current use are usually modified with metalloid impregnation agents (ASC-carbons; copper, chromium, or silver) to simultaneously enhance the chemical and physical properties of the ACs in removing specific poisonous gases. These metalloid agents, however, can cause acute poisoning to both humans and the environment, thereby necessitating the search for organic impregnation agents that present a much lower risk. The aim of the study reported here was to assess AC or ASC-carbon impregnated with triethylenediamine (TEDA) in terms of its adsorption capability for simulated hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gases. The investigation was undergone in a properly designed laboratory-scale and industrial fume hood evaluation. Using the system reported here, we obtained a significant adsorption: the removal capability for H2S and SO2 was 375 and 229 mg/g-C, respectively. BET measurements, element analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry identified the removal mechanism for TEDA-impregnated AC to be both chemical and physical adsorption. Chemical adsorption and oxidation were the primary means by which TEDA-impregnated ASC-carbons removed the simulated gases.

  16. Role of Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide in Regulating Vascular Structural Remodeling in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2, an emerging gasotransmitter, was discovered to be endogenously generated in the cardiovascular system. Recently, the physiological effects of endogenous SO2 were confirmed. Vascular structural remodeling (VSR, an important pathological change in many cardiovascular diseases, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the diseases. Here, the authors reviewed the research progress of endogenous SO2 in regulating VSR by searching the relevant data from PubMed and Medline. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs and pulmonary hypertensive rats, SO2/aspartate aminotransferase (AAT pathway was significantly altered. SO2 inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation, promoted apoptosis, inhibited the synthesis of extracellular collagen but promoted its degradation, and enhanced antioxidative capacity, thereby playing a significant role in attenuating VSR. However, the detailed mechanisms needed to be further explored. Further studies in this field would be important for the better understanding of the pathogenesis of systemic hypertension and pulmonary hypertension. Also, clinical trials are needed to demonstrate if SO2 would be a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases.

  17. 45. Damage effects of sulfur dioxide inhalation on DNA of brain cells from mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The damage effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2) inhalation on DNA of brain cells from mice were studied with the single cell microgel electrophoresis tecknique (Comet test). The results show that SO2 inhalation caused the damage effects to DNA of the mouse brain cells in a dose-dependent manner. The results indicate that even under SO2 inhalation at low concentrations as 7 mg SO2/m3, The brain cells with DNA damaged also reached to 98.8%, it implies the brain cells of mammalian animals are very sensitive to SO2 inhalation. The results also indicate that DNA damage of the brain cells from male mice is more serious than that from female mice, that remains to be further studied. These results led us to conclusion SO2 pollution even at low concentrations also has a potential risk to damage genetic material DNA of brain cells from mammalian animals. It might be explained by our conclusion that the recently published epidemiological studies of workers exposed to SO2 or it's derivatives (bi)sulfite) found increased mortality for brain cancer.

  18. Analysis of airway secretions in a model of sulfur dioxide induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypersecretion and chronic phlegm are major symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD but animal models of COPD with a defined functional hypersecretion have not been established so far. To identify an animal model of combined morphological signs of airway inflammation and functional hypersecretion, rats were continuously exposed to different levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2, 5 ppm, 10 ppm, 20 ppm, 40 ppm, 80 ppm for 3 (short-term or 20–25 (long-term days. Histology revealed a dose-dependent increase in edema formation and inflammatory cell infiltration in short-term-exposed animals. The submucosal edema was replaced by fibrosis after long-term-exposure. The basal secretory activity was only significantly increased in the 20 ppm group. Also, stimulated secretion was significantly increased only after exposure to 20 ppm. BrdU-assays and AgNOR-analysis demonstrated cellular metaplasia and glandular hypertrophy rather than hyperplasia as the underlying morphological correlate of the hypersecretion. In summary, SO2-exposure can lead to characteristic airway remodeling and changes in mucus secretion in rats. As only long-term exposure to 20 ppm leads to a combination of hypersecretion and airway inflammation, only this mode of exposure should be used to mimic human COPD. Concentrations less or higher than 20 ppm or short term exposure do not induce the respiratory symptom of hypersecretion. The present model may be used to characterize the effects of new compounds on mucus secretion in the background of experimental COPD.

  19. Perinatal sulfur dioxide exposure alters brainstem parasympathetic control of heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerman, Amanda L; Mendelowitz, David

    2013-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is an air pollutant that impedes neonatal development and induces adverse cardiorespiratory health effects, including tachycardia. Here, an animal model was developed that enabled characterization of (i) in vivo alterations in heart rate and (ii) altered activity in brainstem neurons that control heart rate after perinatal SO₂ exposure. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams and their pups were exposed to 5 parts per million SO₂ for 1 h daily throughout gestation and 6 days postnatal. Electrocardiograms were recorded from pups at 5 days postnatal to examine changes in basal and diving reflex-evoked changes in heart rate following perinatal SO₂ exposure. In vitro studies employed whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology to examine changes in neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons within the nucleus ambiguus upon SO₂ exposure using a preparation that maintains fictive inspiratory activity recorded from the hypoglossal rootlet. Perinatal SO₂ exposure increased heart rate and blunted the parasympathetic-mediated diving reflex-evoked changes in heart rate. Neither spontaneous nor inspiratory-related inhibitory GABAergic or glycinergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons was altered by SO₂ exposure. However, excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission was decreased by 51.2% upon SO₂ exposure. This diminished excitatory neurotransmission was tetrodotoxin-sensitive, indicating SO₂ exposure impaired the activity of preceding glutamatergic neurons that synapse upon cardiac vagal neurons. Diminished glutamatergic, but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons provides a mechanism for the observed SO₂-induced elevated heart rate via an impairment of brainstem cardioinhibitory parasympathetic activity to the heart.

  20. Activity Enhancement of Vanadium Catalysts with Ultrasonic Preparation Process for the Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenxing Chen; Honggui Li; Lingsen Wang

    2003-01-01

    The effect of ultrasonic cavitations on the activity of vanadium catalysts at low temperatures for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide, in which refined carbonized mother liquor had been added, was investigated.Twenty minutes were needed to produce obvious cavitations when the catalyst raw material was treated in the 50 W ultrasonic generator. However, only 10 minutes would be needed in a 150 W ultrasonic generator.The higher the temperature of the wet material, the less time was needed to produce cavitations, and the optimal temperature was 60 ℃. The water content in the wet material mainly affected the quantity of cavitations. Ls-8 catalyst was prepared using ultrasonic. Its activity for conversion of SO2 reached to 52.5% at 410 ℃ and 4.2% at 350 ℃. The differential thermal analyses indicate that both endothermic peaks and exothermic peaks noticeably shifted forward compared with Ls catalyst prepared without ultrasonic, and SEM results show a uniform pore size distribution for Ls-8 catalyst.

  1. Contrasting effects of sulfur dioxide on cupric oxide and chloride during thermochemical formation of chlorinated aromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Nishimoto, Yoshihiro; Shiota, Kenji; Takaoka, Masaki

    2014-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas has been reported to be an inhibitor of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) formation in fly ash. However, other research has suggested little or no inhibitory effect of SO2 gas. Although these studies focused on reactions between SO2 gas and gas-phase chlorine (Cl) species, no attention was paid to thermochemical gas-solid reactions. In this study, we found contrasting effects of SO2 gas depending on the chemical form of copper (CuO vs CuCl2) with a solid-phase inorganic Cl source (KCl). Chlorinated aromatics (PCDD/Fs, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorobenzenes) increased and decreased in model fly ash containing CuO + KCl and CuCl2 + KCl, respectively, with increased SO2 injection. According to in situ Cu K-edge and S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Cl gas and CuCl2 were generated and then promoted the formation of highly chlorinated aromatics after thermochemical reactions of SO2 gas with the solid-phase CuO + KCl system. In contrast, the decrease in aromatic-Cls in a CuCl2 + KCl system with SO2 gas was caused mainly by the partial sulfation of the Cu. The chemical form of Cu (especially the oxide/chloride ratio) may be a critical factor in controlling the formation of chlorinated aromatics using SO2 gas.

  2. Role of Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide in Regulating Vascular Structural Remodeling in Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Selena; Tang, Chaoshu

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), an emerging gasotransmitter, was discovered to be endogenously generated in the cardiovascular system. Recently, the physiological effects of endogenous SO2 were confirmed. Vascular structural remodeling (VSR), an important pathological change in many cardiovascular diseases, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the diseases. Here, the authors reviewed the research progress of endogenous SO2 in regulating VSR by searching the relevant data from PubMed and Medline. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and pulmonary hypertensive rats, SO2/aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) pathway was significantly altered. SO2 inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, promoted apoptosis, inhibited the synthesis of extracellular collagen but promoted its degradation, and enhanced antioxidative capacity, thereby playing a significant role in attenuating VSR. However, the detailed mechanisms needed to be further explored. Further studies in this field would be important for the better understanding of the pathogenesis of systemic hypertension and pulmonary hypertension. Also, clinical trials are needed to demonstrate if SO2 would be a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases.

  3. The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation of molecular chlorine during co-combustion of fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Y.; Xie, W.; Liu, K.; Dicken, L.; Pan, W.-P.; Riley, J.T. [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (USA). Combustion Lab., Dept. of Chemistry

    2000-06-01

    This project was designed to evaluate the combustion performance of and emissions from a fluidized bed combustor during the combustion of mixtures of high sulfur and/or high chlorine coals and municipal solid waste (MSW). The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation of molecular chlorine during co-combustion of fuels was examined in this study. Sulfur dioxide was shown to be an effective inhibitor for the formation of molecular chlorine through the Deacon Reaction and subsequently, the formation of chlorinated organics. Theoretically, co-firing high sulfur coals with MSW will decrease the possibility of polychlorodibenzodioxin/furan (PCDD/F) formation during the combustion process. A mixture of coal and PVC pellets was burned in a 0.1 MW{sub th} bench-scale fluidized bed system at WKU and no detectable amounts of chlorinated organics were found in the flue gas and bed ash. The results from this study indicated the practical effects of using coal as a combustion support fuel when burning MSW. 23 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Assessing hazards to aviation from sulfur dioxide emitted by explosive Icelandic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; Witham, Claire S.; Theys, Nicolas; Richards, Nigel A. D.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Szpek, Kate; Feng, Wuhu; Hort, Matthew C.; Woolley, Alan M.; Jones, Andrew R.; Redington, Alison L.; Johnson, Ben T.; Hayward, Chris L.; Carslaw, Kenneth S.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions take place in Iceland about once every 3 to 5 years. Ash emissions from these eruptions can cause significant disruption to air traffic over Europe and the North Atlantic as is evident from the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is also emitted by volcanoes, but there are no criteria to define when airspace is considered hazardous or nonhazardous. However, SO2 is a well-known ground-level pollutant that can have detrimental effects on human health. We have used the United Kingdom Met Office's NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) model to simulate SO2 mass concentrations that could occur in European and North Atlantic airspace for a range of hypothetical explosive eruptions in Iceland with a probability to occur about once every 3 to 5 years. Model performance was evaluated for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption against SO2 vertical column density retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and in situ measurements from the United Kingdom Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements research aircraft. We show that at no time during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption did SO2 mass concentrations at flight altitudes violate European air quality standards. In contrast, during a hypothetical short-duration explosive eruption similar to Hekla in 2000 (emitting 0.2 Tg of SO2 within 2 h, or an average SO2 release rate 250 times that of Eyjafjallajökull 2010), simulated SO2 concentrations are greater than 1063 µg/m3 for about 48 h in a small area of European and North Atlantic airspace. By calculating the occurrence of aircraft encounters with the volcanic plume of a short-duration eruption, we show that a 15 min or longer exposure of aircraft and passengers to concentrations ≥500 µg/m3 has a probability of about 0.1%. Although exposure of humans to such concentrations may lead to irritations to the eyes, nose and, throat and cause increased airway resistance even in healthy individuals

  5. Removals of aqueous sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide using CeO2-NiAl-LDHs coating activated carbon and its mix with carbon nano-tubes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Ce-doped NiAl/layered double hydroxide was coated at activated carbon by urea hydrolysis method (CeO2-NiAl-LDHs/AC) in one pot, which was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra, field emission scanning electron microscope and electrochemical techniques. CeO2-NiAl-LDHs/AC shows good uptake for aqueous sulfur dioxide (483.09mg/g) and hydrogen sulfide (181.15mg/g), respectively at 25°C. Meanwhile, the electrochemical removals of aqueous sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were respectively investigated at the mix of CeO2-NiAl-LDHs/AC and carbon nano-tubes modified homed paraffin-impregnated electrode. Both sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide could be effectively oxidized to sulfuric acid at 1.0V in alkaline aqueous solution. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Plume Tracker: Interactive mapping of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions with high-performance radiative transfer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Berk, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    We describe the development of Plume Tracker, an interactive toolkit for the analysis of multispectral thermal infrared observations of volcanic plumes and clouds. Plume Tracker is the successor to MAP_SO2, and together these flexible and comprehensive tools have enabled investigators to map sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from a number of volcanoes with TIR data from a variety of airborne and satellite instruments. Our objective for the development of Plume Tracker was to improve the computational performance of the retrieval procedures while retaining the accuracy of the retrievals. We have achieved a 300 × improvement in the benchmark performance of the retrieval procedures through the introduction of innovative data binning and signal reconstruction strategies, and improved the accuracy of the retrievals with a new method for evaluating the misfit between model and observed radiance spectra. We evaluated the accuracy of Plume Tracker retrievals with case studies based on MODIS and AIRS data acquired over Sarychev Peak Volcano, and ASTER data acquired over Kilauea and Turrialba Volcanoes. In the Sarychev Peak study, the AIRS-based estimate of total SO2 mass was 40% lower than the MODIS-based estimate. This result was consistent with a 45% reduction in the AIRS-based estimate of plume area relative to the corresponding MODIS-based estimate. In addition, we found that our AIRS-based estimate agreed with an independent estimate, based on a competing retrieval technique, within a margin of ± 20%. In the Kilauea study, the ASTER-based concentration estimates from 21 May 2012 were within ± 50% of concurrent ground-level concentration measurements. In the Turrialba study, the ASTER-based concentration estimates on 21 January 2012 were in exact agreement with SO2 concentrations measured at plume altitude on 1 February 2012.

  7. Effects of acid precipitation alone and in combination with sulfur dioxide on field-grown soybeans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, P. M.; Miller, J. E.

    1979-01-15

    In view of the increasing prevalence of acid precipitation in the Midwest, a study was undertaken in 1977 to determine its effects, and possible interactions with SO/sub 2/, on soybeans, an economically important crop in the Midwest. The findings to date are summarized. Field-grown soybeans were exposed to acid (approx. pH 3.1) or control (approx. pH 5.3) precipitation simulants in sulfur dioxide fumigated and unfumigated field plots as described previously. No statistically significant effects of the acid or control simulants, nor interactions with SO/sub 2/, were found on seed yield in either year, although the plots receiving both precipitation simulant and SO/sub 2/ had significantly lower yields (12 to 46%) than plots receiving only precipitation simulant. In 1977 the seed yields were slightly lower in both the fumigated and unfumigated acid-treated plots, when compared to the appropriate controls, while in 1978, yields in the unfumigated, acid-treated plots were somewhat higher. It is interesting to note that the weights of individual seeds were consistent with the yield differences; in 1978 the seed weight in the acid precipitation plot was significantly different from that in plots both with control precipitation and no precipitation. This suggests that the acid treatment in 1978 did, in fact, have an effect on productivity as reflected seed growth. Although visible damage was not apparent in any of the plots, a histological study revealed significant increases in the number of dead leaf cells in all plots, compared to untreated controls, except the one exposed to control precipitation alone.

  8. Effects of temperature on the heterogeneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide by ozone on calcium carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Wu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide by ozone on CaCO3 was studied as a function of temperature (230 to 298 K at ambient pressure. Oxidation reactions were followed in real time using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometry (DRIFTS to obtain kinetic and mechanistic data. From the analysis of the spectral features, the formation of sulfate was identified on the surface in the presence of O3 and SO2 at different temperatures from 230 to 298 K. The results showed that the heterogeneous oxidation and the rate of sulfate formation were sensitive to temperature. An interesting stage-transition region was observed at temperatures ranging from 230 to 257 K, but it became ambiguous gradually above 257 K. The reactive uptake coefficients at different temperatures from 230 to 298 K were acquired for the first time, which can be used directly in atmospheric chemistry modeling studies to predict the formation of secondary sulfate aerosol in the troposphere. Furthermore, the rate of sulfate formation had a turning point at about 250 K. The sulfate concentration at 250 K was about twice as large as that at 298 K. The rate of sulfate formation increased with decreasing temperature at temperatures above 250 K, while there is a contrary temperature effect at temperatures below 250 K. The activation energy for heterogeneous oxidation at temperatures from 245 K to 230 K was determined to be 14.63 ± 0.20 kJ mol−1. A mechanism for the temperature dependence was proposed and the atmospheric implications were discussed.

  9. Hydrogen peroxide maintains the heterogeneous reaction of sulfur dioxide on mineral dust proxy particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liubin; Zhao, Yue; Li, Huan; Chen, Zhongming

    2016-09-01

    The heterogeneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on α-Al2O3 particles was investigated using a flow reactor coupled with a transmission-Fourier transform infrared (T-FTIR) spectrometer at different relative humidities (RH) in the absence or presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), with an emphasis on the saturation coverage of SO2 and the timescale on which the reaction reaches saturation. It is found that the saturation coverage of SO2 in the absence of H2O2 increases with rising RH due to the hydrolysis of SO2 by surface adsorbed water. However, the reaction ultimately reaches saturation since the produced sulfite/bisulfite cannot be further converted to sulfate/bisulfate in the absence of oxidants. In addition, the presence of H2O2 can significantly increase the saturation coverage of SO2 by efficiently oxidizing sulfite/bisulfite to sulfate/bisulfate. Under humid conditions, adsorbed water facilitates the hydrolysis of SO2 and mitigates the increase of surface acidity, which can inhibit the hydrolysis of SO2. Hence, in the presence of H2O2, the saturation coverage of SO2 as well as the time of reaction reaching saturation increases with rising RH and the surface is not saturated on the timescale of the experiments (40 h) at 60% RH. Furthermore, the increase of saturation coverage of SO2 in the presence of H2O2 was observed on chemically inactive SiO2 particles, indicating that the hydrolysis of SO2 and subsequent oxidation by H2O2 likely occurs on other types of particles. Our findings are of importance for understanding the role of water vapor and trace gases (e.g., H2O2) in the heterogeneous reaction of SO2 in the atmosphere.

  10. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buchard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2 is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5 model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  11. Dual Role of Hydrogen Peroxide in Arabidopsis Guard Cells in Response to Sulfur Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilan Yi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2 is a major air pollutant and has significant impacts on plant physiology. Plant can adapt to SO2 stress by controlling stomatal movement, gene expression, and metabolic changes. Here we show clear evidences that SO2-triggered hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production mediated stomatal closure and cell death in Arabidopsis leaves. High levels of SO2 caused irreversible stomatal closure and decline in guard cell viability, but low levels of SO2 caused reversible stomatal closure. Exogenous antioxidants ascorbic acid (AsA and catalase (CAT or Ca2+ antagonists EGTA and LaCl3 blocked SO2-induced stomatal closure and decline in viability. AsA and CAT also blocked SO2-induced H2O2 and [Ca2+]cyt elevation. However, EGTA and LaCl3 inhibited SO2-induced [Ca2+]cyt increase but did not suppress SO2-induced H2O2 elevation. These results indicate that H2O2 elevation triggered stomatal closure and cell death via [Ca2+]cyt signaling in SO2-stimulated Arabidopsis guard cells. NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI blocked SO2-induced cell death but not the stomatal closure triggered by low levels of SO2, indicating that NADPH oxidase-dependent H2O2 production plays critical role in SO2 toxicity but is not necessary for SO2-induced stomatal closure. Our results suggest that H2O2 production and accumulation in SO2-stimulated plants trigger plant adaptation and toxicity via reactive oxygen species mediating Ca2+ signaling.

  12. Inverse transport modeling of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions using large-scale ensemble simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Y.; Hoffmann, L.; Griessbach, S.; Rößler, T.; Stein, O.

    2015-10-01

    An inverse transport modeling approach based on the concepts of sequential importance resampling and parallel computing is presented to reconstruct altitude-resolved time series of volcanic emissions, which often can not be obtained directly with current measurement techniques. A new inverse modeling and simulation system, which implements the inversion approach with the Lagrangian transport model Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC) is developed to provide reliable transport simulations of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). In the inverse modeling system MPTRAC is used to perform two types of simulations, i. e., large-scale ensemble simulations for the reconstruction of volcanic emissions and final transport simulations. The transport simulations are based on wind fields of the ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. The reconstruction of altitude-dependent SO2 emission time series is also based on Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) satellite observations. A case study for the eruption of the Nabro volcano, Eritrea, in June 2011, with complex emission patterns, is considered for method validation. Meteosat Visible and InfraRed Imager (MVIRI) near-real-time imagery data are used to validate the temporal development of the reconstructed emissions. Furthermore, the altitude distributions of the emission time series are compared with top and bottom altitude measurements of aerosol layers obtained by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) satellite instruments. The final transport simulations provide detailed spatial and temporal information on the SO2 distributions of the Nabro eruption. The SO2 column densities from the simulations are in good qualitative agreement with the AIRS observations. Our new inverse modeling and simulation system is expected to become a useful tool to also study other volcanic

  13. On the Ratio of Sulfur Dioxide to Nitrogen Oxides as an Indicator of Air Pollution Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirel, Ronit; Dayan, Uri

    2001-07-01

    The ratio of sulfur dioxide to nitrogen oxides (RSN = SO2/NOx) is one indicator of air pollution sources. The role of this ratio in source attribution is illustrated here for the Ashdod area, located in the southern coastal plain of Israel. The main sources of pollution in the area are the tall stacks of the Eshkol power plant, the stacks of oil refineries, and areal sources (stationary and mobile). The factors that affect RSN are studied using four regression models: a binary regression tree in original scale, a tree in logarithmic scale, a data partition produced by a combination of the two trees, and a linear regression model. All models have similar relative prediction error, with the combined partition best highlighting the sources of variability in RSN: (a) very low values (interquartile range of [0.12, 0.48]) are associated with traffic, (b) low values ([0.43, 1.00]) are attributed to the power plant and to daytime emissions of local industry, (c) medium values ([0.74, 1.90]) are associated with local industry emissions during cooler hours of the day and refinery emissions mainly on slow wind episodes, and (d) high values ([1.07, 4.30]) are attributed to refinery emissions during moderate to fast wind episodes. Analysis of the number of episodes of increased concentrations indicates that, during 1996 and 1997, about 42% of SO2 episodes are attributable to the power plant and 33% to the refineries. Increased-NOx episodes are mainly contributed by traffic (91%) and power plant (4.5%) emissions.

  14. Inverse transport modeling of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions using large-scale ensemble simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Heng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An inverse transport modeling approach based on the concepts of sequential importance resampling and parallel computing is presented to reconstruct altitude-resolved time series of volcanic emissions, which often can not be obtained directly with current measurement techniques. A new inverse modeling and simulation system, which implements the inversion approach with the Lagrangian transport model Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC is developed to provide reliable transport simulations of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2. In the inverse modeling system MPTRAC is used to perform two types of simulations, i. e., large-scale ensemble simulations for the reconstruction of volcanic emissions and final transport simulations. The transport simulations are based on wind fields of the ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. The reconstruction of altitude-dependent SO2 emission time series is also based on Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS satellite observations. A case study for the eruption of the Nabro volcano, Eritrea, in June 2011, with complex emission patterns, is considered for method validation. Meteosat Visible and InfraRed Imager (MVIRI near-real-time imagery data are used to validate the temporal development of the reconstructed emissions. Furthermore, the altitude distributions of the emission time series are compared with top and bottom altitude measurements of aerosol layers obtained by the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS satellite instruments. The final transport simulations provide detailed spatial and temporal information on the SO2 distributions of the Nabro eruption. The SO2 column densities from the simulations are in good qualitative agreement with the AIRS observations. Our new inverse modeling and simulation system is expected to become a useful tool to also study

  15. Evaluation of GEOS-5 Sulfur Dioxide Simulations During the Frostburg, MD 2010 Field Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchard, V.; Da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spenei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  16. Sulfur Dioxide-Pyridine Dimer. FTIR and Theoretical Evidence for a Low-Symmetry Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John W

    2015-10-15

    Sulfur dioxide-pyridine complex formation was reinvestigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and computational methods. The SO2-pyridine dimer has been proposed to have a v-shaped, Cs-symmetric structure based on the microwave spectrum; however, recent research showing the occurrence of X···H-C hydrogen bonds in noncovalent complexes suggested that the structure of the complex should be re-examined. The FTIR spectrum of the dimer was obtained by numerical analysis of the spectra of pyridine-SO2 mixtures in CCl4. The spectrum showed ortho C-H stretching modes consistent with a C1-symmetric structure containing a S-O bond oriented approximately coplanar with the pyridine ring and adjacent to an ortho C-H moiety. The C1 structure, which was identified as the global minimum by various density functional theory and correlated ab initio calculations, is also consistent with the out-of-plane second moment (Pbb) value previously determined by microwave spectroscopy. The complex is converted to its mirror image via three possible Cs-symmetric transition states: v-shaped, bisected, and flat. At the M06-2X/6-311++G(2d,p) level of theory, the rotational barriers (ΔG(o‡)) are 1.40, 1.87, and 3.63 kcal mol(-1), respectively. Natural bond order analysis indicated the asymmetric complex is stabilized both by N→S donation and back-donation from O to antibonding orbitals on pyridine. Atoms in molecules calculations identified a bond critical point within the O···H-C gap consistent with a normal, albeit weak, hydrogen bond. Theoretical studies also identified a high-energy sandwich-type dimer with Cs symmetry, and a C2-symmetric SO2-pyridine2 trimer.

  17. Sulfur dioxide AQI modeling by artificial neural network in Tehran between 2007 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Motesaddi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution and concerns about health impacts have been raised in metropolitan cities like Tehran. Trend and prediction of air pollutants can show the effectiveness of strategies for the management and control of air pollution. Artificial neural network (ANN technique is widely used as a reliable method for modeling of air pollutants in urban areas. Therefore, the aim of current study was to evaluate the trend of sulfur dioxide (SO2 air quality index (AQI in Tehran using ANN. Methods: The dataset of SO2 concentration and AQI in Tehran between 2007 and 2013 for 2550 days were obtained from air quality monitoring fix stations belonging to the Department of Environment (DOE. These data were used as input for the ANN and nonlinear autoregressive (NAR model using Matlab (R2014a software. Results: Daily and annual mean concentration of SO2 except 2008 (0.037 ppm was less than the EPA standard (0.14 and 0.03 ppm, respectively. Trend of SO2 AQI showed the variation of SO2 during different days, but the study declined overtime and the predicted trend is higher than the actual trend. Conclusion: The trend of SO2 AQI in this study, despite daily fluctuations in ambient air of Tehran over the period of the study have decreased and the difference between the predicted and actual trends can be related to various factors, such as change in management and control of SO2 emissions strategy and lack of effective parameters in SO2 emissions in predicting model.

  18. Combined nitrogen oxides/sulfur dioxide control in dry scrubber systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, J. B.L.; Gorski, A. J.; Huang, H. S.

    1989-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is investigating alternative control concepts that involve modifying existing SO{sub 2}-removal processes and sorbents, with the objective of achieving simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Laboratory-scale research conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and a spray-dryer/fabric-filter system has been paralleled by field tests at ANL's commercial-scale (20-MW electric equivalent) dry scrubber. In the fixed-bed experiments, a range of chemical reagents was surveyed, and the best-performing additives were studied in detail. Sodium chloride, sodium bisulfite, sodium hydroxide, and Fe(II)*EDTA were found to increase both NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} removals; the additives did not appear to increase NO{sub x} removal directly, but they interacted strongly with the other primary variables to improve sorbent performance. The laboratory spray-dryer system was used to study the effects on combined NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} removal of the best-performing fixed-bed additives and certain process modifications. The tests showed that sodium chloride increased NO{sub x} removal at all temperatures; sodium bisulfite was generally less effective, and calcium chloride was effective only at 65{degree}C. Up to 80{degree}C, all three additives significantly improved SO{sub 2} removal, but improvement ceased at higher temperatures. This report discusses the experimental results in terms of the effects the additives and principal process variables had on NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} removals and the mechanistic implications. 14 refs., 74 figs., 33 tabs.

  19. Effect of sulfur dioxide on expression of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes from rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Juli; Meng, Ziqiang

    2010-06-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is a ubiquitous air pollutant that is present in low concentrations in the urban air, and in higher concentrations in the working environment. In the present study, male Wistar rats were housed in exposure chambers and treated with 14.00 +/- 1.01, 28.00 +/- 1.77 and 56.00 +/- 3.44 mg m(-3) SO(2) for 6 h/day for 7 days, while control group was exposed to filtered air in the same condition. The mRNA and protein levels of proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun, c-myc, and Ki-ras) and tumor suppressor genes (p53, Rb, and p16) were analyzed in lungs using a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) assay and Western blot analysis. The results showed that mRNA and protein levels of c-fos, c-jun, c-myc, Ki-ras, and p53 in lungs were increased in a dose-dependent manner, while mRNA and protein levels of Rb and p16 were decreased in lungs of rats after SO(2) inhalation. These results lead to a conclusion that SO(2) exposure could activate expressions of proto-oncogenes and suppress expressions of tumor suppressor genes, which might relate to the molecular mechanism of cocarcinogenic properties and potential carcinogenic effects of SO(2). According to previous studies, the results also indicated that promoter genes of apoptosis and tumor suppressor genes could produce apoptotic signals to antagonize the growth signals that arise from oncogenes. Understanding its molecular controls will benefit development of treatments for many diseases.

  20. Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2 and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC emissions from these two countries for the period 1996–2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly temporal distributions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1°×0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %–17 % due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be −16 %–17 %, −43 %–93 %, and −43 %–80 % for China, and −15 %–16 %, −41 %–87 %, and −44 %–92

  1. Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2 and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC emissions from these two countries for the period 1996–2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly fractions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %–17 % due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be −16 %–17 %, −43 %–93 %, and −43 %–80 % for China, and −15 %–16 %, −41 %–87 %, and −44 %–92 % for India

  2. Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.

    2011-09-01

    China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC) emissions from these two countries for the period 1996-2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly temporal distributions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1°×0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %-17 %) due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be -16 %-17 %, -43 %-93 %, and -43 %-80 % for China, and -15 %-16 %, -41 %-87 %, and -44 %-92 % for India, respectively. Sulfur content, fuel use, and sulfur retention of hard coal and

  3. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, John E

    2007-08-01

    Comprehensive surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals were used to estimate sulfur dioxide (SO,) and nitrogen oxides (NO.) emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills for 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005. Over the 25-yr period, paper production increased by 50%, whereas total SO, emissions declined by 60% to 340,000 short tons (t) and total NO, emissions decreased approximately 15% to 230,000 t. The downward emission trends resulted from a combination of factors, including reductions in oil and coal use, steadily declining fuel sulfur content, lower pulp and paper production in recent years, increased use of flue gas desulfurization systems on boilers, growing use of combustion modifications and add-on control systems to reduce boiler and gas turbine NO, emissions, and improvements in kraft recovery furnace operations.

  4. Insights into the Electronic Structure of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide from Generalized Valence Bond Theory: Addition of Hydrogen Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Beth A; Takeshita, Tyler Y; Dunning, Thom H

    2016-05-05

    Ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are valence isoelectronic species, yet their properties and reactivities differ dramatically. In particular, O3 is highly reactive, whereas SO2 is chemically relatively stable. In this paper, we investigate serial addition of hydrogen atoms to both the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2 and to the central atom of these species. It is well-known that the terminal atoms of O3 are much more amenable to bond formation than those of SO2. We show that the differences in the electronic structure of the π systems in the parent triatomic species account for the differences in the addition of hydrogen atoms to the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2. Further, we find that the π system in SO2, which is a recoupled pair bond dyad, facilitates the addition of hydrogen atoms to the sulfur atom, resulting in stable HSO2 and H2SO2 species.

  5. On-site measurements of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide emissions from tidal flat sediments of Ariake Sea, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul Kalam Azad, Md.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Oda, Mitsutomo; Toda, Kei

    Emission variability of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide from tidal flat sediments to atmosphere in Ariake Sea, Japan was studied using a diffusion scrubber-based portable instrument. Ariake Sea is a typical closed sea consisting of a huge marsh area along the coast. Seasonal, spatial and diurnal variability in emission rates were examined. In addition, depth profiles of the gas emissions were examined with the profiles of anions, heavy metals, water and organic contents. Unexpectedly, SO 2 emission was much higher than H 2S in all measurements, while an opposite emission trend was observed in diurnal and spatial patterns of H 2S and SO 2 emissions. The mechanisms of these gas emissions are discussed. Total sulfur fluxes to the atmosphere as H 2S and SO 2 during the study averaged 7.1 μg S m -2 h -1 for muddy sites and 28 μg S m -2 h -1 for sandy sites. Sulfur fluxes from tidal flats were comparable to the artificial sulfur emission from the neighboring towns.

  6. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide emissions from explosive volcanism: the 1982-1983 eruptions of Galunggung, Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, G.J.S.; Casadevall, T.J.; Schnetzler, C.C.; Doiron, S.D.; Walter, Louis S.; Krueger, A.J.; Badruddin, M.

    1994-01-01

    Galunggung volcano, Java, awoke from a 63-year quiescence in April 1982, and erupted sporadically through January 1983. During its most violent period from April to October, the Cikasasah Volcano Observatory reported 32 large and 56 moderate to small eruptions. From April 5 through September 19 the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), carried on NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite, detected and measured 24 different sulfur dioxide clouds; an estimated 1730 kilotons (kt) of SO2 were outgassed by these explosive eruptions. The trajectories, and rapid dispersion rates, of the SO2 clouds were consistent with injection altitudes below the tropopause. An additional 300 kt of SO2 were estimated to have come from 64 smaller explosive eruptions, based on the detection limit of the TOMS instrument. For the first time, an extended period of volcanic activity was monitored by remote sensing techniques which enabled observations of both the entire SO2 clouds produced by large explosive eruptions (using TOMS), and the relatively lower levels of SO2 emissions during non-explosive outgassing (using the Correlation Spectrometer, or COSPEC). Based on COSPEC measurements from August 1982 to January 1983, and on the relationship between explosive and non-explosive degassing, approximately 400 kt of SO2 were emitted during non-explosive activity. The total sulfur dioxide outgassed from Galunggung volcano from April 1982 to January 1983 is calculated to be 2500 kt (?? 30%) from both explosive and non-explosive activity. While Galunggung added large quantities of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere, its sporadic emissions occurred in relatively small events distributed over several months, and reached relatively low altitudes, and are unlikely to have significantly affected aerosol loading of the stratosphere in 1982 by volcanic activity. ?? 1994.

  7. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  8. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  9. Inverse transport modeling of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions using large-scale simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Yi; Hoffmann, Lars; Griessbach, Sabine; Rößler, Thomas; Stein, Olaf

    2016-05-01

    An inverse transport modeling approach based on the concepts of sequential importance resampling and parallel computing is presented to reconstruct altitude-resolved time series of volcanic emissions, which often cannot be obtained directly with current measurement techniques. A new inverse modeling and simulation system, which implements the inversion approach with the Lagrangian transport model Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC) is developed to provide reliable transport simulations of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). In the inverse modeling system MPTRAC is used to perform two types of simulations, i.e., unit simulations for the reconstruction of volcanic emissions and final forward simulations. Both types of transport simulations are based on wind fields of the ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. The reconstruction of altitude-dependent SO2 emission time series is also based on Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) satellite observations. A case study for the eruption of the Nabro volcano, Eritrea, in June 2011, with complex emission patterns, is considered for method validation. Meteosat Visible and InfraRed Imager (MVIRI) near-real-time imagery data are used to validate the temporal development of the reconstructed emissions. Furthermore, the altitude distributions of the emission time series are compared with top and bottom altitude measurements of aerosol layers obtained by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) satellite instruments. The final forward simulations provide detailed spatial and temporal information on the SO2 distributions of the Nabro eruption. By using the critical success index (CSI), the simulation results are evaluated with the AIRS observations. Compared to the results with an assumption of a constant flux of SO2 emissions, our inversion approach leads to an improvement

  10. Sulfur dioxide (SO2 from MIPAS in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere 2002–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Höpfner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertically resolved distributions of sulfur dioxide (SO2 with global coverage in the height region from the upper troposphere to ~20 km altitude have been derived from observations by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on Envisat for the period July 2002 to April 2012. Retrieved volume mixing ratio profiles representing single measurements are characterized by typical errors in the range of 70–100 pptv and by a vertical resolution ranging from 3 to 5 km. Comparison with observations by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS revealed a slightly varying bias with altitude of −20 to 50 pptv for the MIPAS data set in case of volcanically enhanced concentrations. For background concentrations the comparison showed a systematic difference between the two major MIPAS observation periods. After debiasing, the difference could be reduced to biases within −10 to 20 pptv in the altitude range of 10–20 km with respect to ACE-FTS. Further comparisons of the debiased MIPAS data set with in situ measurements from various aircraft campaigns showed no obvious inconsistencies within a range of around ±50 pptv. The SO2 emissions of more than 30 volcanic eruptions could be identified in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS. Emitted SO2 masses and lifetimes within different altitude ranges in the UTLS have been derived for a large part of these eruptions. Masses are in most cases within estimations derived from other instruments. From three of the major eruptions within the MIPAS measurement period – Kasatochi in August 2008, Sarychev in June 2009 and Nabro in June 2011 – derived lifetimes of SO2 for the altitude ranges 10–14, 14–18 and 18–22 km are 13.3 ± 2.1, 23.6 ± 1.2 and 32.3 ± 5.5 days respectively. By omitting periods with obvious volcanic influence we have derived background mixing ratio distributions of SO2. At 10 km altitude these indicate an annual

  11. Sulfur dioxide (SO2 from MIPAS in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere 2002–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Höpfner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertically resolved distributions of sulfur dioxide (SO2 with global coverage in the height region from the upper troposphere to ~ 20 km altitude have been derived from observations by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on Envisat for the period July 2002 to April 2012. Retrieved volume mixing ratio profiles representing single measurements are characterized by typical errors in the range of 70–100 pptv and by a vertical resolution ranging from 3–5 km. Comparison with ACE-FTS observations revealed a slightly varying bias with altitude of −20 to 50 pptv for the MIPAS dataset in case of volcanically enhanced concentrations. For background concentrations the comparison showed a systematic difference between the two major MIPAS observation periods. After debiasing, the difference could be reduced to biases within −10 to 20 pptv in the altitude range of 10–20 km with respect to ACE-FTS. Further comparisons of the debiased MIPAS dataset with in-situ measurements from various aircraft campaigns showed no obvious inconsistencies within a range of around ±50 pptv. The SO2 emissions of more than thirty volcanic eruptions could be identified in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS. Emitted SO2 masses and lifetimes within different altitude ranges in the UTLS have been derived for a large part of these eruptions. Masses are in most cases within estimations derived from other instruments. From three of the major eruptions within the MIPAS measurement period – Kasatochi in August 2008, Sarychev in June 2009 and Nabro in June 2011 – derived lifetimes of SO2 for the altitude ranges 10–14, 14–18, and 18–22 km are 13.3±2.1, 23.6±1.2, and 32.3±5.5 d, respectively. By omitting periods with obvious volcanic influence we have derived background mixing ratio distributions of SO2. At 10 km altitude these indicate an annual cycle at northern mid- and high latitudes with maximum values in summer and

  12. Sulfur dioxide attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury via enhancing polymorphonuclear neutrophil apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-jie MA; Xin-li HUANG; Yan LIU; Ya-min FAN

    2012-01-01

    Aim:We speculated that the enhanced apoptosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) might be responsible for the inhibition of PMN infiltration in the lung.This study was designed to investigate the effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on PMN apoptosis in vivo and in vitro,which may mediate the protective action of SO2 on pulmonary diseases.Methods:Acute lung injury (ALI) was induced by intratracheally instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS,100 μg/100 g.in 200 μL saline) in adult male SD rats.SO2 solution (25 μmol/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before LPS treatment.The rats were killed 6 h after LPS treatment.Lung tissues were collected for histopathologic study and SO2 concentration assay.Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for the measurement of PMN apoptosis.For in vitro experiments,rat peripheral blood PMNs were cultured and treated with LPS (30 mg/L) and S02 (10,20 and 30 μmol/L) for 6 h,and apoptosis-related protein expression was detected by Western blotting,and apoptosis rate was measured with flow cytometry.Results:LPS treatment significantly reduced the SO2 concentrations in the lung tissue and peripheral blood,as compared with the control group.Pretreatment with SO2 prevented LPS-induced reduction of the SO2 concentration in the lung tissue and peripheral blood.LPS treatment significantly reduced PMN apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro,which could be prevented by the pretreatment with SO2.The protein levels of caspase-3 and Bax was significantly increased,but Bcl-2 was decreased by the pretreatment with SO2,as compared with LPS administration alone.Conclusion:SO2 plays an important role as the modulator of PMN apoptosis during LPS-induced ALl,which might be one of the mechanisms underlying the protective action of SO2 on pulmonary diseases.

  13. Alterations of gene expression profiles induced by sulfur dioxide in rat lungs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Ziqiang; QIN Guohua; BAI Juli; ZHANG Jianbiao; ZHANG Xin; YANG Zhenghua

    2007-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a ubiquitous air pollutant presents in low concentrations in urban air and in higher concentrations in working environment.Few data are avail-able on the effects of being exposed to this pollutant on the molecular mechanism,although some biochemical changes in lipid metabolism,intermediary metabolism and oxidative stress have been detected.The present investigation aimed at analyzing the gene expression profiles of the lungs of Wistar rats short-term (20 ppm,6 h/day,for seven days) and long.term (5 ppm,1 h/day,for 30 days) exposed to SO2 by Affymetrix GeneChip (RAE230A) analysis.It was found that 31 genes,containing 18 known genes and 13 novel genes were up-regulated,and 31 genes,containing 20 known genes and 11 novel genes,were down-regulated in rats short-term exposed to SO2 compared with control rats.While there were 176 genes,containing 82 known genes and 94 novel genes were up-regulated,and 85 genes,containing 46 known genes and 39 novel genes,were down-regulated in rats long-term exposed to SO2 compared with control rats.It is suggested that:(1) SO2 exerts its effects by different mechanisms in vivo at high-dose short-term inhalation and at low-dose long-term inhalation;(2) a notable feature of the gene expression profile was the decreased expression of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation in lungs of rats short-term exposed to SO2,which shows high-dose short-term exposed to SO2 may cause the deterioration of mitochondrial functions;(3)discriminating genes in lungs of rats long-term exposed to SO2 included those involved in fatty acid metabolism,immune,inflammatory,oxidative stress,oncogene,tumor suppresser and extracellular matrix.The mechanism of low-dose long-term exposed to SO2 is more complex.

  14. Anthropogenic Sulfur Perturbations on Biogenic Oxidation: Impacts of Sulfur Dioxide Additions on Bulk Gas Phase OH Oxidation Products of Alpha and Beta Pinene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, B.; Brophy, P.; Brune, W. H.; Farmer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the atmosphere is impacted by concurrent emissions of anthropogenic pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), which can impact air quality and SOA formation in regions of biogenic and anthropogenic influence. We present the impacts of anthropogenic perturbations in the form of sulfur dioxide on the oxidation systems of α- and β-pinene. An oxidative flow reactor simulated atmospheric aging by OH oxidation on the order of days, and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HR-TOF-CIMS) was utilized to identify gas-phase oxidation products and changes to the ensemble system as a function of the SO2 perturbation. Results show that the SO2 perturbation impacted the oxidation systems of α- and β-pinene, and that these perturbations affected the oxidation systems of α- and β-pinene differently. Bulk analysis comparing the perturbed system to the unperturbed system indicated a change in oxidation pathway or mechanism leading to an ensemble of products with a lesser degree of oxygenation, on the order of a 30% decrease in the bulk oxidation state and a 10% decrease in the bulk O:C ratio for both BVOC systems. Increasing the relative humidity in the oxidative flow reactor was found to dampen the impact of the perturbation. Experiments involving other anthropogenic emissions, such as NOx, as well as other pairs of BVOC structural isomers, were conducted to investigate if changes in the oxidation system were due to the BVOC structure or the specific anthropogenic pollutant.

  15. Determination of sulfur dioxide residue in pickled meat products%泡椒肉制品中二氧化硫残留量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周石洋; 陈玲

    2012-01-01

    GB distillation method was generally used for the determination of sulfur dioxide residue in pickled meat products. Reflux method was adopted in this paper, and sodium thiosulfate was used for back titration of sulfur dioxide residue in pickled meat products. This method was suitable for determination of sulfur dioxide residue in pickled meat products with simple operation process, high recovery rate.%一般采用国标蒸馏法测定泡椒肉制品中二氧化硫残留量。采用回流法,用硫代硫酸钠反滴定来测定泡椒肉制品中二氧化硫残留量。其操作步骤简单,回收率高,适用于泡椒肉制品中二氧化硫残留量的测定。

  16. Air quality at Santiago, Chile: a box modeling approach—I. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera, Héctor

    Ambient monitored data at Santiago, Chile, are analyzed using box models with the goal of assessing contributions of different economic activities to air pollution levels. The period analyzed is 1990-2000, characterized by the introduction of air pollution emissions standards, shift to unleaded gasoline and compressed natural gas, and steady growth of the private and public fleet and the associated fuel consumption growth. The box models explicitly include the seasonal behavior of meteorological variables; the results show that dispersion conditions in fall and winter seasons are 20-30% of the summertime values. This result explains the poor air quality in those seasons and shows that significant emissions reductions are required in order to improve air quality in wintertime. Emissions of CO, NO x and SO 2 are estimated from data on fuel consumption in the city; the estimated parameters are thus fleet-average or industry-average emission factors. In terms of contributions to ambient concentrations, older cars and diesel vehicles are the major contributors to CO and NO x impacts, with more than 60% and 50%, respectively. Ambient concentrations of SO 2 are largely dominated by stationary sources, although long range contributions are not negligible. By contrast, CO and NO x pollution is dominated by local sources within the city boundaries. The box models can be used for forecasting purposes, and they can predict annual average concentrations within 20% of the observed values. The methodology requires data on ambient air quality measurements and fuel consumption statistics, and produces quantitative results, which can be combined with economic models to analyze environmental regulation and public policies.

  17. Knudsen cell and smog chamber study of the heterogeneous uptake of sulfur dioxide on Chinese mineral dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhou; Weigang Wang; Yanbo Gai; Maofa Ge

    2014-01-01

    The heterogeneous uptake processes of sulfur dioxide on two types of Chinese mineral dust (Inner Mongolia desert dust and Xinjiang sierozem) were investigated using both Knudsen cell and smog chamber system.The temperature dependence of the uptake coefficients was studied over a range from 253 to 313 K using the Knudsen cell reactor,the initial uptake coefficients decreased with the increasing of temperature for these two mineral dust samples,whereas the steady state uptake coefficients of the Xinjiang sierozem increased with the temperature increasing,and these temperature dependence functions were obtained for the first time.In the smog chamber experiments at room temperature,the steady state uptake coefficients of SO2 decreased evidently with the increasing of sulfur dioxide initial concentration from 1.72 × 1012 to 6.15 × 1012 mol/cm3.Humid air had effect on the steady state uptake coefficients of SO2 onto Inner Mongolia desert dust.Consequences about the understanding of the uptake processes onto mineral dust samples and the environmental implication were also discussed.

  18. Alteration of extracellular enzymes in pinto bean leaves upon exposure to air pollutants, ozone and sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, J.L.; Castillo, F.J.; Heath, R.L. (Univ. of California, Riverside (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Diamine oxidase and peroxidase, associated with the wall in pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Pinto) leaves, can be washed out by vacuum infiltration and assayed without grinding the leaf. The diamine oxidase activity is inhibited in vivo by exposure of the plants to ozone (dose of 0.6 microliters per liter {times} hour), whereas the peroxidase activity associated with the wall space is stimulated. This dose does not cause obvious necrosis or chlorosis of the leaf. These alterations are greater when the dose of ozone exposure is given as a triangular pulse (a slow rise to a peak of 0.24 microliters per liter followed by a slow fall) compared to that given as a constant square wave pulse of 0.15 microliters per liter for the same 4 hour period. Exposure of the plants to sulfur dioxide (at a concentration of 0.4 microliters per liter for 4 hours) does not result in any change in the diamine oxidase or peroxidase activities, yet the total sulfhydryl content of the leaf is increased, demonstrating the entry of sulfur dioxide. These two pollutants, with different chemical reactivities, affect the activities of the extracellular enzymes in different manners. In the case of ozone exposure, the inhibition of extracellular diamine oxidase could profoundly alter the movements of polyamines from cell to cell.

  19. Influence of ascorbic acid, sulfur dioxide and glutathione on oxidation product formation in wine-like systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegmann-Herr Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the addition of ascorbic acid, sulfur dioxide and glutathione on oxidation product formation under accelerated oxidative conditions was evaluated in model wines. The effects of these antioxidants have been compared in aqueous ethanol solutions containing (+-catechin and metal ions at pH 3.2 by monitoring O2 consumption, color evolution by CIELab, as well as (+-catechin and glutathione decrease by LC-DAD/FD. The analysis of oxidation products formation was focused on the determination of yellowish colored xanthylium compounds by LC-ESI-ToFMS and acetaldehyde by HS-GC-FID. The results could show, that under some conditions glutathione could not inhibit carboxymethine-briged (+-catechine dimer formation and subsequent xanthylium cation pigment generation, compared to ascorbic acid or sulfur dioxide addition providing a good protec- tion against oxidative color changes. In systems containing 0.08–0.32 mmol/L glutathion without any further addition of SO2 or ascorbic acid, increasing acetaldehyde concentrations could be observed. These results demonstrate clearly the need for further research to highlight the reactions of glutathione.

  20. A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces a science demonstration on the dissolution of sulfuric oxide emphasizing the concept of acid rain which is an environmental problem. Demonstrates the acidification from acid rain on two lake environments, limestone and granite. Includes safety information. (YDS)

  1. Sulfur isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfur dioxide: gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and iron catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Crowley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate is a key reaction in determining the role of sulfate in the environment through its effect on aerosol size distribution and composition. Sulfur isotope analysis has been used to investigate sources and chemical processes of sulfur dioxide and sulfate in the atmosphere, however interpretation of measured sulfur isotope ratios is challenging due to a lack of reliable information on the isotopic fractionation involved in major transformation pathways. This paper presents laboratory measurements of the fractionation factors for the major atmospheric oxidation reactions for SO2: Gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals, and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and a radical chain reaction initiated by iron. The measured fractionation factor for 34S/32S during the gas-phase reaction is αOH = (1.0089±0.0007−((4±5×10−5 T(°C. The measured fractionation factor for 34S/32S during aqueous oxidation by H2O2 or O3 is αaq = (1.0167±0.0019−((8.7±3.5 ×10−5T(°C. The observed fractionation during oxidation by H2O2 and O3 appeared to be controlled primarily by protonation and acid-base equilibria of S(IV in solution, which is the reason that there is no significant difference between the fractionation produced by the two oxidants within the experimental error. The isotopic fractionation factor from a radical chain reaction in solution catalysed by iron is αFe = (0.9894±0.0043 at 19 °C for 34S/32S. Fractionation was mass-dependent with regards to 33S/32S for all the reactions investigated. The radical chain reaction mechanism was the only measured reaction that had a faster rate for the light isotopes. The results presented in this study will be particularly useful to determine the importance of the transition metal-catalysed oxidation pathway compared to other oxidation pathways, but other main oxidation pathways can not be distinguished based on stable sulfur isotope measurements alone.

  2. Observations of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide at Tae-Ahn peninsula (Korea), Mount Waliguan (China), Ulaan Uul (Mongolia) and at Mauna Loa (Hawaii USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y.S. [Korea National Univ. of Education, Chongwon (Korea, Republic of); Tans, P.P.; Conway, T.J.; Dlugokencky, E.J. [Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab., Bouler (United States); Novelli, P.C.; Tolier, M. [Colorado Univ. (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences; Wen, Y. [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing (China); Dagvadorj, D. [Mongolian Hydrometeorological Research Inst., Ulaan Batar (Mongolia)

    1995-12-31

    It has been discussed that the greenhouse gases, e.g. carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) methane (CH{sub 4}), enhance warming in the biosphere. Many scientists are therefore interested in monitoring the minor constituents of the atmosphere and in the carbon cycle. In cooperation with the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) of U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and carbon monoxide (CO) at the western tip of the Tae-ahn Peninsula (TAP) in central Korea since October 1990 has been measured. Shortly thereafter, two more sites were added for the measurement of greenhouse gases in East Asia; one at Mount Waliguar Qinghai Province (QPC) in China and another at Ulaan Uul (UUM), the Gobi Desert in Mongolia. Also, trace gas data obtained at Mauna Loa (MLO) in Hawaii in the USA has been used. The Hawaiian data represent the world`s longest period of CO{sub 2} monitoring since 1958. The present monitoring is a part of the Global Air Sampling Network the WMO`s Global Atmospheric Watch. The method of collecting and measuring CO{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 4} have been described else where. Here the four year monitoring of the trace gases at the three sites in East Asia is reported. The results are also compared with the measured values obtained at the free troposphere background site at MLO in Hawaii

  3. Use of carbon monoxide combined with carbon dioxide for modified atmosphere packaging of pre- and postrigor fresh pork sausage to improve shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laury, Angela; Sebranek, Joseph G

    2007-04-01

    Fresh pre- and postrigor pork sausage patties were manufactured in the Iowa State University Meat Laboratory and packaged either in modified atmosphere (MAP) with 0.4% carbon monoxide (CO) and 99.6% carbon dioxide (CO2) or on foam trays overwrapped with oxygen-permeable film (OW). Packages were stored at 2 to 40C under fluorescent lights for up to 31 days. Aerobic, anaerobic, and psychrotrophic plate counts, raw and cooked color, purge, and lipid oxidation were measured during storage. Results indicated that both pork sausage products in MAP had lower aerobic and psychrotrophic counts and less lipid oxidation throughout storage (P sausage in MAP benefited more from the CO atmosphere in terms of raw color than the postrigor pork sausage in MAP. Cooked color of the prerigor pork sausage in MAP was significantly redder than cooked color of the postrigor pork sausage. Both pork sausage products in MAP were also lighter (L* value) than the OW patties for raw and cooked color. Therefore, the combination of CO and CO2 in MAP was beneficial in extending the shelf life of pre-and postrigor fresh pork sausage by reducing aerobic and psychrotrophic microbial growth and improving oxidative stability and color, compared to conventional OW packaging. However, increased purge, increased anaerobic growth, and changes in cooking behavior were also observed for the products in MAP during storage (P < 0.05).

  4. The association of daily sulfur dioxide air pollution levels with hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Europe (The Aphea-II study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunyer, J; Ballester, F; Le Tertre, A; Atkinson, R; Ayres, JG; Forastiere, F; Forsberg, B; Vonk, JM; Bisanti, L; Tenias, JM; Medina, S; Schwartz, J; Katsouyvanni, K

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the short-term effect of sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollution levels on hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases. Daily mean hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases (IHDs), and stroke in seven European areas (the cities o

  5. Structural and Redox Properties of Vanadium Complexes in Molten Salts of Interest for the Catalytic Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boghosian, S.; Chrissanthopoulos, A.; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    Electronic absorption (UV/VIS) spectra have been obtained at 450 degrees C from V2O5-K2S2O7 molten mixtures in SO2 ( P-SO2 = 0 - 1.2 atm) gas atmospheres. The data are in agreement with the V-V reversible arrow V-IV equilibrium: (VO)(2)O(SO4)(4)(4-)(l) + SO2(g) - 2VO(SO4)(2)(2-)(l) + SO3(g). Sulfur...... dioxide does not coordinate to the V-V complex but starts significantly to coordinate to V-IV for P-SO2 > 0 4 atm in accordance with the equilibrium: VO(SO4)(2)(2-)(l) + SO2(g) reversible arrow VO(SO4)(2)SO22-(l). Furthermore, high temperature Raman spectroscopy has been used to establish the structural...

  6. Theoretical prediction of the importance of the 3B2 state in the dynamics of sulfur dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    Lévêque, Camille; Köppel, Horst

    2013-01-01

    While, the sulfur dioxide molecule has been extensively studied over the last decades, its photoexcitation dynamics is still unclear, due to its complexity, combining conical intersections and spin-orbit coupling between a manifold of states. We present for the first time a comprehensive ab initio study of the intersystem crossing of the molecule in the low energy domain, based on a wave-packet propagation on the manifold of the lowest singlet and triplet states. Furthermore, spin-orbit couplings are evaluated on a geometry-dependent grid, and diabatized along with the different conical intersections. Our results show for the first time the primordial role of the triplet $^3$B$_2$ state which has not been discussed before, giving new insights into the dynamics of the intersystem crossing in $SO_2$.

  7. Influence of exposure temperature and relative humidity on the response of pinto bean foliage to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rist, D.L.; Davis, D.D.

    1979-01-01

    When 20-day-old pinto bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris Pinto 111) were exposed to 0.9 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sup 2/) the amount of trifoliate leaf injury induced by SO/sub 2/ generally was greater at 32 C than at either 13 or 21 C, and greater at 80% relative humidity (RH) than at 40 and 60% RH. However, injury was less following exposures at 32 C for 1 hr and 21 C for 1 and 2 hr than that caused by equivalent exposures at 13 C. Stomatal conductance increased significantly with increased temperature and RH. Stomatal conductance of trifoliate leaves from plants exposed to SO/sub 2/ was less than that of exposed control plants. The foliar content of SO/sub 2/ evaluated after exposures at 21 and 32C, generally at the higher temperatures. 34 references, 5 figures.

  8. Structural and Redox Properties of Vanadium Complexes in Molten Salts of Interest for the Catalytic Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boghosian, S.; Chrissanthopoulos, A.; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    Electronic absorption (UV/VIS) spectra have been obtained at 450 degrees C from V2O5-K2S2O7 molten mixtures in SO2 ( P-SO2 = 0 - 1.2 atm) gas atmospheres. The data are in agreement with the V-V reversible arrow V-IV equilibrium: (VO)(2)O(SO4)(4)(4-)(l) + SO2(g) - 2VO(SO4)(2)(2-)(l) + SO3(g). Sulfur...... dioxide does not coordinate to the V-V complex but starts significantly to coordinate to V-IV for P-SO2 > 0 4 atm in accordance with the equilibrium: VO(SO4)(2)(2-)(l) + SO2(g) reversible arrow VO(SO4)(2)SO22-(l). Furthermore, high temperature Raman spectroscopy has been used to establish the structural...

  9. [Determination of Total Sulfur Dioxide in Chinese Herbal Medicines via Triple Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-wei; Liu, Jing-fu; Guan, Hong; Wang, Xiao-yan; Shag, Bing; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Li-ping; Zhang, Ni-na

    2016-02-01

    As an important treatment method, sulfur fumigation plays an essential role in the production and preservation of traditional Chinese herbal medicines. Although there is strict regulation on the use of sulfur dioxide, the abuse of sulfur dioxide still occurred from time to time. And the public faces a high risk of exposure. Because of the poor precision and tedious preparation procedures of traditional recommended titration, the accurate and convenient determination of sulfur dioxide in Chinese herbal medicines is still a critical analytical task for medicines safety and the public health. In this study, an accurate, high-throughput, and convenient method for the absolute determination of SO₂ in Chinese herbal medicines based on triple quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) technique is developed. The study compared the quantitative ability for sulfur when the ICP-MS operated under traditional single quadrupole (QMS) mode and novel triple quadrupole (MS/MS) mode with three Reaction/Collision cell condition (no gas, helium, and oxygen). The result indicated that when the concentration of sulfate ranging from 0.5 to 100 mg · L⁻¹, isotopic ³⁴S can be selected as quantitative ion either the ICP-MS operated under the QMS mode or MS/MS mode. The use of helium in the Reaction/Collision cell decreased the single intensity of background ions. Better than QMS mode, the MS/MS mode can effectively reduced background interference. But there are no significant differences about the linear range and limit of detection. However, when the ICP-MS operated under MS/MS mode and oxygen was used as reaction gas in the Reaction/Collision cell, the ICP-MS/MS provided an interference-free performance, the linear range and limit of detection improved significantly. Either ³²S or ³⁴S exhibits an excellent linearity (r > 0.999) over the concentration range of 0.02-100 mg · L⁻¹, with a limit of detection of 5.48 and 9.76 µg · L⁻¹ for

  10. Association of sulfur dioxide exposure with circulatory system deaths in a medium-sized city in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T. Amancio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a demonstrable association between exposure to air pollutants and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of exposure to sulfur dioxide on mortality due to circulatory diseases in individuals 50 years of age or older residing in São José dos Campos, SP. This was a time-series ecological study for the years 2003 to 2007 using information on deaths due to circulatory disease obtained from Datasus reports. Data on daily levels of pollutants, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide (SO2, ozone, temperature, and humidity were obtained from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency. Moving average models for 2 to 7 days were calculated by Poisson regression using the R software. Exposure to SO2 was analyzed using a unipollutant, bipollutant or multipollutant model adjusted for mean temperature and humidity. The relative risks with 95%CI were obtained and the percent decrease in risk was calculated. There were 1928 deaths with a daily mean (± SD of 1.05 ± 1.03 (range: 0-6. Exposure to SO2 was significantly associated with mortality due to circulatory disease: RR = 1.04 (95%CI = 1.01 to 1.06 in the 7-day moving average, after adjusting for ozone. There was an 8.5% decrease in risk in the multipollutant model, proportional to a decrease of SO2 concentrations. The results of this study suggest that residents of medium-sized Brazilian cities with characteristics similar to those of São José dos Campos probably have health problems due to exposure to air pollutants.

  11. Simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas using activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Hung, Ming-Jui

    2014-09-01

    Incineration flue gas contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The effects of SO2 concentration (0, 350, 750, and 1000 ppm), reaction temperature (160, 200, and 280 degrees C), and the type of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the removal of SO2 and PAHs by ACFs were examined in this study. A fluidized bed incinerator was used to simulate practical incineration flue gas. It was found that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas could drastically decrease removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. The effect of rise in the reaction temperature from 160 to 280 degrees C on removal of PAHs was greater than that on SO2 removal at an SO2 concentration of 750 ppm. Among the three ACFs studied, ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and the tightest structure, was the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs when these gases coexisted in the incineration flue gas. Implications: Simultaneous adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) meant to devise a new technique showed that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas leads to a drastic decrease in removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. Reaction temperature had a greater influence on PAHs removal than on SO2 removal. ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and tightest structure among the three studied ACFs, was found to be the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs.

  12. Short-term association between sulfur dioxide and daily mortality: the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Haidong; Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Qian, Zhengmin

    2010-04-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity, but only few studies were conducted in Asian countries. Previous studies suggest that SO(2) may have adverse health effects independent of other pollutants. In the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project, the short-term associations between ambient sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and daily mortality were examined in Bangkok, Thailand, and three Chinese cities: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for seasonality and other time-varying covariates. Effect estimates were obtained for each city and then for the cities combined. The impact of alternative model specifications, such as lag structure of pollutants and degree of freedom (df) for time trend, on the estimated effects of SO(2) were also examined. In both individual-city and combined analysis, significant effects of SO(2) on total non-accidental and cardiopulmonary mortality were observed. An increase of 10 microg/m(3) of 2-day moving average concentrations of SO(2) corresponded to 1.00% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-1.24], 1.09% (95% CI, 0.71-1.47), and 1.47% (95% CI, 0.85-2.08) increase of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively, in the combined analysis. Sensitivity analyzes suggested that these findings were generally insensitive to alternative model specifications. After adjustment for PM(10) or O(3), the effect of SO(2) remained significant in three Chinese cities. However, adjustment for NO(2) diminished the associations and rendered them statistically insignificant in all four cities. In conclusion, ambient SO(2) concentration was associated with daily mortality in these four Asian cities. These associations may be attributable to SO(2) serving as a surrogate of other substances. Our findings suggest that the role of outdoor exposure to SO(2) should be investigated further in this region. (c) 2010

  13. Sulfur dioxide in the Venus atmosphere: I. Vertical distribution and variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Korablev, O.; Belyaev, D.; Chamberlain, S.; Evdokimova, D.; Encrenaz, Th.; Esposito, L.; Jessup, K. L.; Lefèvre, F.; Limaye, S.; Mahieux, A.; Marcq, E.; Mills, F. P.; Montmessin, F.; Parkinson, C. D.; Robert, S.; Roman, T.; Sandor, B.; Stolzenbach, A.; Wilson, C.; Wilquet, V.

    2017-10-01

    Recent observations of sulfur containing species (SO2, SO, OCS, and H2SO4) in Venus' mesosphere have generated controversy and great interest in the scientific community. These observations revealed unexpected spatial patterns and spatial/temporal variability that have not been satisfactorily explained by models. Sulfur oxide chemistry on Venus is closely linked to the global-scale cloud and haze layers, which are composed primarily of concentrated sulfuric acid. Sulfur oxide observations provide therefore important insight into the on-going chemical evolution of Venus' atmosphere, atmospheric dynamics, and possible volcanism. This paper is the first of a series of two investigating the SO2 and SO variability in the Venus atmosphere. This first part of the study will focus on the vertical distribution of SO2, considering mostly observations performed by instruments and techniques providing accurate vertical information. This comprises instruments in space (SPICAV/SOIR suite on board Venus Express) and Earth-based instruments (JCMT). The most noticeable feature of the vertical profile of the SO2 abundance in the Venus atmosphere is the presence of an inversion layer located at about 70-75 km, with VMRs increasing above. The observations presented in this compilation indicate that at least one other significant sulfur reservoir (in addition to SO2 and SO) must be present throughout the 70-100 km altitude region to explain the inversion in the SO2 vertical profile. No photochemical model has an explanation for this behaviour. GCM modelling indicates that dynamics may play an important role in generating an inflection point at 75 km altitude but does not provide a definitive explanation of the source of the inflection at all local times or latitudes The current study has been carried out within the frame of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) International Team entitled 'SO2 variability in the Venus atmosphere'.

  14. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.V. [Global Environmental Solutions, Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.

  15. Sulfur dioxide in water: structure and dynamics studied by an ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Syed Tarique; Lim, Len Herald V; Hofer, Thomas S; Randolf, Bernhard R; Rode, Bernd M

    2011-04-18

    An ab initio Quantum Mechanical Charge Field Molecular Dynamics Simulation (QMCF MD) was performed to investigate structure and dynamics behavior of hydrated sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) at the Hartree-Fock level of theory employing Dunning DZP basis sets for solute and solvent molecules. The intramolecular structural characteristics of SO(2), such as S═O bond lengths and O═S═O bond angle, are in good agreement with the data available from a number of different experiments. The structural features of the hydrated SO(2) were primarily evaluated in the form of S-O(wat) and O(SO(2))-H(wat) radial distribution functions (RDFs) which gave mean distances of 2.9 and 2.2 Å, respectively. The dynamical behavior characterizes the solute molecule to have structure making properties in aqueous solution or water aerosols, where the hydrated SO(2) can easily get oxidized to form a number of sulfur(VI) species, which are believed to play an important role in the atmospheric processes.

  16. 超声波解吸柠檬酸盐溶液中二氧化硫的研究%Study on Desorbing Sulfur Dioxide from Citrate Solution by Ultrasonification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛娟琴; 孟令嫒; 沈彬彬; 杜士毅; 兰新哲

    2007-01-01

    Using a sonochemical reactor designed by the authors, the process of removing sulfur dioxide from citrate solution simulating the flue gas desulfurization was studied. The influence of ultrasonic frequency, ultrasonic power, reaction temperature, stirring speed, inert gases, initial concentration of sulfur dioxide and concentration of citrate on the efficiency of sulfur dioxide desorption, the stability of citrate solution and the concentration of sulfate radical was examined systematically. By comparing the desorption of sulfur dioxide with and without ultrasonification, it was concluded that (1) lower ultrasonic frequency results in a better degassing efficiency; (2) the use of ultrasonification in desorbing sulfur dioxide from citrate solution improves the desorbing efficiency in some conditions, without changing the essence of chemical reactions; (3) sparging inert gas into the liquid can lower the viscosity of solution and the cavitating threshold, and raise the desorption efficiency. These results demonstrate a technical way for deep desorption of sulfur dioxide and provide the fundamental data for future industrial disposal of sulfur dioxide.

  17. Microporous activated carbons prepared from palm shell by thermal activation and their application to sulfur dioxide adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Lua, Aik Chong

    2002-07-15

    Textural characterization of activated carbons prepared from palm shell by thermal activation with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) gas is reported in this paper. Palm shell (endocarp) is an abundant agricultural solid waste from palm-oil processing mills in many tropical countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. The effects of activation temperature on the textural properties of the palm-shell activated carbons, namely specific surface area (BET method), porosity, and microporosity, were investigated. The activated carbons prepared from palm shell possessed well-developed porosity, predominantly microporosity, leading to potential applications in gas-phase adsorption for air pollution control. Static and dynamic adsorption tests for sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), a common gaseous pollutant, were carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer and a packed column configuration respectively. The effects of adsorption temperature, adsorbate inlet concentration, and adsorbate superficial velocity on the adsorptive performance of the prepared activated carbons were studied. The palm-shell activated carbon was found to have substantial capability for the adsorption of SO(2), comparable to those of some commercial products and an adsorbent derived from another biomass.

  18. Use of nahcolite ore and bag filters for sulfur dioxide emission control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genco, J.M. (Univ. of Maine, Orono); Rosenberg, H.S.; Anastas, M.Y.; Rosar, E.C.; Dulin, J.M.

    1975-12-01

    Technical and economic aspects of the nahcolite ore injection process for the simultaneous removal of fly ash and sulfur oxides from stack gases are described. The process is capable of removing greater than 99 percent of the particulate matter and greater than 70 percent of the sulfur oxides present in such gases. The technical feasibility of the process has been demonstrated in both bench scale and pilot scale engineering studies. Economic analyses performed for the cases of plants located in the midwest and southwest indicate lower capital costs for the nahcolite injection process when compared to wet scrubbing. On an annual cost basis, the nahcolite ore injection process is comparable in cost to wet scrubbing for the case of the southwestern power plant, and somewhat more expensive for the case of the midwestern plant.

  19. Manganese-catalysed autoxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide in the atmospheric aqueous phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Johan; Elding, Lars I.

    Autoxidation of SO 2(aq) in the presence of manganese(II) is one of the important pathways for sulfuric acid formation in atmospheric clouds and fogs. Recent experimental results indicating that the catalyzed reaction takes place via a complex free-radical mechanism are discussed. Previous literature is reviewed in the light of this mechanism. Under atmospheric conditions of low total concentrations of manganese(II) ( < 2 × 10 -5 M) and sulfur(IV) ( ≤ 10 -5 M) and 2.5 < pH < 5, the rate law for conversion of SO 2(aq) to SO 3(aq) is reduced to d[S(IV)]/d t = k[Mn(II)][S(IV)], where [S(IV)] denotes the total concentration. A value of the overall rate constant k of 1.4 × 10 3 M -1s -1 is recommended for use in atmospheric model calculations.

  20. Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

    2013-10-01

    The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township area was 0.51 μg dm-2ṡday and standard (3 μg dm-2ṡday and 0.5 mg m-3, respectively). (2) The indoor gaseous fluoride concentration (3.7 μg m-3) in air of kitchen with the improved coal stove was within the reference value (10 μg m-3); SO2 concentration (0.94 mg m-3) in kitchen air had decline, but its concentration was still higher than indoor air quality standard (0.5 mg m-3). (3) Average concentration of gaseous fluoride and SO2 in air of traditional flue-curing barn of Xiaolongdong Township was 7.2 μg m-3 and 6.8 mg m-3 respectively, and in Yujiawan village were 10.1 μg m-3 and 14.4 mg m-3, respectively. (4) After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air decreased of 45% and 91%, respectively. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 pollution in the traditional flue-curing barn is very serious. The corn and chili baked by open stoves in traditional flue-curing barn (baking room) was also seriously polluted by fluoride and sulfur. After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal

  1. Source-Receptor Relationships for East Asian Sulfur Dioxide Emissions and Northern Hemisphere Sulfate Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2007-12-01

    We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA) sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the northern hemisphere based on a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2) driven with NCEP reanalysis meteorology for 1991. We conduct a base and several sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R) relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over the source and downwind regions. We find that reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence over the North Pacific, but raising EA SO2 emissions will not significantly increase the spatial extent of influence. We define a linearity index and find the S-R relationship between EA SO2 emissions and EA sulfate concentrations to be nearly linear over most downwind regions, but to be non-linear over the EA source region, particularly at the surface and in winter. In addition, we find that besides the direct transport of EA sulfate to North America (NA) and Europe (EU), the indirect response of locally-produced NA or EU sulfate to changes in EA SO2 emissions is negative (i.e., offsetting the direct effect) in winter, spring and fall, but becomes positive in summer. In summer the indirect response is as important as direct transport of EA sulfate over the southeastern U.S. and southern EU. This summertime positive indirect effect largely results from induced changes in H2O2 oxidant concentrations over these regions.

  2. S 2O, polysulfuroxide and sulfur polymer on Io's surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklouti, Donia; Schmitt, Bernard; Brissaud, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    To settle the question of disulfur monoxide and sulfur monoxide deposition and occurrence on Io's surface, we performed series of laboratory experiments reproducing the condensation of S 2O at low temperature. Its polymerization has been monitored by recording infrared spectra under conditions of temperature, pressure, mixing with SO 2 and UV-visible radiation simulating that of Io's surface. Our experiments show that S 2O condensates are not chemically stable under ionian conditions. We also demonstrate that SO and S 2O outgassed by Io's volcanoes and condensing on Io's surface should lead to yellow polysulfuroxide deposits or to white deposits of S 2O diluted in sulfur dioxide frost (i.e., S 2O/SO 2 < 0.1%). Thus S 2O condensation cannot be responsible for the red volcanic deposits on Io. Comparison of the laboratory infrared spectra of S 2O and polysulfuroxide with NIMS/Galileo infrared spectra of Io's surface leads us to discuss the possible identification of polysulfuroxide. We also recorded the visible transmission spectra of sulfur samples resulting from polysulfuroxide decomposition. These samples consist in a mixture of sulfur polymer and orthorhombic sulfur. Using the optical constants extracted from these measurements, we show that a linear combination of the reflectance spectra of our samples, the reflectance spectrum of orthorhombic S 8 sulfur and SO 2 reflectance spectrum, leads to a very good matching of Io's visible spectrum between 330 and 520 nm. We conclude then that Io's surface is probably mainly composed of sulfur dioxide and a mixture of sulfur S 8 and sulfur polymer. Some polysulfuroxide could also co-exist with these dominant components, but is probably restricted to some volcanic areas.

  3. Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2008-07-01

    We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA) sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, using a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2). We conduct a base and five sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R) relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over source and downwind regions. We find that from west to east across the North Pacific, EA sulfate contributes approximately 80% 20% of sulfate at the surface, but at least 50% at 500 hPa. Surface sulfate concentrations are dominated by local anthropogenic sources. Of the sulfate produced from sources other than local anthropogenic emissions (defined here as "background" sulfate), EA sources account for approximately 30% 50% (over the Western US) and 10% 20% (over the Eastern US). The surface concentrations of sulfate from EA sources over the Western US are highest in MAM (up to 0.15 μg/m3), and lowest in DJF (less than 0.06 μg/m3). Reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence (represented by the areas where at least 0.1 μg m-3 of sulfate originates from EA) over the North Pacific both at the surface and at 500 hPa in all seasons, but the extent of influence is insensitive to emission increases, particularly in DJF and JJA. We find that EA sulfate concentrations over most downwind regions respond nearly linearly to changes in EA SO2 emissions, but sulfate concentrations over the EA source region increase more slowly than SO2 emissions, particularly at the surface and in winter, due to limited availability of oxidants (in particular of H2O2, which oxidizes SO2 to sulfate in the aqueous phase). We find that similar estimates of the S-R relationship for trans-Pacific transport of EA sulfate would be obtained using either sensitivity (i.e., varying emissions from a region to examine the effects on downwind concentrations

  4. Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, using a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2. We conduct a base and five sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over source and downwind regions. We find that from west to east across the North Pacific, EA sulfate contributes approximately 80%–20% of sulfate at the surface, but at least 50% at 500 hPa. Surface sulfate concentrations are dominated by local anthropogenic sources. Of the sulfate produced from sources other than local anthropogenic emissions (defined here as "background" sulfate, EA sources account for approximately 30%–50% (over the Western US and 10%–20% (over the Eastern US. The surface concentrations of sulfate from EA sources over the Western US are highest in MAM (up to 0.15 μg/m3, and lowest in DJF (less than 0.06 μg/m3. Reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence (represented by the areas where at least 0.1 μg m−3 of sulfate originates from EA over the North Pacific both at the surface and at 500 hPa in all seasons, but the extent of influence is insensitive to emission increases, particularly in DJF and JJA. We find that EA sulfate concentrations over most downwind regions respond nearly linearly to changes in EA SO2 emissions, but sulfate concentrations over the EA source region increase more slowly than SO2 emissions, particularly at the surface and in winter, due to limited availability of oxidants (in particular of H2O2, which oxidizes SO2 to sulfate in the aqueous phase. We find that similar estimates of the S-R relationship for trans-Pacific transport of EA sulfate would be

  5. Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, using a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2. We conduct a base and five sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over source and downwind regions. We find that from west to east across the North Pacific, EA sulfate contributes approximately 80%–20% of sulfate at the surface, but at least 50% at 500 hPa. In addition, EA SO2 emissions account for approximately 30%–50% and 10%–20% of North American background sulfate over the western and eastern US, respectively. The contribution of EA sulfate to the western US at the surface is highest in MAM and JJA, but is lowest in DJF. Reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence over the North Pacific both at the surface and at 500 mb in all seasons, but the extent of influence is insensitive to emission increases, particularly in DJF and JJA. We find that EA sulfate concentrations over most downwind regions respond nearly linearly to changes in EA SO2 emissions, but sulfate concentrations over the EA source region increase more slowly than SO2 emissions, particularly at the surface and in winter, due to limited availability of oxidants (mostly H2O2. We find that similar estimates of the S-R relationship for trans-Pacific transport of EA sulfate would be obtained using either sensitivity or tagging techniques. Our findings suggest that future changes in EA sulfur emissions may cause little change in the sulfate induced health impact over downwind continents but SO2 emission reductions may significantly reduce the sulfate related climate cooling over the North Pacific and the United States.

  6. [Pollution with sulfur dioxide in an inhabited industrial area. Methodologic problems in monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, C; Pontoni, H; Pellicciotti, G

    1989-01-01

    The area around Rho and Pero in the north west of the province of Milan is densely populated and highly industrialised. It is also characterised by high levels of sulphur dioxide pollution. During the 1980s it was decided to check the sources of production of the pollutant and its distribution in the area. The main area for improvement was the refinery at Rho where it was aimed to disperse gases at a higher level by raising the chimneys and to use fuel gas in those burners which were connected to lower chimneys. For domestic systems it was decided to diffuse the use of methane as much as possible and limit oil-fired central heating, by statute from the Mayor. In order to rationalise the programme of action the pollution was to be determined for each single area by subdivision of the territory into a grid. By means of a census of all the production sources of sulphur dioxide appropriate data were collected to estimate each area's contribution to pollution. The theoretical hourly quantity of sulphur dioxide was calculated on the basis of the combustion equation. The data were then analysed, in total and divided into component parts, i.e. the type of fuel used, the season of the year and industrial or domestic usage. With Gifford and Hanna's ATDL mathematical model the data thus obtained, together with meteorological variables, were used to simulate the expected effect on the distribution of pollution after carrying out the programmed actions. The simulations foresee a reduction of up to 80% of sulphur dioxide concentrations in the areas of greatest use of liquid fuels. In the territory in question the monitoring of the pollutant was assured by the presence of five fixed positions of continuous survey. These turned out to be useful above all for analysis of the phenomenon over a period of time. In order to study spatial distribution better 374 findings were gathered in the winter of 1985-6 from various points of the territory by means of a mobile instantaneous

  7. Efficiency of Removing Sulfur Dioxide in the Air by Non-Thermal Plasma Along with the Application of the Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The non-thermal plasma created by high voltage pulsed power supply can be used to remove sulfur dioxide in the air, but how to increase the removing efficiency is not clear. It is novel to apply the magnetic field in removing SO2 as discussed in this paper. The mechanisms of removing sulfur dioxide by non-thermal plasma along with the application of the magnetic field are analyzed, and the related factors affecting the removal efficiency, such as the magnitude of pulsed voltage, the polarity of the pulse, the layout of the discharge electrode, especially the magnetic field are experimentally investigated. It can be concluded that the purification efficiency is improved significantly by applying the magnetic field.

  8. Polyphenols content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to conventional red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaguso, Ivana; Nardini, Mirella

    2015-07-15

    Wine exerts beneficial effects on human health when it is drunk with moderation. Nevertheless, wine may also contain components negatively affecting human health. Among these, sulfites may induce adverse effects after ingestion. We examined total polyphenols and flavonoids content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of eight organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to those of eight conventional red wines. Polyphenols and flavonoids content were slightly higher in organic wines in respect to conventional wines, however differences did not reach statistical significance. The phenolic acids profile was quite similar in both groups of wines. Antioxidant activity was higher in organic wines compared to conventional wines, although differences were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition are comparable to conventional red wines with regard to the total polyphenols and flavonoids content, the phenolics profile and the antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Impact of Climate, Sulfur Dioxide, and Industrial Dust on δ18O and δ13C in Glucose from Pine Tree Rings Growing in an Industrialized Area in the Southern Part of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Sensuła, Barbara M.

    2016-01-01

    The mass spectrometric analysis of the impact of sulfur dioxide and dust emission on carbon and oxygen stable isotopic compositions of glucose hydrolysed from α-cellulose samples extracted from Scots pine growing in the vicinity of “Huta Katowice” steelworks was the main aim of this study. The annual rings covered the time span from 1975 to 2012 AD. The relationships between climatic conditions, sulfur dioxide, and industrial dust emission and oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions were anal...

  10. In vivo nitrogen dioxide exposure depresses spleen cell in vitro mitogenic responses: effects of sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay-Dupuis, E.; Gougerot-Pocidalo, M.A.; Kraus, L.; Moreau, J.

    1987-02-01

    The in vivo mitogenic responses to lipopolysaccharide or concanavalin A by spleen cells of mice exposed to 20 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) for 96 hr, were evaluated. (/sup 3/H)Thymidine incorporation after addition of either mitogen, was significantly lower in spleen cells from acutely NO/sub 2/-exposed mice (NO/sub 2/SC) than from control mice, although cell viability was not affected. T- and B-cell mitogenic responses were inhibited to the same extent by NO/sub 2/ exposure. NO/sub 2/SC responses were protected by the thiol compounds 2-mercaptoethanol, L-cysteine, and selenomethionine. No restoration of mitogenic response was observed after treatment with reduced glutathione. Mechanisms accounting for this in vivo NO/sub 2/ immune toxicity, are discussed in terms of oxidative injury.

  11. Determination of Sulfur Dioxide in Air by Ion Chromatography%离子色谱法测定空气中二氧化硫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严利民; 文刚; 吴昊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the new determination method of sulfur dioxide in air with ion chromatography. Methods A new method of the determination of sulfur dioxide in air with ion chromatography was proposed. Results In the condition of ion chromatography, a good correlation coef icient ( r=0.9994) was obtained with the linear range of 1~50μg/ml for SO42-, and the limit of deteciton was 0.01μg/ml. Conclusion The new method possessed many advangtages including easily control, sensitive, precision and could met the determination of sulfur dioxide in real air samples.%目的:探索离子色谱法测定空气中二氧化硫的测定方法。方法建立离子色谱法测定空气中二氧化硫的测定方法。结果在一定的离子色谱条件下,SO42-在1~50μg/ml范围内具有良好的线性关系,相关系数r0.9994,检出限0.01μg/ml,回收率95.2~106.8%。结论离子色谱法实验条件容易控制,方法灵敏,精密度高,能满足空气中二氧化硫的测定。

  12. Comparison of titania nanotubes and titanium dioxide as supports of low-temperature selective catalytic reduction catalysts under sulfur dioxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, TsungYu; Liou, Sihyu; Bai, Hsunling

    2017-03-01

    A series of iron-manganese oxide catalysts supported on TiO2 and titanium nanotubes (TNTs) were studied for low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 in the presence of SO2. The results showed that the specific surface area and the amount of Brønsted acid sites were highly correlated. The results also demonstrated that higher Mn(4+)/Mn(3+) ratios and larger specific surface areas might be the main reasons for the excellent performance of MnFe-TNTs catalyst after SO2 poisoning. The SO2 poisoning effect could be minimized by reducing the GHSV, increasing the reaction temperature, or increasing the [NH3]/[NO] molar ratio. The results also indicated that the formation of ammonium sulfate had a stronger effect on the NO conversion efficiency as compared to the formation of metal sulfate. Thus operating the low temperature SCR at above 230 (o)C to avoid the formation of ammonium sulfate would be the priority choice when SO2 poisoning is a concerned issue. Implications: Low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has attracted increasing attention due to that it can reduce the energy consumption for the SCR process employed in industries such as steel plants and glass manufacturing plants. However, it also suffers from the sulfur dioxide (SO2) poisoning problem. This study investigates the possibility of using titania nanotubes (TNTs) as the support of Mn/Fe bimetal oxide catalysts for low-temperature SCR to reduce the SO2 poisoning. The results indicated that the MnFe-TNT catalyst can tolerate SO2 for a longer time as compared with the MnFe-TiO2 catalyst.

  13. Effects of sulfur dioxide on formation of fishy off-odor and undesirable taste in wine consumed with seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Akiko; Isogai, Atsuko; Endo, Michiko; Utsunomiya, Hitoshi; Nakano, Shigeyoshi; Iwata, Hiroshi

    2010-04-14

    In order to evaluate sensory compatibility of alcoholic beverages with food, beverages and dried squid, namely, "surume", a common Japanese accompaniment, were consumed together. White wine and dried squid pairings had a more undesirable taste and more fishy off-odor than sake and dried squid pairings. The undesirable taste and fishy off-odor appeared to be caused by degradation of unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), which are found in fish and squid. Upon addition of DHA to the beverage, bitterness intensity, measured by instrumental taste sensor analysis, and the concentration of certain aldehydes reported to contribute to fishy flavors, increased in white wines, whereas they remained largely the same in sake. Among the major chemical constituents that distinguish wine from sake, only wine-specific sulfite markedly increased bitterness intensity and aldehyde levels upon addition of DHA. These results suggest that sulfur dioxide in wine participated in degradation of unsaturated fatty acids, causing an increase in undesirable taste and fishy off-odor in wine and seafood pairings.

  14. In vivo antitussive activity of Coccinia grandis against irritant aerosol and sulfur dioxide-induced cough model in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakti Prasad Pattanayak and Priyashree Sunita

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae has extensively used to get relief from asthma and cough by the indigenous people of India. The antitussive effect of aerosols of two different concentrations (2.5%, 5% w/v of methanol extract of C. grandis fruits were tested by counting the numbers of coughs produced due to aerosols of citric acid, 10 min after exposing the male guinea pigs to aerosols of test solutions for 7 min. In another set of experiment methanol extract was investigated for its therapeutic efficacy on a cough model induced by sulfur dioxide gas in mice. The results showed significant reduction of cough number obtained in the presence of both concentrations of methanol extract as that of the prototype antitussive agent codeine phosphate. Also, methanol extract exhibited significant antitussive effect at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, per orally by inhibiting the cough by 20.57, 33.73 and 56.71% within 90 min of performing the experiment respectively.

  15. Using CATS Near-Real-time Lidar Observations to Monitor and Constrain Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, E. J.; Yorks, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; da Silva, A. M.; Mcgill, M.

    2016-01-01

    An eruption of Italian volcano Mount Etna on 3 December 2015 produced fast-moving sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfate aerosol clouds that traveled across Asia and the Pacific Ocean, reaching North America in just 5 days. The Ozone Profiler and Mapping Suite's Nadir Mapping UV spectrometer aboard the U.S. National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite observed the horizontal transport of the SO2 cloud. Vertical profiles of the colocated volcanic sulfate aerosols were observed between 11.5 and 13.5 km by the new Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS) space-based lidar aboard the International Space Station. Backward trajectory analysis estimates the SO2 cloud altitude at 7-12 km. Eulerian model simulations of the SO2 cloud constrained by CATS measurements produced more accurate dispersion patterns compared to those initialized with the back trajectory height estimate. The near-real-time data processing capabilities of CATS are unique, and this work demonstrates the use of these observations to monitor and model volcanic clouds.

  16. Annual hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide concentrations and surface to air exchanges in a rural area (Québec, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Philippe; Poissant, Laurier; Villemur, Richard

    The industrialization and the demographic expansion have both influenced the biogeochemical cycle of hydrogen (H 2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2). In the actual context, knowledge about the spatial distribution of the natural sources and sinks of these trace gases is then crucial to infer possible effects of climate and land use changes on their global budget. This article reports the H 2, CO and CO 2 concentrations and micrometeorological fluxes measured during 1 year in a rural area of the mixed wood ecozone of Canada. Land use represents a critical issue in the control of trace gas natural sources or sinks of that region, which is the most densely habited in Canada. On average, the site emitted CO 2 at a rate of 7.7 g m -2 d -1 and consumed H 2 and CO at 0.34 and 5.1 mg m -2 d -1, respectively. Temperature was the most important factor affecting the H 2 and CO surface to air exchanges. The strength of the soil sink was maximal at the end of the summer, while H 2 and CO emissions were observed at the snow-melting period. In winter, H 2 and CO depositions were attributed to their oxidation by photochemically active compounds within the snow cover. When soil temperature was above 10 °C, trace gas fluxes followed a well-defined diurnal cycle. H 2 and CO 2 deposition rates were positively correlated with H 2O fluxes, while CO followed the inverse trend. CO 2 diurnal variations resulted from a balance between photosynthesis and soil respiration, while some biotic and abiotic factors were proposed to explain the trend observed for H 2. In the case of CO, emissions originating from heat- and photo-induced reactions were involved in the attenuation in the strength of the soil sink during daytime. Measured fluxes were compared with the literature to show the relative importance of the rural areas in the studied trace gases budget.

  17. Highly-resolved Modeling of Emissions and Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Fine Particulate Matter in Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Lin, J. C.; Mitchell, L.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate, high-resolution data on air pollutant emissions and concentrations are needed to understand human exposures and for both policy and pollutant management purposes. An important step in this process is also quantification of uncertainties. We present a spatially explicit and highly resolved emissions inventory for Salt Lake County, Utah, and trace gas concentration estimates for carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particles (PM2.5) within Salt Lake City. We assess the validity of this approach by comparing measured concentrations against simulated values derived from combining the emissions inventory with an atmospheric model. The emissions inventory for the criteria pollutants was constructed using the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The spatial and temporal allocation methods from the Emission Modeling Clearinghouse data set are used to downscale the NEI data from annual to hourly scales and from county-level to 500 m x 500 m resolution. Onroad mobile source emissions were estimated by combining a bottom-up emissions calculation approach for large roadway links with a top-down spatial allocation approach for other roadways. Vehicle activity data for road links were derived from automatic traffic responder data. The emissions inventory for CO2 was obtained from the Hestia emissions data product at an hourly, building, facility, and road link resolution. The AERMOD and CALPUFF dispersion models were used to transport emissions and estimate air pollutant concentrations at an hourly temporal and 500 m x 500 m spatial resolution. Modeled results were compared against measurements from a mobile lab equipped with trace gas measurement equipment traveling on pre-determined routes in the Salt Lake City area. The comparison between both approaches to concentration estimation highlights spatial locations and hours of high variability/uncertainty. Results presented here will inform understanding of variability and

  18. Toluene destruction in the Claus process by sulfur dioxide: A reaction kinetics study

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Sourab

    2014-10-22

    The presence of aromatics such as benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) as contaminants in the H2S gas stream entering Claus sulfur recovery units has a detrimental effect on catalytic reactors, where BTX forms soot particles and clogs and deactivates the catalysts. BTX oxidation, before they enter catalyst beds, can solve this problem. A theoretical investigation is presented on toluene oxidation by SO2. Density functional theory is used to study toluene radical (benzyl, o-methylphenyl, m-methylphenyl, and p-methylphenyl)-SO2 interactions. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition on the radical through one of the O atoms rather than the S atom. This exothermic reaction involves energy barriers of 4.8-6.1 kJ/mol for different toluene radicals. Thereafter, O-S bond scission takes place to release SO. The reaction rate constants are evaluated to facilitate process simulations. Among four toluene radicals, the resonantly stabilized benzyl radical exhibited lowest SO2 addition rate. A remarkable similarity between toluene oxidation by O2 and by SO2 is observed.

  19. GASP: A computer code for calculating the thermodynamic and transport properties for ten fluids: Parahydrogen, helium, neon, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon, and carbon dioxide. [enthalpy, entropy, thermal conductivity, and specific heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Baron, A. K.; Peller, I. C.

    1975-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV subprogram called GASP is discussed which calculates the thermodynamic and transport properties for 10 pure fluids: parahydrogen, helium, neon, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon, and carbon dioxide. The pressure range is generally from 0.1 to 400 atmospheres (to 100 atm for helium and to 1000 atm for hydrogen). The temperature ranges are from the triple point to 300 K for neon; to 500 K for carbon monoxide, oxygen, and fluorine; to 600 K for methane and nitrogen; to 1000 K for argon and carbon dioxide; to 2000 K for hydrogen; and from 6 to 500 K for helium. GASP accepts any two of pressure, temperature and density as input conditions along with pressure, and either entropy or enthalpy. The properties available in any combination as output include temperature, density, pressure, entropy, enthalpy, specific heats, sonic velocity, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension. The subprogram design is modular so that the user can choose only those subroutines necessary to the calculations.

  20. Molecular dynamics and a spectroscopic study of sulfur dioxide absorption by an ionic liquid and its mixtures with PEO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoher, Karina; Cardoso, Piercarlo F; Lepre, Luiz F; Ando, Rômulo A; Siqueira, Leonardo J A

    2016-10-19

    An investigation comprising experimental techniques (absorption capacity of SO2 and vibrational spectroscopy) and molecular simulations (thermodynamics, structure, and dynamics) has been performed for the polymer poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), the ionic liquid butyltrimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([N4111][Tf2N]) and their mixtures as sulfur dioxide (SO2) absorbing materials. The polymer PEO has higher capacity to absorb SO2 than the neat ionic liquid, whereas the mixtures presented intermediary absorption capacities. The band assigned to the symmetric stretching band of SO2 at ca. 1140 cm(-1), which is considered a spectroscopic probe for the strength of SO2 interactions with its neighborhood, shifts to lower wavenumbers as more negative total interaction energy values of SO2 were evaluated from the simulations. The solvation free energy of SO2, ΔGsol, correlates linearly with the absorption capacity of SO2. The negative values of ΔGsol are due to negative and positive values of enthalpy and entropy, respectively. In the ionic liquid, SO2 weakens the cation-anion interactions, whereas in the mixture with a high content of PEO these interactions are slightly increased. Such effects were correlated with the relative population of cisoid and transoid conformers of Tf2N anions as revealed by Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the presence of SO2 in the systems provokes the increase of diffusion coefficients of the absorbing species in comparison with the systems without the gas. Proper to the slow dynamics of the polymer, the diffusion coefficient of ions and SO2 diminishes with the increase of the PEO content.

  1. Effects of sulfur dioxide derivatives on expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guohua; Meng, Ziqiang

    2009-04-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is a major air pollutant suspected to act as a promoter or co-carcinogen. The present study was designed to investigate whether SO(2) derivatives (bisulfite and sulfite) had effects on the expression of several proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in cultured human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells. The mRNA and protein levels were measured by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively, following exposure to differing SO(2)-derivative concentrations and exposure times. SO(2) derivatives caused mRNA and protein over-expression of c-fos, c-jun, and c-myc at all tested doses (0.001-2mM). Over-expression of H-ras and p53 were observed in cells receiving the highest concentration (0.1-2mM), as well as the under-expression of p16 and Rb. The over-expression of c-fos and c-jun was observed after 24h recovery. The expression of c-myc and H-ras decreased to base line levels while the p53 expression decreased compared with control after 24h recovery. The mRNA and protein expression of p16 and Rb remained at initial levels after 24h recovery. The data support the hypothesis that SO(2) derivatives could cause the activation of proto-oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and SO(2) derivatives may play a role in the pathogenesis of SO(2)-associated lung cancer.

  2. Continuous measurements of nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide in the surface ocean with novel laser-absorption analysers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jan; Grefe, Imke; Wager, Natalie; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Lee, Gareth A.

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, improvements in spectroscopic technology have revolutionised atmospheric trace gas research. In particular, cavity-based optical absorption analysers allow determination of gas concentrations with high frequency, repeatability, reproducibility and long-term stability. These qualities make them particularly suitable for autonomous measurements on voluntary observing ships (VOS). Here, we present results from three of the first deployments of such analysers on research ships, as a first step towards VOS installations. Los Gatos off-axis ICOS (Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy) analysers were used to measure nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in ocean surface water during research cruises in 2010, 2011 and 2012. The analysers were coupled to an equilibrator fed by the scientific seawater supply in the ship's laboratories. The equilibrator measurements were alternated with regular measurements of marine air and calibrated standard gases. Short-term precision for 10 s-average N2O mole fractions at an acquisition rate of 1 Hz was better than 0.2 nmol mol-1. The same value was achieved for duplicate measurements of a standard gas analysed within 1 hour of each other. The response time to concentration changes in water was 142-203 s, depending on the headspace flow rate. During the first deployment on the AMT20 cruise (Atlantic Meridional Transect, Southampton to Punta Arenas, 12 October to 25 November 2010), we unexpectedly found the subtropical gyres to be slightly undersaturated in N2O, implying that this region acted as a sink for this greenhouse gas. In contrast, the equatorial region was supersaturated and a source of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere. Mean sea-to-air fluxes were overall small and ranged between -1.6 and 0.11 μmol m-2 d-1 (negative fluxes imply an net uptake by the ocean). Despite the good short-term repeatability, significant calibration drift occurred between the six

  3. 二氧化硫脲为硫源制备硫掺杂二氧化钛及其光催化活性%PREPARATION AND PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF SULFUR-DOPED TITANIA USING THIOUREA DIOXIDE AS SULFUR SOURCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王竹梅; 李月明; 沈宗洋; 洪燕; 左建林

    2011-01-01

    以钛酸四丁酯为TiO2的前驱物,二氧化硫脲为掺杂硫的源物质,采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了掺硫改性的TiO2光催化剂.采用XRD对制备的掺硫二氧化钛结构进行了表征,探讨了溶胶-凝胶制备工艺、硫掺杂量及催化剂煅烧温度对该催化剂光催化活性的影响.结果表明,掺硫改性的TiO2经600℃煅烧后光催化活性有了明显提高,且硫的掺杂有一个最佳值,即二氧化硫脲的掺杂质量百分数为4%.经掺硫改性后的TiO2在可见光区具备更强的光催化活性,在波长不低于400nm的可见光作用下,对亚甲基蓝的4 h降解率最高可达89.5%.%Using tetrabutyl titanate as precursor and thiourea dioxide as sulfur source, sulfur-doped titania photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method. The crystal structure of the photocatalyst was characterized by XRD. The influences of sol-gel processing technology, sulfur doping amounts and calcined temperatures on the photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation were investigated. The results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of the sulfur-doped TiO2 calcined at 600℃ was improved significantly, and there existed an optimized sulfur doping amount, i.e., the content of thiourea dioxide was 4 wt%. The sulfur-doped TiO2 had stronger photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylence blue under visible-light wavelength above 400 nm, and the highest methylence blue degradation rate reached 89.5% after 4 h reaction.

  4. Sulfuric acid on Europa and the radiolytic sulfur cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. W.; Johnson, R. E.; Anderson, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of laboratory spectra with Galileo data indicates that hydrated sulfuric acid is present and is a major component of Europa's surface. In addition, this moon's visually dark surface material, which spatially correlates with the sulfuric acid concentration, is identified as radiolytically altered sulfur polymers. Radiolysis of the surface by magnetospheric plasma bombardment continuously cycles sulfur between three forms: sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and sulfur polymers, with sulfuric acid being about 50 times as abundant as the other forms. Enhanced sulfuric acid concentrations are found in Europa's geologically young terrains, suggesting that low-temperature, liquid sulfuric acid may influence geological processes.

  5. Changes in Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) over the English Channel - 1.5 Years of Measurements from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas; Hopkins, Frances; Smyth, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) was measured continuously from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory near Plymouth, United Kingdom between May 2014 and November 2015. This coastal site is exposed to marine air across a wide wind sector. The predominant southwesterly winds carry relatively clean background Atlantic air. In contrast, air from the southeast is heavily influenced by exhaust plumes from ships in the English Channel as well as near near the Plymouth Sound. International Maritime Organization regulation came into force in January 2015 to reduce sulfur emissions tenfold in Sulfur Emission Control Areas such as the English Channel. We observed a three-fold reduction from 2014 to 2015 in the estimated ship-emitted SO2 during southeasterly winds. Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is an important source of atmospheric SO2 even in this semi-polluted region. The relative contribution of DMS oxidation to the SO2 burden over the English Channel increased from ~1/3 in 2014 to ~1/2 in 2015 due to the reduction in ship sulfur emissions. Our diel analysis suggests that SO2 is removed from the marine atmospheric boundary layer in about half a day, with dry deposition to the ocean accounting for a quarter of the total loss.

  6. Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

  7. A compilation of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emission-rate data from Cook Inlet volcanoes (Redoubt, Spurr, Iliamna, and Augustine), Alaska during the period from 1990 to 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Airborne sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas sampling of the Cook Inlet volcanoes (Mt. Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine) began in 1986 when several measurements were carried out at Augustine volcano during the eruption of 1986 (Rose and others, 1988). More systematic monitoring for SO2 began in March 1990 and for carbon dioxide (CO2) began in June, 1990 at Redoubt Volcano (Brantley, 1990 and Casadevall and others, 1994) and continues to the present. This report contains all of the available daily SO2 and CO2 emission rates determined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 1990 through July 1994. Intermittent measurements (four to six month intervals) at Augustine and Iliamna began in 1990 and continues to the present. Intermittent measurements began at Mt. Spurr volcano in 1991, and were continued at more regular intervals from June, 1992 through the 1992 eruption at the Crater Peak vent to the present.

  8. Determination of the effects of sulfur dioxide on recovery systems for CO/sub 2/. Final report, 1977-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    The present study was initiated to investigate the problems associated with recovery of CO/sub 2/ from flue gases for enhanced oil recovery. In particular, the scope of this work may be stated: determine the type of impurities formed in ammonia, monoethanolamine (MEA), and potassium carbonate systems when extracting CO/sub 2/ from oxidizing flue gases containing nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides; determine the levels of impurity build-up in the solvents; estimate the impurity level in the recovered CO/sub 2/; evaluate the effect on corrosion in metals by these solvents in a flue gas environment; determine the carbon-dioxide absorption coefficients in solvents contaminated due to the pollutants present in the flue gas; evaluate the effect of particulate matter on absorption coefficients in the solvents; and recommend potential absorption systems for CO/sub 2/ from flue gas and estimate the cost of recovery. The results of this study indicate that in ammonia, ammonia sulfate is quickly formed to render that portion of the absorbent inactive. In MEA, amine sulfite and amine sulfate are the dominant impurities formed. In amine-activated potassium carbonate solutions, only sulfite and sulfate ions were found. No nitrogen-oxide species were found in any solution. The impurity levels obtained in the present experiments indicated no limit on contaminant build-up. The impurity level in the recovered CO/sub 2/ was estimated to be less than or equal to 100 ppM non-condensible gases, 20 to 200 ppM SO/sub 2/, and < 20 ppM NO/sub x. Corrosion in the absorption systems will be similar to that observed in CO/sub 2/ absorption systems from reducing gas streams. The absorption rate of CO/sub 2/ in solutions decreases with increasing loading of CO/sub 2/ in almost a linear fashion. Several alternative absorption systems were evaluated in a preliminary cost evaluation, and a K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (EAE activated) solution was recommended.

  9. Study and modeling of the reduction of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrogen chloride by dry injection technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wuyin

    1997-05-01

    The potential and mechanism to reduce acid gases, such as sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), by dry Ca-based sorbents have been studied to improve the efficiency of the process and sorbent utilization. Several natural limestones were tested for SO{sub 2} removal. Calcium conversion as high as 45 % was achieved in the first 0.3 s at 1000 deg C, 1000 ppm SO{sub 2} and Ca/S=1. A SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of 95 % was reached at Ca/S=2. Two models for estimating the sulfation of CaO at high temperature are presented. Short-residence-time sulfation is described by a pore size distribution model and long-residence-time sulfation by a particle expansion model. The pore size distribution model explains the effects of particle size, pore size distribution and partial pressure of SO{sub 2}, suggesting these three factors be the most important for CaO conversion. For particles larger than 1-2 {mu}m in furnace sorbent injection, pore diameters of 50-300 Aa are desirable. When large particles or long residence times are used, as in fluidized bed combustion, the particle expansion model shows the particle size and the sorbent type to be the main factors affecting the reaction. By using the selected limestone and additives the simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal was also measured. Several ammonium salts as well as urea were tested. Urea was found to give the highest NO{sub x} removal efficiency. To fully utilize the unreacted Ca-based sorbents, the spent sorbents from SO{sub 2} reduction processes were tested in a fixed-bed reactor to measure the capacity for HCl removal at 150-600 deg C. The results showed that all spent materials could react with HCl to some extent. After being calcined and slaked, they even showed the same reactivity as pure Ca(OH){sub 2}. A shrinking core model was derived for fixed-bed reactor. For the best sorbent tested, the multiple sorbent utilization reached about 80 %. 100 refs, 42 figs, 12 tabs

  10. Volcanic monitoring from space using neural networks approach. Simultaneous ash and sulfur dioxide retrievals using multispectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscini, A.; Corradini, S.; Chini, M.; Merucci, L.; Stramondo, S.; Picchiani, M.; Del Frate, F.

    2012-04-01

    In this work a Multi Layer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) approach has been used for a simultaneous volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide retrievals considering the MODIS measurements. As test case the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption have been considered. A network was built for each parameter to be retrieved. Additionally, for volcanic ash, a network for the classification of "ash image pixels" was implemented, which was then used to mask the estimates. Several network topologies were compared in terms of their performance. Concerning the training phase and networks testing, a set of MODIS images was selected covering the Eyjafjallajokull May events. The classification NNs were trained with the volcanic ash classification map obtained with the Brightness Temperature Difference algorithm, assumed as benchmark. The neural networks for the quantitative estimation of the parameters associated with volcanic ash, mass, effective radius, aerosol optical depth and SO2, were instead trained with maps obtained using consolidated estimation algorithms based on simulated radiances at the top of the atmosphere, generated in turn applying a radiative transfer model to remote sensing data. The networks proved to be very effective in solving the inversion problem related to the estimation of the parameters of the volcanic cloud, settling the crucial issue related to false alarms in the detection of volcanic ash. Furthermore, once the training phase is complete, NNs provide a faster inversion technique, useful for the applications. From this point of view the technique satisfies the need to respond quickly as a result of disastrous natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions. Future activities include testing the effectiveness of the technique under different lighting conditions (night images) and on other types of multispectral data, such as that provided by high temporal resolution sensors like SEVIRI-MSG, on board the METEOSAT second Generation satellites. The latter would be

  11. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS , spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  12. Modelling of Carbon Monoxide Air Pollution in Larg Cities by Evaluetion of Spectral LANDSAT8 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; Sadeghian, S.; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS ), spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  13. Effectiveness of the sulfur(IV) compound, sodium bisulfite, in reducing chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and chlorite toxicity to Daphnia magna in well water and pond water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonkos, L T; Fisher, D J; Burton, D T; Whitekettle, W K; Peterille, J C

    2001-03-01

    Flow-through toxicity tests were conducted with Daphnia magna to determine the residual toxicity of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and chlorite after treatment with the sulfur(IV) compound sodium bisulfite. Daphnids were exposed separately to 0.5-mg/L concentrations of each of the three compounds without the addition of sodium bisulfite, with a low stoichiometric dose of sodium bisulfite, and with a high stoichiometric dose of sodium bisulfite. Tests were performed in well water with a low total organic carbon (TOC) content and pond water with a high TOC content. Analysis of results indicated that sodium bisulfite did not eliminate the toxicity of chlorine dioxide or chlorite to D. magna. Total residual oxidant (TRO) concentrations were reduced and survival times were extended, but acute toxicity persisted even with a S(IV) concentration 10.0 times the stoichiometric ratio of oxidant. Mortality occurred in chlorine dioxide treatments in which no TRO was detected, indicating that standard analytical (amperometric) techniques may be inadequate to detect toxicity. Sodium bisulfite did succeed in eliminating chlorine toxicity except in pond water receiving a low (3.0x) sodium bisulfite dose. Oxidant reactions with organic substrates may have produced chlorinated residuals that were resistant to S(IV) dechlorination.

  14. Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Dahl, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria are characterized by oxidizing various inorganic sulfur compounds for use as electron donors in carbon dioxide fixation during anoxygenic photosynthetic growth. These bacteria are divided into the purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and the green sulfur bacteria (GSB......). They utilize various combinations of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate and sometimes also ferrous iron and hydrogen as electron donors. This review focuses on the dissimilatory and assimilatory metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds in these bacteria and also briefly discusses these metabolisms...... in other types of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. The biochemistry and genetics of sulfur compound oxidation in PSB and GSB are described in detail. A variety of enzymes catalyzing sulfur oxidation reactions have been isolated from GSB and PSB (especially Allochromatium vinosum, a representative...

  15. 内源性二氧化硫:心血管调节的新型气体信号分子%Endogenous sulfur dioxide:a novel gasotransmitter in cardiovascular system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李真真

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide has been considered as a toxic gas.However,recently more and more studies have shown that sulfur dioxide can be generated endogenously in cardiovascular system and has broad physiologic effects.Studies demonstrate that sulfur dioxide plays an important role in the regulation in the pathophysiologic process of many cardiovascular diseases,such as hypertension,atherosclerosis.These findings suggest that sulfur dioxide might be a novel endogenous gaseous signaling molecule involved in the regulation of cardiovascular functions.%长期以来二氧化硫一直被认为是一种废气,近年来越来越多的研究表明二氧化硫在心血管系统内源性生成,具有重要的心血管生理学效应,并对多种心血管疾病如高血压、动脉粥样硬化等疾病的病理生理学过程具重要的调节意义,成为继一氧化氮、一氧化碳和硫化氢后的又一具心血管调节作用的气体信号分子.该文对内源性二氧化硫在心血管系统的研究现状作一综述.

  16. Space-based observation of volcanic iodine monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions inject substantial amounts of halogens into the atmosphere. Chlorine and bromine oxides have frequently been observed in volcanic plumes from different instrumental platforms such as from ground, aircraft and satellites. The present study is the first observational evidence that iodine oxides are also emitted into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions. Large column amounts of iodine monoxide, IO, are observed in satellite measurements following the major eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in 2008. The IO signal is detected in measurements made both by SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY) on ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) and GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2) on MetOp-A (Meteorological Operational Satellite A). Following the eruption on 7 August 2008, strongly elevated levels of IO slant columns of more than 4 × 1013 molec cm-2 are retrieved along the volcanic plume trajectories for several days. The retrieved IO columns from the different instruments are consistent, and the spatial distribution of the IO plume is similar to that of bromine monoxide, BrO. Details in the spatial distribution, however, differ between IO, BrO and sulfur dioxide, SO2. The column amounts of IO are approximately 1 order of magnitude smaller than those of BrO. Using the GOME-2A observations, the total mass of IO in the volcanic plume injected into the atmosphere from the eruption of Kasatochi on 7 August 2008, is determined to be on the order of 10 Mg.

  17. Combining organometallic reagents, the sulfur dioxide surrogate DABSO, and amines: a one-pot preparation of sulfonamides, amenable to array synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, Alex S; Russell, Claire J; Willis, Michael C

    2015-01-19

    We describe a method for the synthesis of sulfonamides through the combination of an organometallic reagent, a sulfur dioxide equivalent, and an aqueous solution of an amine under oxidative conditions (bleach). This simple reaction protocol avoids the need to employ sulfonyl chloride substrates, thus removing the limitation imposed by the commercial availability of these reagents. The resultant method allows access to new chemical space, and is also tolerant of the polar functional groups needed to impart favorable physiochemical properties required for medicinal chemistry and agrochemistry. The developed chemistry is employed in the synthesis of a targeted 70 compound array, prepared using automated methods. The array achieved a 93% success rate for compounds prepared. Calculated molecular weights, lipophilicities, and polar surface areas are presented, demonstrating the utility of the method for delivering sulfonamides with drug-like properties.

  18. Synthesis of Tetra-Acetyl Ribofuranose by Sulfuric Ion Supported on Titanium Dioxide and Zirconium Dioxide%SO2-4-TiO2-SO2-4-ZrO2催化合成四乙酰呋喃核糖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵景联; 王云海

    2001-01-01

    1,2,3,5-Tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-ribofuranose was synthesized from inosine and acetic anhydride in the presence of sulfuric ion supported on titanium dioxide and zirconium dioxide. Sulfuric ion supported on titanium dioxide and zirconium dioxide were prepared by immersing titanium dioxide and zirconium dioxide in sulfuric acid, and then baked at a fixed temperature. The catalyst is a mixture of sulfuric ion on titanium and sulfuric ion on zirconium in a fixed weight-rate. The yield of 1,2,3,5-Tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-ribofuranose can reach up to 84.6% under certain reactive conditions.%对用复合固体超强酸SO2-4-TiO2-SO2-4-ZrO2催化肌苷制备1,2,3,5-O-四乙酰-β-D-呋喃核糖进行了研究.研究结果表明,将TiO2和自制的ZrO2分别用硫酸溶液浸泡,在一定温度下焙烧,制成SO2-4-ZrO2和SO2-4-TiO2,再将SO2-4-ZrO2和SO2-4-TiO2按一定质量比混合制成复合固体超强酸催化剂,用肌苷和乙酸酐为原料,在一定条件下进行催化酯化反应,可使1,2,3,5-O-四乙酰-β-D-呋喃核糖的收率达到84.6%.

  19. Interrelations between the pollution with sulfur dioxide and the movements of stomata in Pelargonium X hortorum: effect of the relative humidity and the air content in carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonte, J.; Louguet, P.

    1975-01-01

    The 10/sup -6/ (V/V) concentration of sulphur dioxide, maintained during a sufficient time, causes necrosis on the Pelargonium X hortorum leaves, the importance of which is related to the initial degree of stomatal opening. At light, exposure to SO/sub 2/ is followed by a temporary stomatal closing in dry as in moist air. Nevertheless, damages are greatly enhanced in moist air because the rate of stomatal closing is much slower. If SO/sub 2/ is given in darkness to stomata opened in air without CO/sub 2/, the closing reaction is also observed. At light the sensitivity of the leaves to pollution is greatly increased without CO/sub 2/. The authors consider the possible ways of SO/sub 2/ action upon the mechanisms of stomatal movement and discuss the hypothesis of the protecting role of CO/sub 2/.

  20. Total Sulfur Deposition (wet+dry) from the Atmosphere

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) is emitted primarily as a by-product of coal combustion from power plants. Sulfur Dioxide reacts in the atmosphere to form other chemical such...

  1. Quality assessment of ground-based microwave measurements of chlorine monoxide, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide from the NDSC radiometer at the plateau de bure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricaud, P.; Noe, J. de la [Observatoire Aquitain des Sciences de l' Univers (OASU), Lab. d' Astrodynamique, d' Astrophysique et d' Aeronomie de Bordeaux, Floirac (France); Baron, P. [Noveltis, Toulouse (France)

    2004-07-01

    A ground-based microwave radiometer dedicated to chlorine monoxide (ClO) measurements around 278 GHz has been in operation from December 1993-June 1996 at the Plateau de Bure, France (45 N, 5.9 E, 2500 m altitude). It belongs to the international network for the detection of stratospheric change. A detailed study of both measurements and retrieval schemes has been undertaken. Although dedicated to the measurements of ClO, simultaneous profiles of O{sub 3}, ClO and NO{sub 2}, together with information about the instrumental baseline, have been retrieved using the optimal estimation method. The vertical profiles have been compared with other ground-based microwave data, satellite-borne data and model results. Data quality shows: 1) the weak sensitivity of the instrument that obliges to make time averages over several hours; 2) the site location where measurements of good opacities are possible for only a few days per year; 3) the baseline undulation affecting all the spectra, an issue common to all the microwave instruments; 4) the slow drift of some components affecting frequencies by 3-4 MHz within a couple of months. Nevertheless, when temporally averaging data over a few days, ClO temporal variations (diurnal and over several weeks in winter 1995) from 35-50 km are consistent with model results and satellite data, particularly at the peak altitude around 40 km, although temporal coincidences are infrequent in winter 1995. In addition to ClO, it is possible to obtain O{sub 3} information from 30-60 km whilst the instrument is not optimized at all for this molecule. Retrievals of O{sub 3} are reasonable when compared with model and another ground-based data set, although the lowermost layers are affected by the contamination of baseline remnants. Monthly-averaged diurnal variations of NO{sub 2} are detected at 40 km and appear in agreement with photochemical model results and satellite zonally-averaged data, although the amplitude is weaker than the other data sets

  2. Quality assessment of ground-based microwave measurements of chlorine monoxide, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide from the NDSC radiometer at the Plateau de Bure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ricaud

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A ground-based microwave radiometer dedicated to chlorine monoxide (ClO measurements around 278GHz has been in operation from December 1993-June 1996 at the Plateau de Bure, France (45° N, 5.9° E, 2500m altitude. It belongs to the international Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change. A detailed study of both measurements and retrieval schemes has been undertaken. Although dedicated to the measurements of ClO, simultaneous profiles of O3, ClO and NO2, together with information about the instrumental baseline, have been retrieved using the optimal estimation method. The vertical profiles have been compared with other ground-based microwave data, satellite-borne data and model results. Data quality shows: 1 the weak sensitivity of the instrument that obliges to make time averages over several hours; 2 the site location where measurements of good opacities are possible for only a few days per year; 3 the baseline undulation affecting all the spectra, an issue common to all the microwave instruments; 4 the slow drift of some components affecting frequencies by 3-4MHz within a couple of months. Nevertheless, when temporally averaging data over a few days, ClO temporal variations (diurnal and over several weeks in winter 1995 from 35-50km are consistent with model results and satellite data, particularly at the peak altitude around 40km, although temporal coincidences are infrequent in winter 1995. In addition to ClO, it is possible to obtain O3 information from 30-60km whilst the instrument is not optimized at all for this molecule. Retrievals of O3 are reasonable when compared with model and another ground-based data set, although the lowermost layers are affected by the contamination of baseline remnants. Monthly-averaged diurnal variations of NO2 are detected at 40km and appear in agreement with photochemical model results and satellite zonally-averaged data, although the amplitude

  3. 锦州市2015年二氧化硫新增量预测%Predicting the New Increment of Sulfur Dioxide of Jinzhou City in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠菲

    2014-01-01

    根据《“十二五”主要污染物总量控制规划编制技术指南》提供的公式,预测社会经济发展主要参数,包括GDP、能源消费总量、煤炭消费量等指标。二氧化硫新增量预测以宏观测算方法为主,并按行业测算方法予以校核。宏观测算分为火电行业和非电力行业,结果为1.419万t;分行业预测分为石化、建材(水泥)、有色、冶金和其他行业,结果为1.774万t,两者预测偏差为25%,采用分行业预测结果作为2015年二氧化硫新增量预测。%According to the formula supplied by Technical Guide of Controlling the Total Amount of Major Populants in the 12th Five-year Plan, forcasted the main parameters of the social development, including GDP, tatal energy consumed, coal consumption, etc. Macro-method should be applied to measure the new increment of sulfur dioxide, the results should be checked according to the measurement methods in different industries. Macro-forecast can be divided into thermal power industry and non-electrinic power industry, the result is 14 190 t. Forecasting by industries can be devided into petrifaction, building materials ( cement) , non-ferrous matals, metallurgy and so on, the result is 17 740 t. The deviation between them is 25%. The result of forecasting by industries was taken as the new increment of sulfur dioxide in 2015.

  4. Infrared study of lower sulfur oxides on Io's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklouti, D.; Schmitt, B.; Brissaud, O.

    2004-11-01

    Sulfur dioxide, SO2, and sulfur monoxide, SO, are the only sulfur oxides that have been firmly identified in Io's atmosphere. While SO2, according to infrared observations, is ubiquitous on Io's surface and seems to widely dominate it, SO has never been found on the surface. In fact, contrary to SO2, SO is extremely reactive and unstable. It decomposes by disproportionation forming SO2 and S2O. This latter molecule, disulfur monoxide, is much more stable than SO and, depending on temperature and pressure conditions, it can, either, directly condense on the "cold" surface, or polymerize forming polysulfuroxides, or even, thermally decompose to SO2 and sulfur. Hapke (1989, Icarus 79, 47-74) measured the spectral reflectance of S2O and its resulting polymer over the range 200-1700 nm. Using Voyager observations, he tried to show that the spectral properties of Io can be matched by combinations of SO2, S2O, polysulfuroxide and basalt, but his model was controversial and since then, no experimental data on S2O and its polymer were added to confirm or definitely reject the possibility of the presence of these molecules on Io's surface. Thus, we have undertaken series of laboratory experiments to synthesize and measure the infrared spectra of S2O and its resulting polymeric sulfuroxides, under different temperature conditions and very low pressures. The results of these experiments will be presented and compared to NIMS/Galileo data. Then, the way of formation and possible presence of these lower sulfur oxides on Io's surface will be discussed.

  5. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and smokers. Carbon monoxide can harm a fetus (unborn baby still in the womb). Symptoms of carbon ... symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. For those who survive, recovery is slow. How ...

  6. CARBON MONOXIDE TREATMENT GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is the leading cause of unintentional poisoning-related death in Slovenia. It is an odorless, colorless gas that usually remains undetectable until exposures result in injury or death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is most commonly accompanied by headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, confusion, drowsiness, fatigue and collapse. Carbon monoxide poisoning management includes normobaric oxygen therapy. Hyperbaric-oxygen treatments reduce the risk of cognitive sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning. 

  7. 自动凯氏定氮仪测定一次性筷子中二氧化硫含量%Comparison of auto-kjeldahl apparatus and glass distiller in determining sulfur dioxide in disposable chopsticks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白艳艳; 潘秋仁; 王文伟

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较凯氏定氮仪与玻璃蒸馏装置测定一次性筷子中二氧化硫的效果.方法:采用凯氏定氮仪与玻璃蒸馏装置蒸馏一次性筷子中二氧化硫,按GB/T 5009.34-2003第二法测定样品中的二氧化硫含量,两法测定结果进行比较.结果:凯氏定氮仪与玻璃蒸馏装置蒸馏法测定结果一致,经统计学处理,差异无显著性.结论:采用凯氏定氮仪蒸馏测定一次性筷子中二氧化硫,方法简便、省时,结果准确可靠.%Objective: To compare the effect of Auto - Kjeldahl Apparatus and Glass Distiller in determining sulfur dioxide in disposable chopsticks. Methods: Auto - Kjeldahl Apparatus and Glass Distiller were applied to distill the sulfur dioxide in disposable chopsticks samples, the content of sulfur dioxide was determined according to the second method of GB/T 5009.34 -2003 , the results were compared. Results: The results of the two methods were identical; no significant difference was found by statistical analysis. Conclusion: Determination of sulfur dioxide in disposable chopsticks using auto - Kjeldahl apparatus is simple and rapid. The results are accurate and reliable.

  8. Optimization of Determination Method of Sulfur Dioxide Residue in Preserved Fruit%蜜饯制品中SO2残留检测方法的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玮婧; 冯光

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对蜜饯制品中SO2残留的检测方法进行优化.[方法]采用BUCHI全自动凯氏定氮仪替代全玻璃蒸馏装置进行蒸馏蜜饯制品中的SO2,通过正交试验优化蒸馏过程,并按国标GB/T5009.34-2003滴定法测定SO2含量.[结果]蒸馏最佳条件为时间9 min,加水体积50 ml,取样量5g;相对标准偏差(RSD)在0.7%~1.4%,回收率在96.8%~98.8%.[结论]该方法反应速度快,精密度高,适用于蜜饯制品中SO2残留量的测定.%[ Objective] The aim was to optimize the determination method of sulfur dioxide residue in preserved fruit. [ Method] Distillation of sulfur dioxide residue in preserved fruit was attempted by using the method of BUCHI auto-Kjeldahl s apparatus replaced the glass distiller, and the content of sulfur dioxide was determined according to the international standard GB/T5009.34-2003. [ Result] The results showed that the optimum distillation conditions based on orthogonal test were as follows; samples 5 g, water 50 ml, distillation time 9 min. The relative standard deviations of this method were 0.1% - 1.4% , the recoveries were 96. 8% - 98. 8% - [ Conclusion] This method was rapid, accurate, and suitable for the determination of sulfur dioxide residue in preserved fruit.

  9. Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis: Selective Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide by a Nickel N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Isoquinoline Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoi, VanSara; Kornienko, Nick; Margarit, C; Yang, Peidong; Chang, Christopher

    2013-06-07

    The solar-driven reduction of carbon dioxide to value-added chemical fuels is a longstanding challenge in the fields of catalysis, energy science, and green chemistry. In order to develop effective CO2 fixation, several key considerations must be balanced, including (1) catalyst selectivity for promoting CO2 reduction over competing hydrogen generation from proton reduction, (2) visible-light harvesting that matches the solar spectrum, and (3) the use of cheap and earth-abundant catalytic components. In this report, we present the synthesis and characterization of a new family of earth-abundant nickel complexes supported by N-heterocyclic carbene amine ligands that exhibit high selectivity and activity for the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to CO. Systematic changes in the carbene and amine donors of the ligand have been surveyed, and [Ni(Prbimiq1)]2+ (1c, where Prbimiq1 = bis(3-(imidazolyl)isoquinolinyl)propane) emerges as a catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 with the lowest cathodic onset potential (Ecat = 1.2 V vs SCE). Using this earth-abundant catalyst with Ir(ppy)3 (where ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) and an electron donor, we have developed a visible-light photoredox system for the catalytic conversion of CO2 to CO that proceeds with high selectivity and activity and achieves turnover numbers and turnover frequencies reaching 98,000 and 3.9 s1, respectively. Further studies reveal that the overall efficiency of this solar-to-fuel cycle may be limited by the formation of the active Ni catalyst and/or the chemical reduction of CO2 to CO at the reduced nickel center and provide a starting point for improved photoredox systems for sustainable carbon-neutral energy conversion.

  10. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main content Languages 简体中文 English Bahasa Indonesia 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase ... Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as ...

  11. A Discuss of Sulfur Dioxide Emission Control of China's Oil and Gas Industry%石油天然气行业SO2总量控制思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范巍; 李兴春; 龙飞

    2011-01-01

    指出了石油天然气行业是国家在“十二五”期间SO2减排的重点控制行业,调查了我国石油天然气的生产和消费情况,以“十一五”前3年为基础,对行业“十二五”SO2排放进行了预测。分析了行业SO2减排的技术经济可行性,提出了行业SO2减排的主要控制途径和新增总量的控制措施。%Oil and gas industry is the key industry of sulfur dioxide emission control during the "Twelve five --year" period of China. This paperinvestigates the situation of China's oil and gas production and consumption and predicts the sulfur dioxide emissions during the "Twelve five-year" period based on the first three years of the "Eleventh Five Year" period. Besides, it also analyses the technical and economic feasibility of the controlling of sulfur dioxide emissions in oil and gas industry and puts forward the main control means.

  12. RESEARCH ON ELECTRIC ARC REDUCTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE,

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARBON DIOXIDE , REDUCTION(CHEMISTRY), ELECTRIC ARCS, CHEMICAL REACTIONS, HEAT OF REACTION, GAS FLOW, OXYGEN, CARBON COMPOUNDS, MONOXIDES, ELECTRODES, LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, HIGH TEMPERATURE, PLASMAS(PHYSICS), ENERGY.

  13. Statistical interpretation of chromatic indicators in correlation to phytochemical profile of a sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchabo, William; Ma, Yongkun; Kwaw, Emmanuel; Zhang, Haining; Xiao, Lulu; Apaliya, Maurice T

    2018-01-15

    The four different methods of color measurement of wine proposed by Boulton, Giusti, Glories and Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) were applied to assess the statistical relationship between the phytochemical profile and chromatic characteristics of sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes. The alteration in chromatic properties and phenolic composition of non-thermal aged mulberry wine were examined, aided by the used of Pearson correlation, cluster and principal component analysis. The results revealed a positive effect of non-thermal processes on phytochemical families of wines. From Pearson correlation analysis relationships between chromatic indexes and flavonols as well as anthocyanins were established. Cluster analysis highlighted similarities between Boulton and Giusti parameters, as well as Glories and CIE parameters in the assessment of chromatic properties of wines. Finally, principal component analysis was able to discriminate wines subjected to different maturation techniques on the basis of their chromatic and phenolics characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. EPR characterization of ascorbyl and sulfur dioxide anion radicals trapped during the reaction of bovine Cytochrome c Oxidase with molecular oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Michelle A.; Egawa, Tsuyoshi; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Rousseau, Denis L.; Gerfen, Gary J.

    2010-04-01

    The reaction intermediates of reduced bovine Cytochrome c Oxidase (CcO) were trapped following its reaction with oxygen at 50 μs-6 ms by innovative freeze-quenching methods and studied by EPR. When the enzyme was reduced with either ascorbate or dithionite, distinct radicals were generated; X-band (9 GHz) and D-band (130 GHz) CW-EPR measurements support the assignments of these radicals to ascorbyl and sulfur dioxide anion radical (SO2-rad), respectively. The X-band spectra show a linewidth of 12 G for the ascorbyl radical and 11 G for the SO2-rad radical and an isotropic g-value of 2.005 for both species. The D-band spectra reveal clear distinctions in the g-tensors and powder patterns of the two species. The ascorbyl radical spectrum displays approximate axial symmetry with g-values of gx = 2.0068, gy = 2.0066, and gz = 2.0023. The SO2-rad>/SUP> radical has rhombic symmetry with g-values of gx = 2.0089, gy = 2.0052, and gz = 2.0017. When the contributions from the ascorbyl and SO2-rad radicals were removed, no protein-based radical on CcO could be identified in the EPR spectra.

  15. Soap bubbles in analytical chemistry. Conductometric determination of sub-parts per million levels of sulfur dioxide with a soap bubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyanee, Tinakorn; Borst, Walter L; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate; Li, Jianzhong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2006-04-15

    Soap bubbles provide a fascinating tool that is little used analytically. With a very low liquid volume to surface area ratio, a soap bubble can potentially provide a very useful interface for preconcentration where mass transfer to an interfacial surface is important. Here we use an automated system to create bubbles of uniform size and film thickness. We utilize purified Triton-X 100, a nonionic surfactant, to make soap bubbles. We use such bubbles as a gas-sampling interface. Incorporating hydrogen peroxide into the bubble provides a system where electrical conductance increases as the bubble is exposed to low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas. We theoretically derive the conductance of a hollow conducting spherical thin film with spherical cap electrodes. We measure the film thickness by incorporating a dye in the bubble making solution and laser transmission photometry and find that it agrees well with the geometrically computed thickness. With the conductance of the bubble-making soap solution being measured by conventional methods, we show that the measured values of the bubble conductance with known bubble and electrode dimensions closely correspond to the theoretically computed value. Finally, we demonstrate that sub-ppm levels of SO(2) can readily be detected by the conductivity change of a hydrogen peroxide-doped soap bubble, measured in situ, when the gas flows around the bubble.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of benzo(alpha)pyrene in the isolated perfused rabbit lung: the influence of benzo(alpha)pyrene, n-dodecane, particulate, or sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, D.D.; Warshawsky, D.; Niemeier, R.W.; Bingham, E.

    1984-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the isolated perfused rabbit lung (IPL) following pretreatment of the whole animal or simultaneous administration to the IPL with n-dodecane, ferric oxide, crude airborne particulate (CAP), fly ash or sulfur dioxide have been investigated using a one compartment model. The rate constant for the appearance (ka) of BaP in the blood, the clearance of BaP from the blood, and the rate of appearance of BaP metabolites (RAM) were the kinetic parameters determined. BaP entered the blood rapidly with an average half-life of 11 min in experiments in which the IPLs received only BaP on perfusion. The logarithms of the clearances from these experiments were linearly correlated with the RAMs. In these experiments, pretreatment of the whole animal with BaP produced a 48-55-fold increase in BaP clearance while pretreatment with n-dodecane increased the clearance 4-fold in comparison with no pretreatment. Pretreatment with ferric oxide or ferric oxide and BaP increased the clearance by factors of 5.5 and 1.5, respectively, over those of unpretreated and BaP pretreated experiments.

  17. Effects of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and alpha and delta races of Colletotrichum Lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn. ) Bri and Cav. on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achwanya, O.S.

    1984-01-01

    A number of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars were evaluated for their responses to the air pollutants ozone and sulfur dioxide singly and in combination, as well as for their reaction to the alpha and delta races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Bri and Cav. Variation in response to both the pollutants and the fungus was noted among the cultivars. Anthracnose caused a reduction in the biomass of some cultivars of the order of 50%. A negative correlation of (r = -0.72, p < 0.0001) was found between the disease severity and the total plant biomass. Greater than additive effects of O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/ mixtures were demonstrated. Chlorophyll content and biomass were found to be reliable variables for assessing treatment effects. The pollutants appeared to stimulate the disease development. Greater pollutant injury was also in the presence of the anthracnose disease. The results indicated that there was an interaction between the fungal disease and the air pollutants. Implications for evaluating bean cultivars for resistance to C. lindemuthianum under polluted atmosphere are suggested.

  18. A Liquid Inorganic Electrolyte Showing an Unusually High Lithium Ion Transference Number: A Concentrated Solution of LiAlCl4 in Sulfur Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Winter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on studies of an inorganic electrolyte: LiAlCl4 in liquid sulfur dioxide. Concentrated solutions show a very high conductivity when compared with typical electrolytes for lithium ion batteries that are based on organic solvents. Our investigations include conductivity measurements and measurements of transference numbers via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and by a classical direct method, Hittorf’s method. For the use of Hittorf’s method, it is necessary to measure the concentration of the electrolyte in a selected cell compartment before and after electrochemical polarization very precisely. This task was finally performed by potentiometric titration after hydrolysis of the salt. The Haven ratio was determined to estimate the association behavior of this very concentrated electrolyte solution. The measured unusually high transference number of the lithium cation of the studied most concentrated solution, a molten solvate LiAlCl4 × 1.6SO2, makes this electrolyte a promising alternative for lithium ion cells with high power ability.

  19. Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing higher levels of sulfur dioxide and glutathione to improve beer flavor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yefu; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Shijie; Wang, Xiaoqiong; Guo, Changhui; Guo, Xuewu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur compounds, such as sulfite (SO(2)), hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), and glutathione (GSH), play different roles in beer flavor stability. SO(2) and GSH have antiaging effects which are helpful to improve the flavor stability of beer, whereas H(2)S is undesirable to beer flavor because of its unpleasant aroma. Here, we report the development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae which produces higher levels of SO(2) and GSH but lower level of H(2)S to improve beer flavor stability by nongenetic engineering approaches. After two rounds of UV mutagenesis coupled with specific plate screening methods, one promising mutant named MV16 was obtained. Compared with the original strain, the SO(2) and GSH production of MV16 in fermenting liquor increased by 31% and 30.2%, respectively, while H(2)S content decreased by 74.9%, and the DPPH radical clearance and the resistance staling value of beer fermented by MV16 increased by 24.6% and 33.0%, respectively. The antioxidizability of the mutant was improved significantly. The strategy adopted in our study could be used to obtain S. cerevisiae of improved antiaging properties, and the mutant would be safe for public use.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of sulfur-titanium dioxide nanocomposites for photocatalytic oxidation of cyanide using visible light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.S.Baeissa

    2015-01-01

    A sol-gel method was used to prepare TiO2and sulfur-TiO2(S-TiO2)nanocomposites, which were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescene, ultraviolet visible and transmission electron microscopy measurements. The photocatalytic performance of TiO2 and S-TiO2nanocomposites, with respect to the photocatalytic oxidation of cyanide under visible light irradiation, was determined. The results reveal that S is well dispersed on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles. Additionally, the surface area of the S-TiO2nano-composites was observed to be smaller than that of the TiO2nanoparticles because of blocked pores caused by doping with S. The S-TiO2nanocomposite (0.3 wt% S) exhibited the lowest band gap and the highest photocatalytic activity in the oxidation of cyanide. The photocatalytic performance of S-TiO2(0.3 wt% S) nanocomposites was stable, even after the fifth reuse of the nanoparticles for the oxidation of cyanide.

  1. Combined effect of carbon dioxide and sulfur on vapor-liquid partitioning of metals in hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokh, Maria A.; Lopez, Mathieu; Gisquet, Pascal; Lanzanova, Aurélie; Candaudap, Frédéric; Besson, Philippe; Pokrovski, Gleb S.

    2016-08-01

    Although CO2 is a ubiquitous volatile in geological fluids typically ranging from a few to more than 50 wt%, its effect on metal vapor-liquid fractionation during fluid boiling and immiscibility phenomena in the Earth's crust remains virtually unknown. Here we conducted first experiments to quantify the influence of CO2 on the partition of different metals in model water + salt + sulfur + CO2 systems at 350 °C and CO2 pressures up to 100 bar, which are typical conditions of formation of many hydrothermal ore deposits. In addition, we performed in situ Raman spectroscopy measurements on these two-phase systems, to determine sulfur and carbon speciation in the liquid and vapor phases. Results show that, in S-free systems and across a CO2 concentration range of 0-50 wt% in the vapor phase, the absolute vapor-liquid partitioning coefficients of metals (Kvap/liq = Cvap/Cliq, where C is the mass concentration of the metal in the corresponding vapor and liquid phase) are in the range 10-6-10-5 for Mo; 10-4-10-3 for Na, K, Cu, Fe, Zn, Au; 10-3-10-2 for Si; and 10-4-10-1 for Pt. With increasing CO2 from 0 to 50 wt%, Kvap/liq values decrease for Fe, Cu and Si by less than one order of magnitude, remain constant within errors (±0.2 log unit) for Na, K and Zn, and increase by 0.5 and 2 orders of magnitude, respectively for Au and Pt. The negative effect of CO2 on the partitioning of some metals is due to weakening of hydration of chloride complexes of some metals (Cu, Fe) in the vapor phase and/or salting-in effects in the liquid phase (Si), whereas both phenomena are negligible for complexes of other metals (Na, K, Zn, Mo). The only exception is Pt (and in a lesser extent Au), which partitions significantly more to the vapor of S-free systems in the presence of CO2, likely due to formation of volatile carbonyl (CO) complexes. In the S-bearing system, with H2S content of 0.1-1.0 wt% in the vapor, Kvap/liq values of Cu, Fe, Mo, and Au are in the range 0.01-0.1, those of Pt 0

  2. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate us...

  3. Experimental Study of Closed System in the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodide-Sulfuric Acid Reaction by UV-Vis Spectrophotometric Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Shi, Laishun; Wang, Xiaomei; Guo, Fang; Yan, Chunying

    2011-01-01

    The mole ratio r(r = [I−]0/[ClO2]0) has great influence on ClO2-I−-H2SO4 closed reaction system. By changing the initiate concentration of potassium iodide, the curve of absorbance along with the reaction time was obtained at 350 nm and 297 nm for triiodide ion, and 460 nm for iodine. The changing point of the absorbance curve's shape locates at r = 6.00. For the reaction of ClO2-I− in the absence of H2SO4, the curve of absorbance along with the reaction time can be obtained at 350 nm for triiodide ion, 460 nm for iodine. The mole ratio r is equal to 1.00 is the changing point of the curve's shape no matter at which wavelength to determine the reaction. For the reaction of ClO2-I−-H+ in different pH buffer solution, the curve of absorbance along with the reaction time was recorded at 460 nm for iodine. When r is greater than 1.00, the transition point of the curve's shape locates at pH 2.0, which is also the point of producing chlorite or chloride for chlorine dioxide at different pH. When r is less than 1.00, the transition point locates at pH 7.0. PMID:21808646

  4. Experimental Study of Closed System in the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodide-Sulfuric Acid Reaction by UV-Vis Spectrophotometric Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mole ratio r(r=[I−]0/[ClO2]0 has great influence on ClO2-I−-H2SO4 closed reaction system. By changing the initiate concentration of potassium iodide, the curve of absorbance along with the reaction time was obtained at 350 nm and 297 nm for triiodide ion, and 460 nm for iodine. The changing point of the absorbance curve's shape locates at r=6.00. For the reaction of ClO2-I− in the absence of H2SO4, the curve of absorbance along with the reaction time can be obtained at 350 nm for triiodide ion, 460 nm for iodine. The mole ratio r is equal to 1.00 is the changing point of the curve's shape no matter at which wavelength to determine the reaction. For the reaction of ClO2-I−-H+ in different pH buffer solution, the curve of absorbance along with the reaction time was recorded at 460 nm for iodine. When r is greater than 1.00, the transition point of the curve's shape locates at pH 2.0, which is also the point of producing chlorite or chloride for chlorine dioxide at different pH. When r is less than 1.00, the transition point locates at pH 7.0.

  5. High Purity Hydrogen Production with In-Situ Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Capture in a Single Stage Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihar Phalak; Shwetha Ramkumar; Daniel Connell; Zhenchao Sun; Fu-Chen Yu; Niranjani Deshpande; Robert Statnick; Liang-Shih Fan

    2011-07-31

    Enhancement in the production of high purity hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from fuel gas, obtained from coal gasification, is limited by thermodynamics of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. However, this constraint can be overcome by conducting the WGS in the presence of a CO{sub 2}-acceptor. The continuous removal of CO{sub 2} from the reaction mixture helps to drive the equilibrium-limited WGS reaction forward. Since calcium oxide (CaO) exhibits high CO{sub 2} capture capacity as compared to other sorbents, it is an ideal candidate for such a technique. The Calcium Looping Process (CLP) developed at The Ohio State University (OSU) utilizes the above concept to enable high purity H{sub 2} production from synthesis gas (syngas) derived from coal gasification. The CLP integrates the WGS reaction with insitu CO{sub 2}, sulfur and halide removal at high temperatures while eliminating the need for a WGS catalyst, thus reducing the overall footprint of the hydrogen production process. The CLP comprises three reactors - the carbonator, where the thermodynamic constraint of the WGS reaction is overcome by the constant removal of CO{sub 2} product and high purity H{sub 2} is produced with contaminant removal; the calciner, where the calcium sorbent is regenerated and a sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is produced; and the hydrator, where the calcined sorbent is reactivated to improve its recyclability. As a part of this project, the CLP was extensively investigated by performing experiments at lab-, bench- and subpilot-scale setups. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was also conducted to determine the feasibility of the CLP at commercial scale. This report provides a detailed account of all the results obtained during the project period.

  6. Temporal variations of flux and altitude of sulfur dioxide emissions during volcanic eruptions: implications for long-range dispersal of volcanic clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boichu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-rich degassing, which is mostly composed of sulfur dioxide (SO2, plays a major role in the overall impact of volcanism on the atmosphere and climate. The accurate assessment of this impact is currently hampered by the poor knowledge of volcanic SO2 emissions. Here, using an inversion procedure, we show how assimilating snapshots of the volcanic SO2 load derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI allows for reconstructing both the flux and altitude of the SO2 emissions with an hourly resolution. For this purpose, the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE is used to describe the dispersion of SO2 when released in the atmosphere. As proof of concept, we study the 10 April 2011 eruption of the Etna volcano (Italy, which represents one of the few volcanoes instrumented on the ground for the continuous monitoring of SO2 degassing. We find that the SO2 flux time-series retrieved from satellite imagery using the inverse scheme is in agreement with ground observations during ash-poor phases of the eruption. However, large discrepancies are observed during the ash-rich paroxysmal phase as a result of enhanced plume opacity affecting ground-based ultraviolet (UV spectroscopic retrievals. As a consequence, the SO2 emission rate derived from the ground is underestimated by almost one order of magnitude. Altitudes of the SO2 emissions predicted by the inverse scheme are validated against a RGB MODIS image capturing the near-source atmospheric pathways followed by Etna plumes, in combination with forward trajectories from the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model. At large distance from the source, modeled SO2 altitudes are confronted with independent information on the volcanic cloud height. We find that the altitude predicted by the inverse scheme is in agreement with snapshots of the SO2 height retrieved from recent algorithms exploiting the high spectral resolution of IASI. The validity

  7. Temporal variations of flux and altitude of sulfur dioxide emissions during volcanic eruptions: implications for long-range dispersal of volcanic clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boichu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-rich degassing, which is mostly composed of sulfur dioxide (SO2, plays a major role in the overall impact of volcanism on the atmosphere and climate. The accurate assessment of this impact is currently hampered by the poor knowledge of volcanic SO2 emissions. Here, using an inversion procedure, we show how assimilating snapshots of the volcanic SO2 load derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI allows for reconstructing both the flux and altitude of the SO2 emissions with an hourly resolution. For this purpose, the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE is used to describe the dispersion of SO2 when released in the atmosphere. As proof of concept, we study the 10 April 2011 eruption of the Etna volcano (Italy, which represents one of the few volcanoes instrumented on the ground for the continuous monitoring of SO2 degassing. We find that the SO2 flux time-series retrieved from satellite imagery using the inverse scheme is in agreement with ground observations during ash-poor phases of the eruption. However, large discrepancies are observed during the ash-rich paroxysmal phase as a result of enhanced plume opacity affecting ground-based ultraviolet (UV spectroscopic retrievals. As a consequence, the SO2 emission rate derived from the ground is underestimated by almost one order of magnitude. Altitudes of the SO2 emissions predicted by the inverse scheme are validated against an RGB image of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS capturing the near-source atmospheric pathways followed by Etna plumes, in combination with forward trajectories from the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model. At a large distance from the source, modelled SO2 altitudes are compared with independent information on the volcanic cloud height. We find that the altitude predicted by the inverse scheme is in agreement with snapshots of the SO2 height retrieved from recent algorithms

  8. Replacement of hazardous chromium impregnating agent from silver/copper/chromium-impregnated active carbon using triethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide, trichloromethane, ammonia, and sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Chun; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2009-03-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is widely used as an effective adsorbent in many applications, including industrial-scale air purification systems and air filter systems in gas masks. In general, ACs without chemical impregnation are good adsorbents of organic vapors but poor adsorbents of low-molecular-weight or polar gases such as chlorine, sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde, and ammonia (NH3). Impregnated ACs modified with metallic impregnating agents (ASC-carbons; e.g., copper, chromium, and silver) enhance the adsorbing properties of the ACs for simultaneously removing specific poisonous gases, but disposal of the chromium metal salt used to impregnate the ACs has the potential to result in situations that are toxic to both humans and the environment, thereby necessitating the search for replaceable organic impregnating agents that represent a much lower risk. The aim of this study was to assess the gas removal efficiency of an AC in which the organic impregnating agent triethylenediamine (TEDA) largely replaced the metallic impregnating agent chromium. We assessed batch and continuous adsorption capacities in situ for removing simulated hydrogen sulfide (H2S), trichloromethane (CHCl3), NH3, and SO2 gases. Brunauer-Emmet-Teller measurements and scanning electron microscopy analyses identified the removal mechanism by which TEDA-impregnated AS-carbon (dechromium ASC-carbon) adsorbs gases and determined the removal capacity for H2S, CHCl3, NH3, and SO2 to be 311, 258, 272, and 223 mg/g-C, respectively. These results demonstrate that TEDA-impregnated AS-carbon is significantly more efficient than ASC-carbon in adsorbing these four gases. Organic TEDA-impregnating agents have also been proven to be a reliable and environmental friendly agent and therefore a safe replacement of the hazardous chromium found in conventional ASC-carbon used in removing toxic gases from the airstream.

  9. Effect of sulfur dioxide inhalation on CYP2B1/2 and CYP2E1 in rat liver and lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guohua Qin; Ziqiang Meng [Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Environmental Medicine and Toxicology

    2006-07-15

    Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is a ubiquitous air pollutant, present in low concentrations in the urban air and in higher concentrations in the working environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of inhaled SO{sub 2} on the O-dealkylase of pentoxyresorufin (PROD) and p-nitrophenol hydroxylases (p-NP) activities and mRNA levels of CYP2B1/2 and CYP2E1 in the lung and liver of Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were housed in exposure chambers and treated with 14.11 {+-}1.53, 28.36 {+-} 2.12, and 56.25 {+-} 4.28 mg /m{sup 3}SO{sub 2} for 6 h/day for 7 days, while control rats were exposed to filtered air in the same condition. The mRNAs of CYP2B1/2 and -2E1 were analyzed in livers and lungs by using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed that the PROD activities and mRNA of CYP2B1/2 were decreased in livers and lungs of rats exposed to SO{sub 2}. The p-NP activities and mRNA of CYP2E1 were decreased in lungs but not in livers of rats exposed to SO{sub 2}. Total liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 (CYP) contents were diminished in SO{sub 2} -exposed rats. These results lead to two conclusions: (1) SO{sub 2} exposure can suppress CYP2B1/2 and CYP2E1 in lungs and CYP2B1/2 in livers of rats, thus modifying the liver and lung toxication/detoxication potential, and (2) the total liver microsomal CYP contents were diminished, although the activity and mRNA expression of CYP2E1 in rat livers were not affected by SO{sub 2} exposure.

  10. Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400-1400 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, R. L.; Farrar, L. W.; Di Cecca, S.; Jeys, T. H.

    2016-02-01

    Raman spectra of ammonia (NH3), chlorine (Cl2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), phosgene (COCl2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) toxic gases have been measured in the fingerprint region 400-1400 cm-1. A relatively compact (Cl2 at 554, 547, and 539 cm-1, which are due to the 35/35 35/37, and 37/37 Cl isotopes, respectively. Raman modes are observed at 870, 570, and 1151 cm-1 in H2S, COCl2, and SO2, respectively. Values of 3.68 ± 0.26x10-32 cm2/sr (3.68 ± 0.26x10-36 m2/sr), 1.37 ± 0.10x10-30 cm2/sr (1.37 ± 0.10x10-34 m2/sr), 3.25 ± 0.23x10-31 cm2/sr (3.25 ± 0.23x10-35 m2/sr), 1.63 ± 0.14x10-30 cm2/sr (1.63 ± 0.14x10-34 m2/sr), and 3.08 ± 0.22x10-30 cm2/sr (and 3.08 ± 0.22x10-34 m2/sr) were determined for the differential Raman cross section of the 967 cm-1 mode of NH3, sum of the 554, 547, and 539 cm-1 modes of Cl2, 870 cm-1 mode of H2S, 570 cm-1 mode of COCl2, and 1151 cm-1 mode of SO2, respectively, using the differential Raman cross section of 3.56 ± 0.14x10-31 cm2/sr (3.56 ± 0.14x10-35 m2/sr) for the 1285 cm-1 mode of CO2 as the reference.

  11. Attribution of primary formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide at Texas City during SHARP/formaldehyde and olefins from large industrial releases (FLAIR) using an adjoint chemistry transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, Eduardo P.; Herndon, Scott C.; Buzcu-Guven, Birnur; Kolb, Charles E.; Brown, Michael J.; Cuclis, Alex E.

    2013-10-01

    adjoint version of the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) neighborhood air quality model with 200 m horizontal resolution, coupled offline to the Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC-URB) fast response urban wind model, was used to perform 4-D variational (4Dvar) inverse modeling of an industrial release of formaldehyde (HCHO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Texas City, Texas during the 2009 Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP). The source attribution was based on real-time observations by the Aerodyne mobile laboratory and a high resolution 3-D digital model of the emitting petrochemical complex and surrounding urban canopy. The inverse model estimate of total primary HCHO emitted during the incident agrees very closely with independent remote sensing estimates based on both Imaging and Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Whereas a previous analysis of Imaging DOAS data attributed the HCHO release to a Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU), the HARC model attributed most of the HCHO event emissions to both the FCCU and desulfurization processes. Fugitives contributed significantly to primary HCHO, as did combustion processes, whereas the latter accounted for most SO2 event emissions. The inferred HCHO-to-SO2 molar emission ratio was similar to that computed directly from ambient air measurements during the release. The model-estimated HCHO-to-CO molar emission ratio for combustion units with significant inferred emissions ranged from 2% to somewhat less than 7%, consistent with other observationally-based estimates obtained during SHARP. A model sensitivity study demonstrated that the inclusion of urban morphology has a significant, but not critical, impact on the source attribution.

  12. [Alveolar macrophages and mononuclear cells of the peripheral blood in sulfur dioxide and chrysotile B exposure: a realistic in vitro test of oxygen free radical liberation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorst, M M; Kienast, K; Müller-Quernheim, J; Ferlinz, R

    1993-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Asbest are frequently found at workplaces. They can induce airway and lung parenchymal injury. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play an important and decisive role in the damage of respiratory tissue. We evaluated the reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) production of AM and peripheral blood mononuclear cells after exposure with SO2 and Chrysotile B. The cells were exposed in a special gas exposure chamber at 37 degrees C and 100% air humidity for 30 minutes to 1.5 or 2.5 ppm SO2. Afterwards they were incubated for one hour with 100 micrograms or 200 micrograms Chrysotile B. Control experiments were performed with cell exposure to synthetic air without SO2 and Chrysotile B. Spontaneous and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulated ROI-release were measured by chemiluminescence and the cell toxicity was evaluated with the trypan blue exclusion test. Our results show a dose-dependent increase of the spontaneous ROI-production of AM after SO2 and Chrysotile B exposure. Exposure to 100 micrograms Chrysotile B caused an 1.5 fold, exposure to 1.5 or 2.5 ppm SO2 plus 100 micrograms Chrysotile B resulted in an 2.4 respectively 3.3 fold increase in ROI-release compared to control experiments. Exposure of AM to 200 micrograms Chrysotile B yielded an 1.9 fold, exposure to 2.5 ppm SO2 plus 200 micrograms Chrysotile B a 3.9 fold elevation in the spontaneous ROI-production compared to control experiment with standard air. A similar reaction pattern was observed in PMA-stimulated AM and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. 新型酸溶性富钛料在硫酸法钛白粉生产中的应用%Application of New Acid Dissolved Rich Titanium Product in Titanium Dioxide Production by Sulfuric Acid Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建彬; 陈树忠

    2012-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the present development of titanium dioxide production by sulfiiric acid method. Also it states the performance, properties, and production of the new acid dissolved rich titanium product which is researched by Zhongtai and its application in titanium dioxide production by sulfuric acid method. Through industrial contrast test, it proves that the application of the new product in titanium dioxide production by sulfuric acid method can decrease the consumption of mineral slag, acid and energy.%介绍了当前硫酸法钛白粉生产现状以及中钛科技研发的新型酸溶性富钛料产品、特性、生产工艺及在硫酸法钛白粉生产中的应用。通过工业试验对比可知,采用新型酸溶性富钛料为原料生产的钛白粉,根据添加比例不同,可以不同程度降低矿(渣)耗、酸耗和能源消耗。

  14. Appalachian basin bituminous coal: sulfur content and potential sulfur dioxide emissions of coal mined for electrical power generation: Chapter G.5 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Milici, Robert C.; Freeman, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Data from 157 counties in the Appalachian basin of average sulfur content of coal mined for electrical power generation from 1983 through 2005 show a general decrease in the number of counties where coal mining has occurred and a decrease in the number of counties where higher sulfur coals (>2 percent sulfur) were mined. Calculated potential SO2 emissions (assuming no post-combustion SO2 removal) show a corresponding decrease over the same period of time.

  15. Quick determination of sulfur dioxide in wine by Kjeldahl apparatus%利用凯氏定氮仪快速测定葡萄酒中二氧化硫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立使用凯氏定氮仪快速检测葡萄酒中二氧化硫的方法。方法利用凯氏定氮仪和全玻璃蒸馏法工作原理的相似之处,将凯氏定氮仪用于葡萄酒中二氧化硫的测定。对比了凯氏定氮仪蒸馏和全玻璃蒸馏法的空白实验,确定了使用凯氏定氮仪快速检测葡萄酒中二氧化硫合适的样品量、滴定碘溶液浓度、蒸馏时间,并进行了精密度实验、回收率实验。最后,以8种市售葡萄酒为实验材料对比了凯氏定氮仪法与全玻璃蒸馏法对二氧化硫含量的检测结果。结果凯氏定氮仪蒸馏和全玻璃蒸馏法的空白实验结果基本无差异。使用凯氏定氮仪进行葡萄酒中二氧化硫检测,其合适样品量为40 mL,滴定碘溶液浓度为0.1 mol/L或0.05 mol/L,蒸馏时间大大缩短,为8 min, RSD为1.36%,平均回收率为(102.40±3.26)%,且对8种市售葡萄酒样品的检测结果与全玻璃蒸馏法相比无显著性差异(P>0.05)。结论凯氏定氮仪法测定葡萄酒中的二氧化硫,检测效率高,精密度好,准确度高,可作为葡萄酒中二氧化硫的批量检测方法。%Objective To establish a method for quick determination of sulfur dioxide in wine using Kjeldahl apparatus. Method Kjeldahl apparatus was applied to the quick determination of sulfur dioxide in wine due to its similar operating principle with glass distiller. Blank test results were compared between the 2 methods. Optimized sample volume, iodine solution concentration and distilling time of the Kjeldahl apparatus method were determined. The precision experiment and recovery experiment were conducted. Sulfur dioxide in 8 kinds of wines was detected by Kjeldahl apparatus and glass distiller respectively. Results No significant differences were found between Kjeldahl apparatus result of blank test and that of glass distiller;The optimized conditions of sulfur dioxide determination in wine by Kjeldahl apparatus were as follows

  16. Adsorption of sulfur dioxide by active carbon treated by nitric acid: I. Effect of the treatment on adsorption of SO{sub 2} and extractability of the acid formed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisovskii, A.; Semiat, R.; Aharoni, C. [Technion-Israle Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Activated carbon is used as an adsorbent in flue gas cleaning. The process of adsorptive-catalytic cleaning of gas from sulfur dioxide using active carbon, treated by concentrated nitric acid, was studied. After oxidative treatment the acidity of the carbon increases and the basicity decreases. This results in an increase of the SO{sub 2} adsorption and its oxidation to SO{sub 3}, and in weaker retention of the sulfuric acid formed. This facilitates the removal of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by washing of the carbon and allows to obtain a more concentrated acid. The efficiency of the treated carbon is also higher in the process of SO{sub 2} removal from a gas similar in composition to stack gases. 13 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  17. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide from Engine-Driven Generators and ... Engine-Driven Tools, 2004–2014 JANUARY 08, 2015 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2011 Annual Estimates View All ... Inside CPSC Accessibility ...

  18. 固相萃取一离子色谱法测定葡萄酒中二氧化硫%Determination of sulfur dioxide in wine by solid phase extraction-ion chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良; 王睛

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探索较为简便易行的葡萄酒中二氧化硫测定的方法。[方法]准确称取一定量的葡萄酒,过C18柱分离除去部分非极性有机物质后经滤膜过滤加入、Na2CO3水溶液定容,进样后使用9mmol/LNa2CO5作为淋洗液,用离子色谱法测定葡萄酒中二氧化硫。[结果]二氧化硫呈现出较好的峰形且与其他离子能较好的分离。RSD均小于5%,回收率在93%~105%之间。[结论]葡萄酒中二氧化硫离子色谱测定方法的建立将为离子色谱测定液体食品中二氧化硫纳入国家标准提供了依据。%[Objective] To explore a more easily-used method for determination of the sulfur dioxide in wine. [ Method] Accurately weighed a certain amount of wine, over C,8 column separation to remove part of the nonpolar organic material then adding Na2CO3 aqueous solution by membrane filtration,after injection with 9 mmoVL Na2CO as eluent, ion chromatography determination of sulfur dioxide in wine. [ Results] It showed a good peak shape and good separation from other ions in solution.RSD was less than 5%, recovery between 93%- 105%. [ Conclusion] Determination of sulfur dioxide in wine by ion chromatography method provides a way to establish national standards for the determination of sulfur dioxide in foods.

  19. Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400-1400 cm−1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Aggarwal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectra of ammonia (NH3, chlorine (Cl2, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, phosgene (COCl2, and sulfur dioxide (SO2 toxic gases have been measured in the fingerprint region 400-1400 cm−1. A relatively compact (<2′x2′x2′, sensitive, 532 nm 10 W CW Raman system with double-pass laser and double-sided collection was used for these measurements. Two Raman modes are observed at 934 and 967 cm−1 in NH3. Three Raman modes are observed in Cl2 at 554, 547, and 539 cm−1, which are due to the 35/35 35/37, and 37/37 Cl isotopes, respectively. Raman modes are observed at 870, 570, and 1151 cm−1 in H2S, COCl2, and SO2, respectively. Values of 3.68 ± 0.26x10−32 cm2/sr (3.68 ± 0.26x10−36 m2/sr, 1.37 ± 0.10x10−30 cm2/sr (1.37 ± 0.10x10−34 m2/sr, 3.25 ± 0.23x10−31 cm2/sr (3.25 ± 0.23x10−35 m2/sr, 1.63 ± 0.14x10−30 cm2/sr (1.63 ± 0.14x10−34 m2/sr, and 3.08 ± 0.22x10−30 cm2/sr (and 3.08 ± 0.22x10−34 m2/sr were determined for the differential Raman cross section of the 967 cm−1 mode of NH3, sum of the 554, 547, and 539 cm−1 modes of Cl2, 870 cm−1 mode of H2S, 570 cm−1 mode of COCl2, and 1151 cm-1 mode of SO2, respectively, using the differential Raman cross section of 3.56 ± 0.14x10−31 cm2/sr (3.56 ± 0.14x10−35 m2/sr for the 1285 cm−1 mode of CO2 as the reference.

  20. Determination of free sulfites (SO3-2) in dried fruits processed with sulfur dioxide by ion chromatography through anion exchange column and conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Benjamin S; Sram, Jacqueline C; Files, Darin J

    2013-01-01

    A simple and effective anion ion chromatography (IC) method with anion exchange column and conductivity detector has been developed to determine free sulfites (SO3-2) in dried fruits processed with sulfur dioxide. No oxidation agent, such as hydrogen peroxide, is used to convert sulfites to sulfates for IC analysis. In addition, no stabilizing agent, such as formaldehyde, fructose or EDTA, is required during the sample extraction. This method uses aqueous 0.2 N NaOH as the solvent for standard preparation and sample extraction. The sulfites, either prepared from standard sodium sulfite powder or extracted from food samples, are presumed to be unbound SO3-2 in aqueous 0.2 N NaOH (pH > 13), because the bound sulfites in the sample matrix are released at pH > 10. In this study, sulfites in the standard solutions were stable at room temperature (i.e., 15-25 degrees C) for up to 12 days. The lowest standard of the linear calibration curve is set at 1.59 microg/mL SO3-2 (equivalent to 6.36 microg/g sample with no dilution) for analysis of processed dried fruits that would contain high levels (>1000 microg/g) of sulfites. As a consequence, this method typically requires significant dilution of the sample extract. Samples are prepared with a simple procedure of sample compositing, extraction with aqueous 0.2 N NaOH, centrifugation, dilution as needed, and filtration prior to IC. The sulfites in these sample extracts are stable at room temperature for up to 20 h. Using anion IC, the sulfites are eluted under isocratic conditions with 10 mM aqueous sodium carbonate solution as the mobile phase passing through an anion exchange column. The sulfites are easily separated, with an analysis run time of 18 min, regardless of the dried fruit matrix. Recoveries from samples spiked with sodium sulfites were demonstrated to be between 81 and 105% for five different fruit matrixes (apricot, golden grape, white peach, fig, and mango). Overall, this method is simple to perform and

  1. THz and Ft-Ir Study of 18-O Isotopologues of Sulfur Dioxide: 32S16O18O and 32S18O_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Demaison, J.; Perrin, Agnes; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Manceron, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Sulfur dioxide is a molecule that have a great interest in different domains: for atmospheric and planetology chemistry, it is also ubiquitous and abundant in interstellar medium. If the 16O species were extensively studied, this is not the case of the 18O isotopologues. The aim of this study is first to complete the rotational spectra of the ground state with these new measurements up to 1.5 THz, previous measurements are up to 1050 GHz for the 32S16O18O species, and 145 GHz concerning the 32S18O_2 species. The second part is making a global fit of the rotational and vibrational transitions for the excited vibrational states. For the v_2 band, we will complete the recent I.R. analysis. About the triad (v_1, 2v_2, v_3): 32S18O_2 species was studied, but not the 32S16O18O one. and 145 GHz concerning the 32S18O_2 species. The second part is making a global fit of the rotational and vibrational transitions for the excited vibrational states. For the v_2 band, we will complete the recent I.R. analysis. About the triad (v_1, 2v_2, v_3): 32S18O_2 species was studied, but not the 32S16O18O one. The FT-IR spectra were recorded on the AILES Beamline at Synchrotron SOLEIL using the Synchrotron light source, coupled to the Bruker IFS125HR Fourier transform spectrometer. The THz spectra were obtained from 150 to 1500 GHz using the Lille's solid state spectrometer. The analysis is in progress, the latest results will be presented. Support from the French Laboratoire d'Excellence CaPPA (Chemical and Physical Properties of the Atmosphere) through contract ANR-10-LABX-0005 of the Programme d'Investissements d'Avenir is acknowledged Belov, S. P.; et al., 1998, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 191, 17 Lindermayer, J.; et al., 1985, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 110, 357 Gueye, F.; et al. Mol. Phys. in press Ulenikov, O. N.; et al., 2015, JQSRT 166, 13 Brubach, J.; et al., 2010, AIP Conf. Proc. 1214, 81 Zakharenko, O.; et al., 2015, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 317, 41

  2. Sulfur dioxide (SO2 as observed by MIPAS/Envisat: temporal development and spatial distribution at 15–45 km altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Höpfner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a climatology of monthly and 10° zonal mean profiles of sulfur dioxide (SO2 volume mixing ratios (vmr derived from MIPAS/Envisat measurements in the altitude range 15–45 km from July 2002 until April 2012. The vertical resolution varies from 3.5–4 km in the lower stratosphere up to 6–10 km at the upper end of the profiles, with estimated total errors of 5–20 pptv for single profiles of SO2. Comparisons with the few available observations of SO2 up to high altitudes from ATMOS for a volcanically perturbed situation from ACE-FTS and, at the lowest altitudes, with stratospheric in situ observations reveal general consistency of the datasets. The observations are the first empirical confirmation of features of the stratospheric SO2 distribution, which have only been shown by models up to now: (1 the local maximum of SO2 at around 25–30 km altitude, which is explained by the conversion of carbonyl sulfide (COS as the precursor of the Junge layer; and (2 the downwelling of SO2-rich air to altitudes of 25–30 km at high latitudes during winter and its subsequent depletion on availability of sunlight. This has been proposed as the reason for the sudden appearance of enhanced concentrations of condensation nuclei during Arctic and Antarctic spring. Further, the strong increase of SO2 to values of 80–100 unit{pptv} in the upper stratosphere through photolysis of H2SO4 has been confirmed. Lower stratospheric variability of SO2 could mainly be explained by volcanic activity, and no hints of a strong anthropogenic influence have been found. Regression analysis revealed a QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation signal of the SO2 time series in the tropics at about 30–35 km, an SAO (semi-annual oscillation signal at tropical and subtropical latitudes above 32 km and annual periodics predominantly at high latitudes. Further, the analysis indicates a correlation with the solar cycle in the tropics and southern subtropics above 30 km

  3. Volcanic sulfur dioxide index and volcanic explosivity index inferred from eruptive volume of volcanoes in Jeju Island, Korea: application to volcanic hazard mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Bokyun; Yun, Sung-Hyo

    2016-04-01

    Jeju Island located in the southwestern part of Korea Peninsula is a volcanic island composed of lavaflows, pyroclasts, and around 450 monogenetic volcanoes. The volcanic activity of the island commenced with phreatomagmatic eruptions under subaqueous condition ca. 1.8-2.0 Ma and lasted until ca. 1,000 year BP. For evaluating volcanic activity of the most recently erupted volcanoes with reported age, volcanic explosivity index (VEI) and volcanic sulfur dioxide index (VSI) of three volcanoes (Ilchulbong tuff cone, Songaksan tuff ring, and Biyangdo scoria cone) are inferred from their eruptive volumes. The quantity of eruptive materials such as tuff, lavaflow, scoria, and so on, is calculated using a model developed in Auckland Volcanic Field which has similar volcanic setting to the island. The eruptive volumes of them are 11,911,534 m3, 24,987,557 m3, and 9,652,025 m3, which correspond to VEI of 3, 3, and 2, respectively. According to the correlation between VEI and VSI, the average quantity of SO2 emission during an eruption with VEI of 3 is 2-8 × 103 kiloton considering that the island was formed under intraplate tectonic setting. Jeju Island was regarded as an extinct volcano, however, several studies have recently reported some volcanic eruption ages within 10,000 year BP owing to the development in age dating technique. Thus, the island is a dormant volcano potentially implying high probability to erupt again in the future. The volcanoes might have explosive eruptions (vulcanian to plinian) with the possibility that SO2 emitted by the eruption reaches stratosphere causing climate change due to backscattering incoming solar radiation, increase in cloud reflectivity, etc. Consequently, recommencement of volcanic eruption in the island is able to result in serious volcanic hazard and this study provides fundamental and important data for volcanic hazard mitigation of East Asia as well as the island. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: This research was supported by a grant [MPSS

  4. The expressions of protooncogenes and CYP1A in lungs of rats exposed to sulfur dioxide and benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guohua; Meng, Ziqiang

    2006-06-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a ubiquitous air pollutant, present in low concentrations in the urban air, and in higher concentrations in the working environment. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant with diverse toxicological effects. To investigate the interactions between SO2 and B(a)P, male Wistar rats were exposed to intratracheally instilled with benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P; 3 mg) or SO2 (20 ppm) inhalation alone or together. The mRNA of CYP1A1 and 1A2, c-fos, and c-jun and protein levels of c-fos and c-jun were analyzed in lungs using a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. And 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) activities were detected. In lungs of rats exposed to SO2 alone, the gene transcription of CYP1A1 and 1A2, the EROD and MROD activities were decreased. Meanwhile, the mRNA and protein levels of c-jun and c-fos were increased significantly. Exposure to B(a)P alone induced CYP1A1, CYP1A2 mRNA levels, the protein levels of c-jun, and the EROD and MROD activities in lungs. However, exposure to B(a)P plus inhaled SO2 neither increased nor decreased CYP1A1/2 mRNA expressions, EROD, and MROD activities in lungs, versus exposure to B(a)P alone. Nevertheless, exposure to B(a)P plus inhaled SO2 increased the mRNA and protein levels of c-jun and c-fos in lungs compared with lungs exposed to SO2 alone. Accordingly, the SO2-induced decreases of CYP1A1/2 might not influence the metabolic activation of B(a)P. However, when B(a)P and SO2 were given in the combinations, one might postulate that a synergistic effect on the expressions of c-fos and c-jun between SO2 and B(a)P, which might be one of the possible mechanisms of combination effects between B(a)P and the air pollutants.

  5. Method to prevent sulfur accumulation in membrane electrode assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimke, John L; Steeper, Timothy J; Herman, David T

    2014-04-29

    A method of operating a hybrid sulfur electrolyzer to generate hydrogen is provided that includes the steps of providing an anolyte with a concentration of sulfur dioxide, and applying a current. During steady state generation of hydrogen a plot of applied current density versus concentration of sulfur dioxide is below a boundary line. The boundary line may be linear and extend through the origin of the graph with a slope of 0.001 in which the current density is measured in mA/cm2 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide is measured in moles of sulfur dioxide per liter of anolyte.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. T Appendix T to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix...

  7. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Search CPSC Search Menu Home Recalls Recall List CPSC Recall API Recall Lawsuits ... and Bans Report an Unsafe Product Consumers Businesses Home Safety Education Safety Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information ...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ... 2011 Annual Estimates View All CO-Related Injury Statistics and Technical Reports Related Links Recalls Safety Education ...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ... Related Links Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources OnSafety Blogs ...

  10. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Community Outreach Resource Center Toy Recall Statistics CO Poster Contest Pool Safely Business & Manufacturing Business & Manufacturing Business ... Featured Resources CPSC announces winners of carbon monoxide poster contest Video View the blog Clues You Can ...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury Data ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ...

  12. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 Annual Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire ...

  13. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  14. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & ... 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 ...

  15. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  16. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  17. Carbon monoxide : A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf E. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Schroeder, Hartwig; Levin, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon ((CO2)-C-14) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The obs

  18. 食品中二氧化硫现场快速检测方法%Field rapid detection method of sulfur dioxide in food matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈裕华; 刘红河; 朱舟; 刘桂华

    2014-01-01

    目的:针对目前食品添加剂亚硫酸盐的滥用现象,寻找出可靠的现场快速测定方法,应用于食品中二氧化硫的现场快速检测。方法从市售二氧化硫快速检测试剂盒中筛选出性能较好的两款产品,分别进行线性、稳定性、检出限测试,并选择易滥用亚硫酸盐的陈粮、米粉等10种食品基质进行加标测试,从阳性对照、与国标方法比对、干扰实验等方面进行比较分析。结果两款试剂盒的线性、稳定性、检出限、加标测试结果良好;在实测的10种食品基质中,陈粮、米粉等7种基质的测定效果良好,鱼糜、冻虾基质会出现阳性干扰;但两款二氧化硫快速试剂盒均不适用于烤虾基质的测定,其结果显示假阴性。结论两款试剂盒均能满足大部分食品中二氧化硫现场快速测定的需求。%ObjectiveTo find out reliable analytical methods for field rapid detection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in food matrices, aiming to administrate the abuse of sulfite as food additives.MethodsTwo products with relatively better performance were picked out from various commercially available SO2 rapid detection kits. Their individual linearity, stability and detection limit were tested. Then recovery, positive control, com-parison with national standardized method and interference test of those two kits were monitored by spiking into 10 different food matrices including old crop and rice noodle, in which sulfite was more frequently abused. ResultsIt was found that both of the two selected kits showed a good linearity, stability, sensitivity and re-covery in standard solutions. Among those 10 spiked food matrices, good performance results were obtained in 7 matrices including old crop and rice noodle, while false positive results induced by matrix interference oc-curred in minced fish and frozen shrimp. However, the two kits were found to be not suitable for rapid detection of roast shrimp since

  19. Measurement of the solubility of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} in liquid sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, R.; Lesage, K.

    2010-01-15

    The solubility of hydrogen sulphide and sulphur dioxide in liquid sulfur were measured using a novel Thermo Scientific Nicolet iS10 FTIR Spectrometer. This power point presentation included the graphs depicting the detailed spectrographic measurements of pure, degassed liquid sulfur, hydrogen sulfide in liquid sulfur, sulfur dioxide in liquid sulfur, and hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide in liquid sulfur. Liquid sulfur in a sapphire-windowed quartz IR cell, the solidification of liquid sulfur in a sapphire-windowed quartz IR cell (monoclinic sulfur and next day orthorhombic sulfur), the isobaric solubility of sulfur dioxide in liquid sulfur, and a low head space liquid sulfur saturation vessel inside a thermostated oven were also shown. Head space analysis and direct injection of hot solvents with iodine for back titration may provide a better analytical technique. These new solubilities can be used to derive molar absorptivity from previous spectra. 11 figs.

  20. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  1. Synergistic effect of carbon monoxide with other biologically active injurious factors on the organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankow, D.; Ponsold, W.

    1974-09-01

    The combined effects on biological organisms are reported for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sodium nitrite, hydrocyanic acid, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, methane, benzene, iodine acetate, cholesterol, benzpyrene, hexobarbitol, zoxazolamine, nembutal, luminal, morphine, adrenalin, persantin, cytochrome c, aldrin, carbaryl, cyclodiene epoxide; and physical influences such as ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, ionizing radiation, noise, and vibration. A literature review shows that with increasing CO/sub 2/ and decreasing oxygen concentration in the inhalation air, the toxicity of CO increased in experiments with mice and canaries. Oxides of nitrogen enhance the toxic effect of CO in an additive way and at times synergistically. At 500 m from a metallurgical plant in the USSR the maximum allowable immission concentrations for CO and SO/sub 2/ were exceeded. In children residing there a higher normal erythrocyte number, hemoglobin content, and catalase activity were found in the blood along with higher concentrations of coproporphyrin and 17-ketosteroids. All values returned to normal after an 8-week stay of these children away from the metallurgical plant.

  2. Improvements in the manufacture of sulfur from hydrogen sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, A.

    1968-12-23

    In this process for the manufacture of sulfur from hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide, the sulfur is separated from the gas after reaction by direct contact by cooling with a cooling liquid. The sulfur is carried away by the cooling liquid.

  3. Chemiluminescence technique for detecting sulphur dioxide in the ppt-range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meixner, F.; Jaeschke, W.

    1984-02-01

    Sulfur dioxide is enriched by formation of a stable disulfitomercurate complex. By addition of an acidic solution of potassium permanganate, the excited sulfur dioxide, the carrier of chemiluminescence is formed and measured by special analyzer.

  4. Detection and analysis of Sulfur dioxide resided in different kinds of foodstuff%食品中残留二氧化硫含量的检测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方苗利; 江阳

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the content index of Sulfite in different kinds of foodstuff in Hangzhou, the content of sulfur dioxide was detected. Methods: 21 samples were collected from 11 kinds of flour- made dishes, 10 kinds of day lily,The content of sulfur dioxide was examined by pararosaniline spectrophotometry. Results: The percentage of exceedance for sulfur dioxide to the standard was 38.1% for the 21 samples, 66.7% for the dry Day lily, 100% for the fresh -keeping Daylily. Conclution: It is urgent to strengthen the detection and control of the content of Sulfite in different kinds of foodstuff, especially the daily used as foods.%目的:测定食品中二氧化硫含量,以了解其亚硫酸盐超标情况.方法:采集2010年杭州市上城区各农贸市场或超市中共11件面食类食品(8种各类粉丝和3种米粉)和10件黄花菜(6种干的黄花菜、及4种保鲜黄花菜)共21件样品,采用盐酸副玫瑰苯胺亚硫酸盐法对样品中二氧化硫含量进行了测定和分析.结果:21件样品中,二氧化硫总超标率为38.1%.面食类食品中各类粉丝和米粉中二氧化硫超标率均为0.0%,11种食品全部合格;6种干的黄花菜、及4种保鲜黄花菜中二氧化硫超标率分别为66.7%和100%.结论:应特别加强对干黄花菜、保鲜黄花菜食品的监控力度,以确保消费者能购买到卫生、安全的合格食品.

  5. 离子色谱法测定食品中二氧化硫的应用研究%Ion chromatography in the detection of sulfur dioxide in foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡刚; 邢海龙; 林永通

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a simple and rapid method for the detection of sulfur dioxide residues in foods by ion chromatography. Methods Selecting a Metrohm 861 pairs of suppressed ion chromatography, a Metrosep A Supp. 4-250 analytical column, eluted by 3. lmmol/L Na2CO3-l. 0mmol/L NaHCO3, and using a conductivity detector. After the sample being crushed, sulfur dioxide in the sample was distilled and oxidized by 3% hydrogen peroxide to sulfate, and determined by ion chromatography. Results A good linear relationship was observed in the range of 0-266. 76 mg/kg, the linear regression equation was y = 10. 126 x + 0. 232, correlation coefficient (r) was 0. 999 7, the recovery was in the range of 91. 61%-98. 41% , the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 5% , the detection limit of the method was 0. 067 mg/kg. Conclusion The ion chromatography method in the detection of sulfur dioxide in foods is simple, precise, strong reproducible and accurate.%目的 建立一种简便快速测定食品中二氧化硫残留量的离子色谱检测方法.方法 选用瑞士万通861双抑制型离子色谱仪,Metrosep A Supp 4-250分析柱,3.1 mmol/L Na2CO3-1.0 mmol/L NaHCO3淋洗液,电导检测器检测,样品粉碎经蒸馏后,二氧化硫经3%双氧水氧化成硫酸根后测定.结果 二氧化硫含量在0~266.76 mg/kg线性范围良好,线性回归方程y=10.126x+0.232,相关系数r=0.999 7,回收率为91.61%~98.41%,相对标准偏差(RSD)均小于5%,最低检出限为0.067 mg/kg.结论 方法简便,精密度、重现性良好,准确度较高.

  6. Fructose metabolism of the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum: effect of carbon dioxide on growth, and production of bacteriochlorophyll and organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Christiane; Grammel, Hartmut

    2012-04-05

    During fermentative metabolism, carbon dioxide fixation plays a key role in many bacteria regarding growth and production of organic acids. The present contribution, dealing with the facultative photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, reveals not only the strong influence of ambient carbon dioxide on the fermentative break-down of fructose but also a high impact on aerobic growth with fructose as sole carbon source. Both growth rates and biomass yield increased with increasing carbon dioxide supply in chemoheterotrophic aerobic cultures. Furthermore, intracellular metabolite concentration measurements showed almost negligible concentrations of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates succinate, fumarate and malate under aerobic growth, in contrast to several metabolites of the glycolysis. In addition, we present a dual phase fed-batch process, where an aerobic growth phase is followed by an anaerobic production phase. The biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll and the secretion of organic acids were both affected by the carbon dioxide supply, the pH value and by the cell density at the time of switching from aerobic to anaerobic conditions. The formation of pigmented photosynthetic membranes and the amount of bacteriochlorophyll were inversely correlated to the secretion of succinate. Accounting the high biotechnological potential of R. rubrum, optimization of carbon dioxide supply is important because of the favored application of fructose-containing fermentable feedstock solutions in bio-industrial processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur... and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides,...

  8. Investigation of an Oscillation System in the Reaction of Chlorine Dioxide-Iodine-Malonic Acid-Sulfuric Acid%二氧化氯-碘-丙二酸-硫酸化学振荡体系的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 施来顺

    2011-01-01

    The initial concentration of every reagent was changed in the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid-sulfuric acid oscillator in a closed system,and the system was investigated by determining the absorbance of I-3 with reaction time at 350 nm.As a result,the higher was the initial concentration of malonic acid,iodine or sulfuric acid,the bigger was the amplitude.Also,the number of oscillations became small.An opposite influence existed for chlorine dioxide.The oscillation occurred as long as the reactants mixed when the concentrations of components were comparatively high.However,the oscillation was preceded by a pre-oscillatory or induction period when the concentrations of components were relatively low.%对ClO2-I2-CH2(COOH)2-H2SO4化学振荡封闭体系,改变体系中各反应物的初始浓度,在350 nm处检测I3-的吸光度随反应时间的变化,结果发现丙二酸、碘及硫酸的初始浓度越高,二氧化氯的浓度越低,振荡的振幅越大,波数越少;当反应组分浓度较高时反应物一经混合振荡立即出现,没有诱导期,但当反应组分浓度较低时存在诱导期。

  9. 锂/二氧化硫电池稳态法导热系数试验研究%Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Lithium/Sulfur Dioxide Battery by Steady-state Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丽; 张兴娟; 杨春信

    2011-01-01

    导热系数是描述物体热物理性能的主要指标。文中介绍了锂/二氧化硫电池的导热系数测试方法,在前期测试工作的基础上加入了热补偿部件、水冷散热系统等改进措施。对锂/二氧化硫电池进行了未放电和完全放电后电池的测试。测试结果表明:文中介绍的导热系数测试仪器测量结果可靠,精度较高;与未放电电池相比,完全放电后电池的导热系数明显减小。%Thermal conductivity is a leading parameter to describe the thermo-physical properties.The mea-surement method of the lithium/sulfur dioxide battery is introduced in this paper,with the thermal compensating part,liquid cooling system etc.are added based on the previous measurement.The lithium/sulfur dioxide battery is tested before discharge and after full discharge.The test result shows that the test of the apparatus for thermal conductivity introduced in this paper is reliable and accurate.Compared with the battery before discharge,the thermal conductivity of the battery after full discharge is evidently decreased.

  10. Technologies for the treatment of the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides generated by the combustion in open chamber; Tecnologias para el tratamiento de dioxido de azufre y oxidos de nitrogeno generados por la combustion en camara abierta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar Villalpando, Maria Dolores [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    In general terms, there are only three ways of avoiding the sulfur dioxide and the nitrogen oxides, generated by the combustion in open chamber, from contaminating the air; the first one is utilizing low sulfur and nitrogen content fuels, the second one is by controlling the parameters that affect the combustion and the third one to treat and/or clean the gases before exhausting them to the air. In this document, some of the treatments for diminishing the pollutant emissions generated by the combustion in open chamber, are presented. [Espanol] En terminos generales, solo existen 3 maneras de evitar que el dioxido de azufre y oxidos de nitrogeno generados por la combustion en camara abierta sigan contaminando el aire, la primera es utilizar un combustible de bajo contenido de azufre y nitrogeno, la segunda es controlar los parametros que afectan la combustion, y la tercera es tratar y/o limpiar los gases antes de emitirlos a la atmosfera. En este documento se presentan algunos tratamientos para disminuir las emisiones de contaminantes generados por la combustion en camara abierta.

  11. Modeling total reduced sulfur and sulfur dioxide emissions from a kraft recovery boiler using an artificial neural network, and, Investigating volatile organic compounds in an urban intermountain valley using a TD/GC/MS methodology and intrinsic tracer molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Christopher Louis

    2000-11-01

    Back-propagation neural networks were trained to predict total reduced sulfur (TRS) and SO2 emissions from kraft recovery boiler operational data. A 0.721 coefficient of correlation was achieved between actual and predicted sulfur emissions on test data withheld from network training. The artificial neural network (ANN) models found an inverse, linear relationship between TRS/SO2 emissions and percent opacity. A number of relationships among operating parameters and sulfur emissions were identified by the ANN models. These relationships were used to formulate strategies for reducing sulfur emissions. Disagreement between ANN model predictions on a subsequent data set revealed an additional scenario for sulfur release not present in the training data. ANN modeling was demonstrated to be an effective tool for analyzing process variables when balancing productivity and environmental concerns. Five receptor sites distributed in the Missoula Valley, Montana, were employed to investigate possible VOC (benzene, 2,3,4-trimethylpentane, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-/p-xylene, o-xylene, naphthalene, acetone, chloroform, α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene and limonene) sources. The most dominant source of VOCs was found to be vehicle emissions. Furthermore, anthropogenic sources of terpenoids overwhelmed biogenic emissions, on a local scale. Difficulties correlating wind direction and pollutant levels could be explained by wind direction variability, low wind speed and seasonally dependent meteorological factors. Significant evidence was compiled to support the use of p-cymene as a tracer molecule for pulp mill VOC emissions. Apportionment techniques using o-xylene and p-cymene as tracers for automobile and pulp mill emissions, respectively, were employed to estimate each source's VOC contribution. Motor vehicles were estimated to contribute between 56 and 100 percent of the aromatic pollutants in the Missoula Valley airshed, depending upon the sampling location. Pulp mill emissions

  12. Method for purifying flue gases and other gases containing sulfur dioxide. Verfahren zum Reinigen von Rauchgasen und anderen Abgasen, die Schwefeldioxid enthalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Gresch, H.; Igelbuescher, H.

    1987-02-26

    By adding alkali thiosulphate to the washing solution, nitrogen oxides can be converted into elementary N simultaneously with sulphur dioxide separation. The method is based on reactions of thiosulphates with sulphites or bisulphites to form thionates in the alkaline washing stage as well as in the acid oxidation stage of the alkali sulphites or bisulphites.

  13. Dry-deposition measurements of sulfur dioxide to a spruce-fir forest in the Black Forest: a data report. Technical memo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillen, R.T.; Matt, D.R.; Hicks, B.B.; Womack, J.D.

    1987-02-01

    Measurements of dry deposition of SO/sub 2/ are reported for a forested site in the Black Forest of West Germany. The measurements were made using the eddy-correlation method about 10 meters above the top of a spruce forest that was already affected by Waldsterben. These measurements were conducted as one component of TULLA, a large sulfur mass-balance experiment. The dry-deposition measurements were successful during times when SO/sub 2/ concentrations were greater than 5 micro grams/cu m.

  14. Ambient Air Monitoring for Sulfur Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Joseph; Newman, Leonard

    1973-01-01

    A literature review of analytical techniques available for the study of compounds at low concentrations points up some of the areas where further research is needed. Compounds reviewed are sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate and bisulfate, metal sulfates, hydrogen sulfide, and organic sulfides. (BL)

  15. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Spin Trapping of Inorganic Radicals by 5,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrroline N-Oxide (DMPO). 3. Sulfur Dioxide, Sulfite and Sulfate Radical Anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Pedro L.; Villamena, Frederick A.

    2012-01-01

    Radical forms of sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfite (SO32−), sulfate (SO42−), and their conjugate acids are known to be generated in vivo through various chemical and biochemical pathways. Oxides of sulfur are environmentally pervasive compounds and are associated with a number of health problems. There is growing evidence that their toxicity may be mediated by their radical forms. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping using the commonly used spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), has been employed in the detection of SO3•− and SO4•−. The thermochemistries of SO2•−, SO3•−, SO4•−, and their respective conjugate acids addition to DMPO were predicted using density functional theory (DFT) at the PCM/B3LYP/6-31+G**//B3LYP/6-31G* level. No spin adduct was observed for SO2•− by EPR but an S-centered adduct was observed for SO3•− and an O-centered adduct for SO4•−. Determination of adducts as S- or O-centered was made via comparison based on qualitative trends of experimental hfcc’s with theoretically calculated ones. The thermodynamics of the non-radical addition of SO32− and HSO3− to DMPO followed by conversion to the corresponding radical adduct via the Forrester-Hepburn mechanism was also calculated. Adduct acidities and decomposition pathways were investigated as well, including an EPR experiment using H217O to determine the site of hydrolysis of O-centered adducts. The mode of radical addition to DMPO is predicted to be governed by several factors, including spin population density, and geometries stabilized by hydrogen bonds. The thermodynamic data supports evidence for the radical addition pathway over the nucleophilic addition mechanism. PMID:22668066

  16. Permeability and Selectivity of Sulfur Dioxide and Carbon Dioxide in Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes%二氧化硫和二氧化碳在离子液体支撑液膜中的渗透率和选择性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江滢滢; 吴有庭; 王文婷; 李磊; 周政; 张志炳

    2009-01-01

    Permeabilities and selectivities of gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen (N2) and methane (CH4) in six imidazolium-based ionic liquids ([emim][BF4], [bmim][BF4], [bmim][PF6], [hmim][BF4], [bmim][Tf2N] and [emim][CF3SO3]) supported on polyethersulfone microfiltration membranes are investigated in a single gas feed system using nitrogen as the environment and reference component at temperature from 25 to 45℃ and pressure of N2 from 100 to 400 kPa. It is found that SO2 has the highest permeability in the tested supported ionic liquid membranes, being an order of magnitude higher than that of CO2, and about 2 to 3 or-ders of magnitude larger than those of N2 and CH4. The observed selectivity of SO2 over the two ordinary gas components is also striking. It is shown experimentally that the dissolution and transport of gas components in the supported ionic liquid membranes, as well as the nature of ionic liquids play important roles in the gas permeation. A nonlinear increase of permeation rate with temperature and operation pressure is also observed for all sample gases. By considering the factors that influence the permeabilities and selectivities of CO2 and SO2, it is expected to develop an optimal supported ionic liquid membrane technology for the isolation of acidic gases in the near future.

  17. Catalase as a sulfide-sulfur oxido-reductase: An ancient (and modern? regulator of reactive sulfur species (RSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Olson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Catalase is well-known as an antioxidant dismutating H2O2 to O2 and H2O. However, catalases evolved when metabolism was largely sulfur-based, long before O2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS became abundant, suggesting catalase metabolizes reactive sulfide species (RSS. Here we examine catalase metabolism of H2Sn, the sulfur analog of H2O2, hydrogen sulfide (H2S and other sulfur-bearing molecules using H2S-specific amperometric electrodes and fluorophores to measure polysulfides (H2Sn; SSP4 and ROS (dichlorofluorescein, DCF. Catalase eliminated H2Sn, but did not anaerobically generate H2S, the expected product of dismutation. Instead, catalase concentration- and oxygen-dependently metabolized H2S and in so doing acted as a sulfide oxidase with a P50 of 20 mmHg. H2O2 had little effect on catalase-mediated H2S metabolism but in the presence of the catalase inhibitor, sodium azide (Az, H2O2 rapidly and efficiently expedited H2S metabolism in both normoxia and hypoxia suggesting H2O2 is an effective electron acceptor in this reaction. Unexpectedly, catalase concentration-dependently generated H2S from dithiothreitol (DTT in both normoxia and hypoxia, concomitantly oxidizing H2S in the presence of O2. H2S production from DTT was inhibited by carbon monoxide and augmented by NADPH suggesting that catalase heme-iron is the catalytic site and that NADPH provides reducing equivalents. Catalase also generated H2S from garlic oil, diallyltrisulfide, thioredoxin and sulfur dioxide, but not from sulfite, metabisulfite, carbonyl sulfide, cysteine, cystine, glutathione or oxidized glutathione. Oxidase activity was also present in catalase from Aspergillus niger. These results show that catalase can act as either a sulfide oxidase or sulfur reductase and they suggest that these activities likely played a prominent role in sulfur metabolism during evolution and may continue do so in modern cells as well. This also appears to be the first observation of catalase

  18. Use of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by a bacteria-animal symbiosis from seagrass sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Manuel; Wentrup, Cecilia; Holler, Thomas; Lavik, Gaute; Harder, Jens; Lott, Christian; Littmann, Sten; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Dubilier, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    The gutless marine worm Olavius algarvensis lives in symbiosis with chemosynthetic bacteria that provide nutrition by fixing carbon dioxide (CO2 ) into biomass using reduced sulfur compounds as energy sources. A recent metaproteomic analysis of the O. algarvensis symbiosis indicated that carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2 ) might also be used as energy sources. We provide direct evidence that the O. algarvensis symbiosis consumes CO and H2 . Single cell imaging using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry revealed that one of the symbionts, the γ3-symbiont, uses the energy from CO oxidation to fix CO2 . Pore water analysis revealed considerable in-situ concentrations of CO and H2 in the O. algarvensis environment, Mediterranean seagrass sediments. Pore water H2 concentrations (89-2147 nM) were up to two orders of magnitude higher than in seawater, and up to 36-fold higher than previously known from shallow-water marine sediments. Pore water CO concentrations (17-51 nM) were twice as high as in the overlying seawater (no literature data from other shallow-water sediments are available for comparison). Ex-situ incubation experiments showed that dead seagrass rhizomes produced large amounts of CO. CO production from decaying plant material could thus be a significant energy source for microbial primary production in seagrass sediments.

  19. Inactivation of different strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in various apple ciders treated with dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) as an alternative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaran-Akgul, N; Churey, J J; Basaran, P; Worobo, R W

    2009-02-01

    Escherichia coli has been identified as the causative agent in numerous foodborne illness outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh apple cider. Apple cider has a pH which is normally below 4.0 and would not be considered a medium capable of supporting the growth of foodborne pathogens. The association of unpasteurized apple cider with foodborne illness due to E. coli O157:H7 has however, led to increased interest in potential alternative methods to produce pathogen free cider. Apple cider was prepared from eight different apple cultivars, inoculated with approximately 10(6)-10(7) CFU of three strains of E. coli O157:H7 per ml (933, ATCC 43889, and ATCC 43895) and tested to determine the effectiveness of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC). Bacterial populations for treated and untreated samples were then enumerated by using non-selective media. Eight different ciders were treated with DMDC (125 and 250 ppm) and SO(2) (25, 50, 75, 100 ppm). Greater than a 5-log reduction was achieved at room temperature with 250 ppm of DMDC and 50 ppm of SO(2) after the incubation time of 6h and 24h, respectively. Addition of DMDC and/or SO(2) may offer an inexpensive alternative to thermal pasteurization for the production of safe apple cider for small apple cider producers.

  20. Emission inventory of air pollutants in East Asia. Anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide in China; Higashi Asia chiiki wo taishotoshita taiki osen busshitsu no haishutsuryo suikei. Chugoku ni okeru io sankabutsu no jin`i kigen haishutsuryo suikei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, H.; Tonooka, Y.; Yanagisawa, Y. [Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan); Ikeda, Y. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). College of Engineering

    1995-11-10

    Anthropogenic emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in China was investigated to establish an emission inventory on air pollutants in East Asia. Major objectives of the study were to establish the emission inventory having the most detailed emission categories and regional resolution comparing with previous works, and being expandable to other air pollutants. Under popularization of desulfurization, conventional methodologies face to limitation of data quality, but in this work the contribution of SO2 removal by recent installation of desulfurization units was also taken into account. China was selected as the first subjective country because China has the largest emission sources of SO2 in East Asia, which contribute a significant portion of acid deposition in Japan. By our estimation total amounts of 21 Tg of SO2 were emitted in China in 1990. About 90% of the SO2 came from coal combustion, and power and heat generation part was responsible for over 30% of the total discharge. The total amounts of the SO2 emission were classified by provinces, major cities, and two grid systems such as 80{times}80 km square and 1{degree}{times}1{degree} resolution. Emissions in Sichian, Shandong and Jiangus provinces were ranked as the top three. Chongqing, Shanghai and Chengdu were selected to be major cities for the SO2 emission. 30 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Estimation of inorganic food additive (nitrite, nitrate and sulfur dioxide), antioxidant (BHA and BHT), processing agent (propylene glycol) and sweetener (sodium saccharin) concentrations in foods and their daily intake based on official inspection results in Japan in fiscal year 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, Hajimu; Nishijima, Motohiro; Fukasawa, Yoshinobu

    2003-04-01

    The mean concentration and daily intake of inorganic food additives (nitrite, nitrate, and sulfur dioxide), antioxidants (BHA and BHT), a processing agent (propylene glycol), and a sweetener (sodium saccharin) were estimated based on the results of an analysis of 34,489 food samples obtained in official inspections by 106 local governments in Japan in fiscal year 1998. The ratios of mean concentrations of these seven food additives to each allowable limit were 20.0%, 53.9%, 15.5%, 6.2%, 0.4%, 18.5%, and 5.7%, respectively. The daily intakes of these food additives estimated from their concentrations in foods and the daily consumption of foods were 0.205, 0.532, 4.31, 0.119, 0.109, 77.5, and 7.27 mg per person, respectively. These amounts were 6.8%, 0.3%, 12.3%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 6.2%, and 2.6% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI), respectively, when body weight was assumed to be 50 kg. No remarkable differences in the daily intakes of these seven food additives or the ratios to the ADI were observed compared with the results based on the official inspections in fiscal years 1994 and 1996.

  2. A Response Surface Methodology Approach to Investigate the Effect of Sulfur Dioxide, pH, and Ethanol on DbCD and DbVPR Gene Expression and on the Volatile Phenol Production in Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis CBS2499.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdetara, Federica; Fracassetti, Daniela; Campanello, Alessia; Costa, Carlo; Foschino, Roberto; Compagno, Concetta; Vigentini, Ileana

    2017-01-01

    Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis, the main spoilage yeast in barrel-aged wine, metabolize hydroxycinnamic acids into off-flavors, namely ethylphenols. Recently, both the enzymes involved in this transformation, the cinnamate decarboxylase (DbCD) and the vinylphenol reductase (DbVPR), have been identified. To counteract microbial proliferation in wine, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is used commonly to stabilize the final product, but limiting its use is advised to preserve human health and boost sustainability in winemaking. In the present study, the influence of SO2 was investigated in relation with pH and ethanol factors on the expression of DbCD and DbVPR genes and volatile phenol production in D. bruxellensis CBS2499 strain under different model wines throughout a response surface methodology (RSM). In order to ensure an exact quantification of DbCD and DbVPR expression, an appropriate housekeeping gene was sought among DbPDC, DbALD, DbEF, DbACT, and DbTUB genes by GeNorm and Normfinder algorithms. The latter gene showed the highest expression stability and it was chosen as the reference housekeeping gene in qPCR assays. Even though SO2 could not be commented as main factor because of its statistical irrelevance on the response of DbCD gene, linear interactions with pH and ethanol concurred to define a significant effect (p bruxellensis spoilage.

  3. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-lee

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  4. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  5. Sulfur: its clinical and toxicologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarnisky, Lioudmila A; Christopherson, Robert J; Basu, Tapan K

    2003-01-01

    Although there is no known dietary requirement for inorganic sulfur, it is an essential element for all animal species in as much as they all require the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine. There are three predominate forms of organic sulfur in animals and humans: 1). the thiomethyl of methionine residues in protein; 2). the sulfhydryl disulfides of protein; and 3). the compounds containing ester or amide bound sulfates of glycosaminoglycans, steroids, and many xenobiotic metabolites. Thus, sulfur becomes an important constituent of amino acids, proteins, enzymes, vitamins and other biomolecules. Unlike mammalian species, plants can use inorganic sulfur and synthesize methionine from which are synthesized all the other important sulfur compounds. Hence, sulfur deficiency occurs mainly when plants are grown in sulfur-depleted soils and when humans and animals consume low-protein diets. In recent times, however, the increasing prevalence of refining petroleum and smelting sulfur compounds of metallic minerals into free metals are having a large impact on the balance of sulfur in the environment. Sulfur toxicity is associated mainly with high levels of the element and its toxic volatile substances in the environment. Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), a major air pollutant, may adversely affect animal and human health by causing bronchitis, bronchoconstriction, and increased pulmonary resistance.

  6. Flexible substrates as basis for photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Mikkelsen, Mette; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    A photocatalytic system for converting carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide was designed and constructed. The system relies on thin films of the photocatalyst prepared at low temperature using spray coating. We formulated inks based on the well-known photocatalyst titanium dioxide and characterized...

  7. 世界主要国家温室气体与二氧化硫的协同减排及启示%The Synergistic Emission Reduction of GHG and Sulfur Dioxide in the World' s Major Countries and Its Revelation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋飞; 付加锋

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that traditional pollution reduction measures have co-benefits effects on greenhouse gas emissions control. At present, the synergistic reduction of greenhouse gas and traditional air pollutants in Europe, the United States, Japan and other developed countries have become advanced. Therefore, to study from them has important reference value for China' s air pollution control and greenhouse gas reduction. In this paper, with data of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions and energy consumption of the above countries from the World Bank, the International Energy Agency, the UN, the European Commission and the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the relativity between energy consumption and carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions of thermal power industry was analyzed. Besides, under the pre-set emission reduction scenarios, the emission reduction of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide was calculated. The results are as follows: 1) The coefficients of correlation of energy consumption and the emission of carbon dioxide are 0.9291, -0.2965, 0.9357 and 0.9978; the coefficient of correlation of energy consumption and the emission of sulfur dioxide is 0.8738. Therefore, the energy consumption shows high linear correlation with the emission of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide; 2) Under the pre-set emission reduction scenarios of the European Union, that is, the emission of carbon dioxide will reduce by 20% in 2020 as compared with the level in 2007, the carbon dioxide emission will reduce by 4.92 million tons and the sulfur dioxide emission will reduce by 218.03 thousand tons. The potential of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emission reduction is great in China, and the experience of synergistic reduction of Europe and other developed countries means a lot to China.%本文以美国、日本和欧盟等世界主要国家或组织为研究对象,使用国际能源机构、世界银行、联合国、欧盟委员会以及中国国家统计

  8. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When power outages occur after severe weather (such as winter storms, hurricanes or tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a ...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Carbon Monoxide (CO) system provides high-precision atmospheric concentration measurements of CO mixing ratio (ppbv dry air) every 10...

  10. The 1981-1982 NCLAN (National Crop Loss Assessment Network) program at LLNL: The effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide, singly and in combination, on field-grown tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surano, K.A.; Mutters, R.G.; Temple, P.J.; Bingham, G.E.; Kercher, J.R.; Shinn, J.H.

    1987-07-01

    The combined effects of ozone (O/sub 3/) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) exposures on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) crop yields were measured during the 1981 and 1982 growing seasons. The effort, part of the National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN), had the objective of determining the yield dose response of tomato grown under commercial conditions. Dose response was determined using step-wise multiple regression techniques and was expressed as reduction in marketable yield as a function of increased pollutant levels. The crops were harvested during mid-September 1981 and during mid-October 1982. No O/sub 3/- or So/sub 2/-induced visible injury symptons (lesions, chlorosis, or becrosis) were apparent on foliage or fruits. Total marketable fruit fresh weight was used as the dependent variable in the regression analysis because it most closely represented the economic value of the crop. Comparison of chambered- and companion-plot data showed that the chambers themselves caused significant effects on the crop. Yields were reduced 12% in 1981 and 24% in 1982 due to the chambers. There was also more unripened fruit within the chambers because of chamber-induced uneven distribution of an aerially-applied ripening agent. Dose-response results were independent of the chamber effects. Based on companion-plot data, the yield of the crop in the research area was 65/plus minus/2 Mg ha/sup /minus/1/ in both years. The research-area yields correlated well with those from the adjacent commercial plantation. With respect to tomato production in the San Joaquin Valley, we recommend that an air quality management strategy be adopted to contain ambient O/sub 3/ concentrations at or below present levels. Containment at present levels would avoid O/sub 3/-induced tomato yield reductions greater than 7%, even during atypical years such as 1982. 26 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Lunar sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuck, David L.

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  12. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide mouthwash against halitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestari, M. D.; Sunarto, H.; Kemal, Y.

    2017-08-01

    To ascertain the effectiveness of using chlorine dioxide mouthwash in addressing halitosis. Forty people were divided equally into the test group (required to gargle with mouthwash containing chlorine dioxide) and the control group (required to gargle with aquadest). The volatile sulfur compound (VSC) and organoleptic scores were measured before gargling and 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h after. The Wilcoxon test analysis showed a significant difference (pChlorine dioxide mouthwash is effective in addressing halitosis.

  13. Quantification of Sulfur in Mobility Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-20

    containing compounds into sulfur monoxide, which then photochemically reacts with ozone (produced by a generator within the instrument 3 itself) to...with ozone to produce excited-state SO2. Therefore, in this study we will assess the UV fluorescence method carefully and determine if it has...to SO2 in the exhaust. In a separate set of experiments, an FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometer was used to analyze the combustion exhaust

  14. SULFUR DIOXIDE - SULFUR TRIOXIDE REGENERATIVE FUEL CELL RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermodynamics and electrolytic characteristics are discussed of an SO2-SO3 regenerative, closed-cycle fuel cell , and summarizes the electrolytic...electrochemical, and phase separation research conducted during a study program to determine the practicability of such a fuel cell . The...experimental results obtained were at such wide variance with the theoretical concept that it became apparent that a fuel cell of this type is not feasible. (Author)

  15. A Study on Selecting the Optimal Concentration of Sulfur Dioxide to Inhibit Botrytis cinerea Pers on Grapes%抑制葡萄灰霉菌适宜SO2浓度筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤超; 李学文; 韩江; 叶强

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to investigate the sulfur dioxide (SO2) to inhibit Botrytis cinera Pers to control the decay of grapes during storage to select suitable SO2 concentration inhibiting Botrytis cinera Pers to provide a bass for controlling decay of grapes during storage.The fuming treatment medium with different SO2 concentrations and Botrytis cinera Pers on the surface of grapes fruit were used to study inhibition effects on Botrytis cinera Pers and effects on grapes quality and to select suitable SO2 treatment concentration.Resuts showed that there was positive correlation between the inhibition effect of Botrytis cinera Pers in vitro and the inhibition and concentration of Botrytis cinera Pers.The significant effect of SO2 to control Botrytis cinerea Pers was beginning from 200μL/L.Grapes inoculated Botrytis cinerea Pers bacteriostatic experiment showed,200 μL/L or 250 μl/L treatment effect was significantly better than the other concentrations.But 250μl/L SO2 handling was harmful to grape quality.Suming up the inhibition of Botrytis cinerea Pers and the affection of grape fruit quality,SO2 concentration of 200 μL/L was suit for embalmed thompson seedless storage.%采用不同SO2浓度熏蒸处理培养基及表面接种葡萄果实上的灰霉菌(Botrytis cinera Pers),研究其对灰霉菌的抑制效果及对葡萄品质的影响,筛选适宜的SO2处理浓度.体外抑菌试验表明,SO2对灰霉菌的抑制作用与浓度成正相关,从200 μL/L开始抑制效果显著,SO2对表面接种灰霉菌葡萄的抑菌试验,SO2浓度为200,250 μL/L的处理效果明显好于其他浓度,但250 μL/L SO2处理对葡萄品质产生了伤害,综合对灰霉菌的抑制及对葡萄果实品质的影响,SO2浓度为200 μL/L适宜无核白葡萄贮藏防腐处理.

  16. Determination of sulfur dioxide in traditional Chinese medicine by alkaline solution extraction and ion chromatography%碱性溶液提取-离子色谱法测定中药二氧化硫残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣美; 夏晶; 王柯; 季申

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立中药中二氧化硫的测定方法.方法:样品用碱性溶液提取,甲醛作稳定剂,经C18小柱净化.色谱柱为IonPac AS11-HC型离子交换柱,流动相为15 mmol·L-1 KOH,加电自动抑制模式,用配有电导检测器的离子色谱仪测定亚硫酸根.结果:二氧化硫的残留量在1~100 μg线性关系良好,r=0.999 2,检测限为0.53 mg·kg-1,平均回收率为103.7%.结论:该法具有检测时间短、偶然误差小、灵敏度高、操作简便等优点,适于大批中药样品的检测.%Objective; An ion chromatographic method was developed to analyze sulfur dioxide in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Method; The samples were extracted with alkaline solution and reacted with formaldehyde to form hydroxymethyl sulfonic acid. The Extracts were cleaned by C,8 column and SO32- was determined with ion chromatography equipped with a conductance detector. In the method, AS11 -HC chromatographic column was used and the mobile phase was 15 mmol ? L-1 KOH. Result; The calibration curve was in good linearity in the range of 1 to 100 μg (r = 0. 999 2). The detection limit was 0. 53 mg ? kg-1 and the average recovery was 103. 7%. Conclusion; The method is simple, sensitive, precise, short-time-consuming, and the random error is smaller, which is applicable to the testing of large quantity batches of TCM.

  17. Satellite detection, long-range transport, and air quality impacts of volcanic sulfur dioxide from the 2014-2015 flood lava eruption at Bárðarbunga (Iceland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; Leadbetter, Susan; Theys, Nicolas; Carboni, Elisa; Claire, Witham; John, Stevenson; Cathryn, Birch; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2016-04-01

    The 2014-2015 Bárðarbunga-Veiðivötn fissure eruption at Holuhraun produced about 1.5 km3 of lava, making it the largest eruption in Iceland in more than 200 years. Over the course of the eruption, daily volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions exceeded daily SO2 emissions from all anthropogenic sources in Europe in 2010 by at least a factor of 3. We present surface air quality observations from across Northern Europe together with satellite remote sensing data and model simulations of volcanic SO2 for September 2014. We show that volcanic SO2 was transported in the lowermost troposphere over long distances and detected by air quality monitoring stations up to 2750 km away from the source. Using retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), we calculate an average daily SO2 mass burden of 99 ± 49 kilotons (kt) of SO2 from OMI and 61 ± 18 kt of SO2 from IASI for September 2014. This volcanic burden is at least a factor of 2 greater than the average SO2 mass burden between 2007 and 2009 due to anthropogenic emissions from the whole of Europe. Combining the observational data with model simulations using the United Kingdom Met Office's Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment model, we are able to constrain SO2 emission rates to up to 120 kilotons per day (kt/d) during early September 2014, followed by a decrease to 20-60 kt/d between 6 and 22 September 2014, followed by a renewed increase to 60-120 kt/d until the end of September 2014. Based on these fluxes, we estimate that the eruption emitted a total of 2.0 ± 0.6 Tg of SO2 during September 2014, in good agreement with ground-based remote sensing and petrological estimates. Although the volcanic air pollution episodes were transient and lava-dominated volcanic eruptions are sporadic events, the observations suggest that (i) during an eruption, volcanic SO2 measurements should be assimilated for near real-time air quality

  18. A Response Surface Methodology Approach to Investigate the Effect of Sulfur Dioxide, pH, and Ethanol on DbCD and DbVPR Gene Expression and on the Volatile Phenol Production in Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis CBS2499

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Valdetara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis, the main spoilage yeast in barrel-aged wine, metabolize hydroxycinnamic acids into off-flavors, namely ethylphenols. Recently, both the enzymes involved in this transformation, the cinnamate decarboxylase (DbCD and the vinylphenol reductase (DbVPR, have been identified. To counteract microbial proliferation in wine, sulfur dioxide (SO2 is used commonly to stabilize the final product, but limiting its use is advised to preserve human health and boost sustainability in winemaking. In the present study, the influence of SO2 was investigated in relation with pH and ethanol factors on the expression of DbCD and DbVPR genes and volatile phenol production in D. bruxellensis CBS2499 strain under different model wines throughout a response surface methodology (RSM. In order to ensure an exact quantification of DbCD and DbVPR expression, an appropriate housekeeping gene was sought among DbPDC, DbALD, DbEF, DbACT, and DbTUB genes by GeNorm and Normfinder algorithms. The latter gene showed the highest expression stability and it was chosen as the reference housekeeping gene in qPCR assays. Even though SO2 could not be commented as main factor because of its statistical irrelevance on the response of DbCD gene, linear interactions with pH and ethanol concurred to define a significant effect (p < 0.05 on its expression. The DbCD gene was generally downregulated respect to a permissive growth condition (0 mg/L mol. SO2, pH 4.5 and 5% v/v ethanol; the combination of the factor levels that maximizes its expression (0.83-fold change was calculated at 0.25 mg/L mol. SO2, pH 4.5 and 12.5% (v/v ethanol. On the contrary, DbVPR expression was not influenced by main factors or by their interactions; however, its expression is maximized (1.80-fold change at the same conditions calculated for DbCD gene. While no linear interaction between factors influenced the off-flavor synthesis, ethanol and pH produced a significant effect as

  19. (Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  20. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  1. 中国经济增长中的大气污染及国际比较——以二氧化硫为例%Air Pollution of China and Its International Comparison——Analysis Based on Sulfur Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昭利; 周亚虹

    2012-01-01

    China gained rapid economic growth in the past thirty years, but the pollution was also serious andattracted criticism from international community. The criticism was unfair because it ignored China' s current stage of economic development. Since China' s pollution of sulfur dioxide is very serious and the emission is No. 1 in the world,we analyze sulfur dioxide only by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve theory and considering more rea- sonable explanatory variables such as whether the sample is coastal or not, central city or not, the percentage of in- dustry to GDP of the provinces, the population density and rainfall of the city. All above explanatory variables are al-most ignored by other research, and this is one of this paper 's main innovations. We found that the relationship of China' s GDP and pollution appears an inverted N shape, that is, the density of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere de- crease with GDP first, then rise, and decrease finally. Since Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai are different in various aspects with other six provinces, such as economic structure, the political status, population density, these cities can accept only high-end industries while leave the high energy consumption or high pollution industry to other prov-inces, therefore we suspect that the final declining stage of the curve is pulling by the three municipalities~ After dis- C C arding them and re-do the regression, we found that the relationship between pollution and income are completely hanged. Eastern provinces' sulfur dioxide concentration decline with the GDP growth, and then rise, which shows that the environmental Kuznets curve is U shaped. Therefore the degree of China's sulfur dioxide pollution dropped at 10,350 international dollars per capita is driven by the three municipalities,and this does not indicate China'soverall economy-pollution path. After removing Beijing,Tianjin and Shanghai, the other six provinces are more rep- resentative of China in a way

  2. Economic comparison of hydrogen production using sulfuric acid electrolysis and sulfur cycle water decomposition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farbman, G.H.; Krasicki, B.R.; Hardman, C.C.; Lin, S.S.; Parker, G.H.

    1978-06-01

    An evaluation of the relative economics of hydrogen production using two advanced techniques was performed. The hydrogen production systems considered were the Westinghouse Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System and a water electrolysis system employing a sulfuric acid electrolyte. The former is a hybrid system in which hydrogen is produced in an electrolyzer which uses sulfur dioxide to depolarize the anode. The electrolyte is sulfuric acid. Development and demonstration efforts have shown that extremely low cell voltages can be achieved. The second system uses a similar sulfuric acid electrolyte technology in water electrolysis cells. The comparative technoeconomics of hydrogen produced by the hybrid Sulfur Cycle and by water electrolysis using a sulfuric acid electrolyte were determined by assessing the performance and economics of 380 million SCFD plants, each energized by a very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR). The evaluation concluded that the overall efficiencies of hydrogen production, for operating parameters that appear reasonable for both systems, are approximately 41% for the sulfuric acid electrolysis and 47% for the hybrid Sulfur Cycle. The economic evaluation of hydrogen production, based on a 1976 cost basis and assuming a developed technology for both hydrogen production systems and the VHTRs, indicated that the hybrid Sulfur Cycle could generate hydrogen for a total cost approximately 6 to 7% less than the cost from the sulfuric acid electrolysis plant.

  3. Database of normal human cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, cerebral oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen measured by positron emission tomography with {sup 15}O-labelled carbon dioxide or water, carbon monoxide and oxygen: a multicentre study in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Akita Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Division of Brain Sciences, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-Machi, 980-8575, Aoba-Ku, Sendai (Japan); Kanno, Iwao [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Akita Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan); Kato, Chietsugu [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Sasaki, Toshiaki [Cyclotoron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Morioka (Japan); Ishii, Kenji [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo (Japan); Ouchi, Yasuomi [Positron Medical Center, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamakita (Japan); Iida, Akihiko [Nagoya City Rehabilitation Center, Nagoya (Japan); Okazawa, Hidehiko [PET Unit, Research Institute, Shiga Medical Center, Moriyama (Japan); Hayashida, Kohei [Department of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka (Japan); Ishii, Kazunari [Division of Imaging Research, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Kuwabara, Yasuo [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Senda, Michio [Department of Image-based Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan)

    2004-05-01

    Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) by positron emission tomography (PET) with oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide (C{sup 15}O{sub 2}) or {sup 15}O-labelled water (H{sub 2}{sup 15}O), {sup 15}O-labelled carbon monoxide (C{sup 15}O) and {sup 15}O-labelled oxygen ({sup 15}O{sub 2}) is useful for diagnosis and treatment planning in cases of cerebrovascular disease. The measured values theoretically depend on various factors, which may differ between PET centres. This study explored the applicability of a database of {sup 15}O-PET by examining between-centre and within-centre variation in values. Eleven PET centres participated in this multicentre study; seven used the steady-state inhalation method, one used build-up inhalation and three used bolus administration of C{sup 15}O{sub 2} (or H{sub 2}{sup 15}O) and {sup 15}O{sub 2}. All used C{sup 15}O for measurement of CBV. Subjects comprised 70 healthy volunteers (43 men and 27 women; mean age 51.8{+-}15.1 years). Overall mean{+-}SD values for cerebral cortical regions were: CBF=44.4{+-}6.5 ml 100 ml{sup -1} min{sup -1}; CBV=3.8{+-}0.7 ml 100 ml{sup -1}; OEF=0.44{+-}0.06; CMRO{sub 2}=3.3{+-}0.5 ml 100 ml{sup -1} min{sup -1}. Significant between-centre variation was observed in CBV, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} by one-way analysis of variance. However, the overall inter-individual variation in CBF, CBV, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} was acceptably small. Building a database of normal cerebral haemodynamics obtained by the{sup 15}O-PET methods may be practicable. (orig.)

  4. A Fleet of Low-Cost Sensor Based Air Quality Monitors Is Used to Measure Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide in Two Settings: In the Ambient Environment to Explore the Regional-Scale Spatial Variability of These Compounds Via a Distributed Network, and in Homes to Investigate How Heating during Winter Months can Impact Indoor Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, J. G.; Hannigan, M.; Collier, A. M.; Coffey, E.; Piedrahita, R.

    2016-12-01

    Affordable, small, portable, quiet tools to measure atmospheric trace gases and air quality enable novel experimental design and new findings. Members of the Hannigan Lab at the University of Colorado in Boulder have been working over the last few years to integrate emerging affordable gas sensors into such an air quality monitor. Presented here are carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements from two field experiments that utilized these tools. In the first experiment, ten air quality monitors were located northeast of Boulder throughout the Denver Julesburg oil and gas basin. The Colorado Department of Health and Environment has several air quality monitoring sites in this broader region, each in an Urban center. One goal of the experiment was to determine whether or not significant spatial variability of EPA criteria pollutants like CO, exists on a sub-regulatory monitoring grid scale. Another goal of the experiment was to compare rural sampling locations with urban sites. The monitors collected continuous data (sampling every 15 seconds) at each location over the course of several months. Our sensor calibration procedures are presented along with our observations and an analysis of the spatial and temporal variability in CO and CO2. In the second experiment, we used eight of our air quality monitors to better understand how home heating fuel type can impact indoor air quality in two communities on the Navajo Nation. We sought to compare air quality in homes using one of four different fuels for heat (wood, wood plus coal, pellet, and gas). There are many factors that contribute to indoor air quality and the impact of an emission source, like a woodstove, within a home. Having multiple, easily deployable, air quality monitors allowed us to account for many of these factors. We sampled four homes at a time, aiming for one home from each of our fuel groups in each sampling period. We sampled inside and outside of each home for a period of 3-4 days

  5. Nonattainment Area - Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 - 1971)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Non-attainment and maintenance areas for the United States and its territories (NTAD). For more detailed information on this dataset, see the Overview Description in...

  6. Nonattainment Area - Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 - 1978)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Non-attainment and maintenance areas for the United States and its territories (NTAD). For more detailed information on this dataset, see the Overview Description in...

  7. Nonattainment Area - Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 - 2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Non-attainment and maintenance areas for the United States and its territories (NTAD). For more detailed information on this dataset, see the Overview Description in...

  8. Electrochemical promotion of sulfur dioxide catalytic oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrushina, Irina; Bandur, Viktor; Cappeln, Frederik Vilhelm

    2000-01-01

    investigation was to study a possible non-Faradaic electrochemical promotion of the liquid-phase catalytic reaction. It has been shown that there are two negative potential promotion areas with maximum effects at approximately -0.1 and -0.2 V, and one positive potential promotion area with the maximum effect...... between 0.1 and 0.3 V. There were no Faradaic reactions in the negative polarization region, and there was an anodic current which was less than 16% of the theoretical value for an exclusively Faradaic SO2 oxidation. Therefore the promotion effects at negative polarization are completely non-Faradaic. All...... the promotion effects have been explained as mainly due to charging of the electric double layer at the gold electrode. The effect at -0.2 V also depends on the V2O5 concentration and is more pronounced at higher V2O5 concentrations. This has been ascribed to a destruction of the vanadium polymeric chains...

  9. Sulfur Isotopic Characteristics of Coal in China and Sulfur Isotopic Fractionation during Coal—burning Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪业汤; 张鸿斌; 等

    1993-01-01

    The determined results of the sulfur contents and isotopic composition of coal samples from major coal mines in 15 provinces and regions of China show that the coal mined in the north of China is characterized by higher 34S and lower sulfur content, but that in the south of China has lower 34S and higher sulfur content.During the coal-burning process in both indrstrial and daily use of coal as fuel the released sulfur dioxide is always enriched in lighter sulfur isotope relative to the corresponding coal;the particles are always enriched in heavier sulfur isotope.The discussion on the environmental geochemical significance of the above-mentioned results also has been made.

  10. Sulfur Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  11. Temperature-dependent association between mortality rate and carbon monoxide level in a subtropical city: Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Liao, Chen-Mao

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the combined effect of temperature and air pollutant levels on daily non-accidental deaths and cardiovascular causes of mortality. In this study, associations were assessed by means of time-series analyses over the period 1995-1999 for Kaohsiung, Taiwan's largest industrial city, which has a subtropical climate. Ambient exposures to various air pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), ozone (O(3)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and particulate matter (PM(10)), were estimated from the arithmetic means of all daily measurements taken by an air quality monitoring station nearest to the residential district. Generalized additive models with non-parametric spline were used to identify associations between daily mortality and air pollutants as well as the air pollutant-temperature interaction correlation. Our findings indicate that CO is associated with increased risks of non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality. For a 0.2 ppm increase in CO, the increased relative daily risk of non-accidental death is at least 4% on the same day, when the mean temperature is above 24.8 degrees C, while the increased relative risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases is 7% two days later at 19.7 degrees C. The study also suggests a statistically significant interaction between CO concentration and daily mean temperature, with non-accidental mortality increasing with a warm outdoor temperature and the effect of CO on cardiovascular mortality being modified by a cold climate. Further reduction of CO pollution is thus deemed crucial for the benefit of public health.

  12. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert; Pickard, Paul S.; Parma, Jr., Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Gelbard, Fred; Lenard, Roger X.

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  13. Carbon monoxide formation in tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladon, R.J.; Staby, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is not emanated to any large extent from tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. cvs. Rutgers and Ohio MR-13), but is retained within the internal atmosphere. CO is found during all stages of fruit development, but no set pattern of CO concentration is evident.

  14. MOPITT Carbon Monoxide Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    MOPITT observed high levels of carbon monoxide (red and yellow pixels) over the Indian sub-continent during March. These values are associated with industrial activity in the region just south of the Himalayan Mountains. Notice that to the north, the Himalayas are characterized by low values (blue pixels).

  15. REGIONAL TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents an analysis of trends in atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO,) and particulate sulfate (SO42-) at rural monitoring sites in the Clean Air Act Status and Trends Monitoring Network (CASTNet) from 1990 to 1999. A two-stage approach is used to estimat...

  16. The Relationship Between Industrial Sulfur Dioxide Pollution and Economic Growth: An Empirical Study Based on Panel Data%二氧化硫污染与经济发展的关系:基于面板数据研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海燕

    2012-01-01

    利用我国1991--2010年的人均工业二氧化硫排放量和人均国内生产总值数据,通过建立省级面板模型。验证我国工业二氧化硫污染的环境库兹涅茨曲线是否存在.实证结果发现,我国经济发展与工业二氧化硫污染之间存在长期均衡关系,并且呈现出一种M型曲线形式.进一步联系经济发展的形势得出,M型曲线的前两个拐点是由于经济数据没有真实反映经济发展情况所产生的虚假拐点,M型曲线的最后一个拐点是否为真实的环境库兹涅茨曲线拐点还有待时间的检验.%By establishing provincial panel data model, this paper aim to confirm the industrial sulfur dioxide pollution Environmental Kuznets Cui've (EKC) with the figures of China's per capita industrial sulfilr dioxide emission and per capita GDPiGross Domestic Product) in some provinces from 1991 to 2010. The results show that the relationship between economic development and industrial sulfur dioxide pollution presents an M-shaped Khznets curve. According to economic growth situation, the first two inflection points of the M-shaded Kuznets curve are false inflection points caused by economic data's unreal reflection of econoriiic growth situation, while if the last inflection point of the M-shaped Kuznets curve is real EKC inflection point still needs time test.

  17. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  18. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, A.S. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI); Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  19. Anaesthetic properties of carbon monoxide and other gases in relation to plants, insects, and centipedes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.

    1935-01-01

    The anaesthetic effect of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, propylene, butylene, ethylene, and acetylene, when mixed with oxygen, was tested on ten different species of insects and centipedes. The lowest concentrations found to cause anaesthesia are given in per cent by volume as follows: propylene, for centipede, 30; katydid, 75; rose chafer, 60. Carbon monoxide, for centipede, 81.5; katydid, 89, rose chafer, 85. Butylene, for centipede, 5; katydid, 10; rose chafer, 40. Ethylene or acetylene, for centipede, katydid, and rose chafer, 100. Carbon dioxide, for rose chafer, 30. Ethylene was the most effective plant anaesthetic, 0.0005 per cent stopping growth movements of tomato and sunflower plants as shown by motion pictures; 0.001 per cent stopped elongation of sweet pea seedlings, while 0.00001 per cent retarded elongation nearly 50 per cent. The degree of retardation in growth from ethylene gas varied with the concentration and the plant species. Acetylene and propylene were about equally effective as plant anaesthetics. Both were approximately 10 times as effective as carbon monoxide. Mimosa pudica lost its capacity to respond to external stimuli while being exposed to 0.25 per cent of carbon monoxide, but became normal again upon being removed from the gas. 3 references, 4 tables.

  20. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are stabil

  1. Corrosion pathways in liquid sulfur run-down pits and other liquid sulfur handling facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, P.D.; Dowling, N.I.; Huang, M.

    2010-01-15

    This poster presentation explained why sulfur pits deteriorate over time and provided the detailed chemistry of the mechanisms for the deterioration of concrete in sulfur pits. Liquid and solid sulfur may build up in the pore structure of the concrete, which is followed by chemical reactions. The sulfur formation inside the concrete pore structure is catalyzed by concrete constituents. The sulfate formation in sulfur pit concrete was described. The chemical process that produces the corrosion of re-enforcing steel rods used in the construction of sulfur pits was also described. The consequence of such corrosion is the loss of structural integrity. The secondary corrosion processes at concrete pit reinforcing steel were also presented. To limit the deterioration of sulfur pit concrete, high-density silica facing should be used on the concrete to prevent the ingress of gases into the concrete. Silica does not catalyze the conversion of hydrogen disulfide and sulfur dioxide to sulfur, so there is no formation of stable sulfates and acidic intermediates. 8 figs.

  2. Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide with Carbon Monoxide over Sulfurized LaCoO3 in the Presence of Oxygen%含氧气氛下预硫化钙钛矿LaCoO3上的CO还原SO2反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾立山; 秦永宁; 马智; 齐晓舟; 丁彤; 梁珍成

    2003-01-01

    对钙钛矿LaCoO3在含氧气氛下的预硫化过程进行了研究. 结果表明,在一定含氧气氛下硫化后的LaCoO3催化剂,用于含氧气氛下CO还原SO2反应具有很高的活性. XRD物相分析结果表明,硫化后的LaCoO3仍保持钙钛矿物相结构,但同时出现新的硫化物La2O2S和氧化物Co3O4物相. 通过对硫化前后的催化剂进行O2-TPD和SO2-TPD分析,认为CO还原SO2反应机理可能是在一定的温度下,在钙钛矿LaCoO3上发生CO氧化燃烧反应,在硫化物La2O2S上发生CO还原SO2反应,两者相互促进.

  3. Method for carbon dioxide splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James E.; Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Siegel, Nathan P.

    2017-02-28

    A method for splitting carbon dioxide via a two-step metal oxide thermochemical cycle by heating a metal oxide compound selected from an iron oxide material of the general formula A.sub.xFe.sub.3-xO.sub.4, where 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1 and A is a metal selected from Mg, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, and Mn, or a ceria oxide compound of the general formula M.sub.aCe.sub.bO.sub.c, where 0dioxide, and heating to a temperature less than approximately 1400 C, thereby producing carbon monoxide gas and the original metal oxide compound.

  4. Gasification as an alternative method for the destruction of sulfur containing waste (ChemChar process)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medcalf, B.D.; Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Larsen, D.W. [Univ. of Missouri, St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-12-31

    The behavior of a non-incinerative reductive thermal cocurrent flow gasification process (ChemChar Process) when used to treat representative sulfur compounds is reported. Gasification of 2,3-benzenedisulfonic acid, thiomorpholine, and sulfuric acid converts the sulfur in these compounds to H{sub 2}S, OCS, and elemental sulfur. The H{sub 2}S and OCS are released in the synthesis with the gas product from which they can be scrubbed, with the elemental sulfur being deposited on the char matrix. No production of sulfur dioxide was detected. Gasified sulfur products recovered amounted to 89--114% of the total sulfur present in the sulfur compounds gasified, although exact mass balances could not be obtained due to the sulfur present in the char.

  5. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Murchie, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft began taking observations in September 2006 and has now collected more than a full Martian year of data. Retrievals performed using the near-infrared spectra obtained by CRISM are used to characterize the seasonal and spatial variation of the column abundance of water vapor and the column-averaged mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. CRISM retrievals show nominal behavior in water vapor during northern hemisphere spring and summer with maximum abundance reaching 50 precipitable micrometers. Water vapor abundance during the southern hemisphere spring and summer appears significantly reduced compared to observations by other instruments taken during previous years. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be 700 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations at high latitudes. The summertime near-polar carbon monoxide mixing ratio falls to 200 ppm in the south and 400 ppm in the north as carbon dioxide sublimates from the seasonal polar ice caps and dilutes noncondensable species including carbon monoxide. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure.

  6. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  7. Carbon monoxide conversion by anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and 55degreesC
    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and

  8. Problems and solutions of production technology of titanium dioxide by sulfuric acid method in facing Circular Economy Promotion Law of the People′s Republic of China%硫酸法钛白粉生产技术面临循环经济促进法存在的问题与解决办法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚家竹; 李欣

    2009-01-01

    硫酸法钛白粉生产技术,在循环经济促进法颁布施行的形势下存在诸多问题,如钛利用率低、硫酸消耗高、废副产品红石膏和硫酸亚铁产量太大难以处置、产品质量低等.针对上述问题,依据循环经济理念,提出了相应的解决办法:1)优化原料,提高钛的利用率;2)采用先进的废酸浓缩回用技术,降低硫酸的消耗;3)将红石膏转化为优良的建筑材料;4)将七水硫酸亚铁按用途、市场半径、地域特点分别利用;5)优化产品结构,提高产品质量.%There are many problems,such as low utilization rate of titanium,high consumption of sulfuric acid,difficult treatment to extra lagre amount of waste by - products of red gypsum and ferrous sulfate,and poor product quality,in production technology of titanium dioxide by sulfuric acid method in facing promulgation and implementation of Circular Economy Promotion Law of the People′s Republic of China.In allusion to above problems,corresponding solutions were put forward based on philosophy of circular economy:1)optimize raw materials and improve utilization rate of titanium;2)adopt advanced waste acid concentration and recovery technology to reduce consumption of sulfuric acid;3)convert red gypsum to excellent construction materials;4)utilize ferrous sulfate heptahydrate according to end - use,market radius,geographical region respectively;5)optimize product mix and improve product quality.

  9. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [For low sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 V olume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  10. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [High sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 Volume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  11. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrogen. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquids. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  12. 二氧化硫对大鼠离体灌注心脏心功能的影响%Effects of sulfur dioxide on cardiac function of isolated perfusion heart of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素清; 杜军保; 田悦; 耿彬; 唐朝枢; 汤秀英

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of sulfur dioxide(SO2)on cardiac function of isolated perfused heart of rat and to explore the physiological regulation of endogenous SO2 on myocardial action.Methods The hearts of 64 Wistar rats were isolated,perfused with Krebs-Henseleit(KH)solution through Langendorff apparatus,and randomly divided into 8 equal groups:Four groups underwent perfusion of SO2 of the concentrations 1、10、100、1000 μmol/L respectively for 5 min and then perfused with KH solution for 15min.Eight hearts underwent perfusion of SO2 of the physiological concentration(10 μmol/L)for 20 min.The control group underwent perfusion of KH solution for 20 min.Eight hearts of the nicardipine group underwent perfusion of nicardipine,a L-type calcium channel blocker,2.5 μmol/L for 5 min,SO2 10μmol/L for 5 min,and then KH solution for 10 min.The heart in the hydroxamate(HDX)group underwent perfuslon of HDX,an inhibitor of SO2 endogenous generating enzymes,for 5 min,and then perfused by KH solution for 15 min.The heart rate(HR),difference of left ventricular pressure(LVP),left ventricular peak rate of contraction(+dp/dtmax),peak rate of relaxation(-dp/dtmax),and coronary flow(CF)were measured.Then transmission electron microscopy was conducted.Results SO2 concentrationdependently inhibited the left ventricular ±dp/dtmax,LVP,HR,and CF(all P<0.01).The left ventricular±dp/dtmax,LVP,and HR were inhibited(P<0.05)by the physiological concentration(10μmol/L)SO2 donor continuous perfusion for 20 min.During perfusion 20 min,the LVP,+dp/dtmax,-dp/dtmax,and HR after perfusion for 20 min of the physiological concentration(10 μmol/L)SO2 donor continuous perfusion group were(15±3)mm Hg,(485±74)mm Hg/s,(339±64)mm Hg/s,and(114±26)/min respectively,all significantly lower than those 5 min after perfusion[(23±7)mm Hg,(595±93)mm Hg/s,(436±83)mm Hg/s,and(159±31)/min,all P<0.05].The LVP,+do/dtmax,-do/dtmax,and HR of the nicardipine group were(37±10)rfun Hg,(1025

  13. The Carbon Monoxide Tape Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Filipiak, M.

    2006-01-01

    Using Aura MLS data we have identified the stratospheric tape recorder in carbon monoxide (CO). Unlike the water vapor tape recorder, which is controlled by upper troposphere processes, the CO tape recorder is linked to seasonal biomass burning. Since CO has a lifetime of only a few months, the CO tape recorder barely extends above 20 km. The tape head for CO appears to be close to 360K near the same location as the water vapor tape head [Read et al, 20041. Both tape heads are below the equatorial cold point tropopause but above the base of the tropical tropopause layer. The tape recorder signal becomes more distinct from 360K to 380K suggesting that convective detrainment of plays a decreasingly important role with altitude. The Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model forced by the climatology of biomass burning reproduces the CO tape recorder.

  14. Biotransformation of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in stack gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, R.; Puligadda, R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Bishop, D.F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Nation`s large supply of high sulfur coal and increasingly stringent emission regulation led to priority development of advanced innovative processes for treating pollutants in flue gases from coal combustion. The principal pollutants in flue gases, sulfur oxides (SO{sub 2},SO{sub 3}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) cause acid rain. Thus, the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Program is funding projects to commercialize technologies that minimize emission of sulfur and nitrogen oxides at power plants. This report describes the controlled use of bioconversion processes to remove the oxides from flue gas. Two bioreactor experiments were conducted to investigate the removal of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide from stack gases.

  15. Engineering evidence for carbon monoxide toxicity cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatsis, Kosmas

    2016-07-01

    Unintentional carbon monoxide poisonings and fatalities lead to many toxicity cases. Given the unusual physical properties of carbon monoxide-in that the gas is odorless and invisible-unorganized and erroneous methods in obtaining engineering evidence as required during the discovery process often occurs. Such evidence gathering spans domains that include building construction, appliance installation, industrial hygiene, mechanical engineering, combustion and physics. In this paper, we attempt to place a systematic framework that is relevant to key aspects in engineering evidence gathering for unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning cases. Such a framework aims to increase awareness of this process and relevant issues to help guide legal counsel and expert witnesses.

  16. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  17. Carbon dioxide elimination and regeneration of resources in a microwave plasma torch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Han S; Kwak, Hyoung S; Hong, Yong C

    2016-04-01

    Carbon dioxide gas as a working gas produces a stable plasma-torch by making use of 2.45 GHz microwaves. The temperature of the torch flame is measured by making use of optical spectroscopy and a thermocouple device. Two distinctive regions are exhibited, a bright, whitish region of a high-temperature zone and a bluish, dimmer region of a relatively low-temperature zone. The bright, whitish region is a typical torch based on plasma species where an analytical investigation indicates dissociation of a substantial fraction of carbon dioxide molecules, forming carbon monoxides and oxygen atoms. The emission profiles of the oxygen atoms and the carbon monoxide molecules confirm the theoretical predictions of carbon dioxide disintegration in the torch. Various hydrocarbon materials may be introduced into the carbon dioxide torch, regenerating new resources and reducing carbon dioxide concentration in the torch. As an example, coal powders in the carbon dioxide torch are converted into carbon monoxide according to the reaction of CO2 + C → 2CO, reducing a substantial amount of carbon dioxide concentration in the torch. In this regards, the microwave plasma torch may be one of the best ways of converting the carbon dioxides into useful new materials.

  18. Visual and reversible carbon dioxide sensing enabled by doctor blade coated macroporous photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Han; Suen, Shing-Yi; Yang, Hongta

    2017-11-15

    With significant impacts of carbon dioxide on global climate change, carbon dioxide sensing is of great importance. However, most of the existing sensing technologies are prone to interferences from carbon monoxide, or suffer from the use of sophisticated instruments. This research reports the development of reproducible carbon dioxide sensor using roll-to-roll compatible doctor blade coated three-dimensional macroporous photonic crystals. The pores are functionalized with amine groups to allow the reaction with carbon dioxide in the presence of humidity. The adsorption of carbon dioxide leads to red-shift and amplitude reduction of the optical stop bands, resulting in carbon dioxide detection with visible readout. The dependences of the diffraction wavelength on carbon dioxide partial pressure for various amine-functionalized photonic crystals and different humidities in the environment are systematically investigated. In addition, the reproducibility of carbon dioxide sensing has also been demonstrated in this research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Method and apparatus for producing chlorine dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillie, P.W.; Ramras, D.M.

    1984-05-29

    A continuous method and apparatus are described for the efficient production of gaseous chlorine dioxide by the reaction between gaseous sulfur dioxide and an aqueous solution of a metallic chlorate. The chlorate solution and a highly concentrated sulfur dioxide gas are introduced into a packed columnar chamber at closely adjacent locations at the bottom of the chamber so as to flood the chamber and maximize both the contact area and contact time of the two reactants. Throughout the reaction the chamber is subjected to high vacuum imposed by an eductor which exhausts the chlorine dioxide gas and spent reactants. For use of the chlorine dioxide to produce potable water or treat foodstuffs, the chlorine dioxide and spent reactants are exhausted from the chamber separately by respective eductors substantially balanced with respect to each other to impose comparable vacuums upon the chamber. Because of the high efficency of the reaction, substantial heat is generated therefrom which is absorbed by a coolant flowing through a jacket surrounding the chamber. The flow rate of the coolant and flow rate of the reactants into the chamber are porportional due to the dependency of the reactant flow rate on the coolant flow rate.

  20. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  1. Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 11/20/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 12/4/2007.

  2. Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.; Molton, P.M.; Li, C.T.; Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1977-11-01

    Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization of CO in the synthesis of ammonia and methanol are included. Preliminary technical and economic feasibility studies were made of producing ammonia and methanol from the by-product CO produced by a typical elemental phosphorus plant. Methanol synthesis appears to be more attractive than ammonia synthesis when using CO feedstock because of reduced water gas shift and carbon dioxide removal requirements. The economic studies indicate that methanol synthesis from CO appears to be competitive with conventional technology when the price of natural gas exceeds $0.82/million Btu, while ammonia synthesis from CO is probably not competitive until the price of natural gas exceeds $1.90/million Btu. It is concluded that there appears to be considerable potential for energy conservation in the chemical industry, by collecting CO rather than flaring it, and using it to make major chemicals such as ammonia and methanol.

  3. Electricity generation from carbon monoxide and syngas in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abid; Guiot, Serge R; Mehta, Punita; Raghavan, Vijaya; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2011-05-01

    Electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been a subject of significant research efforts. MFCs employ the ability of electricigenic bacteria to oxidize organic substrates using an electrode as an electron acceptor. While MFC application for electricity production from a variety of organic sources has been demonstrated, very little research on electricity production from carbon monoxide and synthesis gas (syngas) in an MFC has been reported. Although most of the syngas today is produced from non-renewable sources, syngas production from renewable biomass or poorly degradable organic matter makes energy generation from syngas a sustainable process, which combines energy production with the reprocessing of solid wastes. An MFC-based process of syngas conversion to electricity might offer a number of advantages such as high Coulombic efficiency and biocatalytic activity in the presence of carbon monoxide and sulfur components. This paper presents a discussion on microorganisms and reactor designs that can be used for operating an MFC on syngas.

  4. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    wong, bunsen

    2014-11-20

    This project investigates the engineering and economic feasibility of supplying baseload power using a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with sulfur based thermochemical heat storage. The technology stores high temperature solar heat in the chemical bonds of elemental sulfur. Energy is recovered as high temperature heat upon sulfur combustion. Extensive developmental and design work associated with sulfur dioxide (SO2) disproportionation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition chemical reactions used in this technology had been carried out in the two completed phases of this project. The feasibility and economics of the proposed concept was demonstrated and determined.

  5. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Bunsen [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This project investigates the engineering and economic feasibility of supplying baseload power using a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with sulfur based thermochemical heat storage. The technology stores high temperature solar heat in the chemical bonds of elemental sulfur. Energy is recovered as high temperature heat upon sulfur combustion. Extensive developmental and design work associated with sulfur dioxide (SO2) disproportionation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition chemical reactions used in this technology had been carried out in the two completed phases of this project. The feasibility and economics of the proposed concept was demonstrated and determined.

  6. Integrated electricity and carbon monoxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, J.

    1994-03-23

    In a process for the production of carbon monoxide and electric power in an IGCC with the removal of sulphur compounds, between the outlet of quenched gas from a partial oxidation unit and a fuel inlet to a combined cycle gas turbine there is a permeable membrane unit to separate a non-permeable stream, which is utilised as a source of carbon monoxide, and a permeate stream, which is used as fuel for the gas turbine of the combined cycle unit. (author)

  7. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup.

  8. Anthropogenic emissions of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen into the atmosphere of the former Soviet Union in 1985 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryaboshapko, A.G.; Brukhanov, P.A.; Gromov, S.A.; Proshina, Yu.V; Afinogenova, O.G. [Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-09-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen over the former Soviet Union for 1985 and 1990 were calculated on the basis of a combination of `bottom-up` and `top-down` approaches. Sulfur dioxide emissions from combustion of hard coal, brown coal, oil products, natural gas, shale oil, peat, wood as well as from metallurgy, sulfuric acid production, and cement production were estimated. Nitrogen oxides emissions were considered separately for large power plants, small power plants, industrial boilers, residential combustion units, and for transport. The sulfur and nitrogen emissions were spatially distributed over the former Soviet Union with 1 x 1 degree resolution. Data on 721 point sources of sulfur dioxide emissions and on the 242 largest power stations as nitrogen oxides sources were used. The area sources of both sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were distributed according to the population density separately for about 150 administrative units of the former Soviet Union. 63 refs., 19 tabs.

  9. The audit practice of sulfur dioxide reductions in the context of energy saving and reduction ——-the power industry as an object%节能减排背景下的主要污染物二氧化硫减排量审计实践——以电力行业为对象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭升

    2011-01-01

    The theory of environmental auditing has been introduced to China since 1995, after more than ten years of practice and exploration, this theory has been widely carried out throughout the country currentrly, in promotion of philosophy of the environmental audits diversity, the environmental audit has penetrated into almost all categories of government audit , such as financial , finance and fixed assets. At the same time, environmental audit has also developed in depth direction, and even get involved in energy conservation which is highly professional and the audit area had no theoretical guidance and practical experience before, after participating in the two energy saving audits ( survey) ,author selects the electricity industry which its sulfur dioxide emissions account for more than 60% in the overall sulfur dioxide emissions as a research subject and makes into an article of audit practice to fill the gaps of environmental theory. This paper is also benefit to the audit practice.%环境审计理论研究自1995年引入我国以来,在经历了十多年的实践探索后,目前已在全国范围内广泛开展,在元化环境审计多理念的推动下,环境审计已渗透到了涵盖财政、金融、固定资产投资等几乎所有类别的政府审计。与此同时,环境审计也向纵深方向发展,甚至涉足节能减排这一极具专业性、且此前没有任何审计理论指导和实践经验的领域,作者正是在参与了两次的节能减排审计(调查)后,以二氧化硫排放量占比超过60%的电力行业为研究对象,对主要污染物二氧化硫间排量审计实践整理成文,以期填补环境理论研究的一方空白并对审计实践有所裨益。

  10. Simulated effects of sulfur deposition on nutrient cycling in class I wilderness areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Dale W. Johnson; William T. Swank; William Jackson

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of human land use, population growth, and industrialization, wilderness and other natural areas can be threatened by air pollution, climate change, and exotic diseases or pests. Air pollution in the form of acidic deposition is comprised of sulfuric and nitric acids and ammonium derived from emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia....

  11. Synthesis gas demonstration plant program, Phase I. Trade-off study VI, by-product sales analysis. Part 1. Sulfur recovery system. Part 2. Carbon dioxide, fly ash, bottom ash and slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop and analyze information to facilitate decision making in regard to by-products from the Commercial Plant. Part 1 of the study investigated the alternative marketing and commercial advantages of producing elemental sulfur or sulfuric acid, the findings to be used with results of a technical and economic analysis to determine the relative desirability of choosing either as a by-product. The principal commercial and marketing input for this portion of the study were provided by review of authoritative published material and by personnel interviews with government, trade association and commercial information sources, including a limited number of major consumers and producers. Compilation and analysis of statistical data and knowledgeable opinions on the following were included: production and consumption trends and future outlook; levels of current and expected future prices; end-use trends and outlook for new uses; geographic consumption patterns; export market and outlook for foreign sales; and other factors related to the present and future supply and demand and effective marketing of the by-products. Technical data were obtained from the commercial suppliers of the processes involved, supplemented by information from producers of the by-products under consideration. The predicted composition and quantity of all gaseous waste streams were used for investigation of by-product potential. Capital investment and operating costs to produce the saleable by-products investigated were developed for each production alternative considered. Operating profits were determined and comparative figures were calculated for net cash flow and return on investment.

  12. The Formation of Ethane from Carbon Dioxide under Cold Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Pulsed-corona plasma has been used as a new method for ethane dehydrogenation at low temperature and normal pressure using carbon dioxide as an oxidant in this paper. The effect of carbon dioxide content in the feed, power input, and flow rate of the reactants on the ethane dehydrogenation has been investigated. The experimental results show that the conversion of ethane increases with the increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the feed. The yield of ethylene and acetylene decreases with the increase in the yield of carbon monoxide, indicating that the increased carbon dioxide leads to the part of ethylene and acetylene being oxidized to carbon monoxide. Power input is primarily an electrical parameter in pulsed-corona plasma, which plays an important role in reactant conversion and product formation. When the power input reaches 16 W, ethane conversion is 41.0% and carbon dioxide conversion is 26.3%. The total yield of ethylene and acetylene is 15.6%. The reduced flow rate of feed improves the conversion of ethane,carbon dioxide and the yield of acetylene, and induces carbon deposit as well.

  13. Effects of sulfur oxides on eicosanoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.C.; Miller, P.D.; Amdur, M.O. (New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Ultrafine metal oxides and SO2 react during coal combustion or smelting operations to form primary emissions coated with an acidic SOx layer. Ongoing work in this laboratory has examined the effects of sulfur oxides on pulmonary functions of guinea pigs. We have previously reported that 20 micrograms/m3 acidic sulfur oxide as a surface layer on ultrafine ZnO particles decreases lung volumes, decreases carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, and causes lung inflammation in guinea pigs after 4 daily 3-h exposures. It also produces bronchial hypersensitivity following a single 1-h exposure. The importance of this surface layer is demonstrated by our observation that 200 micrograms/m3 of sulfuric acid droplets of equivalent size are needed to produce the same degree of hypersensitivity. This study characterized the concentration-dependent effects of in vivo exposures to sulfur oxides on arachidonic acid metabolism in the guinea pig lung, and investigated the time course and the relation between eicosanoid composition and pulmonary functions. We focused specifically on four cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, that is, prostaglandins (PG) E1, F2 alpha, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, and thromboxane (Tx) B2, and two groups of sulfidopeptide leukotrienes (C4, D4, E4, and F4). Guinea pigs were exposed to ultrafine ZnO aerosol (count median diameter = 0.05 microns, sigma g = 1.80) with a layer of acidic sulfur oxide on the surface of the particles. Lung lavage was collected after exposures, and the levels of arachidonic acid metabolites were determined using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Concentration-dependent promotion of PGF2 alpha and concentration-dependent suppression of LtB4 were observed. The increased PGF2 alpha was associated with depressed vital capacity and diffusing capacity of the lungs measured in guinea pigs exposed to the same atmosphere described in a previous study.

  14. Controls on the microbial utilization of carbon monoxide and formic acid in Acidic Hydrothermal Springs in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschel, M.; Kubo, M. W.; Hoehler, T. M.; Boyd, E. S.; Peters, J.

    2012-12-01

    In hydrothermal systems, dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) in the presence of reduced iron-bearing minerals, such as those found in basalt, can be reduced to form formic acid (HCOOH). HCOOH can then be dehydrated in a side reaction, resulting in the generation of carbon monoxide (CO), which forms an equilibrium with HCOOH. HCOOH can also be further reduced to methane, and longer chain hydrocarbons. Geochemical measurements have demonstrated the presence of elevated concentrations of HCOOH, dissolved CO, and dissolved inorganic carbon (CO2, H2CO3), in high temperature, low pH springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Likewise, a number of compounds that could potentially serve as electron acceptors (e.g. S0, SO42-, NO3-, Fe3+) in the oxidation of CO or formic acid have been detected in many of these systems. We hypothesized that the utilization of CO and HCOOH as carbon and/or energy sources is a broadly-distributed metabolic strategy in high temperature, low pH springs in YNP. To test this hypothesis, radiolabeled CO (14CO) and HCOOH (H14COOH) were used to determine rates of CO and formate oxidation activity in three hot springs in YNP ranging in temperature from 53 °C to 89 °C and pH from 2.5 to 5.3. In parallel, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and enrichment isolation techniques were employed to identify the microorganisms responsible for these activities. Our results indicate that CO and HCOOH are important sources of carbon and/or energy in high temperature, low pH hydrothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park. Rates of CO oxidation appear to be orders of magnitude lower than those of HCOOH oxidation. One possible explanation for this result is that HCOOH is preferentially utilized, consistent with thermodynamic calculations indicating that HCOOH liberates approximately 215 kJ/mol more Gibbs energy (under standard conditions) than CO when oxidized with oxygen (O2) as the electron acceptor. Redox couples of HCOOH oxidation with other electron acceptors (e.g. SO4

  15. 三重串联四极杆电感耦合等离子体质谱法 测定植源性中药材中总硫含量%Determination of Total Sulfur Dioxide in Chinese Herbal Medicines via Triple Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓伟; 刘景富; 关红; 王小艳; 邵兵; 张晶; 刘丽萍; 张妮娜

    2016-01-01

    As an important treatment method ,sulfur fumigation plays an essential role in the production and preservation of traditional Chinese herbal medicines .Although there is strict regulation on the use of sulfur dioxide ,the abuse of sulfur dioxide still occurred from time to time .And the public faces a high risk of exposure .Because of the poor precision and tedious prepara-tion procedures of traditional recommended titration ,the accurate and convenient determination of sulfur dioxide in Chinese herb-al medicines is still a critical analytical task for medicines safety and the public health .In this study ,an accurate ,high-through-put ,and convenient method for the absolute determination of SO2 in Chinese herbal medicines based on triple quadrupole induc-tively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) technique is developed .The study compared the quantitative ability for sulfur when the ICP-MS operated under traditional single quadrupole (QMS) mode and novel triple quadrupole (MS/MS) mode with three Reaction/Collision cell condition (no gas ,helium ,and oxygen) .The result indicated that when the concentration of sulfate ranging from 0 .5 to 100 mg · L -1 ,isotopic 34 S can be selected as quantitative ion either the ICP-MS operated under the QMS mode or MS/MS mode .The use of helium in the Reaction/Collision cell decreased the single intensity of background ions . Better than QMS mode ,the MS/MS mode can effectively reduced background interference .But there are no significant differ-ences about the linear range and limit of detection .However ,when the ICP-MS operated under MS/MS mode and oxygen was used as reaction gas in the Reaction/Collision cell ,the ICP-MS/MS provided an interference-free performance ,the linear range and limit of detection improved significantly .Either 32S or 34S exhibits an excellent linearity (r>0.999) over the concentration range of 0 .02~100 mg · L -1 ,with a limit of detection of 5.48 and 9.76 μg · L -1 for 32S16O2 -4 and 34

  16. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  17. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... regenerator any gases that contain carbon monoxide (CO) in excess of 500 ppm by volume (dry basis)....

  18. [Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  19. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH CARBON MONOXIDE Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Recommendations NIOSH Publications Worker Notification Program Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines Many ...

  20. SULPHUR DIOXIDE LEACHING OF URANIUM CONTAINING MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunaes, A.; Rabbits, F.T.; Hester, K.D.; Smith, H.W.

    1958-12-01

    A process is described for extracting uranlum from uranium containing material, such as a low grade pitchblende ore, or mill taillngs, where at least part of the uraniunn is in the +4 oxidation state. After comminuting and magnetically removing any entrained lron particles the general material is made up as an aqueous slurry containing added ferric and manganese salts and treated with sulfur dioxide and aeration to an extent sufficient to form a proportion of oxysulfur acids to give a pH of about 1 to 2 but insufficient to cause excessive removal of the sulfur dioxide gas. After separating from the solids, the leach solution is adjusted to a pH of about 1.25, then treated with metallic iron in the presence of a precipitant such as a soluble phosphate, arsonate, or fluoride.

  1. Photodissociation of carbon dioxide in the Mars upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Calculation of the intensity of two of the emissions produced during the dissociative excitation of carbon dioxide in the upper atmosphere of Mars by solar ultraviolet radiation. The calculation tangential column emission rates of the atomic oxygen 2972-A line and the carbon monoxide Cameron bands produced by the photodissociative mechanism are found to be factors of 3 and 10, respectively, smaller than the emission rates observed by Mariner ultraviolet spectrometers.

  2. Regeneration of oxygen from carbon dioxide and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbart, J.; Smart, W. H.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    In a closed ecological system it is necessary to reclaim most of the oxygen required for breathing from respired carbon dioxide and the remainder from waste water. One of the advanced physicochemical systems being developed for generating oxygen in manned spacecraft is the solid electrolyte-electrolysis system. The solid electrolyte system consists of two basic units, an electrolyzer and a carbon monoxide disproportionator. The electrolyzer can reclaim oxygen from both carbon dioxide and water. Electrolyzer preparation and assembly are discussed together with questions of reactor design and electrolyzer performance data.

  3. Regeneration of oxygen from carbon dioxide and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbart, J.; Smart, W. H.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    In a closed ecological system it is necessary to reclaim most of the oxygen required for breathing from respired carbon dioxide and the remainder from waste water. One of the advanced physicochemical systems being developed for generating oxygen in manned spacecraft is the solid electrolyte-electrolysis system. The solid electrolyte system consists of two basic units, an electrolyzer and a carbon monoxide disproportionator. The electrolyzer can reclaim oxygen from both carbon dioxide and water. Electrolyzer preparation and assembly are discussed together with questions of reactor design and electrolyzer performance data.

  4. Well materials durability in case of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide geological sequestration; Durabilite des materiaux de puits petroliers dans le cadre d'une sequestration geologique de dioxyde de carbone et d'hydrogene sulfure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquemet, N

    2006-01-15

    The geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) is a promising solution for the long-term storage of these undesirable gases. It consists in injecting them via wells into deep geological reservoirs. The steel and cement employed in the well casing can be altered and provide pathways for leakage with subsequent human and environmental consequences. The materials ageing was investigated by laboratory experiments in geologically relevant P-T conditions. A new experimental and analysis procedure was designed for this purpose. A numerical approach was also done. The cement and steel were altered in various fluid phases at 500 bar-120 C and 500 bar-200 C: a brine, a brine saturated with H{sub 2}S-CO{sub 2}, a mixture of brine saturated with H{sub 2}S-CO{sub 2} and of supercritical H{sub 2}S-CO{sub 2} phase, a dry supercritical H{sub 2}S-CO{sub 2} phase without liquid water. In all cases, two distinct reactions are observed: the cement carbonation by the CO{sub 2} and the steel sulfidation by the H{sub 2}S. The carbonation and sulfidation are respectively maximal and minimal when they occur within the dry supercritical phase without liquid water. The textural and porosity properties of the cement are weakly affected by all the treatments at 120 C. The porosity even decreases in presence of H{sub 2}S-CO{sub 2}. But these properties are affected at 200 C when liquid water is present in the system. At this temperature, the initial properties are only preserved or improved by the treatments within the dry supercritical phase. The steel is corroded in all cases and thus is the vulnerable material of the wells. (author)

  5. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb...

  6. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...

  7. Indoor Air Quality in Schools (IAQ): The Importance of Monitoring Carbon Dioxide Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundersingh, David; Bearg, David W.

    This article highlights indoor air quality and exposure to pollutants at school. Typical air pollutants within schools include environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, allergens, pathogens, radon, pesticides, lead, and dust. Inadequate ventilation, inefficient…

  8. Development and Test Operation of a Demonstration Plant for Sulfuric Acid Splitting at the DLR Concentrating Solar Power Tower Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Thomey, Dennis; Streber, Hans-Peter; Guerra-Niehoff, Alejandro; Romero, Moises; Lapp, Justin; Roeb, Martin; Sattler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Sulfuric acid splitting is a key step of the hybrid sulfur cycle (HyS) for solar thermochemical hydrogen production. This exothermal reaction can be divided into two steps: firstly, the evaporation of liquid sulfuric acid (H2SO4) at about 400 °C forming sulfur trioxide (SO3), and secondly, the decomposition of SO3 to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxygen (O2) at 800 – 1000 °C. While the first sub-reaction has fast kinetics, the second one is rather slow and requires the introduction of ...

  9. Influência do dióxido de enxofre e cultivares de videira na formação de alguns compostos voláteis e na qualidade sensorial do destilado de vinho Influence of sulfur dioxide and grape varieties at the formation of some volatile compounds and at the sensory quality of the wine distillate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio SALTON

    2000-12-01

    distillates was accomplished by the sensory group of EMBRAPA Uva e Vinho. The results showed that the sulfur dioxide helped the formation of ethanal in the grape varieties studied. It was also observed an increase in the fusel oil fraction due to the sulfur dioxide, except for the distillate of the Isabel grape variety. It was showed also that the Isabel’s distillated had a higher fraction of methanol and lower of 1-propanol, possibly due to the vinification process. The Isabel distillate together with the Couderc 13 distillate, showed a lower fraction of 2-methyl-1-propanol and a lower fraction of 3-methyl-1-butanol and the fusel oil fraction as compared with the other distillates. The distillate of Trebbiano presented a higher fraction of 2-methyl-1-propanol and together with the Herbemont distillate a higher fraction of 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol and fusel oil. The sensory evaluation showed that the SO2 had an influence in the aroma, taste and in the general quality of the Herbemont and Trebbiano distillates. The Herbemont distillate was characterized by presenting a lower aroma, taste and general quality. It presented, also, negativelly the highest score for undesirable aroma and taste.

  10. 氯化铁对高硫石油焦-CO2气化的催化作用%Catalytic Activity of Ferric Chloride for High-Sulfur Petroleum Coke-Carbon Dioxide Gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡启静; 周志杰; 刘鑫; 于广锁

    2012-01-01

    以FeCl3为催化剂,采用热天平考察了FeCl3添加量、气化温度、FeCl3添加方法对高硫石油焦-CO2气化反应转化率和气化反应速率的影响,采用4种动力学模型对石油焦-CO2催化气化动力学曲线进行拟合,并对石油焦催化气化残渣进行XRD分析.结果表明,高硫石油焦催化气化反应速率随气化温度、FeCl3添加量的增加而增大,随转化率的增加而减小,与非催化石油焦气化的单峰动力学曲线不同;采用离子交换法添加FeCl3比采用浸渍法的催化气化效果好.FeCl3催化石油焦-CO2气化反应初始阶段,铁主要以Fe3C形式存在,随着反应的进行大部分Fe3C与石油焦中的S结合形成FeS,导致催化剂活性降低.4种动力学模型拟合结果表明,随机孔模型效果最好,相关系数在0.96以上.%FeCl3 was used as a catalyst for high-sulfur petroleum coke-CO2 gasification. The gasification reactivity of petroleum coke with different FeCl3 loadings and loading methods was examined by using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Four kinetic models were used to fit the kinetic curve for catalytic gasification of petroleum coke. The residue of catalytic petroleum coke-CO2 gasification was analyzed by XRD. The results showed that the gasification rate of petroleum coke increased with increase of FeCl3 loadings within the experiment range, and decreased with the increase of conversion in whole course of catalytic gasification, which is different from the single-peak kinetic curve of non-catalytic petroleum coke-CO2 gasification. In catalytic petroleum coke-CO2 gasification, the catalytic activity of FeCl3 loaded by ion exchange method was higher than that by impregnation method. At the initial stage of gasification the precipitated iron existed as Fe3C, which quickly reacted with S in petroleum coke to form FeS, leading to the catalytic activity loss. The random pore model described well the kinetic curve for catalytic gasification of petroleum coke

  11. Impact of sulfate nutrition on the utilization of atmospheric SO2 as sulfur source for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping; Stulen, I.; De Kok, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) to utilize atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) as sulfur (S) source for growth was investigated in relation to root sulfate (SO42-) nutrition. If seedlings of Chinese cabbage were transferred to a sulfate-deprived nutrient solution directly after ger

  12. Sulfur recovery further improved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsboom, J.; Grinsven, M. van; Warners, A. van [Jacobs Nederland B.V., (Netherlands); Nisselrooy, P. van [Gastec N.V., (Netherlands)

    2002-04-01

    The original 100-year-old Claus process for producing sulfur from hydrogen sulfide in acid gas is described together with improvements which have been made over the years. The most recent modification, EUROCLAUS, achieves sulfur recoveries of 99-99.9 per cent. Five commercial units are being designed.

  13. Interaction and reactivity of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide on ruthenium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, E.E.

    1980-03-01

    A multifaceted investigation of the reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide using a ruthenium (102) single crystal catalyst in the pressure range 10/sup -3/ to 10 Torr and temperature range of 300 to 475/sup 0/C has been undertaken. Kinetic and isotopic results indicate that the reaction products CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ were produced via two reaction mechanisms. Using a reducing gas mixture (low P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) a two site mechanism was operative involving NO dissociation. The carbon monoxide kinetic order varied from +1 to -3 and the nitric oxide order varied from +1 to 0. The catalyst under these conditions was determined to be metallic ruthenium with oxygen bonded within the first surface layer. The oxygen was unreactive and formed a (1 x 3)-0 LEED pattern. Under oxidizing conditions (high P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) the catalyst was ruthenium dioxide and the functional mechanism under these reaction conditions yielded a nitric oxide order of +2 to -4. Inclusion of a site poisoning mechanism under reducing conditions and an RuO/sub 2/ growth mechanism involving ruthenium cation transfer under oxidizing conditions into the kinetic rate laws led to an overall rate law which could be fit to the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide order plots. Using isotopically oxygen labelled reactants, it was observed that the three possible isotopes of carbon dioxide were produced. A ..gamma..-CO surface species is postulated as an intermediate in the exchange process. The reaction was observed to be initially surface structure insensitive and the reaction kinetics were derived using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism.

  14. Nanostructured sulfur cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Sulfur Fixation by Chemically Modified Red Mud Samples Containing Inorganic Additives: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur retention ability of Bayer red mud from alumina plant was investigated. Bayer red mud modified by fusel salt and waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide as the main sulfur fixation agent and the calcium based natural mineral materials as servicing additives; the experimental results showed the following: (1 Through 10 wt% waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide modifying Bayer red mud, sulfur fixation rate can increase by 13 wt%. (2 Magnesium oxide can obviously improve the sulfur fixation performance of Bayer red mud and up to a maximum sulfur fixation rate of 47 wt% at adding 1 wt% magnesium oxide. (3 Dolomite enhanced the sulfur fixation performances with the sulfur fixation rate of 68 wt% in optimized condition. (4 Vermiculite dust reduced sulfur dioxide during the fixed-sulfur process of modified Bayer red mud, and the desulphurization ration could reach up to a maximum 76 wt% at 950°C. (5 An advanced three-component sulfur fixation agent was investigated, in which the optimized mass ratio of modified Bayer red mud, dolomite, and vermiculite dust was 70 : 28 : 2 in order, and its sulfur fixation efficiency has reached to a maximum 87 wt% under its 20 wt% dosage in the coal.

  16. Legume adaptation to sulfur deficiency revealed by comparing nutrient allocation and seed traits in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Hélène; Poignavent, Germain; Le Signor, Christine; Aimé, Delphine; Vieren, Eric; Tadla, Charlène; Lugan, Raphaël; Belghazi, Maya; Labas, Valérie; Santoni, Anne-Lise; Wipf, Daniel; Buitink, Julia; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Salon, Christophe; Gallardo, Karine

    2013-12-01

    Reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions and the use of sulfur-free mineral fertilizers are decreasing soil sulfur levels and threaten the adequate fertilization of most crops. To provide knowledge regarding legume adaptation to sulfur restriction, we subjected Medicago truncatula, a model legume species, to sulfur deficiency at various developmental stages, and compared the yield, nutrient allocation and seed traits. This comparative analysis revealed that sulfur deficiency at the mid-vegetative stage decreased yield and altered the allocation of nitrogen and carbon to seeds, leading to reduced levels of major oligosaccharides in mature seeds, whose germination was dramatically affected. In contrast, during the reproductive period, sulfur deficiency had little influence on yield and nutrient allocation, but the seeds germinated slowly and were characterized by low levels of a biotinylated protein, a putative indicator of germination vigor that has not been previously related to sulfur nutrition. Significantly, plants deprived of sulfur at an intermediary stage (flowering) adapted well by remobilizing nutrients from source organs to seeds, ensuring adequate quantities of carbon and nitrogen in seeds. This efficient remobilization of photosynthates may be explained by vacuolar sulfate efflux to maintain leaf metabolism throughout reproductive growth, as suggested by transcript and metabolite profiling. The seeds from these plants, deprived of sulfur at the floral transition, contained normal levels of major oligosaccharides but their germination was delayed, consistent with low levels of sucrose and the glycolytic enzymes required to restart seed metabolism during imbibition. Overall, our findings provide an integrative view of the legume response to sulfur deficiency.

  17. Photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortschak, H.P.; Nickell, L.G.

    1973-01-01

    The photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane was studied to determine whether substantial quantities of CO are removed from the air by fields in Hawaii. Leaves metabolized low CO concentrations photosynthetically, with sucrose as an end product. Rates of uptake were of the order of 10/sup -4/ power mg/d sq m/hr. This was to low to be significant in removing CO from the atmosphere.

  18. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Pillion

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

  19. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain. This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks. Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  20. PENTACARBON DIOXIDE (C{sub 5}O{sub 2}) FORMATION AND ITS ROLE AS A TRACER OF SOLAR SYSTEM EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Förstel, Marko; Maksyutenko, Pavlo; Kaiser, Ralf I. [W. M. Keck Research Laboratory in Astrochemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI 96822 (United States); Mebel, Alexander M., E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33193 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    Carbon monoxide is the second most abundant molecule on icy grains in the interstellar medium. These grains are under the influence of ionizing radiation, which induces the chemical reaction within the ice. Here we report the first observation of subliming pentacarbon dioxide (C{sub 5}O{sub 2}) after irradiation of pure carbon monoxide ice with energetic electrons. Our results show that pentacarbon dioxide is a stable reaction product in a carbon monoxide matrix that survives the sublimation in star-forming regions at sublimation temperatures of 175 K. Along with carbon suboxide (C{sub 3}O{sub 2}), this molecule can serve as a powerful tracer of the temperature history of formerly carbon monoxide rich ices in molecular clouds and star-forming regions.

  1. Cytoplasmic sulfur trafficking in sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    Persulfide groups are chemically versatile and participate in a wide array of biochemical pathways. Although it is well documented that persulfurated proteins supply a number of important and elaborate biosynthetic pathways with sulfane sulfur, it is far less acknowledged that the enzymatic generation of persulfidic sulfur, the successive transfer of sulfur as a persulfide between multiple proteins, and the oxidation of sulfane sulfur in protein-bound form are also essential steps during dissimilatory sulfur oxidation in bacteria and archaea. Here, the currently available information on sulfur trafficking in sulfur oxidizing prokaryotes is reviewed, and the idea is discussed that sulfur is always presented to cytoplasmic oxidizing enzymes in a protein-bound form, thus preventing the occurrence of free sulfide inside of the prokaryotic cell. Thus, sulfur trafficking emerges as a central element in sulfur-oxidizing pathways, and TusA homologous proteins appear to be central and common elements in these processes.

  2. Chemistry of sulfur oxides on transition metal surfaces: a bond order conservation-Morse potential modeling perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Harrell; Shustorovich, Evgeny

    1996-06-01

    We have employed the bond order conservation-Morse potential (BOC-MP) method to analyze the chemistry of sulfur oxides on the copper and nickel group metals. Specifically, we have calculated the reaction energetics (heats of adsorption, reaction enthalpies and intrinsic activation barriers) of the decomposition and oxidation of sulfur dioxide at low coverages on fcc (111) surfaces of Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd and Pt. The accuracy of the BOC-MP heats of adsorption has been corroborated by high quality ab initio calculations of the heats of SO2 adsorption on Ag and Pd surfaces. We have addressed the following issues: (1) the dissociation of SO2; (2) the stability of adsorbed SO and its likelihood of being a product of SO2 decomposition; (3) the oxidation of SO2; and, (4) the nature of adsorbed SO3 and SO4. The major model projections (obtained for low coverages and without considering diffusional effects) are: (1) the dissociation of SO2→SO + O is unfavorable on all the metals considered, but, the dissociation of SO2→S + O + O, showing distinct periodic trends, is feasible on Cu and particularly on Ni; in the presence of carbon monoxide the dissociation, SO2 + CO→S + O + CO2, may occur on all the metals examined; (2) on the Pt, Pd, Ni and Cu surfaces, SO is unstable; (3) the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 may be achieved with O, O2, H2O2 and NO as oxygen sources on Ag, Au, Pd and Pt surfaces. Although adsorbed SO3 may be readily obtained, it may be impossible to desorb SO3 intact at low coverages because SO3 will decompose to SO2 + O before desorption. (4) The most stable oxygen sulfur specie that withstands elevated temperatures should be dianion sulfate. The relevant experimental data have been discussed. Most of the model projections are in agreement with experiment, but, some suggest reconsideration of the reported experimental data or represent predictions to be verified.

  3. Optimization of the Hybrid Sulfur Cycle for Nuclear Hydrogen Production Using UniSim Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yong Hun; Jeong, Yong Hoon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The sulfur-based thermochemical cycles are considered as the most promising methods to produce hydrogen. The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Cycle is a mixed thermochemical cycle with the sulfur-aided electrolysis as depicted in the Fig. 1. Hydrogen is produced from water by oxidizing sulfur dioxide in the low temperature electrolysis step and the sulfuric acid which is also produced in the electrolyzer proceeds to the high temperature thermochemical step. The sulfuric acid is concentrated in the concentrator first and then decomposed into steam and sulfur trioxide, which is further decomposed into sulfur dioxide and oxygen at high temperature (;1100 K) in the decomposer. After separated with oxygen in the separator, the sulfur dioxide is fed again to the electrolyzer to reduce the required electrode potential far below than that of the typical water electrolysis. Hydrogen is worth as a future energy carrier when it is produced cost effectively. In that sense, the energy efficiency of the hybrid sulfur cycle is needed to be improved as high as achievable. The flow sheet developed by Westinghouse, the first proposer of the cycle, is not optimized for the cycle efficiency. In the previous work, a detailed flow sheet model was developed and also the cycle efficiency of that was roughly estimated using the software CHEMKIN and CANARY based on the experimental data for the electrode potential and appropriate work of separation. The maximum efficiency was found to be 50.5% under the operating conditions of 10 bar and 1200K for decomposer and acid concentration of 60 mol% for decomposer, 60 wt. % for electrolyzer, respectively. In this study, more detailed flow sheet was developed and optimized by using software UniSim Design which is one of the most powerful process design and simulation tools.

  4. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposed the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide...

  5. Detection of Sulfur Dioxide in Preserved Fruits with High Resolution Continuum Source Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Assisted with Distillation%蒸馏-高分辨连续光源原子吸收光谱法测定果脯中二氧化硫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖文川; 汪雨; 张裕祥; 李冰宁; 刘聪; 任敏

    2016-01-01

    硫在富燃空气‐乙炔火焰中可以形成CS双原子分子。CS双原子分子的吸收轮廓与原子光谱吸收类似,因此可以利用原子吸收光谱方法进行定量分析。建立了高分辨连续光源原子吸收光谱法分析果脯中二氧化硫含量的方法。果脯中的二氧化硫经酸化、蒸馏、过氧化氢氧化等过程转变为硫酸根,通过连续光源原子吸收光谱法检测。对影响二氧化硫检测灵敏度的乙炔流量、火焰高度等仪器参数进行了优化,并考察了样品中硫酸根、硫代硫酸根等不同形态硫对二氧化硫分析的干扰。优化条件下,在257.961 nm波长的检出限为52.4 mg · kg -1;相对标准偏差小于10%。应用于北京市售果脯样品二氧化硫含量测定,平均回收率在85.7%~115.7%之间。该方法具有准确快速、干扰少等优点,拓宽了原子吸收光谱法的应用范围。%The CS diatomic molecules can be transformed from sulfur in fuel‐rich air acetylene flame .The absorbance of CS can be detected with atomic absorption spectrometry as the CS line profile is similar to the atomic absorption .A novel method was established to detect the sulfur dioxide in preserved fruits with high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry . The sulfate ions can be transformed from the SO2 in preserved fruits after the experience of acidity ,distillation and oxidation with H2 O2 .The instrumental parameters influencing on the sensitivity of SO 2 determination were optimized ,including the veloci‐ty of acetylene ,the flame height ,etc .And the interference of different S species ,such as SO2 -4 ,S2 O2 -3 ,etc on the SO2 recovery was observed .In the optimal conditions ,the limit of detection under the wavelength of 257.961 nm was 52.4 mg · kg -1 ,and the relative standard deviation was below 10% .The average spiked recoveries between 85.7% and 115.7% were achieved when this method was used for real preserved

  6. Development of the Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, William A.; Steimke, John L

    2005-09-23

    The production of hydrogen via the thermochemical splitting of water is being considered as a primary means for utilizing the heat from advanced nuclear reactors to provide fuel for a hydrogen economy. The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process is one of the baseline candidates identified by the U.S. Department of Energy [1] for this purpose. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that only involves sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen compounds. Recent work has resulted in an improved process design with a calculated overall thermal efficiency (nuclear heat to hydrogen, higher heating value basis) approaching 50%. Economic analyses indicate that a nuclear hydrogen plant employing the HyS Process in conjunction with an advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor system can produce hydrogen at competitive prices. Experimental work has begun on the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer, the major developmental component in the cycle. Proof-of-concept tests have established proton-exchange-membrane cells (a state-of-the-art technology) as a viable approach for conducting this reaction. This is expected to lead to more efficient and economical cell designs than were previously available. Considerable development and scale-up issues remain to be resolved, but the development of a viable commercial-scale HyS Process should be feasible in time to meet the commercialization schedule for Generation IV gas-cooled nuclear reactors.

  7. FY08 MEMBRANE CHARACTERIZATION REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Mark Elvington, M

    2008-09-01

    This report summarizes results from all of the membrane testing completed to date at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the sulfur dioxide-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). Several types of commercially-available membranes have been analyzed for ionic resistance and sulfur dioxide transport including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated polyether-ketone-ketone (SPEKK), and polybenzimidazole membranes (PBI). Of these membrane types, the poly-benzimidazole membrane, Celtec-L, exhibited the best combination of characteristics for use in an SDE. Several experimental membranes have also been analyzed including hydrated sulfonated Diels-Alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) membranes from Sandia National Laboratory, perfluorosulfonimide (PFSI) and sulfonated perfluorocyclobutyl aromatic ether (S-PFCB) prepared by Clemson University, hydrated platinum-treated PFSA prepared by Giner Electrochemical Systems (GES) and Pt-Nafion{reg_sign} 115 composites prepared at SRNL. The chemical stability, SO{sub 2} transport and ionic conductivity characteristics have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton-conducting membranes. Commercially available PFSA membranes such as the Nafion{reg_sign} series exhibited excellent chemical stability and ionic conductivity in sulfur dioxide saturated sulfuric acid solutions. Sulfur dioxide transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes varied proportionally with the thickness and equivalent weight of the membrane. Although the SO{sub 2} transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes is higher than desired, the excellent chemical stability and conductivity makes this membrane the best commercially-available membrane at this time. Initial results indicated that a modified Nafion{reg_sign} membrane incorporating Pt nanoparticles exhibited significantly reduced SO{sub 2} transport. Reduced SO{sub 2} transport was also measured with commercially available PBI membrane and several experimental membranes produced

  8. A metal-free electrocatalyst for carbon dioxide reduction to multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie; Ma, Sichao; Sun, Jing; Gold, Jake I; Tiwary, ChandraSekhar; Kim, Byoungsu; Zhu, Lingyang; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N; Vajtai, Robert; Yu, Aaron Z; Luo, Raymond; Lou, Jun; Ding, Guqiao; Kenis, Paul J A; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2016-12-13

    Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into higher-energy liquid fuels and chemicals is a promising but challenging renewable energy conversion technology. Among the electrocatalysts screened so far for carbon dioxide reduction, which includes metals, alloys, organometallics, layered materials and carbon nanostructures, only copper exhibits selectivity towards formation of hydrocarbons and multi-carbon oxygenates at fairly high efficiencies, whereas most others favour production of carbon monoxide or formate. Here we report that nanometre-size N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) catalyse the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates at high Faradaic efficiencies, high current densities and low overpotentials. The NGQDs show a high total Faradaic efficiency of carbon dioxide reduction of up to 90%, with selectivity for ethylene and ethanol conversions reaching 45%. The C2 and C3 product distribution and production rate for NGQD-catalysed carbon dioxide reduction is comparable to those obtained with copper nanoparticle-based electrocatalysts.

  9. A metal-free electrocatalyst for carbon dioxide reduction to multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie; Ma, Sichao; Sun, Jing; Gold, Jake I.; Tiwary, Chandrasekhar; Kim, Byoungsu; Zhu, Lingyang; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N.; Vajtai, Robert; Yu, Aaron Z.; Luo, Raymond; Lou, Jun; Ding, Guqiao; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2016-12-01

    Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into higher-energy liquid fuels and chemicals is a promising but challenging renewable energy conversion technology. Among the electrocatalysts screened so far for carbon dioxide reduction, which includes metals, alloys, organometallics, layered materials and carbon nanostructures, only copper exhibits selectivity towards formation of hydrocarbons and multi-carbon oxygenates at fairly high efficiencies, whereas most others favour production of carbon monoxide or formate. Here we report that nanometre-size N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) catalyse the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates at high Faradaic efficiencies, high current densities and low overpotentials. The NGQDs show a high total Faradaic efficiency of carbon dioxide reduction of up to 90%, with selectivity for ethylene and ethanol conversions reaching 45%. The C2 and C3 product distribution and production rate for NGQD-catalysed carbon dioxide reduction is comparable to those obtained with copper nanoparticle-based electrocatalysts.

  10. Analysis of Carbon Monoxide in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Benjamin P.; Stephens, Joseph C.

    2003-04-01

    Forensic tests used to perform the qualitative and quantitative analyses of carbon monoxide in blood are described. The qualitative test uses the diffusion of CO, which is released from blood by reaction with H2SO4, into a PdCl2 solution in a Conway cell and the resultant formation of a palladium mirror. The quantitative analysis is based on the absorption of visible light by carboxyhemoglobin at 541 nm and reduced hemoglobin at 555 nm. Both procedures are suitable for undergraduate chemistry experiments.

  11. Mechanisms of resistance to sulfur dioxide in the Cucurbitaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressan, R.A.; Wilson, L.G.; Filner, P.

    1978-05-01

    The relative resistance of four cultivars of the Cucurbitaceae (Cucumis sativus L. cv. National Pickling, and inbred line SC 25; Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Prolific Straightneck Squash, and cv. Small Sugar Pumpkin) to SO/sub 2/ was determined. According to plots of the degree of exposure to SO/sub 2/ (which depends on the SO/sub 2/ concentration and the duration of the exposure), there is an 8-fold difference in resistance to this toxic gas among these cultivars. However, if the degree of injury is plotted as a function of the amount of SO/sub 2/ absorbed, all four cultivars appear similarly sensitive to the gas. We conclude that the principal reason for special and varietal differences in resistance among these cultivars is the relative rate of absorption of the gas. The densities of stomata on the upper and lower surfaces of leaves did not differ sufficiently between cultivars to account for the differences in absorption rates. It remains to be determined whether the differences in rate of SO/sub 2/ absorption reflect differences in stomatal activity. Resistance of individual leaves changes with position on the plant axis (age of the leaf). There exists a gradient of decreasing resistance from the apex downward. This resistance gradient cannot be accounted for by differences in rates of SO/sub 2/ absorption. We infer the existence of a biochemically based, developmentally controlled resistance mechanism which functions after SO/sub 2/ has entered the leaf. Biochemical comparisons of old and young leaves with such differences in resistance should be helpful in determining the biochemistry of SO/sub 2/ toxicity.

  12. The vertical sulfur dioxide distribution at the tropopause level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, F. X.

    A sensitive chemiluminescence measurement method consisting of separate sampling and analysis stages and the application of a wet chemical filter procedure has been used to measure SO2 over western Europe at aircraft altitudes of up to 15 km. These measurements indicate that meteorological conditions at the tropopause have an important influence on the observed SO2 mixing ratio, and that increasing SO2 mixing ratios within the first km of the stratosphere give strong support to the suggestion of a stratospheric SO2 source. The Crutzen (1981) and Turco, et al. (1981) one-dimensional models, which take the vertical distribution of S compounds into consideration, indicate that the oxidation of such organic S compounds as OCS and CS2 may be the stratospheric source of SO2. Flux calculations based on tropopausal SO2 mixing ratios imply a merely minor anthropogenic SO2 contribution to the stratospheric aerosol layer.

  13. Inhibition of spore germination of Alternaria tenuis by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couey, H.M.

    1962-08-01

    As a part of a continuing study of SO/sub 2/ fumigation of table grapes, the effect of SO/sub 2/ on spores of an isolate of A. tenuis Auct. causing decay of table grapes was determined. The amount of SO/sub 2/ required to inhibit completely spore germination depended on availability of moisture and the temperature. At 20/sup 0/C, wet spores required 20-min exposure to 100 ppm SO/sub 2/ to prevent germination, but spores equilibrated at 90% relative humidity (RH) required 10-min exposure to 1000 ppm SO/sub 2/. Dry spores at 60% RH were unaffected by a 20-min exposure to 4000 ppm SO/sub 2/. Increasing the temperature in the range 5-20/sup 0/C increased effectiveness of the SO/sub 2/ treatment. A comparison of Alternaria with Botrytis cinerea Fr. (studied earlier) showed that wet spores of these organisms were about equally sensitive to SO/sub 2/, but that dry Alternaria spores were more resistant to SO/sub 2/ than dry Botrytis spores under comparable conditions.

  14. Detection of sulfur dioxide gas with graphene field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yujie; Zhu, Chaofu; Cai, Weiwei; Li, Huifeng; Ji, Hengxing; Kholmanov, Iskandar; Wu, Yaping; Piner, Richard D.; Ruoff, Rodney S.

    2012-04-01

    Graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition on a Cu foil and transferred onto a Si wafer has been used to fabricate a field effect transistor device that was used to study the sensing of SO2 gas. It was found by in-situ measurements that the SO2 strongly p-dopes the graphene and dramatically shifts its Dirac point. This effect was used to monitor the SO2 gas. The detector can be completely reset by thermal annealing at 100 °C in high vacuum. The response and recovery of the detector are faster at higher temperatures. Moreover, the sensitivity of the SO2 graphene detector increases proportionally with increasing temperature.

  15. 76 FR 56644 - Sulfur Dioxide; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... fruits (excluding dark raisins and prunes), lemon and lime juices, wine, molasses, and sauerkraut juice... scenario is considered ``worst-case,'' in that it assumes the ventilation stack is at the edge of...

  16. The reaction kinetics of amino radicals with sulfur dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yide; Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Application of the laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence method to the reaction NH2+SO2 in argon bath gas yields pressure-dependent, third-order kinetics which may be summarized as k = (1.49 ± 0.15) × 10-31 (T/298 K)-0.83cm6 molecule-2 s-1 over 292-555K, where the uncertainty is the 95...... yields a H2N-SO2 dissociation enthalpy of 73.5 kJ mol-1, and comparison with RRKM theory and the exponential down model for energy transfer yields down = 350 cm-1 for Ar at room temperature....

  17. Modeling sulfur dioxide concentrations in Mt. Rainier area during prevent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givati, Reuven; Flocchini, Robert G.; Cahill, Thomas A.

    The MATHEW/ADPIC models (a diagnostic wind model and a particle model) which were developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, were used to compute SO 2 concentrations in the Mt Rainier area during PREVENT (Pacific Northwest Regional Visibility Experiment Using Natural Tracers, June to September 1990). The modeled concentrations were compared to measured concentrations at two sampling locations (Tahoma Woods and Paradise near Mt Rainier) which are located in a valley. The SO 2 sources considered are located along the Puget Sound (Everett, Seattle and Tacoma area) and south of it. New formulations were included in the models for the oxidation of SO 2 and the interpolation of the wind field. Because of the paucity of the meteorological data near the sampling points, an estimation was made of the wind values in the valley, based on the phenomena of wind channeling, mountain and valley winds, and historical wind observations near Mt Rainier. The models were run for several non-rainy days during the PREVENT period when large SO 2 concentrations were observed, and for other special cases. Out of 14 days for which the emissions of the previous night were taken into account, for 12 days the ratio of the modeled to the measured SO 2 concentrations at Tahoma Woods during the daytime, was in the interval 0.45-2.00, considered a good agreement. However, the agreement at Tahoma Woods during the night, and at Paradise during the day and the night, were not as good. It seems that the wind flow near Tahoma Woods under the stable conditions at night, and near the steep terrain of Paradise, were not modeled correctly, with the limited input of available meteorological observations.

  18. Electrochemistry of Sulfur Dioxide in Nonaqueous Solutions. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-18

    the reported results were obtained in DMF. Two anodic cyclic voltametry peaks, two ESR peaks and two pulse polarographic oxidations were observed in DMF...215-223. 10Olmatead, M. L., Hamilton, R. G. and Nicholson, t. S., "Theory of Cyclic Voltametry for a Dimerization Reaction Initiated...Au electrode is less susceptible to hysteresis. Gardner et al ran cyclic voltametry in the same DMF-TEAP solution at the Hg electrode (HlNDE) and

  19. Conversion of Sulfur-Dioxide in the Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyger, H.; Fenger, J.

    1976-01-01

    Pertinent, previous studies of the oxidation of SO2 in the atmosphere are briefly reviewed. A project dealing with the conversion in the plume from an oil-fired power station is described in greater detail. Measurements were performed from an aircraft and included continuous registration of NOx, SO...

  20. Sulfamides and sulfamide polymers directly from sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontiev, Alexander V; Dias, H V Rasika; Rudkevich, Dmitry M

    2006-07-21

    SO2 gas is effectively used for the preparation of N,N'-diarylsulfamides and shape-persistent sulfamide polymers, which utilize a network of intermolecular N-H...O=S hydrogen bonds to self-assemble into soft porous materials.

  1. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... carbon monoxide sulfur dioxide nitrogen dioxide Using a color-coded system, the Air Quality Index indicates when ...

  2. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  3. Corrosion-resistant sulfur concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, W. C.; Sullivan, T. A.; Jong, B. W.

    1983-04-01

    Sulfur concretes have been developed by the Bureau of Mines as construction materials with physical and mechanical properties that suit them for use in acid and salt corrosive environments where conventional concretes fail. Mixture design methods were established for preparing sulfur concretes using different types of aggregates and recently developed mixed-modified sulfur cements. Bench-scale testing of the sulfur concretes has shown their potential value. Corrosion resistance, strength, and durability of sulfur concrete are superior to those of conventional materials. Field in situ evaluation tests of the sulfur concretes as replacement for conventional concrete materials are in progress in corrosive areas of 24 commercial chemical, fertilizer, and metallurgical plants.

  4. Carbon monoxide gas sensing using zinc oxide film deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leano, J. M. G.; Villapando, J. M. L. A.; Balaaldia, A. E.; Gianan, G.; Manalo, F. K. B.; Florido, E. A.

    2017-05-01

    This study was aimed to determine the carbon monoxide (CO) gas sensing ability of zinc oxide (ZnO) film fabricated by spray pyrolysis on glass substrate heated at 3000C using 0.2 M zinc acetate precursor solution. The temperature of the precursor solution was maintained at room temperature. Carbon monoxide gas was synthesized by mixing the required amount of formic acid and excess sulfuric acid in the ratio of 1:6 to produce CO gas concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 parts per million (ppm) v/v. There were five trials for each concentration. The films produced exhibited good sensor characteristics such as high linearity in current voltage relationship and voltage response versus concentration. Electrical characterization using the four-point probe showed a linear relationship between current and voltage with resistivity of 0.49 ohm-cm and R2 value of 0.994 The zinc oxide film exhibited a sensitivity of 0.19 Volt per 100 ppm of CO gas and linearity R2 value of 0.993.

  5. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms.

  6. Observations of iodine monoxide columns from satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schönhardt

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodine species in the troposphere are linked to ozone depletion and new particle formation. In this study, a full year of iodine monoxide (IO columns retrieved from measurements of the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument is presented, coupled with a discussion of their uncertainties and the detection limits. The largest amounts of IO are found near springtime in the Antarctic. A seasonal variation of iodine monoxide in Antarctica is revealed with high values in springtime, slightly less IO in the summer period and again larger amounts in autumn. In winter, no elevated IO levels are found in the areas accessible to satellite measurements. This seasonal cycle is in good agreement with recent ground-based measurements in Antarctica. In the Arctic region, no elevated IO levels were found in the period analysed. This implies that different conditions with respect to iodine release exist in the two Polar Regions. To investigate possible release mechanisms, comparisons of IO columns with those of tropospheric BrO, and ice coverage are described and discussed. Some parallels and interesting differences between IO and BrO temporal and spatial distributions are identified. Overall, the large spatial coverage of satellite retrieved IO data and the availability of a long-term dataset provide new insight about the abundances and distributions of iodine compounds in the troposphere.

  7. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I. van der

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large.

  8. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I. van der

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large. There

  9. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented.

  10. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

    1983-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

  11. Studies on sulfur poisoning and development of advanced anodic materials for waste-to-energy fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaza, Fabio; Paoletti, Claudia; LoPresti, Roberto; Simonetti, Elisabetta; Pasquali, Mauro

    Biomass is the renewable energy source with the most potential penetration in energy market for its positive environmental and socio-economic consequences: biomass live cycles for energy production is carbon neutral; energy crops promote alternative and productive utilizations of rural sites creating new economic opportunities; bioenergy productions promote local energy independence and global energy security defined as availability of energy resource supply. Different technologies are currently available for energy production from biomass, but a key role is played by fuel cells which have both low environmental impacts and high efficiencies. High temperature fuel cells, such as molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), are particularly suitable for bioenergy production because it can be directly fed with biogas: in fact, among its principal constituents, methane can be transformed to hydrogen by internal reforming; carbon dioxide is a safe diluent; carbon monoxide is not a poison, but both a fuel, because it can be discharged at the anode, and a hydrogen supplier, because it can produce hydrogen via the water-gas shift reaction. However, the utilization of biomass derived fuels in MCFC presents different problems not yet solved, such as the poisoning of the anode due to byproducts of biofuel chemical processing. The chemical compound with the major negative effects on cell performances is hydrogen sulfide. It reacts with nickel, the main anodic constituent, forming sulfides and blocking catalytic sites for electrode reactions. The aim of this work is to study the hydrogen sulfide effects on MCFC performances for defining the poisoning mechanisms of conventional nickel-based anode, recommending selection criteria of sulfur-tolerant materials, and selecting advanced anodes for MCFC fed with biogas.

  12. Cooperative redox activation for carbon dioxide conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Zhong; Nielsen, Dennis U.; Lindhardt, Anders T.; Daasbjerg, Kim; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2016-12-01

    A longstanding challenge in production chemistry is the development of catalytic methods for the transformation of carbon dioxide into useful chemicals. Silane and borane promoted reductions can be fined-tuned to provide a number of C1-building blocks under mild conditions, but these approaches are limited because of the production of stoichiometric waste compounds. Here we report on the conversion of CO2 with diaryldisilanes, which through cooperative redox activation generate carbon monoxide and a diaryldisiloxane that actively participate in a palladium-catalysed carbonylative Hiyama-Denmark coupling for the synthesis of an array of pharmaceutically relevant diarylketones. Thus the disilane reagent not only serves as the oxygen abstracting agent from CO2, but the silicon-containing `waste', produced through oxygen insertion into the Si-Si bond, participates as a reagent for the transmetalation step in the carbonylative coupling. Hence this concept of cooperative redox activation opens up for new avenues in the conversion of CO2.

  13. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  14. Effects of Air Polution on Human Exercise Performance,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Interaction of various acids and salts. The most commonly studied aerosols are ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate and amnium nitrate. These compounds are eye...FIELD IGROUP SUB-GROUP ozone, nitrogen dioxide, peroxyacetyl nitrate, aerosols, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide ’Itrength, performance. 19. ABSTRC...ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate, aerosols, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen * dioxide. Only carb,:n monoxide has been show to reduce 2xercise performance

  15. Exposure assessment for nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in German hard coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmann, Dirk; Morfeld, Peter; Monz, Christian; Noll, Birgit; Gast, Frank

    2009-11-01

    The exposure situation of German hard coal miners with respect to the components nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Carbon monoxide was measured additionally and the results are displayed but not discussed in detail in this paper. The data were used to estimate personal long-term exposures in an inception cohort. For all three components, time weighted 8-h shift values were determined for typical groups of coalminers according to the European measurement standard. An expert panel from the coal mining company made an effort to estimate major potential changes in the exposure situation. The main sources of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in hard coal mining were the diesel engines. Blasting fumes contributed only to a lesser degree and with different exposure characteristics, e.g. much reduced NO(2) levels compared to the mines' rear areas. As rough 8 h-shift averages describing the current exposure situation, we found 1.35 ppm NO and 0.21 ppm NO(2) for the diesel engine drivers. Blasting specialists were more difficult to evaluate but rough 8 h-shift averages of 0.84 ppm NO and 0.014 ppm NO(2) could be estimated from our measurement series. By applying these data and the estimates of experts about the retrospective exposure situation to a cohort of 1,369 coalminers, we derived mean (max) cumulative exposures in ppm x number of shifts of 1,748 (5,928) for NO and 19.6 (1,013) for NO(2) when summarizing over the follow-up period from 1974 until 1998. Especially for the diesel engine drivers, exposure can be regarded as rather high, in particular, when compared to recommended limits by SCOEL and MAK, though the exposures have been in line with the enforced German occupational exposure limits. Whether this exposure situation has caused adverse health effects will be investigated epidemiologically.

  16. Mass-dependent sulfur isotope fractionation during reoxidative sulfur cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellerin, André; Bui, Thi Hao; Rough, Mikaella

    2015-01-01

    of Mangrove Lake appears to include sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur followed by the disproportionation of the elemental sulfur to sulfate and sulfide. This model also indicates that the reoxidative sulfur cycle of Mangrove Lake turns over from 50 to 80% of the sulfide produced by microbial sulfate...... that the two processes cannot be discriminated from each other....

  17. Determination of atmospheric gaseous and particulate sulfur compounds. [Atmospheric SO/sub 2/ sampling, calibration, and data processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, R.L.; Forrest, J.; Newman, L.

    1977-01-01

    The corrosive influence of atmospheric sulfur compounds to man's health and his environment has been demonstratably costly. Damage to building materials, textiles, animals, plants, and artworks have been well documented and can in some cases be directly translated into financial loss. Indirect effects such as contribution to respiratory disease and increased death rates are more subtle but no less real. For both economic and ecological reasons, it has become imperative that atmospheric concentrations be minimized. Anthropogenic sources of atmospheric sulfur compounds are principally the combustion of fossil fuels, which produce sulfur dioxide along with several percent of sulfur trioxide. The predominant form of atmospheric gaseous sulfur is sulfur dioxide, accompanied by small amounts of hydrogen sulfide and organic sulfur compounds such as mercaptans and sulfides. Aerosol sulfur exists primarily as sulfates, including bisulfate and sulfuric acid. The core of any monitoring system is the analytical instrument or technique. Methods for SO/sub 2/ sampling, calibration, and data acquisition and reduction are reviewed. 305 references.

  18. Smoke-inhalation injury and the effect of carbon monoxide in the sheep model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazu, T.; Ikeuchi, H.; Hubbard, G.B.; Langlinais, P.C.; Mason, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The role of carbon monoxide (CO) in causing the physiologic and anatomic changes characteristic of smoke inhalation injury was evaluated in 34 sheep. The smoke-exposed group received a dose of smoke known to produce mild inhalation injury. The CO group received a pure gas mixture that contained concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and CO similar to those in the smoke. Cardiopulmonary function was measured immediately after exposure, and 24 and 72 hours after exposure. The CO group showed a transient increase in cardiac output, but the smoke group showed no such response. The CO group maintained normal PaO2 levels during the 72-hour study period; the smoke group gradually developed hypoxemia. The lungs of the CO exposed animals had no discernible histologic changes. These results indicate that CO per se is not the primary etiologic agent of smoke inhalation injury.

  19. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources....

  20. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to capture greater than 90 percent of sulfur gases evolved during thermal treatment of lunar soils....