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Sample records for monoxide levels resulting

  1. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

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    Makoto Onodera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p=0.021, but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time.

  2. Environmental variables and levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin in elderly people taking exercise.

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    Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Mana, Viviane Aparecida Martins; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Botelho, Clovis

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to analyze levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobinand cardiopulmonary variables in old people practicing exercise in external environments, and correlate them with climate and pollution factors. Temporal ecological study with118 active elderly people in the city of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were obtained on use of medication, smoking, anthropometric measurements, spirometry, peak flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate, exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin, climate, number of farm fires and pollution. Correlations were found between on the one hand environmental temperature, relative humidity of the air and number of farmers' fires, and on the other hand levels of carbon monoxide exhaled and carboxyhemoglobin (p elderly people, environmental factors influence levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin and heart rate. There is thus a need for these to be monitored during exercise. The use of a carbon monoxide monitor to evaluate exposure to pollutants is suggested.

  3. Serum S100B level may be correlated with carbon monoxide poisoning.

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    Liu, Hui; Zhang, Yu; Ren, Yan-Bo; Kang, Jian; Xing, Jing; Qi, Qing-Hui; Gao, Dong-Na; Ma, Tao; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Zhi

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the correlation between serum S100B level and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning by meta-analysis. By searching both English and Chinese language-based electronic databases (PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, Springerlink, Wiley, Web of Science, Wanfang databases, China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI), VIP database, etc.) thoroughly, we tabulated and analyzed the collected data with the use of Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0). Totally 108 studies have been searched initially (92 studies in Chinese, 16 studies in English). Nine case-control studies (4 studies in English, 5 in Chinese) were chosen for an updated meta-analysis including 542 patients with CO poising and 236 healthy controls. Results identified that the serum S100B level were obviously higher than that in healthy controls (SMD=1.600, 95% CI=1.055-2.145, P<0.001). A subgroup based on the ethnicities revealed that the serum S100B level in Caucasian and Asian subgroups was clearly higher than serum S100B level in healthy controls (Asians: SMD=2.0624, 95% CI=1.736-3.511, P<0.001; Caucasians: SMD=0.447, 95% CI=0.197-0.697, P<0.001). Serum S100B level may be correlated with the CO poisoning and could be effective biomarker for early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in CO poisoning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of Some Environmental Factors with Breath Carbon Monoxide Levels of Some Taxi Drivers in Ankara

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    Oguz Baran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Taxi drivers are among the occupational groups with the highest smoking prevalence and exposure to carbon monoxide (CO. This study aimed to measure breath CO levels of some taxi drivers working in Ankara and to find out some associated factors (if any. METHOD: The descriptive study was carried out with 173 taxi drivers from 14 different taxi stations in the center of Ankara. Data was collected by face to face interviews with a standart questionnaire, while breath CO was measured by a Pi-CO Smokerlyser. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square, independant samples t-test and One-Way ANOVA were used to compare groups by SPSS 15.0 statistical package programme. RESULTS: In the study, all of the taxi drivers (n=173 were male with a mean age of 39.2±9.6 years. Of the drivers, 58.4% were current smokers, whereas 75.1% were exposed to enviromental tobacco smoke. The frequency of indoor smoking in the taxi stations, taxis and drivers’ homes were 48.0%, 45.1%, and 59.0%, respectively. The mean breath CO level of the drivers was 16.9±12.8 ppm. CO level was positively associated with the current smoking status, total years of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, whereas the association was negative with the elapsed time from the last cigarette smoked (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Results of the study provide evidence in support of the previous literature that smoking is one of the most important sources of carbonmonoxide. Interventions such as awareness raising trainings, referral of smokers willing to quit smoking to smoking cessation centers and screening programmes for smoking related diseases are needed to be implemented in collaboration with the relevant drivers’ associations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 591-596

  5. The Effects of Low Level Prenatal Carbon Monoxide on Neocortical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    378.1958). Ginsberg MD, Myers RE (Fetal brain damage following maternal carbon monoxide intoxication: an experimental study. Acta obstetricia et...monoxide production and blood loss at delivery. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica 48:362-370.1969). Longo LD (Carbon monoxide in the

  6. International comparison CCQM-K84—carbon monoxide in synthetic air at ambient level

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    Lee, Jeongsoon; Moon, Dongmin; Lee, Jinbok; Lim, Jeongsik; Hall, Brad; Novelli, Paul; Brewer, Paul J.; Miller, Michael; Murugun, Arul; Doval Minarro, Marta; Qiao, Han; Shuguo, Hu; Konopelko, L. A.; Kustikov, Y. A.; Kolobova, A. V.; Pankratov, V. V.; Wasserman, I. I.; Zav'yalov, S. V.; Efremova, O. V.; Pavlov, M. V.; Mitchell, Gerald; Guenther, Frank; Walden, Jari; Aoki, Nobuyuki; Shimosaka, Takuya; Tatiana, Mace; Lagler, F.; Borowiak, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is reported to mainly be emitted from industries, transportation, and burnings for various usages. Its atmospheric lifetime varies from weeks to months, depending on the mixing ratio of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical. Even though the ambient level of CO varies as a function of regional sources, the mixing ratio ranges from 30 nmol/mol to 300 nmol/mol at the marine boundary layers and from 100 nmol/mol to more than 500 nmol/mol in urban areas(1). In order to study temporal trends and regional variations of the level of CO, the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory-Global Monitoring Division (NOAA/ESRL-GMD(2)) has played a key role as the designated Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) within the frame of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) program. NOAA/ESRL-GMD provides natural air standards, analyzed for CO, to WMO GAW participants. Since the structure of WMO traceability chain appears hierarchical and explicit all over the world, WMO intends to improve the CO measurement compatibility to up to 2 ppb (in case of extensive compatibility goal: 5 ppb, GAW report No. 213(3)) in order to ensure compatibility through the GAW network. Nevertheless, accurate measurement of CO at an ambient level has proven to be difficult due to the lack of stability in cylinders. For these reasons, it is necessary that measured results are compared among the values assigned by various NMIs. This key comparison was initially proposed to be aimed at a CO/N2 standard in the 2010 CCQM meeting by KRISS. With participation of FMI, NOAA, and Empa, a modified scheme of CO/air standards was developed for the purpose of atmospheric observations and co-operative support to WMO/GAW activities. Therefore, the purpose of the comparison is to support the measurement capability of CO at an ambient level of 350 nmol/mol. Further, this key comparison is expected to contribute to the establishment of

  7. CARBON MONOXIDE TREATMENT GUIDELINES

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    Miran Brvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is the leading cause of unintentional poisoning-related death in Slovenia. It is an odorless, colorless gas that usually remains undetectable until exposures result in injury or death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is most commonly accompanied by headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, confusion, drowsiness, fatigue and collapse. Carbon monoxide poisoning management includes normobaric oxygen therapy. Hyperbaric-oxygen treatments reduce the risk of cognitive sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning. 

  8. Measurements of Iodine Monoxide Levels During the CAST Campaign Using Broadband Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy

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    Harris, N. R. P.; Popoola, O. A.; McLeod, M.; Ouyang, B.; Jones, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Iodine monoxide (IO) has been regarded as an important radical involved in the ozone destruction in the remote marine boundary layer. Here we presented the first in situ aircraft measurements of IO using broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy with 1s -sensitivity of ~1.5 ppt Hz-1/2 on the surface level during the Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign between January - February 2014. IO was retrieved from analysis of absorption spectrum recorded between 415 nm - 452.5 nm. Instrument baseline corresponding to the "zero" signal of IO was obtained by injection of ~20 ppb of nitric oxide (NO) into the sample air at chosen frequency and period. No clear absorption feature was observable from the spectra by eye with up to 100 seconds averaging, pointing to very low mixing ratios (<~0.5 ppt) of IO over the sampled area. A small positive bias (~0.3 ppt) of IO (against the baseline signal during NO titration) was obtained in the statistical histogram of retrieved IO from average of each straight and level run, but little altitude dependence was noted. In summary, our observation appears to support the existence of IO in the remote marine boundary above the Pacific Ocean at sub ppt levels, but the limited sensitivity precludes us from quantifying spatial gradients more accurately.

  9. Surface ozone and carbon monoxide levels observed at Oki, Japan: regional air pollution trends in East Asia.

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    Sikder, Helena Akhter; Suthawaree, Jeeranut; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2011-03-01

    Simultaneous ground-based measurements of ozone and carbon monoxide were performed at Oki, Japan, from January 2001 to September 2002 in order to investigate the O(3) and CO characteristics and their distributions. The observations revealed that O(3) and CO concentrations were maximum in springtime and minimum in the summer. The monthly averaged concentrations of O(3) and CO were 60 and 234 ppb in spring and 23 and 106 ppb in summer, respectively. Based on direction, 5-day isentropic backward trajectory analysis was carried out to determine the transport path of air masses, preceding their arrival at Oki. Comparison between classified results from present work and results from the year 1994-1996 was carried out. The O(3) and CO concentration results of classified air masses in our analysis show similar concentration trends to previous findings; highest in the WNW/W, lowest in N/NE and medium levels in NW. Moreover, O(3) levels are higher and CO levels are lower in the present study in all categories. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Satellite Based Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Levels Over Alberta Oil Sand

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    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid expansion of oil sands activities and massive energy requirements to extract and upgrade the bitumen require a comprehensive understanding of their potential environmental impacts, particularly on air quality. In this study, satellite-based analysis of carbon monoxide (CO) levels was used to assess the magnitude and distribution of this pollutant throughout Alberta oil sands region. Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) V5 multispectral product that uses both near-infrared and the thermal-infrared radiances for CO retrieval were used. MOPITT-based climatology and inter-annual variations were examined for 12 years (2002-2013) on spatial and temporal scales. Seasonal climatological maps for CO total columns indicated conspicuous spatial variations in all seasons except in winter where the CO spatial variations are less prominent. High CO loadings are observed to extend from the North East to North West regions of Alberta, with highest values in spring. The CO mixing ratios at the surface level in winter and spring seasons exhibited dissimilar spatial distribution pattern where the enhancements are detected in south eastern rather than northern Alberta. Analyzing spatial distributions of Omega at 850 mb pressure level for four seasons implied that, conditions in northeastern Alberta are more favorable for up lofting while in southern Alberta, subsidence of CO emissions are more likely. Time altitude CO profile climatology as well as the inter-annual variability were investigated for the oil sands and main urban regions in Alberta to assess the impact of various sources on CO loading. Monthly variations over urban regions are consistent with the general seasonal cycle of CO in Northern Hemisphere which exhibits significant enhancement in winter and spring, and minimum mixing ratios in summer. The typical seasonal CO variations over the oil sands region are less prominent. This study has demonstrated the potential use of multispectral CO

  11. Exposure to Elevated Carbon Monoxide Levels at an Indoor Ice Arena--Wisconsin, 2014.

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    Creswell, Paul D; Meiman, Jon G; Nehls-Lowe, Henry; Vogt, Christy; Wozniak, Ryan J; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry

    2015-11-20

    On December 13, 2014, the emergency management system in Lake Delton, Wisconsin, was notified when a male hockey player aged 20 years lost consciousness after participation in an indoor hockey tournament that included approximately 50 hockey players and 100 other attendees. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) (range = 45 ppm-165 ppm) were detected by the fire department inside the arena. The emergency management system encouraged all players and attendees to seek medical evaluation for possible CO poisoning. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine what caused the exposure and to recommend preventive strategies. Investigators abstracted medical records from area emergency departments (EDs) for patients who sought care for CO exposure during December 13-14, 2014, conducted a follow-up survey of ED patients approximately 2 months after the event, and conducted informant interviews. Ninety-two persons sought ED evaluation for possible CO exposure, all of whom were tested for CO poisoning. Seventy-four (80%) patients had blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels consistent with CO poisoning; 32 (43%) CO poisoning cases were among hockey players. On December 15, the CO emissions from the propane-fueled ice resurfacer were demonstrated to be 4.8% of total emissions when actively resurfacing and 2.3% when idling, both above the optimal range of 0.5%-1.0%. Incomplete fuel combustion by the ice resurfacer was the most likely source of elevated CO. CO poisonings in ice arenas can be prevented through regular maintenance of ice resurfacers, installation of CO detectors, and provision of adequate ventilation.

  12. Carbon monoxide levels measured in major commuting corridors covering different landuse and roadway microenvironments in Hong Kong

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    Chan, L. Y.; Liu, Y. M.; Lee, S. C.; Chan, C. Y.

    Vehicle exhaust is the major source of pollutant in modern cities. About half of Hong Kong residents are living in suburban or rural areas. They need to traverse through tunnels, highways, urban street canyons and other road conditions in different landuse areas when they traverse to work in urban centres or new towns. Also, there is increasing traffic, especially trucks across the border between Hong Kong and mainland China via several border highways. This study helps us in assessing the exposure level of suburban and cross border commuters. Carbon monoxide (CO) is used as a tracer for traffic emission. An experimental vehicle traversing major commuting corridors were used to measure CO levels in different landuse and roadway microenvironments including tunnels and highways. The air samples were taken simultaneously at the outside and inside of a travelling vehicle. Result indicates that the pattern of fluctuation of the out-vehicle and in-vehicle CO level vary with different landuse areas. The variation pattern of in-vehicle CO level is closely related to that of out-vehicle level. The effects of the out-vehicle CO concentration on the in-vehicle CO concentration under different roadway conditions in various landuse categories are examined. There is an indication that external air pollutants penetrated into the in-vehicle compartment through car body cracks, ventilation system. From our observation, the exhaust of a nearby petrol vehicle contributed significantly to the in-vehicle CO level. The use of low standard of diesel fuel from Shenzhen in mainland China leads to higher CO level near border area.

  13. A pilot study to assess ground-level ambient air concentrations of fine particles and carbon monoxide in urban Guatemala.

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    Shendell, Derek G; Naeher, Luke P

    2002-11-01

    Ambient concentrations and the elemental composition of particles less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5), as well as carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, were measured at ground-level in three Guatemalan cities in summer 1997: Guatemala City, Quetzaltenango, and Antigua. This pilot study also included quantitative and qualitative characterizations of microenvironment conditions, e.g., local meteorology, reported elsewhere. The nondestructive X-ray fluorescence elemental analysis (XRF) of Teflon filters was conducted. The highest integrated average PM2.5. concentrations in an area (zona) of Guatemala City and Quetzaltenango were 150 microg m(-3) (zona 12) and 120 microg m(-3) (zona 2), respectively. The reported integrated average PM2.5 concentration for Antigua was 5 microg m(-3). The highest observed half-hour and monitoring period average CO concentrations in Guatemala City were 10.9 ppm (zona 8) and 7.2 ppm (zonas 8 and 10), respectively. The average monitoring period CO concentration in Antigua was 2.6 ppm. Lead and bromine concentrations were negligible, indicative of the transition to unleaded fuel use in cars and motorcycles. The XRF results suggested sources of air pollution in Guatemala, where relative rankings varied by city and by zonas within each city, were fossil fuel combustion emitting hydrocarbons, combustion of sulfurous conventional fuels, soil/roadway dust, farm/agricultural dust, and vehicles (evaportion of gas, parts' wear).

  14. Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Resulting in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Rare Case Report

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    Po-Chao Hsu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute carbon monoxide (CO poisoning with cardiac complications is well documented in the literature. However, ST segment elevation is a rare presentation, and most of these cases with ST elevation have revealed non-occlusive or normal coronary arteries. We report a case of CO poisoning complicated with ST elevation myocardial infarction. Emergency coronary angiography revealed total occlusion of the left anterior descending artery and primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed. This report of a rare case should remind physicians that cardiovascular investigations, including electrocardiography, must be performed in cases with CO poisoning because mortality might increase if reperfusion therapy or appropriate medical treatments are not performed in patients with acute coronary artery occlusion.

  15. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

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    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  16. Effectiveness of payment for reduced carbon monoxide levels and noncontingent payments on smoking behaviors in cocaine-abusing outpatients wearing nicotine or placebo patches.

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    Wiseman, Eve J; Williams, D K; McMillan, D E

    2005-05-01

    In a 2-week intervention to reduce cigarette smoking among outpatients in treatment for cocaine addiction, 20 subjects were randomly assigned to a contingent group, receiving monetary vouchers for breath samples with carbon monoxide (CO) levels of 8 ppm or less, or to a noncontingent group, receiving vouchers regardless of CO level. Subjects wore either nicotine or placebo patches in a randomized crossover design. Contingent subjects had significantly lower CO levels and met the 8 ppm target significantly more often than did noncontingent subjects; however, number of cigarettes reported smoked did not differ between groups. Use of nicotine patches resulted in CO levels significantly lower than did use of placebo patches, but levels still exceeded 8 ppm regardless of type of patch. Because contingent reward helped cocaine-dependent smokers achieve nonsmoking CO targets, behavioral antismoking interventions merit continued study in similar populations.

  17. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

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    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented.

  18. Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography carbon monoxide total columns: statistical evaluation and comparison with chemistry transport model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, A.T.J.; Gloudemans, A.M.S.; Aben, I.; Krol, M.C.; Meirink, J.F.; van der Werf, G.R.; Schrijver, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed statistical analysis of one year (September 2003 to August 2004) of global Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) carbon monoxide (CO) total column retrievals from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM) algorithm, vers

  19. Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon monoxide total columns: Statistical evaluation and comparison with chemistry transport model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, de A.T.J.; Gloudemans, A.M.S.; Aben, I.; Krol, M.C.; Meirink, J.F.; Werf, van der G.R.; Schrijver, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed statistical analysis of one year (September 2003 to August 2004) of global Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) carbon monoxide (CO) total column retrievals from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM) algorithm, vers

  20. Ischemia-modified albumin levels in the prediction of acute critical neurological findings in carbon monoxide poisoning

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    Murat Daş

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA levels in patients with carbon monoxide (CO poisoning were higher compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. In addition, the study sought to determine if there was a correlation between serum IMA levels and carboxyhemoglobin (COHB levels and other critical neurological findings (CNFs. In this prospective study, the IMA levels of 100 patients with CO poisoning and 50 control individuals were compared. In addition, the IMA and COHB levels were analyzed according to absence or presence CNFs in patients with CO poisoning. The levels of IMA (mg/dL on admittance, and during the 1st hour and 3rd hour, in patients with CO poisoning (49.90 ± 35.43, 30.21 ± 14.81, and 21.87 ± 6.03 were significantly higher, compared with the control individuals (17.30 ± 2.88. The levels of IMA in the 6th hour were not higher compared with control individuals. The levels of IMA on admittance, and during the 1st hour, 3rd hour, and 6th hour, and COHB (% levels in patients who had CNFs were higher compared with IMA levels and COHB levels in patients who had no CNFs (p < 0.001. However, when the multivariate model was created, it was observed that IMA level on admittance was a poor indicator for prediction of CNFs (odds ratio = 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.08. We therefore concluded that serum IMA levels could be helpful in the diagnosis of CO poisoning. However, we believe that IMA levels cannot be used to predict which patients will develop CNFs due to CO poisoning.

  1. Mobile Carbon Monoxide Monitoring System Based on Arduino-Matlab for Environmental Monitoring Application

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    Azieda Mohd Bakri, Nur; Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the increasing level of carbon monoxide globally has become a serious environmental issue which has been highlighted in most of the country globally. The monitoring of carbon monoxide content is one of the approaches to identify the level of carbon monoxide pollution towards providing the solution for control the level of carbon monoxide produced. Thus, this paper proposed a mobile carbon monoxide monitoring system for measuring the carbon monoxide content based on Arduino-Matlab General User Interface (GUI). The objective of this project is to design, develop and implement the real-time mobile carbon monoxide sensor system and interfacing for measuring the level of carbon monoxide contamination in real environment. Four phases or stages of work have been carried out for the accomplishment of the project, which classified as sensor development, controlling and integrating sensor, data collection and data analysis. As a result, a complete design and developed system has been verified with the handheld industrial standard carbon monoxide sensor for calibrating the sensor sensitivity and measurement in the laboratory. Moreover, the system has been tested in real environments by measuring the level of carbon monoxide in three different lands used location; industrial area; residential area and main road (commercial area). In this real environment test, the industrial area recorded the highest reading with 71.23 ppm and 82.59 ppm for sensor 1 and sensor 2 respectively. As a conclusion, the mobile realtime carbon monoxide system based on the Arduino-Matlab is the best approach to measure the carbon monoxide concentration in different land-used since it does not require a manual data collection and reduce the complexity of the existing carbon monoxide level concentration measurement practise at the same time with a complete data analysis facilities.

  2. Influence of air pollution on exhaled carbon monoxide levels in smokers and non-smokers. A prospective cross-sectional study.

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    Maga, Mikołaj; Janik, Maciej K; Wachsmann, Agnieszka; Chrząstek-Janik, Olga; Koziej, Mateusz; Bajkowski, Mateusz; Maga, Paweł; Tyrak, Katarzyna; Wójcik, Krzysztof; Gregorczyk-Maga, Iwona; Niżankowski, Rafał

    2017-01-01

    The poor air quality and cigarette smoking are the most important reasons for increased carbon monoxide (CO) level in exhaled air. However, the influence of high air pollution concentration in big cities on the exhaled CO level has not been well studied yet. To evaluate the impact of smoking habit and air pollution in the place of living on the level of CO in exhaled air. Citizens from two large cities and one small town in Poland were asked to complete a survey disclosing their place of residence, education level, work status and smoking habits. Subsequently, the CO level in their exhaled air was measured. Air quality data, obtained from the Regional Inspectorates of Environmental Protection, revealed the differences in atmospheric CO concentration between locations. 1226 subjects were divided into 4 groups based on their declared smoking status and place of living. The average CO level in exhaled air was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers (pair is significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers. Among non-smokers, the average exhaled CO level is significantly higher in big city than small town citizens. These results suggest that permanent exposure to an increased concentration of air pollution and cigarette smoking affect the level of exhaled CO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

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    Murat Eroglu

    2013-04-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite COHB level decreased, ADMA increased after oxygen therapy in patients with CO poisoning. We think that CO poisoning induced oxidative stress may cause increased ADMA levels. Further studies are needed to evaluate the importance of ADMA in CO poisoning. [Dis Mol Med 2013; 1(2.000: 21-25

  4. Syncope Associated with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning due to Narghile Smoking

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    Seda Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Narghile smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, and it has been practiced extensively for 400 years. Traditionally, narghile smoking is a matter of culture mainly in Middle East, Asia, and Africa. In recent years, its use as a social activity has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking is an unusual cause of carbon monoxide poisoning. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide. We present an acute syncope case of a 19-year-old male patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning after narghile smoking.

  5. Three years of global carbon monoxide from SCIAMACHY: comparison with MOPITT and first results related to the detection of enhanced CO over cities

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    M. Buchwitz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is an important atmospheric constituent affecting air quality and climate. SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT is currently the only satellite instrument that can measure the vertical column of CO with nearly equal sensitivity at all altitudes down to the Earth's surface because of its near-infrared nadir observations of reflected solar radiation. Here we present three years' (2003–2005 of SCIAMACHY CO columns consistently retrieved with the latest version of our retrieval algorithm (WFMDv0.6. We describe the retrieval method and discuss the multi-year global CO data set focusing on a comparison with the operational CO column data product of MOPITT. We found reasonable to good agreement (~20% with MOPITT, with the best agreement for 2004. We present detailed results for various regions (Europe, Middle East, India, China and discuss to what extent enhanced levels of CO can be detected over populated areas including individual cities. The expected CO signal from cities is close to or even below the detection limit of individual measurements. We show that cities can be identified when averaging long time series.

  6. Limiting Factors for Satellite-Based Retrievals of Surface-Level Carbon Monoxide

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    Martinez-Alonso, S.; Deeter, M. N.; Worden, H. M.; Barré, J.

    2015-12-01

    CO is mostly produced in the lower troposphere by incomplete combustion of biomass and fuels. CO oxidation consumes ~75% of the tropospheric OH, which then is not available to remove CH4 and other greenhouse gases. CO oxidation also leads to the production of tropospheric O3. These critical impacts of CO on air quality and climate require accurate determination of the abundance and evolution of CO near the surface.Satellite retrievals would be well-suited to monitor surface CO globally. However, how do they compare to actual surface abundances? Some aspects to be considered include: the vertical sensitivity of retrievals (given by the averaging kernels), or how thick are the atmospheric layers that can be resolved; the vertical correlation length of CO with respect to the thickness of those layers; and the horizontal variability of CO with respect to the instrument's footprint.To investigate these questions we analyze MOPITT retrievals, DISCOVER-AQ and NOAA profiles, as well as WDCGG surface measurements. MOPITT, on board NASA's Terra satellite, has been measuring tropospheric CO since 2000, providing the longest global CO record to date. Its unique multispectral CO product offers enhanced sensitivity to CO near the surface. Vertical profiles of the lower troposphere were acquired during the DISCOVER-AQ airborne campaigns over selected regions of the USA. NOAA's airborne flask sampling program results in a multi-year, multi-seasonal record of vertical profiles from near the surface up to the mid troposphere, acquired over a number of stations, mostly in North America. Long-term, cross-calibrated surface CO data from ground stations worldwide are available through the WDCGG.Statistical analyses of the DISCOVER-AQ and NOAA profiles indicate that surface vertical correlation length varies greatly depending on geographic location. This may explain contrasting results obtained for different ground stations when comparing MOPITT and WDCGG co-located data and timeseries.

  7. Temperature-dependent association between mortality rate and carbon monoxide level in a subtropical city: Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Liao, Chen-Mao

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the combined effect of temperature and air pollutant levels on daily non-accidental deaths and cardiovascular causes of mortality. In this study, associations were assessed by means of time-series analyses over the period 1995-1999 for Kaohsiung, Taiwan's largest industrial city, which has a subtropical climate. Ambient exposures to various air pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), ozone (O(3)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and particulate matter (PM(10)), were estimated from the arithmetic means of all daily measurements taken by an air quality monitoring station nearest to the residential district. Generalized additive models with non-parametric spline were used to identify associations between daily mortality and air pollutants as well as the air pollutant-temperature interaction correlation. Our findings indicate that CO is associated with increased risks of non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality. For a 0.2 ppm increase in CO, the increased relative daily risk of non-accidental death is at least 4% on the same day, when the mean temperature is above 24.8 degrees C, while the increased relative risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases is 7% two days later at 19.7 degrees C. The study also suggests a statistically significant interaction between CO concentration and daily mean temperature, with non-accidental mortality increasing with a warm outdoor temperature and the effect of CO on cardiovascular mortality being modified by a cold climate. Further reduction of CO pollution is thus deemed crucial for the benefit of public health.

  8. Effects of Tai Chi exercise on blood pressure and plasma levels of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide in real-world patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaogui; Zhang, Yi; Tao, Sai

    2015-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the effects of Tai Chi exercise on nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels, and blood pressure (BP) in patients with essential hypertension (EH). EH patients were assigned to the Tai Chi exercise group (HTC, n = 24), and hypertension group (HP, n = 16) by patients' willingness. Healthy volunteers matched for age and gender were recruited as control (NP, n = 16). HTC group performed Tai Chi (60 min/d, 6 d/week) for 12 weeks. Measurements (blood glucose, cholesterol, NO, CO, H2S and BP) were obtained at week 0, 6, and 12. SBP, MAP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased by week 12 in the HTC group (all p < 0.05 versus baseline). Plasma NO, CO, and H2S levels in the HTC group were increased after 12 weeks (all p < 0.05 versus baseline). SBP, DBP and MAP levels were significantly lower in the HTC than in the HP group (all p < 0.05). However, no changes were observed in the HP and NP groups. Correlations were observed between changes in SBP and changes in NO, CO and H2S (r = -0.45, -0.51 and -0.46, respectively, all p < 0.05), and between changes in MAP and changes in NO, CO and H2S (r = -0.36, -0.45 and -0.42, respectively, all p < 0.05). In conclusion, Tai Chi exercise seems to have beneficial effects on BP and gaseous signaling molecules in EH patients. However, further investigation is required to understand the exact mechanisms underlying these observations, and to confirm these results in a larger cohort.

  9. Monitoring Street-Level Spatial-Temporal Variations of Carbon Monoxide in Urban Settings Using a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzai-Hung Wen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become a severe environmental problem due to urbanization and heavy traffic. Monitoring street-level air quality is an important issue, but most official monitoring stations are installed to monitor large-scale air quality conditions, and their limited spatial resolution cannot reflect the detailed variations in air quality that may be induced by traffic jams. By deploying wireless sensors on crossroads and main roads, this study established a pilot framework for a wireless sensor network (WSN-based real-time monitoring system to understand street-level spatial-temporal changes of carbon monoxide (CO in urban settings. The system consists of two major components. The first component is the deployment of wireless sensors. We deployed 44 sensor nodes, 40 transmitter nodes and four gateway nodes in this study. Each sensor node includes a signal processing module, a CO sensor and a wireless communication module. In order to capture realistic human exposure to traffic pollutants, all sensors were deployed at a height of 1.5 m on lampposts and traffic signs. The study area covers a total length of 1.5 km of Keelung Road in Taipei City. The other component is a map-based monitoring platform for sensor data visualization and manipulation in time and space. Using intensive real-time street-level monitoring framework, we compared the spatial-temporal patterns of air pollution in different time periods. Our results capture four CO concentration peaks throughout the day at the location, which was located along an arterial and nearby traffic sign. The hourly average could reach 5.3 ppm from 5:00 pm to 7:00 pm due to the traffic congestion. The proposed WSN-based framework captures detailed ground information and potential risk of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution. It also provides street-level insights into real-time monitoring for further early warning of air pollution and urban environmental management.

  10. Monitoring street-level spatial-temporal variations of carbon monoxide in urban settings using a wireless sensor network (WSN) framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tzai-Hung; Jiang, Joe-Air; Sun, Chih-Hong; Juang, Jehn-Yih; Lin, Tzu-Shiang

    2013-11-27

    Air pollution has become a severe environmental problem due to urbanization and heavy traffic. Monitoring street-level air quality is an important issue, but most official monitoring stations are installed to monitor large-scale air quality conditions, and their limited spatial resolution cannot reflect the detailed variations in air quality that may be induced by traffic jams. By deploying wireless sensors on crossroads and main roads, this study established a pilot framework for a wireless sensor network (WSN)-based real-time monitoring system to understand street-level spatial-temporal changes of carbon monoxide (CO) in urban settings. The system consists of two major components. The first component is the deployment of wireless sensors. We deployed 44 sensor nodes, 40 transmitter nodes and four gateway nodes in this study. Each sensor node includes a signal processing module, a CO sensor and a wireless communication module. In order to capture realistic human exposure to traffic pollutants, all sensors were deployed at a height of 1.5 m on lampposts and traffic signs. The study area covers a total length of 1.5 km of Keelung Road in Taipei City. The other component is a map-based monitoring platform for sensor data visualization and manipulation in time and space. Using intensive real-time street-level monitoring framework, we compared the spatial-temporal patterns of air pollution in different time periods. Our results capture four CO concentration peaks throughout the day at the location, which was located along an arterial and nearby traffic sign. The hourly average could reach 5.3 ppm from 5:00 pm to 7:00 pm due to the traffic congestion. The proposed WSN-based framework captures detailed ground information and potential risk of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution. It also provides street-level insights into real-time monitoring for further early warning of air pollution and urban environmental management.

  11. The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

  12. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and smokers. Carbon monoxide can harm a fetus (unborn baby still in the womb). Symptoms of carbon ... symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. For those who survive, recovery is slow. How ...

  13. Exposures to high levels of carbon monoxide from wood-fired temazcal (steam bath) use in highland Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa M; Clark, Michael; Cadman, Brie; Canúz, Eduardo; Smith, Kirk R

    2011-01-01

    The temazcal is a wood-fired steam bath used in the rural highlands of Guatemala for bathing and healing. We measured carbon monoxide (CO) among 288 participants in 72 temazcales. Participants were drawn from communities who participated in the RESPIRE (Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects) chimney stove intervention trial. Temazcal CO exposures were extremely high, averaging 431 parts per million (time-weighted average). Compared to kitchen wood-smoke exposures, the temazcal contributes significantly to weekly exposures, despite the fact that the population spends less time in the temazcal than in the kitchen. This report 1) describes temazcal use patterns; 2) reports participants' signs and symptoms during temazcal use; 3) models the distribution of temazcal CO concentrations; 4) assesses reliability of exhaled breath CO as a biomarker of CO exposure; and 5) provides a proportional analysis of CO concentrations from temazcal use, as compared to kitchen concentrations.

  14. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main content Languages 简体中文 English Bahasa Indonesia 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase ... Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as ...

  15. An improved infrared carbon monoxide analyser for routine measurements aboard commercial airbus aircraft: Technical validation and first scientific results of the MOZAIC III programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nedelec

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The European-funded MOZAIC programme (Measurements of ozone and water vapour by Airbus in-service aircraft has been operational since 1994 aboard 5 commercial Airbus A340. It has gathered ozone and water vapour data between the ground and an altitude of 12 km from more than 20 000 long-range flights. A new infrared carbon monoxide analyser has been developed for installation on the MOZAIC equipped aircraft. Improvements in the basic characteristics of a commercial CO analysers have achieved performance suitable for routine aircraft measurements : ±5 ppbv, ±5% precision for a 30 s response time. The first year of operation on board 4 aircraft with more than 900 flights has proven the reliability and the usefulness of this CO analyser. The first scientific results are presented here, including UTLS exchange events and pollution within the boundary layer.

  16. MOPITT Carbon Monoxide Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    MOPITT observed high levels of carbon monoxide (red and yellow pixels) over the Indian sub-continent during March. These values are associated with industrial activity in the region just south of the Himalayan Mountains. Notice that to the north, the Himalayas are characterized by low values (blue pixels).

  17. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide from Engine-Driven Generators and ... Engine-Driven Tools, 2004–2014 JANUARY 08, 2015 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2011 Annual Estimates View All ... Inside CPSC Accessibility ...

  18. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Optimization of Treatment Policy for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Akalayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, succinate-containing solutions, and anti-edematous agents in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 32 patients admitted in 2009—2011 for severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning and a Glasgow coma score of 6—8. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 patients whose combination therapy involved hyperbaric oxygenation, Succinasol infusions, and L-lysine-aescinate injections; 2 those who received traditional therapy. All the patients underwent complex clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiologic examinations. Results. Just 24 hours after the combination use of Succinasol and L-lysine-aescinate, Group I patients were observed to have substantially reduced lactate, the content of the latter approached the normal value following 48 hours, which was much below the values in the control group. The similar pattern was observed when endogenous intoxication parameters were examined. During the performed therapy, the level of consciousness and that of intellect according to the MMSE and FAB scales were restored more rapidly in the study group patients than in Group 2. Conclusion. The combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, the succinate-containing solution Succinasol, and the anti-edematous agent L-lysine-aescinate considerably enhances the efficiency of intensive therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Key words: carbon monoxide, toxic hypoxic encephalopathy, combination therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, succinic acid, L-lysine-aescinate.

  3. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Search CPSC Search Menu Home Recalls Recall List CPSC Recall API Recall Lawsuits ... and Bans Report an Unsafe Product Consumers Businesses Home Safety Education Safety Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information ...

  4. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ... 2011 Annual Estimates View All CO-Related Injury Statistics and Technical Reports Related Links Recalls Safety Education ...

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ... Related Links Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources OnSafety Blogs ...

  6. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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    Full Text Available ... Community Outreach Resource Center Toy Recall Statistics CO Poster Contest Pool Safely Business & Manufacturing Business & Manufacturing Business ... Featured Resources CPSC announces winners of carbon monoxide poster contest Video View the blog Clues You Can ...

  7. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury Data ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 Annual Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire ...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  10. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & ... 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 ...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  12. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  13. The Effect of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning on Platelet Volume in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halise Akça

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality. There is increasing evidence supporting the important role of mean platelet volume (MPV as a marker of hypoxia and inflammation. In this study, we aimed to determine changes in MPV values in pediatric patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated children who were diagnosed with carbon monoxide poisoning in our hospital between January 2005 and 2014. Results: We included 228 children with carbon monoxide poisoning (49% male in this retrospective, controlled study. The mean age of the patients was 88±56 months. Control group consisted of 200 age-matched healthy children. There was no statistically significant difference in MPV levels between the study and control groups (8.43±1.1 fL and 8.26±0.7 fL, respectively. No correlation of MPV and platelet count with carboxyhemoglobin (COHb was found. Conclusion: In our study, it was determined that MPV value was not a helpful parameter for predicting the diagnosis of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in childhood. The difference between the MPV values and the lack of significance and the absence of correlation between MPV value and COHb level led to the fact that MPV was not a guide indicating the clinical severity of the condition.

  14. Assessment of exposure to carbon monoxide group of firefighters from fire fighting and rescue units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Lembas-Bogaczyk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Firemen threat during fire burning of chemical substances indicated presence of carbon monoxide (CO in all cases. Carbon monoxide causes death of fire. Inhaled through respiratory system, links with hemoglobin, thus blocking transport and distribution of oxygen in the body. This leads to tissue anoxia, which is a direct threat to firefighters’ life. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure to carbon monoxide of participating firefighters extinguishing fire. Estimation of carbon monoxide quantity absorbed by firefighters was isolated in a group of 40 firefighters from Fire Extinguishing and Rescue Unit of State Fire in Nysa. The study was conducted by measuring carbon monoxide in exhaled air. For measurement of carbon monoxide concentration in exhaled air Micro CO meter was used. Results were demonstrated separately for nonsmokers (n425 and smokers (n415. Mean COHb[%] levels in nonsmokers, measured prior the rescue action was 0,3950,3% and increased statistically significant after the action to 0,6150,34%, while in the group smokers, this level was 2,1750,64% before the action and increased insignificantly after the action to 2,3350,63%. The average COHb level in the same groups before and after exercise, was respectively: for nonsmokers prior to exercise was 0,4850,28% and after exercise decreased statistically significant to 0,3050,27%. In the group of smokers before exercise was 2,2350,61% and decreased statistically significant up to 1,5450,71%. It was no difference between the group of age and time of employment.

  15. Hyperbaric programs in the United States: Locations and capabilities of treating decompression sickness, arterial gas embolisms, and acute carbon monoxide poisoning: survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Walter; Jacoby, Laura; Simon, Olivia; Talati, Nisha; Wegrzyn, Gracelene; Jacoby, Rachelle; Proano, Jacob; Sprau, Susan E; Markovitz, Gerald; Hsu, Rita; Joo, Ellie

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the primary treatment for arterial gas embolism, decompression sickness and acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Though there has been a proliferation of hyperbaric centers throughout the United States, a scarcity of centers equipped to treat emergency indications makes transport of patients necessary. To locate and characterize hyperbaric chambers capable of treating emergency cases, a survey of centers throughout the entire United States was conducted. Using Google, Yahoo, HyperbaricLink and the UHMS directory, a database for United States chambers was created. Four researchers called clinicians from the database to administer the survey. All centers were contacted for response until four calls went unreturned or a center declined to be included. The survey assessed chamber readiness to respond to high-acuity patients, including staff availability, use of medical equipment such as ventilators and intravenous infusion devices, and responding yes to treating hyperbaric emergencies within a 12-month period. Only 43 (11.9%, N = 361) centers had equipment, intravenous infusion pumps and ventilators, and staff necessary to treat high-acuity patients. Considering that a primary purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the treatment of arterial gas embolism and decompression sickness, more hyperbaric centers nationwide should be able to accommodate these emergency cases quickly and safely.

  16. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  17. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Pillion

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

  18. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) ......) in arterial blood. The objectives were to determine the level of correlation and to determine whether the methods showed agreement and evaluate them as diagnostic tests in discriminating between heavy and light smokers....

  19. Effect of N-Acetylcysteine in Protecting from Simultaneous Noise and Carbon Monoxide Induced Hair Cell Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Pourbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor and reactive oxygen species scavenger, is reported to be effective in reducing noise-induced hearing loss. Many workers in industry are exposed simultaneously to noise and chemical pollutants such as carbon monoxide. We investigated effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine in protecting the cochlea from simultaneous noise and carbon monoxide damages.Methods: Twelve rabbits were exposed simeltaneously to 100 dB sound pressure level of broad band noise and carbon monoxide 8 hours a day for 5 days. One hour before exposure, experimental group received 325 mg/kg of N-acetylcysteine while normal saline was administered for the control group. The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine was evaluated 3 weeks after exposure by histological assessment of the hair cells.Results: Simultaneous exposure to noise and carbon monoxide resulted in a considerable damage to the outer hair cells; however, the inner hair cells and the pillar cells remained intact. Use of N-acetylcysteine in the experimental group significantly reduced the extent of outer hair cell loss.Conclusion: N-acetylcysteine attenuates simultaneous noise and carbon monoxide induced hair cell damage in rabbits.

  20. Same Exposure, Various Clinical Pictures: The Carbon Monoxide Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Salmanoglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available -Children and adolescents exposed to the same source of carbon monoxide have been shown to demonstrate different clinical pictures (1,2. The same condition probably may be extrapolated between children with varying ages and hence lung surface areas. Smaller children will receive larger doses of carbon monoxide, because they have greater lung surface area/body weight ratios and increased minute volumes/weight ratios. As carbon monoxide accumulation is expected to be more significant nearer to the ground, another explanation for varying clinical pictures in poisoning events may be the different level of sleeping positions of the casualties. Herein, we report a cluster poisoning of carbon monoxide affecting 5 children from the same family at the same time but in different clinical pictures. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 118-118

  1. Avaliação da concentração de monóxido de carbono no ar exalado em tabagistas com DPOC Evaluation of the exhaled carbon monoxide levels in smokers with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Chatkin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Medir os níveis de monóxido de carbono no ar exalado (COex em tabagistas com e sem DPOC. MÉTODOS: Tabagistas frequentadores dos ambulatórios do Hospital São Lucas em Porto Alegre (RS entre setembro de 2007 e março de 2009 foram convidados a participar do estudo. Os participantes responderam a um questionário com características demográficas e epidemiológicas e realizaram espirometria, medição de cotinina urinária e de COex. Os participantes foram agrupados conforme a presença de DPOC. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 294 tabagistas, 174 (59,18% diagnosticados com DPOC. Todos os participantes apresentavam níveis de cotinina urinária > 50 ng/mL. Os fumantes com DPOC apresentaram medianas significativamente superiores as do grupo sem DPOC para as variáveis idade e maços-ano (p OBJECTIVE: To measure exhaled carbon monoxide (COex levels in smokers with and without COPD. METHODS: Smokers treated at outpatient clinics of São Lucas Hospital in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, between September of 2007 and March of 2009 were invited to participate in this study. The participants completed a questionnaire regarding demographic and epidemiologic characteristics and were submitted to spirometry, as well as to determination of COex and urinary cotinine levels. The participants were divided into two groups: those with COPD and those without COPD. RESULTS: The study involved 294 smokers, of whom 174 (59.18% had been diagnosed with COPD. All of the participants presented with urinary cotinine levels > 50 ng/mL. Smokers with COPD presented significantly higher median values for age and pack-years than did those without COPD (p < 0.001 and p = 0.026, respectively. No other statistically significant differences were found. When adjusted for gender, age at smoking onset, number of cigarettes/day and urinary cotinine level, the mean values of COex were higher, but not statistically so, in the COPD group than in the non-COPD group (17.8 ± 0

  2. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When power outages occur after severe weather (such as winter storms, hurricanes or tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a ...

  3. Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Carbon Monoxide (CO) system provides high-precision atmospheric concentration measurements of CO mixing ratio (ppbv dry air) every 10...

  4. Practical Results of a Five-level Flying Capacitor Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sivkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the realization of a five-level Flying Capacitor Inverter. After a brief description of general Power Electronic Converters and an introduction to the advantages of Multilevel Inverters over conventional two-level Inverters the main focus is on the five-level Flying Capacitor Inverter. The Flying Capacitor Multilevel Inverter (FCMI is a Multilevel Inverter (MI where the capacitor voltage can be balanced using only a control strategy for any number of levels. After a general description of five-level FCMI topology, the simulation and experimental results are presented. The capacitor voltage is stabilized here with various output voltage amplitude values. The simulation and experimental results of five-level FCMI show that the voltage is stabilized on capacitors using the control strategy. A single-phase five-level FCMI model is currently being developed and constructed in the laboratory. Some of the experimental results are available.

  5. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  6. CHANGE OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN PLASMA AND TISSUE DURING ACUTE HYPOXIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁学琴; 刘贵明; 王俊科; 盛卓人

    2003-01-01

    Objective.To investigate the role of endogenous carbon monoxide(CO)in hypoxia. Methods. After rats were inhaled with hypoxic gases and the heme oxygenase inhibitor ZnPPIX was administered,we measured the CO levels in plasma,liver,lung and kidney. Meanwhile plasma cGMP levels were observed. Furthermore,we recorded the changes of hemodynamic and blood gases. Results. Acute mild hypoxia(10%O2)significantly increased CO levels in plasma as well as liver,kidney and lung,while acute severe hypoxia(5%O2)significantly decreased CO levels in plasma as well as liver,kidney and lung. In addition,the former significantly elevated cGMP levels in plasma while the latter markedly reduced cGMP levels in plasma. The hemodynamic changes occurred in accordance with the changes of carbon monoxide. Conclusions. Our results indicate,for the first time ,that the endogenous carbon monoxide plays an important role in regulating the vessel tone during hypoxia.

  7. Exceptional longevity does not result in excessive levels of disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt; Petersen, Inge

    2008-01-01

    Late-life loss of independence in daily living is a central concern for the aging individual and for society. The implications of increased survival to advanced age may be different at the population level than at the individual level. Here we used a longitudinal multi-assessment survey of the en...... of independence. For society, mortality reductions are not expected to result in exceptional levels of disability in cohorts of the very old....

  8. First-Principles Investigations on Europium Monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2011-05-01

    Europium monoxide is both an insulator and a Heisenberg ferromagnet (Tc=69 K). In the present thesis, the author has investigated the electronic structure of different types of EuO by density functional theory. The on-site Coulomb interaction of the localized Eu 4f and 5d electrons, which is wrongly treated in the standard generalized gradient approximation method, is found to be crucial to obtain the correct insulating ground state as observed in experiments. Our results show that the ferromagnetism is stable under pressure, both hydrostatic and uniaxial. For both types of pressure an insulator-metal transition is demonstrated. Moreover, the experimentally observed insulator-metal transition in oxygen deficient and gadolinium-doped EuO is reproduced in our calculations for impurity concentrations of 6.25% and 25%. Furthermore, a 10- layer EuO thin film is theoretically predicted to be an insulator with a narrow band gap of around 0.08 eV, while the Si/EuO interface shows metallic properties with the Si and O 2p as well as Eu 5d bands crossing the Fermi level.

  9. Vibrationally Excited Carbon Monoxide Produced via a Chemical Reaction Between Carbon Vapor and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Elijah R.; Eckert, Zakari; Frederickson, Kraig; Rich, Bill; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2017-06-01

    Measurements of the vibrational distribution function of carbon monoxide produced via a reaction between carbon vapor and molecular oxygen has shown a total population inversion on vibrational levels 4-7. Carbon vapor, produced using an arc discharge to sublimate graphite, is mixed with an argon oxygen flow. The excited carbon monoxide is vibrationally populated up to level v=14, at low temperatures, T=400-450 K, in a collision-dominated environment, 15-20 Torr, with total population inversions between v=4-7. The average vibrational energy per CO molecule formed by the reaction is 0.6-1.2 eV/molecule, which corresponds to 10-20% of the reaction enthalpy. Kinetic modeling of the flow reactor, including state specific vibrational processes, was performed to infer the vibrational distribution of the products of the reaction. The results show viability of developing of a new chemical CO laser from the reaction of carbon vapor and oxygen.

  10. (Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  11. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  12. ROLE OF ENDOGENOUS CARBON MONOXIDE IN ENDOTOXIN SHOCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in endotoxin shock. Methods. The changes of CO levels and the effects of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP),an inhibitor of heme-oxygenase (HO), in endotoxin shock and the efficacy of hemin,an inducer of HO were investigated.Results. The plasma CO levels were found to be significantly increased during the course of endotoxin shock. Injection of ZnPP was shown to abrogate the endotoxin-induced hypotension and metabolic derangements markedly. Administration of hemin to healthy rabbits revealed the hypotension and metabolic derangements similar to the animals given endotoxin.Conclusion.CO is a newly found endogenously produced mediator which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock.

  13. ROLE OF ENDOGENOUS CARBON MONOXIDE IN ENDOTOXIN SHOCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史源; 李华强; 潘捷; 覃世文; 潘凤; 蒋东波; 沈际皋

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in endotoxin shock. Methods. The changes of CO levels and the effects of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), an inhibitor of hemeoxygenase (HO), in endotoxin shock and the efficacy of heroin, an inducer of HO were investigated. Results. The plasma CO levels were found to be significantly increased during the comse of endotoxin shock. Injection of ZnPP was shown to abrogate the endotoxin-induced hypotension and metabolic derangements markedly. Administration of hemin to healthy rabbits revealed the hypotension and metabolic derangements similar to the animsls given endotoxin. Conclusion. CO is a newly found endogenously produced mediator which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock.

  14. Toxicological Investigation of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Four Occupants of a Fuming Sport Utility Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nnoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This toxicological investigation involves a report on the death of four occupants of a sport utility vehicle on one of the major busy Federal roads of Nigeria where they were held for up to three hours in a traffic jam while the car was steaming. Methods: Autopsy was executed using the standard procedure and toxicological analysis was done using simple spectrophotometric method to establish the level of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO in peripheral blood in the four occupants. Results: The autopsy report indicated generalized cyanosis, sub-conjuctival hemorrhages, marked laryngo-trachea edema with severe hyperemia with frothy fluid discharges characteristic of carbon monoxide poisoning. Toxicological report of the level of HbCO in part per million (ppm in the peripheral blood of the four occupants was A= 650 ppm; B= 500 ppm; C= 480 ppm, and D= 495 ppm against the maximum permissible level of 50 ppm. Conclusion: The sudden death of the four occupants was due to excessive inhalation of the carbon monoxide gas from the exhaust fumes leaking into the cabin of the car. The poor road network, numerous potholes, and traffic jam in most of roads in Nigeria could have exacerbated a leaky exhaust of the smoky second hand SUV car leading to the acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  15. Carbon monoxide formation in tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladon, R.J.; Staby, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is not emanated to any large extent from tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. cvs. Rutgers and Ohio MR-13), but is retained within the internal atmosphere. CO is found during all stages of fruit development, but no set pattern of CO concentration is evident.

  16. High temperature thermodynamics and vaporization of stoichiometric titanium monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.I.; Gilles, P.W.

    1976-08-17

    Three vaporization experiments were performed on samples of nearly stoichiometric titanium monoxide. Two experiments were constant temperature experiments (1806/sup 0/K) designed to measure the equilibrium vapor pressures of Ti(g) and TiO(g). In one experiment titanium monoxide was vaporized from a tungsten Knudsen effusion cell; the vapor was collected on a water cooled quartz cap surrounding the cell; and the total amount of titanium deposited on the cap was analyzed colorimetrically. In the second constant temperature experiment (1806/sup 0/K) the vapor composition in equilibrium with nearly stoichiometric titanium monoxide was measured mass spectrometrically. The mass spectrometer results were used to apportion the total titanium collected in the first experiment to Ti(g) and TiO(g). In the third experiment the temperature dependence of the ions Ti/sup +/(48) and TiO(64) was measured spectrometrically. The results obtained in this work are compared with published thermodynamic properties of the titanium oxygen system, and indicate the standard free energy of formation of titanium monoxide obtained from the earliest calorimetric measurements yielded a result not negative enough and also oxygen pressures obtained by emf measurements for stoichiometric titanium monoxide at 1806/sup 0/K are high by a factor of 42.6. The present results are in good agreement with the thermodynamic properties reported in recently issued pages of the JANAF Thermochemical Tables.

  17. Correlation of the degree of dyspnea with health-related quality of life, functional abilities, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide in patients with systemic sclerosis and active alveolitis: results from the Scleroderma Lung Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Dinesh; Clements, Philip J; Furst, Daniel E; Chon, Yun; Elashoff, Robert; Roth, Michael D; Sterz, Mildred G; Chung, Joannie; FitzGerald, John D; Seibold, James R; Varga, John; Theodore, Arthur; Wigley, Fredrick M; Silver, Richard M; Steen, Virginia D; Mayes, Maureen D; Connolly, M Kari; Fessler, Barri J; Rothfield, Naomi F; Mubarak, Kamal; Molitor, Jerry; Tashkin, Donald P

    2005-02-01

    To determine whether baseline self-assessment measures of health status and physiologic indices of disease severity in alveolitis-positive patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) correlate with the severity of their dyspnea, and to quantify functional impairment in patients with scleroderma lung disease and compare it with that in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). SSc patients (n = 138) with diffuse (n = 81) or limited (n = 57) cutaneous disease and active alveolitis (determined by bronchoalveolar lavage and/or high-resolution computed tomography) who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored, multicenter, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of oral cyclophosphamide for treatment of SSc-associated interstitial lung disease were evaluated. Pearson's univariate correlations were determined between the Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scales, functional questionnaires, and physiologic parameters of breathing (forced vital capacity [FVC] and single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO]). Student's t-test was used to compare subgroups. Scores from 2 instruments for self-assessment of breathlessness, Mahler's baseline dyspnea index (BDI) and a visual analog scale (VAS) for breathing, were divided at the median. Values for the DLCO and FVC (% predicted) were divided based on the American Thoracic Society guidelines for mild (>70% of predicted), moderate (50-70% of predicted), and severe (alveolitis, all 8 domains of the SF-36 were significantly impaired as compared with the healthy population and were similar to those reported by patients with COPD. The SF-36 was able to discriminate between scleroderma lung disease patients with more severe and less severe breathlessness, the primary symptom of active alveolitis. The SF-36 complements the BDI and VAS scores for breathing in scleroderma lung disease and is variably

  18. Evaluating forensic biology results given source level propositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Duncan; Abarno, Damien; Hicks, Tacha; Champod, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    The evaluation of forensic evidence can occur at any level within the hierarchy of propositions depending on the question being asked and the amount and type of information that is taken into account within the evaluation. Commonly DNA evidence is reported given propositions that deal with the sub-source level in the hierarchy, which deals only with the possibility that a nominated individual is a source of DNA in a trace (or contributor to the DNA in the case of a mixed DNA trace). We explore the use of information obtained from examinations, presumptive and discriminating tests for body fluids, DNA concentrations and some case circumstances within a Bayesian network in order to provide assistance to the Courts that have to consider propositions at source level. We use a scenario in which the presence of blood is of interest as an exemplar and consider how DNA profiling results and the potential for laboratory error can be taken into account. We finish with examples of how the results of these reports could be presented in court using either numerical values or verbal descriptions of the results.

  19. Observations of iodine monoxide columns from satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schönhardt

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodine species in the troposphere are linked to ozone depletion and new particle formation. In this study, a full year of iodine monoxide (IO columns retrieved from measurements of the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument is presented, coupled with a discussion of their uncertainties and the detection limits. The largest amounts of IO are found near springtime in the Antarctic. A seasonal variation of iodine monoxide in Antarctica is revealed with high values in springtime, slightly less IO in the summer period and again larger amounts in autumn. In winter, no elevated IO levels are found in the areas accessible to satellite measurements. This seasonal cycle is in good agreement with recent ground-based measurements in Antarctica. In the Arctic region, no elevated IO levels were found in the period analysed. This implies that different conditions with respect to iodine release exist in the two Polar Regions. To investigate possible release mechanisms, comparisons of IO columns with those of tropospheric BrO, and ice coverage are described and discussed. Some parallels and interesting differences between IO and BrO temporal and spatial distributions are identified. Overall, the large spatial coverage of satellite retrieved IO data and the availability of a long-term dataset provide new insight about the abundances and distributions of iodine compounds in the troposphere.

  20. Uprated OMS Engine Status-Sea Level Testing Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, J. D.; Boyd, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    The current Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) is pressure fed, utilizing storable propellants. Performance uprating of this engine, through the use of a gas generator driven turbopump to increase operating pressure, is being pursued by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Component level design, fabrication, and test activities for this engine system have been on-going since 1984. More recently, a complete engine designated the Integrated Component Test Bed (ICTB), was tested at sea level conditions by Aerojet. A description of the test hardware and results of the sea level test program are presented. These results, which include the test condition operating envelope and projected performance at altitude conditions, confirm the capability of the selected Uprated OME (UOME) configuration to meet or exceed performance and operational requirements. Engine flexibility, demonstrated through testing at two different operational mixture ratios, along with a summary of projected Space Shuttle performance enhancements using the UOME, are discussed. Planned future activities, including ICTB tests at simulated altitude conditions, and recommendations for further engine development, are also discussed.

  1. Analysis of Carbon Monoxide in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Benjamin P.; Stephens, Joseph C.

    2003-04-01

    Forensic tests used to perform the qualitative and quantitative analyses of carbon monoxide in blood are described. The qualitative test uses the diffusion of CO, which is released from blood by reaction with H2SO4, into a PdCl2 solution in a Conway cell and the resultant formation of a palladium mirror. The quantitative analysis is based on the absorption of visible light by carboxyhemoglobin at 541 nm and reduced hemoglobin at 555 nm. Both procedures are suitable for undergraduate chemistry experiments.

  2. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, A.S. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI); Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  3. Pregnancy Hypertenssion and Preeclampsia in Enviromental Expossure to Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In this study relationship between carbon monoxide (CO) with pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia in mothers in various levels of CO pollution was evaluated. Methods: The study was carried out in three teaching hospitals and 4500 pregnant women living area divided in one low-level CO polluted and as the second level, three moderate to high polluted areas (central, south and west). The subjects, residence places were within 5 kilometers of the air pollution monitoring ...

  4. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms.

  5. Cobalt promoted copper manganese oxide catalysts for ambient temperature carbon monoxide oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher; Taylor, Stuart H; Burrows, Andrew; Crudace, Mandy J; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2008-04-14

    Low levels of cobalt doping (1 wt%) of copper manganese oxide enhances its activity for carbon monoxide oxidation under ambient conditions and the doped catalyst can display higher activity than current commercial catalysts.

  6. Study on Response Time of SPE Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The influence of structural design and the parameters of the working electrode on the response time of a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) carbon monoxide sensor has been studied. Results show that the response time is mainly determined by the RC time constant of the catalyst layer and also related with the working electrode potential.

  7. Carbon monoxide conversion by anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and 55degreesC
    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and

  8. A Southern Hemisphere atmospheric history of carbon monoxide from South Pole firn air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, M.; Novelli, P. C.; Holmes, C. D.; Prather, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a reactive trace gas and is important to tropospheric photochemistry as a major sink of hydroxyl radicals (OH). Major sources of CO are fossil fuel combustion, linked mostly to automotive emissions, biomass burning, and oxidation of atmospheric methane. Understanding changes in carbon monoxide over the past century will improve our understanding of man's influence on the reactivity of the atmosphere. Little observational information is available about CO levels and emissions prior to the 1990s, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. The NOAA global flask network provides the most complete instrumental record of CO, extending back to 1988. Annually averaged surface flask measurements suggest atmospheric CO levels at South Pole were relatively stable from 2004-2009 at about 51 nmol mol-1 [Novelli and Masarie, 2013]. In this study, a 20th century atmospheric history of CO is reconstructed from South Pole firn air measurements, using a 1-D firn air diffusion model. Firn air samples were collected in glass flasks from two adjacent holes drilled from the surface to 118 m at South Pole, Antarctica during the 2008/2009 field season and CO analysis was carried out by NOAA/CCG. Carbon monoxide levels increase from about 45 nmol mol-1 in the deepest firn sample at 116 m to 52 nmol mol-1 at 107 m, and remain constant at about 51-52 nmol mol-1 at shallower depths. Atmospheric histories based on the firn air reconstructions suggest that CO levels over Antarctica increased by roughly 40% (from about 36 to 50 nmol mol-1) between 1930-1990, at a rate of about 0.18 nmol mol-1 yr-1. Firn air and surface air results suggest the rate of CO increase at South Pole slowed considerably after 1990. The firn air-based atmospheric history is used to infer changes in Southern Hemisphere CO emissions over the 20th century.

  9. Smooth muscle cell-derived carbon monoxide is a regulator of vascular cGMP.

    OpenAIRE

    Morita, T.; Perrella, M A; Lee, M E; Kourembanas, S

    1995-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO; EC 1.14.99.3). In vascular smooth muscle cells, exogenously administered CO increases cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP), which is an important regulator of vessel tone. We report here that smooth muscle cells produce CO via HO and that it regulates cGMP levels in these cells. Hypoxia, which has profound effects on vessel tone, significantly increased the transcriptional rate of the HO-1 gene resulting in correspondi...

  10. The Carbon Monoxide Tape Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Filipiak, M.

    2006-01-01

    Using Aura MLS data we have identified the stratospheric tape recorder in carbon monoxide (CO). Unlike the water vapor tape recorder, which is controlled by upper troposphere processes, the CO tape recorder is linked to seasonal biomass burning. Since CO has a lifetime of only a few months, the CO tape recorder barely extends above 20 km. The tape head for CO appears to be close to 360K near the same location as the water vapor tape head [Read et al, 20041. Both tape heads are below the equatorial cold point tropopause but above the base of the tropical tropopause layer. The tape recorder signal becomes more distinct from 360K to 380K suggesting that convective detrainment of plays a decreasingly important role with altitude. The Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model forced by the climatology of biomass burning reproduces the CO tape recorder.

  11. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate us...

  12. Carbon monoxide and respiratory symptoms in young adult passive smokers: A pilot study comparing waterpipe to cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouba Zeidan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies have correlated second hand smoke (SHS with many diseases, especially respiratory effects. The goal of this study was to measure the impact of SHS on the respiratory symptoms and exhaled carbon monoxide. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 50 young workers in restaurants serving waterpipes, 48 university students who sit frequently in the university cafeteria where cigarette smoking is allowed and 49 university students spending time in places where smoking is not allowed. Subjects completed questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, respiratory symptoms and exposure to SHS. Exhaled carbon monoxide levels were measured. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used when applicable as well as linear and logistic regression analysis. Results: Exposure to cigarette smoke in university (adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 6.06 and occupational exposure to waterpipe smoke (ORa = 7.08 were predictors of chronic cough. Being married (ORa = 6.40, living near a heavy traffic road (ORa = 9.49 or near a local power generator (ORa = 7.54 appeared responsible for chronic sputum production. Moreover, predictors of chronic allergies were: being male (ORa = 7.81, living near a local power generator (ORa = 5.52 and having a family history of chronic respiratory diseases (ORa = 17.01. Carbon monoxide levels were augmented by the number of weekly hours of occupational exposure to waterpipe smoke (β = 1.46 and the number of daily hours of exposure to cigarette smoke (β = 1.14. Conclusions: In summary, young non-smoker subjects demonstrated more chronic cough and elevated carbon monoxide levels when exposed to SHS while the effect of waterpipe was even more evident.

  13. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure.

  14. Engineering evidence for carbon monoxide toxicity cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatsis, Kosmas

    2016-07-01

    Unintentional carbon monoxide poisonings and fatalities lead to many toxicity cases. Given the unusual physical properties of carbon monoxide-in that the gas is odorless and invisible-unorganized and erroneous methods in obtaining engineering evidence as required during the discovery process often occurs. Such evidence gathering spans domains that include building construction, appliance installation, industrial hygiene, mechanical engineering, combustion and physics. In this paper, we attempt to place a systematic framework that is relevant to key aspects in engineering evidence gathering for unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning cases. Such a framework aims to increase awareness of this process and relevant issues to help guide legal counsel and expert witnesses.

  15. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  16. The influence of tobacco blend composition on carbon monoxide formation in mainstream cigarette smoke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Djulančić, Nermina; Radojičić, Vesna; Srbinovska, Marija

    2013-01-01

    ...) in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. The results showed that the type of tobacco examined had a significant impact on the amount of carbon monoxide production in the gas phase of cigarette smoke...

  17. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  18. Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 11/20/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 12/4/2007.

  19. 急性一氧化碳中毒后迟发性脑病患者血清胰岛素样生长因子-1水平及其临床意义研究%Serum IGF-1 Level in Patients with Delayed Encephalopathy after Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾家鹏; 李艳丽; 王冀康; 张萍; 顾仁骏; 李静; 潘登; 衣学伟; 史玫; 高琦

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dynamic changes of level of serum insulin - like growth factor - 1 ( IGF - 1 ) and its clinical significance in patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning ( DEACMP ). Methods 33 DEACMP patients were selected form November 2007 to Jun 2008, IGF - 1 level was assayed with enzyme - linked im-munno - sorbent assay ( ELISA ). Their condition changes were evaluated with Activity of Daily Living Scale ( ADL ), Information - Memory - Concentration Test ( IMCT ) and Hasegawa's Dementia Scale ( HDS ). The above indexes were compared with those of 32 acute carbon monoxide poisoning ( ACMP ) patients without occurrence of DEACMP ( ACMP group ) and of 32 healthy subjects ( control group ). Results ( 1 ) IGF - 1 at acute stage was significantly lower in DEACMP group [ ( 136. 10 ±51. 51 ) μg/L ] than in control group [ ( 192. 91 ± 145. 97 ) μg/L, P 0. 05 ). IGF - 1 was higher at recovery stage [ ( 187. 69 ±92. 46 ) μg/L ] than at acute stage in DEACMP group, the difference was significant (P <0. 05 ). (2) ADL, HDS, IMCT at acute stage was significantly different from those at recovery stage in DEACMP group ( P < 0. 05 ). ( 3 ) IGF - 1 was negatively correlated with ADL in DEACMP group ( r = - 0. 377 , P = 0. 03 ). Conclusion IGF - 1, protecting probably DEACMP patients from brain damage, may be used as one of indexes for clinical outcomes and therapeutic effectiveness assessment.%目的 研究急性一氧化碳中毒后迟发性脑病(DEACMP)患者血清胰岛素样生长因子-1(IGF-1)水平的动态变化及其临床意义.方法 选择2007年11月-2008年6月在我院住院的33例DEACMP患者,采用酶联免疫吸附法动态测定血清IGF-1水平,用日常生活能力量表(ADL)、长谷川痴呆量表(HDS)、常识-记忆-注意测验(IMCT)动态评估DEACMP患者的病情变化,并与32例急性一氧化碳中毒(ACMP)后未发生DEACMP的患者(ACMP组)和32例健康体检者(正常对照组)的

  20. Integrated electricity and carbon monoxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, J.

    1994-03-23

    In a process for the production of carbon monoxide and electric power in an IGCC with the removal of sulphur compounds, between the outlet of quenched gas from a partial oxidation unit and a fuel inlet to a combined cycle gas turbine there is a permeable membrane unit to separate a non-permeable stream, which is utilised as a source of carbon monoxide, and a permeate stream, which is used as fuel for the gas turbine of the combined cycle unit. (author)

  1. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup.

  2. Serum bilirubin value predicts hospital admission in carbon monoxide-poisoned patients. Active player or simple bystander?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cervellin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although carbon monoxide poisoning is a major medical emergency, the armamentarium of recognized prognostic biomarkers displays unsatisfactory diagnostic performance for predicting cumulative endpoints. METHODS: We performed a retrospective and observational study to identify all patients admitted for carbon monoxide poisoning during a 2-year period. Complete demographical and clinical information, along with the laboratory data regarding arterial carboxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin, blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, was retrieved. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 38 poisoned patients (23 females and 15 males; mean age 39±21 years. Compared with discharged subjects, hospitalized patients displayed significantly higher values for blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, whereas arterial carboxyhemoglobin and hemoglobin did not differ. In a univariate analysis, hospitalization was significantly associated with blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, but not with age, sex, hemoglobin or carboxyhemoglobin. The diagnostic performance obtained after combining the blood lactate and total serum bilirubin results (area under the curve, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81-0.99; p<0.001 was better than that obtained for either parameter alone. CONCLUSION: Although it remains unclear whether total serum bilirubin acts as an active player or a bystander, we conclude that the systematic assessment of bilirubin may, alongside lactate levels, provide useful information for clinical decision making regarding carbon monoxide poisoning.

  3. Digit and letter alexia in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Rui Pan; Ying Peng; Wei Peng; Yamei Tang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a 24-year-old patient with delayed encephalopathy, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and visual impairment 1 week after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. The results of a visual field assessment, electroencephalography and head magnetic resonance imaging indicated damage to the cerebral cortex. After a 2-week treatment period, the patient had recovered from the visual impairment, but exhibited digit- and letter-reading difficulty. The Chinese aphasia battery and the number and letter battery supplement were conducted. The results revealed that the patient exhibited digit and letter alexia, while the ability to read Chinese characters was preserved. In contrast, the patient exhibited a deficit in Chinese character writing, while number and letter writing remained intact. Following treatment, reading and writing ability was improved and electroencephalographic abnormalities were ameliorated. Overall, our experimental findings demonstrated that delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning was characterized by digit and letter alexia.

  4. [Levels of carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide in blood of fire victims in the autopsy material of the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Białystok].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardaszka, Zofia; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Janica, Jerzy; Koc-Zórawska, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    The authors present the results of toxicological examination of blood of fatal victims of fires in "closed" spaces. Hydrogen cyanide was present in 26 out of 64 postmortem blood samples. COHb was found in 52 cases. The hydrogen cyanide levels ranged from 0.8 to 39.2 microg/l, the COHb levels ranged from 16.0 to 85.0%. The level of hydrogen cyanide was determined by the pyrazolopyridine method modified by Nedoma, and the COHb level was determined by the Wolff method.

  5. [Sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss after carbon monoxide intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska-Piechowiak, Teresa; Miarzyńska, Maria; Perlik-Gattner, Irena

    2004-01-01

    A case of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss of the left ear after carbon monoxide intoxication was presented. The diagnosis was based upon an interview, medical examinations and audiometric investigations. Results of diagnostic evaluations, clinical presentation and treatment were discussed. Hearing improvement was obtained after 6 days of treatment and normal hearing returned after 14 days. Patients who suffer from CO intoxication are at risk of hearing impairment, therefore, there is a need for audiometric follow up in these patients.

  6. Electronic structure and optical properties of a new type of semiconductor material:graphene monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Gui; Zhang Yufeng; Yan Xunwang

    2013-01-01

    The electronic and optical properties of graphene monoxide,a new type of semiconductor material,are theoretically studied by first-principles density functional theory.The calculated band structure shows that graphene monoxide is a semiconductor with a direct band gap of 0.95 eV.The density of states of graphene monoxide and the partial density of states for C and O are given to understand the electronic structure.In addition,we calculate the optical properties of graphene monoxide,including the complex dielectric function,absorption coefficient,complex refractive index,loss-function,reflectivity and conductivity.These results provide a physical basis for potential application in optoelectronic devices.

  7. Exposure assessment for nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in German hard coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmann, Dirk; Morfeld, Peter; Monz, Christian; Noll, Birgit; Gast, Frank

    2009-11-01

    The exposure situation of German hard coal miners with respect to the components nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Carbon monoxide was measured additionally and the results are displayed but not discussed in detail in this paper. The data were used to estimate personal long-term exposures in an inception cohort. For all three components, time weighted 8-h shift values were determined for typical groups of coalminers according to the European measurement standard. An expert panel from the coal mining company made an effort to estimate major potential changes in the exposure situation. The main sources of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in hard coal mining were the diesel engines. Blasting fumes contributed only to a lesser degree and with different exposure characteristics, e.g. much reduced NO(2) levels compared to the mines' rear areas. As rough 8 h-shift averages describing the current exposure situation, we found 1.35 ppm NO and 0.21 ppm NO(2) for the diesel engine drivers. Blasting specialists were more difficult to evaluate but rough 8 h-shift averages of 0.84 ppm NO and 0.014 ppm NO(2) could be estimated from our measurement series. By applying these data and the estimates of experts about the retrospective exposure situation to a cohort of 1,369 coalminers, we derived mean (max) cumulative exposures in ppm x number of shifts of 1,748 (5,928) for NO and 19.6 (1,013) for NO(2) when summarizing over the follow-up period from 1974 until 1998. Especially for the diesel engine drivers, exposure can be regarded as rather high, in particular, when compared to recommended limits by SCOEL and MAK, though the exposures have been in line with the enforced German occupational exposure limits. Whether this exposure situation has caused adverse health effects will be investigated epidemiologically.

  8. Carbon monoxide measurement by gas chromatography; Mesure du monoxyde de carbone par chromatographie en phase gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, V.; Sarda-Esteve, R.; Bonsang, B.; Ramonet, M.

    1998-09-01

    Although carbon monoxide (CO) is present in trace quantities in the atmosphere (0.1 ppm -or parts per million in volume- on average), the study of this gas is important. Indeed, its impact on human can be dangerous at high level of concentration on the hand and it constitutes one of the main precursor of ozone in presence of concentration on the one hand and it constitutes one of the main precursor of ozone in presence of other pollutants on the other hand. Finally, CO affects the levels of several important greenhouse gases, through its reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH). CO is measured in the atmosphere since the mid 60's by various methods. Among them, gas chromatography has the advantage to combine a low detection limit with a high precision. This report details the improvements made on the measurement analyser which allowed to perform automatic CO measurements in remote areas with low mixing ratios of carbon monoxide. This report describes some quality tests and the results of various applications. (authors)

  9. Is carbon monoxide-mediated cyclic guanosine monophosphate production responsible for low blood pressure in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bel, F; Latour, [No Value; Vreman, HJ; Wong, RJ; Stevenson, DK; Steendijk, P; Egberts, J; Krediet, TG

    Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) involves inflammatory processes, causing an increased expression of inducible heme oxygenase with subsequent production of carbon monoxide (CO). We hypothesized that increased production of CO during RDS might be responsible for increased plasma levels of

  10. Carbon monoxide exposure in households in Ciudad Juárez, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Teresa; Gurian, Patrick L; Velázquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Rojo, Analila; Graham, Jay P

    2008-03-01

    This study assessed exposure to carbon monoxide from gas and wood heater emissions in a sample of 64 households in peri-urban residential areas in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Indoor and outdoor carbon monoxide concentrations and temperatures were monitored for a continuous period of 1 week at 1 and 6-min intervals, respectively. The moving average carbon monoxide concentrations were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for carbon monoxide. Sixty-seven percent of households with gas heaters and 60% of households with wood heaters exceeded a health-based standard at some point during the monitoring. The difference between indoor and outdoor temperatures was modestly correlated with average carbon monoxide exposure (r=0.35, p-value <0.01). Heater type may be a stronger determinant of exposure, as households with a particular heater model (the El Sol FM-210) were significantly more likely to be among the more highly exposed households (odds ratio of 4.8, p-value of 0.02). A variety of health effects were pooled and found at elevated frequency in the households that exceeded the 8-h standard of 9ppm (odds ratio=5.1, p-value=0.031). These results highlight the need for further efforts to identify and mitigate potentially hazardous carbon monoxide exposures, particularly in moderate-income countries with cooler climates.

  11. Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, P.C.; Steele, L.P. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Tans, P.P. (NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-12-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured in air samples collected weekly at eight locations. The air was collected as part of the CMDL/NOAA cooperative flask sampling program (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, formerly Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, Air Resources Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) at Point Barrow, Alaska, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, Mauna Loa and Cape Kumakahi, Hawaii, Guam, Marianas Islands, Christmas Island, Ascension Island and American Samoa. Half-liter or 3-L glass flasks fitted with glass piston stopcocks holding teflon O rings were used for sample collection. CO levels were determined within several weeks of collection using gas chromatography followed by mercuric oxide reduction detection, and mixing ratios were referenced against the CMDL/NOAA carbon monoxide standard scale. During the period of study (mid-1988 through December 1990) CO levels were greatest in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere (mean mixing ratio from January 1989 to December 1990 at Point Barrow was approximately 154 ppb) and decreased towards the south (mean mixing ratio at Samoa over a similar period was 65 ppb). Mixing ratios varied seasonally, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle was greatest in the north and decreased to the south. Carbon monoxide levels were affected by both local and regional scale processes. The difference in CO levels between northern and southern latitudes also varied seasonally. The greatest difference in CO mixing ratios between Barrow and Samoa was observed during the northern winter (about 150 ppb). The smallest difference, 40 ppb, occurred during the austral winter. The annually averaged CO difference between 71[degrees]N and 14[degrees]S was approximately 90 ppb in both 1989 and 1990; the annually averaged interhemispheric gradient from 71[degrees]N to 41[degrees]S is estimated as approximately 95 ppb. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  13. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... regenerator any gases that contain carbon monoxide (CO) in excess of 500 ppm by volume (dry basis)....

  14. [Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  15. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH CARBON MONOXIDE Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Recommendations NIOSH Publications Worker Notification Program Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines Many ...

  16. [Effect of lead and carbon monoxide under the condition of diabetic metabolism (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlipköter, H W; Klitzke, M; Unnewehr, J

    1979-06-01

    The NZO-Mice were used to study the influence of carbon monoxide and lead under the condition of diabetic metabolism. The animals treated with 80 ppm (COHb 10.81) showed significantly lower tolerance for glucose. Even after removing the burden of carbon monoxide for 50 days, the blood sugar level after glucose tolerance test remained in experimental animals significantly higher than in controls (20-min-value). The NZO-Mice after enteral lead exposition showed no significant changes of the condition of the diabetic metabolism after the glucose tolerance test. However, the NZO-Mice, compared to NMRI mice and rats, reached significantly higher level of blood sugar.

  17. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb...

  18. Exhaled carbon monoxide in asthmatics: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language articles published between 1997 and 2009 was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Observational studies comparing eCO in non-smoking asthmatics and healthy subjects or asthmatics before and after steroid treatment were included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed to generate weighted mean differences using either a fixed or random effects meta-analysis depending upon the degree of heterogeneity. Results 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The eCO level was significantly higher in asthmatics as compared to healthy subjects and in intermittent asthma as compared to persistent asthma. However, eCO could not distinguish between steroid-treated asthmatics and steroid-free patients nor separate controlled and partly-controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma in cross-sectional studies. In contrast, eCO was significantly reduced following a course of corticosteroid treatment. Conclusions eCO is elevated in asthmatics but levels only partially reflect disease severity and control. eCO might be a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in nonsmoking asthmatics.

  19. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...

  20. 血清白细胞介素-6、白细胞介素-17和基质金属蛋白酶9水平与一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病的关系%The relationship between the level of interleukin-6, interleukin-17 matrix metallo proteinase 9 and delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳荣; 李晓; 徐化利; 潘双双; 李丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the level of IL-6,IL-17 and matrix metallo proteinase 9 (MMP9) with deleyed encephelopathy after aucte carbon monoxide poisoning metal protease (DEACMP).Methods Rarcdomly selected 58 healthy people and 71 (delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning,DEACMP) patients were taken as control and experimental group,respectively.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the expression of IL-6,IL-17 and MMP9.Results Compared with control,the expression of IL-6 and MMP9 were significantly increased in mild and severe DEACMP patients,while both IL-6 and MMP9 showed largest increase in severe DEACMP patients with statistical significanc (F =22.47,F =36.51,P < 0.05).There was no significant expression changes of IL-17 (F =19.62,P > 0.05).Pearson analysis showed that the expressions of IL-6 and MMP9 were positively correlated with DEACMP (r =0.58,P < 0.05).Conclusions The expression of IL-6 and MMP9 in serum of DEACMP patients were associated with the degree of carbon monoxide poisoning.%目的 探讨白细胞介素(IL)-6)、IL-17和基质金属蛋白酶9(MMP9)与一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病(DEACMP)的关系.方法 随机抽取58例体检健康人群为对照组,抽取71例DEACMP患者为实验组,采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测DEACMP患者血清中IL-6、IL-17和MMP9的表达水平.结果 和对照组相比,轻重度DEACMP患者血清中IL-6和MMP9表达水平升高(F=22.47、F=36.51,P<0.05),其中在重度DEACMP患者血清中升高最显著;IL-17表达水平未有显著变化,差异无统计学意义(F=19.62,P>0.05).Pearson相关分析显示,DEACMP患者血清IL-6和MMP9浓度呈正相关(r=0.58,P<0.05).结论 DEACMP患者血清中IL-6和MMP9的表达水平与一氧化碳中毒的程度和预后密切相关.

  1. Serum IL-18 Levels and Its Clinical Significance in the Blood of Patients with Delated Encephalopathy after Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning%急性一氧化碳中毒后迟发性脑病患者血清白介素18水平及临床意义研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍; 王传升; 韩永凯; 赵国有; 顾家鹏; 魏蕤荭; 顾仁骏

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨白介素18(IL-18)的水平动态变化与急性一氧化碳中毒后迟发性脑病(DEACMP)发生机制的关系,寻找其发生时可能引起的细胞因子的变化,为进一步研究DEACMP免疫学机制提供线索.方法 选择2009年1月-2011年1月住我院神经内科的DEACMP患者40例为DEACMP组及同期我院门诊体检健康者36例为对照组,应用酶联免疫吸附法分别测定DEACMP患者急性期及恢复期的血清IL-18水平,并与对照者进行比较分析.结果 DEACMP患者急性期、恢复期血清IL-18水平[(29.7±8.4)ng/L、(28.3±7.9)ng/L]均高于对照组[(24.1±5.3)ng/L、(24.1±5.3)ng/L],差异均有统计学意义(t=3.433,P=0.001;t=2.693,P=0.009).DEACMP组急性期血清IL-18水平高于恢复期差异有统计学意义(t=2.421,P=0.020).结论 IL-18可能通过迟发性免疫途径参与DEACMP的发病过程,对疾病的发展可能有一定的影响.%Objective To investigate the relationship between dynamic changes of serum IL - 18 level and mechanism of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning ( DEACMP ) to find potential cytokine variation during DEAC-MP occurrence and to provide evidence for further study on immunological mechanism of DEACMP. Methods 40 DEACMP patients admitted to the Neurology Department of our hospital from January 2009 to January 2011 were selected as DEACMP group and another 36 healthy people underwent physical examination in the same period were selected as control group. Enzyme - linked Immunoassay ( ELISA ) method was used to detect the levels of IL - 18 in acute stage and recovery stage, and the results were compared with the control group. Results The levels of IL - 18 in DEACMP patients [ ( 29. 7 ± 8. 4 ) ng/L, ( 28. 3 ± 7. 9 ) ng/L ] were significantly higher than the control group [ ( 24. 1 ±5.3) ng/L, ( 24. 1 ±5.3 ) ng/L ] both in acute stage and recovery stage ( t =3. 433 , P = 0. 001 ; t = 2. 693 , P =0. 009 ). In DEACMP group, the IL - 18 level in

  2. Regional air-quality forecasting for the Pacific Northwest using MOPITT/TERRA assimilated carbon monoxide MOZART-4 forecasts as a near real-time boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. Herron-Thorpe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Results from a regional air quality forecast model, AIRPACT-3, were compared to AIRS carbon monoxide column densities for the spring of 2010 over the Pacific Northwest. AIRPACT-3 column densities showed high correlation (R > 0.9 but were significantly biased (~25% with consistent under-predictions for spring months when there is significant transport from Asia. The AIRPACT-3 CO bias relative to AIRS was eliminated by incorporating dynamic boundary conditions derived from NCAR's MOZART forecasts with assimilated MOPITT carbon monoxide. Changes in ozone-related boundary conditions derived from MOZART forecasts are also discussed and found to affect background levels by ± 10 ppb but not found to significantly affect peak ozone surface concentrations.

  3. Regional air-quality forecasting for the Pacific Northwest using MOPITT/TERRA assimilated carbon monoxide MOZART-4 forecasts as a near real-time boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. Herron-Thorpe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Results from a regional air quality forecast model, AIRPACT-3, were compared to AIRS carbon monoxide column densities for the spring of 2010 over the Pacific Northwest. AIRPACT-3 column densities showed high correlation (R>0.9 but were significantly biased (~25 % with significant under-predictions for spring months with significant transport from Asia. The AIRPACT-3 CO bias relative to AIRS was eliminated by incorporating dynamic boundary conditions derived from NCAR's MOZART forecasts with assimilated MOPITT carbon monoxide. Changes in ozone-related boundary conditions derived from MOZART forecasts are also discussed and found to affect background levels by ±10 ppb but not found to significantly affect peak ozone surface concentrations.

  4. Modeling of Carbon Monoxide Removal by Corona Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jingwei; SUN Yabing; ZHAO Dayong; ZHENG Zheng; XU Yuewu; YANG Haifeng; ZHU Hongbiao; ZHOU Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of carbon monoxide (CO) removal by a corona plasma was conducted in this study.The purification efficiency of CO was calculated theoretically and the factors affecting the removal of CO were analyzed.The results showed that the main removal mechanisms of CO were direct dissociation by generated high-energy electrons and indirect oxidation by generated hydroxyl radicals.The purification efficiency of CO was dependent on the plasma parameters,indoor air humidity and initial concentration of CO.Good consistency between the theoretical calculation and the experimental results was observed.

  5. Disulfide S-monoxides convert xanthine dehydrogenase into oxidase in rat liver cytosol more potently than their respective disulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Satoru; Fujita, Junko; Nakanishi, Masahiko; Wada, Shun-ich; Fujimoto, Yohko

    2008-05-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO)/xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) oxidizes oxypurines to uric acid, with only the XO form producing reactive oxygen species. In the present study, the effects of cystamine S-monoxide and cystine S-monoxide (disulfide S-monoxides) on the conversion of XD to XO in rat liver were examined. A partially purified enzyme fraction from the rat liver was incubated with xanthine in the presence or absence of NAD+, and the uric acid formed was measured by HPLC. Under basal conditions, XO activity represented about 15% of the total XO plus XD activity. Cystamine S-monoxide and cystine S-monoxide converted XD into XO in a dose-dependent manner, and the concentrations required to increase XO activity by 50% were approximately 1 and 2 microM, respectively. Their respective thiols (cysteamine and cysteine) and disulfides (cystamine and cystine) up to 10 microM showed weak or no effects on the activities of XO and XD and their conversion. Experiments utilizing a sulfhydryl reducing reagent (dithiothreitol) and sulfhydryl modifiers (4,4'-dithiodipyridine and 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) indicated that disulfide S-monoxides-induced conversion of XD to XO occurs via disulfide bridge formation in XD, but not the modification of sulfhydryl groups. These results suggest that disulfide S-monoxides have the potential to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species through the conversion of XD to XO in liver.

  6. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning during Pregnancy: Presentation of a Rare Severe Case with Fetal Bladder Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Delomenie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning during pregnancy is a rare and potentially serious condition. Fetal complications are uncommon, related to anoxic lesions. The severity of these complications does not depend on the level of maternal COHb. We report the case of a 22-year-old pregnant woman who at 30 weeks of gestation had carbon monoxide poisoning secondary to a fire in her home, complicated by cardiac arrest and severe fetal damage. The child had not brain damage, but presented bladder lesions not previously described, with urinary ascites complicating megacystis.

  7. OMI Observations of Bromine Monoxide Emissions from Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Kurosu, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze bromine monoxide (BrO) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for emissions from various volcanoes. We use OMI data from 2005 to 2014 to investigate BrO signatures from Galapagos, Kasatochi and Eyjafjallajökull volcanoes. Elevated signatures of BrO daily averages were found over Eyjafjallajökull. SO2 cross sections are updated in the operational BrO algorithm and their effect on the volcanic BrO signature is studied. Comparison between two different sets of SO2 cross sections is made and results still show BrO enhancement over the Eyjafjallajökull region.

  8. Smoke-inhalation injury and the effect of carbon monoxide in the sheep model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazu, T.; Ikeuchi, H.; Hubbard, G.B.; Langlinais, P.C.; Mason, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The role of carbon monoxide (CO) in causing the physiologic and anatomic changes characteristic of smoke inhalation injury was evaluated in 34 sheep. The smoke-exposed group received a dose of smoke known to produce mild inhalation injury. The CO group received a pure gas mixture that contained concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and CO similar to those in the smoke. Cardiopulmonary function was measured immediately after exposure, and 24 and 72 hours after exposure. The CO group showed a transient increase in cardiac output, but the smoke group showed no such response. The CO group maintained normal PaO2 levels during the 72-hour study period; the smoke group gradually developed hypoxemia. The lungs of the CO exposed animals had no discernible histologic changes. These results indicate that CO per se is not the primary etiologic agent of smoke inhalation injury.

  9. Catalyst for Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patricia; Brown, Kenneth; VanNorman, John; Brown, David; Upchurch, Billy; Schryer, David; Miller, Irvin

    2010-01-01

    In many applications, it is highly desirable to operate a CO2 laser in a sealed condition, for in an open system the laser requires a continuous flow of laser gas to remove the dissociation products that occur in the discharge zone of the laser, in order to maintain a stable power output. This adds to the operating cost of the laser, and in airborne or space applications, it also adds to the weight penalty of the laser. In a sealed CO2 laser, a small amount of CO2 gas is decomposed in the electrical discharge zone into corresponding quantities of CO and O2. As the laser continues to operate, the concentration of CO2 decreases, while the concentrations of CO and O2 correspondingly increase. The increasing concentration of O2 reduces laser power, because O2 scavenges electrons in the electrical discharge, thereby causing arcing in the electric discharge and a loss of the energetic electrons required to boost CO2 molecules to lasing energy levels. As a result, laser power decreases rapidly. The primary object of this invention is to provide a catalyst that, by composition of matter alone, contains chemisorbed water within and upon its structure. Such bound moisture renders the catalyst highly active and very long-lived, such that only a small quantity of it needs to be used with a CO2 laser under ambient operating conditions. This object is achieved by a catalyst that consists essentially of about 1 to 40 percent by weight of one or more platinum group metals (Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os, Pt being preferred); about 1 to 90 percent by weight of one or more oxides of reducible metals having multiple valence states (such as Sn, Ti, Mn, Cu, and Ce, with SnO2 being preferred); and about 1 to 90 percent by weight of a compound that can bind water to its structure (such as silica gel, calcium chloride, magnesium sulfate, hydrated alumina, and magnesium perchlorate, with silica gel being preferred). Especially beneficial results are obtained when platinum is present in the

  10. Multimodality evoked potentials in patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiahong Wang; Bo Xiao; Renjun Gu; Lan Xiao; Yi Yang; Yinhui Hao; Nini Wang; Junlin Mu; Jinggang Yin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic values in patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods: The tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), vision evoked potentials (VEPs), and brain stem audition evoked potentials(BAEPs) were performed in 32 healthy adults and 43 patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Results: This paper indicated abnormalities of tibial nerve SEPs in 31 patients (31/43, 72.1%), VEPs in 17 patients (17/28, 60.7%), and BAEPs in 14 patients (14/43, 32.6%). These results showed that the greatest diagnostic value was SEPs, followed by VEPs and, BAEPs with the lowest sensitivity. Conclusion: Multimodality evoked potentials (EPs) can be used for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic values in cases of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  11. Photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortschak, H.P.; Nickell, L.G.

    1973-01-01

    The photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane was studied to determine whether substantial quantities of CO are removed from the air by fields in Hawaii. Leaves metabolized low CO concentrations photosynthetically, with sucrose as an end product. Rates of uptake were of the order of 10/sup -4/ power mg/d sq m/hr. This was to low to be significant in removing CO from the atmosphere.

  12. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  13. Space-based observation of volcanic iodine monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions inject substantial amounts of halogens into the atmosphere. Chlorine and bromine oxides have frequently been observed in volcanic plumes from different instrumental platforms such as from ground, aircraft and satellites. The present study is the first observational evidence that iodine oxides are also emitted into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions. Large column amounts of iodine monoxide, IO, are observed in satellite measurements following the major eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in 2008. The IO signal is detected in measurements made both by SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY) on ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) and GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2) on MetOp-A (Meteorological Operational Satellite A). Following the eruption on 7 August 2008, strongly elevated levels of IO slant columns of more than 4 × 1013 molec cm-2 are retrieved along the volcanic plume trajectories for several days. The retrieved IO columns from the different instruments are consistent, and the spatial distribution of the IO plume is similar to that of bromine monoxide, BrO. Details in the spatial distribution, however, differ between IO, BrO and sulfur dioxide, SO2. The column amounts of IO are approximately 1 order of magnitude smaller than those of BrO. Using the GOME-2A observations, the total mass of IO in the volcanic plume injected into the atmosphere from the eruption of Kasatochi on 7 August 2008, is determined to be on the order of 10 Mg.

  14. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayusman; Jiang, Zhaozhong

    1996-01-01

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

  15. Range Measurements of keV Hydrogen Ions in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Andersen, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    Ranges of 1.3–3.5 keV/atom hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions have been measured by a thin-film reflection method. The technique, used here for range measurements in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide targets, is identical to the one used previously for range measurements in hydrogen and nitrogen....... The main aim was to look for phase-effects, i.e. gas-solid differences in the stopping processes. While measured ranges in solid oxygen were in agreement with known gas data, the ranges in solid carbon monoxide were up to 50% larger than those calculated from gas-stopping data. The latter result agrees...

  16. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposed the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide...

  17. Formation of orthorhombic tin dioxide from mechanically milled monoxide powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamelas, F. J.

    2004-12-01

    X-ray scattering measurements are used to show that the metastable orthorhombic phase of tin dioxide is produced by the oxidation of mechanically milled litharge-phase tin monoxide. After milling to a grain size of approximately 20nm, followed by heating to 575°C, the fraction of the orthorhombic phase is approximately 80%. The orthorhombic phase was originally observed in high-pressure experiments, but more recently, it has been produced in a wide variety of thin-film and nanoparticle samples. The data presented here demonstrate the importance of small-grain-size tin monoxide as a precursor in the ambient-pressure synthesis of the orthorhombic phase. This result has practical importance in the production of tin dioxide gas sensors. A more fundamental observation is that the particle size of a precursor phase can have a marked effect on subsequent phases produced during oxidation. Lastly, a formula for determining the orthorhombic fraction in two-phase tin dioxide samples is developed using the method of standard additions.

  18. Evaluation of carbon monoxide in blood samples from the second health and nutrition survey. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, E.P.

    1976-01-01

    This is a study of carbon monoxide (CO) in the blood of human subjects participating in the Second National Health and Nutrition Survey (HANES II), a detailed study of health indicators in sample populations of many communities throughout the U.S. The purpose of this aspect of the survey is to evaluate the levels of blood carboxyhemoglobin in normal individuals of all ages in typical U.S. communities, from whom accurate histories and clinical studies are available. This report gives results of the first of three years of analyses. A careful calibration of the analytical method has been completed, and more than 3000 blood samples have been analyzed. Although smoking histories are not yet available to permit evaluation of carboxyhemoglobin in non-smokers, in children under 12 years of age, blood COHb has been found to be consistently low, with less than 3% greater than 1.5% COHb. These preliminary results suggest that urban exposure to carbon monoxide among the general population is not now significant in the U.S., at least during the period of these early examinations.

  19. Synthesis of Diethyl Oxalate by a Coupling-Regeneration Reaction of Carbon Monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fandong Meng; Genhui Xu; Baowei Wang; Xinbin Ma

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a process for the synthesis of diethyl oxalate by a coupling reaction ofcarbon monoxide, catalyzed by palladium in the presence of ethyl nitrite. The kinetics and mechanism ofthe coupling and regeneration reaction are also discussed. This paper presents the results of a scale-uptest of the catalyst and the process based on an a priori computer simulation.

  20. Occupational poisoning by carbon monoxide aboard a gas carrier. Report on 8 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, David; Loddé, Brice; Jegaden, Dominique; Bronstein, Jean-Ariel; Pougnet, Richard; Bell, S; Dewitte, Jean-Dominique

    2010-01-01

    - To determine the accidental factors and the clinical symptoms in eight cases of occupational poisoning of port workers by carbon monoxide. - To consider the primary prevention of this serious pathology occurring at work. - To analyze the circumstances of the exposure to carbon monoxide in the employees in the naval repair sector. - To indicate the systemic failures causing this accidental poisoning, the means for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, and to discuss the prevention of such accidents. The poisoning occurred in eight mechanics and electricians working without any protective means in a gas carrier tank in dry dock. The employees, unaware of carbon monoxide exposure, stayed for 45 minutes in an atmosphere polluted with carbon monoxide concentrations of over 500 ppm. The main complaints were of headache, muscular weakness, and drowsiness. No post-interval syndrome was found three weeks after poisoning. The levels of carboxyhaemoglobin varied from 1.8 to 31.2%. Early normal pressure oxygen therapy reduced the symptoms. No delayed syndrome was found three weeks after poisoning. The inclusion of poisonous gas in gas-free certification, adherence to maritime harbour regulations, greater respect for working instructions in hazardous environments, and the use of detectors appropriate to the conditions for each ship would avoid exposure and decrease the risk of poisoning.

  1. An Unusual Cause of Supraventricular Tachycardia: Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Zengin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available      Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds. Exposure to high concentrations of CO can be letha and is the most common cause of death from poisoning worldwide. Cardiac manifestations after exposure to CO, including myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmias, have been reported. A 28-year-old a patient was admitted to our emergency department with altered consciousness as a consequence of acute domestic exposure to CO from a stove. His carboxyhemoglobin level was 39%. The oxygen treatment was started promptly, and therapeutic red cell exchange was performed. An electrocardiogram revealed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, and an echocardiographic examination demonstrated normal cardiac functions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the second to report a case of SVT attack due to acute CO intoxication. This paper discusses the management of this complication in patients poisoned with CO.

  2. Separation of hydrogen from carbon monoxide using a hollow fiber polyimide membrane: experimental and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peer, M.; Mehdi Kamali, S.; Mahdeyarfar, M.; Mohammadi, T. [Research Laboratory for Separation Processes, Chemical Engineering Department, Tehran (Iran)

    2007-10-15

    The separation of hydrogen from carbon monoxide (syngas ratio adjustment) with polymeric membranes was investigated in this work. A polyimide hollow fiber membrane module was used for hydrogen separation. This polymer has shown large permeability and selectivity for hydrogen separation (selectivity of ca. 30). Permeation tests were carried out at different feed conditions. Feed flow rates were varied between 150-300 mL/min, temperature was varied in the range of 20-80 C and feed pressure was varied between 5-9 bar. Mixtures containing 0-50 % carbon monoxide were used when carrying out experiments. Measured membrane permeances for hydrogen and carbon monoxide were about 70-100 GPU (gas permeation units) and 3-5.5 GPU, respectively. In addition, a mathematical model for simulation of gas separation in hollow fiber membrane modules with all flow patterns (crossflow, countercurrent and cocurrent) was presented. This model can be used for calculation of membrane performance or its required surface area for a specific separation. Experimental results have shown good correlation with simulation results. Plasticization, competitive sorption and concentration polarization effect of carbon monoxide on membrane performance is shown with experimental results. This effect reduced hydrogen permeances in mixed gas experiments. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I. van der

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large.

  4. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I. van der

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large. There

  5. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

    1983-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

  6. Feasibility study of a lead monoxide-based dosimeter for quality assurance in radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. T.; Han, M. J.; Heo, Y. J.; Park, J. E.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. N.; Oh, K. M.; Cho, H. L.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Nam, S. H.; Park, S. K.

    2016-11-01

    Lately, cancer has been treated using high-energy radiation, and this requires highly reliable treatment plans. Therefore, a dosimeter with excellent performance, which is capable of precise dose measurement, is critical. In current clinical practices, an ionization chamber and diode utilizing the ionization reaction mechanism are widely used. Several studies have been carried out to determine optimal materials for the detector in a dosimeter to enable diagnostic imaging. Recently, studies with lead monoxide, which was shown to have low drift current and high resolving power at a high bias, were reported with the dosimeter exhibiting a fast response time against incident photons. This research aims to investigate the feasibility of a lead monoxide-based dosimeter for QA (quality assurance) in radiotherapy. In this paper, we report that the manufactured dosimeter shows similar linearity to a silicon diode and demonstrates similar characteristics in terms of PDD (percent depth dose) results for the thimble ionization chamber. Based on these results, it is demonstrated that the lead monoxide-based dosimeter complies with radiotherapy QA requirements, namely rapid response time, dose linearity, dose rate independence. Thus, we expect the lead monoxide-based dosimeter to be used commercially in the future.

  7. Effects of chemical modifications of heme on kinetics of carbon monoxide binding to free home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sono, M.; McCray, J.A.; Asakura, T.

    1977-11-10

    The rates of carbon monoxide recombination to six different kinds of chemically modified heme with various substituents at positions 2 and 4 have been studied in the protein-free state (free heme) by the laser flash photolysis method in a mixture of ethylene glycol and 0.02 N NaOH (80:20, v/v) (80% ethylene glycol). The carbon monoxide combination rate constants to the various free hemes obtained in 80% ethylene glycol at 22/sup 0/ were 1.4, 2.1, 2.1, 3.7, 4.5, and 6.4 x 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ for 2,4-diformyl-, spirographis (2-formyl-4-vinyl-), isospirographis (2-vinyl-4-formyl-) proto-(2,4-divinyl-), deutero-(2,4-dihydrogen-), and meso-(2,4-diethyl-), hemes, respectively. This order of increase in carbon monoxide combination rate constants for these hemes correlates exactly with decrease in electron attractivity of heme side chains (i.e., increase in pK/sub 3/, basicity of nitrogen base of prophyrin) and is completely opposite to that obtained for carbon monoxide binding to these hemes reconstituted with apomyoglobin. Contrary to the results for myoglobin, the two isomers of monoformyl-monovinylheme exhibited similar optical properties and the same combination rate constant indicating that the differences in the optical and kinetic results observed in myoglobin are due to different interactions of these isomeric hemes with protein.

  8. Carbon monoxide oxidation using Zn-Cu-Ti hydrotalcite-derived catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Saber; T Zaki

    2014-07-01

    Multioxide catalysts of zinc, copper and titanium with different ratios obtained from layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors were used in the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The catalysts were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG, DTG and DTA) and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction showed different phases of double hydroxide structures. On increasing the percentage of zinc, hydrotalcite structure became the main phase in these samples. SEM images confirmed the presence of layered double hydroxide as plate-like structure. Experimental results indicated a sharp increase in the catalytic activities of the calcined samples towards the oxidation of carbon monoxide at temperatures in the range of 225-275°C. High conversion of carbon monoxide (90 ∼ 95%) was achieved at reaction temperature of 275°C by samples having ZnTiO3 as a main phase. These results suggested that hydrotalcite structure of Zn-Ti has a positive catalytic effect towards carbon monoxide oxidation.

  9. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS , spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  10. Modelling of Carbon Monoxide Air Pollution in Larg Cities by Evaluetion of Spectral LANDSAT8 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; Sadeghian, S.; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS ), spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  11. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuAnn L. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007 by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas.

  12. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING RESULT IN CHINESE PROFICIENCY TEST (HSK LEVEL 6: READING SECTION AND PREPARATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryanti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK is an internationally standardized exam which tests and rates Chinese language proficiency. The highest level in this test is level 6. The writing part of the test consists of 3 (three parts, namely, (1 listening, (2 reading, (3 writing. Furthermore, the reading part is made of 4 components. Level 6 of this test implies a high degree of difficulty. This paper specifically looked on how to prepare effectively for participants to be able to work on the reading part in order to achieve best result. This article used the methods of literature review and observational study as well as field research and would also incorporate the author’s personal experience in taking the test into recommending strategies for doing the reading part in a level 6 HSK test. Finally, research suggested several techniques and tips that might assist participants in achieving maximum scores in handling the reading part of level 6 HSK test.

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING RESULT IN CHINESE PROFICIENCY TEST (HSK LEVEL 6 READING SECTION AND PREPARATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryanti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chinese proficiency test (HSK is an internationally standardized exam which tests and rates Chinese language proficiency. The highest level in this test is level 6. The writing part of the test consists of 3 (three parts, namely, (1 listening, (2 reading, (3 writing. Furthermore, the reading part is made of 4 components. Level 6 of this test implies a high degree of difficulty. This paper specifically looked on how to prepare effectively for participants to be able to work on the reading part in order to achieve best result. This article used the methods of literature review and observational study as well as field research and would also incorporate the authors personal experience in taking the test into recommending strategies for doing the reading part in a level 6 HSK test. Finally, research suggested several techniques and tips that might assist participants in achieving maximum scores in handling the reading part of level 6 HSK test.

  15. Relevance of PLUREL's results to policies at EU, national, regional and local level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    This is the second version of Deliverable 6.2.3 (Short summary report on the relevance of the emerging results to the policies at the EU, national, regional and local level) indicated in the Description of Work for month 35. The main aim of this report is to link the PLUREL projects focus...... and results to policies and policy development at the EU-level, as well as the national and regional level. PLUREL has peri-urban land use relationships as its main focus. This includes analysis of drivers, consequences, policies and scenarios for the future. Even though PLUREL aims for pan-European coverage...... the principal focus is at the sub-regional level and balance between urban and rural land uses within Rural-Urban Regions. The current version of the report is structured in two parts. Chapter 1 – 3 present an overview of: European principles and guidelines, EU legislation funding, and EU policy areas...

  16. Enhancing the Level of Opening up to Achieve Mutual Benefit and Win-win Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Feixiang

    2015-01-01

    From upholding opening up strategy of mutual benefit and win-win results to developing top-level design of higher level open economy,then further to putting forward targets of actively participating in global economic governance and supplying public products and enhancing voice in institutional building,and still further to opening the developing concepts and planning,the CPC Central Committee has commanded the deep insights for

  17. Detection of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as a serum marker associated with inlfammations by acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa Karabacak; Kenan Ahmet Turkdogan; Abuzer Coskun; Orhan Akpinar; Ali Duman; Mcahit Kapci; Sevki Hakan Eren; Pnar Karabacak

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), which is an indicator of systemic inflammation, in patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Methods: We included 528 patients (275 women) who presented with a diagnosis of CO poisoning between June 2009 and March 2014. Control group was composed of 54 patients (24 women). Platelet count and mean platelet volume level were significantly higher in the CO poisoning group. Results: White blood cell level (9.8 ± 3.3vs 8.6 ± 2.9× 103/mL, respectively;P= 0.01), neutrophil count (6.00 ± 2.29vs 4.43 ± 2.04×103/mL, respectively;P Conclusions: The increase ofNLR may indicate the progression of fatal complications due to CO poisoning.

  18. Simulations of exercise and brain effects of acute exposure to carbon monoxide in normal and vascular-diseased persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    At some level, carboxyhemoglobin (RbCO) due to inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) reduces maximum exercise duration in normal and ischemic heart patients. At high RbCO levels in normal subjects, brain function is also affected and behavioral performance is impaired. These are fin...

  19. Carbon dioxide-induced anesthesia results in a rapid increase in plasma levels of vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian; Varon, Jack; Chait, Brian T; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2009-06-01

    Brief anesthesia, such as after exposure to high levels of carbon dioxide, prior to decapitation is considered a more humane alternative for the euthanasia of rodents, compared with use of decapitation alone. Studies of the levels of certain stress hormones in plasma such as corticosterone and ACTH have supported the use of this method of euthanasia in endocrinological and molecular studies. In the current study, rats were briefly exposed to a chamber filled with carbon dioxide until recumbent (20-25 sec), immediately killed via decapitation, and trunk blood collected; findings were compared with rats killed via decapitation with no exposure to carbon dioxide. RIAs were used to measure arginine vasopressin (AVP) and ACTH immunoreactivity (ir) in plasma. Whereas ACTH-ir levels remained steady after brief exposure to carbon dioxide (in accordance with results of other investigators), AVP-ir levels were increased by more than an order of magnitude. These results were confirmed by quantitative capillary-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, indicating this observation of rapid increase in plasma AVP-ir levels is not due to nonspecific recognition by the antibody used in the RIA. Likewise, using capillary-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we observed a rapid increase in plasma oxytocin levels after carbon dioxide exposure. These surprising findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of studies involving brief carbon dioxide exposure prior to decapitation as well as those with euthanasia resulting from carbon dioxide-induced asphyxiation.

  20. The impacts of temperature on the absorption spectral lines of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Jianqiang; Xu Yuanze; Gao Xiaorong; Wang Li; Wang Zeyong, E-mail: jianqguo@home.swjtu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2011-02-01

    In order to study the change of temperature on the effects of carbon monoxide absorption spectral lines, first of all proceed from the principle of absorption spectra, using theoretical analysis method, and the transmission and absorption database of the high-resolution molecular educed the carbon monoxide absorption spectrum intensity of spectral lines, integrated widening line type function and absorption coefficient concerned with temperature, then we got the change curve between carbon monoxide absorption spectrum intensity of spectral lines, integrated widening line type function and absorption coefficient with temperature by the numerical simulation of MATLAB, and analyzed and discussed the relationship between the temperature and them. The results showed that the temperature on the effects of carbon monoxide absorption spectral lines, especially on an Integrated widening line type function is complex, and different laser frequencies will also affect the relationship of the line type function and the absorption coefficient change with temperature, which has important reference value for the absorption and measurement of carbon in practical application.

  1. Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.; Molton, P.M.; Li, C.T.; Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1977-11-01

    Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization of CO in the synthesis of ammonia and methanol are included. Preliminary technical and economic feasibility studies were made of producing ammonia and methanol from the by-product CO produced by a typical elemental phosphorus plant. Methanol synthesis appears to be more attractive than ammonia synthesis when using CO feedstock because of reduced water gas shift and carbon dioxide removal requirements. The economic studies indicate that methanol synthesis from CO appears to be competitive with conventional technology when the price of natural gas exceeds $0.82/million Btu, while ammonia synthesis from CO is probably not competitive until the price of natural gas exceeds $1.90/million Btu. It is concluded that there appears to be considerable potential for energy conservation in the chemical industry, by collecting CO rather than flaring it, and using it to make major chemicals such as ammonia and methanol.

  2. Microwave Radiometer for Spectral Observations of Mesospheric Carbon Monoxide at 115 GHz Over Kharkiv, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piddyachiy, Valeriy; Shulga, Valerii; Myshenko, Valeriy; Korolev, Alexey; Antyufeyev, Oleksandr; Shulga, Dmytro; Forkman, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of the development of high sensitivity microwave radiometer designed for observation of the atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) emission lines at 115 GHz. The receiver of this radiometer has the double-sideband noise temperature of 250 K at a temperature of 10°C. To date, this is the best noise performance for uncooled Schottky diode mixer receiver systems. The designed radiometer was tested during the 2014-2015 period at observations of the carbon monoxide emission lines over Kharkiv, Ukraine (50° N, 36.3° E). These tests have shown the reliability of the receiver system, which allows us in the future to use designed radiometer for continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide. The first observations of the atmospheric carbon monoxide spectral lines over Kharkiv have confirmed seasonal changes in the CO abundance and gave us reasons to assume the spread of the influence of the polar vortex on the state of the atmosphere up to the latitude of 50° N where our measurement system is located.

  3. Microwave Radiometer for Spectral Observations of Mesospheric Carbon Monoxide at 115 GHz Over Kharkiv, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piddyachiy, Valeriy; Shulga, Valerii; Myshenko, Valeriy; Korolev, Alexey; Antyufeyev, Oleksandr; Shulga, Dmytro; Forkman, Peter

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of the development of high sensitivity microwave radiometer designed for observation of the atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) emission lines at 115 GHz. The receiver of this radiometer has the double-sideband noise temperature of 250 K at a temperature of 10°C. To date, this is the best noise performance for uncooled Schottky diode mixer receiver systems. The designed radiometer was tested during the 2014-2015 period at observations of the carbon monoxide emission lines over Kharkiv, Ukraine (50° N, 36.3° E). These tests have shown the reliability of the receiver system, which allows us in the future to use designed radiometer for continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide. The first observations of the atmospheric carbon monoxide spectral lines over Kharkiv have confirmed seasonal changes in the CO abundance and gave us reasons to assume the spread of the influence of the polar vortex on the state of the atmosphere up to the latitude of 50° N where our measurement system is located.

  4. Rapid Evaluation of the Severity and Prognosis of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. N. Marupov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess whether cardiointervalography (CIG might be used to define the health status of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The autonomic nervous system (ANS was studied in 114 patients aged 16 to 80 years with carbon monohydrate poisoning who were treated at the N. V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Care, Moscow, in 2004—2009. Cardiointervalographic readings were analyzed in relation to condition severity and disease outcome. Results. Within the first hours after carbon monoxide poisoning, the function of the ANS was found to be impaired, which was associated with the development of hypersym-pathicotonia caused by the increased activity of its sympathetic part and the decreased tone of the parasympathet-ic one. The magnitude of hypersympathicotonia depended on the severity of poisoning and the outcome of the disease. The preponderance of ANS parasympathetic part tone suggests disturbed adaptive and compensatory mechanisms and poor prognosis. Conclusion. Cardiointervalography is recommended for the objective evaluation of the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning and the efficiency of performed treatment and prediction of the outcome of the disease. Key words: carbon monoxide, autonomic nervous system, cardiointervalography, adaptive and compensatory mechanisms.

  5. Relevance of PLUREL's results to policies at EU, national, regional and local level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    This is the second version of Deliverable 6.2.3 (Short summary report on the relevance of the emerging results to the policies at the EU, national, regional and local level) indicated in the Description of Work for month 35. The main aim of this report is to link the PLUREL projects focus...... to with several results. The project work is not finished yet, but a broad range of tools and methods have been investigated and developed throughout the project already now, contributing to an improved knowledge-base and extend toolbox when approaching sustainable development in peri-urban areas. This report...... and results to policies and policy development at the EU-level, as well as the national and regional level. PLUREL has peri-urban land use relationships as its main focus. This includes analysis of drivers, consequences, policies and scenarios for the future. Even though PLUREL aims for pan-European coverage...

  6. Ozone and carbon monoxide at the Ushuaia GAW-WMO global station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adame, Jose; Cupeiro, Manuel; Yela, Margarita; Cuevas, Emilio; Carbajal, Gerardo

    2016-04-01

    Ozone and carbon monoxide have been investigated in the GAW-WMO station of Ushuaia (Argentina), using hourly values during five years (2010-2014). This work has been developed in the framework of HELADO (Halogens in the Antarctic atmosphere and its role in the Ozone distribution) project and under the collaboration between INTA (National Institute for Aerospace Technology - Spain), SMN (National Meteorological Service - Argentina) and AEMET (State Meteorological Agency - Spain). Meteorological features have been analyzed with in-situ observations and meteorological fields from ECMWF 0.5° as spatial resolution model. These fields have been applied to compute back trajectories with HYSPLIT model. Independently of season, mostly atmospheric flows coming from W-SW (South Pacific Ocean), theses westerlies winds are associated with low pressure systems; in addition with lower frequencies are collected winds from South (Antarctic Peninsula and Weddell Sea), polar easterlies. Hourly averages of surface (in-situ) ozone and CO levels were 20±7 and 71±45 ppb respectively, typical values of remote environments. A clear seasonal pattern has been obtained for surface ozone with monthly peaks in winter of 25 ppb and minimum in summer with 12 ppb; a similar behaviour is found for CO, 93 and 48 ppb for maximum and minimum values, respectively. A weak daily cycle has been obtained in both species, amplitude for ozone of 2-4 ppb and 13-20 ppb for CO. The seasonal levels behaviour for surface ozone is also observed in upper levels, approximately from surface up to 5 km. This result has been obtained from 139 ozone profiles launched in the studied period. Since the ozone precursors and carbon monoxide emissions are low in this area, the origin of the values observed could be in the atmospheric transport processes. As hypothesis to explain the behaviour observed, we suggest that in the warm season with solar radiation, the photochemical mechanisms are active, and the elimination

  7. Carbon monoxide expedites metabolic exhaustion to inhibit tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegiel, Barbara; Gallo, David; Csizmadia, Eva; Harris, Clair; Belcher, John; Vercellotti, Gregory M; Penacho, Nuno; Seth, Pankaj; Sukhatme, Vikas; Ahmed, Asif; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Helczynski, Leszek; Bjartell, Anders; Persson, Jenny Liao; Otterbein, Leo E

    2013-12-01

    One classical feature of cancer cells is their metabolic acquisition of a highly glycolytic phenotype. Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the products of the cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cancer cells, has been implicated in carcinogenesis and therapeutic resistance. However, the functional contributions of CO and HO-1 to these processes are poorly defined. In human prostate cancers, we found that HO-1 was nuclear localized in malignant cells, with low enzymatic activity in moderately differentiated tumors correlating with relatively worse clinical outcomes. Exposure to CO sensitized prostate cancer cells but not normal cells to chemotherapy, with growth arrest and apoptosis induced in vivo in part through mitotic catastrophe. CO targeted mitochondria activity in cancer cells as evidenced by higher oxygen consumption, free radical generation, and mitochondrial collapse. Collectively, our findings indicated that CO transiently induces an anti-Warburg effect by rapidly fueling cancer cell bioenergetics, ultimately resulting in metabolic exhaustion.

  8. Association between ambient carbon monoxide levels and hospitalizations for congestive heart failure in the elderly in 10 canadian cities; Association entre les niveaux atmospheriques de monoxyde de carbone et les hospitalisations pour insuffisance cardiaque congestive des personnes agees dans 10 villes canadiennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, R.T.; Dales, R.E.; Brook, J.R.; Raizenne, M.E.; Krewski, D.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, two studies, realized in the USA, showed the relation between the carbon monoxide content in the urban air and the hospitalization of elderly people for congestive heart failure. This study, realized this time in the Canada, take again the protocol of one of them increasing the period (4 to 11 years) and the number of concerned towns. (A.L.B.)

  9. The results of transrectal prostate biopsy in patients with low levels of prostate specific antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali Sancaktutar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the resultsof prostate biopsy of patients who had the prostatespecificantigen (PSA levels below 4 ng/ml.Material and methods: The medical records of 63 patientswho underwent transrectal prostate biopsy, betweenJanuary 2005 and December 2011, due to suspicionof prostate cancer with the PSA levels under 4 ng/mlwere retrospectively reviewed.Results: Transrectal Prostate biopsy was performed to63 patients. Prostate cancer was detected in 12 (19%patients. The mean value of PSA was 2.5 ng/ml. TheGleason score of Prostate cancer patients was 6,8 (5-7and the number of positive cores were 3.Conclusions: The rate of prostate cancer was found as19% in patients with levels of PSA under 4 ng/ml and thisratio is compatible with the results of previous reports.

  10. Reduction of carbon monoxide. Past research summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, R.R.

    1981-10-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  11. Status epilepticus and cardiopulmonary arrest in a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning with full recovery after using a neuroprotective strategy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulaziz Salman; Dabbagh Ousama; Arabi Yaseen; Kojan Suleiman; Hassan Imad

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning can be associated with life-threatening complications, including significant and disabling cardiovascular and neurological sequelae. Case presentation We report a case of carbon monoxide poisoning in a 25-year-old Saudi woman who presented to our facility with status epilepticus and cardiopulmonary arrest. Her carboxyhemoglobin level was 21.4 percent. She made a full recovery after we utilized a neuroprotective strategy and normobaric oxygen the...

  12. RESULTS OF TREATMENT OF CERVICAL DISCOPATHY WITH PEEK INTERBODY CAGES AT THREE LEVELS WITHOUT PLATE FIXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado González Moga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To present the results of treatment of patients with cervical discopathy by anterior cervical approach, discectomy and placement of a PEEK interbody cage without anterior plate fixation. Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional study from March 2013 to March 2015. Sixteen patients with radiculopathy or clinical signs of myelopathy were included; all patients underwent cervical surgery through anterior approach, discectomy, and placement of PEEK cages on three levels. Decompression levels were determined according to the correlation between preoperative radiological and clinical findings. Results: Sixteen patients predominantly male were included, with mean age of 50 years at the onset of the condition. Ten patients had involvement of C4-C5, C5-C6, C6-C7 levels, and six patients C3-C4, C4-C5 and C5-C6. Fourteen patients had cervicobrachialgia and two myelopathy. The preoperative visual analog scale average was 8/10 and the average postoperative value at 6 months was 3/10. At 6 months, there was no radiological evidence of recurrence. One patient had non-fatal complications. Conclusions: The treatment of cervical discopathy by anterior approach with interbody fusion with PEEK cage on three levels, with no plate fixation seemed to be safe and effective with better long-term results in terms of pain and myelopathy. The clinical results compare favorably with other similar series and, most importantly, the complications associated with anterior fixation plate are avoided.

  13. Diverse mechanisms underlying the regulation of ion channels by carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Peers, C; Boyle, J. P.; Scragg, J. L.; Dallas, M L; Al-Owais, M. M.; Hettiarachichi, N T; Elies, J; Johnson, E.; Gamper, N; Steele, D S

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is firmly established as an important, physiological signalling molecule as well as a potent toxin. Through its ability to bind metal-containing proteins, it is known to interfere with a number of intracellular signalling pathways, and such actions can account for its physiological and pathological effects. In particular, CO can modulate the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species, NO and cGMP levels, as well as regulate MAPK signalling. In this review, we con...

  14. Recovery of energy metabolism in rat brain after carbon monoxide hypoxia.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S D; Piantadosi, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) may inhibit mitochondrial electron transport in the brain and increase the toxic effects of the gas. This hypothesis was investigated in anesthetized rats during CO exposure and recovery at either normobaric or hyperbaric O2 concentrations. During exposure and recovery, we measured the oxidation level of cerebrocortical cytochrome c oxidase by differential spectroscopy and biochemical metabolites known to reflect aerobic energy provision in the brain. CO exposure (HbCO = ...

  15. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eTechtmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is commonly known as a toxic gas, yet it is used by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and many archaea. In this study, we determined the prevalence of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (anaerobic CODHs, or [Ni,Fe]-CODHs in currently available genomic sequence databases. More than 6% (185 genomes out of 2887 bacterial and archaeal genome sequences in the IMG database possess at least one gene encoding [Ni,Fe]-CODH, the key enzyme for anaerobic CO utilization. The phylogenetic study of this extended protein family revealed nine distinct clades of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs. These clades consisted of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs that, while apparently monophyletic within the clades, were encoded by microorganisms of disparate phylogeny, based on 16S rRNA sequences, and widely ranging physiology. Following this discovery, it was therefore of interest to examine the extent and possible routes of horizontal gene transfer (HGT affecting [Ni,Fe]-CODH genes and gene clusters that include [Ni,Fe]-CODHs.The genome sequence of the extreme thermophile Thermosinus carboxydivorans was used as a case study for HGT. The [Ni,Fe]-CODH operon of T. carboxydivorans differs from its whole genome in its G+C content by 8.2 mol%. Here, we apply statistical methods to establish acquisition by T. carboxydivorans of the gene cluster including [Ni,Fe]-CODH via HGT. Analysis of tetranucleotide frequency and codon usage with application of the Kullback-Leibler divergence metric showed that the [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon of T. carboxidyvorans is quite dissimilar to the whole genome. Using the same metrics, the T. carboxydivorans [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon is highly similar to the genome of the phylogenetically distant anaerobic carboxydotroph Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans. These results allow to assume recent HTG of the gene cluster from a relative of C. hydrogenoformans to T. carboxydivorans or a more ancient transfer from a C. hydrogenoformans ancestor to a T. carboxydivorans

  16. Test Beam results and integration of the ATLAS Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Bianco, M; Cataldi, G; Chiodini, G; Fiore, G; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Miccoli, A; Perrino, R; Primavera, M; Spagnolo, S; Tassielli, G F; Ventura, A; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Canale, V; Caprio, M A; Carlino, G; Conventi, F; De Asmundis, R; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Iengo, P; Izzo, V; Migliaccio, A; Patricelli, S; Sekhniaidze, G; Bocci, V; Chiodi, G; Gennari, E; Nisati, A; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Petrolo, E; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Aielli, G; Camarri, P; Cardarelli, R; Delle Fratte, C; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Di Stante, L; Liberti, B; Salamon, A; Santonico, R; Solfaroli, E; Aprodu, V; Petcu, M; 2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium And Medical Imaging Conference

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Muon Trigger will be crucial for the online selection of events with high transverse momentum muons and for its correct association to the bunch-crossing corresponding to the detected events. This system uses dedicated coarse granularity and fast detectors capable of providing measurements in two orthogonal projections. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are used in the barrel region. The associated trigger electronics is based on a custom chip, the Coincidence Matrix, that performs space coincidences within programmable roads and time gates. The system is highly redundant and communicates with the ATLAS Level-1 trigger Processor with the MUCTPI Interface. The trigger electronics provides also the Readout of the RPCs. Preliminary results achieved with a full trigger tower with production detectors in the H8 test beam at CERN will be shown. In particular preliminary results on the integration of the barrel muon trigger electronics with the MUCTPI interface and with the ATLAS DAQ system will ...

  17. Engine systems analysis results of the Space Shuttle Main Engine redesigned powerhead initial engine level testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Erik J.; Gosdin, Dennis R.

    1992-01-01

    Engineers regularly analyze SSME ground test and flight data with respect to engine systems performance. Recently, a redesigned SSME powerhead was introduced to engine-level testing in part to increase engine operational margins through optimization of the engine internal environment. This paper presents an overview of the MSFC personnel engine systems analysis results and conclusions reached from initial engine level testing of the redesigned powerhead, and further redesigns incorporated to eliminate accelerated main injector baffle and main combustion chamber hot gas wall degradation. The conclusions are drawn from instrumented engine ground test data and hardware integrity analysis reports and address initial engine test results with respect to the apparent design change effects on engine system and component operation.

  18. LHC results on tree-level beauty decays arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Vesterinen, Mika

    Tree-level $b$ decays play a critical role in characterising the quark flavour sector, and exposing possible effects of physics beyond the Standard Model. These proceedings cover recent results from the LHCb experiment on semileptonic $b$ baryon decays, $\\mathcal{R}(D^{\\ast-})$ using three-prong hadronic $\\tau$ decays, $CP$ observables in $B^- \\to D^{(\\ast)}h^-$ decays, and an updated combination on the CKM angle $\\gamma$.

  19. Kinetics of Exhaled Carbon Monoxide After Water-pipe Smoking Indoors and Outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Agnes; Pap, Dalma; Barta, Imre; Drozdovszky, Orsolya; Egresi, Andrea; Antus, Balazs

    2017-05-01

    Despite accumulating evidence about its adverse health effects, water-pipe tobacco smoking has become very popular among youth. The aim of this study was to compare smoke exposure and the kinetics of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) between water-pipe and cigarette smokers under different conditions. Using a cross-over study design, changes in eCO and urinary cotinine levels were measured in a cohort of 32 healthy university students after sessions of water-pipe smoking indoors and outdoors. An indoor cigarette smoking session with equal amounts of tobacco was conducted for reference purposes. Both active and passive smokers participated in all sessions. In indoor sessions, we found that among active participants, eCO levels were approximately 7.5-fold higher in water-pipe users than cigarette smokers. eCO levels remained significantly elevated even 10 h after discontinuing water-pipe smoking. Notably, eCO levels in passive water-pipe smokers were in the same range as in active cigarette smokers. Compared with indoor sessions, eCO levels in active water-pipe users were reduced in outdoor environments. Nonetheless, levels were still higher in these subjects than those in active cigarette smokers measured in indoor sessions. Urinary cotinine levels were comparable in active water-pipe and cigarette smokers. Our results suggest that water-pipe smoking is associated with significantly higher toxicant exposure than cigarette smoking even in outdoor environments. Furthermore, even passive, indoor water-pipe smoke exposure may have significant health hazards compared with those of active cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogen bonding of formamide, urea, urea monoxide and their thio-analogs with water and homodimers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Damanjit Kaur; Shweta Khanna

    2014-11-01

    Ab initio and DFT methods have been employed to study the hydrogen bonding ability of formamide, urea, urea monoxide, thioformamide, thiourea and thiourea monoxide with one water molecule and the homodimers of the selected molecules. The stabilization energies associated with themonohydrated adducts and homodimers’ formation were evaluated at B3LYP/6-311++G** and MP2/6-311++G∗∗ levels. The energies were corrected for zero-point vibrational energies and basis set superposition error using counterpoise method. Atoms in molecules study has been carried out in order to characterize the hydrogen bonds through the changes in electron density and laplacian of electron density. A natural energy decomposition and natural bond orbital analysis was performed to understand the nature of hydrogen bonding.

  1. US EPA Region 9 carbon monoxide designated areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon Feature class of Nonattainment Areas for Carbon Monoxide. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  2. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaabi, Juma M; Wheatley, Andrew D; Barss, Peter; Al Shamsi, Mariam; Lababidi, Anis; Mushtaq, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is rare in the Arabian Peninsula and occurs almost exclusively during the winter months. Knowledge and perception of the hazards of carbon monoxide is limited. Migrant workers from warm climates appear particularly at risk. We investigated 46 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning presenting at emergency departments from 2007-2009 of the two main hospitals in Al Ain city, United Arab Emirates. Interviews, hospital records, and administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Among the 46 cases investigated, 24 (52%) were males. Foreign nationals compromised 80% of the cases and the incidence was 3.1 cases per 100,000 residents per year. Burning charcoal in poorly ventilated residences was the predominant source of the carbon monoxide poisoning. Almost all cases (98%) were admitted during the winter months, most in the early morning hours. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) was significantly increased in cases with loss of consciousness and depressed consciousness. There were no reported fatalities.

  3. Bio-Inspired Carbon Monoxide Sensors with Voltage-Activated Sensitivity

    KAUST Repository

    Savagatrup, Suchol

    2017-09-27

    Carbon monoxide (CO) outcompetes oxygen when binding to the iron center of hemeproteins, leading to a reduction in blood oxygen level and acute poisoning. Harvesting the strong specific interaction between CO and the iron porphyrin provides a highly selective and customizable sensor. We report the development of chemiresistive sensors with voltage-activated sensitivity for the detection of CO comprising iron porphyrin and functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (F-SWCNTs). Modulation of the gate voltage offers a predicted extra dimension for sensing. Specifically, the sensors show a significant increase in sensitivity toward CO when negative gate voltage is applied. The dosimetric sensors are selective to ppm levels of CO and functional in air. UV/Vis spectroscopy, differential pulse voltammetry, and density functional theory reveal that the in situ reduction of FeIII to FeII enhances the interaction between the F-SWCNTs and CO. Our results illustrate a new mode of sensors wherein redox active recognition units are voltage-activated to give enhanced and highly specific responses.

  4. Approximation of lateral distribution of atmospheric Cherenkov light at different observation levels. Comparison with previous results

    CERN Document Server

    Mishev, A; Stamenov, J

    2005-01-01

    This work summarizes the results presented at 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference in Pune India. Generally the aim of this work is to obtain the lateral distribution of the atmospheric Cherenkov light in extensive air showers produced by different primary particles in wide energy range and at several observation levels and to fit the obtained lateral distributions. Using one large detector and partially modified CORSIKA code version are obtained the lateral distributions of Cherenkov light flux densities at several observation levels for different particle primaries precisely at 536 g/cm2 Chacaltaya, 700 g/cm2 Moussala and 875 g/cm2 Kartalska field observation levels for hadronic primaries and gamma quanta in the energy range 1011 eV-1016 eV. On the basis of the solution of over-determined inverse problem the approximation of these distributions is obtained. The same model function for all the primaries is used and for the different observation levels. The different model parameters for the different pri...

  5. Extended Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Carbon Monoxide Migration in Sperm Whale Myoglobin

    OpenAIRE

    Bossa, Cecilia; Anselmi, Massimiliano; Roccatano, Danilo; Amadei, Andrea; Vallone, Beatrice; Brunori, Maurizio; Di Nola, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of an extended molecular dynamics simulation on the migration of photodissociated carbon monoxide in wild-type sperm whale myoglobin. Our results allow following one possible ligand migration dynamics from the distal pocket to the Xe1 cavity via a path involving the other xenon binding cavities and momentarily two additional packing defects along the pathway. Comparison with recent time resolved structural data obtained by Laue crystallography with subnanosecond to milli...

  6. Monitoring carbon monoxide pollution over the largest ten cities in the US using satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B.; de Beurs, K.; Owsley, B.; Krehbiel, C. P.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the several air pollutants that are largely produced by anthropogenic activities in urban areas as a result of incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels. Long-term satellite data can monitor spatial and temporal changes in CO globally. Here we investigated spatial, vertical, and temporal changes in CO concentrations over the largest ten US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) using Version 6 MOPITT TIR-only CO retrievals. The 15-year average of MOPITT Surface CO concentrations over urban areas were highest (388 ppbv) over New York City and lowest (151 ppbv) over Miami. The influence of cities on elevated CO levels extends well beyond the immediate urban area. The CO seasonal profiles above the surface show distinct seasonality with peaks March-April and troughs September-October. However, larger cities show a lack of CO seasonality near the surface. We applied the nonparametric Seasonal Kendall (SK) trend test to the CO time series. Results revealed significant decreasing trends in CO concentration, with stronger trends in the lower atmosphere (>700 hPa) than in the mid-troposphere (500-700 hPa). Our results demonstrate the strong influence of local urban emissions on (near-) surface CO concentrations. Decreasing urban CO over the past 15 years reflects improved urban metabolism through improved energy efficiency, and increasing use of alternative transportation and zero-emission vehicles.

  7. N-Butylphthalide Alleviates Blood-Brain Barrier Impairment in Rats Exposed to Carbon Monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Bi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is one of the most important health concerns and may result in neuropathologic changes and neurologic sequelae. However, few studies have addressed the correlation between CO poisoning and blood-brain barrier (BBB impairment. In this study, we investigated the effects of N-butylphthalide (NBP on the expressions of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1, claudin-5 and aquaporin-4 (AQP-4 proteins in a CO poisoning rat model. The results indicated that the brain water content was obviously increased, and the tight junctions (TJs between endothelial cells were disrupted, resulting in significant cerebral edema and BBB dysfunction in a rat model of CO poisoning. Meanwhile, the ultrastructure of endothelial cells and pericytes was seriously damaged, and the expressions of ZO-1 and claudin-5 were decreased at an early stage (<7 days. NBP treatment could efficiently maintain the ultrastructural and functional integrity of BBB, alleviate cerebral edema. Besides, NBP could also markedly increase the levels of both ZO-1 and claudin-5 proteins compared with those in rats exposed to CO (P<0.05, whereas NBP had no apparent regulatory effect on AQP-4 expression. Taken together, this study highlights the importance of ZO-1 and claudin-5 proteins in maintaining BBB ultrastructure and function after CO poisoning. NBP, as a novel treatment approach, may effectively inhibit the down-regulation of ZO-1 and claudin-5 proteins (but not AQP-4, thereby preserving the barrier function and reducing cerebral edema after CO poisoning.

  8. Impact of Pharmacological Interventions in Expectant Mothers Resulting in Altered Mutans Streptococci Levels in their Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Murugan Satta; Ankita, Saikia; Renugalakshmi, Apathsakayan; Richard, Kirubakaran

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to assess whether prenatal use of fluoride, chlorhexidine mouthrinses, and xylitol could alter the mutans streptococci levels in children. A systematic search of clinical trials was implemented for the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, PubMed, PMC, NCBI, ClinicalKey, Google Scholar, LILACS, and Science Direct. A search for ongoing trials was also undertaken in the clinicaltrial.gov database to identify eligible studies. Data regarding methodology, participants, types of interventions, and outcomes were extracted, and the risk of bias was also assessed independently by two review authors. Only two clinical trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Although one study showed significant results, the overall result of this systematic review showed no statistical significance. A risk ratio and 95 percent confidence interval of 0.1 (0.01 to 1.89) were obtained. Statistically significant results were reported in both the included studies; however, systematic analysis revealed a dearth of current evidence to support the general recommendation of pharmacological interventions for expectant mothers resulting in altered mutans streptococci levels in their children.

  9. Study Results on Knowledge Requirements for Entry-Level Airport Operations and Management Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper identifies important topical knowledge areas required of individuals employed in airport operations and management positions. A total of 116 airport managers and airfield operations personnel responded to a survey that sought to identify the importance of various subject matter for entry level airport operations personnel. The results from this study add to the body of research on aviation management curriculum development and can be used to better develop university curriculum and supplemental training focused on airport management and operations. Recommendations are made for specialized airport courses within aviation management programs. Further, this study identifies for job seekers or individuals employed in entry level positions those knowledge requirements deemed important by airport managers and operations personnel at different sized airports.

  10. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  11. Influence of Gas Composition on the Resisting Ability of Gunning Material for Blast Furnace to Carbon Monoxide Corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lihong; LIU Liu; GUO Yanling; CAO Feng; MENG Qingmin; LONG Shigang

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the resisting ability of gunning material for blast furnace to carbon monoxide corrosion under the mixed gas condition through inletting hydrogen into pure CO.A standard for testing the resisting ability of refractory to Co corrosion with mixed gas instead of pure CO has also been discussed. The results show:the addition of hydrogen accelerates the CO corrosion on gunning material;the same results has been reached with the CO,200 hours to test the resisting ability of refractory to carbon monoxide corrosion.

  12. Injuries in community-level Australian football: Results from a club-based injury surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Donaldson, Alex; Cook, Jill; Lloyd, David; Finch, Caroline F

    2015-11-01

    Far fewer injury surveillance systems exist within community sport than elite sport. As a result, most epidemiological data on sports injuries have limited relevance to community-level sporting populations. There is potential for data from community club-based injury surveillance systems to provide a better understanding of community sports injuries. This study aimed to describe the incidence and profile of community-level Australian football injuries reported using a club-based injury surveillance system. Prospective, epidemiological study. Sports trainers from five community-level Australian football leagues recorded injury data during two football seasons using the club-based system. An online surveillance tool developed by Sports Medicine Australia ('Sports Injury Tracker') was used for data collection. The injury incidence, profile and match injury rate were reported. Injury data for 1205 players were recorded in season one and for 823 players in season two. There was significant variability in injury incidence across clubs. However, aggregated data were consistent across football seasons, with an average of 0.7 injuries per player per season and 38-39 match injuries per 1000 h match exposure. A large proportion of injuries occurred during matches, involved the lower limb and resulted from contact. Data from the club-based system provided a profile of injuries consistent with previous studies in community-level Australian football. Moreover, injury incidence was consistent with other studies using similar personnel to record data. However, injury incidence was lower than that reported in studies using player self-report or healthcare professionals and may be an underestimate of true values. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Wireless and Batteryless Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Chia; Sung, Gang-Neng; Chen, Wen-Ching; Kuo, Chih-Ting; Chue, Jin-Ju; Wu, Chieh-Ming; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-09-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB) (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min), and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway. When the CO level reaches a dangerous level, the COSWOB alarm sounds loudly. Meanwhile, the intelligent gateway also sends a trigger to activate Wi-Fi alarms and sends notifications to the mobile device through the Internet. Our strategy can warn people indoors and outdoors, thereby reducing CO poisoning accidents. We also believe that our technique not only can be used for home security but also can be used in industrial applications (for example, to monitor leak occurrence in a pipeline).

  14. Gene expression in rat striatum following carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Hara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes brain damage, which is attenuated by treatment with hydrogen [1,2], a scavenger selective to hydroxyl radical (·≡OH [3]. This suggests a role of ·≡OH in brain damage due to CO poisoning. Studies have shown strong enhancement of ·≡OH production in rat striatum by severe CO poisoning with a blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb level >70% due to 3000 ppm CO, but not less severe CO poisoning with a blood COHb level at approximately 50% due to 1000 ppm CO [4]. Interestingly, 5% O2 causes hypoxia comparable with that by 3000 ppm CO and produces much less •OH than 3000 ppm CO does [4]. In addition, cAMP production in parallel with ·≡OH production [5] might contribute to ·≡OH production [6]. It is likely that mechanisms other than hypoxia contribute to brain damage due to CO poisoning [7]. To search for the mechanisms, we examined the effects of 1000 ppm CO, 3000 ppm CO and 5% O2 on gene expression in rat striatum. All array data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE94780.

  15. A Wireless and Batteryless Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chia Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min, and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway. When the CO level reaches a dangerous level, the COSWOB alarm sounds loudly. Meanwhile, the intelligent gateway also sends a trigger to activate Wi-Fi alarms and sends notifications to the mobile device through the Internet. Our strategy can warn people indoors and outdoors, thereby reducing CO poisoning accidents. We also believe that our technique not only can be used for home security but also can be used in industrial applications (for example, to monitor leak occurrence in a pipeline.

  16. Effect of Carbon Monoxide Donor CORM-2 on Vitamin D3 Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Feger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Carbon monoxide (CO interferes with cytochrome-dependent cellular functions and acts as gaseous transmitter. CO is released from CO-releasing molecules (CORM including tricarbonyl-dichlororuthenium (II dimer (CORM-2, molecules considered for the treatment of several disorders including vascular dysfunction, inflammation, tissue ischemia and organ rejection. Cytochrome P450-sensitive function include formation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH2D3 by renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp27b1. The enzyme is regulated by PTH, FGF23 and klotho. 1,25(OH2D3 regulates Ca2+ and phosphate transport as well as klotho expression. The present study explored, whether CORM-2 influences 1,25(OH2D3 formation and klotho expression. Methods: Mice were treated with intravenous CORM-2 (20 mg/kg body weight. Plasma 1,25(OH2D3 and FGF23 concentrations were determined by ELISA, phosphate, calcium and creatinine concentrations by colorimetric methods, transcript levels by quantitative RT-PCR and protein expression by western blotting. Fgf23 mRNA transcript levels were further determined in rat osteosarcoma UMR106 cells without or with prior treatment for 24 hours with 20 µM CORM-2. Results: CORM-2 injection within 24 hours significantly increased FGF23 plasma levels and decreased 1,25(OH2D3 plasma levels, renal Cyp27b1 gene expression as well as renal klotho protein abundance and transcript levels. Moreover, treatment of UMR106 cells with CORM-2 significantly increased Fgf23 transcript levels. Conclusion: CO-releasing molecule CORM-2 enhances FGF23 expression and release and decreases klotho expression and 1,25(OH2D3 synthesis.

  17. LEVEL OF TOXICITY WATER AREA «TULENIY» AS A RESULT OF BIOASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Sokolsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the toxicity of marine waters area " tuleniy ".Location. Area " tuleniy ".Methods. Determining the level of toxicity of marine waters area "seal" method for biological testing was conducted according tothe guidelines approved by the Ministry of natural resources (guidance on the definition of ..., 2002; Dolzhenko, 1978. Guide prepared by the Center for Russian register of hydraulic structures and the state water cadastre of the MNR of Russia jointly with specialists of the Institute Committee of Russia and the UNION of ecological problems of the Ministry of Ukraine. The basis of the proposed system of marine toxicity biotests based on the results of generalization of experimental research based on the problem of pollution of water bodies and numerous literature data, making it possible to identify features of the response of aquatic organisms of different taxonomic groups to toxic impurities of different nature and origin. Experimental studies were conducted on the culture of marine unicellular algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum on planktonic crustacea Acartia tonsa, the larvae of the chironomid Chironomus gr.salinarius and juvenile guppies Poecillia reticulata Peters.Results. Comparative analysis of the results of research from 2001 to 2006 showed no acute toxic effect on the test object zooplankton and phytoplanton.Main conclusions. Throughout the study period (2001-2003, 2005-2006, you must allocate the spring of 2002, when it was recorded,the average of the lowest five years of research, the level of toxicity of water for the analyzed area.Considering the results of biological testing of the surveyed area by periods, it should be noted that the average level of toxicity of the waters did not undergo significant changes and were on the same level, not exceeding 17,6% (table. 1. According to the classification shown in table 2, the water in the surveyed area is assessed as "non-toxic".

  18. Plasma corticosterone levels in laying hens from three different housing systems: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Asdrubali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical and thyroidal hormones are physiological indicators of various forms of stress in the fowl. In order to establish possible variations in corticosterone levels, blood samples were collected from ISA Brown hens reared in three different housing systems (cage, floor and organic way. Results showed that corticosterone concentrations were highest in caged hens, intermediate in organic reared hens and lowest in floor reared hens. It could be assumed that in the last one system birds have an adequate space in controlled environment that permits them to satisfy, though partially, their behavioural needs without the presence of different chronic stress factors acting in the other systems.

  19. Optical dating results of beachrock, eolic dunes and sediments applied to sea-level changes study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatumi, S.H. E-mail: tatumi@fatecsp.br; Kowata, E.A.; Gozzi, G.; Kassab, L.R.P.; Suguio, K.; Barreto, A.M.F.; Bezerra, F.H.R

    2003-05-01

    Quartz and feldspar crystals were selected from the samples as eolic dunes, beach-rock and marine terraces, all collected in the coast area of Paraiba State, located in northeastern Brazil, in order to obtain ages of deposition of the sediments. It is a systematic study in the area. The results of the ages will be used in local sea-level changes study and a correlation between highstands of marine oxygen-isotopes stages will be made. Optically stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence have been measured and the regeneration method with multiple aliquot protocol was applied to obtain the paleodose values. Preliminaries ages spanning 3.2-229 kyr were evaluated.

  20. Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Brian E.

    Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

  1. Chlorine Monoxide in the Antarctic Spring Stratosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Ayerbe, Mauricio

    1988-06-01

    A series of observations of stratospheric chlorine monoxide (ClO) were carried out during the austral springs of 1986 and 1987 in McMurdo Station, Antarctica, as part of two experimental campaigns sent to investigate the seasonal decrease in ozone over the antarctic continent (the ozone "hole"). Measurements of the vertical distribution of ClO were obtained by high resolution ground-based emission spectroscopy at 278 GHz, using the Stony Brook mm-wave receiver. They show the presence of an anomalous layer of lower stratospheric ClO which is not observed at other latitudes. This anomalous layer is centered at ~20 km altitude and exhibits a pronounced diurnal variation, reaching a maximum at midday and disappearing at night. During the period of Sep. 20-24, 1987, the lower-stratospheric ClO had a maximum volume mixing ratio of 1.8_sp{+0cdot5}{ -0cdot9} ppbv. A normal ClO layer centered at ~36 km was also observed, with concentrations and diurnal behavior similar to those seen in tropical latitudes. These findings are evidence of anomalous chlorine chemistry taking place in the lower stratosphere during the antarctic spring, and indicate that increasing anthropogenic chlorine is a prime causative agent in the formation of the ozone hole.

  2. The Effect of Water Vapor on Flame Velocity in Equivalent Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiock, Ernest F; King, H Kendall

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to study the effect of water vapor upon the spatial speed of flame in equivalent mixtures of carbon monoxide and oxygen at various total pressures from 100 to 780 mm.hg. These results show that, within this pressure range, an increase in flame speed is produced by increasing the mole fraction of water vapor at least as far as saturation at 25 degrees c., and that the rate of this increase is greater the higher the pressure. It is evident that water vapor plays an important part in the explosive oxidation of carbon monoxide; the need for further experimental evidence as to the nature of its action is indicated.

  3. Shock tube measurements of growth constants in the branched chain formaldehyde-carbon monoxide-oxygen system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabbs, T. A.; Brokaw, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Exponential free radical growth constants were measured for formaldehyde carbon monoxide-oxygen systems by monitoring the growth of oxygen atom concentration as manifested by CO flame band emission. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 1200 to 2000 K. The data were analyzed using a formaldehyde oxidation mechanism involving 12 elementary reaction steps. The computed growth constants are roughly in accord with experimental values, but are much more temperature dependent. The data was also analyzed assuming formaldehyde is rapidly decomposed to carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Growth constants computed for the resulting carbon monoxide hydrogen oxygen mixtures have a temperature dependence similar to experiments; however, for most mixtures, the computed growth constants were larger than experimental values.

  4. Results of labral-level arthroscopic iliopsoas tenotomies for the treatment of labral impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ian R; Keene, James S

    2014-06-01

    To document the clinical results of arthroscopic iliopsoas tenotomies performed at the level of the labrum to treat labral injuries caused by iliopsoas impingement. From a review of the database of the senior author (J.S.K.) of 300 hip arthroscopies that were performed between September 2009 and May 2011, 30 patients who had an arthroscopic release of the iliopsoas tendon at the level of the labrum and at least 2 years' follow-up were identified. In all cases the release was performed to treat a tight psoas tendon that was found at arthroscopy to be impinging on a torn or inflamed labrum. The results of hip arthroscopy in these patients were assessed with Byrd's 100-point modified Harris Hip Score system before arthroscopy and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. The mean age of the 30 patients was 35 years, and their preoperative scores averaged 43 points. After surgery, the patients had 6-month scores that averaged 73 points and 12-month scores that averaged 84 points (range, 40 to 100 points). Over the first postoperative year, in 3 of the 5 patients whose preoperative ultrasound imaging showed snapping of the tendon, recurrent painful snapping developed in the hip. All 3 had iliopsoas bursa injections and had immediate relief of their hip pain. In 2 patients the relief was temporary and an arthroscopic release of the tendon at the lesser trochanter was performed. The 2-year scores of the remaining 28 patients who did not have a second iliopsoas tenotomy averaged 88 points, and 23 of these patients had good or excellent results (scores ≥80 points). An arthroscopic release of the iliopsoas tendon at the level of the labrum was effective for alleviating hip pain from labral lesions caused by impingement of the tendon in 23 of 30 patients (77%). The remaining 7 patients had persistent hip pain and hip scores lower than 80 points because of recurrent snapping of the tendon (3), development of avascular necrosis (1), progression of degenerative joint disease

  5. Comparison of results from different NDE techniques from ceramic matrix composites with varying porosity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Imelda; Ojard, Greg; Santhosh, Unni; Ahmad, Jalees; Gowayed, Yasser

    2015-03-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) are attractive materials for use in advanced turbine engines. Due to the nature of available processing techniques, however, the amount and distribution of porosity in CMC's can vary greatly. This can be particularly true in parts with complex geometries. It is therefore important to characterize the porosity with non-destructive techniques and understand its effect on properties. A series of CMC samples were fabricated with varying levels of porosity and analyzed with different NDE techniques. The results were categorized and analyzed with respect to ease of interpretation and degree to which they could be quantified and used in models to determine the effects of defects. The results were also correlated with microstructural examination and mechanical properties.

  6. Resveratrol Induces Hepatic Mitochondrial Biogenesis Through the Sequential Activation of Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seul-Ki; Joe, Yeonsoo; Min ZHENG; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Yu, Jae-Kyoung; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Chang, Ki Churl; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin; Ryter, Stefan W.; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Nitric oxide (NO) can induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cultured cells, through increased guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP), and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). We sought to determine the role of NO, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and its reaction product (carbon monoxide [CO]) in the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis by the natural antioxidant resveratrol. Results: S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), an NO donor, induced ...

  7. Synthesis of Diethyl Oxalate by a Coupling—Regeneration Reaction of Carbon Monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FandongMeng; GenhuiXu; 等

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a process for the synthesis of diethyl oxalate by a copling reaction of carbon monoxide,catalyzed by palladium in the presence of ethyl nitrite ,The kinetics and mechanism of the coupling and regeneration reaction are also discussed ,This paper presents the results of a scale-up test of the catalyst and the process based on an a priori computer simulation.

  8. POLYKETONE FROM ETHYLENE WITH CARBON MONOXIDE CATALYZED BY NOVEL CATALYST SYSTEMS BASED ON COPPER WITH BIDENTATE PHOSPHORUS CHELATING LIGANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Huang; Feng-bo Li; Jin Zou; Guo-qing Yuan; Xiu-li Shi; Ding-sheng Yu

    2003-01-01

    Copolymerization of ethylene with carbon monoxide was performed with Cu catalyst systems. Novel catalyst systems based on Cu (Cu(CH3COO)2/ligand/acid) were firstly reported for the copolymerization of ethylene with carbon monoxide, in which the ligand was a bidentate phosphorus chelating ligand. The experimental results showed that this kind of Cu catalyst system exhibited high activity. When DPPP (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphine)propane) and CH3COOH were used catalyst system had the advantages of high stability and low cost.

  9. Selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of butane and maleic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbin, D.R.; Bonifaz, C. (DuPont Company, Wilmington, DE (United States))

    1994-03-01

    The selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of butane and maleic anhydride has been studied over platinum- and palladium-containing zeolites as well as palladium-on-silica (Pd/SiO[sub 2]) catalysts. The results show that although a zeolite support is needed in many systems to effect a kinetic control to improve selectivity, thermodynamic control using Pd([approximately]2-4 ppm)/SiO[sub 2] is sufficient to give the desired selectivities in this system. In addition, a palladium-containing vanadium-phosphate catalyst was prepared that showed complete oxidation of carbon monoxide, conversion of butane to maleic anhydride, and no observable decomposition of the maleic anhydride. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Unique case of fatal carbon monoxide poisoning in the absence of a combustible fossil fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D R; Poon, P; Titley, J; Jagger, S F; Rutty, G N

    2001-09-01

    A 37-year-old man died as a result of exposure to carbon monoxide within an apartment. An investigation of the apartment showed no gas appliances or gas supply to the apartment and no evidence of any combustion event to any part of the apartment or roof space. Inhalation of dichloromethane was excluded. Heating to the apartment was found to be via an electrical storage heater, the examination of which revealed that the cast-iron core and insulating material showed evidence of heat damage with significant areas devoid of carbon. This electric storage heater is hypothesized to be the source of carbon for the fatal production of carbon monoxide within the apartment.

  11. Alexithymia Associated With Bilateral Globus Pallidus Lesions After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Feng Huang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexithymia refers to a person's inability to identify and describe feelings. We present a patient who developed alexithymia after carbon monoxide poisoning following a suicide attempt by burning charcoal in an enclosed space. Brain computed tomography revealed bilateral globus pallidus hypoxic lesions. Because of the time frame and the presence of brain structural lesions, the alexithymia in this patient was thought to be caused by bilateral globus pallidus hypoxic lesions resulting from carbon monoxide poisoning. The alexithymia in this patient did not respond to a variety of psychotropic drugs, including sertraline, venalfaxine, bupropion or methylphenidate. We suggest that alexithymia, which was associated with brain hypoxic lesions in this case, is resistant to treatment.

  12. Delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome after carbon monoxide poisoning: inclusion of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the recovery protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Lo Pardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome can arise in the period from 4 days to 5 weeks following carbon monoxide poisoning, and is characterized by neuropsychological deficits, which in some cases become chronic. This case report describes an adult female who apparently suffered self-inflicted carbon monoxide poisoning. She was not treated with hyperbaric oxygen and developed delayed sequelae on day 20. The treatment started with 40 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and subsequently with neuropsychological rehabilitation and physiotherapy. The treatment resulted in a progressive and almost complete physical and psychological recovery as evidenced by neuropsychometric tests and diagnostic imaging performed in the follow-up. Recovery was attributed to hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Although further research is required, we propose hyperbaric oxygen therapy also in the recovery protocol in the treatment of delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome.

  13. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide in pulmonary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2003-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a number of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. By virtue of anti-inflammatory effects, HO-1 limits tissue damage in response to proinflammatory stimuli and prevents allograft rejection after transplantation. The transcriptional upregulation of HO-1 responds to many agents, such as hypoxia, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. HO-1 and its constitutively expressed isozyme, heme oxygenase-2, catalyze the rate-limiting step in the conversion of heme to its metabolites, bilirubin IXalpha, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide (CO). The mechanisms by which HO-1 provides protection most likely involve its enzymatic reaction products. Remarkably, administration of CO at low concentrations can substitute for HO-1 with respect to anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, suggesting a role for CO as a key mediator of HO-1 function. Chronic, low-level, exogenous exposure to CO from cigarette smoking contributes to the importance of CO in pulmonary medicine. The implications of the HO-1/CO system in pulmonary diseases will be discussed in this review, with an emphasis on inflammatory states.

  14. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide in pulmonary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Augustine MK

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a number of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. By virtue of anti-inflammatory effects, HO-1 limits tissue damage in response to proinflammatory stimuli and prevents allograft rejection after transplantation. The transcriptional upregulation of HO-1 responds to many agents, such as hypoxia, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. HO-1 and its constitutively expressed isozyme, heme oxygenase-2, catalyze the rate-limiting step in the conversion of heme to its metabolites, bilirubin IXα, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide (CO. The mechanisms by which HO-1 provides protection most likely involve its enzymatic reaction products. Remarkably, administration of CO at low concentrations can substitute for HO-1 with respect to anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, suggesting a role for CO as a key mediator of HO-1 function. Chronic, low-level, exogenous exposure to CO from cigarette smoking contributes to the importance of CO in pulmonary medicine. The implications of the HO-1/CO system in pulmonary diseases will be discussed in this review, with an emphasis on inflammatory states.

  15. In-utero carbon monoxide poisoning and multiple fetal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennequin, Y.; Blum, D.; Vamos, E.; Steppe, M.; Goedseels, J.; Cavatorta, E. (Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Queen Fabiola Children' s Hospital)

    1993-01-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during pregnancy can lead to feto-maternal fatalities and stillbirths. Teratogenic effects have been reported. The authors strongly suspected an association between mild but chronic CO poisoning of the mother and major multiple malformations in the baby. Retrospective interviews of the mother disclosed that at 10 weeks' gestation, she had complained of headache and dizziness. At the same time, her 16-month-old daughter had an episode of unconsciousness. A faulty kitchen gas water-heater was suspected but the family did not have it repaired. The mother continued to have headaches regularly. During the 7th month of pregnancy, the daughter was found comatose. In the emergency ward, carboxyhemoglobins levels were 27.5% for the child and 14% for the pregnant mother. Both were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Investigations by the gas company revealed a highly abnormal CO production from the kitchen and bathroom gas-water heaters: 120 and 100 parts per million, respectively, after 2 minutes of use.

  16. Castration Therapy of Prostate Cancer Results in Downregulation of HIF-1{alpha} Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ubaidi, Firas L.T. [Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Urology, Central Hospital, Vaesteras (Sweden); Schultz, Niklas [Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Egevad, Lars [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Granfors, Torvald [Department of Urology, Central Hospital, Vaesteras (Sweden); Helleday, Thomas, E-mail: helleday@gmt.su.se [Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Science for Life Laboratory, Stockholm University, Solna (Sweden)

    2012-03-01

    Background and Purpose: Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation in combination with radiotherapy of prostate cancer is used to improve radioresponsiveness and local tumor control. Currently, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Because hypoxia causes resistance to radiotherapy, we wanted to test whether castration affects the degree of hypoxia in prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: In 14 patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, six to 12 prostatic needle core biopsy specimens were taken prior to castration therapy. Bilateral orchidectomy was performed in 7 patients, and 7 were treated with a GnRH-agonist (leuprorelin). After castrationm two to four prostatic core biopsy specimens were taken, and the level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in cancer was determined by immunofluorescence. Results: Among biopsy specimens taken before castration, strong HIF-1{alpha} expression (mean intensity above 30) was shown in 5 patients, weak expression (mean intensity 10-30) in 3 patients, and background levels of HIF-1{alpha} (mean intensity 0-10) in 6 patients. Downregulation of HIF-1{alpha} expression after castration was observed in all 5 patients with strong HIF-1{alpha} precastration expression. HIF-1{alpha} expression was also reduced in 2 of 3 patients with weak HIF-1{alpha} precastration expression. Conclusions: Our data suggest that neoadjuvant castration decreases tumor cell hypoxia in prostate cancer, which may explain increased radiosensitivity after castration.

  17. Test-beam results from the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Bohm, C; Bright-Thomas, P G; Connors, A; Edwards, J; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellis, Nick; Engström, M; Farthouat, Philippe; Garvey, J; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Hanke, P; Hatley, R; Hellman, S; Hillier, S J; Kluge, E E; Landon, M; Maddox, A J; Pentney, J M; Perera, V J O; Pfeiffer, U; Schuler, G A; Schumacher, C; Shah, T P; Silverstein, S; Staley, R J; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Wunsch, M

    1998-01-01

    The ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger will utilise a number of advanced technologies, many of which have already been successfully demonstrated. To evaluate the different technologies associated with the important areas of $9 high-speed data transport a large demonstrator system has been designed and operated during the last two years, using signals from prototype calorimeters in the ATLAS test-beam. Using this system, inter-crate data transmission and $9 reception have been demonstrated at over 1.4 Gbyte/s, with individual links running at up to 1.6 Gbaud. Operating with 160 Mbit/s signals across a transmission-line backplane, custom transceiver ASICs have achieved inter-module data $9 fanout at peak rates above 800 Mbyte/s. With the addition of further modules, the system was extended to emulate a vertical slice through the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger. We present here the results from these tests, including $9 measurements of bit-error rates across different data paths. (12 refs).

  18. Cerebrovasodilatory contribution of endogenous carbon monoxide during seizures in newborn pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourcyrous, Massroor; Bada, Henrietta S; Parfenova, Helena; Daley, Michael L; Korones, Sheldon B; Leffler, Charles W

    2002-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and the excitatory amino acid glutamate both dilate cerebral arterioles in newborn pigs. The key enzyme in CO synthesis is heme oxygenase, which is highly expressed in neurons with glutamatergic receptor activity as well as cerebral microvessels. During seizures the extracellular level of glutamate is increased, which results in excessive depolarization of neurons. We hypothesized that CO is a mediator of excitatory amino acid-induced dilation of the cerebral microvasculature during seizures. Three groups of piglets were examined: 1) i.v. normal saline (sham control), 2) topical chromium mesoporphyrin (Cr-MP, 15 x 10(-6) M), and 3) i.v. tin-protoporphyrin (Sn-PP, 4 mg/kg). Synthetic metalloporphyrins (Cr-MP and Sn-PP) are heme oxygenase inhibitors, thereby reducing CO synthesis. Implanted closed cranial windows were used to monitor changes in pial arteriolar diameters. Seizures were induced by administration of i.v. bicuculline. Changes in pial arteriolar diameters were monitored during 30 min of status epilepticus. The percent increase in pial arteriolar dilation in the saline group during seizures was 68 +/- 3%. In the metalloporphyrin groups, the pial arteriolar dilation was markedly reduced (35 +/- 3% and 13 +/- 1%, for Cr-MP and Sn-PP, respectively; p synthesis attenuate pial arteriolar dilation during seizures. Therefore, CO appears to be involved in cerebral vasodilation caused by glutamatergic seizures.

  19. A 60-yr record of atmospheric carbon monoxide reconstructed from Greenland firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Petrenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere (NH high latitude atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO mole fraction from Greenland firn air. Firn air samples were collected at three deep ice core sites in Greenland (NGRIP in 2001, Summit in 2006 and NEEM in 2008. CO records from the three sites agree well with each other as well as with recent atmospheric measurements, indicating that CO is well preserved in the firn at these sites. CO atmospheric history was reconstructed back to the year 1950 from the measurements using a combination of two forward models of gas transport in firn and an inverse model. The reconstructed history suggests that Arctic CO was already higher in 1950 than it is today. CO mole fractions rose gradually until the 1970s and peaked in the 1970s or early 1980s, followed by a decline to today's levels. We compare the CO history with the atmospheric histories of methane, light hydrocarbons, molecular hydrogen, CO stable isotopes and hydroxyl radical (OH, as well as with published CO emission inventories and results of a historical run from a chemistry-transport model. We find that the reconstructed Greenland CO history cannot be reconciled with available emission inventories unless large changes in OH are assumed. We argue that the available CO emission inventories chronically underestimate NH emissions, and fail to capture the emission decline starting in the late 1970s, which was most likely due to reduced emissions from road transportation in North America and Europe.

  20. Effects of acute hypoventilation and hyperventilation on exhaled carbon monoxide measurement in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Donato Michele

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO are a marker of airway or lung inflammation. We investigated whether hypo- or hyperventilation can affect measured values. Methods Ten healthy volunteers were trained to achieve sustained end-tidal CO2 (etCO2 concentrations of 30 (hyperventilation, 40 (normoventilation, and 50 mmHg (hypoventilation. As soon as target etCO2 values were achieved for 120 sec, exhaled breath was analyzed for eCO with a photoacoustic spectrometer. At etCO2 values of 30 and 40 mmHg exhaled breath was sampled both after a deep inspiration and after a normal one. All measurements were performed in two different environmental conditions: A ambient CO concentration = 0.8 ppm and B ambient CO concentration = 1.7 ppm. Results During normoventilation, eCO mean (standard deviation was 11.5 (0.8 ppm; it decreased to 10.3 (0.8 ppm during hyperventilation (p 2 changes (hyperventilation: 10% Vs 25% decrease; hypoventilation 3% Vs 25% increase. Taking a deep inspiration before breath sampling was associated with lower eCO values (p Conclusions eCO measurements should not be performed during marked acute hyperventilation, like that induced in this study, but the influence of less pronounced hyperventilation or of hypoventilation is probably negligible in clinical practice

  1. Carbon Monoxide Inhibits Receptor Activator of NF-κB (RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Jen Tseng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO have anti-inflammatory effects and can reduce bone erosion in a murine collagen-induced arthritis model. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of CO on receptor activator of NF-γB ligand (RANKL, one of the key stimulators of osteoclastogenesis. Methods: The in vivo effects of CO on RANKL expression were assessed in a collagen antibody-induced arthritis model in mice. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed in the RAW246.7 cell line stimulated with RANKL and exposed to either air or CO. The number of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive RAW246.7 cells was also examined after treatment with RANKL and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ agonist, Troglitazone. Results: CO reduced RANKL expression in the synovium of arthritic mice. Although CO slightly increased RAW246.7 cell proliferation, no differences in activated caspase 3 levels were detected. In addition, Troglitazone ameliorated the inhibitory effects of CO on RANKL-induced TRAP expression by RAW246.7 cells. Conclusions: CO suppresses osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting the RANKL-induced activation of PPAR-γ. Given the role of the PPAR-γ/cFos (AP-1 pathway in regulating the transcription factor, NFATc1, the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis, further studies are warranted to explore CO in treating inflammatory bone disorders.

  2. Response of Hepatoma 9618a and Normal Liver to Host Carbogen and Carbon Monoxide Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. Robinson

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hyperoxia (induced by host carbogen 95% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide breathing. and hypoxia (induced by host carbon monoxide CO at 660 ppm. breathing were compared by using noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR methods to gain simultaneous information on blood flow/oxygenation and the bioenergetic status of rat Morris H9618a hepatomas. Both carbogen and CO breathing induced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in signal intensity in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD MR images. This was due to a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb, which acts as an endogenous contrast agent, caused either by formation of oxyhemoglobin in the case of carbogen breathing, or carboxyhemoglobin with CO breathing. The results were confirmed by observation of similar changes in deoxyHb in arterial blood samples examined ex vivo after carbogen or CO breathing. There was no change in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP/PI in either tumor or liver after CO breathing, whereas NTP/Pl increased twofold in the hepatoma (but not in the liver after carbogen breathing. No changes in tumor intracellular pH were seen after either treatment, whereas extracellular pH became more alkaline after CO breathing and more acid after carbogen breathing, respectively. This tumor type and the liver are unaffected by CO breathing at 660 ppm, which implies an adequate oxygen supply.

  3. Consequences of brief exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zengfa; Januszkiewicz, Adolph J; Mayorga, Maria A; Coleman, Gary D; Morrissette, Craig R

    2005-12-01

    Exposure to high-concentration carbon monoxide (CO) is of concern in military operations. Experimentally, the physiologic manifestations of a brief exposure to elevated levels of CO have not been fully described. This study investigated the development of acute CO poisoning in conscious male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-380 g). Animals were randomly grouped (n = 6) and exposed to either air or 1 of 6 CO concentrations (1000, 3000, 6000, 10,000, 12,000, or 24,000 ppm) in a continuous air/CO dynamic exposure chamber for 5 min. Respiration was recorded prior to and during exposures. Mixed blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and pH were measured before and immediately after exposure. Before exposure the mean baselines of respiratory minute volumes (RMVs) were 312.6 +/- 43.9, 275.2 +/- 40.8, and 302.3 +/- 39.1 ml/min for the 10,000, 12,000 and 24,000 ppm groups, respectively. In the last minute of exposure RMVs were 118.9 +/- 23.7, 62.1 +/- 10.4, and 22.0 +/- 15.1% (p 82%. Blood pH was unaltered and no death occurred in rats exposed to CO at concentrations 10,000 ppm for brief periods as short as 5 min may change RMV, resulting in acute respiratory failure, acidemia, and even death.

  4. Discourse level writing in dyslexics--methods, results, and implications for diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengelin, A; Strömqvist, S

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate some aspects of the written language production process in dyslexic writers. A group of adult dyslexic writers are compared with a control group and a group of congenitally deaf writers. We present analyses of the actions of both constructing and editing linguistic units during on-line writing. The results suggest that in order to understand the organization of how linguistic units are constructed in writing, we need to take both cognitive and socio-communicative factors into account. We must also recognize that on-line recordings could contribute important data in the diagnosis of writing difficulties. We propose that the temporal distribution, pause frequencies and nested editings on the word level are good candidates for such a diagnostic purpose.

  5. COMPARISON OF NOVORONEZH UNIT 5 NPP AND SOUTH UKRAINE UNIT 1 NPP LEVEL I PRA RESULTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MUSICKI,Z.; GINSBERG,T.

    2002-04-18

    This paper describes a study undertaken to explain the risk profile differences in the results of PRAs of two similar WER-1000 nuclear power plants. The risk profile differences are particularly significant in the area of small steam/feedwater line breaks, small-small LOCAs, support system initiators and containment bypass initiators. A top level (limited depth) approach was used in which we studied design differences, major assumptions, data differences, and also compared the two PRA analyses on an element-by-element basis in order to discern the major causative factors for the risk profile differences. We conclude that the major risk profile differences are due to differences in assumptions and engineering judgment (possibly combined with some design and data differences) involved in treatment of uncertain physical phenomena (primarily sump plugging in LOCAs and turbine building steaming effects in secondary system breaks). Additional major differences are attributable to support system characteristics.

  6. Post-processing V&V level II ASC milestone (2360) results.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Elmer; Karelitz, David B.; Brunner, Thomas A.; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Moreland, Kenneth D.; Weirs, V. Gregory; Shead, Timothy M.

    2007-09-01

    The 9/30/2007 ASC Level 2 Post-Processing V&V Milestone (Milestone 2360) contains functionality required by the user community for certain verification and validation tasks. These capabilities include loading of edge and face data on an Exodus mesh, run-time computation of an exact solution to a verification problem, delivery of results data from the server to the client, computation of an integral-based error metric, simultaneous loading of simulation and test data, and comparison of that data using visual and quantitative methods. The capabilities were tested extensively by performing a typical ALEGRA HEDP verification task. In addition, a number of stretch criteria were met including completion of a verification task on a 13 million element mesh.

  7. Natural clinoptilolite exchanged with iron: characterization and catalytic activity in nitrogen monoxide reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Tito-Ferro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the natural clinoptilolite from Tasajeras deposit, Cuba, modified by hydrothermal ion-exchange with solutions of iron (II sulfate and iron (III nitrate in acid medium. Besides this, its catalytic activity to reduce nitrogen monoxide with carbon monoxide/propene in the presence of oxygen was evaluated. The characterization was performed by Mössbauer and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopies and adsorption measurements. The obtained results lead to conclude that in exchanged samples, incorporated divalent and trivalent irons are found in octahedral coordination. Both irons should be mainly in cationic extra-framework positions inside clinoptilolite channels as charge compensating cations, and also as iron oxy-hydroxides resulting from limited hydrolysis of these cations. The iron (III exchanged samples has a larger amount of iron oxy-hydroxides agglomerates. The iron (II exchanged samples have additionally iron (II sulfate adsorbed. The catalytic activity in the nitrogen monoxide reduction is higher in the exchanged zeolites than starting. Among all samples, those exchanged of iron (II has the higher catalytic activity. This lead to outline that, main catalytically active centers are associated with divalent iron.

  8. Surveillance for the effects of carbon monoxide on health in a Tianjin gas factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin-xin [Tianjiin Lab. of Health and Occupational Diseases Prevention and Treatment Hospital, Tianjiin (China); Ma, Xiang-min; Dong, Zi-zhen; Xie, Ping [Sanitation and Diseases Prevention Centre, Tianjin (China); Li, Gang [First Tianjin Gas Factory, Tianjin (China)

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the surveillance over the past 8 years of carbon monoxide (CO) levels in a factory producing gas from coal. Where workers were working in areas of the factory where the air might be polluted by CO we found that measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) levels in their blood was a sufficiently sensitive test of exposure. Measurements on samples taken before and after a shift showed a significant difference. Our measurements of a HbCO blank control in two normal population groups was very close to the biological limit value of that for normal groups in the USA and Germany. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs., 3 refs.

  9. Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Techtmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO, well known as a toxic gas, is increasingly recognized as a key metabolite and signaling molecule. Microbial utilization of CO is quite common, evidenced by the rapid escalation in description of new species of CO-utilizing bacteria and archaea. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH, the protein complex that enables anaerobic CO utilization has been well-characterized from an increasing number of microorganisms, however the regulation of multiple CO-related gene clusters in single isolates remains unexplored. Many species are extroraordinarily resistant to high CO concentrations, thiriving under pure CO at more than one atmosphere. We hypothesized that, in strains that can grow exclusively on CO, both carbon acquisition via the CODH/Acetyl CoA synthase complex and energy conservation via a CODH-linked hydrogenase must be differentially regulated in response to the availability of CO. The CO-sensing transcriptional activator, CooA is present in most CO-oxidizing bacteria. Here we present a genomic and phylogenetic survey of CODH operons and cooA genes found in CooA-containing bacteria. Two distinct groups of CooA homologs were found: One clade (CooA-1 is found in the majority of CooA containing bacteria, whereas the other clade (CooA-2 is found only in genomes that encode multiple CODH clusters, suggesting that the CooA-2 might be important for cross-regulation of competing CODH operons. Recombinant CooA-1 and CooA-2 regulators from the prototypical CO-utilizing bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans were purified, and promoter binding analyses revealed that CooA-1 specifically regulates the hydrogenase-linked CODH, whereas CooA-2 is able to regulate both the hydrogenase-linked CODH and the CODH/ACS operons. These studies point to the ability of dual CooA homologs to partition CO into divergent CO-utilizing pathways resulting in efficient consumption of a single limiting growth substrate available across a wide range of

  10. Noise levels in Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) data; Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, J.; Heflin, M. B.; Hurst, K.; Kedar, S.; Herring, T.; King, N. E.; Prawirodirdjo, L.

    2002-12-01

    Quantifying the noise levels in GPS data is a necessary for estimating station velocities and their uncertainties. The estimate of velocity uncertainty is particularly sensitive to the noise model used to characterize the time-series at its lowest frequencies. Previous published analysis (Zhang et. al, 1997 and Mao et. al, 1999) of noise levels in GPS data indicated that the flicker noise (1/f where f is frequency) best represent the temporal correlations at low frequencies in GPS station position time-series. On the other hand, analysis of high precision EDM data (Langbein and Johnson, 1995) show temporal correlations at low frequencies that is consistent with a random-walk (1/{f2}). It is believed that localized monument wobble is the cause for the random-walk. With the more recent GPS solutions that use data from a regional network and, as a consequence of resolving the ambiguity in GPS phase data, these solutions have better precision than those used in the published results. To test whether random-walk could be a component of the GPS data, time series of GPS data processed by JPL using GIPSY-OASIS II are examined. These data are from a subset of SCIGN for which the ambiguities have been resolved and a local reference frame has been defined. Preliminary analysis indicates that either flicker or a wide-band, seasonal noise is present. In addition, it is possible to place an upper bound on the amount of random-walk noise in the SCIGN data since these data span enough time and the recent data have less flicker noise than the published solutions.

  11. Blood lead levels in the adult Victorian population: results from the Victorian Health Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsall, Liza M; de Gooyer, Tanyth E; Carey, Marion; Vaughan, Loretta; Ansari, Zahid

    2013-06-01

    To estimate blood lead levels (BLLs) in the adult Victorian population and compare the distribution of BLLs with the current national reference level to better inform public health prevention and management of lead toxicity. Population-based cross-sectional health measurement survey of 50 randomly selected Census Collection Districts (CDs) throughout Victoria. The Victorian Health Monitor (VHM) was conducted over 12 months from May 2009 to April 2010. One eligible person (aged 18-75 years) from each household selected within each CD was randomly selected to participate. Persons with an intellectual disability and pregnant women were excluded from the sampling frame. BLLs were obtained from 3,622 of the 3,653 (99%) VHM participants. The geometric mean and median BLLs from the adult sample were 0.070 μmol/L (95%CI, 0.068-0.073) and 0.05 μmol/L (range: 0.05 to 1.22 μmol/L), respectively. Elevated BLLs (≥0.483 μmol/L or ≥10 μg/dL) were identified in 19 participants (0.7%; 95%CI, 0.3-1.6). Additionally, 86 participants (1.8%; 95%CI, 1.3-2.4) were identified with BLLs between 0.242 and <0.483 μmol/L (5 to <10 μg/dL). The geometric mean BLL was significantly higher for males, compared with females (0.077 μmol/L vs 0.064 μmol/L; p<0.001). BLLs increased significantly with age for both sexes. The first population estimates of BLLs in Victorian adults indicate the average adult BLL to be well below the current national reference level. However, some groups of the population have BLLs at which adverse effects may occur. Implications : The results provide baseline estimates for future population health surveillance and comparison with studies of at-risk groups. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. The immunomodulatory role of carbon monoxide during transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amano Mariane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of organ and tissue transplants has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, graft rejection, infections due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs and a shortage of graft donors remain major concerns. Carbon monoxide (CO had long been regarded solely as a poisonous gas. Ultimately, physiological studies unveiled the endogenous production of CO, particularly by the heme oxygenase (HO-1 enzyme, recognizing CO as a beneficial gas when used at therapeutic doses. The protective properties of CO led researchers to develop uses for it, resulting in devices and molecules that can deliver CO in vitro and in vivo. The resulting interest in clinical investigations was immediate. Studies regarding the CO/HO-1 modulation of immune responses and their effects on various immune disorders gave rise to transplantation research, where CO was shown to be essential in the protection against organ rejection in animal models. This review provides a perspective of how CO modulates the immune system to improve transplantation and suggests its use as a therapy in the field.

  13. The inverse method of carbon monoxide from satellite measurement and the result analysis∗%基于卫星平台的全球大气一氧化碳柱浓度反演方法及结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘诚; 白文广; 张鹏; 孙友文; 司福祺

    2013-01-01

      温室效应是全球气候变化的主要原因之一,除温室气体外,有毒气体一氧化碳(CO)作为一种非直接温室气体加剧了这种变化。由于地基观测台站数量有限,而大气化学模型的模拟又很大程度上依赖于模型假定,因此,卫星观测成为实时获取大气CO浓度分布信息的有效途径。 Sciamachy是第一台搭载在卫星上,利用观测到的近红外波段太阳反射光谱反演大气一氧化碳的仪器。由于在近红外波段,大气散射效应可以忽略,所以Sciamachy观测数据能够很好地反演与人类活动息息相关的大气底层一氧化碳的时空变化信息。本文基于迭代最大后验概率算法,对Sciamachy的观测数据进行反演分析,同时应用云效应校正与仪器本身问题校正方法,得到了全球一氧化碳柱浓度时空分布结果;通过与Atsr全球火点数据的比较,分析了全球CO排放源的种类与时空分布;最后选取中国地区CO柱浓度分布图,并结合人口密度与煤田/煤矿分布,对其排放源进行了初步推断。%Greenhouse effect is one of the main reasons for climate change. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a critical air pollutant because of its short-term harmful health effects. Furthermore, since CO emission has a global warming potential, it exacerbats the climate change as an indirect greenhouse gas. Due to the fact that the number of ground-based stations is less and the chemical model simulation is greatly dependent on assumption, satellite observation becomes the effective way to acquire the information about CO distribution. Sciamachy is the first satellite instrument to allow retrieval of CO by measuring absorption in the near infrared region from reflected and scattered sunlight, which is highly sensitive to the lower layers of the troposphere where the sources, such as biomass burning, are located, and where the bulk of the gases is usually found. In this study the

  14. Fresh meat packaging: consumer acceptance of modified atmosphere packaging including carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebitus, Carola; Jensen, Helen H; Roosen, Jutta; Sebranek, Joseph G

    2013-01-01

    Consumers' perceptions and evaluations of meat quality attributes such as color and shelf life influence purchasing decisions, and these product attributes can be affected by the type of fresh meat packaging system. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) extends the shelf life of fresh meat and, with the inclusion of carbon monoxide (CO-MAP), achieves significant color stabilization. The objective of this study was to assess whether consumers would accept specific packaging technologies and what value consumers place on ground beef packaged under various atmospheres when their choices involved the attributes of color and shelf life. The study used nonhypothetical consumer choice experiments to determine the premiums that consumers are willing to pay for extended shelf life resulting from MAP and for the "cherry red" color in meat resulting from CO-MAP. The experimental design allowed determination of whether consumers would discount foods with MAP or CO-MAP when (i) they are given more detailed information about the technologies and (ii) they have different levels of individual knowledge and media exposure. The empirical analysis was conducted using multinomial logit models. Results indicate that consumers prefer an extension of shelf life as long as the applied technology is known and understood. Consumers had clear preferences for brighter (aerobic and CO) red color and were willing to pay $0.16/lb ($0.35/kg) for each level of change to the preferred color. More information on MAP for extending the shelf life and on CO-MAP for stabilizing color decreased consumers' willingness to pay. An increase in personal knowledge and media exposure influenced acceptance of CO-MAP negatively. The results provide quantitative measures of how packaging affects consumers' acceptance and willingness to pay for products. Such information can benefit food producers and retailers who make decisions about investing in new packaging methods.

  15. Comparison of carbon monoxide poisonings originated from coal stove and natural gas and the evaluation of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Kemal Günaydın

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to present the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory and prognosis differences between the coal stove origin poisoning and natural gas leakages. We also aimed to investigate relationship between the severity of clinical picture, prognosis, complications develop in CO poisoning with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR at the initial admission. Methods: All the acute carbon monoxide cases who applied to Ankara Training and Research Hospital Emergency Medicine Clinic between October 2009 and April 2010 were included to this prospective study. CO poisoning diagnosis was made by the history of CO poisoning with carboxyl hemoglobin (COHb concentration is over 10%. 100 patients were included to our study. Results: Of the patients, 55(55% were poisoned from the coal-stove and 45(45% from natural gas leakage. The mean COHb level of the natural gas group was significantly high (p=0.01. The mean value of GCS of the natural gas group was significantly lower (p=0.018. The number of patients with indication for HBO therapy were 17 and 6 in the natural gas group and coal-stove group, respectively, being significantly higher in the natural gas group(p=0.001. There was no statistically significant relationship between the value of NLR and values of COHb, troponin, and GCS (p=0.872, p=0.470, and p=0.896, respectively. Conclusions: Carbon monoxide poisoning from natural gas leakage is more toxic than that from the coal-stove. There is no relationship between NLR at the time of presentation and the severity of clinical findings, prognosis and complications.

  16. Changes in the Autonomic Nervous System in Patients with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Badalyan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to examine changes in the autonomic nervous system (ANS function in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning in relation to the condition severity. Subjects and methods. The ANS was studied in 114 patients aged 15 to 82 years with carbon monohydrate poisoning who were treated at the N. V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Care, Moscow, in 2004—2008. Cardiointervalographic readings were analyzed in relation to the condition severity, the presence of thermal damages to the skin and upper airway, and that of blood alcohol. Results. Within the first hours after poisoning, the function of the ANS was found to be impaired, which was associated with the development of hypersympathicotonia caused by the increased activity of its sympathetic part and the decreased tone of the parasympathetic one. The magnitude of hypersympathicotonia depends on the severity of poisoning, on the presence of thermal damages to the upper respiratory tract and that of blood alcohol. The preponderance of the tone of the ANS parasympathetic part suggests the disturbance of adaptive and compensatory mechanisms and the likely poor prognosis of the poisoning. Conclusion. Cardiointervalography is recommended for the objective evaluation of the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning. Key words: carbon monoxide, autonomic nervous system, cardiointervalog-raphy, adaptive and compensatory mechanisms.

  17. Inter-comparison of four different carbon monoxide measurements techniques and evaluation of the long-term carbon monoxide time series of Jungfraujoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zellweger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The 12-year record (1996–2007 of continuous carbon monoxide (CO measurements of the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch (JFJ, Switzerland, was investigated with a focus on trend analysis. To date this is one of the longest time series of continuous CO measurements in the free troposphere over Central Europe. A significant negative trend was observed at JFJ with a decrease of 21.4±0.3% in the investigated period, or an average annual decrease of 2.65±0.04 ppb/yr (1.78%/yr. These results were compared with emission inventory data reported to the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention. It could be shown that long range transport significantly influences the CO levels observed at JFJ, with air masses of non-European origin contributing to at least a third to observed mixing ratios.

    Such trend analysis and inter-comparison with emission inventories are only possible with data of known quality. To this end, the Non-dispersive Infrared Absorption (NDIR technique used for CO measurements at JFJ was inter-compared over two months using three additional analytical techniques, namely Vacuum UV Resonance Fluorescence (VURF, gas chromatographic separation with a mercuric oxide reduction detector (GC/HgO, and gas chromatographic separation followed by reduction on a nickel catalyst and analysis by a flame ionization detector (GC/FID. The agreement among all techniques was better than 2% for one-hourly averages which confirmed the suitability of the NDIR method for CO measurements even at remote sites.

  18. Slice Test Results of the ATLAS Barrel Muon Level-1 Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Alviggi, M G; Bocci, V; Brambilla, Elena; Canale, V; Caprio, M A; Cardarelli, R; Cataldi, G; De Asmundis, R; Della Volpe, D; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Distante, L; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Iengo, P; Nisati, A; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Perrino, R; Petrolo, E; Primavera, M; Salamon, A; Santonico, R; Sekhniaidze, G; Severi, M; Spagnolo, S; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; 9th Workshop On Electronics For LHC Experiments - LECC 2003

    2003-01-01

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment makes use of the Resistive Plate Chambers detectors for particle tracking in the barrel region. The level-1 muon trigger system has to measure and discriminate muon transverse momentum, perform a fast and coarse tracking of the muon candidates, associate them to the bunch crossing corresponding to the event of interest, measure the second coordinate in the non-bending projection. The on-detector electronics first collects front-end signals coming from the two inner RPC stations on the low-pT PAD boards, each one covering a region of DetaxDphi=0.2x0.2, and hosting four Coincidence Matrix ASICs. Each CMA performs the low-pT trigger algorithm and data readout on a region of DetaxDphi=0.2x0.1. Data coming from the four CMAs are assembled by the low-pT PAD logic. Each low-pT PAD board sends data to the corresponding high-pT PAD boards, located on the outer RPC station. Four CMA on each board make use of the low-pT trigger result and of the front-end signals coming from...

  19. Does low-level laser therapy decrease swelling and pain resulting from orthognathic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, G; Rodrigues de Siqueira, I C; Rezende Costa, L

    2014-07-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) could be an alternative for the treatment of swelling and pain after orthognathic surgery, but there is a paucity of data in the literature on the effects of its use. This study verified the efficacy of an LLLT protocol to reduce swelling and pain after orthognathic surgery. Ten healthy patients who underwent a bilateral sagittal split with Le Fort I osteotomy were randomly selected for this study. The LLLT protocol consisted of intraoral and extraoral application to one side of the face after surgery (irradiated side); application to the other side was simulated (non-irradiated side). The irradiated and non-irradiated sides were compared regarding the swelling coefficient and were assessed for pain using a visual analogue scale. There were no significant differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides regarding swelling and pain in the immediate postoperative assessment. Swelling decreased significantly on the irradiated side in the postoperative assessments on days 3, 7, 15, and 30. Self-reported pain was less intense on the irradiated side at the 24-h (1.2 vs. 3.4) and 3-day (0.6 vs. 2.1) assessments, but at 7 days after surgery neither side showed pain. This LLLT protocol can improve the tissue response and reduce the pain and swelling resulting from orthognathic surgery.

  20. Results of {sup 14}C analysis on low-level reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, S.J.; Kotzer, T.G

    2000-04-01

    An invitation from the University of Glasgow to participate in an international intercomparison of {sup 14}C analysis and the increased need for quality assurance for measurements performed at the Low-Level Laboratory by AECL's Environmental Technologies Branch (ETB), Chalk River Laboratories, prompted the initiation of this work. Standard {sup 14}C samples from the IAEA and from the ETB were analyzed and compared to their reference values. All analyses agreed well with reported values and confirmed that the ETB can reliably measure {sup 14}C between 50 and 500 Bq/kg C. Samples from the University of Glasgow, Scotland, were also analyzed and reported. The results of counting various CO{sub 2} blank materials (dry ice from a CO{sub 2}-siphon and limestone) showed that the source of CO{sub 2} does not have an effect on background count rate or counter efficiency. The ETB's lower limit of detection (LLD) has been calculated to be 10 -20 Bq/kg C and the determination limit (L{sub Q}) for samples during the ETB's routine operations has been documented to be 44 Bq/kg C. (author)

  1. Results after one year from a Hydrostatic Levelling System installed at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, James; Baker, Keith A.; Hoffman, William J.

    2010-06-01

    A Hydrostatic Levelling System (HLS) has been installed at Diamond Light Source. 8 sensors have been positioned along a 60 metre portion of the floor of the Storage Ring and the Experimental Hall, stretching out along a typical beamline route from Insertion Device to sample. 7 of the sensors are installed on the thick, reinforced concrete floor of the Experimental Hall which is supported on piles and the last sensor is mounted on the much thinner concrete floor of the peripheral walkway which has no piles. The foundations and floor were designed to achieve settlements measuring 1 micron per 10 metres per hour and 10 microns per 10 metres per day. A larger range was specified of 250 microns per 10 metres per year on the Experimental Hall floor and 100 microns per 10 metres per year in the Storage Ring to account for longer term settlement effects and seasonal variation and the HLS has been installed to try and measure these very small movements. Results after one year of operation are presented.

  2. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: animal models: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, D G

    1990-05-31

    Animals have been used for well over a century in an attempt to understand the toxicology, physiology, and pathology of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Whether the toxic effects of this gas result from primary hypoxia, as in hypoxic hypoxia to which it is frequently compared, or from direct tissue effects since it enters cells and binds to certain vital components, remains a point of controversy. Acute severe poisoning in man and animals affects primarily the cardiovascular and nervous systems, and frequently produces neurologic dysfunction. Morphologically, tissue damage is usually confined to the white matter. The root cause is at best poorly understood and major investigative efforts have been made toward its elucidation. Many studies with rats, cats and primates indicate a major role for CO-induced hypotension, which serves to compromise blood flow and exacerbate acidosis. The likely cellular mechanisms in this process are only now becoming apparent. This review critically examines the recent as well as a few older CO-animal studies. In scope, they fall into several broad categories: general cardiopulmonary effects, metabolic and tissue effects, general resistance (i.e. tolerance), effects on the central nervous system including blood flow, neurochemistry, morphology and behavior, and finally, experimental therapeutic approaches.

  3. Carbon monoxide exposures after hurricane Ike - Texas, September 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    During power outages after hurricanes, survivors can be at risk for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning if they use portable generators improperly. On September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike struck the coast of Texas, leaving approximately 2.3 million households in the southeastern portion of the state without electricity. Six days later, 1.3 million homes were still without electrical power. To assess the impact of storm-related CO exposures and to enhance prevention efforts, CDC analyzed data from five disparate surveillance sources on CO exposures reported during September 13--26 in counties of southeast Texas that were declared disaster areas by the federal government. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that one data source, Texas poison centers, received reports of 54 persons with storm-related CO exposures during the surveillance period. Another data source, the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) hyperbaric oxygen treatment database, reported that 15 persons received hyperbaric oxygen treatment for storm-related CO poisoning. Medical examiners, public health officials, and hospitals in Texas reported that seven persons died from storm-related CO poisoning. Among the data sources, the percentage of reported storm-related CO exposures caused by improper generator use ranged from 82% to 87%. These findings underscore the need for effective prevention messages during storm preparation, warnings, and response periods regarding the correct use of generators and the installation and maintenance of battery-powered CO detectors.

  4. Discovery of carbon monoxide in the upper atmosphere of Pluto

    CERN Document Server

    Greaves, J S; Friberg, P

    2011-01-01

    Pluto's icy surface has changed colour and its atmosphere has swelled since its last closest approach to the Sun in 1989. The thin atmosphere is produced by evaporating ices, and so can also change rapidly, and in particular carbon monoxide should be present as an active thermostat. Here we report the discovery of gaseous CO via the 1.3mm wavelength J=2-1 rotational transition, and find that the line-centre signal is more than twice as bright as a tentative result obtained by Bockelee-Morvan et al. in 2000. Greater surface-ice evaporation over the last decade could explain this, or increased pressure could have caused the atmosphere to expand. The gas must be cold, with a narrow line-width consistent with temperatures around 50 K, as predicted for the very high atmosphere, and the line brightness implies that CO molecules extend up to approximately 3 Pluto radii above the surface. The upper atmosphere must have changed markedly over only a decade since the prior search, and more alterations could occur by the...

  5. Healthy dietary interventions and lipoprotein (a plasma levels: results from the Omni Heart Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Haring

    Full Text Available Increased lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] levels are associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Studies of dietary interventions on changes in Lp(a are sparse. We aimed to compare the effects of three healthy dietary interventions differing in macronutrient content on Lp(a concentration.Secondary analysis of a randomized, 3-period crossover feeding study including 155 (89 blacks; 66 whites individuals. Participants were given DASH-type healthy diets rich in carbohydrates [Carb], in protein [Prot] or in unsaturated fat [Unsat Fat] for 6 weeks each. Plasma Lp(a concentration was assessed at baseline and after each diet.Compared to baseline, all interventional diets increased mean Lp(a by 2 to 5 mg/dl. Unsat Fat increased Lp(a less than Prot with a difference of 1.0 mg/dl (95% CI, -0.5, 2.5; p = 0.196 in whites and 3.7 mg/dl (95% CI, 2.4, 5.0; p < 0.001 in blacks (p-value between races = 0.008; Unsat Fat increased Lp(a less than Carb with a difference of -0.6 mg/dl, 95% CI, -2.1, 0.9; p = 0.441 in whites and -1.5 mg/dl (95% CI, -0.2, -2.8; p = 0.021 in blacks (p-value between races = 0.354. Prot increased Lp(a more than Carb with a difference of 0.4 mg/dl (95% CI, -1.1, 1.9; p = 0.597 in whites and 2.2 mg/dl (95%CI, 0.9, 3.5; p = 0.001 in blacks (p-value between races = 0.082.Diets high in unsaturated fat increased Lp(a levels less than diets rich in carbohydrate or protein with greater changes in blacks than whites. Our results suggest that substitutions with dietary mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy diets may be preferable over protein or carbohydrates with regards to Lp(a.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00051350.

  6. High Holocene lake levels in eastern Patagonia (Argentina) as a result of persistent Atlantic rainfall (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariztegui, D.; Compagnucci, R.; Agosta, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Today's precipitation in central Patagonia, Argentina, mostly follows the intensity of the Westerlies. However, the extraordinary persistence of daily easterly winds can trigger episodes of intense rainfall reflected as water level variations in Lago Cardiel, a closed lacustrine basin located at 49°S. Meteorological data from 11-20 March 2002 at nearby Gobernador Gregores station recorded a heavy rain spell of 50mm accounting for 30% of the mean annual rainfall (167mm/year). The synoptic situation during this interval shows rainfall produced by wet air mass advection from the Atlantic. The weather surface maps for these days display a cyclone incoming at 45°S to the west of western Patagonia together with a concomitant anticyclone to the southwest, while a cyclogenesis initiates in eastern Patagonia. This pressure dipole produced east-north-eastern winds at the lake latitude and a generalized drop in the Westerlies intensity almost across the entire Patagonia. This is shown in distant stations such as Bariloche(41.9°S) and Rio Gallegos (51.4°S) in northwestern and southeastern Patagonia, respectively, as well as in Chilean stations such as Balmaceda (45.9°S) and Chile Chico (46.9°S). Similar pressure anomalies along with changes in wind intensity and direction have been previously simulated for the Austral winter (JJA) during the middle Holocene (7.0 to 4.5 kcal yrs BP). Thus, weaker Westerlies along with a higher frequency of the dipole-type atmospheric circulation than at present increased the described easterly winds-triggered rainfall. This inference agrees with high lake levels in the Lago Cardiel record along with more negative - Atlantic type - oxygen isotopic composition of authigenic carbonates. An increase in the frequency of this climatic configuration during longer time intervals could further explain the extreme lake highstands reconstructed for the early Holocene, and the contemporaneous negative isotopic signature of the carbonates. It could

  7. The Regulation of Proresolving Lipid Mediator Profiles in Baboon Pneumonia by Inhaled Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalli, Jesmond; Kraft, Bryan D.; Colas, Romain A.; Shinohara, Masakazu; Fredenburgh, Laura E.; Hess, Dean R.; Chiang, Nan; Welty-Wolf, Karen; Choi, Augustine M.; Piantadosi, Claude A.

    2015-01-01

    Strategies for the treatment of bacterial pneumonia beyond traditional antimicrobial therapy have been limited. The recently discovered novel genus of lipid mediators, coined “specialized proresolving mediators” (SPMs), which orchestrate clearance of recruited leukocytes and restore epithelial barrier integrity, have offered new insight into the resolution of inflammation. We performed lipid mediator (LM) metabololipidomic profiling and identification of LMs on peripheral blood leukocytes and plasma from a baboon model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Leukocytes and plasma were isolated from whole blood of S. pneumoniae–infected (n = 5–6 per time point) and control, uninfected baboons (n = 4 per time point) at 0, 24, 48, and 168 hours. In a subset of baboons with pneumonia (n = 3), we administered inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) at 48 hours (200–300 ppm for 60–90 min). Unstimulated leukocytes from control animals produced a proresolving LM signature with elevated resolvins and lipoxins. In contrast, serum-treated, zymosan-stimulated leukocytes and leukocytes from baboons with S. pneumoniae pneumonia produced a proinflammatory LM signature profile with elevated leukotriene B4 and prostaglandins. Plasma from baboons with S. pneumoniae pneumonia also displayed significantly reduced LM–SPM levels, including eicosapentaenoic acid–derived E-series resolvins (RvE) and lipoxins. CO inhalation increased levels of plasma RvE and lipoxins relative to preexposure levels. These results establish the leukocyte and plasma LM profiles biosynthesized during S. pneumoniae pneumonia in baboons and provide evidence for pneumonia-induced dysregulation of these proresolution programs. Moreover, these SPM profiles are partially restored with inhaled low-dose CO and SPM, which may shorten the time to pneumonia resolution. PMID:25568926

  8. [Massive poisoning with carbon monoxide: an update from a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Mariano; Crapanzano, Gabriel; Cabrerizo, Silvia; Aichele, Cristina; Deurtiaga, Alejandra; Vallejos, Yamila

    2017-02-01

    Carbon monoxide is known as the "silent murderer" because it is a colorless and odorless gas. According to these characteristics, toxicity goes unnoticed which makes the diagnosis difficult. In most cases, the cold periods and group poisoning make suspect its presence because inappropriate heat both in home or public environments. Our goal is to inform about a mass carbon monoxide poisoning in a children's parties room using a combustion source installed, not for the purpose of heating, but as a supply of light (generator), emphasizing that it can occur in any time of the year.

  9. Structural and magnetic properties of mechanochemically synthesized nanocrystalline titanium monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barudžija Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-sized titanium monoxide (TiO powder was prepared by mechanochemical synthesis. A mixture of commercial Ti and TiO2 (rutile powders with the molar ratio of 1:1 was milled in a planetary ball mill for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min under argon atmosphere. The final single-phase titanium monoxide sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, magnetic measurements using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The temperature dependency of the magnetic susceptibility is characterized by significant contribution of Pauli paramagnetism due to conduction electrons.

  10. Variable levels of tissue mosaicism can confound the interpretation of chromosomal microarray results from peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Chandni V; Eble, Tanya N; Burnside, Rachel D; Bi, Weimin; Patel, Ankita; Franco, Luis M

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) has significantly increased the ability to diagnose medical conditions caused by copy-number variation in the human genome. Given that the regions involved in copy-number abnormalities often encompass multiple genes, it has been common practice in recent years to compare the phenotypes of individuals with specific copy-number alterations identified by CMA, with the goal of identifying the critical regions for particular elements of a disease phenotype. It is rarely mentioned that this practice relies heavily on the assumption that the absence of mosaicism on CMA from a peripheral blood sample (the most common source of DNA in current clinical practice) reflects the absence of mosaicism in other tissues. We report here a case that violates that assumption. A 28-year-old male with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease was found by CMA to have a duplication of 17p12 along with two other abnormalities: A duplication of 12p13.33 translocated to the long arm of chromosome 3 and an interstitial duplication of 12p11.23. The patient did not have any clinical features suggestive of 12p duplication syndrome. Chromosomal microarray analysis on skin fibroblasts revealed the duplications at 17p12 and 12p11.23, but not the terminal duplication of 12p13.33. FISH analysis on skin fibroblasts confirmed the presence of very low levels of mosaicism for the terminal 12p duplication. The case illustrates how the absence of mosaicism in blood is not always indicative of the absence of mosaicism in other tissues. Even in an era of high-throughput, highly accurate DNA-based tests, it is important to remember the limitations of testing before drawing conclusions about the relationship between a test results and a clinical phenotype.

  11. Treating metabolic syndrome's metaflammation with low level light therapy: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Tania M.; Kato, Ilka T.; Deana, Alessandro M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2014-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome comprises a constellation of morbidities such as insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia, dysglycemia and obesity (especially abdominal). Metabolic alterations are observed in major insulin target organs, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and therefore mortality. Tissue alterations are characterized by immune cells infiltrates (especially activated macrophages). Released inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α induce chronic inflammation in subjects with metabolic syndrome, since inflammatory pathways are activated in the neighboring cells. The intra-abdominal adipose tissue appears to be of particular importance in the onset of the inflammatory state, and strategies contributing to modulate the inflammatory process within this adipose tissue can mitigate the metabolic syndrome consequences. Considering the low level light therapy (LLLT) recognized benefits in inflammatory conditions, we hypothesized this therapeutic approach could promote positive effects in modulating the inflammatory state of metabolic syndrome. That being the scope of this study, male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to a high-fat/high-fructose diet among 8 weeks to induce metabolic syndrome. Animals were then irradiated on the abdominal region during 21 days using an 850 nm LED (6 sessions, 300 seconds per session, 60 mW output power, ~6 J/cm2 fluence, ~19 mW/cm2 fluence rate). Before and during treatment, blood was sampled either from the retroorbital plexus or from tail puncture for glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides analysis. So far our results indicate no alterations on these metabolic parameters after LLLT. For further investigations, blood was collected for plasma inflammatory cytokine quantification and fresh ex vivo samples of liver and intra-abdominal adipose tissue were harvested for immunohistochemistry purposes.

  12. Baseline results of the first malaria indicator survey in Iran at the health facility level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghizadeh-Asl Rahim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge, particularly in developing countries. Delivery of prompt and effective diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases, detection of malaria epidemics within one week of onset and control them in less than a month, regular disease monitoring and operational classification of malaria are among the major responsibilities of the national malaria programme. The study was conducted to determine these indicators at the different level of primary health care facilities in malaria-affected provinces of Iran Methods In this survey, data was collected from 223 health facilities including health centres, malaria posts, health houses and hospitals as well as the profile of all 5, 836 recorded malaria cases in these facilities during the year preceding the survey. Descriptive statistics (i.e. frequencies, percentages were used to summarize the results and Chi square test was used to analyse data. Results All but one percent of uncomplicated cases took appropriate and correctly-dosed of anti-malarial drugs in accordance to the national treatment guideline. A larger proportion of patients [85.8%; 95% CI: 84.8 - 86.8] were also given complete treatment including anti-relapse course, in line with national guidelines. About one third [35.0%; 95% CI: 33.6 - 36.4] of uncomplicated malaria cases were treated more than 48 hours after first symptoms onset. Correspondingly, half of severe malaria cases took recommended anti-malarial drugs for severe or complicated disease more than 48 hours of onset of first symptoms. The latter cases had given regular anti-malarial drugs promptly. The majority of malaria epidemics [97%; 95% CI: 90.6 - 100] in study areas were detected within one week of onset, but only half of epidemics were controlled within four weeks of detection. Just half of target districts had at least one health facility/emergency site with adequate supply and equipment stocks. Nevertheless

  13. Herd-level interpretation of test results for epidemiologic studies of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jette; Gardner, Ian A.

    2000-01-01

    Correct classification of the true status of herds is an important component of epidemiologic studies and animal disease-control programs. We review theoretical aspects of herd-level testing through consideration of test performance (herd-level sensitivity, specificity and predictive values......), the factors affecting these estimates, and available software for calculations. We present new aspects and considerations concerning the effect of precision and bias in estimation of individual-test performance on herd-test performance and suggest methods (pooled testing, targeted sampling of subpopulations...... with higher prevalence, and use of combinations of tests) to improve herd-level sensitivity when the expected within-herd prevalence is low....

  14. Carbon Monoxide Induces Cardiac Arrhythmia via Induction of the Late Na+ Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Mark L.; Yang, Zhaokang; Boyle, John P.; Boycott, Hannah E.; Scragg, Jason L.; Milligan, Carol J.; Elies, Jacobo; Duke, Adrian; Thireau, Jérôme; Reboul, Cyril; Richard, Sylvain; Bernus, Olivier; Steele, Derek S.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Clinical reports describe life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias after environmental exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) or accidental CO poisoning. Numerous case studies describe disruption of repolarization and prolongation of the QT interval, yet the mechanisms underlying CO-induced arrhythmias are unknown. Objectives: To understand the cellular basis of CO-induced arrhythmias and to indentify an effective therapeutic approach. Methods: Patch-clamp electrophysiology and confocal Ca2+ and nitric oxide (NO) imaging in isolated ventricular myocytes was performed together with protein S-nitrosylation to investigate the effects of CO at the cellular and molecular levels, whereas telemetry was used to investigate effects of CO on electrocardiogram recordings in vivo. Measurements and Main Results: CO increased the sustained (late) component of the inward Na+ current, resulting in prolongation of the action potential and the associated intracellular Ca2+ transient. In more than 50% of myocytes these changes progressed to early after-depolarization–like arrhythmias. CO elevated NO levels in myocytes and caused S-nitrosylation of the Na+ channel, Nav1.5. All proarrhythmic effects of CO were abolished by the NO synthase inhibitor l-NAME, and reversed by ranolazine, an inhibitor of the late Na+ current. Ranolazine also corrected QT variability and arrhythmias induced by CO in vivo, as monitored by telemetry. Conclusions: Our data indicate that the proarrhythmic effects of CO arise from activation of NO synthase, leading to NO-mediated nitrosylation of NaV1.5 and to induction of the late Na+ current. We also show that the antianginal drug ranolazine can abolish CO-induced early after-depolarizations, highlighting a novel approach to the treatment of CO-induced arrhythmias. PMID:22822026

  15. 电刀与血液回收机联用对髋关节置换术患者血一氧化碳水平的影响%Effects of electrocautery plus cell saver on the blood levels of carbon monoxide in hip arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕涛; 何清; 刘尚礼; Ivo Michiels

    2006-01-01

    间及失血量差异不明显(P>0.05).所有患者术中生命体征平稳.②碳氧血红蛋白含量测定结果:观察组术后6 h动脉血碳氧血红蛋白水平为(2.2±0.54)%,较术前和术毕时升高[(1.6±0.34)%;(1.7±0.19)%,P<0.05],回收血回输前碳氧血红蛋白含量为(2.6±0.62)%,显著高于动脉血术前和术毕时碳氧血红蛋白含量(P<0.01);对照组术后6 h碳氧血红蛋白含量与术前和术毕时比较,差异不明显(P>0.05).③患者术后情况:观察组有2例明确冠心病史者于术后4~6 h自觉心前区不适,床边心电图示窦性心动过速伴下壁心肌缺血;两者回收血回输前碳氧血红蛋白含量分别为3.9%和4.5%,动脉血术后6 h分别为3.5%和4.2%;对照组患者无诉不适,心电监护未见心律失常或心肌缺血改变.结论:髋关节置换术中联用电刀与血液回收机并输注回收血导致患者体内碳氧血红蛋白含量升高,可诱发心脏损害.建议对原有心血管疾病的患者,应监测回收血碳氧血红蛋白含量,并谨慎回输回收血.%BACKGROUND: In order to conserve blood and keep the operating field clean, cell saver is often used with electrocautery in hip arthroplasty. When applying the principle of thermal coagulation, electrocautery produces tissue self-burning with noxious gas byproducts, including carbon monoxide(CO). However the existing blood salvage systems do not have any reoxygenation or filtration function for CO.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of simultaneous use of electrocautery and a cell saver system on the blood levels of CO in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty.DESIGN: A comparative observation.SETTING: Department of Orthopedics, Duisburg-Essen University.PARTICIPANTS: From August 2002 to August 2003, patients undergoing hip arthroplasty including the use of electrocautery as well as intended use of a cell saver system were selected from the Department of Orthopedics, Duisburg-Essen University. Exclusive criteria:

  16. Mutation of Arabidopsis CATALASE2 results in hyponastic leaves by changes of auxin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Yuan, Hong-Mei; Hu, Ye-Qin; Li, Jing; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2014-01-01

    Auxin and H2 O2 play vital roles in plant development and environmental responses; however, it is unclear whether and how H2 O2 modulates auxin levels. Here, we investigate this question using cat2-1 mutant, which exhibits reduced catalase activity and accumulates high levels of H2 O2 under photorespiratory conditions. At a light intensity of 150 μmol m(-2) s(-1) , the mutant exhibited up-curled leaves that have increased H2 O2 contents and decreased auxin levels. At low light intensities (30 μmol m(-2) s(-1)), the leaves of the mutant were normal, but exhibited reduced H2 O2 contents and elevated auxin levels. These findings suggest that H2 O2 modulates auxin levels. When auxin was directly applied to cat2-1 leaves, the up-curled leaves curled downwards. In addition, transformation of cat2-1 plants with pCAT2:iaaM, which increases auxin levels, rescued the hyponastic leaf phenotype. Using qRT-PCR, we demonstrated that the transcription of auxin synthesis-related genes and of genes that regulate leaf curvature is suppressed in cat2-1. Furthermore, application of glutathione rescued the up-curled leaves of cat2-1 and increased auxin levels, but did not change H2 O2 levels. Thus, the hyponastic leaves of cat2-1 reveal crosstalk between H2 O2 and auxin signalling that is mediated by changes in glutathione redox status.

  17. Carbon Dioxide-Induced Anesthesia Results in a Rapid Increase in Plasma Levels of Vasopressin

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Brian; Varon, Jack; Chait, Brian T.; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Brief anesthesia, such as after exposure to high levels of carbon dioxide, prior to decapitation is considered a more humane alternative for the euthanasia of rodents, compared with use of decapitation alone. Studies of the levels of certain stress hormones in plasma such as corticosterone and ACTH have supported the use of this method of euthanasia in endocrinological and molecular studies. In the current study, rats were briefly exposed to a chamber filled with carbon dioxide until recumben...

  18. Particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide from secondhand smoke outside bars and restaurants in downtown Athens, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Helen, Gideon; Hall, Daniel B; Kudon, Louis H; Pearce, John; Baptiste, Shanece; Ferguson, Sylvia; Green, Tiffany; Naeher, Luke P

    2011-10-01

    In the study described in this article, the authors' objective was to measure particles waiting areas and patios of restaurants and bars in downtown Athens, Georgia, where indoor smoking is banned. The authors also wanted to investigate whether the measured concentrations are directly associated with the number of cigarettes lit in these settings. Real-time PM2.5 and CO were monitored on four summer weekend afternoons/evenings in outdoor waiting areas or patios at five locations in Athens. In addition, smokers and pedestrians present or passing and motorized vehicles passing each sampling location were counted. PM2.5 levels were significantly higher than levels at the control location (all p-values > .001). Carbon monoxide levels outside the restaurant and bar sites did not differ significantly from the control. The results of the authors' study indicate that (1) secondhand smoke (SHS) leads to significant increases in PM2.5 outside of restaurants and bars; and (2) although CO can be used as a proxy for SHS in these outdoor environments, its levels remain relatively low.

  19. A 3D model for carbon monoxide molecular line emission as a potential cosmic microwave background polarization contaminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, G.; Fabbian, G.; Baccigalupi, C.

    2017-08-01

    We present a model for simulating carbon monoxide (CO) rotational line emission in molecular clouds, taking account of their 3D spatial distribution in galaxies with different geometrical properties. The model implemented is based on recent results in the literature and has been designed for performing Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of this emission. We compare the simulations produced with this model and calibrate them, both on the map and the power spectrum levels, using the second release of data from the Planck satellite for the Galactic plane, where the signal-to-noise ratio is highest. We use the calibrated model to extrapolate the CO power spectrum at low Galactic latitudes where no high sensitivity observations are available yet. We then forecast the level of unresolved polarized emission from CO molecular clouds which could contaminate the power spectrum of cosmic microwave background polarization B modes away from the Galactic plane. Assuming realistic levels of the polarization fraction, we show that the level of contamination is equivalent to a cosmological signal with r ≲ 0.02. The MC MOlecular Line Emission (mcmole3d) python package, which implements this model, is being made publicly available.

  20. Baseline results of the first malaria indicator survey in Iran at the health facility level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiesi, Ahmad; Nikpour, Fatemeh; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Ranjbar, Mansoor; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Haghdost, Aliakbar; Taghizadeh-Asl, Rahim; Sakeni, Mohammad; Safari, Reza; Saffari, Mehdi

    2011-10-27

    Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge, particularly in developing countries. Delivery of prompt and effective diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases, detection of malaria epidemics within one week of onset and control them in less than a month, regular disease monitoring and operational classification of malaria are among the major responsibilities of the national malaria programme. The study was conducted to determine these indicators at the different level of primary health care facilities in malaria-affected provinces of Iran In this survey, data was collected from 223 health facilities including health centres, malaria posts, health houses and hospitals as well as the profile of all 5, 836 recorded malaria cases in these facilities during the year preceding the survey. Descriptive statistics (i.e. frequencies, percentages) were used to summarize the results and Chi square test was used to analyse data. All but one percent of uncomplicated cases took appropriate and correctly-dosed of anti-malarial drugs in accordance to the national treatment guideline. A larger proportion of patients [85.8%; 95% CI: 84.8 - 86.8] were also given complete treatment including anti-relapse course, in line with national guidelines. About one third [35.0%; 95% CI: 33.6 - 36.4] of uncomplicated malaria cases were treated more than 48 hours after first symptoms onset. Correspondingly, half of severe malaria cases took recommended anti-malarial drugs for severe or complicated disease more than 48 hours of onset of first symptoms. The latter cases had given regular anti-malarial drugs promptly.The majority of malaria epidemics [97%; 95% CI: 90.6 - 100] in study areas were detected within one week of onset, but only half of epidemics were controlled within four weeks of detection. Just half of target districts had at least one health facility/emergency site with adequate supply and equipment stocks. Nevertheless, only one-third of them [33% (95% CI: 0.00 - 67.8)] had

  1. DFT studies on the SCR reaction mechanism of nitrogen monoxide with propylene catalyzed by copper oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Ying; XU Jing; ZHAO Jing-xiang

    2007-01-01

    The SCR reaction mechanism of NO with C3H6catalyzed by CuO was studied by the method of Density Functional Theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/LanL2DZ levels. The optimized geometries of the stationary points on the potential surface were obtained and the transition state was confirmed by IRC and vibration analysis. The activation energy was calculated being 34. 26 kJ/mol. It was shown that propylene reacted firstly with Cu forming intermediate, and then nitrogen monoxide immediately reacted with the intermediate to be reduced. It was proved to be a direct interaction mechanism.

  2. Carbon monoxide poisoning at a lowered myocardial adaptation capacity: animal ECG models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikisková, H; Frantík, E

    1988-12-01

    Two animal models for testing foreign substances for the hypoxic type of cardiotoxicity proved to be valid and reproducible: i.e. decreased reserve capacity of the heart in rats recovered from the calciferol cardiopathy and increased heart work provoked by isoproterenol (5 mg/kg i.p.). In both cases obvious hypoxic ECG changes appeared at lower levels of exposure to carbon monoxide (500 ppm, 572 mg.m-3) and carboxyhemoglobin (18%), when compared with nonpretreated animals. The models have shown, that injured or overloaded heart displays a substantially increased sensitivity to CO poisoning.

  3. Free troposphere ozone and carbon monoxide over the North Atlantic for 2001–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In-situ measurements of carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 at the Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO located in the Azores, Portugal are analyzed together with results from atmospheric chemical transport modeling (GEOS-Chem and satellite remote sensing (AIRS for CO and TES for O3 to examine the evolution of free-troposphere CO and O3 over the North Atlantic for 2001–2011. GEOS-Chem captured the seasonal cycles for CO and O3 well but significantly underestimated the mixing ratios of CO, particularly in spring. Statistically significant (using a significance level of 0.05 decreasing trends were found for both CO and O3 based on harmonic regression analysis of the measurement data. The best estimates of the trend for CO and O3 measurements are −0.31 ± 0.30 (2-σ ppbv yr−1 and −0.21 ± 0.11 (2-σ ppbv yr−1, respectively. Similar decreasing trends for both species were obtained with GEOS-Chem simulation results. The major factor contributing to the reported decrease in CO and O3 mixing ratios at PMO over the past decade is the decline in anthropogenic CO and O3-precursor emissions in regions such as North America and Europe. The increase in Asian emissions does not seem to outweigh the impact of these declines resulting in overall decreasing trends for both CO and O3. For O3, however, increase in atmospheric water vapor content associated with climate change also appears to be a contributing factor causing enhanced destruction of the O3 during transport from source regions. These hypotheses are supported by results from the GEOS-Chem tagged CO and tagged O3 simulations.

  4. The relationship between levels of PCBs and pesticides in human hair and blood: preliminary result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshul, Larisa; Covaci, Adrian; Hauser, Russ

    2004-08-01

    Human hair as a biologic measure of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has some advantages over the more commonly used blood and adipose tissue samples. However, one of the primary limitations is the difficulty in distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous contamination. In addition, there are currently no standardized methods for hair sample collection, washing, and chemical analysis. There is also very limited information describing the correlation between levels of organic contaminants in hair and other body compartments. To explore levels of POPs in blood and hair, samples from 10 volunteers were collected and analyzed for select organochlorine pesticides and 57 individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. We demonstrated that the method for analyzing organic contaminants in human hair was reliable and reproducible. Washing hair with shampoo decreased levels of PCBs, pesticides, and lipids by 25-33% on average and up to 62% for low-chlorinated congeners. The percentage of lipids and the levels of organochlorines in hair were higher than in serum. We found strong correlation (r = 0.8) between p,p -DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) levels in hair and blood and moderate correlations for the more persistent PCB congeners, but no correlations or weak correlations for other organochlorines. The present study provides preliminary evidence on the utility of hair analysis for POPs; however, further larger studies are recommended before hair analysis can be successfully applied in epidemiologic studies on POPs.

  5. An overview of carbon monoxide generation and release by home appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batey, J. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas which is highly toxic and can be produced by many combustion sources commonly found within homes. Potential sources include boilers and furnaces, water heaters, space heaters, stoves, ovens, clothes dryers, wood stoves, fireplaces, charcoal grilles, automobiles, cigarettes, oil lamps, and candles. Any fuel that contains carbon can form CO including, natural gas, propane, kerosene, fuel oil, wood, and coal. Exposure to elevated CO levels typically requires its production by a combustion source and its release into the home through a venting system malfunction. The health effects of CO range from headaches and flue-like symptoms to loss of concentration, coma and death depending on the concentration of CO and the exposure time. At levels of only 1%, which is the order of magnitude produced by automobile exhaust, carbon monoxide can cause death in less than 3 minutes. While most combustion equipment operate with low CO levels, many operating factors can contribute to elevated CO levels in the home including: burner adjustment, combustion air supply, house air-tightness, exhaust fan operation, cracked heat exchangers, vent blockages, and flue pipe damage. Test data on CO emissions is presented from a wide range of sources including Brookhaven National Laboratory, Gas Research Institute, American Gas Association, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for many potential CO sources in and near the home.

  6. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels in adult population of Bangladesh: Results from STEPS 2006 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, M Mostafa; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Ahmed, Jasimuddin; Talukder, Md Habibullah; Rahman, A H M Shafiqur

    2016-01-01

    A nationally representative survey was carried out to determine the distribution of blood glucose and cholesterol in adult population of Bangladesh in the absence of existing data. The study adopted a multistage and geographically clustered sampling technique of households. A total of 2610 individuals (1444 men and 1166 women) aged 25-64 years were selected from rural and urban areas. Capillary blood glucose and total cholesterol levels were measured using an overnight fasting state. The mean age of the participants was 41 years [standard deviation (SD), 11 years]. Half of them (49%) were from urban areas. Half of them (51%) had primary or higher education. Mean glucose was 74mg/dL (SD 23mg/dL). Men had higher mean glucose levels (79mg/dL) than women (67mg/dL). Age-standardized prevalence of diabetes (blood glucose level ≥126mg/dL and/or use of anti-diabetic medication) was 5.5%. In men, it was almost two-and-half times (7.6%) compared with women (2.8%). It was also double in urban areas (7.8%) compared with rural areas (3.4%). Mean cholesterol level among all participants was 167mg/dL (SD 26mg/dL). Men and women had almost similar levels (169mg/dL versus 166mg/dL, respectively). Prevalence of high cholesterol level (≥240mg/dL) was very low (1.3%) in both men (2.2%) and women (0.5%). However, the prevalence of borderline high cholesterol was substantial (5.8%) in this sample. The prevalence of high hypercholesterolemia is low, whereas there is a high prevalence of borderline high cholesterol and diabetes in the adult population of Bangladesh. This warrants population-based interventions to tackle this problem. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Is embodied technology the result of upstream R&D? industry-level evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Daniel J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, I develop an industry-level index of capital-embodied R&D by capturing the extent of research and development directed at the capital goods in which a given industry invests. Compiling and adjusting data from the National Science Foundation and Commerce Department, I construct industry-level, time-series measures of this index and investigate its properties. The data allow me to identify the R&D directed at the development of specific types of capital rather than incorrectly as...

  8. 3-Hydroxybutyrate coinfused with noradrenaline decreases resulting plasma levels of noradrenaline in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cañas, X.; Sanchis, D.; Gómez, G.; Casanovas, J.M.; Artigas Pérez, Francesc; Fernández López, José Antonio; Remesar Betlloch, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    1997-01-01

    Pentobarbital-anaesthetized male Wistar rats were infused with 6microgkg-1min-1 of noradrenaline. The infusion was supplemented with 8.5 mgkg-1min-1 of D-3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) for 15 min in order to determine its effect on the adrenergic response of the rat. Plasma levels of noradrenaline rose to a plateau of approximately 50 nmoll-1 with infusion. In the group infused with noradrenaline alone, noradrenaline levels were maintained for 1h. Supplementation with 3-OHB induced a decrease in p...

  9. 3-Hydroxybutyrate co-infused with noradrenaline decreases resulting plasma levels of noradrenaline in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cañas, Xavier; Sanchís, Daniel; Gómez, Gloria; Casanovas, Josep M.; Artigas, Francesc; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    1997-01-01

    Pentobarbital-anaesthetized male Wistar rats were infused with 6microgkg-1min-1 of noradrenaline. The infusion was supplemented with 8.5 mgkg-1min-1 of D-3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) for 15 min in order to determine its effect on the adrenergic response of the rat. Plasma levels of noradrenaline rose to a plateau of approximately 50 nmoll-1 with infusion. In the group infused with noradrenaline alone, noradrenaline levels were maintained for 1h. Supplementation with 3-OHB induced a decrease in p...

  10. Effects of carbon monoxide on insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, G.M.; Wright, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    Coccinella septempunctata (the seven-spot ladybird) and Carausis morosus (the stick insect) were exposed to low levels of CO which would not be expected to affect insects in the short term, but which might be detrimental when administered for several weeks. O/sub 2/ tension was maintained at the normal level of 20 percent. All survived when exposure was less than 10 days. 10 days or more in CO hastened death, killing 75 percent in 18 days. Only 7.7 percent of the controls died during the same period. It was observed that the ladybirds in CO were less active and consumed less food than controls. The results indicate that insects are more affected by the presence of CO in their environment than has previously been shown. Because the insects used in the experiments lacked myoglobin as well as Hb, the effects must surely have been due to the combination of CO with the respiratory enzymes. They were not due to deficiency in the supply of O/sub 2/ to the tissues. Thus availability of CO and O/sub 2/ in equal amounts has sufficient effect on the cytochrome chain to prevent growth and depress the activity of an animal. (MU)

  11. Analysis of Student and School Level Variables Related to Mathematics Self-Efficacy Level Based on PISA 2012 Results for China-Shanghai, Turkey, and Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, H. Gonca

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the student and school level variables that affect students' self-efficacy levels in mathematics in China-Shanghai, Turkey, and Greece based on PISA 2012 results. In line with this purpose, the hierarchical linear regression model (HLM) was employed. The interschool variability is estimated at approximately 17% in…

  12. Increased thyroxine sulfate levels in critically ill patients as a result of a decreased hepatic type I deiodinase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Peeters (Robin); M.H.A. Kester (Monique); P.J. Wouters (Pieter); E. Kaptein (Ellen); H. van Toor (Hans); T.J. Visser (Theo); G. van den Berghe (Greet)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Marked changes in peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism occur in critical illness, resulting in low serum T3 and high rT 3 levels. In this study, we investigated whether T4S levels are increased in patients who died after intensive care and whether T4S levels are correlated

  13. Keying Results on the CELT-Structure Test to U.S. Grade Level Instructional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Ross T.

    1978-01-01

    It would be beneficial for ESL instructors to know the U.S. grade equivalent English ability of their students for placement purposes, especially if their instructional materials are keyed for U.S. classrooms. For this purpose, the Stanford Intermediate Level I Reading Comprehension Test was compared with the CELT-Structure Test. (Author/RM)

  14. Vulnerability of coastal areas to sea-level rise: some global results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, F.M.J.; Marchand, M.; Pennekamp, H.; Misdorp, R.; Bijlsma, L.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Assessment of the vulnerability of the various resources of the world's coastal zones to an acceleration of sea-level rise (ASLR) and related climate change effects requires detailed global information on the distribution, density and state of the resources and on the impacting hazardous events. For

  15. Low Physical Fitness Levels in Older Adults with ID: Results of the HA-ID Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30 s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of…

  16. Herschel : Testing of Cryogenics Instruments at Spacecraft Level and Early Flight Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaudin, B.; Montet, D.; Roche, Y.; Ilsen, S.; Schamberg, C.; Cesa, M.; Goodey, K.; Rautakoski, J.; Jewell, C.; Idler, S.; Koppe, A.; Sonn, N.; Hendry, D.; Hamer, S.; Bauer, O.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Sawyer, E.; Swinyard, B.; Sidher, S.; Roelfsema, P.; Dieleman, P.; Teyssier, D.

    2010-01-01

    Herschel cryogenics instrument (HIFI, PACS, SPIRE) flight models have been delivered to ESA & Prime contractor Thales Alenia Space mid 2007, to be integrated and tested on the Herschel spacecraft, for a launch mid May 2009. The instrument integration and test campaign at spacecraft level was perform

  17. Herschel: Testing of Cryogenics Instruments at Spacecraft Level and Early Flight Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaudin, B.; Montet, D.; Roche, Y.; Ilsen, S.; Schamberg, C.; Cesa, M.; Goodey, K.; Rautakoski, J.; Jewell, C.; Idler, S.; Koppe, A.; Sonn, N.; Hendry, D.; Hamer, S.; Bauer, O.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Sawyer, E.; Swinyard, B.; Sidher, S.; Roelfsema, P.; Dieleman, P.; Teyssier, D.

    2010-01-01

    Herschel cryogenics instrument (HIFI, PACS, SPIRE) flight models have been delivered to ESA & Prime contractor Thales Alenia Space mid 2007, to be integrated and tested on the Herschel spacecraft, for a launch mid May 2009. The instrument integration and test campaign at spacecraft level was perform

  18. Low Physical Fitness Levels in Older Adults with ID: Results of the HA-ID Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30 s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of…

  19. Smooth muscle cell-derived carbon monoxide is a regulator of vascular cGMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, T; Perrella, M A; Lee, M E; Kourembanas, S

    1995-02-28

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO; EC 1.14.99.3). In vascular smooth muscle cells, exogenously administered CO increases cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP), which is an important regulator of vessel tone. We report here that smooth muscle cells produce CO via HO and that it regulates cGMP levels in these cells. Hypoxia, which has profound effects on vessel tone, significantly increased the transcriptional rate of the HO-1 gene resulting in corresponding increases of its mRNA and HO enzymatic activity. In addition, under the same conditions, rat aortic and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells accumulated high levels of cGMP following a similar time course to that of HO-1 production. The increased accumulation of cGMP in smooth muscle cells required the enzymatic activity of HO, since it was abolished by a specific HO inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin. In contrast, N omega-nitro-L-arginine, a potent inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, had no effect on cGMP produced by smooth muscle cells, indicating that NO is not responsible for the activation of guanylyl cyclase in this setting. Furthermore, conditioned medium from hypoxic smooth muscle cells stimulated cGMP production in recipient cells and this stimulation was completely inhibited by tin protoporphyrin or hemoglobin, an inhibitor of CO production and a scavenger of CO, respectively. This report shows that HO-1 is expressed by vascular smooth muscle cells and that its product, CO, may regulate vascular tone under physiologic and pathophysiologic (such as hypoxic) conditions.

  20. Carbon monoxide poisoning in Beirut, Lebanon: Patient′s characteristics and exposure sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen J El Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is a preventable disease. Patients present with nonspecific symptoms post CO exposure. Causal factors are well described in developed countries, but less in developing countries. Objectives: This study examined the characteristics of patients with CO poisoning treated at a tertiary care center in Beirut, Lebanon, and their association with the CO poisoning source. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review of all patients who presented to the Emergency Department (ED of the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC over 4-year period and for whom a carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb level was available. Patients with CO poisoning diagnosis were included in the study. Patients′ characteristics and their association with CO poisoning source were described. Results: Twenty-seven patients were treated for CO poisoning during the study period, 55% of whom were males. Headache was the most common presenting symptom (51.9%. Burning charcoal indoors was the most common causal factor (44.4%, whereas fire-related smoke was another causal factor. The median arterial CO-Hb level on presentation for all cases was 12.0% (interquartile range (IQR 7.3-20.2. All patients received normobaric oxygen therapy. No complications were documented in the ED. All patients were discharged from the ED with a median ED length of stay of 255 min (IQR 210-270. Young females were more likely to present with CO poisoning from burning charcoal indoors than from another cause. Conclusion: CO poisoning in Beirut, Lebanon is mainly due to charcoal burning grills used indoors and to fire-related smoke. A clinically significant association was present between gender and CO poisoning source. An opportunity for prevention is present in terms of education and increased awareness regarding CO emission sources.

  1. Associations Between Sex Hormone Levels and Periodontitis in Men: Results From NHANES III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Joao Paulo; Wang, Xiaoshan; Starr, Jacqueline R; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Kantarci, Alpdogan

    2015-10-01

    Sex hormones are linked to inflammation and bone turnover. The goal of this study is to explore the association between sex hormone levels and periodontitis in men using data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Data from 755 men (aged ≥ 30 years), including serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, and androstenediol glucuronide, were analyzed. Calculated bioavailable testosterone (CBT) and estradiol-to-testosterone ratio were calculated. Periodontitis was defined using the latest classification of extent and severity of periodontitis for NHANES data (≥ 2 interproximal sites with ≥ 3 mm attachment loss, ≥ 2 interproximal sites with probing depth [PD] ≥ 4 mm not on the same tooth, or one site with PD ≥ 5 mm). Sex hormones were evaluated as categorized and continuous variables. Correlations between the presence and severity of periodontitis and levels of sex hormones were determined and expressed as odds ratios (ORs). When adjusted for confounding factors, high total testosterone (TT) and CBT levels correlated with both the prevalence (OR [95% confidence interval (CI)], 2.1 [1 to 4.5] and 3.9 [1 to 14.8], respectively) and severity (OR [95% CI], 2.1 [1 to 4.3] and 3.4 [1.2 to 9.8]) of periodontitis. When continuous variables were used, the ORs (95% CIs) for presence and severity of periodontitis were 1.4 (0.6 to 3.3) and 1.5 (0.6 to 3.6) for TT and 1.3 (0.9 to 1.9) and 1.3 (0.9 to 1.8) for CBT, respectively. These findings are consistent with the existence of an association of periodontitis with sex hormone levels, especially testosterone, in men.

  2. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) ... Kiswahili) Tagalog (Tagalog) Tigrinya (tigrinya) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Amharic (amarunya) Prevention Guidelines: You Can Prevent Carbon Monoxide ...

  3. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Fons; Machado de Sousa, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the poten

  4. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop...

  5. Carbon monoxide : A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf E. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Schroeder, Hartwig; Levin, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon ((CO2)-C-14) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The obs

  6. Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bullister, John Logan

    1980-01-01

    EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): The horizontal and vertical distribution of three dissolved trace gases, namely molecular hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane, was measured in coastal and oceanic areas. Atmospheric concentrations of these gases were measured both at locations influenced by nearby human activity, and in areas far removed from these inputs.

  7. Carbon monoxide poisoning mimicking long-QT induced syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Onvlee-Dekker (Irene); A.C.H. de Vries (Andrica); A.D.J. ten Harkel (Arend)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCarbon monoxide (CO)poisoning is a rare cause of QT prolongation, and is therefore easily missed. The case of a patient with unexplained syncope and QT prologation on the electrocardiogram that turned out to be related to CO poisoning is reported here. In patients with QT prolongation,

  8. RESULTS OF THE FY09 ENHANCED DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-06-23

    High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this task is to develop data, assess property models, and refine or develop the necessary models to support increased WL of HLW at SRS. It is a continuation of the studies initiated in FY07, but is under the specific guidance of a Task Change Request (TCR)/Work Authorization received from DOE headquarters (Project Number RV071301). Using the data generated in FY07, FY08 and historical data, two test matrices (60 glasses total) were developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in order to generate data in broader compositional regions. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), viscosity, liquidus temperature (TL) measurement and durability as defined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study are summarized below: (1) In general, the current durability model predicts the durabilities of higher waste loading glasses quite well. A few of the glasses exhibited poorer durability than predicted. (2) Some of the glasses exhibited anomalous behavior with respect to durability (normalized leachate for boron (NL [B])). The quenched samples of FY09EM21-02, -07 and -21 contained no nepheline or other wasteform affecting crystals, but have unacceptable NL [B] values (> 10 g/L). The ccc sample of FY09EM21-07 has a NL [B] value that is more than one half the value of the quenched sample. These glasses also have lower concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}. (3) Five of the ccc samples (EM-13, -14, -15, -29 and

  9. Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema

    OpenAIRE

    Pettis, Jeffery S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Johnson, Josephine; Dively, Galen

    2012-01-01

    Global pollinator declines have been attributed to habitat destruction, pesticide use, and climate change or some combination of these factors, and managed honey bees, Apis mellifera, are part of worldwide pollinator declines. Here we exposed honey bee colonies during three brood generations to sub-lethal doses of a widely used pesticide, imidacloprid, and then subsequently challenged newly emerged bees with the gut parasite, Nosema spp. The pesticide dosages used were below levels demonstrat...

  10. The Relationship between Levels of PCBs and Pesticides in Human Hair and Blood: Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Covaci, Adrian; Altshul, Larisa M.; Hauser, Russ B.

    2004-01-01

    Human hair as a biologic measure of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has some advantages over the more commonly used blood and adipose tissue samples. However, one of the primary limitations is the difficulty in distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous contamination. In addition, there are currently no standardized methods for hair sample collection, washing, and chemical analysis. There is also very limited information describing the correlation between levels of organ...

  11. Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettis, Jeffery S.; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Johnson, Josephine; Dively, Galen

    2012-02-01

    Global pollinator declines have been attributed to habitat destruction, pesticide use, and climate change or some combination of these factors, and managed honey bees, Apis mellifera, are part of worldwide pollinator declines. Here we exposed honey bee colonies during three brood generations to sub-lethal doses of a widely used pesticide, imidacloprid, and then subsequently challenged newly emerged bees with the gut parasite, Nosema spp. The pesticide dosages used were below levels demonstrated to cause effects on longevity or foraging in adult honey bees. Nosema infections increased significantly in the bees from pesticide-treated hives when compared to bees from control hives demonstrating an indirect effect of pesticides on pathogen growth in honey bees. We clearly demonstrate an increase in pathogen growth within individual bees reared in colonies exposed to one of the most widely used pesticides worldwide, imidacloprid, at below levels considered harmful to bees. The finding that individual bees with undetectable levels of the target pesticide, after being reared in a sub-lethal pesticide environment within the colony, had higher Nosema is significant. Interactions between pesticides and pathogens could be a major contributor to increased mortality of honey bee colonies, including colony collapse disorder, and other pollinator declines worldwide.

  12. Field surveys of carbon monoxide in commercial settings using personal exposure monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbart, P. G.; Ott, W. R.

    1984-02-01

    Miniaturized personal exposure monitors (PEMs) were employed to measure carbon monoxide (CO) in 588 different commercial settings (e.g., retail stores, office buildings, hotels, restaurants) in five California cities. Altogether, 5000 CO observations were made by recording the instantaneous instrument reading at 1-minute intervals as the investigators walked along sidewalks and into buildings. For 11 of 15 survey dates, two investigators walked side-by-side, permitting two adjacent PEMs to be compared. Quality assurance tests for 1706 pairs of values showed a very high degree of agreement. CO levels for indoor commercial settings were similar to those measured outdoors on sidewalks, apparently because the pollutant seeps into the structures from traffic outside. Although indoor levels usually were above 0 ppm, they seldom were above 9 ppm (the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for an 8-hour exposure), unless some indoor source could be identified. Carbon monoxide levels on outdoor streets did not vary greatly on different sides of the street, on corners and faces of blocks, and intersections.

  13. Carbon monoxide exchange and partitioning of a managed mountain meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerle, Albin; Kitz, Florian; Spielmann, Felix; Gerdel, Katharina; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2016-04-01

    With an average mole fraction of 100 ppb carbon monoxide (CO) plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and thus has an indirect global warming potential. While sources/sinks of CO on land at least partially cancel out each other, the magnitude of CO sources and sinks is highly uncertain. Even if direct CO fluxes from/to land ecosystems are very much likely clearly lower in magnitude compared to anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, emissions from chemical precursors and the OH sink, it may be premature to neglect any direct contributions of land ecosystems to the CO budget. In addition, changes in global climate and resulting changes in global productivity may require re-evaluating older data and assumptions. One major reason for the large uncertainty is a general scarcity of empirical data. An additional factor contributing to the uncertainty is the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present data on continuous eddy covariance measurements of CO-fluxes above a managed mountain grassland in combination with soil chamber flux measurements, within- and above-canopy concentration profiles and an inverse Lagrangian analysis to disentangle sinks and sources of CO. Results show the grassland ecosystem to be a net source for CO during daytime, with increasing flux rates at higher solar radiation. At night, if at all, the meadow is a slight sink for CO. The same holds true regarding the soil flux measurements. Additionally, a two-month rainout experiment revealed hardly any differences in CO soil fluxes between rainout- and control-plots unless extremely dry conditions were reached.

  14. Relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin in motorcycle taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Almeida da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin found in motorcycle taxi drivers. METHOD: correlational, quantitative study involving 111 workers and data obtained in July 2012 through a questionnaire to characterize the participants and blood collection to measure carboxyhemoglobin levels. RESULT: 28.8% had suffered workplace accidents; 27.6% had fractured the lower limbs and significant symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure were verified in smokers. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were higher among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. CONCLUSION: motorcycle taxi drivers had increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin, possibly due to the exposure to carbon monoxide; these levels are also increased among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. The study provides advances in the knowledge about occupational health and environmental science, and also shows that carboxyhemoglobin can be an indicator of exposure to environmental pollutants for those working outdoors, which can be related to workplace accidents.

  15. Early Biomarkers in 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Striatal Pathological Mechanisms after Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Li; LI Zong Yang; ZHANG Yan Lin; CONG Cui Cui; ZHAO Jin Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective In vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can be used to evaluate the levels of specific neurochemical biomarkers of pathological mechanisms in the brain. Methods We conducted T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 1H-MRS with a 3.0-Tesla animal MRI system to investigate the early microstructural and metabolic profiles in vivo in the striatum of rats following carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Results Compared to baseline, we found significant cortical surface deformation, cerebral edema changes, which were indicated by the unclear gray/white matter border, and lateral ventricular volume changes in the brain. A significant reduction in the metabolite to total creatine (Cr) ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) was observed as early as 1 h after the last CO administration, while the lactate (Lac) levels increased marginally. Both the Lac/Cr and NAA/Cr ratios leveled off at 6 h and showed no subsequent significant changes. In addition, compared to the control, the choline (Cho)/Cr ratio was slightly reduced in the early stages and significantly increased after 6 h. In addition, a pathological examination revealed mild cerebral edema on cessation of the insult and more severe cerebral injury after additional CO poisoning. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that 1H-MRS of the brain identified early metabolic changes after CO poisoning. Notably, the relationship between the increased Cho/Cr ratio in the striatum and delayed neuropsychologic sequelae requires further research.

  16. First results on enzymatic activities in two salt marsh soils under different hydromorphic level and vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Trasar-Cepeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt-marsh soils are soils characterized by non-permanent hydric saturation that, depending on factors like duration of submersion periods, are dominated by different salt-tolerant plant species. The composition of microbial communities is an essential component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes in salt marshes, and determines the level of enzymatic activities, which catalyze the conversion of complex molecules into simpler ones. Despite of this, the enzymatic activities in marsh-soils has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the enzymatic activities in two soil profiles of marsh-soils under different water saturation level and dominated by different plant species [Juncus maritimus Lam and Spartina maritima (Curtis Fernald (Sp]. In both soils, the enzymatic activities were much lower than the levels typically found in terrestrial ecosystems. The enzymatic activities were measured both in air-dried and in re-moistened and incubated soil samples. In air-dried samples, the enzymatic activities were higher in Juncus than in Spartina soil and tended to decrease with depth, being sharper the decrease in Juncus than in Spartina soil. Re-moistened and pre-incubated soils showed a general increase in all the enzymatic activities and throughout the whole soil profile, especially in Spartina soils. Hydrolase activities showed a strong and positive relationship with organic matter content both in air-dried and in re-moistened soil samples, higher in these latter. In general, oxidoreductase activities only showed this relationship in re-moistened soil samples. More studies, preferably using freshly collected soil samples, are needed to understand the relationship between enzymatic activities and these environmental conditions.

  17. Levels of aggressiveness are higher among alcohol-related suicides: results from a psychological autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachamovich, Eduardo; Ding, Yang; Turecki, Gustavo

    2012-09-01

    Suicide is one of the major causes of deaths worldwide. Several studies have showed that alcohol use disorders (AUD) are associated with suicide ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide completion. The majority of the theoretical conceptualization and the bulk of evidence on suicidal behavior and AUD are based on investigations of nonfatal cases because data on nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more readily available. This study aims to explore demographic, clinical, and behavioral dimensions in a large sample of alcohol-related suicides compared to an age-gender matched sample of non-AUD suicides to identify specific factors associated with AUD suicides. We conducted a psychological autopsy study with 158 pairs of AUD and non-AUD suicides. Findings showed that AUD suicides have lower educational level, more biological children and were more likely to be heavy smokers (OR=3.32). Cases were more likely to have family history of alcohol (OR=1.73) and drug abuse (OR=3.61). Subjects had similar prevalences of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders or psychotic disorders. AUD suicides were more likely to meet criteria for current cocaine abuse/dependence (OR=6.64). With respect to personality disorders, AUD suicides presented higher prevalence of Antisocial Personality Disorder (OR=4.68), and were less likely to meet criteria for Avoidant (OR=0.26) and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders (OR=0.35). Impulsivity scores were higher in AUD suicides (p=0.18), as well as aggression scores (psuicide. After controlling for impulsive-aggressive behaviors, levels of aggression were the only psychopathological feature statistically different between AUD and non-AUD suicides (OR=1.28). In conclusion, higher levels of aggressive behaviors are a specific characteristic of AUD suicides. Apart from substance-related diagnoses, AUD and non-AUD suicides have comparable Axis I psychiatric diagnoses and familial transmission of suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All

  18. Predicting Middle Level State Standardized Test Results Using Family and Community Demographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Colella, Anthony; Angelillo, Christian; Fox, Meredith; McCahill, Kevin R.; Wolfe, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The use of standardized test results to drive school administrator evaluations pervades education policymaking in more than 40 states. However, the results of state standardized tests are strongly influenced by non-school factors. The models of best fit (n = 18) from this correlational, explanatory, longitudinal study predicted accurately the…

  19. Selective methanation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen rich stream over Ni/CeO2 nanocatalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Behzad Nematollahi; Mehran Rezaei; Ebrahim Nemati Lay

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, selective methanation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen rich stream was investigated over Ni/CeO2 nanocatalysts. The obtained results revealed that increasing in nickel loading decreased the BET surface area, pore volume and nickel dispersion. The 25%Ni/CeO2 with a NiO crystal size of 12 nm exhibited the highest activity in CO methanation reaction and reached to maximum CO conversion and CH4 selectivity at temperatures above 230 ºC. The catalytic results revealed that CO selective methanation well progressed at lower temperatures while CO2 methanation was completely suppressed until CO conversion reached to maximum value.

  20. ENDOGENOUS HEME OXYGENASE/CARBON MONOXIDE SYSTEM MEDIATES LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE- INDUCED INTUSSUSCEPTION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 余奇志; 欧和生; 佟利家; 杨军; 唐朝枢

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the role d endogenous heine oxygenase ( HO )/carbon monoxide ( CO ) system in regulating the process of intussusception (IN) induced by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. Methods. IN model of rats were induced by lipopolysaccharide. HO activity was determined by the amonnl of bilirubin formation which was measured with a double-beam spectrophotometer, and HbCO formation was measured by CO-aximeter. Results. The results showed that LPS (10mg/kg) caused IN in up to 40% d the rats at 6h after treatment of LPS. The incidence dIN were significantly increased by50% (P<0.05) and by83.2%(P<0.01) in HO substrate (heme-L-lysinate)-treated rats and in exogenous CO-treated rats, respectively; but it was significantly decreased by 41.8%(P <0.05) after administration dZnDPBG, an inhibitor dheme oxygenase (HO) activity. Furthermore, LPS increased HO activity, HbCO formation cGMP content within colic smooth muscle and the plasma level d cGMP, and these parameters were significantly elevated by 62.6% (P < 0.01), 40.0% (P < 0.01), 49.3% (P < 0.05) and 38.9%(P< 0.05), respectively, compared with LPS-non-IN rats. Conclusion. It is suggested that endogenous HO/CO system plays an important role in the process d IN induced by LPS, and inhibition d HO activity may decrease the formation of IN.

  1. ENDOGENOUS HEME OXYGENASE/CARBON MONOXIDE SYSTEM MEDIATES LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED INTUSSUSCEPTION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the role of endogenous heme oxygenase (HO)/carbon monoxide (CO) system in regulating the process of intussusception (IN) induced by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats.Methods. IN model of rats were induced by lipopolysaccharide. HO activity was determined by the amount of bilirubin formation which was measured with a double-beam spectrophotometer, and HbCO formation was measured by CO-oximeter.Results. The results showed that LPS (10mg/kg) caused IN in up to 40% of the rats at 6h after treatment of LPS. The incidence of IN were significantly increased by 50% (P<0.05) and by 83.2%(P<0.01) in HO substrate(heme-L-lysinate)-treated rats and in exogenous CO-treated rats, respectively; but it was significantly decreased by 41.8%(P<0.05) after administration of ZnDPBG, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase (HO) activity. Furthermore, LPS increased HO activity, HbCO formation cGMP content within colic smooth muscle and the plasma level of cGMP, and these parameters were significantly elevated by 62.6%(P<0.01), 40.0%(P<0.01), 49.3%(P<0.05) and 38.9%(P<0.05), respectively, compared with LPS-non-IN rats.Conclusion. It is suggested that endogenous HO/CO system plays an important role in the process of IN induced by LPS, and inhibition of HO activity may decrease the formation of IN.

  2. Experimental determination of the 1 Sigma(+) state electric dipole moment function of carbon monoxide up to a large internuclear separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chackerian, C., Jr.; Farrenq, R.; Guelachvili, G.; Rossetti, C.; Urban, W.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental intensity information is combined with numerically obtained vibrational wave functions in a nonlinear least-squares fitting procedure to obtain the ground electronic state electric dipole moment function of carbon monoxide valid in the range of nuclear oscillation (0.87-1.91 A) of about the V = 38th vibrational level. Vibrational transition matrix elements are computed from this function for Delta V = 1, 2, 3 with V not more than 38.

  3. Unconscious fearful priming followed by a psychosocial stress test results in higher cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Alexander; von Känel, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Human perception of stress includes an automatic pathway that processes subliminal presented stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness. Subliminal stimuli can therefore activate the physiologic stress system. Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called 'priming'. We hypothesized that subliminal presentation of a fearful signal during the Stroop task compared with an emotionally neutral one will prime stress reactivity in a subsequently applied psychosocial stress task, thereby yielding a significant increase in salivary cortisol. Half of 36 participants were repeatedly presented either a fearful face or a neutral one. After this, all underwent a psychosocial stress task. The fearful group showed a significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.022). This change was not affected by sex, age and body mass index, and it also did not change when taking resting cortisol levels into account. Post-hoc analyses showed that the increase in cortisol in the fearful group started immediately after the psychosocial stress test. Hence, subliminal exposure to a fearful signal in combination with the Stroop and followed by a psychosocial stress test leads to an increase in stress reactivity.

  4. [An analysis of manganese level and results of occupational health inspection among workers in a workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Lin, Hong; Xie, Feng; Geng, Jingdong; Gu, Yun; Li, Li

    2015-07-01

    To understand the toxic effects of manganese exposure on health by measurement of manganese concentration and occupational health inspection among workers in an enterprise exposed to manganese, and to provide a basis for occupational disease control. The air concentrations of manganese in 12 workplaces where workers often stayed were measured by typical sampling; occupational health inspection was performed among a total of 538 workers in the enterprise by cluster sampling. The average concentrations of manganese in the workplace from 2011 to 2013 were 0.179 mg/m(3), 0.122 mg/m(3), and 0.082 5 mg/m(3), respectively, indicating a significant decrease in manganese level within the three years by rank-sum test (P health inspection showed that 165 (30.7%) out of 538 workers had abnormal indices, and the incidence of autonomic nervous system abnormalities reached 32.7% (176/538). There was no correlation between manganese concentration in the workplace and the incidence of abnormal indices in health inspection, while the manganese concentration in the workplace was positively correlated with the incidence of autonomic nervous system symptoms (r = 0.718, P workplace is positively correlated with the incidence of autonomic nervous system symptoms. Early exposure to a low level of manganese can induce functional changes and potential damages in the nervous system.

  5. Summary Of Cold Crucible Vitrification Tests Results With Savannah River Site High Level Waste Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovsky, Sergey; Marra, James; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2014-01-13

    The cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) technology successfully applied for vitrification of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at SIA Radon, Russia, was tested to be implemented for vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) stored at Savannah River Site, USA. Mixtures of Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and 4 (SB4) waste surrogates and borosilicate frits as slurries were vitrified in bench- (236 mm inner diameter) and full-scale (418 mm inner diameter) cold crucibles. Various process conditions were tested and major process variables were determined. Melts were poured into 10L canisters and cooled to room temperature in air or in heat-insulated boxes by a regime similar to Canister Centerline Cooling (CCC) used at DWPF. The products with waste loading from ~40 to ~65 wt.% were investigated in details. The products contained 40 to 55 wt.% waste oxides were predominantly amorphous; at higher waste loadings (WL) spinel structure phases and nepheline were present. Normalized release values for Li, B, Na, and Si determined by PCT procedure remain lower than those from EA glass at waste loadings of up to 60 wt.%.

  6. Summary Of Cold Crucible Vitrification Tests Results With Savannah River Site High Level Waste Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovsky, Sergey; Marra, James; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2014-01-13

    The cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) technology successfully applied for vitrification of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at SIA Radon, Russia, was tested to be implemented for vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) stored at Savannah River Site, USA. Mixtures of Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and 4 (SB4) waste surrogates and borosilicate frits as slurries were vitrified in bench- (236 mm inner diameter) and full-scale (418 mm inner diameter) cold crucibles. Various process conditions were tested and major process variables were determined. Melts were poured into 10L canisters and cooled to room temperature in air or in heat-insulated boxes by a regime similar to Canister Centerline Cooling (CCC) used at DWPF. The products with waste loading from ~40 to ~65 wt.% were investigated in details. The products contained 40 to 55 wt.% waste oxides were predominantly amorphous; at higher waste loadings (WL) spinel structure phases and nepheline were present. Normalized release values for Li, B, Na, and Si determined by PCT procedure remain lower than those from EA glass at waste loadings of up to 60 wt.%.

  7. Effect of Using Combination of O'level Result With JAMB Score on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biomedical Research ... on Student Performance in The First Two Years of Medical School in Benue State University, Makurdi, ... It is suggested that the quality of Secondary School Certificate result should be given good ...

  8. Heavy metal levels in Sokoto metropolis as a result of local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    new user

    2013-08-01

    Aug 1, 2013 ... Key words: Heavy metal, aluminium utensils, pollution, Sokoto. INTRODUCTION ... these metals are toxic and result in health impacts when present in .... can be toxic and poisoning to mammals if inhaled or injected in higher.

  9. Vegetation and Resulting Wildlife Response to Water Level Manipulation within Shearness Pool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Moist soil management within a large freshwater impoundment has resulted in changes in dabbling duck utilization. Inventory data collected on waterfowl use, water...

  10. Visualization on supercomputing platform level II ASC milestone (3537-1B) results from Sandia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geveci, Berk (Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY); Fabian, Nathan; Marion, Patrick (Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY); Moreland, Kenneth D.

    2010-09-01

    This report provides documentation for the completion of the Sandia portion of the ASC Level II Visualization on the platform milestone. This ASC Level II milestone is a joint milestone between Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratories. This milestone contains functionality required for performing visualization directly on a supercomputing platform, which is necessary for peta-scale visualization. Sandia's contribution concerns in-situ visualization, running a visualization in tandem with a solver. Visualization and analysis of petascale data is limited by several factors which must be addressed as ACES delivers the Cielo platform. Two primary difficulties are: (1) Performance of interactive rendering, which is most computationally intensive portion of the visualization process. For terascale platforms, commodity clusters with graphics processors(GPUs) have been used for interactive rendering. For petascale platforms, visualization and rendering may be able to run efficiently on the supercomputer platform itself. (2) I/O bandwidth, which limits how much information can be written to disk. If we simply analyze the sparse information that is saved to disk we miss the opportunity to analyze the rich information produced every timestep by the simulation. For the first issue, we are pursuing in-situ analysis, in which simulations are coupled directly with analysis libraries at runtime. This milestone will evaluate the visualization and rendering performance of current and next generation supercomputers in contrast to GPU-based visualization clusters, and evaluate the performance of common analysis libraries coupled with the simulation that analyze and write data to disk during a running simulation. This milestone will explore, evaluate and advance the maturity level of these technologies and their applicability to problems of interest to the ASC program. Scientific simulation on parallel supercomputers is traditionally performed in four

  11. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  12. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  13. Bacterial antibiotic resistance levels in Danish farmland as a result of treatment with pig manure slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Gitte; Agersø, Yvonne; Halling-Sørensen, B.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to tetracycline, macrolides and streptomycin was measured for a period of 8 months in soil bacteria obtained from farmland treated with pig manure slurry. This was done by spread plating bacteria on selective media (Luria Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with antibiotics). To account...... for seasonal variations in numbers of soil bacteria, ratios of resistant bacteria divided by total count on nonselective plates were calculated. Soil samples were collected from four different farms and from a control soil on a fifth farm. The control soil was not amended with animal manure. The occurrence...... of tetracycline-resistant bacteria was elevated after spread of pig manure slurry but declined throughout the sampling period to a level corresponding to the control soil. Higher load of pig manure slurry yielded higher occurrence of tetracycline resistance after spreading; however, the tetracycline resistance...

  14. Inhibition of cellular respiration by endogenously produced carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Gabriela; Lam, Francis; Hagen, Thilo; Moncada, Salvador

    2006-06-01

    Endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) interacts with mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, leading to inhibition of cellular respiration. This interaction has been shown to have important physiological and pathophysiological consequences. Exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) is also known to inhibit cytochrome c oxidase in vitro; however, it is not clear whether endogenously produced CO can inhibit cellular respiration and, if so, what the significance of this might be. In this study, we show that exogenous CO inhibits respiration in a moderate but persistent manner in HEK293 cells under ambient (21%) oxygen concentrations (K(i) = 1.44 microM). This effect of CO was increased (K(i) = 0.35 microM) by incubation in hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen). Endogenous CO, generated by HEK293 cells transfected with the inducible isoform of haem oxygenase (haem oxygenase-1; HO-1), also inhibited cellular respiration moderately (by 12%) and this was accompanied by inhibition (23%) of cytochrome c oxidase activity. When the cells were incubated in hypoxic conditions during HO-1 induction, the inhibitory effect of CO on cell respiration was markedly increased to 70%. Furthermore, endogenously produced CO was found to be responsible for the respiratory inhibition that occurs in RAW264.7 cells activated in hypoxic conditions with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma, in the presence of N-(iminoethyl)-L-ornithine to prevent the synthesis of NO. Our results indicate that CO contributes significantly to the respiratory inhibition in activated cells, particularly under hypoxic conditions. Inhibition of cell respiration by endogenous CO through its interaction with cytochrome c oxidase might have an important role in inflammatory and hypoxic conditions.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Chronic Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durak, A. C.; Coskun, A.; Yikilmaz, A.; Erdogan, F.; Mavili, E.; Guven, M. [Hospital of Erciyes Univ., Kayseri (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To define the cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the chronic stage of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in patients with and without neuropsychiatric sequelae. Material and Methods: Eight patients who had neither symptoms nor neurological sequelae and eight patients with neuropsychiatric sequelae were included in the study. Patients aged between 9 to 57 (mean 32.2 years). All patients had been comatose at initial admittance and awoke after normobaric 100% oxygen therapy within 1-7 days. In this study, the patients were being examined with routine cranial MRI between 1 and 10 years (mean 3.4 years) after exposure to CO. Results: The most common finding was bilateral symmetric hyperintensity of the white matter, which was more significant in the centrum semiovale, with relative sparing of the temporal lobes and anterior parts of the frontal lobes on T2-weighted and FLAIR images in all patients. Cerebral cortical atrophy was seen in 10 patients; mild atrophy of cerebellar hemispheres in 8; and vermian atrophy in 11. Corpus callosum was atrophic in one patient. Bilateral globus pallidus lesions were seen in three patients. The lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Conclusion: Patients with severe CO intoxication may develop persistent cerebral changes independently of their neuropsychiatric findings in the chronic stage. They may present with characteristic MRI findings as described here, even if asymptomatic. The history of CO exposure is therefore helpful for recognizing and interpreting the MRI findings of chronic stage CO intoxication.

  16. Investigation of the spatiotemporal variation and influencing factors on fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide concentrations near a road intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Lu, Qing-Chang; He, Hong-Di; Wang, Dongsheng; Gao, Ya; Peng, Zhong-Ren

    2017-03-01

    The minute-scale variations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations near a road intersection in Shanghai, China were investigated to identify the influencing factors at three traffic periods. Measurement results demonstrate a synchronous variation of pollutant concentrations at the roadside and setbacks, and the average concentration of PM2.5 at the roadside is 7% (44% for CO) higher than that of setbacks within 500 m of the intersection. The pollution level at traffic peak periods is found to be higher than that of off-peak periods, and the morning peak period is found to be the most polluted due to a large amount of diesel vehicles and unfavorable dispersion conditions. Partial least square regressions were constructed for influencing factors and setback pollutant concentrations, and results indicate that meteorological factors are the most significant, followed by setback distance from the intersection and traffic factors. CO is found to be sensitive to distance from the traffic source and vehicle type, and highly dependent on local traffic conditions, whereas PM2.5 originates more from other sources and background levels. These findings demonstrate the importance of localized factors in understanding spatiotemporal patterns of air pollution at intersections, and support decision makers in roadside pollution management and control.

  17. Investigation of the spatiotemporal variation and influencing factors on fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide concentrations near a road intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Lu, Qing-Chang; He, Hong-Di; Wang, Dongsheng; Gao, Ya; Peng, Zhong-Ren

    2016-05-01

    The minute-scale variations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations near a road intersection in Shanghai, China were investigated to identify the influencing factors at three traffic periods. Measurement results demonstrate a synchronous variation of pollutant concentrations at the roadside and setbacks, and the average concentration of PM2.5 at the roadside is 7% (44% for CO) higher than that of setbacks within 500 m of the intersection. The pollution level at traffic peak periods is found to be higher than that of off-peak periods, and the morning peak period is found to be the most polluted due to a large amount of diesel vehicles and unfavorable dispersion conditions. Partial least square regressions were constructed for influencing factors and setback pollutant concentrations, and results indicate that meteorological factors are the most significant, followed by setback distance from the intersection and traffic factors. CO is found to be sensitive to distance from the traffic source and vehicle type, and highly dependent on local traffic conditions, whereas PM2.5 originates more from other sources and background levels. These findings demonstrate the importance of localized factors in understanding spatiotemporal patterns of air pollution at intersections, and support decision makers in roadside pollution management and control.

  18. Urban ectopy in the mountains: Carbon monoxide exposure at high altitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaf, D.A. [Univ. of California Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kleinman, M.T. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Environmental exposure to inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) increases coronary artery disease risk. Sudden cardiac death, a frequent manifestation of coronary artery disease, is usually a result of ventricular dysrhythmia. The effect of exposure to CO at sea level (CO/SL) and simulated high (2.1 km) altitudes (CO/HA) on the incidence of cardiac ectopy in subjects with coronary artery disease was investigated. A double-blind crossover study was conducted, with random-order assignment, and each subject served as his own control. Seventeen men with documented coronary artery disease and stable angina pectoris performed cardiopulmonary exercise stress tests after random exposure to either CO or clean air (CA) at sea level (CA/SL) or at a simulated 2.1-km high altitude (CA/HA). The individual CO and HA exposure conditions were each selected to reduce the percentage of oxygen saturation of the subjects arterial blood by 4%. Subjects blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were increased form an average of 0.62% after clean-air exposure to 3.91% of saturation after CO exposure. The percentage of oxygen saturation in arterial blood was reduced from a baseline level of 98% to approximately 94% after CO/SL or CA/HA and to approximately 90% after CO/HA. Compared with the CA/SL the average incidence of exercise-induced ventricular ectopy was approximately doubled after all exposures and a significant trend (p {le} .05) of increased ectopy with decreased oxygen saturation in arterial blood was observed. Yet, among subjects who were free from ectopy (n=11) on CA/SL, only 2 subjects developed ectopy after CO/HA. No episodes of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation occurred. The findings indicated that exposure to increased levels of hypoxemia, resulting from hypoxic and/or CO exposures, increased the susceptibility to ventricular ectopy during exercise in individuals with stable angina pectoris; however, this risk was nominal for those without ectopy. 26 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Status epilepticus and cardiopulmonary arrest in a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning with full recovery after using a neuroprotective strategy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Salman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning can be associated with life-threatening complications, including significant and disabling cardiovascular and neurological sequelae. Case presentation We report a case of carbon monoxide poisoning in a 25-year-old Saudi woman who presented to our facility with status epilepticus and cardiopulmonary arrest. Her carboxyhemoglobin level was 21.4 percent. She made a full recovery after we utilized a neuroprotective strategy and normobaric oxygen therapy, with no delayed neurological sequelae. Conclusions Brain protective modalities are very important for the treatment of complicated cases of carbon monoxide poisoning when they present with neurological toxicities or cardiac arrest. They can be adjunctive to normobaric oxygen therapy when the use of hyperbaric oxygen is not feasible.

  20. Carbon monoxide residues in vacuum-packed yellowfin tuna loins (Thunnus Albacares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Marrone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbon monoxide (CO in fresh fish has generated considerable debate. Carbon monoxide is used to treat fresh fish in order to retain its fresh red appearance for a longer period. It reacts with the oxy-myoglobin to form a fairly stable cherry red carboxy-myoglobin complex that may mask spoilage, because the CO-complex can be stable beyond the microbiological shelf life of the meat. The presence of CO in tuna fish (Thunnus Albacares has been investigated by means of optical spectroscopy. Formation of the CO adduct can be easily detected by the combined analysis of electronic absorption spectra in their normal and second derivative modes, monitoring the intense Soret band at 420 nm. Samples were judged as CO treated when their levels were higher than 200 ng/g. Only two positive samples out of 29 analyzed were detected. The high level of uncertainty (0.30 of the method requires the use of more specific and sensitive methods for confirmatory analysis.

  1. Carbon Monoxide Residues in Vacuum-Packed Yellowfin Tuna Loins (Thunnus Albacares)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, Celestina; Palma, Giuseppe; Smaldone, Giorgio; Girasole, Mariagrazia; Anastasio, Aniello

    2015-01-01

    The use of carbon monoxide (CO) in fresh fish has generated considerable debate. Carbon monoxide is used to treat fresh fish in order to retain its fresh red appearance for a longer period. It reacts with the oxy-myoglobin to form a fairly stable cherry red carboxy-myoglobin complex that may mask spoilage, because the CO-complex can be stable beyond the microbiological shelf life of the meat. The presence of CO in tuna fish (Thunnus Albacares) has been investigated by means of optical spectroscopy. Formation of the CO adduct can be easily detected by the combined analysis of electronic absorption spectra in their normal and second derivative modes, monitoring the intense Soret band at 420 nm. Samples were judged as CO treated when their levels were higher than 200 ng/g. Only two positive samples out of 29 analyzed were detected. The high level of uncertainty (0.30) of the method requires the use of more specific and sensitive methods for confirmatory analysis. PMID:27800404

  2. Heme oxygenase-1-derived carbon monoxide is an autocrine inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton, Kelly J; Reyna, Sylvia V; Chapman, Gary B; Ensenat, Diana; Liu, Xiao-ming; Wang, Hong; Schafer, Andrew I; Durante, William

    2002-06-15

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) generate carbon monoxide (CO) via the catabolism of heme by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO). In the present study, we found that serum stimulated a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the levels of HO-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in vascular SMCs. The induction of HO-1 expression by serum was inhibited by actinomycin D or cycloheximide. In addition, serum stimulated HO activity, as reflected by an increase in the concentration of bilirubin in the culture media. Treatment of vascular SMCs with serum stimulated DNA synthesis and this was potentiated by the HO inhibitors, zinc and tin protoporphyrin-IX as well as by the CO scavenger, hemoglobin. The iron chelator desferrioxamine had no effect on DNA synthesis. However, exposure of vascular SMCs to exogenous CO inhibited serum-stimulated SMC proliferation and the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. In addition, CO arrested SMCs at the G(1)/S transition phase of the cell cycle and selectively blocked the serum-stimulated expression of cyclin A mRNA and protein without affecting the expression of cyclin D1 and E. CO also inhibited the serum-stimulated activation of cyclin A-associated kinase activity and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity. These results demonstrate that serum stimulates HO-1 gene expression and CO synthesis. Furthermore, they show that CO acts in a negative feedback fashion to inhibit vascular SMC growth by regulating specific components of the cell cycle machinery. The capacity of vascular mitogens to induce CO synthesis may provide a novel mechanism by which these agents modulate cell growth.

  3. Elevated carbon monoxide in the exhaled breath of mice during a systemic bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G Barbour

    Full Text Available Blood is the specimen of choice for most laboratory tests for diagnosis and disease monitoring. Sampling exhaled breath is a noninvasive alternative to phlebotomy and has the potential for real-time monitoring at the bedside. Improved instrumentation has advanced breath analysis for several gaseous compounds from humans. However, application to small animal models of diseases and physiology has been limited. To extend breath analysis to mice, we crafted a means for collecting nose-only breath samples from groups and individual animals who were awake. Samples were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry procedures developed for highly sensitive analysis of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the atmosphere. We evaluated the system with experimental systemic infections of severe combined immunodeficiency Mus musculus with the bacterium Borrelia hermsii. Infected mice developed bacterial densities of ∼10(7 per ml of blood by day 4 or 5 and in comparison to uninfected controls had hepatosplenomegaly and elevations of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. While 12 samples from individual infected mice on days 4 and 5 and 6 samples from uninfected mice did not significantly differ for 72 different VOCs, carbon monoxide (CO was elevated in samples from infected mice, with a mean (95% confidence limits effect size of 4.2 (2.8-5.6, when differences in CO2 in the breath were taken into account. Normalized CO values declined to the uninfected range after one day of treatment with the antibiotic ceftriaxone. Strongly correlated with CO in the breath were levels of heme oxygenase-1 protein in serum and HMOX1 transcripts in whole blood. These results (i provide further evidence of the informativeness of CO concentration in the exhaled breath during systemic infection and inflammation, and (ii encourage evaluation of this noninvasive analytic approach in other various other rodent models of infection and for utility in

  4. An Outbreak of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Yamagata Prefecture Following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Iseki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake, most of the areas in Yamagata prefecture experienced a serious power failure lasting for approximately 24 hours. A number of households were subsequently poisoned with carbon monoxide (CO due to various causes. In this study, we conducted a survey of CO poisoning during the disaster. Methods: A questionnaire regarding CO poisoning associated with the disaster was sent to 37 emergency hospitals in Yamagata prefecture. Results: A total of 51 patients were treated for unintentional CO poisoning in 7 hospitals (hyperbaric oxygen chambers were present in 3 of the hospitals. The patients (18 men, 33 women ranged in age from 0 to 90 years. The source of CO exposure was charcoal briquettes (23 cases; 45%, gasoline-powered electric generators (18 cases; 35%, electric generators together with oil stoves (8 cases; 16%, oil stoves (1 cases; 2%, and automobile exhaust (1 cases; 2%. Blood carboxyhemoglobin levels ranged from 0.5% to 41.6% in 49 cases. Of these, 41 patients were treated by normobaric oxygen therapy, while one was intubated for artificial respiration. Additionally, 5 patients (10% were treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and 3 patients (6% experienced delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae. Conclusion: CO sources included gasoline-powered electric generators and charcoal briquettes during the disaster. Storm-related CO poisoning is well recognized as a disaster-associated accident in the United States, but not in Japan. We emphasize that public education is needed to make people aware of the dangers of CO poisoning after a disaster. In addition, a pulse CO-oximeter should be set up in hospitals.  

  5. A 60 yr record of atmospheric carbon monoxide reconstructed from Greenland firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Petrenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the first reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere (NH high latitude atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO mole fraction from Greenland firn air. Firn air samples were collected at three deep ice core sites in Greenland (NGRIP in 2001, Summit in 2006 and NEEM in 2008. CO records from the three sites agree well with each other as well as with recent atmospheric measurements, indicating that CO is well preserved in the firn at these sites. CO atmospheric history was reconstructed back to the year 1950 from the measurements using a combination of two forward models of gas transport in firn and an inverse model. The reconstructed history suggests that Arctic CO in 1950 was 140–150 nmol mol−1, which is higher than today's values. CO mole fractions rose by 10–15 nmol mol−1 from 1950 to the 1970s and peaked in the 1970s or early 1980s, followed by a ≈ 30 nmol mol−1 decline to today's levels. We compare the CO history with the atmospheric histories of methane, light hydrocarbons, molecular hydrogen, CO stable isotopes and hydroxyl radicals (OH, as well as with published CO emission inventories and results of a historical run from a chemistry-transport model. We find that the reconstructed Greenland CO history cannot be reconciled with available emission inventories unless unrealistically large changes in OH are assumed. We argue that the available CO emission inventories strongly underestimate historical NH emissions, and fail to capture the emission decline starting in the late 1970s, which was most likely due to reduced emissions from road transportation in North America and Europe.

  6. Chronic exposure to ozone and nitric acid vapor results in increased levels of rat pulmonary putrescine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindhu, R.K.; Kikkawa, Yutaka [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of California at Irvine, Irvine (United States); Mautz, W.J. [Department of Community and Environmental Medicine, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In the past decade, there has been growing public concern for the human health effects of exposure to environmental pollutants. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is one of the most reactive components of photochemical air pollution. Despite extensive investigations by many laboratories on the functional, biochemical, and cellular effects of O{sub 3} exposure in humans, animals, and in vitro systems, questions remain concerning the potential adverse effects to human health represented by chronic near-ambient exposure to this environmental pollutant. In the present investigation, the influence of inhalation of O{sub 3} and nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) vapor on polyamine levels was examined in rat lungs. Male F344/N rats were exposed nose-only to 0.15 ppm O{sub 3} and 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} HNO{sub 3} vapor alone and in combination for 4 hours/day, 3 days/week for a total of 40 weeks. At this time the animals were sacrificed and their lungs were examined for polyamine contents. Exposure to O{sub 3} and O{sub 3} plus HNO{sub 3} vapor caused a significant increase in the putrescine content of the lung compared to the air-exposed controls (P < 0.05). The concentrations of pulmonary spermidine and spermine were not significantly increased by exposure to either O{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} vapor alone or in combination compared to the air-exposed controls. The role of polyamines in repair and anti-inflammatory processes has been discussed. (orig.) (orig.) With 1 fig., 1 tab., 30 refs.

  7. Carbon nanotube prepared from carbon monoxide by CVD method and its application as electrode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Yuliang; YUAN Xia; CHENG Shinan; GEN Xin

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes with larger inner diameter were synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition of carbon monoxide (CO) on iron catalyst using H2S as promoting agent.It is found that the structure and morphology of carbon nanotubes can be tailored, to some degree, by varying the experimental conditions such as precursor components and process parameters.The results show that the presence of H2S may play key role for growing Y-branched carbon nanotubes.The products were characterized by SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy, respectively.Furthermore, the obtained carbon nanotubes were explored as electrode materials for supercapacitor.

  8. Surface structure and relaxation during the oxidation of carbon monoxide on Pt Pd bimetallic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C. A.; Markovic, N. M.; Ball, M.; Stamenkovic, V.; Climent, V.; Ross, P. N.

    2001-05-01

    The atomic structure and surface relaxation of Pd monolayer on Pt(1 1 1) has been studied by surface X-ray scattering, in an aqueous environment under electrostatic potential control, during the adsorption and oxidation of carbon monoxide. The results show that the Pd-Pt layer spacing contracts at the onset of CO oxidation before the Pd adlayer forms an oxide structure that is incommensurate with the Pt lattice. Both the oxide formation and the lattice contraction are fully reversible over many cycles of the applied electrode potential.

  9. Chemical Reactions and Kinetics of the Carbon Monoxide Coupling in the Presence of Hydrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fandong Meng; Genhui Xu; Zhenhua Li; Pa Du

    2002-01-01

    The chemical reactions and kinetics of the catalytic coupling reaction of carbon monoxide to diethyl oxalate were studied in the presence of hydrogen over a supported palladium catalyst in the gaseous phase at the typical coupling reaction conditions. The experiments were performed in a continuous flow fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that hydrogen only reacts with ethyl nitrite to form ethanol, and kinetic studies revealed that the rate-determining step is the surface reaction of adsorbed hydrogen and the ethoxy radical (EtO-). A kinetic model is proposed and a comparison of the observed and calculated conversions showed that the rate expressions are of rather high confidence.

  10. Neurobehavioral Aspects of the Delayed Encephalopathy of Carbon Monoxide Intoxication: Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Mendez

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the neurobehavioral aspects of the delayed encephalopathy of carbon monoxide (CO intoxication in a 29 year old woman and review the literature. Four weeks after CO poisoning, the patient developed a frontal lobe syndrome, visuoperceptual impairment, and diffuse white matter lesions with an otherwise normal neurological examination. In contrast, patients with the classical syndrome also have a parkinsonian state or an akinetic–mute state. The delayed encephalopathy of CO poisoning usually results from demyelination of subcortical white matter, necrosis of the globus pallidus, or both. The clinical aspects, risk factors, neurobiological features, and therapy and prognosis are discussed.

  11. Empirical Results of a Surface-Level GNSS-R Experiment in a Wave Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Carreno-Luengo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scattering of GNSS signals over a water surface is studied when the receiver is at a low height, as in GNSS-R coastal altimetry. The precise determination of the local sea level and wave state from the coast will provide useful altimetry and wave information as “dry” tide and wave gauges. An experiment has been conducted at the Canal d'Investigació i Experimentació Marítima (CIEM wave channel for two simulated “sea” states. The GNSS-reflectometer used is the P(Y and C/A ReflectOmeter (PYCARO instrument, a closed-loop receiver with delay and Doppler tracking loops that uses the conventional GNSS-R technique for the GPS C/A code. After retracking of the scattered GPS signals, the coherent and incoherent components have been studied. To reproduce the transmitted GPS signals indoors, a Rohde and Schwarz signal generator is used. It is found that, despite the ratio of the coherent and incoherent components being ~1, the coherent component is strong enough that it can be tracked. The coherent component comes from clusters of points on the surface that approximately satisfy the specular reflection conditions (“roughed facet”. The Pearson’s linear correlation coefficients of the derived “sea” surface height with the wave gauge data are: 0.78, 0.85 and 0.81 for a SWH = 36 cm and 0.34, 0.74, and 0.72 for a SWH = 64 cm, respectively, for transmitter elevation angles of = 60°, 75° and 86°, respectively. Finally, the rms phase of the received signal before the retracking processing is used to estimate the effective rms surface height of the ‘facets’, where the waves get scattered. It is found to be between 2.5- and 4.1-times smaller than the theoretical values corresponding to the half of the coherent reflectivity decaying factor.

  12. Rib cartilage graft for posttraumatic or degenerative arthritis at wrist level: 10-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, Laurent; Lepage, Daniel; Ferrier, Maxime; Tropet, Yves

    2013-08-01

    Background Posttraumatic arthritides of the radiocarpal joint, secondary to scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse (SNAC), scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC), or Kienböck disease or in cases of intraarticularmalunion of the distal radius, are classically solved by some type of arthrodesis procedure. Osteochondral grafting provides a possible motion-sparing option that can diminish pain in the active patient. Description of Technique A chondrocostal graft harvested from the ninth rib was inserted and fixed with a plate in place of the articular defect in cases of a malunited intra-articular distal radius fracture (7 cases) or to replace the proximal pole of the scaphoid in cases of SNAC or SLAC (18 cases). In Kienböck disease, the graft was inserted as a free cartilage spacer (4 cases). Results Harvesting the graft from the ninth rib had minimal morbidity without pleural injury in the reported series. Graft union was achieved in all cases of fixation. No graft resorption or necrosis were observed on X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation at the longest follow-up of 10 years. Histological analysis performed at the time of plate removal showed the vitality of the graft. Two thirds of the patients had excellent or good results using the Green and O'Brien score. Conclusions Reconstruction of a partially destroyed articular surface using a costal graft is reliable and provides an alternative option for resurfacing the articular surface with viable cartilage.

  13. Evaluation of an additive efficacy in broiler litter microbial level control in field: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pennacchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate in field the efficacy of an additive (SOP® C POULTRY, as an agent for the control of micro-organisms in broiler litter. The Total aerobic Microbial Count (TMC, Staphylococcus species (spp., Coliforms, and Salmonella spp. in broiler litter samples of both the Houses, 2 (H2 and 3 (H3, were determined, and also at the end of each cycle the mortality rate was recorded. The results showed significant reduction of all the microbial counts: P= 0.0078 (CMT, 0,0021 (Staphylococcus spp. and 0.0541 (Coliforms, and mortality (P= 0.00106 in treated litter samples H2 and the control H3.

  14. Adverse effects in adulthood resulting from low-level dioxin exposure in juvenile zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tracie R; Peterson, Richard E; Heideman, Warren

    There is strong evidence indicating that disease in adult humans stems from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. A problem in identifying environmental factors is that subacute exposures during early life are often unnoticed, or exposures are variable among a diverse population. This leads to a confusing pattern in adulthood. An additional problem in following exposure effects in humans is the length of time needed to study outcomes spanning a human generation. We have recently developed a zebrafish model for studying the effects of sublethal juvenile exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin). Although the initial exposure produces no effect at the time, we find skeletal and reproductive defects in adulthood and into subsequent generations. The short generation time of zebrafish along with the ability to maintain large cohorts of exposed individuals and their offspring allows us to overcome variation in exposure and genetic background. Here we describe progress in studying TCDD as an endocrine and developmental disruptor, and our results showing adult consequences of early exposure.

  15. Ten years of photonics education at the college level in Ontario: results and by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantel, Marc

    2010-08-01

    In 2000, there was no way for an Ontario student to obtain a credential in optics, laser or photonics without going through graduate school. This was in, arguably, the world-leading jurisdiction in photonics-enabled telecommunications industry. To alleviate this problem and supply the job market with highly-qualified people in the field of optics and photonics, the Ontario Centres of Excellence - then as Photonics Research Ontario - partnered with Algonquin College (Ottawa) and Niagara College (Welland) to establish over the past decade a suite of programs: a 1-year Certificate in Advanced Lasers, a 2-year Diploma for Photonics Engineering Technician, a 3-year Diploma for Photonics Engineering Technologists and a 4-year Bachelor of Applied Technology - Photonics. Much has been learnt along the way - the crucial need for industrial partner and government support, for example - and many course corrections had to be made (telecom bust, anyone?). The author will share the results of this 10-year journey so far, the lessons learnt, and a view to the next ten years for these programs and photonics education in Ontario in general.

  16. Potential dose distributions at proposed surface radioactvity clearance levels resulting from occupational scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.; Rabovsky, J. (Environmental Science Division); (USDOE)

    2011-08-02

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the potential dose distribution resulting from surface radioactivity, using occupational radiation exposure scenarios. The surface radioactivity clearance values considered in this analysis may ultimately replace those currently specified in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and guidance for radiological protection of workers, the public and the environment. The surface contamination values apply to radioactive contamination deposited on a surface (i.e., not incorporated into the interior of the material). For these calculations, the dose coefficients for intake of radionuclides were taken from ICRP Publication 68 (ICRP 1994), and external exposure dose coefficients were taken from the compact disc (CD) that accompanied Federal Guidance Report (FGR) 13 (Eckerman et al. 1999). The ICRP Publication 68 dose coefficients were based on ICRP Publication 60 (ICRP 1990) and were used specifically for worker dose calculations. The calculated dose in this analysis is the 'effective dose' (ED), rather than the 'effective dose equivalent' (EDE).

  17. Level of natural radionuclides in foodstuffs and resultant annual ingestion radiation dose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The natural radioactivities in three major groups of foodstuff widely consumed in Upper Egypt were determined. The specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in cereals, leguminosae, and flour were measured using γ-ray spectroscopy. Another group of hay, water, and soil samples from the same location were also analyzed. Hay samples were found to contain the highest radioactivity concentration among all the samples that were investigated. This increment could be due to the high water content in the shoots which tends to accumulate soluble radionuclides. The average calculated concentrations of soil samples in the present study exhibits the lowest values with respect to those from different countries. In the case of water samples, the average activities of both 232Th and 40K were similar to those for soil while 226Ra was twice that of water sample. The annual ingestion dose from each radionuclide was calculated. The computed annual dose owing to daily intake of radium, thorium, and potassium via wheat flour, lentils,and bean in the present study (214.8 μSv) is ten times lower than the global average annual radiation dose (2400 μSv)from the natural radiation sources as proposed by UNSCEAR. The obtained results show that the dose values are quite low and carry insignificant radiation dose to the public.

  18. Coccidioidomycosis: adenosine deaminase levels, serologic parameters, culture results, and polymerase chain reaction testing in pleural fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, George R; Sharma, Shobha; Bays, Derek J; Pruitt, Rachel; Engelthaler, David M; Bowers, Jolene; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Davis, Michael; Libke, Robert; Cohen, Stuart H; Pappagianis, Demosthenes

    2013-03-01

    In a patient with positive serum serology for coccidioidomycosis, the differential diagnosis of concurrent pleural effusions can be challenging. We, therefore, sought to clarify the performance characteristics of biochemical, serologic, and nucleic-acid-based testing in an attempt to avoid invasive procedures. The utility of adenosine deaminase (ADA), coccidioidal serology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the evaluation of pleuropulmonary coccidioidomycosis has not been previously reported. Forty consecutive patients evaluated for pleuropulmonary coccidioidomycosis were included. Demographic data, pleural fluid values, culture results, and clinical diagnoses were obtained from patient chart review. ADA testing was performed by ARUP Laboratories, coccidioidal serologic testing was performed by the University of California-Davis coccidioidomycosis serology laboratory, and PCR testing was performed by the Translational Genomics Research Institute using a previously published methodology. Fifteen patients were diagnosed with pleuropulmonary coccidioidomycosis by European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group criteria. Pleural fluid ADA concentrations were coccidioidomycosis were not elevated in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of coccidioidal serologic testing in nonserum samples remained high, but the clinical usefulness of PCR testing in pleural fluid was disappointing and was comparable to pleural fluid culture.

  19. State level point-of-sale policy priority as a result of the FSPTCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Moreland-Russell PhD MPH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA give the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA unprecedented power to regulate tobacco products. One of the most significant provisions of the law allows state and local governments to adopt and enforce tobacco control legislation restricting the time, place, and manner (but not the content of tobacco advertising. However, there is still reluctance among states and localities for mass adoption of laws due to challenges associated with legal feasibility and lack of U.S.-based evidence in effectiveness. The Center for Public Health Systems Science conducted interviews with key tobacco control contacts in 48 states at two time points (2012 and 2014 since the passage of the FSPTCA to assess the influence of the law on point-of-sale policy development in their state tobacco programs. Logistic regression results show that point-of-sale policy importance is growing post-FSPTCA, and that key influencers of this importance are states' tobacco control histories and environments, including that related to excise taxes and smoke free air policies. The adoption of smokefree and tax policies has become commonplace across the U.S., and the quality and extent of these laws and prevailing political will increasingly impact the ability of states to work in emerging tobacco control policy areas including those directed at the point of sale.

  20. Preliminary results of mercury levels in raw and cooked seafood and their public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernanda do N; Korn, Maria Graças A; Brito, Geysa B; Ferlin, Stacy; Fostier, Anne H

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is toxic for human health and one of the main routes of exposure is through consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish. The objective of this work was to assess the possible mercury contamination of bivalves (Anomalocardia brasiliana, Lucina pectinata, Callinectes sapidus), crustacean (C. sapidus) and fish (Bagre marinus and Diapterus rhombeus) collected on Salinas da Margarida, BA (Brazil), a region which carciniculture, fishing and shellfish extraction are the most important economic activities. The effect of cooking on Hg concentration in the samples was also studied. The results showed that Hg concentration was generally higher in the cooked samples than in raw samples. This increase can be related to the effect of Hg pre-concentration, formation of complexes involving mercury species and sulfhydryl groups present in tissues and/or loss of water and fat. The highest concentrations were found in B. marinus samples ranging 837.0-1585.3 μg kg(-1), which exceeded those recommended by Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). In addition, Hg values found in the other samples also suggest the monitoring of the Hg concentrations in seafood consumed from the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Artifactual mutations resulting from DNA lesions limit detection levels in ultrasensitive sequencing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeithuber, Barbara; Makova, Kateryna D; Tiemann-Boege, Irene

    2016-12-01

    The need in cancer research or evolutionary biology to detect rare mutations or variants present at very low frequencies (DNA lesions introduce important error sources in ultrasensitive technologies such as single molecule PCR (smPCR) applications (e.g. droplet-digital PCR), or next-generation sequencing (NGS) based methods. Using templates with known amplifiable lesions (8-oxoguanine, deaminated 5-methylcytosine, uracil, and DNA heteroduplexes), we assessed with smPCR and duplex sequencing that templates with these lesions were amplified very efficiently by proofreading polymerases (except uracil), leading to G->T, and to a lesser extent, to unreported G->C substitutions at 8-oxoguanine lesions, and C->T transitions in amplified uracil containing templates. Long heat incubations common in many DNA extraction protocols significantly increased the number of G->T substitutions. Moreover, in ∼50-80% smPCR reactions we observed the random amplification preference of only one of both DNA strands explaining the known 'PCR jackpot effect', with the result that a lesion became indistinguishable from a true mutation or variant. Finally, we showed that artifactual mutations derived from uracil and 8-oxoguanine could be significantly reduced by DNA repair enzymes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  2. Impact of spaceborne carbon monoxide observations from the S-5P platform on tropospheric composition analyses and forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abida, Rachid; Attié, Jean-Luc; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Ricaud, Philippe; Lahoz, William; Eskes, Henk; Segers, Arjo; Curier, Lyana; de Haan, Johan; Kujanpää, Jukka; Oude Nijhuis, Albert; Tamminen, Johanna; Timmermans, Renske; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2017-01-01

    We use the technique of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) to quantify the impact of spaceborne carbon monoxide (CO) total column observations from the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S-5P) platform on tropospheric analyses and forecasts. We focus on Europe for the period of northern summer 2003, when there was a severe heat wave episode associated with extremely hot and dry weather conditions. We describe different elements of the OSSE: (i) the nature run (NR), i.e., the truth; (ii) the CO synthetic observations; (iii) the assimilation run (AR), where we assimilate the observations of interest; (iv) the control run (CR), in this study a free model run without assimilation; and (v) efforts to establish the fidelity of the OSSE results. Comparison of the results from AR and the CR, against the NR, shows that CO total column observations from S-5P provide a significant benefit (at the 99 % confidence level) at the surface, with the largest benefit occurring over land in regions far away from emission sources. Furthermore, the S-5P CO total column observations are able to capture phenomena such as the forest fires that occurred in Portugal during northern summer 2003. These results provide evidence of the benefit of S-5P observations for monitoring processes contributing to atmospheric pollution.

  3. Catalysis of carbon monoxide methanation by deep sea manganate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, A. L.; Maple, M. B.; Arrhenius, G.

    1990-01-01

    The catalytic activity of deep sea manganese nodule minerals for the methanation of carbon monoxide was measured with a microcatalytic technique between 200 and 460 degrees C. The manganate minerals were activated at 248 degrees C by immersion into a stream of hydrogen in which pulses of carbon monoxide were injected. Activation energies for the methanation reaction and hydrogen desorption from the manganate minerals were obtained and compared with those of pure nickel. Similar energy values indicate that the activity of the nodule materials for the reaction appears to be related to the amount of reducible transition metals present in the samples (ca. 11 wt.-%). Since the activity of the nodule minerals per gram is comparable to that of pure nickel, most of the transition metal ions located between manganese oxide layers appear to be exposed and available to catalyze the reaction.

  4. Effect of carbon monoxide on plants. [Mimosa pudica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Crocker, W.; Hitchcock, A.E.

    1933-01-01

    Of 108 species of plants treated with one per cent carbon monoxide, 45 showed epinastic growth of leaves. Several species showed hyponasty which caused upward curling of leaves. Other effects included: retarded stem elongation; abnormally small new leaves; abnormal yellowing of the leaves, beginning with the oldest; abscission of leaves usually associated with yellowing; and hypertrophied tissues on stems and roots. During recovery an abnormally large number of side shoots arose from latent buds of many species. Motion pictures of Mimosa pudica showed a loss of correlation, normal equilibrium position to gravity, and sensitiveness to contact or heat stimuli; however, the leaves moved about more rapidly than those of controls. Since carbon monoxide causes growth rigor and loss of sensitiveness to external stimuli, it is here considered as an anesthetic.

  5. Interaction and reactivity of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide on ruthenium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, E.E.

    1980-03-01

    A multifaceted investigation of the reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide using a ruthenium (102) single crystal catalyst in the pressure range 10/sup -3/ to 10 Torr and temperature range of 300 to 475/sup 0/C has been undertaken. Kinetic and isotopic results indicate that the reaction products CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ were produced via two reaction mechanisms. Using a reducing gas mixture (low P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) a two site mechanism was operative involving NO dissociation. The carbon monoxide kinetic order varied from +1 to -3 and the nitric oxide order varied from +1 to 0. The catalyst under these conditions was determined to be metallic ruthenium with oxygen bonded within the first surface layer. The oxygen was unreactive and formed a (1 x 3)-0 LEED pattern. Under oxidizing conditions (high P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) the catalyst was ruthenium dioxide and the functional mechanism under these reaction conditions yielded a nitric oxide order of +2 to -4. Inclusion of a site poisoning mechanism under reducing conditions and an RuO/sub 2/ growth mechanism involving ruthenium cation transfer under oxidizing conditions into the kinetic rate laws led to an overall rate law which could be fit to the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide order plots. Using isotopically oxygen labelled reactants, it was observed that the three possible isotopes of carbon dioxide were produced. A ..gamma..-CO surface species is postulated as an intermediate in the exchange process. The reaction was observed to be initially surface structure insensitive and the reaction kinetics were derived using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism.

  6. Compositional variability of the Venusian atmosphere above the clouds: sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcq, Emmanuel; Belyaev, Denis; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Encrenaz, Therese; Montmessin, Franck; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    The layers of the Venusian atmosphere located at cloud top level is a complex transitional region where intense solar radiation interacts with a fairly dense gaseous medium and particulate matter - ultimately, the cloud particles themselves are a by-product of this interaction. In a stark contrast with the lowermost troposphere, spatial and temporal variations in temperature and composition are easily noticeable. In this talk we will focus on two gaseous species, carbon monoxide (CO) and sulphur dioxide (SO _{2}), whose sources and sinks are reversed: whereas carbon monoxide is produced by photo-dissociation of the main atmospheric constituent CO _{2} and oxidised below the clouds, SO _{2} is destroyed by UV solar radiation above the clouds and replenished from the lower atmosphere. Yet, these two species exhibit very different variation patterns. SO _{2} temporal variations range from very rapid (within a few hours) and large (by a relative factor exceeding 10) variations to secular phases of increases and decreases spanning decades. Its average latitudinal distribution ranges from a decrease with increasing latitude during SO _{2}-rich phases and a possible reversal during SO _{2}-poor phases. In contrast, CO does not exhibit significant secular, nor short-term variability, but clear horizontal trends have been measured, both with respect to latitude and local solar time.

  7. Evaluation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Sorbents and Catalysts for Control of Ammonia and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Bernadette; Somi, George; Winchester, J. Parker; Grose, Jeffrey; Mulloth, Lila; Perry, Jay L.

    2013-01-01

    Designers of future space vehicles envision simplifying the Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) system by combining the functions of trace contaminant (TC) control and carbon dioxide removal into one swing-bed system. Flow rates and bed sizes of the TC and CO2 systems have historically been very different. There is uncertainty about the ability of trace contaminant sorbents to adsorb adequately in high-flow or short bed length configurations, and to desorb adequately during short vacuum exposures. There is also concern about ambient ammonia levels in the absence of a condensing heat exchanger. In addition, new materials and formulations have become commercially available, formulations never evaluated by NASA for purposes of trace contaminant control. The optimal air revitalization system for future missions may incorporate a swing-bed system for carbon dioxide (CO2) and partial trace contaminant control, with a reduced-size, low-power, targeted trace contaminant system supplying the remaining contaminant removal capability. This paper describes the results of a comparative experimental investigation into materials for trace contaminant control that might be part of such a system. Ammonia sorbents and low temperature carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation catalysts are the foci. The data will be useful to designers of AR systems for future flexible path missions. This is a continuation of work presented in a prior year, with extended test results.

  8. Associations of blood lead levels with reproductive hormone levels in men and postmenopausal women: Results from the SPECT-China Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi; Wang, Ningjian; Zhai, Hualing; Nie, Xiaomin; Sun, Honglin; Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Cheng, Jing; Xia, Fangzhen; Zhao, Li; Zheng, Yanjun; Shen, Zhoujun; Lu, Yingli

    2016-11-01

    We examined whether blood lead levels (BLLs) were associated with reproductive hormone levels in a cross-sectional study using data from the SPECT-China study. We selected 2286 men and 1571 postmenopausal women without hormone replacement therapy. BLLs, blood cadmium, total testosterone (TT), oestradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone binding globulin(SHBG) levels were measured. The results showed that median values (interquartile range) of BLLs were 44.00 μg/L (29.00–62.30) for men and 41.00 μg/L (27.00–59.81) for postmenopausal women. In linear regression, after adjusting for age, current smoking status, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes and blood cadmium level, TT (P for trend = 0.001) and SHBG (P for trend reproductive hormone levels in the general population of Chinese men and postmenopausal women, which may have important implications for human health. Concerted efforts to reduce adult lead exposure are warranted.

  9. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, Pia; Jansen, Erik C; Hilsted, Linda;

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO) may be important components of smoke from fire accidents. Accordingly, patients admitted to hospital from fire accidents may have been exposed to both HCN and CO. Cyanide (CN) intoxication results in cytotoxic hypoxia leading to organ dysfunction...... and animal experiments have shown that in rats exposed to CN intoxication, HBO can increase the concentration of CN in whole blood....

  10. Modeling Potential Carbon Monoxide Exposure Due to Operation of a Major Rocket Engine Altitude Test Facility Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotzer, Michael J.; Woods, Jody L.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews computational fluid dynamics as a tool for modelling the dispersion of carbon monoxide at the Stennis Space Center's A3 Test Stand. The contents include: 1) Constellation Program; 2) Constellation Launch Vehicles; 3) J2X Engine; 4) A-3 Test Stand; 5) Chemical Steam Generators; 6) Emission Estimates; 7) Located in Existing Test Complex; 8) Computational Fluid Dynamics; 9) Computational Tools; 10) CO Modeling; 11) CO Model results; and 12) Next steps.

  11. Central Diabetes Insipidus and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State Following Accidental Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Abideen, Zain; Mahmud, Syed Nayer; Rasheed, Amna; Farooq Qasim, Yusaf; Ali, Furqan

    2017-06-03

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is common and carries significant morbidity and mortality. The nervous system, particularly the brain, is frequently affected by it, owing to its high metabolic activity and oxygen requirements. Carbon monoxide damages the nervous system by both hypoxic and inflammatory mechanisms. Central diabetes insipidus is an extremely rare complication of carbon monoxide poisoning. Herein, we report the case of a young lady, who developed this complication and severe hypernatremia after accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. She also developed a hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state during the treatment for hypernatremia. To the best of our knowledge, both these entities have not been reported together in association with carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the anticipation and early recognition of central diabetes insipidus in carbon monoxide poisoning. This can prevent severe hypernatremia and complications associated with its presence and treatment.

  12. Results of the first order leveling surveys in the Mexicali Valley and at the Cerro Prieto field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results obtained from the third leveling survey carried out by the Direccion General de Geografia del Territorio Nacional (previously DETENAL) during November and December 1979 are presented. Calculations of the changes in field elevation and plots showing comparisons of the 1977, 1978, and 1979 surveys are also presented. Results from a second order leveling survey performed to ascertain the extent of ground motion resulting from the 8 June 1980 earthquake are presented. This magnitude ML = 6.7 earthquake with epicenter located 15 km southeast of the Guadalupe Victoria village, caused fissures on the surface, the formation of small sand volcanos, and the ejection of ground water in the vicinity of the Cerro Prieto field. This leveling survey was carried out between benchmark BN-10067 at the intersection of the Solfatara canal and the Sonora-Baja California railroad, and benchmark BN-10055 located at the Delta station.

  13. Our Prostate Biopsy Results in The Patients with Prostate Specific Antigen Levels Below 4 ng/ml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Aydemir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the re¬sults of prostate biopsy of patients who had the prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels below 4 ng/ml. Material and Method: The medical records of 524 pa¬tients who underwent transrectal prostate biopsy be¬tween January 2010 and February 2013 in our clinic, due to suspi¬cion of prostate cancer were evaluated and histopathologic results of 43 patients whose PSA levels under 4 ng/ml were retrospectively revieved. Results: The mean age of patients was 64.63 ±7:42 and the mean level of PSA was 2.89 ±0.88ng /ml. A digital rectal examination (DRE had suspicious findings in 41(95.34% patients. Prostate adenocarcinoma was determined in 13 of (30.23% patients according to the biopsy result. The mean PSA value of these patients was 2.89 ±0.88 ng/ml and the mean gleason score of these patients was 6.41 ±0.87. The mean prostate volume of these patients was 41.46 ±11.95 cm3. Discussion: In our study, prostate cancer was identified in 30.3% of patients whose PSA levels were below 4 ng/ml. DRE, is still important for the evaluation of the prostate. According to our results, significant number of cancers can be detected in PSA below 4 ng/ml levels.

  14. Loss of laforin or malin results in increased Drp1 level and concomitant mitochondrial fragmentation in Lafora disease mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Mamta; Agarwal, Saloni; Bhadauriya, Pratibha; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2017-04-01

    Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive form of a fatal disorder characterized by the myoclonus epilepsy, ataxia, psychosis, dementia, and dysarthria. A hallmark of LD is the presence of abnormal glycogen inclusions called Lafora bodies in the affected tissues including the neurons. LD can be caused by defects either in the laforin phosphatase coded by the EPM2A gene or in the malin E3 ubiquitin ligase coded by the NHLRC1 gene. The mouse models of LD, created by the targeted disruption of the LD genes, display several neurodegenerative changes. Prominent among them are the autophagic defects, abnormally large lysosomes, neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid beta deposits, and abnormal mitochondria. However, whether or not such neurodegenerative changes are a direct effect of the loss of laforin/malin was not unequivocally established. Here, we show that laforin- or malin-deficient neurons and fibroblasts display a significantly higher number of fragmented mitochondria. Loss of laforin or malin resulted in increased levels of the mitochondrial fission GTPase Drp1, its enhanced mitochondrial targeting, and increased intracellular calcium levels. Intriguingly, laforin and malin display opposite effects on the cellular level of parkin, an ubiquitin ligase of Drp1; loss of laforin led to reduced levels of parkin while the loss of malin resulted in increased parkin levels. Laforin and malin, however, interact with and positively regulate the activity of parkin, thus explaining the molecular basis of increased Drp1 levels in LD tissues. Our results suggest that laforin and malin are novel regulators of mitochondrial quality control pathway and that the mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from the increased Drp1 levels could underlie neuropathology in LD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. New approach to carbon monoxide poisoning treatment by laser-induced photodissociation of carboxyhemoglobin of cutaneous blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, Mustafo M.; Asimov, Rustam M.; Gisbrecht, Alexander

    2005-04-01

    A new approach to carbon monoxide poisoning treatment based on laser-induced photodissociation of the carboxyhemoglobin is proposed. Using the simple model of laser tissue interaction the action spectra of laser radiation on carboxyhemoglobin of cutaneous blood vessels has been calculated. The results of the calculatoins indicate that there is a relatively narrow spectral range in the visible region where one could effectively irradiate carboxyhemoglobin through the tissue not in a deep distances. In the case of deeper penetration, the action spectra of laser radiation shifts toward the longer wavelength region. Despite the similarity of the carboxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin action spectra, the significant difference in quantum yields of photodissociation makes possible to develop an effective method of carbon monoxide poisoning treatment.

  16. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Pt-, Fe-, and Zn-doped SnO2 Nanospheres and Carbon Monoxide Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure and M-doped (M = Pt, Fe, and Zn SnO2 nanospheres were successfully synthesized via a simple and facile hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Chemical gas sensors were fabricated based on the as-synthesized nanostructures, and carbon monoxide sensing properties were systematically measured. Compared to pure, Fe-, and Zn-doped SnO2 nanospheres, the Pt-doped SnO2 nanospheres sensor exhibits higher sensitivity, lower operating temperature, more rapid response and recovery, better stability, and excellent selectivity. In addition, a theoretical study based on the first principles calculation was conducted. All results demonstrate the potential of Pt dopant for improving the gas sensing properties of SnO2-based sensors to carbon monoxide.

  17. Sea level change from BeiDou Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (BDS-R): First results and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Qian, Xiaodong; Wu, X.

    2017-02-01

    Sea level changes affect human living environments, particularly ocean coasts. The tide gauges (TG) can measure sea level change, while it is the relative variations with respect to the land. Recently, GPS-Reflectometry (GPS-R) has been demonstrated to measure sea level change as an altimetry. With the rapid development of China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), it may provide a new possible opportunity to monitor sea level changes with three frequencies (L2, L6 and L7). In this paper, BDS-Reflectometry (BDS-R) is the first time used to estimate the sea level changes based on Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) data and triple-frequency phase and code combinations, which are compared to tide gauge observations. Results show that sea level changes from BDS SNR and phase combination have a good agreement with correlation coefficients of 0.83-0.91 and RMSEs of less than 0.6 m, while BDS code combination is not as good as others. Furthermore, a new negative linear model between phase and code peak frequencies and tide gauge observations is further obtained and analyzed, which improves the results from three-frequency phase and code combinations with the RMSE of about 10 cm and 18 cm.

  18. Heme oxygenase and angiogenic activity of endothelial cells: stimulation by carbon monoxide and inhibition by tin protoporphyrin-IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józkowicz, Alicja; Huk, Ihor; Nigisch, Anneliese; Weigel, Guenter; Dietrich, Wolf; Motterlini, Roberto; Dulak, Józef

    2003-04-01

    The activity of heme oxygenase enzymes (HOs) is responsible for the endogenous source of carbon monoxide (CO). Their activities can be inhibited by tin protoporphyrin-IX (SnPPIX). Recent data indicate the involvement of HOs in the regulation of angiogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of the HO pathway in the production and angiogenic activity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in endothelial cells treated with SnPPIX, or cultured in the presence of a CO-releasing molecule (CO-RM). Addition of CO-RM or induction of HO-1 by hemin resulted in a threefold elevation in CO production in culture medium (up to 20.3 microg/L) and was associated with a 30% increase in VEGF synthesis. Much higher levels of CO (up to 60 microg/L) and a further increase in VEGF production (by 277%) were measured in cells treated with prostaglandin-J(2), a potent activator of HO-1. SnPPIX prevented the induction of CO generation and inhibited VEGF synthesis. Moreover, SnPPIX reduced the VEGF-elicited angiogenic activities of endothelial cells by decreasing their proliferation (by 26%), migration (by 46%), formation of tubes on Matrigel (by 48%), and outgrowth of capillaries from endothelial spheroids (by 30%). In contrast, overexpression of HO-1 or incubation of cells with CO-RM led to an increase in capillary sprouting. Thus, HO activity up-regulates VEGF production and augments the capability of endothelial cells to respond to exogenous stimulation.

  19. The effect of Sao Paulo's smoke-free legislation on carbon monoxide concentration in hospitality venues and their workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Jaqueline S; Abe, Tania M O; Pereira, Alexandre C; Megid, Maria Cristina; Shimabukuro, Cristina E; Valentin, Luis Sergio O; Ferreira, Marizete M da C; Nobre, Moacyr R C; Lancarotte, Ines; Barretto, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2011-03-01

    Studies have shown that there is no safe level of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and there is a close link between SHS and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most important components present in SHS. To evaluate the impact of the smoking ban law in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, on the CO concentration in restaurants, bars, night clubs and similar venues and in their workers. In the present study we measured CO concentration in 585 hospitality venues. CO concentration was measured in different environments (indoor, semi-open and open areas) from visited venues, as well as, in the exhaled air from approximately 627 workers of such venues. Measurements were performed twice, before and 12 weeks after the law implementation. In addition, the quality of the air in the city during the same period of our study was verified. RESULTS The CO concentration pre-ban and pot-ban in hospitality venues was indoor area 4.57 (3.70) ppm vs 1.35 (1.66) ppm (phospitality venues and in their workers, whether they smoke or not.

  20. The effectiveness of breath carbon monoxide analyzer in screening for environmental tobacco smoke exposure in Saudi pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmieh Ayed Alzeidan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has harmful effects on the pregnancy outcomes similar to those observed in actively smoking pregnant women. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the breath carbon monoxide (BCO analysis in the assessment of smoking status among Saudi pregnant women, including ETS exposure compared to self-reported tobacco smoke exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used during January 2012, 560 pregnant women, irrespective of their gestational age, agreed to undergo BCO testing and completed the data collection sheet for the study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated to compare the BCO test with self-reported exposure to ETS. Results: Of the study population 151 (27% women self-reported ETS exposure during the index pregnancy, 409 (73% self-reported non-exposure. Sensitivity of the test was 32.5% (95% CI; 25.2-40.3%, the Specificity was much higher at 69.2% (95% CI; 64.4-73.5%, the positive predictive value was 28% (95% CI, 21.9-35.1%, and the negative predictive value was 73.5% (95% CI; 68.9-77.7%. Conclusion: The BCO test is an ineffective tool to detect the level of ETS exposure among Saudi pregnant women.

  1. Carbon monoxide may be an important molecule in migraine and other headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik W; Hauge, Mette K

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide was previously considered to just be a toxic gas. A wealth of recent information has, however, shown that it is also an important endogenously produced signalling molecule involved in multiple biological processes. Endogenously produced carbon monoxide may thus play...... an important role in nociceptive processing and in regulation of cerebral arterial tone. DISCUSSION: Carbon monoxide-induced headache shares many characteristics with migraine and other headaches. The mechanisms whereby carbon monoxide causes headache may include hypoxia, nitric oxide signalling and activation...

  2. Characteristics of autoignited laminar lifted flames in heated coflow jets of carbon monoxide/hydrogen mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Byungchul

    2012-06-01

    The characteristics of autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets of carbon monoxide/hydrogen fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. In result, as the jet velocity increased, the blowoff was directly occurred from the nozzle-attached flame without experiencing a stabilized lifted flame, in the non-autoignited regime. In the autoignited regime, the autoignited lifted flame of carbon monoxide diluted by nitrogen was affected by the water vapor content in the compressed air oxidizer, as evidenced by the variation of the ignition delay time estimated by numerical calculation. In particular, in the autoignition regime at low temperatures with added hydrogen, the liftoff height of the autoignited lifted flames decreased and then increased as the jet velocity increased. Based on the mechanism in which the autoignited laminar lifted flame is stabilized by ignition delay time, the liftoff height can be influenced not only by the heat loss, but also by the preferential diffusion between momentum and mass diffusion in fuel jets during the autoignition process. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  3. Acute toxicity when concentration varies with time: A case study with carbon monoxide inhalation by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Sommerville, Douglas R; Goodwin, Michelle R; James, R Arden; Channel, Stephen R

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to time-varying concentrations of toxic compounds is the norm in both occupational settings and daily human life, but little has been done to investigate the impact of variations in concentration on toxic outcomes; this case study with carbon monoxide helps fill that gap. Median acute lethality of 10-, 20-, 40-, and 60-min continuous exposures of rats to carbon monoxide was well described by the toxic load model (k = C(n) × t; k is constant, C = test concentration, n = toxic load exponent, and t = exposure duration) with n = 1.74. Dose response-relationships for 1-h exposures including a recovery period between 10- or 20-min pulses showed greater similarity (in both median lethality and steepness of dose-response curve) to continuous exposures with equivalent pulse duration and concentration, rather than a 60-min exposure with equivalent time-weighted average concentrations or toxic load. When pulses were of unequal concentration (3:1 ratio), only the high concentration pulse contributed to lethality. These findings show that fluctuations or interruptions in exposure over a short time scale (60 min or less) can have a substantial impact on outcomes (when n > 1), and thus high-resolution monitoring data are needed to aid interpretation of resulting outcomes.

  4. Mechanistic studies of carbon monoxide reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffroy, G.L.

    1990-06-12

    The progress made during the current grant period (1 January 1988--1 April 1990) in three different areas of research is summarized. The research areas are: (1) oxidatively-induced double carbonylation reactions to form {alpha}-ketoacyl complexes and studies of the reactivity of the resulting compounds, (2) mechanistic studies of the carbonylation of nitroaromatics to form isocyanates, carbamates, and ureas, and (3) studies of the formation and reactivity of unusual metallacycles and alkylidene ligands supported on binuclear iron carbonyl fragments. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Intelligent Monitoring System For Carbon Monoxide Poisoning And Leakage In Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Thakur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a feasibility study of a wearable helmet in order to protect mine workers specially of goldmines from carbon monoxide poisoning and cyanidation. Carbon monoxide(CO poisoning is a common problem faced by the workers of coal, gold and many other mines. On the other hand cyanidation problem occurs in gold mines only during ore processing. Current safety systems for mine workers, only monitors environmental concentrations of gas. This is insufficient because toxic exposures effects people at different levels based on their immunity levels. During mining process CO can be emitted which is a odorless gas and lighter than air, it cannot be sensed by workers and effects the hemoglobin range in the body so a CO gas sensor is implemented here in order to detect CO, if the density of CO exceeds inside the mines then the exhaust fan can be switched ON automatically. The key feature of this system is pulse oximetery sensor which will be checking the health parameters of each and every person employed there. During ore processing sodium cyanide is added to the ore in order to extract the gold from its ore which is a acidic substance. If acidity increases beyond a certain level then system will automatically pump sodium hydroxide into the ore to make it less acidic. All these three parameters will be displayed on LCD in the central location which will contain buzzer also for emergency. So in this system we are monitoring three parameters of workers as compare to one in previous systems and hence the security of workers is enhanced.

  6. Carbon Monoxide Affecting Planetary Atmospheric Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Horst, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric hazes are present in a range of solar system and extrasolar planetary atmospheres, and organic hazes, such as that in Titan's atmosphere, could be a source of prebiotic molecules.1 However, the chemistry occurring in planetary atmospheres and the resulting chemical structures are still not clear. Numerous experimental simulations2 have been carried out in the laboratory to understand the chemistry in N2/CH4 atmospheres, but very few simulations4 have included CO in their initial gas mixtures, which is an important component in many N2/CH4 atmospheres including Titan, Triton, and Pluto.3 Here we have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments using AC glow discharge (cold plasma) as energy source to irradiate reactions in gas mixtures of CO, CH4, and N2 with a range of CO mixing ratios (from 0, 0.05%, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, to 5%) at low temperature (~100 K). Gas phase products are monitored during the reaction by quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS), and solid phase products are analyzed by solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). MS results show that with the increase of CO in the initial gases, the production of nitrogenous organic molecules increases while the production of hydrogen molecules decreases in the gas phase. NMR measurements of the solid phase products show that with the increase of CO, hydrogen atoms bonded to nitrogen or oxygen in unsaturated structures increase while those bonded to saturated carbon decrease, which means more unsaturated species and less saturated species formed with the addition of CO. MS and NMR results demonstrate that the inclusion of CO affects the compositions of both gas and solid phase products, indicating that CO has an important impact on the chemistry occurring in our experiments and probably in planetary atmospheres.1. Hörst, S. M., et al. 2012, AsBio, 12, 8092. Cable, M. L., et al. 2012, Chem. Rev., 112, 18823. Lutz, B. L., et al. 1983, Sci, 220, 1374; Greaves, J. S., et al

  7. Determinants of Carboxyhemoglobin Levels and Relationship with Sepsis in a Retrospective Cohort of Preterm Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Andrew J; Webbe, James; Sim, Kathleen; Parrish, Graham; Hoggart, Clive; Wang, Yifei; Kroll, J Simon; Godambe, Sunit; Cunnington, Aubrey J

    2016-01-01

    Carboxyhemoglobin levels in blood reflect endogenous carbon monoxide production and are often measured during routine blood gas analysis. Endogenous carbon monoxide production has been reported to be increased during sepsis, but carboxyhemoglobin levels have not been thoroughly evaluated as a biomarker of sepsis. We sought to determine whether carboxyhemoglobin levels were elevated during sepsis in a high risk population of premature neonates. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 30 infants in two neonatal intensive care units using electronic medical and laboratory records. The majority of infants were extremely premature and extremely low birth weight, and 25 had at least one episode of sepsis. We collected all carboxyhemoglobin measurements during their in-patient stay and examined the relationship between carboxyhemoglobin and a variety of clinical and laboratory parameters, in addition to the presence or absence of sepsis, using linear mixed-effect models. We found that postnatal age had the most significant effect on carboxyhemoglobin levels, and other significant associations were identified with gestational age, hemoglobin concentration, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and blood pH. Accounting for these covariates, there was no significant relationship between the onset of sepsis and carboxyhemoglobin levels. Our results show that carboxyhemoglobin is unlikely to be a clinically useful biomarker of sepsis in premature infants, and raise a note of caution about factors which may confound the use of carbon monoxide as a clinical biomarker for other disease processes such as hemolysis.

  8. Thermal Degradation of Lead Monoxide Filled Polymer Composite Radiation Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, V.; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-07-01

    Lead monoxide filled Isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the thermo gravimetric analysis of the composites done to understand their thermal properties especially the effect of filler concentration on the thermal stability & degradation rate of composites. Pristine polymer exhibits single stage degradation whereas filled composites exhibit two stage degradation processes. Further, the IDT values as well as degradation rates decrease with the increased filler content in the composite.

  9. Pathways and Bioenergetics of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Alfons J M; Sousa, Diana Z

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO-rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis, and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  10. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn eDiender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  11. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  12. Dipolar dissociation dynamics in electron collisions with carbon monoxide

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Dipayan; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2016-01-01

    Dipolar dissociation processes in the electron collisions with carbon monoxide have been studied using time of flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy in combination with the highly differential velocity slice imaging (VSI) technique. Probing ion-pair states both positive and/or negative ions may be detected. The ion yield curve of negative ions provides the threshold energy for the ion-pair production. On the other hand, the kinetic energy distributions and angular distributions of the fragment anion provide detailed dynamics of the dipolar dissociation process. Two ion-pair states have been identified based on angular distribution measurements using VSI technique.

  13. Effects of carbon monoxide treatment before vacuum packaging on the physical parameters and consumer evaluations of raw beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna SAKOWSKA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined the color changes of packaged beef due to the effects of carbon monoxide exposure before vacuum packing and storage time, as well as consumers’ evaluations of that beef. In the experiment, 400 striploin steaks (M. longissimus dorsi were vacuum packed or after 48 hours of exposure to different concentrations of CO (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% vacuum packed. The color measurements and consumer evaluations were conducted after 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 days of storage in the dark at 2 ± 1 °C. Consumers evaluated the color, surface discoloration, attractiveness, and their willingness to buy the meat. The results showed that regardless of storage time, the color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C* were significantly higher for the steaks vacuum packed after exposure to carbon monoxide in comparison to those packaged in a vacuum without the use of CO. Based on the consumer evaluations, the most attractive steaks were those that had been exposed to 0.3% and 0.5% CO, which were characterized by bright red or cherry-red colors. Consumers did not accept the appearance of steaks packaged without the carbon monoxide pretreatment. Exposing meat to CO before packaging allows to obtain the attractive color of vacuum packed beef.

  14. Gold catalysts supported on nanosized iron oxide for low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Zhang, Weidong; Li, Yi; Huang, Zuming; Guo, Huishan; Wu, Feng; Li, Jinjun

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to optimize synthesis of gold catalyst supported on nanosized iron oxide and to evaluate the activity in oxidation of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. Nanosized iron oxide was prepared from a colloidal dispersion of hydrous iron oxide through a dispersion-precipitation method. Gold was adsorbed onto nanosized iron oxide under self-generated basic conditions. Characterization results indicate that the iron oxide consisted of hematite/maghemite composite with primary particle sizes of 6-8 nm. Gold was highly dispersed on the surface of the support. The catalysts showed good activity in the oxidation of airborne carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. The optimal pH for their synthesis was ∼7. The catalytic performance could be enhanced by extending the adsorption time of gold species on the support within 21 h. The optimized catalyst was capable of achieving complete oxidation of 1% carbon monoxide at -20 °C and 33% conversion of 450 ppm formaldehyde at ambient temperature. The catalyst may be applicable to indoor air purification.

  15. Transient kinetic modeling of the ethylene and carbon monoxide oxidation over a commercial automotive exhaust gas catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmsen, J.M.A.; Hoebink, J.H.B.J.; Schouten, J.C.

    2000-03-01

    The transient kinetics of ethylene oxidation by oxygen over a commercial Pt/Rh/CeO{sub 2}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} three-way catalyst were modeled. Experiments were carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor with two separate inlets, enabling alternate feeding of ethylene and oxygen with frequencies up to {1/4} Hz. The experimental conditions resemble the cold-start period of an Otto engine in a car. Two types of adsorbed ethylene species seem to exist. A selective catalyst deactivation for oxygen adsorption, due to deposition of carbonaceous species, was found. A kinetic model was developed, based on elementary reaction steps, that allows one to describe the experiments quantitatively. Furthermore, this model was combined with the published model for transient carbon monoxide oxidation over the same catalyst, which enables one to predict the results of simultaneous ethylene and carbon monoxide oxidation. Both components react in rather distinct zones, with ethylene being converted only when carbon monoxide oxidation is almost complete.

  16. The impact of optimize solar radiation received on the levels and energy disposal of levels on architectural design result by using computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Davood; Farajzadeh Khosroshahi, Samaneh; Sadegh Falahat, Mohammad [Zanjan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: d_rezaei@znu.ac.ir, email: ronas_66@yahoo.com, email: Safalahat@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    In order to minimize the energy consumption of a building it is important to achieve optimum solar energy. The aim of this paper is to introduce the use of computer modeling in the early stages of design to optimize solar radiation received and energy disposal in an architectural design. Computer modeling was performed on 2 different projects located in Los Angeles, USA, using ECOTECT software. Changes were made to the designs following analysis of the modeling results and a subsequent analysis was carried out on the optimized designs. Results showed that the computer simulation allows the designer to set the analysis criteria and improve the energy performance of a building before it is constructed; moreover, it can be used for a wide range of optimization levels. This study pointed out that computer simulation should be performed in the design stage to optimize a building's energy performance.

  17. The conditions of forests in Italy. Results from the extensive surveys of Level I (1997-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussotti F

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The conditions of forests in Italy. Results from the extensive surveys of Level I (1997-2010. Monitoring of tree crown defoliation is carried out in Italy since the ’80, and in 1996 a comprehensive program of quality assurance has been implemented. Currently the monitoring network includes about 260 permanent plots and 7000 sample trees. The most representative tree species are: Fagus sylvatica (European beech, Quercus pubescens (downy oak, Quercus cerris (Turkey oak, Quercus ilex (holm oah, Castanea sativa (chestnut, Ostrya carpinifolia (hop hornbeam, Picea abies (spruce, Larix decidua (larch, Pinus nigra (black pine e Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine. These species represent the 80% of the whole sample, but only European beech is evenly distributed in Italy. The most important trends at national level concern the critical sanitary conditions of Castanea sativa and Quercus pubescens, as well as the high defoliation levels of Pinus sylvestris. The importance of this program in the context of climate change studies is discussed.

  18. Health status of cable splicers with low-level exposure to lead: results of a clinical survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbein, A. (Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York); Thornton, J.; Blumberg, W.E.

    1980-07-01

    The results of a cross-sectional clinical field survey of 90 telephone cable splicers are presented. Despite the rare occurrence of clinically overt lead poisoning among cable splicers, the observed prevalence of symptoms was 29% for lead-associated central nervous system symptoms and 21% for gastrointestinal symptoms. These two groups of symptoms were directly related to zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels but no relationship was found between them and blood lead concentrations. Only 5% of the workers had significantly elevated blood lead levels (> 40 ..mu..g/100 ml). Because of the intermittent lead exposure encountered in this trade, individuals were identified with normal blood lead levels associated with elevated zinc protoporphyrin concentrations, indicating the difference in biological significance between exposure-(blood lead) and biological-response tests (ZPP). Suggestion is made that both types of diagnostic tests be utilized in the medical surveillance of lead-exposed workers.

  19. Foraging rates of larval dragonfly colonists are positively related to habitat isolation: results from a landscape-level experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Shannon J; Brodin, Tomas; Hammond, John

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence of intraspecific variation in dispersal behavior. Individual differences in dispersal behavior may be correlated with other traits that determine the impact individuals have on patches they colonize. We established habitat patches-artificial pools-across a landscape, and these pools were naturally colonized by dragonfly larvae. Larvae were collected from pools at different levels of isolation and held under common lab conditions for 5 months. We then compared larval foraging rates. Foraging rate was positively related to habitat isolation, and colonists from the most isolated artificial pools had significantly higher foraging rates than individuals from the least isolated pools. Our results indicate that spatial patterns in colonist behavior can develop across a landscape independent of species-level dispersal limitation. This finding suggests that studies of community structure across space should include an assessment of the distribution of phenotypes as well as species-level dispersal limitation patterns.

  20. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, J.; Norcrosss, J. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Sanders, R. W.; Makowski, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Life support technology in large closed systems like submarines and space stations catalyzes carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. However, in a small system like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), spacesuit, CO from exogenous (contaminated oxygen (O (sub 2) supply) and endogenous (human metabolism) sources will accumulate in the free suit volume. The free volume becomes a sink for CO that is rebreathed by the astronaut. The accumulation through time depends on many variables: the amount absorbed by the astronaut, the amount produced by the astronaut (between 0.28 and 0.34 ?moles per hour per kilogram)[1], the amount that enters the suit from contaminated O (sub 2), the amount removed through suit leak, the free volume of the suit, and the O (sub 2) partial pressure[2], just to list a few. Contamination of the EMU O (sub 2) supply with no greater than 1 part per million CO was the motivation for empirical measurements from CO pulse oximetry (SpCO) as well as mathematical modeling of the EMU as a rebreather for CO. Methods: We developed a first-order differential mixing equation as well as an iterative method to compute CO accumulation in the EMU. Pre-post measurements of SpCO (Rad-57, Masimo Corporation) from EMU ground training and on-orbit extravehicular activities (EVAs) were collected. Results: Initial modeling without consideration of the astronaut as a sink but only the source of CO showed that after 8 hours breathing 100 percent O (sub 2) with a 10 milliliter per minute (760 millimeters Hg at 21 degrees Centigrade standard) suit leak, an endogenous production rate of 0.23 moles per hour per kilogram for a 70 kilogram person with 42 liters (1.5 cubic feet) free suit volume resulted in a peak CO partial pressure (pCO) of 0.047 millimeters Hg at 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (222 millimeters Hg). Preliminary results based on a 2008 model[3] with consideration of the astronaut as a sink and source of CO

  1. Field Lysimeter Investigations - test results: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program: Test results for fiscal years 1994-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rodgers, R.D.; Hilton, L.D.; Neilson, R.M. Jr. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is (1) studying the degradation effects in EPICOR-II organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (2) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified EPICOR-II resins, (3) obtaining performance information on solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (4) determining the condition of EPICOR-II liners. Results of the final 2 (10 total) years of data acquisition from operation of the field testing are presented and discussed. During the continuing field testing, both portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms are being tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experimental equipment is described and results of waste form characterization using tests recommended by the NRC`s {open_quotes}Technical Position on Waste Form{close_quotes} are presented. The study is designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over a 20-year period. At the end of the tenth year, the experiment was closed down. Examination of soil and waste forms is planned to be conducted next and will be reported later.

  2. Predicting Cardiotoxic Effects of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Using Speckle Tracking Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraçoğlu, Erhan; Vuruşkan, Ertan; Kılıç, Salih; Çekici, Yusuf; Onur, Bahaeddin; Arslan, Yavuz; Kılıç, Ertuğrul; Aykut, Ömer

    2017-10-06

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning could cause significant cardiac injury. This study aimed to evaluate patients with CO poisoning by using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), a potentially more sensitive technique, to identify left systolic ventricular dysfunction for the first time in the literature. Seventy-two patients who were exposed to CO poisoning were studied. Blood collection and echocardiography were performed at admission and after patients' discharge on days 10-15 (mean 12 days). Global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS) were calculated using STE. In order to find the normal strain levels and to compare it to the patient with CO poisoning, 35 healthy subjects were included in the study. Left ventricular ejection fraction was analyzed according to Simpson's method. Patients were divided into two groups based on their LVEF values. LVEF Speckle tracking echocardiography has the potential of demonstrating subtle LV systolic dysfunction even in CO poisoning patients with preserved EF.

  3. Evidence for significant photochemical production of carbon monoxide by particles in coastal and oligotrophic marine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huixiang; Zafiriou, Oliver C.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from particulate and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was determined in seawater from open-ocean and coastal areas. In confirmatory tests, poisoned or non-poisoned filtered and unfiltered blue-water samples, were exposed to sunlight. CO photoproduction was 21-42% higher in the unfiltered than in the filtered samples. In a more thorough study utilizing concentrated particles prepared by 0.2-μm cross-flow filtration, samples containing varying levels of particles were irradiated under simulated solar radiation. Their CO photoproduction rates increased linearly with particle concentration factor. Particulate CO production was 11-35% of CDOM-based CO production. On an absorbed-photons basis, the former was 30-108% more efficient than the latter. This study suggests that in both coastal and blue waters these new-found particulate photoprocesses are of similar biogeochemical importance to the well-known CDOM photoproduction term.

  4. Size-controlled synthesis of monodispersed gold nanoparticles via carbon monoxide gas reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewinski Nastassja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An in depth analysis of gold nanoparticle (AuNP synthesis and size tuning, utilizing carbon monoxide (CO gas as a reducing agent, is presented for the first time. The sizes of the AuNPs are tunable from ~4 to 100 nm by altering the concentration of HAuCl4 and inlet CO gas-injection flow rate. It is also found that speciation of aqueous HAuCl4, prior to reduction, influences the size, morphology, and properties of AuNPs when reduced with CO gas. Ensemble extinction spectra and TEM images provide clear evidence that CO reduction offers a high level of monodispersity with standard deviations as low as 3%. Upon synthesis, no excess reducing agent remains in solution eliminating the need for purification. The time necessary to synthesize AuNPs, using CO, is less than 2 min.

  5. Association between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Sleep Variables: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Constance Wiener

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disordered breathing as well as high serum uric acid levels are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, studies evaluating the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and hyperuricemia are limited. We examined the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination survey's sleep variables and high serum uric acid among 6491 participants aged ≥20 years. The sleep variables included sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. The main outcome was high serum uric acid level, defined as levels of serum uric acid >6.8 mg/dL in males and >6.0 mg/dL in females. We found that snoring more than 5 nights per week, daytime sleepiness, and an additive composite score of sleep variables were associated with high serum uric acid in the age- , sex-adjusted model and in a multivariable model adjusting for demographic and lifestyle/behavioral risk factors. The association was attenuated with the addition of variables related to clinical outcomes such as depression, diabetes, hypertension, and high-cholesterol levels. Our results indicate a positive relationship between sleep variables, including the presence of snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness, and high serum uric acid levels.

  6. CBs levels in deer tissue samples following an accidental release from a special waste treatment center : 2003 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, A.; Zhang, W.; Gabos, S.; Schopflocher, D.; Robb, J. [Alberta Health and Wellness, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Health Surveillance; Ikonomou, M. [Inst. of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    High levels of dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) were observed in deer and mouse tissues examined after an accidental release of PCDD/F contaminants in the Swan Hills area of Alberta. This paper provided details of follow-up sampling conducted to assess changes in CB concentrations of whitetail deer and mule deer in the region. Field collection was carried out in December 2002 and February 2003. Representative muscle, liver and fat samples were taken from each deer. Four aliquots from each sample were collected by carbon-fibre fractionation. All possible 209 CB congeners were measured with minimum isomeric interference. Fractions were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Concentrations of identified compounds were calculated using mean relative response factors determined from calibration standard runs. Results showed that 55 of 209 CB congeners were not detected in the fat samples. The mean level of CB homologues in the 2003 study was 39 ng/g for the lipid basis in the muscle, 92 ng/g in the liver, and 20.5 ng/g in the fat. Di-ortho CBs constituted 72 per cent to 74 per cent of CBs for the samples. Concentration levels of SCBs were lower than studies conducted in previous years. It was concluded that overall levels of SCBs and SCBs TEQ in the liver and muscle samples in 2003 significantly declined when compared with levels observed in 1997, 1999, and 2001. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of the Level TROLL 100 manufactured by In-Situ Inc.: results of pressure and temperature tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnley, Mark V.; Fulford, Janice M.; Brooks, Myron H.

    2013-01-01

    The Level TROLL 100 manufactured by In-Situ Inc. was evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) for conformance to the manufacturer’s accuracy specifications for measuring pressure throughout the device’s operating temperature range. The Level TROLL 100 is a submersible, sealed, water-level sensing device with an operating pressure range equivalent to 0 to 30 feet of water over a temperature range of −20 to 50 degrees Celsius (°C). The device met the manufacturer’s stated accuracy specifications for pressure within its temperature-compensated operating range of 0 to 50 °C. The device’s accuracy specifications did not meet established USGS requirements for primary water-stage sensors used in the operation of streamgages, but the Level TROLL 100 may be suitable for other hydrologic data-collection applications. As a note, the Level TROLL 100 is not designed to meet USGS accuracy requirements. Manufacturer accuracy specifications were evaluated, and the procedures followed and the results obtained are described in this report. USGS accuracy requirements are routinely examined and reported when instruments are evaluated at the HIF.

  8. Researchers' choice of the number and range of levels in experiments affects the resultant variance-accounted-for effect size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kensuke; Hoshino, Takahiro

    2016-08-08

    In psychology, the reporting of variance-accounted-for effect size indices has been recommended and widely accepted through the movement away from null hypothesis significance testing. However, most researchers have paid insufficient attention to the fact that effect sizes depend on the choice of the number of levels and their ranges in experiments. Moreover, the functional form of how and how much this choice affects the resultant effect size has not thus far been studied. We show that the relationship between the population effect size and number and range of levels is given as an explicit function under reasonable assumptions. Counterintuitively, it is found that researchers may affect the resultant effect size to be either double or half simply by suitably choosing the number of levels and their ranges. Through a simulation study, we confirm that this relation also applies to sample effect size indices in much the same way. Therefore, the variance-accounted-for effect size would be substantially affected by the basic research design such as the number of levels. Simple cross-study comparisons and a meta-analysis of variance-accounted-for effect sizes would generally be irrational unless differences in research designs are explicitly considered.

  9. Relationship between Serum Levels of Metalloproteinase-8 and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 and Exercise Test Results in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mieczkowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity as a part of the lifestyle is a significant factor influencing health condition. Exercises that require stamina are of particular importance. Oxygen metabolism, which is a significant part of all longer training processes, has an influence on cardiovascular and respiratory system functioning as well as all the processes taking part in maintenance of efficient homeostasis. Presentation of the correlation between exercise test results and MMP-8 (metalloproteinase-8 and TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 levels was attempted in this work. MMP-8 is a proteolytic enzyme taking part in progression of diseases related to process of ageing. 62 healthy women in postmenopausal period were qualified for the study (mean age: 54±3.6. There was exercise test on the treadmill according to Bruce’s protocol performed. MMP-8 and TIMP-1 serum levels were measured. There was statistically important correlation between increased level of MMP-8 and increased level of TIMP-1 with lower results of exercise test observed. The conducted study provides further biochemical arguments for prophylactic role of physical activity, which lowers the risk of noninfectious diseases, typical for middle adulthood, by influencing physical capacity.

  10. Carbon monoxide inhibits proliferation of pulmonary smooth muscle cells under hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄国华; 张珍祥; 薛峥; 徐永健

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of inducible heme oxygenase (HO-1) gene in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) exposed to hypoxia, and the influence of carbon monoxide (CO) on the proliferation of PASMCs under hypoxic conditions.Methods Primary culture of rat PASMCs were passed every 3 days, and the 3-5 passages were used. After exposure to hypoxic conditions (95% N2, 5% CO2) 0, 12, 24 and 48 hours, the level of HO-1 mRNA was examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The volume of COHb in the medium was measured spectrophotometrically. The cyclic guanosine mono-phosphate (cGMP) concentration of cell extracts was determined by radioimmunoassay. PASMCs were divided into 5 groups, cultured under normoxia and hypoxia and treated with hemin, hemoglobin (Hb) and exogenous CO respectively. Then 3-(4, 5-cimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay and immunocytochemical staining were used to study the energy metabolism and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in PASMCs. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle of PASMCs.Results After exposure to hypoxic conditions for 12, 24, and 48 hours, the HO-1 mRNA increased by 2.7%, 5.7% and 27.1% respectively (P<0.01). The carboxy-hemoglobin (COHb) in the medium increased by 13.8%, 31.0% and 93.1% (P<0.01); the cGMP concentrations were 2.7, 4.0 and 6.8-fold compared with the control group (P<0.01 and P<0.05). In comparison with the control group, the value of MTT colorimetric assay, the immunocytochemical staining of PCNA and the percentages of PASMCs in S and G2M phases in the hypoxic group were significantly higher (P<0.01). After treatment with Hemin and CO, the results of the above analysis decreased significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05), but increased significantly after treatment with Hb (P<0.01 and P<0.05).Conclusions The expression of HO-1 gene in PASMCs is upregulated by hypoxia and the production of endogenous CO

  11. Seasonal variation of bromine monoxide over the Rann of Kutch salt marsh seen from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörmann, Christoph; Beirle, Steffen; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Sihler, Holger; Platt, Ulrich; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Bromine monoxide (BrO) is an important catalyst in the depletion of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone (O3). In the troposphere, reactive bromine can be released from sea ice, volcanoes, sea-salt aerosol or salt lakes. For all of these natural sources enhanced BrO vertical column densities (VCDs) have been successfully observed from ground using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Until now, satellite observations were only reported for polar regions during springtime and volcanic emissions (mostly for major eruptions). We present the first satellite observations of enhanced monthly mean BrO VCDs over a salt marsh, the Rann of Kutch (India/Pakistan), during 2004-2014 as seen by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The Rann of Kutch is a so-called 'seasonal' salt marsh. During India's summer monsoon (June/July - September/October), the flat desert of salty clay and mudflats, which average 15 meters above sea level, fills with standing rain and sea water. With more than 7500 km2 it is the largest salt desert in the world and additionally one of the hottest areas of India with summer temperatures around 50 ° C and winter temperatures decreasing below 0 ° C. Probably due to these rather extreme conditions, the Rann of Kutch has not been yet investigated for atmospheric composition measurements by ground-based instruments. Satellite observations, however, provide the unique possibility to investigate the entire area remotely over a long-time period. The OMI data reveals recurring maximum BrO VCDs during April/May, but no enhanced column densities during the monsoon season while the area is flooded. In the following months the signal only recovers slowly while the salty surface dries up. We discuss the possible effects of temperature, precipitation and relative humidity on the release of enhanced reactive bromine concentrations. In order to investigate a possible diurnal cycle of the BrO concentration, the OMI results (at a local overflight time

  12. Kiel Canal: Past and future threats for shipping resulting from precipitation, wind surge and sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganske, Anette; Hüttl-Kabus, Sabine; Möller, Jens; Schade, Nils; Heinrich, Hartmut; Tinz, Birger

    2017-04-01

    The Kiel Canal is the most frequented artificial waterway in the world. It connects the North Sea and the Hamburg Harbor with the Baltic Sea and has a length of about 100 km. The Canal receives its water from the upper catchment of the river Eider. Discharge from the Canal towards the North Sea is via the sluices at Brunsbüttel (90%) into river Elbe and into the Baltic Sea via the sluices at Kiel-Holtenau. A risk of closure of the Canal occurs when high precipitation in the catchment meets high water levels in the river Elbe and/or the Baltic preventing the discharge of excess Canal water. Future sea level rise jointly with other effects such as possibly increasing wind surge and precipitation will close the gap between the inner and outer water levels, so that someday the outside levels will surmount the inner one. The German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI) tasked its internal Network of Experts to run a case study on the evolution of critical water levels in order to estimate risks and vulnerabilities for adaptation measures. First step of the investigation is a search for factors or combination of factors responsible for closures in the past. Candidates are factors such as higher water levels at low tides, high precipitation events on land, soil moisture and human factors like preventive water management measures. Second step will be the search for the natural criteria in climate projections. Here we report on the results of the first step of the case study with a focus on the exit towards the North Sea. There, discharge is possible only during low tide. Presently still sufficient difference in height exists between the levels in the Canal and the river Elbe allowing for a free flow of excess Canal water. Shipping is ceased when levels in the Canal surpass safety limits due to high precipitation events in the catchment jointly with high outer water levels. We used atmospheric data from ERA-Interim reanalysis instead of gauge data

  13. Male 11-ketotestosterone levels change as a result of being watched in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzieweczynski, Teresa L; Eklund, Amy C; Rowland, William J

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of nesting status and the presence of an audience on 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) levels in male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Prior studies have demonstrated that both nesting status, an indicator of territory-holding power and reproductive state, and the sex of a conspecific audience lead to differences in male behavior during aggressive encounters. Since behavioral changes have already been demonstrated, we chose to investigate whether 11KT levels were also influenced by nesting status and audience presence as 11KT both stimulates, and is stimulated by, reproductive and aggressive behaviors in male teleosts. Male 11KT levels were measured from water samples taken from containers holding fish both before and after interaction. Males interacted under three treatment conditions: no audience, female audience, and male audience. Within these treatments were two nest paradigms: both males had nests or neither male had a nest. 11KT levels varied depending on nesting status and audience type. In general, 11KT levels were lower in interacting males when a female audience was present or when males had nests. Overall, 11KT showed increases or decreases as aggression increased or decreased, as shown by already established behavioral findings [see Dzieweczynski T.L., Green T.M., Earley R.L., Rowland W.J., 2005. Audience effect is context dependent in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Behav. Ecol. 16, 1025-1030; Doutrelant, C., McGregor, P.K., Oliveira, R.F., 2001. Effect of an audience on intrasexual communication in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Behav. Ecol. 12, 283-286.]. Our results suggest that 11KT levels are influenced by reproductive status, as indicated by nest ownership, and audience presence and are most likely modulated by territorial behavior and social environment.

  14. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrogen. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquids. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  15. The electric dipole moment of cobalt monoxide, CoO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiujuan; Steimle, Timothy C

    2014-03-28

    A number of low-rotational lines of the E(4)Δ7/2 ← X(4)Δ7/2 (1,0) band system of cobalt monoxide, CoO, were recorded field free and in the presence of a static electric field. The magnetic hyperfine parameter, h7/2, and the electron quadrupole parameter, eQq0, for the E(4)Δ7/2(υ = 1) state were optimized from the analysis of the field-free spectrum. The permanent electric dipole moment, μ(→)(el), for the X(4)Δ7/2 (υ = 0) and E(4)Δ7/2 (υ = 1) states were determined to be 4.18 ± 0.05 D and 3.28 ± 0.05 D, respectively, from the analysis of the observed Stark spectra of F' = 7 ← F″ = 6 branch feature in the Q(7/2) line and the F' = 8 ← F″ = 7 branch feature in the R(7/2) line. The measured dipole moments of CoO are compared to those from theoretical predictions and the trend across the 3d-metal monoxide series discussed.

  16. Carbon Monoxide Emissions in Middle Aged Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Morgan; Gorti, Uma; Hales, Antonio; Carpenter, John M.; Hughes, A. Meredith

    2017-01-01

    Circumstellar disks greater than 10 Myr old, referred to as debris disks, are expected to be gas poor. The original gas and dust in these disks is thought to be accreted onto the host stars, used up in the formation of planets and other bodies, or blown out of the disks via stellar radiation. However, recent ALMA observations at millimeter wavelengths have led to the detection of carbon monoxide (J=2-1) emission in a few debris disks, prompting further investigation.Using ALMA data, two separate models of gas genesis were tested against observations of the CO emissions in the disks around HIP 73145, HIP 76310, and HIP 84881 in the Upper Sco association. One of these models was built on the hypothesis that the gas in these debris disks is left over from stellar formation and has persisted over uncommonly long periods of time. The other model is built on the hypothesis that this gas is of secondary nature, produced by collisions between planetary bodies in the debris disks. Model emissions were calculated using the Line Modeling Engine (LIME) radiative transfer code and were compared with observational data to infer gas masses under both production scenarios. The implications of the masses of carbon monoxide in the disks suggested by each of the two models are discussed.

  17. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The...

  18. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Electroacupuncture Modulates Reproductive Hormone Levels in Patients with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Results from a Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehua Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA on serum FSH, E2, and LH levels, women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI were treated with EA once a day, five times a week for the first four weeks and once every other day, three times a week, for the following two months, and then were followed up for three months. Serum E2, FSH, and LH levels were measured at baseline, at the end of treatment, and during followup. A total of 11 women with POI were included in this prospective consecutive case series study. Compared with baseline, patients’ serum E2 increased, FSH decreased, and LH decreased (P=0.002, 0.001, and 0.002, resp. after EA treatment, and these effects persisted during followup. With treatment, 10 patients resumed menstruation (10/11, 90.91%, whereas one patient remained amenorrhea. During followup, two patients, including the one with amenorrhea during treatment, reported absence of menstruation. Temporary pain occurred occasionally, and no other adverse events were found during treatment. The results suggest that EA could decrease serum FSH and LH levels and increase serum E2 level in women with POI with little or no side effects; however, further randomized control trials are needed.

  20. Anti-CCP Antibody Levels Are Not Associated with MS: Results from a Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Alpayci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrullinated proteins have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS. Anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP antibody is used in the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of anti-CCP antibody in patients with MS compared to RA patients and healthy controls. Fifty patients with MS (38 females, 12 males; mean age 36.72 ± 8.82 years, 52 patients with RA (40 females, 12 males; mean age 40.87 ± 10.17 years, and 50 healthy controls (32 females, 18 males; mean age 38.22 ± 11.59 years were included in this study. The levels of serum anti-CCP antibody were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The results of the study showed that anti-CCP antibody levels were significantly higher in RA patients versus MS or healthy controls (P<0.001. Moreover, anti-CCP antibody was positive in 43 (83% patients with RA, while it was negative in all MS patients as well as in all healthy controls. Also, no significant correlation was found between the anti-CCP levels and EDSS scores (r=-0.250. In conclusion, the results of this study did not support a positive association between serum anti-CCP antibody and MS.

  1. Reduced levels of folate transporters (PCFT and RFC) in membrane lipid rafts result in colonic folate malabsorption in chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Nissar Ahmad; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2011-03-01

    We studied the effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on folate transport across the colonic apical membranes (CAM) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed 1 g/kg body weight/day ethanol (20%) solution orally for 3 months and folate transport was studied in the isolated colon apical membrane vesicles. The folate transport was found to be carrier mediated, saturable, with pH optima at 5.0. Chronic ethanol ingestion reduced the folate transport across the CAM by decreasing the affinity of transporters (high Km) for the substrate and by decreasing the number of transporter molecules (low Vmax) on the colon luminal surface. The decreased transport activity at the CAM was associated with down-regulation of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) and the reduced folate carrier (RFC) which resulted in decreased PCFT and RFC protein levels in the colon of rats fed alcohol chronically. Moreover, the PCFT and the RFC were found to be distributed in detergent insoluble fraction of the CAM in rats. Floatation experiments on Optiprep density gradients demonstrated the association of the PCFT and the RFC protein with lipid rafts (LR). Chronic alcoholism decreased the PCFT and the RFC protein levels in the CAM LR in accordance with the decreased synthesis. Hence, we propose that downregulation in the expression of the PCFT and the RFC in colon results in reduced levels of these transporters in colon apical membrane LR as a mechanism of folate malabsorption during chronic alcoholism.

  2. Protection of carbon monoxide intraperitoneal administration from rat intestine injury induced by lipopolysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shao-hua; MA Ke; XU Bing; XU Xin-rong

    2010-01-01

    Background Treatment with inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) has been shown to ameliorate intestinal injury in experimental animals induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or ischemia-reperfusion. We hypothesized that CO intraperitoneal administration (i.p.) might provide similar protection to inhaled gas. This study aimed to investigate the effects of continuous 2 L/min of 250 ppm CO i.p. on rat intestine injury induced by LPS and to try to develop a more practical means of delivering the gas.Methods A total of 72 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control group, CO i.p. group, LPS group and LPS+CO i.p. group. One hour after intravenously received 5 mg/kg LPS, the rats in LPS group and LPS+CO i.p. group were exposed to room air and 2 L/min of 250 ppm CO i.p., respectively, and the rats of control group and CO i.p. group intravenously received an equal volume of 0.9% NaClI and 1 hour later, were exposed to room air and 2 L/min of 250 ppm CO i.p., respectively. One, 3 and 6 hour of each group after treated with room air or CO i.p., the animals (n=6 for each time point) were sacrificed and intestinal tissues were collected for determinating the levels of platelet activator factor (PAF) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) with enzyme-lined immunosorbent assays. The maleic dialdehyde (MDA) content and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were determined with a chemical method. The phosphorylated p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression was assayed with Western blotting and the cell apoptotic rate with flow cytometery. The arterial oxygenation was measured by blood gas analysis, and the pathology determined by light microscope.Results After treatment with 2 L/min of 250 ppm CO i.p., the increase of PAF, ICAM-1, MDA, MPO, and cell apoptotic rate induced by LPS was markedly reduced (P<0.05 or 0.01), and accompanied by ameliorating intestine injury. Western blotting showed that these effects of CO i.p. were mediated by p38 MAPK

  3. Theoretical study on the gas-phase reaction mechanism between palladium monoxide and methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua-Qing; Hu, Chang-Wei; Gao, Chao; Yang, Meng-Yao; Li, Fang-Ming; Li, Cai-Qin; Li, Xiang-Yuan

    2011-12-01

    The gas-phase reaction mechanism between palladium monoxide and methane has been theoretically investigated on the singlet and triplet state potential energy surfaces (PESs) at the CCSD(T)/AVTZ//B3LYP/6-311+G(2d, 2p), SDD level. The major reaction channel leads to the products PdCH(2) + H(2)O, whereas the minor channel results in the products Pd + CH(3)OH, CH(2)OPd + H(2), and PdOH + CH(3). The minimum energy reaction pathway for the formation of main products (PdCH(2) + H(2)O), involving one spin inversion, prefers to start at the triplet state PES and afterward proceed along the singlet state PES, where both CH(3)PdOH and CH(3)Pd(O)H are the critical intermediates. Furthermore, the rate-determining step is RS-CH(3) PdOH → RS-2-TS1cb → RS-CH(2)Pd(H)OH with the rate constant of k = 1.48 × 10(12) exp(-93,930/RT). For the first C-H bond cleavage, both the activation strain ΔE(≠)(strain) and the stabilizing interaction ΔE(≠)(int) affect the activation energy ΔE(≠), with ΔE(≠)(int) in favor of the direct oxidative insertion. On the other hand, in the PdCH(2) + H(2) O reaction, the main products are Pd + CH(3)OH, and CH(3)PdOH is the energetically preferred intermediate. In the CH(2)OPd + H(2) reaction, the main products are Pd + CH(3)OH with the energetically preferred intermediate H(2)PdOCH(2). In the Pd + CH(3)OH reaction, the main products are CH(2)OPd + H(2), and H(2)PdOCH(2) is the energetically predominant intermediate. The intermediates, PdCH(2), H(2) PdCO, and t-HPdCHO are energetically preferred in the PdC + H(2), PdCO + H(2), and H(2)Pd + CO reactions, respectively. Besides, PdO toward methane activation exhibits higher reaction efficiency than the atom Pd and its first-row congener NiO.

  4. Carbon Monoxide and Heme Oxygenase-1 Prevent Intestinal Inflammation in Mice by Promoting Bacterial Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyiah, Joseph C.; Sheikh, Shehzad Z.; Maharshak, Nitsan; Steinbach, Erin C.; Russo, Steven M.; Kobayashi, Taku; Mackey, Lantz C.; Hansen, Jonathan J.; Moeser, Adam J.; Rawls, John F.; Borst, Luke B.; Otterbein, Leo E.; Plevy, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and its metabolic by-product, carbon monoxide (CO), protect against intestinal inflammation in experimental models of colitis, but little is known about their intestinal immune mechanisms. We investigated the interactions among CO, HO-1, and the enteric microbiota in mice and zebrafish. METHODS Germ-free, wild-type, and Il10−/− mice and germ free zebrafish embryos were colonized with pathogen-free (SPF). Germ-free or SPF-raised wild-type and Il10−/− mice were given intraperitoneal injections of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), which upregulates HO-1, the CO releasing molecule ALF186, or saline (control). Colitis was induced in wild-type mice housed in SPF conditions by infection with S. typhimurium. RESULTS In colons of germ-free, wild-type mice, SPF microbiota induced production of HO-1 via activation of Nrf2–, IL-10–, and toll-like receptor–dependent pathways; similar observations were made in zebrafish. SPF microbiota did not induce HO-1 in colons of germ-free Il10−/− mice. Administration of CoPP to Il10−/− mice before transition from germ-free to SPF conditions reduced their development of colitis. In Il10−/− mice, CO and CoPP reduced levels of enteric bacterial genomic DNA in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). In mice with S. typhimurium-induced enterocolitis, CoPP reduced the numbers of live S. typhimurium recovered from the lamina propria, MLN, spleen, and liver. Knockdown of HO-1 in mouse macrophages impaired their bactericidal activity against E. coli, E. faecalis, and S. typhimurium, whereas exposure to CO or overexpression of HO-1 increased their bactericidal activity. HO-1 induction and CO increased acidification of phagolysosomes. CONCLUSIONS Colonic HO-1 prevents colonic inflammation in mice. HO-1 is induced by the enteric microbiota and its homeostatic function is mediated, in part, by promoting bactericidal activities of macrophages. PMID:23266559

  5. Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2012-08-01

    We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale.

  6. Carbon monoxide: An old poison with a new way of poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsiu Chou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale.

  7. Significance of pregnancy test false negative results due to elevated levels of β-core fragment hCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Eapen, Saji; Smith, Peter; Warren, Graham; Zinaman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Very high levels of β-core fragment human chorionic gonadotrophin (βcf-hCG) are reported to potentially cause false negative results in point-of-care (POC)/over-the-counter (OTC) pregnancy tests. To investigate this further, women's daily early morning urine samples, collected prior to conception and during pregnancy, were analysed for intact, free β-, and βcf-hCG. The proportion of βcf-hCG was found to be related to that of hCG produced and in circulation. Therefore, best practice for accuracy testing of POC/OTC pregnancy tests would be to test devices against clinical samples containing high levels of βcf-hCG as well as standards spiked with biologically relevant ratios.

  8. Preliminary Results on Simulations of Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) detected by The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez Rivera, O.; Lara, A.

    2014-12-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC) is currently under construction at the Sierra Negra Volcano, Puebla in Mexico. Located 4100 m above sea level, this large array is mainly designed to observe high energy gamma rays (TeV). However, by recording scaler data that correspond to the rates of individual photomultiplier tubes, the detection and study of solar energetic particles (known as Ground Level Enhancements) as well as the decrease of the cosmic ray flux due to solar transients (known as Forbush decreases) will also be possible. In order to determine the response of the array to solar transients, we have performed simulations of the scaler output using different sub-array configurations. We present here our preliminary results of such simulations and their comparison with observed Forbush decreases.

  9. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  10. Interactive web visualization tools to the results interpretation of a seismic risk study aimed at the emergency levels definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Medina, A.; Gutierrez, V.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Benito, B.

    2009-04-01

    municipalities according to the expected actuation level and eventually, to alert levels. In this regard, the visualization tool constitutes an intuitive and useful tool that the end-user of the risk study may use to optimize and guide its application on emergency planning. The use of this type of tools can be adapted to other scenarios with different boundary conditions (seismicity level, vulnerability distribution) and user profiles (policy makers, stakeholders, students, general public) maintaining the same final goal: to improve the adaptation of the results of a scientific-technical work to the needs of other users with different backgrounds.

  11. Results of practical application of questionnaire to determine the level of dentophobia and dynamics in the doctor— patient relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savina Е.А.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to develop a questionnaire for assessing the level of dentophobia and dynamics of the relationship in the «doctor-patient» in the course of treatment and to conduct its clinical trials. Material and Methods. 90 patients aged 26-56 years with chronic generalized periodontitis have been examined. The research has been conducted by Hospital Anxiety and depression (HADS questionnaire to determine the level of dentophobia; psychophysiological testing was carried out on the hardware-software complex (APC «NS-Psychotest» (LLC «Neurosoft», Russia, Ivanovo, 2007. Clinical examination included examination of the mouth and the index of assessment of hard tissue of teeth and peri-odontal tissue: a defining simplified oral hygiene index (UIG, sulcus bleeding index (IR, gingival index (PMA. The survey was carried out before the treatment and 3 months after the treatment. Statistical analysis was performed in the program Statistica. Using non-parametric methods (Wilcoxon test, criterion A2, Spearman correlation coefficient. Statistically significant differences with p < 0,05 were considered. Results. The development of the questionnaire was carried out in accordance with all generally accepted standards. The initial testing was performed easily by patients. During the clinical trials visible results of the proposed questionnaire were obtained that proved its sensitivity to the changes in dental and psychological status of the oral cavity. Conclusion. The practical application of the questionnaire determines the level of dentophobia during the first visit. The data of the questionnaire identify the differentiated deontological approach. It improves the relationship with the patient, reduces his level of dentophobia. The reduced dentophobia promotes compliance and psychologically comfortable communication in the doctor-patient system, which also contributes to the prevention of emotional burn out among dentists.

  12. Decision-Making Processes among Prostate Cancer Survivors with Rising PSA Levels: Results from a Qualitative Analysis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Megan Johnson; Nelson, Christian J.; Peters, Ellen; Slovin, Susan F.; Hall, Simon J.; Hall, Matt; Herrera, Phapichaya Chaoprang; Leventhal, Elaine A.; Leventhal, Howard; Diefenbach, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer survivors with a rising prostate specific antigen (PSA) level have few treatment options, experience a heightened state of uncertainty about their disease trajectory that might include the possibility of cancer metastasis and death, and often experience elevated levels of distress as they have to deal with a disease they thought they had conquered. Guided by self-regulation theory, the present study examined the cognitive and affective processes involved in shared decision making between physician and patients who experience a rising PSA after definitive treatment for prostate cancer. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 34 prostate cancer survivors who had been diagnosed with a rising PSA (i.e., biochemical failure) within the past 12 months. Survivors were asked about their experiences and affective responses after being diagnosed with a rising PSA and while weighing potential treatment options. In addition, patients were asked about their decision-making process for the initial prostate cancer treatment. Results Compared to the initial diagnosis, survivors with a rising PSA reported increased negative affect following their diagnosis, concern about the treatability of their disease, increased planning and health behavior change, heightened levels of worry preceding doctor’s appointments (especially prior to the discussion of PSA testing results), and a strong reliance on physicians’ treatment recommendations. Conclusions Prostate cancer survivors’ decision-making processes for the treatment of a rising PSA are markedly different from those of the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer. Because patients experience heightened distress and rely more heavily on their physicians’ recommendations with a rising PSA, interactions with the health care provider provide an excellent opportunity to address and assist patients with managing the uncertainty and distress inherent with rising PSA levels. PMID:25385751

  13. Arctic chlorine monoxide observations during spring 1993 over Thule, Greenland, and implications for ozone depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D. T.; Reeves, J. M.; Emmons, L. K.; De Zafra, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    We have determined the vertical distribution of chlorine monoxide (ClO), from measurements of pressure-broadened molecular-emission spectra made over Thule, Greenland, during the 1993 Arctic spring. The measurements show a weak lower stratospheric layer of chlorine monoxide inside the vortex in late February, which was, however, significantly greater in mixing ratio than that seen in observations we made in the spring of 1992. ClO was also observed in much smaller quantities in early to mid-March 1993 when Thule was outside the vortex. The amount of ClO within the vortex was severely reduced by the time it returned over Thule in late March. This reduction occurred several weeks earlier relative to the winter solstice than the decline of ClO inside the Antarctic vortex in 1993. The enhanced Arctic lower stratospheric layer seen in late February 1993 at a nearly equivalent photochemical period, and beyond. We have calculated daily ozone loss rates, due primarily to the dimer chlorine catalytic cycle, from both sets of measurements. The vertical integral of the Arctic daily percentage ozone loss when the largest ClO levels were present, at the end of February, is found to be approximately one quarter of that in the Antarctic at a photochemical period only 1 week later. The relative weakness of daily ozone depletion, combined with the early disappearance of ClO in the Arctic, suggests that hemispheric dilution by ozone-poor air from within the Arctic vortex is unlikely to be sufficient to explain the historically extreme loss of midlatitude northern hemisphere ozone which began in 1992 and persisted throughout 1993.

  14. Arctic chlorine monoxide observations during spring 1993 over Thule, Greenland, and implications for ozone depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D. T.; Reeves, J. M.; Emmons, L. K.; de Zafra, R. L.

    1994-12-01

    We have determined the vertical distribution of chlorine monoxide (ClO), from measurements of pressure-broadened molecular-emission spectra made over Thule, Greenland, during the 1993 Arctic spring. The measurements show a weak lower stratospheric layer of chlorine monoxide inside the vortex in late February, which was, however, significantly greater in mixing ratio than that seen in observations we made in the spring of 1992. ClO was also observed in much smaller quantities in early to mid-March 1993 when Thule was outside the vortex. The amount of ClO within the vortex was severely reduced by the time it returned over Thule in late March. This reduction occurred several weeks earlier relative to the winter solstice than the decline of ClO inside the Antarctic vortex in 1993. The enhanced Arctic lower stratospheric layer seen in late February 1993 had a peak mixing ratio of about 0.5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), slightly less than a factor of 3 smaller than that observed in the Antarctic in 1993 at a nearly equivalent photochemical period, and beyond. We have calculated daily ozone loss rates, due primarily to the dimer chlorine catalytic cycle, from both sets of measurements. The vertical integral of the Arctic daily percentage ozone loss when the largest ClO levels were present, at the end of February, is found to be approximately one quarter of that in the Antarctic at a photochemical period only 1 week later. The relative weakness of daily ozone depletion, combined with the early disappearance of ClO in the Arctic, suggests that hemispheric dilution by ozone-poor air from within the Arctic vortex is unlikely to be sufficient to explain the historically extreme loss of midlatitude northern hemisphere ozone which began in 1992 and persisted throughout 1993.

  15. Electrocardiographic Findings and Serum Troponin I in Carbon Monoxide Poisoned Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Reza Jafarian Kerman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning, though with different sources, is one of the most deadly emergencies in all countries. CO can threaten men's life by several paths especially cardiac complications, which can mimic other cardiac problems such as myocardial infarction. The objective of this study was to determine ECG findings and serum troponin I levels in CO poisoned patients. In this analytical cross-sectional study, 63 CO poisoning patients were consecutively included from hospital's emergency departments. CO content was measured by a CO-oximeter and an electrocardiography was taken first thing on admission. Arterial blood gas (ABG, troponin I and other data was collected afterwards. Data were divided by age groups (adults and children and gender. CO content was significantly higher only in subjects with normal T wave compared to patients with inverted T wave in their initial ECG (P=0.016. No other significant difference was noticed. None of the ABG findings correlated significantly with CO content. Also no significant correlation was found with CO content after stratification by gender and age groups, but pH in children (r=-0.484, P=0.026. CO content was significantly higher in adults (P=0.023, but other ABG data were not significantly different. Only 3 patients had elevated troponin I. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis showed no significant cutoff points in CO content for ECG changes. No significant specific change in electrocardiograms (ECG could contribute carboxyhemoglobin content in carbon monoxide poisoned patients. In addition, no specific difference was found between adults and pediatric subjects' ECGs. All other findings seemed to be accidental.

  16. Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase inhibition results in unique perturbation-specific effects observed on transcript, protein and metabolite levels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Becker, JVW

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available :235 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/235 Open AccessR E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Research articlePlasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase inhibition results in unique perturbation-specific effects observed on transcript, protein... and metabolite levels John VW Becker†1, Linda Mtwisha†1, Bridget G Crampton1, Stoyan Stoychev1, Anna C van Brummelen1, Shaun Reeksting2, Abraham I Louw2, Lyn-Marie Birkholtz2 and Dalu T Mancama*1 Abstract Background: Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent...

  17. Work related Changes And New Understandings Of Prevention: Results Of Multi-Level Participatory Interventions In Four SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Poulsen, Signe; Gish, Liv

    2014-01-01

    be addressed and how prevention of work-related stress can be understood. In addition to supporting a new understanding of prevention, the use of the model also results in concrete changes which become solutions to the work-place’s current and specific problems. The use of the PoWRS model thus enables an SME...... development of organizational level changes. By employing the model the companies became capable of developing new work practices in a multi-level participatory process using local in-house resources as facilitators. The PoWRS model was developed as part of the research project:”Productivity and Well......-being”. The aim of the research project was to develop and test a multi-level participatory intervention model which could be applied by SMEs which are often characterized by their lack of resources such as not having access to HR-resources to facilitate change processes. The PoWRS model targets the work (primary...

  18. The analysis and countermeasures of intravenous infusion operation assessment results analysis in nursing students at different levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-rong ZHAO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To analyze the problems existed in nursing students at different levels in the process of intravenous infusion, to make judgmental guide towards common problems in clinical teaching, to standardize nursing students’ operations at intravenous infusion, and to avoid errors and disputes. Methods: The authors analyzed the problems in secondary, tertiary, undergraduate nursing students in three levels at a provincial hospital from 2010 to 2012 during intravenous infusion therapy; and the clinical teaching administration means were also discussed. Results: the difference of the problems existed in nursing students at different levels is not significant. P values were greater than 0.05. The top five projects that lost scores are consistent. Conclusion: The key problems that can easily cause errors and disputes are those that mostly occurred in nursing students at intravenous infusion operations. In clinical teaching, judgmental guide on common problems should be emphasized, nursing students’ operations at intravenous infusion should be standardized, the critical awareness towards clinical operations should be developed, errors and disputes should be avoided, and nursing students’ sense of professionalism should be enhanced.

  19. Line Shapes and Intensities of Carbon Monoxide Transitions in the (3→0) and (4→1) Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Zachary; Polyansky, Oleg; Hodges, Joseph T.

    2017-06-01

    We have measured several carbon monoxide transitions in the (3→0) and (4→1) band using frequency stabilized cavity ringdown spectroscopy (FS-CRDS). The measured transitions are compared to the line strength values in HITRAN 2012 [1], those determined by Wojtewitz et al [2], and to theoretical calculations. The cavity length is actively locked to an iodine stabilized HeNe laser, providing long term frequency stability of 10 kHz and is linked to a self-referenced, octave-spanning frequency comb. The temperature of the optical cavity is actively regulated at the mK level, and the pressure measurements are SI-traceable. The sample is a NIST calibrated reference mixture of 11.98575(95)% CO in N_{2}. The absorption spectra are modeled using the Hartmann-Tran profile (HTP). The SNR in these spectra may exceed 10,000:1, which necessitates including the effects of speed dependence, collisional narrowing, and correlation between velocity-changing and dephasing collisions. The relative uncertainties of the line strengths calculated in this study are better than 0.1%. There are systematic differences on the 1% level for ^{12}CO against both HITRAN [1] and the previous work by Wojtewitz et al [2]. The measurement uncertainties are nearly an order of magnitude lower than previous results. Additionally, the relative uncertainties in the integrated areas of selected ^{12}CO and ^{13}CO transitions are less than 0.006% and 0.02%, respectively, providing an excellent test case for determination of isotope ratios by direct use of theoretical line intensity calculations. [1] Wojtewicz, S., et al., J Quant Spect and Rad Trans,2013. 130: p.191-200. [2]Rothman, L.S., et al., Journal of Quant Spect and Rad Trans, 2013. 130: p. 4-50.

  20. Autogenic incision and terrace formation resulting from abrupt late-glacial base-level fall, lower Chippewa River, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Douglas J.; Larson, Phillip H.; Jol, Harry M.; Running, Garry L.; Loope, Henry M.; Goble, Ronald J.

    2016-08-01

    A paucity of research exists regarding the millennial-scale response of inland alluvial streams to abrupt base-level fall. Studies of modern systems indicate that, over short time scales, the response is a diffusion-like process of upstream-propagating incision. In contrast, evidence from the lower Chippewa River (LCR), located in the upper Midwest of the USA, suggests that autogenic controls operating over time scales of several millennia can overwhelm diffusion, resulting in incision that is prolonged and episodic. During the Last Glacial Maximum, the LCR drained the Chippewa Lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet to the glacial upper Mississippi River (UMR). As a meltwater stream, it aggraded and filled its valley with glacial outwash, as did its largest tributaries, which were also meltwater streams. Its nonglacial tributaries aggraded, too, filling their valleys with locally derived sediment. During deglaciation, the UMR incised at least twice, abruptly lowering the LCR's base level - ~ 15 m at 16 ka or earlier and an additional 40 m at ca. 13.4 ka. Each of these base-level falls initiated incision of the LCR, led by upstream migrating knickpoints. The propagation of incision has, however, been a lengthy process. The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of terrace alluvium indicate that, by 13.5 ka, incision had advanced up the LCR only 15 km, and by 9 ka, only 55 km. The process has also been episodic, resulting in the formation of fill-cut terraces (inferred from GPR surveys and exposures of terrace alluvium) that are younger and more numerous in the upstream direction. Autogenic increases in sediment load and autogenic bed armoring, the result of periodic tributary-stream rejuvenation and preferential winnowing of fines by the incising river, may have periodically caused knickpoint migration and incision to slow and possibly stop, allowing lateral erosion and floodplain formation to dominate. A decline in sediment flux from stabilizing incised tributary

  1. First principles description of the insulator-metal transition in europium monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2012-02-01

    Europium monoxide, EuO, is a ferromagnetic insulator. Its electronic structure under pressure and doping is investigated by means of density functional theory. We employ spin polarized electronic structure calculations including onsite electron-electron interaction for the localized Eu 4f and 5d electrons. Our results show that under pressure the ferromagnetism is stable, both for hydrostatic and uniaxial pressure, while the compound undergoes an insulator-metal transition. The insulator-metal transition in O deficient and Gd doped EuO is reproduced for an impurity concentration of 6.25%. A 10 monolayer thick EuO(1 0 0) thin film is predicted to be an insulator with a narrow band gap of 0.08 eV. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Foucault, surveillance, and carbon monoxide testing within stop-smoking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Aimee; Ashton, Kathryn; Phillips, Rhiannon

    2015-07-01

    Health professionals have adopted proactive testing for early evidence of disease. Researchers have identified that this leads to enumerated understandings and shapes behavior in productive ways. Smoking-cessation advisors regularly test clients for carbon monoxide (CO), but client views of this had not previously been explored. We interviewed 23 clients of a United Kingdom-based stop-smoking service regarding their experiences of CO testing. The majority of participants were successful quitters. We used ATLAS.ti 7 as a data-management tool during structured qualitative analysis. Our findings reveal that clients believed the results of their CO tests. Many became enumerated in their understanding, and thus placed themselves in a hierarchy with other members of their group. Almost all clients found that knowing their CO test score was motivating. We conclude that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of CO testing among clients who do not quit.

  3. Carbon monoxide poisoning from hurricane-associated use of portable generators--Florida, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-22

    The four major hurricanes that struck Florida during August 13-September 25, 2004, produced electric power outages in several million homes. After the hurricanes, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) investigated six deaths in Florida attributed to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning (CPSC, unpublished data, 2004). The Florida Department of Health and CDC analyzed demographic and CO exposure data from these fatal poisoning cases and from nonfatal poisoning cases among 167 persons treated at 10 hospitals, including two with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) chambers. This report describes the results of that analysis, which determined that misplacement of portable, gasoline-powered generators (e.g., indoors, in garages, or outdoors near windows) was responsible for nearly all of these CO exposures. Public health practitioners should recognize that post-hurricane environments present challenges to the safe operation of portable generators and should educate the public on the hazards of CO poisoning in these settings.

  4. Electric impedance study of elastic alternating propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer (PCO-200)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Jawad, Saadi; Abu-Surrah, Adnan S.; Maghrabi, Mufeed; Khattari, Ziad

    2011-07-01

    The electrical properties of elastic alternating propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer (PCO-200) were investigated using the impedance spectroscopy technique. The results revealed a phase transition at about 70 °C where the material transforms from its insulating phase of conductivity in the order of 6×10-9 to about 9×10-5 (Ω m)-1, The second phase is characterized by temperature dependent electrical relaxation phenomena. The plot of the complex electric modulus and the complex impedance yields semicircles in the temperature range 70 up to 110 °C and a decreasing radius with increasing temperature. The activation energy was found to be in the order of 0.8 eV.

  5. Mapping Air Quality Index of Carbon Monoxide (CO) in Medan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryati, I.; Khair, H.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to map and analyze air quality index of carbon monoxide (CO) in Medan City. This research used 12 (twelve) sampling points around in Medan with an hour duration each point. CO concentration was analyzed using the NDIR CO Analyzer sampling tool. The concentration CO was obtained between 1 ppm - 23 ppm, with an average concentration was 9.5 ppm. This condition is still below the national ambient air quality standard set by Government Regulation of Indonesian Republic Number 41-1999 amounted to 29 ppm. The result of CO concentration measurements was converted into air pollutant standard index, obtained the index value of 58 - 204. Surfer 10 was used to create map of air pollutant standard index for CO. The map illustrates very unhealthy area where located in the Medan Belawan district. The main factors affecting the concentration of CO are from transportation and meteorological factors.

  6. A Density Functional Theory Study of Doped Tin Monoxide as a Transparent p-type Semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi Granato, Danilo

    2012-05-01

    In the pursuit of enhancing the electronic properties of transparent p-type semiconductors, this work uses density functional theory to study the effects of doping tin monoxide with nitrogen, antimony, yttrium and lanthanum. An overview of the theoretical concepts and a detailed description of the methods employed are given, including a discussion about the correction scheme for charged defects proposed by Freysoldt and others [Freysoldt 2009]. Analysis of the formation energies of the defects points out that nitrogen substitutes an oxygen atom and does not provide charge carriers. On the other hand, antimony, yttrium, and lanthanum substitute a tin atom and donate n-type carriers. Study of the band structure and density of states indicates that yttrium and lanthanum improves the hole mobility. Present results are in good agreement with available experimental works and help to improve the understanding on how to engineer transparent p-type materials with higher hole mobilities.

  7. Investigation of the Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensing Characteristics of Tin Oxide Mixed Cerium Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad B. Haider

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of tin oxide mixed cerium oxide were grown on unheated substrates by physical vapor deposition. The films were annealed in air at 500 °C for two hours, and were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and optical spectrophotometry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy results reveal that the films were highly porous and porosity of our films was found to be in the range of 11.6–21.7%. The films were investigated for the detection of carbon monoxide, and were found to be highly sensitive. We found that 430 °C was the optimum operating temperature for sensing CO gas at concentrations as low as 5 ppm. Our sensors exhibited fast response and recovery times of 26 s and 30 s, respectively.

  8. Dense Carbon Monoxide to 160 GPa: Stepwise Polymerization to Two-Dimensional Layered Solid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young-Jay; Kim, Minseob; Lim, Jinhyuk; Dias, Ranga; Klug, Dennis; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2016-11-14

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the first molecular system found to transform into a nonmolecular “polymeric” solid above 5.5 GPa, yet been studied beyond 10 GPa. Here, we show a series of pressure-induced phase transformations in CO to 160 GPa: from a molecular solid to a highly colored, low-density polymeric phase I to translucent, high-density phase II to transparent, layered phase III. The properties of these phases are consistent with those expected from recently predicted 1D P21/m, 3D I212121, and 2D Cmcm structures, respectively. Thus, the present results advocate a stepwise polymerization of CO triple bonds to ultimately a 2D singly bonded layer structure with an enhanced ionic character.

  9. Conversion of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by pulse dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taobo; Liu, Hongxia; Xiong, Xiang; Feng, Xinxin

    2017-01-01

    The conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon monoxide (CO) was investigated in a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor, and the effects of different process conditions on the CO2 conversion were investigated. The results showed that the increase of input power could optimize the conversion of CO2 to CO. The CO2 conversion and CO yield were negatively correlated with the gas flow rate, but there was an optimum gas flow rate, that made the CO selectivity best. The carrier gas (N2, Ar) was conducive to the conversion of CO2, and the effect of N2 as carrier gas was better than Ar. The conversion of CO2 to CO was enhanced by addition of the catalyst (5A molecular sieve).

  10. Transport pathways of carbon monoxide in the Asian summer monsoon diagnosed from Model of Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mijeong; Randel, William J.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite observations of tropospheric chemical constituents (such as carbon monoxide, CO) reveal a persistent maximum in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS) associated with the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone. Diagnostic studies suggest that the strong anticyclonic circulation acts to confine air masses, but the sources of pollution and transport pathways to altitudes near the tropopause are the subject of debate. Here we use the Model for Ozone and Related Tracers 4 (MOZART-4) global chemistry transport model, driven by analyzed meteorological fields, to study the source and transport of CO in the Asian monsoon circulation. A MOZART-4 simulation for one summer is performed, and results are compared with satellite observations of CO from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer. Overall, good agreement is found between the modeled and observed CO in the UTLS, promoting confidence in the model simulation. The model results are then analyzed to understand the sources and transport pathways of CO in the Asian monsoon region, and within the anticyclone in particular. The results show that CO is transported upward by monsoon deep convection, with the main surface sources from India and Southeast Asia. The uppermost altitude of the convective transport is ˜12 km, near the level of main deep convective outflow, and much of the CO is then advected in the upper troposphere northeastward across the Pacific Ocean and southwestward with the cross-equatorial Hadley flow. However, some of the CO is also advected vertically to altitudes near the tropopause (˜16 km) by the large-scale upward circulation on the eastern side of the anticyclone, and this air then becomes trapped within the anticyclone (to the west of the convection, extending to the Middle East). Within the anticyclone, the modeled CO shows a relative maximum near 15 km, in good agreement with observations.

  11. Predicting poor outcome in patients with intentional carbon monoxide poisoning and acute respiratory failure: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intentional carbon monoxide (CO poisoning has become the commonly used method of suicide in some Asian countries. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors that impact the outcome of intentional CO-poisoned patients with acute respiratory failure. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective observational study of 796 consecutive patients diagnosed with acute CO poisoning that presented to the emergency department (ED. Patients who were CO poisoned with intentional exposure and acute respiratory failure were enrolled and divided into two groups. The poor outcome group consisted of in-hospital death, the presence of persistent neurological sequelae, and the presence of delayed neurologic sequelae. The good outcome group consisted of other enrolled patients. Demographic and clinical data of the two groups were extracted for analysis. Results: A total of 148 patients were enrolled in this study. Of the eligible subjects, 67.6% (100 were identified with positive toxicology screening results. On arriving ED, parameters associated with patients with a poor outcome included hypotension, myocardial injury, prolonged lag times from the first ED arrival to initiation of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, higher white blood cell count, and higher serum levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatine kinase, and troponin-I (P < 0.05. Positive toxicology screening result did not relate to the outcome. Multivariate analysis showed that the myocardial injury was an independent factor for poor outcome (odds ratio, 2.750; 95% confidence interval, 1.168-6.474; P = 0.021. Conclusions: Myocardial injury is an independent predictor of in-hospital death and neurologic sequelae in patients with intentional CO poisoning and acute respiratory failure.

  12. The effect of level of knowledge accuracy of results on learning of motor skills in children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Beltrão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of knowledge accuracy of results (KR is a variable that interferes with the learning of motor skills, however such interference does not work the same way in adults and children. This study examined the effects of KR in children and adults during learning of a manipulative task with target accuracy. Forty adults (female = 21.13 ± 2.26 years; male = 20.97 ± 2.17 years and forty children (female = 9.10 ± .83 years; male = 9.70 ± .48 years practiced a task of hitting a target placed on a table by the thrown of metal discs. There were six experimental groups and two control groups (without KR containing 10 subjects each. Experimental groups differed according to the individual's KR (less precise KR, precise KR and very precise KR and development level (children and adult. Performance measure was the absolute error (AE. A three-way (age × groups × blocks and two-way (groups × blocks analysis of variance for the stabilization and adaptation phases were used. Results showed that adults perform better than children in low and intermediate KR and in high KR adults and children showed similar performance.

  13. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy levels of sulfated progesterone metabolites inhibit farnesoid X receptor resulting in a cholestatic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hayyeh, Shadi; Papacleovoulou, Georgia; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Tahir, Mehreen; Oduwole, Olayiwola; Jamaludin, Nurul Akmal; Ravat, Sabiha; Nikolova, Vanya; Chambers, Jenny; Selden, Clare; Rees, Myrddin; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Parker, Malcolm G; Williamson, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most prevalent pregnancy-specific liver disease and is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including preterm labor and intrauterine death. The endocrine signals that cause cholestasis are not known but 3α-sulfated progesterone metabolites have been shown to be elevated in ICP, leading us to study the impact of sulfated progesterone metabolites on farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-mediated bile acid homeostasis pathways. Here we report that the 3β-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate is supraphysiologically raised in the serum of ICP patients. Mice challenged with cholic acid developed hypercholanemia and a hepatic gene expression profile indicative of FXR activation. However, coadministration of epiallopregnanolone sulfate with cholic acid exacerbated the hypercholanemia and resulted in aberrant gene expression profiles for hepatic bile acid-responsive genes consistent with cholestasis. We demonstrate that levels of epiallopregnanolone sulfate found in ICP can function as a partial agonist for FXR, resulting in the aberrant expression of bile acid homeostasis genes in hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes. Furthermore, epiallopregnanolone sulfate inhibition of FXR results in reduced FXR-mediated bile acid efflux and secreted FGF19. Using cofactor recruitment assays, we show that epiallopregnanolone sulfate competitively inhibits bile acid-mediated recruitment of cofactor motifs to the FXR-ligand binding domain. Our results reveal a novel molecular interaction between ICP-associated levels of the 3β-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate and FXR that couples the endocrine component of pregnancy in ICP to abnormal bile acid homeostasis. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Thermal degradation kinetics of polyketone based on styrene and carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Jiali, E-mail: jiaqm411@163.com; Fan, Wenjun; Shan, Shaoyun; Su, Hongying; Wu, Shuisheng; Jia, Qingming

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • The PK were synthesized from carbon monoxide and styrene in the presence of PANI-PdCl{sub 2} catalyst and PdCl{sub 2} catalyst. • The structures and thermal behaviors of PK prepared by homogenous and the supported catalyst were investigated. • The microstructures of PK were changed in the supported catalyst system. • The alternating PK copolymer (PANI-PdCl{sub 2} catalyst) was more thermally stable than PK (PdCl{sub 2} catalyst). • The degradation activation energy values were estimated by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method and Kissinger method. - Abstract: Copolymerization of styrene with carbon monoxide to give polyketones (PK) was carried out under homogeneous palladium catalyst and polyaniline (PANI) supported palladium(II) catalyst, respectively. The copolymers were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and GPC. The results indicated that the PK catalyzed by the supported catalyst has narrow molecular weight distribution (PDI = 1.18). For comparison purpose of thermal behaviors of PK prepared by the homogeneous and the supported catalyst, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) were conducted at different heating rates. The peak temperatures (396–402 °C) for PK prepared by the supported catalyst are higher than those (387–395 °C) of PK prepared by the homogeneous catalyst. The degradation activation energy (E{sub k}) values were estimated by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method and Kissinger method, respectively. The E{sub k} values, as determined by two methods, were found to be in the range 270.72 ± 0.03–297.55 ± 0.10 kJ mol{sup −1}. Structures analysis and thermal degradation analysis revealed that the supported catalyst changed the microstructures of PK, resulting in improving thermal stability of PK.

  15. The deployment of carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) for ambient air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2014-06-16

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011-2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1-1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring.

  16. Hypervalence in monoxides and dioxides of superalkali clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Elizabeth; Meloni, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    F2Li3, a superalkali cluster, is characterized as having a lower adiabatic ionization energy than its elemental alkali counterpart and, coupled with the presence of complex molecular orbitals, suggests promise for novel bonding possibilities. CBS-QB3 composite method was used to study three distinct cluster isomers, as well as their cationic (+1) and anionic (-1) species, to identify energetic trends and observe geometric changes. Oxides were then generated from these clusters, of which three distinct monoxides and nine dioxides were obtained upon structure optimization. Identical calculations were performed for the oxide species and their charged counterparts. Some of the most stable oxides produced appear to possess hypervalent lithium and oxygen atoms, forming unique structures with exceptional stability.

  17. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A, E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} to a variety of energy sources. However, many N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  18. Prevention of carbon monoxide exposure in general and recreational aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelnick, Sanford D; Lischak, Michael W; Young, David G; Massa, Thomas V

    2002-08-01

    Carbon monoxide exposure is an important public health issue that poses a significant, albeit uncommon risk in aviation. Exposure is most common in single engine piston-driven aircraft where air is passed over the exhaust manifold to serve as cabin heat. Effective primary prevention of this exposure is the regular inspection and maintenance of aircraft exhaust systems, as required by law. For situations at special risk should exposure occur, and where there is concern for the public safety, installation of active warning devices for CO intrusion into cockpits may improve secondary prevention. Modern studies should be performed of occupation-specific abilities to support the 50 ppm FAA CO exposure standard and 50-70 ppm FAA Technical Standard Order (TSO) for CO monitors alerting pilots to the possibility of exhaust gas intrusion into their cockpits.

  19. Technique for measuring carbon monoxide uptake in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depledge, M.H.; Collis, C.H.; Chir, B.; Barrett, A.

    1981-04-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring carbon monoxide (CO) uptake in mice. Each animal was placed in a syringe and allowed to rebreathe a mixture of CO and helium (He) for 60 s. CO uptake was detemined from a comparison of CO and He concentrations before and after rebreathing. Weight specific CO uptake increased with body weight in CBA mice weighing between 20 to 35 gr. In larger mice, size dependence was less marked, although a slight fall in CO uptake was observed in older animals. Anaesthesia reduced ventilatory rate and CO uptake to a variable extent. The method is reproducible, non-invasive and does not require anaesthesia; consequently, it can be used to study serial changes in lung function. It is sensitive enough to detect lung damage in CBA mice following 16 Gy total body irradiation. Values of diffusing capacity obtained for mice using this method are consistent with published values.

  20. Terahertz Time Domain Gas-phase Spectroscopy of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcullen, Patrick; Hartley, I. D.; Jensen, E. T.; Reid, M.

    2015-04-01

    Free induction decay signals emitted from Carbon Monoxide (CO) excited by sub-picosecond pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation are directly measured in the time domain and compared to model calculations using a linear dispersion model to good agreement. Best fitting techniques of the data using the model allow the self-pressure broadening of CO to be measured across a range of absolute pressures, and the rotational constant to be determined. We find B V = 5.770 ± 0.003 × 1010 Hz in agreement with previous measurements. A partial pressure limit of detection for CO of 7900 ppm is estimated at atmosphere through extrapolating the calculated commensurate echo peaks down to low pressures with respect to the RMS noise floor of our THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) apparatus, which implies a limit of detection in the range of 40 ppm for commercial THz-TDS systems.

  1. Effect of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and sulfate on thermophilic (55 degrees C) hydrogenogenic carbon monoxide conversion in two anaerobic bioreactor sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipma, J; Meulepas, R J W; Parshina, S N; Stams, A J M; Lettinga, G; Lens, P N L

    2004-04-01

    The conversion routes of carbon monoxide (CO) at 55 degrees C by full-scale grown anaerobic sludges treating paper mill and distillery wastewater were elucidated. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) and vancomycin showed that CO conversion was performed by a hydrogenogenic population and that its products, i.e. hydrogen and CO2, were subsequently used by methanogens, homo-acetogens or sulfate reducers depending on the sludge source and inhibitors supplied. Direct methanogenic CO conversion occurred only at low CO concentrations [partial pressure of CO (PCO) paper mill sludge. The presence of hydrogen decreased the CO conversion rates, but did not prevent the depletion of CO to undetectable levels (sludges showed interesting potential for hydrogen production from CO, especially since after 30 min exposure to 95 degrees C, the production of CH4 at 55 degrees C was negligible. The paper mill sludge was capable of sulfate reduction with hydrogen, tolerating and using high CO concentrations (PCO>1.6 bar), indicating that CO-rich synthesis gas can be used efficiently as an electron donor for biological sulfate reduction.

  2. Maintain levels of nicotine but reduce other smoke constituents: a formula for ''less-hazardous'' cigarettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, J.C.; Young, J.C.; Rickert, W.S.

    1984-09-01

    Twenty-two volunteers who smoked more than 20 cigarettes with ''high'' nicotine yields (0.8 to 1.2 mg) per day participated in an 8-week study designed to test the hypothesis that smoking cigarettes with a constant level of nicotine but reduced deliveries of tar, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide leads to a decrease in smoke absorption. All subjects smoked their usual high-nicotine brand for the first 3 weeks (P1), and the absorption of smoke constituents was determined from levels of thiocyanate and cotinine in saliva and serum, levels of carbon monoxide in expired air, and levels of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood. During the final 5 weeks (P2), the treatment group (16 subjects) switched to the ''light'' version of their usual brands (similar yields of nicotine but with reduced yields of tar, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide); the control group (6 subjects) smoked their usual brands for the duration of the study. Average levels of cotinine for the subjects who switched during P2 were not significantly different from those of the control group as was expected. Slight reductions were noted in average expired-air carbon monoxide levels, blood carboxyhemoglobin, and saliva thiocyanate, but these reductions were smaller than anticipated based on brand characteristics. The results suggest that the ratio of smoke constituents is different when individuals, rather than machines, smoke cigarettes. Yields determined under subject-defined conditions are necessary in order to properly evaluate the role of nicotine in the design of ''less-hazardous'' cigarettes.

  3. DEPENDENCE OF YKL-40 mRNA TISSUE LEVELS ON KRAS MUTATION STATUS IN COLORECTAL CANCER - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Feodorova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most deadly cancers worldwide. Despite the introduction of targeted molecular therapies in the last 10 years, overall survival has not increased substantially. CRC progression is accompanied by numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations and dysregulation of several signaling pathways, among which activation of Wnt and inactivation of TGF-β signaling. The molecular heterogeneity of CRC, however, hinders the molecular subtyping of CRC and thus the identification of common biomarkers for this pathology. The only three well established biomarkers for advanced-colorectal-cancer drug treatment are negative biomarkers. These are mutations in the genes KRAS, NRAS and BRAF which determine resistance to therapy with anti-EGFR antibodies. YKL-40 is a chitin-binding glycoprotein that has been shown to play a role in extracellular tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, cell migration and inflammation. Increased serum levels of this protein have been detected in patients with CRC but the role of YKL-40 in this neoplastic disease has not been studied extensively and the precise function of YKL-40 in CRC progression is not known. In the present study we determined the KRAS mutation status and measured the mRNA levels of YKL-40 of 24 patients with sporadic CRC. In addition, we assessed the association between these two parameters by statistical analysis. We are the first to show that in CRC YKL-40 mRNA levels are dependent on the presence of KRAS mutations, being prominently elevated in the wild type background. Our results indicate the potential role of YKL-40 as a target molecule for CRC therapy.

  4. Dose-dependent relationship between prenatal exposure to fine particulates and exhaled carbon monoxide in non-asthmatic children. A population-based birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław A. Jędrychowski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main goal of the study was to assess possible association between fetal exposure to fi ne particulate matter (PM2.5 and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measured in non-asthmatic children. Material and Methods: The subjects include 118 children taking part in an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Kraków. Personal samplers of PM2.5 were used to measure fi ne particle mass in the fetal period and carbon monoxide (CO in exhaled breath from a single exhalation effort at the age of 7. In the statistical analysis of the effect of prenatal PM2.5 exposure on eCO, a set of potential confounders, such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, city residence area, sensitization to house dust allergens and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms monitored over the seven-year follow-up was considered. Results: The level of eCO did not correlate with the self-reported ETS exposure recorded over the follow-up, however, there was a positive signifi cant relationship with the prenatal PM2.5 exposure (non-parametric trend p = 0.042. The eCO mean level was higher in atopic children (geometric mean = 2.06 ppm, 95% CI: 1.58–2.66 ppm than in non-atopic ones (geometric mean = 1.57 ppm, 95% CI: 1.47–1.73 ppm and the difference was statistically signifi cant (p = 0.036. As for the respiratory symptoms, eCO values were associated positively only with the cough severity score recorded in the follow-up (nonparametric trend p = 0.057. In the nested multivariable linear regression model, only the effects of prenatal PM2.5 and cough severity recorded in the follow-up were related to eCO level. The prenatal PM2.5 exposure represented 5.1%, while children’s cough represented only 2.6% of the eCO variability. Conclusion: Our study suggests that elevated eCO in non-asthmatic children may result from oxidative stress experienced in the fetal period and that heme oxygenase (HO activity in body tissues may be programmed in the fetal period by the exposure to

  5. Carbon monoxide increases inducible NOS expression that mediates CO-induced myocardial damage during ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Grégory; André, Lucas; Kleindienst, Adrien; Singh, François; Tanguy, Stéphane; Richard, Sylvain; Obert, Philippe; Boucher, François; Jover, Bernard; Cazorla, Olivier; Reboul, Cyril

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the role of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) on ischemic myocardial damage in rats exposed to daily low nontoxic levels of carbon monoxide (CO). CO is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that impacts on mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases. We have previously shown that CO exposure aggravates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury partly because of increased oxidative stress. Nevertheless, cellular mechanisms underlying cardiac CO toxicity remain hypothetical. Wistar rats were exposed to simulated urban CO pollution for 4 wk. First, the effects of CO exposure on NO production and NO synthase (NOS) expression were evaluated. Myocardial I/R was performed on isolated perfused hearts in the presence or absence of S-methyl-isothiourea (1 μM), a NOS inhibitor highly specific for iNOS. Finally, Ca(2+) handling was evaluated in isolated myocytes before and after an anoxia-reoxygenation performed with or without S-methyl-isothiourea or N-acetylcystein (20 μM), a nonspecific antioxidant. Our main results revealed that 1) CO exposure altered the pattern of NOS expression, which is characterized by increased neuronal NOS and iNOS expression; 2) cardiac NO production increased in CO rats because of its overexpression of iNOS; and 3) the use of a specific inhibitor of iNOS reduced myocardial hypersensitivity to I/R (infarct size, 29 vs. 51% of risk zone) in CO rat hearts. These last results are explained by the deleterious effects of NO and reactive oxygen species overproduction by iNOS on diastolic Ca(2+) overload and myofilaments Ca(2+) sensitivity. In conclusion, this study highlights the involvement of iNOS overexpression in the pathogenesis of simulated urban CO air pollution exposure.

  6. Experimental Determination of the 1 Sigma(+) State Electric-Dipole-Moment Function of Carbon Monoxide up to a Large Internuclear Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chackerian, C., Jr.; Farreng, R.; Guelachvili, G.; Rossetti, C.; Urban, W.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental intensity information is combined with numerically obtained vibrational wave functions in a nonlinear least squares fitting procedure to obtain the ground electronic state electric-dipole-moment function of carbon monoxide valid in the range of nuclear oscillation (0.87 to 1.01 A) of about the V = 38th vibrational level. Mechanical anharmonicity intensity factors, H, are computed from this function for delta V + = 1, 2, 3, with or = to 38.

  7. Ambient Vibration Tests of an Arch Dam with Different Reservoir Water Levels: Experimental Results and Comparison with Finite Element Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Vincenzo Calcina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the ambient vibration tests performed in an arch dam in two different working conditions in order to assess the effect produced by two different reservoir water levels on the structural vibration properties. The study consists of an experimental part and a numerical part. The experimental tests were carried out in two different periods of the year, at the beginning of autumn (October 2012 and at the end of winter (March 2013, respectively. The measurements were performed using a fast technique based on asynchronous records of microtremor time-series. In-contact single-station measurements were done by means of one single high resolution triaxial tromometer and two low-frequency seismometers, placed in different points of the structure. The Standard Spectral Ratio method has been used to evaluate the natural frequencies of vibration of the structure. A 3D finite element model of the arch dam-reservoir-foundation system has been developed to verify analytically determined vibration properties, such as natural frequencies and mode shapes, and their changes linked to water level with the experimental results.

  8. Potential energy curves for neutral and multiply charged carbon monoxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pradeep Kumar; N Sathyamurthy

    2010-01-01

    Potential energy curves of various electronic states of CO+ (0 ≤ ≤ 6) are generated at MRCI/CASSCF level using cc-pvQZ basis set and the results are compared with available experimental and theoretical data.

  9. Results from two interlaboratory comparison tests organized in Germany and at the EU level for analysis of acrylamide in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaffke, Horst; Fauhl, Carsten; Mathar, Wolfgang; Palavinskas, Richard; Wittkowski, Reiner; Wenzl, Thomas; Anklam, Elke

    2005-01-01

    After the publication of high levels of acrylamide (AA) in food, many research activities started all over the world in order to determine the occurrence and the concentration of this substance in various types of food. As no validated methods were available at that time, interlaboratory studies on the determination of AA in food were of the highest priority. Under the boundary conditions of applying well-established evaluation schemes, the results of 2 studies conducted by the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Germany and by the European Commission's Directorate General Joint Research Center (JRC) exhibited an overall acceptable performance of the participants in these studies. Nevertheless, many laboratories showed problems in determining AA in food with a complex matrix such as cocoa. The results of analysis also showed a broader variation of AA for samples with low AA concentrations and indicated a bias of the results obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry without derivatization. Improvements of the performance of some laboratories appeared to be necessary.

  10. Design and initial results from a kilojoule level dense plasma focus with hollow anode and cylindrically symmetric gas puff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, J. L.; Falabella, S.; Tang, V.; Schmidt, A.; Guethlein, G.; Hawkins, S.; Rusnak, B.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed and built a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Z-pinch device using a kJ-level capacitor bank and a hollow anode, and fueled by a cylindrically symmetric gas puff. Using this device, we have measured peak deuteron beam energies of up to 400 keV at 0.8 kJ capacitor bank energy and pinch lengths of ˜6 mm, indicating accelerating fields greater than 50 MV/m. Neutron yields of on the order of 107 per shot were measured during deuterium operation. The cylindrical gas puff system permitted simultaneous operation of DPF with a radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator for beam-into-plasma experiments. This paper describes the machine design, the diagnostic systems, and our first results.

  11. A Review on Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Hydrogen Rich Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mishra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review, recent works on the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen rich gases for fuel cell applications are summarized. H2 is used as a fuel for polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. It is produced by reforming of natural gas or liquid fuels followed by water gas shift reaction. The produced gas consists of H2, CO, and CO2. In which CO content is around 1%, which is highly poisonous for the Pt anode of the PEMFC so that further removal of CO is needed. Catalytic preferential oxidation of CO (CO-PROX is one of the most suitable methods of purification of H2 because of high CO conversion rate at low temperature range, which is preferable for PEMFC operating conditions. Catalysts used for COPROX are mainly noble metal based; gold based and base metal oxide catalysts among them Copper-Ceria based catalysts are the most appropriate due to its low cost, easy availability and result obtained by these catalysts are comparable with the conventional noble metal catalysts. Copyright © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 22nd October 2010, Revised: 12nd January 2011, Accepted: 19th January 2011[How to Cite: A. Mishra, R. Prasad. (2011. A Review on Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Hydrogen Rich Gases. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (1: 1-14. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.191.1-14][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.191.1-14 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/191] | View in 

  12. Observation of black carbon, ozone and carbon monoxide in the Kali Gandaki Valley Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, S.; Panday, A. K.; Kathayat, B.

    2014-12-01

    The increased melting of snow and ice in the arctic and the Himalaya is a growing concern for all of the earth's population. Deposition of black carbon (BC) on the snow and ice surface accelerates melting by absorbing the radiative energy and directly transferring all that energy onto the underlying surface. During pre-monsoon season, satellite images show a thick layer of haze covering the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) and the Himalayan foothills. Sub-micron particles are transported to the Himalaya from the IGP predominantly driven by the thermal valley wind system. The Himalayas consist of some of the tallest mountain ranges in the world, over 8000m tall that reach the stratosphere. The Kali Gandaki Valley in Nepal is one of the deepest gorges in the world, and has some of the highest up-valley winds in the world. It is also one of the most open connecting points for air from IGP to reach the Tibetan Plateau. In 2010 the University of Virginia, in collaboration with ICIMOD and Nepal Wireless, established an atmospheric research station in Jomsom, Nepal (28.78N, 83.42E, 2900 m.a.s.l.) half-way along the Kali Gandaki valley. The station is equipped to measure black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone concentrations. It also has an automated weather station, a filter sampler, and a NASA Aeronet Sunphotometer. Here we present our observations of black carbon, ozone, carbon monoxide at Jomsom to show the diurnal and seasonal variability of the pollutants. The results show diurnal patterns in the concentration of these pollutants and also episodes of high pollutant transport along the valley. These transport episodes are more common during the pre-monsoon season which indicates that deep mountain valleys like the Kali Gandaki valley facilitate the transport of pollutants and thus promote snow and glacial melting.

  13. THE PROBLEM OF USING GADGETS AS A MEANS OF FALSIFICATION OF RESULTS CHECK LEVEL OF STUDENTS KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav A. Lipatov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the present research is studying of the range, technical characteristics, and also price categories of micro earphones, the devices intended for simplification by the pupil of examination and distorting the level of knowledge on control activities.Methods. The formalized interview is used as the main method of the research, i.e. a conversation on detailed developed program including a consistent design of seventeen closed and open questions, and also versions of possible answers.Results. The suppliers and sellers of micro earphones were interviewed on the Internet by mobile communication. Besides, the analysis of the relevant information posted at discussion boards, social networks, etc. is carried out. Statistical material is processed, tabulated and visually demonstrated in charts. The obtained data allow us to estimate geography, specification of types, a technical and price variety of the technical means which are used by students to falsification of results of their education. The conclusion is drawn that this type of devices in the Russian market promptly extends and is in huge demand both with students and school pupils.Scientific novelty. The opinions of suppliers and sellers regarding technical characteristics, harm to health and availability of micro earphones to pupils are studied for the first time. The range of offers and price range of these gadgets are analysed.Practical significance. The present investigation can serve as informative basis while developing the recommendations and methods of fight against application of technical means for cheating using electronic technical means at various stages of control of knowledge. These measures are necessary for identification of actual, but not fictitious level of knowledge of pupils, and improvement of quality of education in higher education institutions and schools. 

  14. Comparison of the effects of different statins and doses on lipid levels in patients with diabetes: results from VOYAGER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, B W; Barter, P J; Palmer, M K; Lundman, P; Nicholls, S J

    2012-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and brings an increased risk of vascular events and a higher mortality rate. Treatment guidelines recommend statins in patients with diabetes, with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets of 100 mg dl(-1) (∼2.5 mmol l(-1)), and 80 (∼2.0 mmol l(-1)) or 70 mg dl(-1) (∼1.8 mmol l(-1)) in especially high-risk patients. The current study used the VOYAGER (an indiVidual patient data-meta-analysis Of statin therapY in At risk Groups: Effects of Rosuvastatin, atorvastatin, and simvastatin) database to characterise effects of rosuvastatin, atorvastatin and simvastatin in different doses on lipid levels in diabetes patients. The VOYAGER database included individual patient data from 37 studies involving comparisons of rosuvastatin with either atorvastatin or simvastatin. Of the 32 258 patients included, 8859 (27.5%) had diabetes. Rosuvastatin appeared to be the most efficacious of the three statins, both for lowering LDL-C and for reaching a target level of VOYAGER results. This meta-analysis of 8859 patients with diabetes mellitus shows favourable effects on lipids with the three statins studied, in line with results for the overall VOYAGER population. The importance of using an effective statin at an effective dose to reach treatment goals for such high-risk patients is evident. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Adsorption of nitrogen and carbon monoxide on clinoptilolite: determination and prediction of pure and binary isotherms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triebe, R.W.; Tezel, F.H. [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1995-10-01

    The adsorption of carbon monoxide and nitrogen on clinoptilolite is studied to determine the natural zeolite`s potential for air purification. Pure and binary isotherms were determined for nitrogen and carbon monoxide on a natural Turkish clinoptilolite under near ambient conditions. Experimentally determined isotherms are compared to predictions based on various models from the literature. The Wilson form of the Vacancy Solution Theory is the only model that provides reasonable agreement with the binary isotherm. Clinoptilolite is concluded to be a promising sorbent for separation of carbon monoxide and nitrogen. 30 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. HIV-1 Adaptation to Antigen Processing Results in Population-Level Immune Evasion and Affects Subtype Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Tenzer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent HIV-1 vaccine failures highlight the need to better understand virus-host interactions. One key question is why CD8+ T cell responses to two HIV-Gag regions are uniquely associated with delayed disease progression only in patients expressing a few rare HLA class I variants when these regions encode epitopes presented by ∼30 more common HLA variants. By combining epitope processing and computational analyses of the two HIV subtypes responsible for ∼60% of worldwide infections, we identified a hitherto unrecognized adaptation to the antigen-processing machinery through substitutions at subtype-specific motifs. Multiple HLA variants presenting epitopes situated next to a given subtype-specific motif drive selection at this subtype-specific position, and epitope abundances correlate inversely with the HLA frequency distribution in affected populations. This adaptation reflects the sum of intrapatient adaptations, is predictable, facilitates viral subtype diversification, and increases global HIV diversity. Because low epitope abundance is associated with infrequent and weak T cell responses, this most likely results in both population-level immune evasion and inadequate responses in most people vaccinated with natural HIV-1 sequence constructs. Our results suggest that artificial sequence modifications at subtype-specific positions in vitro could refocus and reverse the poor immunogenicity of HIV proteins.

  17. Effects of methylprednisolone on exercise-induced increases of plasma levels of polymorphonuclear elastase and myeloperoxidase in man. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Camus

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify whether a single oral dose of methylprednisolone could modulate the exercise-induced release of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN elastase and myeloperoxidase. Four healthy, male subjects were submitted to a 20 min downhill run (−20% at 60% VO2 max, 3 h after oral absorption of a placebo or a single dose of 32 mg methylprednisolone. A marked neutrophilia (+103% of basal PMN count; p < 0.02 was observed 3 h after methylprednisolone ingestion. During both exercise trials, placebo and methylprednisolone, PMN counts were increased by 46% and 19% (p < 0.05, respectively. The running test caused marked and significant (p < 0.05 increases in plasma myeloperoxidase concentration (MPO. The magnitude of MPO changes was the same in the two trials (+110%. Exercise also resulted in significant changes in plasma elastase concentration (EL in both experimental conditions (placebo: +104%, p < 0.05; methylprednisolone: +338%, p < 0.005. Plasma elastase levels reached at the end of exercise on methylprednisolone were significantly higher than after placebo (p < 0.05. A significant relationship was found between EL and PMN in methylprednisolone trial only (r = 0.72; l0 < 0.005. These results showed that the transient exercise-induced release of elastase and myeloperoxidase were not decreased by methylprednisolone.

  18. Electronic nicotine delivery system landscape in licensed tobacco retailers: results of a county-level survey in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brame, L S; Mowls, D S; Damphousse, K E; Beebe, L A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have recently emerged as a component of the tobacco retail environment. The aims of this study were to describe the availability, types of ENDS and placement of ENDS relative to traditional tobacco products at franchised licensed tobacco retailers and non-franchised licensed tobacco retailers. Design Observational study. Setting Franchised and non-franchised tobacco retailers in Cleveland County, Oklahoma, USA. Primary and secondary outcome measures The number of stores selling ENDS, the variability in brands of ENDS sold, the location of the ENDS within the retailers, the quantity of ENDS sold compared with traditional tobacco products, and the presence of outdoor signage. Results Data from 57 randomly sampled tobacco retailers were used to describe the presence of ENDS at independent non-franchised and franchised tobacco retailers. The overwhelming majority (90%) of licensed tobacco retailers sold ENDS, and differences were observed between franchised and non-franchised stores. 45 of the 51 retailers (88%) selling ENDS had them placed at the point of sale. 2 of the 21 franchised retailers (9.5%) had ENDS placed at ≤3½ feet above floor level compared to none of the 30 non-franchised retailers (0%). Conclusions This small study is the first to characterise ENDS within the tobacco retail environment in a county in Oklahoma, USA. The results from this study demonstrate the complexity of the tobacco retail landscape and generate questions for future studies regarding the incorporation and placement of ENDS in tobacco retail environments. PMID:27266774

  19. Drought limitations to leaf-level gas exchange: results from a model linking stomatal optimization and cohesion-tension theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Kimberly A; Miniat, Chelcy F; Vose, James M

    2016-03-01

    We merge concepts from stomatal optimization theory and cohesion-tension theory to examine the dynamics of three mechanisms that are potentially limiting to leaf-level gas exchange in trees during drought: (1) a 'demand limitation' driven by an assumption of optimal stomatal functioning; (2) 'hydraulic limitation' of water movement from the roots to the leaves; and (3) 'non-stomatal' limitations imposed by declining leaf water status within the leaf. Model results suggest that species-specific 'economics' of stomatal behaviour may play an important role in differentiating species along the continuum of isohydric to anisohydric behaviour; specifically, we show that non-stomatal and demand limitations may reduce stomatal conductance and increase leaf water potential, promoting wide safety margins characteristic of isohydric species. We used model results to develop a diagnostic framework to identify the most likely limiting mechanism to stomatal functioning during drought and showed that many of those features were commonly observed in field observations of tree water use dynamics. Direct comparisons of modelled and measured stomatal conductance further indicated that non-stomatal and demand limitations reproduced observed patterns of tree water use well for an isohydric species but that a hydraulic limitation likely applies in the case of an anisohydric species.

  20. Dose-dependent relationship between prenatal exposure to fine particulates and exhaled carbon monoxide in non-asthmatic children. A population-based birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrychowski, Wiesław A; Maugeri, Umberto; Spengler, John; Mróz, Elżbieta; Flak, Elżbieta; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Jacek, Ryszard; Sowa, Agata

    2013-03-01

    The main goal of the study was to assess possible association between fetal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) measured in non-asthmatic children. The subjects include 118 children taking part in an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Kraków. Personal samplers of PM2.5 were used to measure fine particle mass in the fetal period and carbon monoxide (CO) in exhaled breath from a single exhalation effort at the age of 7. In the statistical analysis of the effect of prenatal PM2.5 exposure on eCO, a set of potential confounders, such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), city residence area, sensitization to house dust allergens and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms monitored over the seven-year follow-up was considered. The level of eCO did not correlate with the self-reported ETS exposure recorded over the follow-up, however, there was a positive significant relationship with the prenatal PM2.5 exposure (non-parametric trend p = 0.042). The eCO mean level was higher in atopic children (geometric mean = 2.06 ppm, 95% CI: 1.58-2.66 ppm) than in non-atopic ones (geometric mean = 1.57 ppm, 95% CI: 1.47-1.73 ppm) and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.036). As for the respiratory symptoms, eCO values were associated positively only with the cough severity score recorded in the follow-up (nonparametric trend p = 0.057). In the nested multivariable linear regression model, only the effects of prenatal PM2.5 and cough severity recorded in the follow-up were related to eCO level. The prenatal PM2.5 exposure represented 5.1%, while children's cough represented only 2.6% of the eCO variability. Our study suggests that elevated eCO in non-asthmatic children may result from oxidative stress experienced in the fetal period and that heme oxygenase (HO) activity in body tissues may be programmed in the fetal period by the exposure to fine particulate matter.

  1. The level of health in Elementary School Students in Training and Research Areas and Evaluation of School Screening Examination Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemalettin Kalyoncu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The research was planned in order to evaluate the level of health’s elementary schools located in Eskisehir Osmangazi University School of Medicine Public Health Department Training and Research Areas and the school health services they have been receiving for the last eight years. METHOD: 1st, 2nd, 7th and 8th grade students studying in 12 elementary schools located in the Training and Research Areas in 2009-2010 academic year were enrolled to the study. On days of the screenings, a total of 1405 students available (1405/1569: %89.5 in the schools were reached. Growth, seeing, hearing, mouth-teeth health, systemic physical examination and by consulting to the teachers, state of mind and existence of chronic diseases were researched. For each child, information containing the existence of school enrolment examination, the number of periodic examinations that have been conducted on the child, and also the results of the examination of the same year was inquired. RESULTS: 1.0 % of the students were detected as very weak, 4.8 % as weak, 75.9 % as normal, 15.8 % as overweight and 2.5 % as obese. In eye examinations, 10.5% of the students had refractive error, 6.2 % had amblyopia and 3.1% had diplopia. In the ear examination, it was determined that 48.7 % of the students had plug, 2.5 % had perforated tympanum, and 3.1 % had hearing loss. In mouth and teeth examination, it was detected that 64.8% of the students had tooth decay. All of the students who were claimed to have undergone school enrolment examination were first grade students and that examinations included examination results of this year. Health forms containing the results of school enrolment examination and periodic examinations of 2nd, 7th and 8th grade students were not found. School screening were conducted only in two district elementary schools. The eye examination results reported in the records appeared to be inconsistent with screning results. CONCLUSION: It was shown

  2. Successful pod infections by Moniliophthora roreri result in differential Theobroma cacao gene expression depending on the clone's level of tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S; Melnick, Rachel L; Crozier, Jayne; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Strem, Mary D; Shao, Jonathan; Zhang, Dapeng; Sicher, Richard; Meinhardt, Lyndel; Bailey, Bryan A

    2014-09-01

    An understanding of the tolerance mechanisms of Theobroma cacao used against Moniliophthora roreri, the causal agent of frosty pod rot, is important for the generation of stable disease-tolerant clones. A comparative view was obtained of transcript populations of infected pods from two susceptible and two tolerant clones using RNA sequence (RNA-Seq) analysis. A total of 3009 transcripts showed differential expression among clones. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated shifts in 152 different metabolic pathways between the tolerant and susceptible clones. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) analyses of 36 genes verified the differential expression. Regression analysis validated a uniform progression in gene expression in association with infection levels and fungal loads in the susceptible clones. Expression patterns observed in the susceptible clones diverged in tolerant clones, with many genes showing higher expression at a low level of infection and fungal load. Principal coordinate analyses of real-time qRT-PCR data separated the gene expression patterns between susceptible and tolerant clones for pods showing malformation. Although some genes were constitutively differentially expressed between clones, most results suggested that defence responses were induced at low fungal load in the tolerant clones. Several elicitor-responsive genes were highly expressed in tolerant clones, suggesting rapid recognition of the pathogen and induction of defence genes. Expression patterns suggested that the jasmonic acid-ethylene- and/or salicylic acid-mediated defence pathways were activated in the tolerant clones, being enhanced by reduced brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and catabolic inactivation of both BR and abscisic acids. Finally, several genes associated with hypersensitive response-like cell death were also induced in tolerant clones. © 2014

  3. Difference in factors associated with low-level viraemia and virological failure: results from the Austrian HIV Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Leierer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For some patients, it remains a challenge to achieve complete virological suppression which is the goal of antiretroviral therapy (ART. Identifying factors associated with low-level viraemia (LLV and virological failure (VF under ART might help to optimize management of these patients. Materials and Methods: We investigated patients from the Austrian HIV Cohort Study receiving unmodified ART for >6 months with two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs with either a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI or a boosted protease inhibitor (PI or an integrase inhibitor (INSTI between 1 July 2012 and 1 July 2013 with at least one viral load (VL measurement below the limit of detection (BLD or below level of quantification (BLQ in their treatment history. VF was defined as HIV-RNA levels ≥200 copies/mL and all other quantifiable measurements were classified as LLV. Factors associated with LLV and VF compared to BLD and BLQ were identified by using logistic regression models. Results: Of the 2,276 patients analyzed, 1,972 (86.6% were BLD or BLQ, 222 (9.8% showed LLV and 82 (3.6% had VF. A higher risk for LLV and VF was found in patients with ART interruptions and in patients with boosted PI therapy. The risk for LLV and VF was lower in patients from a centre which uses Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay compared to the other centres measuring VL by the Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan 2.0. A higher risk for LLV but not for VF was found in patients with a higher VL before ART and shorter ART duration. A higher risk for VF but not for LLV was found in patients of younger age, originating from a high prevalence country, with a lower CD4 count and in male injecting drug users. Conclusions: This study of well-defined patients on stable ART over a period of more than six months gives insights into the different factors associated with LLV and VF. In patients with VF, factors associated with adherence play a prominent

  4. Carbon monoxide poisoning while using a small cooking stove in a tent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Øyvind; Brattebø, Guttorm; Rostrup, Morten

    2004-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is formed wherever incomplete combustion of carbonaceous products occurs.(1) CO is the leading cause of poisoning in the United States, and common sources of CO poisoning include housefires, automobile exhaust, water heaters, kerosene space heaters, and furnaces.(2) Stoves used for cooking and heating during outdoor activities also produce significant amounts of CO. Mountain climbers have been reported to succumb to fumes generated by small cook stoves.(3) The aim of this study was to investigate if burning a cooking stove inside a tent is a potential health hazard. Seven healthy male volunteers used a cooking stove inside a small tent for 120 minutes. CO levels in the ambient tent air were measured in addition to hearth rate (HR) and pulse oximetry (SpO2). Venous blood samples were obtained every 15 minutes for measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). After 2 hours, all the subjects had significant CO levels in their blood (mean COHb = 21.5%). Mean SpO2, also fell from 98% to 95.3% (P tent. The concentration is high enough to cause significant COHb levels in venous blood after 120 minutes' stay in the tent.

  5. Analysis of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide profiles over South America based on MOZAIC/IAGOS database and model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia A. Yamasoe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We analysed ozone and carbon monoxide profiles measured by commercial aircrafts from the MOZAIC/IAGOS fleet, during ascending and descending flights over Caracas, in Venezuela, from August 1994 to December 2009, over Rio de Janeiro, from 1994 to 2004 and from July 2012 to June 2013, and over São Paulo, in Brazil, from August 1994 to 2005. For ozone, results showed a clean atmosphere over Caracas presenting the highest seasonal mean in March, April and May. Backward trajectory analyses with FLEXPART, of case studies for which the measured concentrations were high, showed that contributions from local, Central and North America, the Caribbean and Africa either from anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning or lightning were possible. Satellite products as fire counts from MODIS, lightning flash rates from LIS, and CO and O3 from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer and wind maps at different levels helped corroborate previous findings. Sensitivity studies performed with the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem captured the effect of anthropogenic emissions but underestimated the influence of biomass burning, which could be due to an underestimation of GFEDv2 emission inventory. The model detected the contribution of lightning from Africa in JJA and SON and from South America in DJF, possibly from the northeast of Brazil. Over São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, GEOS-Chem captured the seasonal variability of lightning produced in South America and attributed this source as the most important in this region, except in JJA, when anthropogenic emissions were addressed as the more impacting source of ozone precursors. However, comparison with the measurements indicated that the model overestimated ozone formation, which could be due to the convective parameterisation or the stratospheric influence. The highest ozone concentration was observed during September to November, but the model attributed only a small influence of biomass burning from South

  6. PROTECTION OF CARBON MONOXIDE INHALATION ON LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED MULTIPLE ORGAN INJURY IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To observe the protection of carbon monoxide (CO) inlalation on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced rat multiple organ injury.Methods Sprague-Dawley rats with multiple organ injury induced by 5 mg/kg LPS intravenous injection were exposed to room air or2. 5 × 10-4 (V/V) CO for3 hours The lung and intestine tissues of rats were harvested to measure the expression of heme oxygenase-1 ( HO-1 ) with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, the levels of pulmonary tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and intestinal platelet activator factor (PAF), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ( ICAM-1 ) with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the content of maleic dialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) with chemical method, the cell apoptosis rate with flow cytometry, and the pathological changes with light microscope.Results CO inhalation obviously up-regulatedthe expression of HO-1 inlung (5.43±0.92) and intestine (6.29±1.56) in LPS + CO group compared with (3.08±0.82) and (3.97±1.16) in LPS group (both P<0.05). The levels of TNF-α, IL-6 in lung and PAF, ICAM-1 in intestine of LPS +CO group were 0. 91 ±0. 25,0. 64 ±0. 05, 1.19 ±0. 52, and 1.83 ± 0. 35 pg/mg, respectively, significantly lower than the corresponding values in LPS group ( 1.48 ±0. 23, 1.16 ± 0. 26, 1.84 ± 0. 73, and 3.48 ± 0. 36 pg/mg, all P < 0. 05). The levels of MDA, MPO, and cell apoptosis rate in lung and intestine of LPS ± CO group were 1.02 ± 0. 23 nmol/mg, 1.74 ± 0. 17 nmol/mg, 7. 18 ± 1.62U/mg, 6. 30 ± 0. 97 U/mg, 1.60% ± 0. 34 %, and 30. 56% ± 6. 33 %, respectively, significantly lower than the corresponding values in LPS group ( 1.27 ± 0. 33 nmol/mg, 2. 75 ± 0. 39 nmol/mg, 8. 16 ± 1.49 U/mg, 7.72 ± 1.07U/mg, 3. 18 % ± 0. 51%, and 41.52% ± 3. 36%, all P < 0. 05 ). In addition, injury of lung and intestine induced by LPS was attenuated at presence of CO inhalation.Conclusion CO inhalation protects rat lung and intestine

  7. STUDY OF MnOx-PROMOTED Cu/γ-Al203 CATALYSTS FOR HYDROGENATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Gongxin; Fei Jinhua; Hou Zhaoyin; Zheng Xiaoming

    2001-01-01

    γ-Alumina-supported copper-manganese oxide was prepared by impregnation and used for carbon monoxide hydrogenation. The Cu-MnOx/γ-Al2O3 catalysts exhibit high catalytic activity in CO hydrogenation, showing markedly enhanced catalytic activities due to the synergistic interaction between the copper and manganese oxide. The results of XRD indicated that the addition of manganese enhances the dispersion of CuO, retards the reduction of CuO and enhances the ability of H2-adsorption, which contribute to the activity of DME synthesis from syngas.

  8. Effect of Combustion Air Pre-Heating In Carbon Monoxide Emission in Diesel Fired Heat Treatment Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E B Muhammed Shafi,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effect of combustion air pre- heating in Diesel fired heat Treatment Furnace. The main heat treatment processes are Normalizing, Tempering, Hardening, Annealing, Solution Annealing and Stress Relieving. The emission of carbon monoxide is measured with combustion air pre-heating and without preheating. The results are then compared and it is found that the emission of CO is reduced by 29.12%. With the Combustion air pre-heating a considerable reduction in Specific Furnace Fuel Consumption (SFFC is obtained. The test was caaried out at Peekay Steels Casting (P ltd, Nallalam, Calicut.

  9. Shock tube measurements of growth constants in the branched-chain ethane-carbon monoxide-oxygen system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, R. S.; Brabbs, T. A.; Snyder, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Exponential free radical growth constants have been measured for ethane carbon monoxide oxygen mixtures by monitoring the growth of oxygen atom concentration as manifested by CO flame band emission. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 1200 to 1700 K. The data were analyzed using an ethane oxidation mechanism involving seven elementary reaction steps. Calculated growth constants were close to experimental values at lower temperatures, up to about 1400 K, but at higher temperatures computed growth constants were considerably smaller than experiment. In attempts to explain these results additional branching reactions were added to the mechanism. However, these additional reactions did not appreciably change calculated growth constants.

  10. Growth direction of oblique angle electron beam deposited silicon monoxide thin films identified by optical second-harmonic generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejling Andersen, Søren; Lund Trolle, Mads; Pedersen, Kjeld [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4A, DK-9220 Aalborg Øst (Denmark)

    2013-12-02

    Oblique angle deposited (OAD) silicon monoxide (SiO) thin films forming tilted columnar structures have been characterized by second-harmonic generation. It was found that OAD SiO leads to a rotationally anisotropic second-harmonic response, depending on the optical angle of incidence. A model for the observed dependence of the second-harmonic signal on optical angle of incidence allows extraction of the growth direction of OAD films. The optically determined growth directions show convincing agreement with cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images. In addition to a powerful characterization tool, these results demonstrate the possibilities for designing nonlinear optical devices through SiO OAD.

  11. Stable isotope composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide. A modelling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, Sergey S.

    2014-11-01

    This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 18}O and Δ{sup 17}O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated {sup 13}CO/{sup 12}CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in {sup 13}C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH{sub 4} to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in {sup 13}C, were found significant

  12. Personal Exposure Monitoring of Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Carbon Monoxide, including Susceptible Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. M. Harrison; C. A. Thornton; R. G. Lawrence; D. Mark; R. P. Kinnersley; J. G. Ayres

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the relation between personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and PM10, and exposures estimated from static concentrations of these pollutants measured within the same...

  13. Associations of serum organohalogen levels and prostate cancer risk: Results from a case-control study in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Na; Chia, Sin Eng; Ong, Choon Nam; Kelly, Barry C

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that elevated exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may lead to an increased risk of prostate cancer. As part of a hospital-based case-control study of the Singaporean male population, we investigated associations between organohalogen exposure and risk of prostate cancer. Trace residue concentrations of 74 organohalogen contaminants, including several PCBs, OCPs and halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), were determined in serum samples (n = 120) using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). A variety of OCPs, PCBs and HFRs were detected in samples of both patients and controls. Mean concentrations of p,p' DDT, p,p' DDE, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 187 were significantly higher (p 67th) were 5.67 (95% CI, 2.37-13.54) and 2.14 (95% CI, 0.99 to 4.66), respectively. The results suggest that exposure to DDTs and PCBs may be associated with prostate cancer risk in Singaporean males. No such association was observed for the organohalogen flame retardants studied, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The study provides novel information regarding the occurrence, levels and potential associations with prostate cancer risk for several organohalogen contaminants in the Singapore population. However, further investigation and analyses should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  14. Nurse Informaticians Report Low Satisfaction and Multi-level Concerns with Electronic Health Records: Results from an International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, Maxim; Ronquillo, Charlene; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Pruinelli, Lisiane; Sarmiento, Raymond Francis; Badger, Martha K; Ali, Samira; Lewis, Adrienne; Georgsson, Mattias; Jeon, Eunjoo; Tayaben, Jude L; Kuo, Chiu-Hsiang; Islam, Tasneem; Sommer, Janine; Jung, Hyunggu; Eler, Gabrielle Jacklin; Alhuwail, Dari; Lee, Ying-Li

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a qualitative content analysis of nurses' satisfaction and issues with current electronic health record (EHR) systems, as reflected in one of the largest international surveys of nursing informatics. Study participants from 45 countries (n=469) ranked their satisfaction with the current state of nursing functionality in EHRs as relatively low. Two-thirds of the participants (n=283) provided disconcerting comments when explaining their low satisfaction rankings. More than one half of the comments identified issues at the system level (e.g., poor system usability; non-integrated systems and poor interoperability; lack of standards; and limited functionality/missing components), followed by user-task issues (e.g., failure of systems to meet nursing clinical needs; non nursing-specific systems) and environment issues (e.g., low prevalence of EHRs; lack of user training). The study results call for the attention of international stakeholders (educators, managers, policy makers) to improve the current issues with EHRs from a nursing perspective.

  15. Targeting of the polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthetic pathway to the plastids of Arabidopsis thaliana results in high levels of polymer accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrath, C.; Poirier, Y.; Somerville, C. (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA (United States))

    1994-12-20

    In the bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus, three genes encode the enzymes necessary to catalyze the synthesis of poly[(R)-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) from acetyl-CoA. In order to target these enzymes into the plastids of higher plants, the genes were modified by addition of DNA fragments encoding a pea chloroplast transit peptide, a constitutive plant promoter, and a poly(A) addition sequence. Each of the modified bacterial genes was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and plants containing all three genes were obtained by sexual crosses. These plans accumulated PHB up to 14% of the dry weight as 0.2- to 0.7-[mu]m granules within plastids. In contrast to earlier experiments in which expression of the PHB biosynthetic pathway in the cytoplasm led to a deleterious effect on growth, expression of the PHB biosynthetic pathway in plastids had no obvious effect on the growth or fertility of the transgenic plants and resulted in a 100-fold increase in the amount of PHB in higher plants. The high level of PHB accumulation also suggests that the synthesis of plastid acetyl-CoA is regulated by a mechanism which responds to metabolic demand. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Levels of airborne man-made mineral fibres in dwellings in the UK: results of a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrey, S A; Rood, A P; Llewellyn, J W; Wilson, A J

    1989-01-01

    Levels of airborne man-made mineral fibres (MMMF) were measured during the insulation of lofts and after the disturbance of the insulation wools. Transmission electron microscopy was used for the analysis. Generally, the personal samples showed fibre levels of up to 0.7 f/ml, whereas static samples showed fibre levels of 0.05 f/ml in the lofts. Little contamination of living space occurred during these operations.

  17. Low DHEAS levels are associated with depressive symptoms in elderly Chinese men: results from a large study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel YS Wong; Jason C Leung; Timothy Kwok; Claes Ohlsson; Liesbeth Vandenput; Ping C Leung; Jean Woo

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the association between depressive symptoms in elderly Chinese men and the total testosterone,dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA),DHEA sulphate (DHEAS),oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels,and the free androgen index.Cross-sectional data from 1147 community-dwelling elderly men,aged 65 and older,were used.Depressive symptoms were measured using the Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS).Total testosterone,free testosterone,DHEA,DHEAS,total oestradiol,the free androgen index and SHBG levels were assessed.DH EA was significantly associated with GDS score,and there was a trend towards DHEAS association,but this was not significant (β=0.110,P=0.015;β=0.074,P=0.055).However,no association was seen between depressive symptoms and total testosterone levels,free testosterone levels,oestradiol levels or SHBG levels.In terms of the presence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms,there were no statistically significant differences between patients in the lowest quartile of sex steroid hormone levels and those in other quartiles of sex steroid hormone levels.Similarly to Western studies,our study shows that DHEA and DHEAS levels are associated with depressive symptoms.

  18. Chronic exposure to carbon monoxide: a possible problem in the Netherlands?; Chronische blootstelling aan koolmonoxide. Is er sprake van een probleem in Nederland?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooij, M.

    2008-07-01

    Fuel burning appliances in houses that are poorly maintained or have an open flue system carry a risk of exposure to carbon monoxide. However, currently available knowledge and insights have not been able to provide a representative view on the occurrence of chronic, repeated, exposure to carbon monoxide in Dutch buildings. The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) has concluded this in an exploratory study into the occurrence of chronic exposure to carbon monoxide in Dutch buildings. The VROM-Inspectorate was the commissioning body for this study. Exposure to carbon monoxide can result in a number of symptoms, such as headache, dizziness and concentration disorders. Cases of severe poisoning can even be fatal. From the data available, it appears that the number of accidents each year is extremely variable, ranging from tens up to a few hundred. Approximately 8-12 people die each year as a direct result of carbon monoxide exposure. The information on carbon monoxide poisoning is largely based on cases of acute exposure. Only limited information is available on chronic carbon monoxide exposure. Fuel burning appliances with open flues in Dutch houses can lead to risk situations. These appliances are mainly flueless gas-fired water heaters, fireplaces, gas heaters and gas cookers. But old central heating boilers that have not been properly maintained can also lead to carbon monoxide exposure. The maintenance of fuel burning appliances in the Netherlands has not been compulsory since the early nineteen-nineties and there is little or no monitoring of their safety. Conducting research, inspection and home visits are good methods of gaining better insight into the national situation of exposure to carbon monoxide in Dutch buildings. Replacing fuel burning appliances with open flues, conducting periodic maintenance checks and increasing safety management, are all possible options for avoiding risk situations. [Dutch] Slecht onderhouden en open

  19. Deep Conversion of Carbon Monoxide to Hydrogen and Formation of Acetate by the Anaerobic Thermophile Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Henstra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans is a thermophilic strictly anaerobic bacterium that catalyses the water gas shift reaction, the conversion of carbon monoxide with water to molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The thermodynamically favorable growth temperature, compared to existing industrial catalytic processes, makes this organism an interesting alternative for production of cheap hydrogen gas suitable to fuel CO-sensitive fuel cells in a future hydrogen economy, provided sufficiently low levels of CO are reached. Here we study CO conversion and final CO levels in cultures of C. hydrogenoformans grown in batch cultures that were started with a 100% CO gas phase with and without removal of formed CO2. Final CO levels were 117 ppm without CO2 removal and below 2 ppm with CO2 removal. The Gibbs free energy change calculated with measured end concentrations and the detection of acetate suggest that C. hydrogenoformans shifted from a hydrogenogenic to an acetogenic metabolism.

  20. Delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome after carbon monoxide poisoning: inclusion of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the recovery protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dante Lo Pardo; Davide Amedola; Giuliana Senatore; Alberto Damiano; Gabriela Pezzuti; Nicola Pugliese; Gianpiero Locatelli; Alfredo Siani; Nicola Maria Vitola

    2016-01-01

    The delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome can arise in the period from 4 days to 5 weeks following carbon monoxide poisoning, and is characterized by neuropsychological deficits, which in some cases become chronic. This case report describes an adult female who apparently suffered self-inflicted carbon monoxide poisoning. She was not treated with hyperbaric oxygen and developed delayed sequelae on day 20. The treatment started with 40 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and subsequently with ne...

  1. The Range of 1-3 keV Electrons in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, Jørgen

    1985-01-01

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than...... that in nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen....

  2. Selected constituents in the smokes of foreign commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide contents of the smokes of 220 brands of foreign commercial cigarettes are reported. In some instances, filter cigarettes of certain brands were found to deliver as much or more smoke constituents than their nonfilter counterparts. Also, data indicated that there can be a great variation in the tar, nicotine, or carbon monoxide content of the smoke of samples of a given brand of cigarettes, depending on the nation in which they are purchased. 24 tables.

  3. Effects of school district factors on alcohol consumption: results of a multi-level analysis among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, Christiane; Ejstrud, Bo; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    buildings. Other school district factors were not associated with drinking initiation when controlled for individual level factors. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of socio-economic variables at school district level seems to be smaller in the welfare state of Denmark than known for other countries. However...

  4. Increased alanine aminotransferase levels and associated characteristics among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients: Results from the DD2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Thomsen, Reimar W.; Rungby, Jørgen

    Objectives: Elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) have been linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. We examined ALAT levels in newly diagnosed T2D...

  5. Recurrent selection for transgene expression levels in maize results in proxy selection for a native gene with the same promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    High expression levels of a transgene can be very useful, making a transgene easier to evaluate for safety and efficacy. High expression levels can also increase the economic benefit of the production of high value proteins in transgenic plants. The goal of this research is to determine if recurre...

  6. Activation of locus coeruleus heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway promoted an anxiolytic-like effect in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Carvalho-Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway has been shown to play an important role in many physiological processes and is capable of altering nociception modulation in the nervous system by stimulating soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC. In the central nervous system, the locus coeruleus (LC is known to be a region that expresses the heme oxygenase enzyme (HO, which catalyzes the metabolism of heme to carbon monoxide (CO. Additionally, several lines of evidence have suggested that the LC can be involved in the modulation of emotional states such as fear and anxiety. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the activation of the heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway in the LC in the modulation of anxiety by using the elevated plus maze test (EPM and light-dark box test (LDB in rats. Experiments were performed on adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (n=182. The results showed that the intra-LC microinjection of heme-lysinate (600 nmol, a substrate for the enzyme HO, increased the number of entries into the open arms and the percentage of time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze test, indicating a decrease in anxiety. Additionally, in the LDB test, intra-LC administration of heme-lysinate promoted an increase on time spent in the light compartment of the box. The intracerebroventricular microinjection of guanylate cyclase, an sGC inhibitor followed by the intra-LC microinjection of the heme-lysinate blocked the anxiolytic-like reaction on the EPM test and LDB test. It can therefore be concluded that CO in the LC produced by the HO pathway and acting via cGMP plays an anxiolytic-like role in the LC of rats.

  7. Activation of locus coeruleus heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway promoted an anxiolytic-like effect in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Costa, P G; Branco, L G S; Leite-Panissi, C R A

    2016-01-01

    The heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway has been shown to play an important role in many physiological processes and is capable of altering nociception modulation in the nervous system by stimulating soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). In the central nervous system, the locus coeruleus (LC) is known to be a region that expresses the heme oxygenase enzyme (HO), which catalyzes the metabolism of heme to carbon monoxide (CO). Additionally, several lines of evidence have suggested that the LC can be involved in the modulation of emotional states such as fear and anxiety. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the activation of the heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway in the LC in the modulation of anxiety by using the elevated plus maze test (EPM) and light-dark box test (LDB) in rats. Experiments were performed on adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (n=182). The results showed that the intra-LC microinjection of heme-lysinate (600 nmol), a substrate for the enzyme HO, increased the number of entries into the open arms and the percentage of time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze test, indicating a decrease in anxiety. Additionally, in the LDB test, intra-LC administration of heme-lysinate promoted an increase on time spent in the light compartment of the box. The intracerebroventricular microinjection of guanylate cyclase, an sGC inhibitor followed by the intra-LC microinjection of the heme-lysinate blocked the anxiolytic-like reaction on the EPM test and LDB test. It can therefore be concluded that CO in the LC produced by the HO pathway and acting via cGMP plays an anxiolytic-like role in the LC of rats.

  8. REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE BY CARBON MONOXIDE OVER A SILICA SUPPORTED PLATINUM CATALYST: INFRARED AND KINETIC STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorimer, D.H.

    1978-08-01

    The reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide over a 4.5 weight precent platinum catalyst supported on silica was studied at 300 C. Reaction rate data was obtained together with in situ infrared spectra of species on the catalyst surface. The kinetics of the system were found to exhibit two distinct trends, depending on the molar ratio of CO/NO in the reactor. For net reducing conditions (CO/NO> 1) the catalyst underwent a transient deactivation, the extent of which was dependent on the specific CO/NO ratio during reaction. Reactivation of the catalyst was obtained with both oxidizing and reducing pretreatments. For molar feed ratios of CO/NO less than one, carbon monoxide conversion was typically 95 to 100%, resulting in strongly oxidizing conditions over the catalyst. Under these conditions no deactivation was apparent. Infrared spectra recorded under reaction conditions revealed intense bands at 2075 and 2300 cm{sup -1} , which were identified as carbon monoxide adsorbed on Pt and Si-NCO, respectively. Isocyanate bands formed under reducing conditions were more intense and exhibited greater stability than those formed under oxidizing conditions. A reaction mechanism based on the dissociation of nitric oxide as the rate-limiting step was used to correlate nitric oxide reaction rates and nitrous oxide selectivities observed under reducing conditions. As part of this mechanism it is assumed that nitrous bxide is formed via a Langmuir-Hinshelwood process in which an adsorbed nitrogen atom reacts with an adsorbed nitric oxide molecule. The nitric oxide reaction rate was found to be first order in nitric oxide partial pressure, and inverse second order in carbon monoxide partial pressure. A mechanism is proposed to qualitatively explain the deactivation process observed under reducing conditions. The essential part of this mechanism is the formation of an isocyanate species on the Pt crystallites of the catalyst and the subsequent transient diffusion of these

  9. Validation of lower tropospheric carbon monoxide inferred from MOZART model simulation over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarragunta, Y.; Srivastava, S.; Mitra, D.

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, MOZART-4 (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers-Version-4) simulation has been made from 2003 to 2007 and compared with satellite and in-situ observations with a specific focus on Indian subcontinent to illustrate the capabilities of MOZART-4 model. The model simulated CO have been compared with latest version (version-6) of MOPITT (Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere) carbon monoxide (CO) retrievals at 900, 800 and 700 hPa. Model reproduces major features present in satellite observations. However model significantly overestimates CO over the entire Indian region at 900 hPa and moderately overestimates at 800 hPa and 700 hPa. The frequency distribution of all simulated data points with respect to MOZART error shows maximum in the error range of 10-20% at all pressure levels. Over total Indian landmass, the percentage of gridded CO data that are being overestimated in the range of 0-30% at 900 hPa, 800 hPa and 700 hPa are 58%, 62% and 66% respectively. The study reflects very good correlation between two datasets over Central India (CI) and Southern India (SI). The coefficient of determination (r2) is found to be 0.68-0.78 and 0.70-0.78 over the CI and SI respectively. The weak correlation is evident over Northern India (NI) with r2 values of 0.1-0.3. Over Eastern India (EI), Good correlation at 800 hPa (r2 = 0.72) and 700 hPa (r2 = 0.66) whereas moderately weak correlation at 900 hPa (r2 = 0.48) has been observed. In contrast, Over Western India (WI), strong correlation is evident at 900 hPa (r2 = 0.64) and moderately weak association is found to be present at 800 hPa and 700 hPa. Model fairly reproduces seasonal cycle of CO in the lower troposphere over most of the Indian regions. However, during June to December, model shows overestimation over NI. The magnitude of overestimation is increasing linearly from 900 hPa to 700 hPa level. During April-June months, model results are coinciding with observed CO concentrations over SI

  10. Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, V.W.Y.; Wong, M.Y.P. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Cheng, S.H. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N., E-mail: appetery@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2012-07-15

    In the present work, the influence of a low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) liberated from tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium (II) (CORM-3) on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in vivo between embryos of the zebrafish was studied. RIBE was assessed through the number of apoptotic signals revealed on embryos at 25 h post fertilization (hpf). A significant attenuation of apoptosis on the bystander embryos induced by RIBE in a CO concentration dependent manner was observed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIBE between zebrafish embryos in vivo was assessed by the level of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO from 10 and 20 {mu}M CORM-3 entirely suppressed the RIBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO from 5 {mu}M CORM-3 significantly attenuated the level of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactive CORM-3 did not lead to suppression of RIBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppression of RIBE by CO depended on the concentration of CORM-3.

  11. [Heme oxygenase and carbon monoxide in the physiology and pathology of the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Jamroz, Anna; Borkowska, Ewelina

    2004-03-03

    Heme oxygenase (HO) degrades heme to carbon monoxide (CO), ferrous ions, and the bile pigment biliverdin, which is subsequently reduced to the other important bile pigment, bilirubin, by biliverdin reductase. Fe2+ liberated from the heme molecule upregulates ferritin production, and bile pigments are potent endogenous antioxidants. The HO enzyme exists in three isophorms: HO-1 is expressed at low levels under physiological conditions, but is induced by numerous factors, including oxidative stress, inflammation, nitric oxide, an elevated level of substrate, and hypoxia. HO-2 is a constitutive enzyme involved in the baseline production of CO in the cardiovascular and nervous systems, whereas HO-3 is also ubiquitously expressed, but possesses low catalytic activity. Like nitric oxide, CO activates soluble guanylate cyclase and elevates cGMP in target tissues, which dilates blood vessels. It also does this by directly activating potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, CO inhibits platelet aggregation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, inhibits apoptosis, and stimulates angiogenesis. Both deficiency, and excess of HO-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. Induction of HO-1 attenuates atherosclerosis and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Pharmacological and genetic induction of HO-1 as well as the delivery of exogenous CO are promising therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Donor pretreatment with carbon monoxide prevents ischemia/reperfusion injury following heart transplantation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritomo Fujisaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because inhaled carbon monoxide (CO provides potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects against ischemia reperfusion injury, we hypothesized that treatment of organ donors with inhaled CO would decrease graft injury after heart transplantation. Hearts were heterotopically transplanted into syngeneic Lewis rats after 8 hours of cold preservation in University of Wisconsin solution. Donor rats were exposed to CO at a concentration of 250 parts per million for 24 hours via a gas-exposure chamber. Severity of myocardial injury was determined by total serum creatine phosphokinase and troponin I levels at three hours after reperfusion. In addition, Affymetrix gene array analysis of mRNA transcripts was performed on the heart graft tissue prior to implantation. Recipients of grafts from CO-exposed donors had lower levels of serum troponin I and creatine phosphokinase; less upregulation of mRNA for interleukin-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α; and fewer infiltrating cells. Although donor pretreatment with CO altered the expression of 49 genes expressly represented on the array, we could not obtain meaningful data to explain the mechanisms by which CO potentiated the protective effects.Pretreatment with CO gas before organ procurement effectively protected cardiac grafts from ischemia reperfusion-induced injury in a rat heterotopic cardiac transplant model. A clinical report review indicated that CO-poisoned organ donors may be comparable to non-poisoned donors.

  13. Impact of Ground Level Enhancement from Solar Cosmic Rays on 20 January 2005 - Results for Ozone and Ionosphere Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velinov, P.; Tassev, Y.; Spassov, H.; Tomova, D.

    The influences of major solar proton flare from 20 January 2005 on the ionized and neutral components in the middle atmosphere are analyzed in this work This flare is accompanied by ground level enhancement of solar cosmic rays and strong geomagnetic storm with SSC on 22 January 2005 Kp index reaches 8 Short-term variations along the ozone profiles are discussed Ozone partial pressure measurements from the programme Halogen Occultation Experiment HALOE realized by the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite UARS are used The GOES-10 satellite obtained the data on high energy protons All energetic intervals 0 8 - 4 MeV 4 - 9 MeV 9 - 15 MeV 15 - 40 MeV 40 - 80 MeV 80 - 165 MeV 165 - 500 MeV are used Cosmic ray data from super neutron monitors Kiel - Germany 54 9 95 6 geomagnetic degree and Potchefstroom - South African Republic -27 3 -90 1 geomagnetic degree are analyzed also Statistical analysis with this big volume of data is accomplished Correlation and cross-correlation analysis between ozone and particle data is made Different behaviors of the ozone response in both hemispheres is obtained on the basis of these computations The ionosphere results for the same period are obtained in the observatory Sofia - Bulgaria by means of A3 method The minimal reflectance frequency fmin which characterizes the state of the lower ionosphere has unusual course For complement the other ionospheric parameters are involved also The present investigation is an example for complex analysis of solar and extra-terrestrial influence in the middle atmosphere

  14. The combination of MDPV and ethanol results in decreased cathinone and increased alcohol levels. Study of such pharmacological interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arnau, R; Buenrostro-Jáuregui, M; Muñoz-Villegas, P; Rodríguez-Morató, J; Ciudad-Roberts, A; Duart, L; Camarasa, J; De la Torre, R; Pubill, D; Escubedo, E

    2017-06-02

    Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a new psychostimulant cathinone acting as a selective dopamine transporter blocker. Due to the concomitant consumption of ethanol (EtOH) and new psychoactive substances, it is of interest to explore a possible pharmacological interaction between MDPV and EtOH. In locomotor activity assays, EtOH (1g/kg i.p.) elicited a reduction in the stimulant effect induced by low doses of MDPV (0.1-0.3mg/kg, s.c.) in rats, jointly with a decrease in blood and brain MDPV concentrations. Experiments in rat liver microsomes showed different effects depending on the [MDPV]/[EtOH] relationship, evidencing, at certain concentrations, the enhancing effect of EtOH on MDPV metabolism. These suggest that EtOH interacts with MDPV at microsomal level, increasing its metabolic rate. The interaction between both substances was also supported by results in plasma EtOH concentration, which were significantly increased by MDPV, in such a manner that EtOH elimination rate was significantly reduced. The possible toxicological impact of this phenomenon deserves further investigation. In contrast, the rewarding properties of MDPV were unaltered by EtOH. Microdialysis experiments verified that, in the NAcc, both substances could also act synergistically, in such a manner that extracellular dopamine concentrations are maintained. Finally, if the psychostimulant effect induced by MDPV decreased with EtOH, it could favor the boosting and re-dosing in search of the desired effects. However, as the rewarding effect of each dose of the substance would not decrease, the addictive liability could increase considerably. Moreover, we must warn about the increase in EtOH concentrations when consumed concomitantly with MDPV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. MATRIX 1 RESULTS OF THE FY07 ENHANCED DOE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-09-23

    High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). It has been proposed that a team of glass formulation and processing experts at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) at Catholic University of America develop a systematic approach to increase HLW throughput (by increasing WL with minimal or positive impacts on melt rate). Programmatically, this task is aimed at proof-of-principle testing and the development of tools to improve waste loading and melt rate, which will lead to higher waste throughput. The following four specific tasks have been proposed to meet this programmatic objective: (1) Integration and Oversight, (2) Crystal Accumulation Modeling (led by PNNL)/Higher Waste Loading Glasses (led by SRNL), (3) Melt Rate Evaluation and Modeling, and (4) Melter Scale Demonstrations. The details of these tasks can be found in the associated task plan WSRC-STI-2007-00483. The current study is focused on Task 2 (crystal accumulation modeling and higher waste loading glasses) and involves glass formulation and physical property testing by both PNNL and SRNL (as defined in the PNNL and SRNL test plans). The intent of this report is to document the chemical composition and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results and statistical analysis of PNNL's Test Matrix 1 glasses. Note that this document is only a compilation of the data collected by SRNL for PNNL's glasses in support of this task and no conclusions will be drawn.

  16. A novel strategy for antimicrobial agent: role of exogenous carbon monoxide on suppressing Escherichia coli vitality and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xuefeng; Shen, Weichang; Wang, Xu; Qin, Weiting; Sun, Bingwei

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a severe systemic inflammatory response mostly caused by gram-negative bacterial infections. The rates of mortality in sepsis patients remain high. To date little is known about whether exogenous carbon monoxide can directly or indirectly inhibit or even kill gram negative bacteria. In our study, wedemonstrate a critical role of CO-releasing molecules in the suppressive effects on bacterial vitality and toxicity. We found the bacterial growth and colony forming were markedly suppressed in the presence of CORM-2 with significant cell damage, decreased or disappeared pili and flagella. In contrast, qRT-PCR showed the expression of fliA was downregulated, while dnaKandwaaQ were upregulated in E. coli+CORM-2. Subsequent in vivo experiments showed the mouse survival in the CORM-2 intervened-E.coli injectiontended to improve with 60%-100% survival rates, and colony distribution in major organs were significantly decreased with attenuated histological damage. In parallel, cytokine levels and myeloperoxidase accumulation in livers and lungs decreased significantly compared with E. coli group.These data provide the first evidence and a potential strategy that exogenous carbon monoxide can significantly suppress bacterial vitality and toxicity. This may be associated with the regulatory functions of CORM-2 on the expression of essential genes (fliA, dnaKand waaQ) in E. coli.

  17. Results from the ATLAS Barrel Level-1 Muon Trigger Timing Studies Using Combined Trigger and Offline Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Salamanna, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger is one of the main elements of the first stage of event selection of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The challenge of the Level-1 system is a reduction of the event rate from a collision rate of 40 MHz by a factor $10^{3}$, using simple algorithms that can be executed with a latency of the order of 1 $mu$s. The input stage of the Level- 1 Muon consists of an array of processors receiving the full granularity of data from a dedicated detector (Resistive Plate Chambers in the Barrel). \

  18. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Bhopale, Veena M; Thom, Stephen R

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries.

  19. Carbon monoxide: from toxin to endogenous modulator of cardiovascular functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a pollutant commonly recognized for its toxicological attributes, including CNS and cardiovascular effects. But CO is also formed endogenously in mammalian tissues. Endogenously formed CO normally arises from heme degradation in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. While inhibitors of endogenous CO production can raise arterial pressure, heme loading can enhance CO production and lead to vasodepression. Both central and peripheral tissues possess heme oxygenases and generate CO from heme, but the inability of heme substrate to cross the blood brain barrier suggests the CNS heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may be independent of the periphery. In the CNS, CO apparently acts in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS promoting changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission and lowering blood pressure. At the periphery, the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system can affect cardiovascular functions in a two-fold manner; specifically: 1 heme-derived CO generated within vascular smooth muscle (VSM can promote vasodilation, but 2 its actions on the endothelium apparently can promote vasoconstriction. Thus, it seems reasonable that the CNS-, VSM- and endothelial-dependent actions of the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may all affect cardiac output and vascular resistance, and subsequently blood pressure.

  20. The Role of Oxygen Therapies in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Metin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate and socio-economic issues in Turkey, the incidence of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is high, especially in winter. Clinical manifestations may vary depending on the type of CO source, concentration and duration of exposure. The symptoms of CO poisoning predominantly manifest in lots of organs and systems with high oxygen utilization, especially the brain and the heart. The primary aim in oxygen therapy is to eliminate CO and to reduce its toxic effects. In this context, normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are used to achieve these goals. Normobaric oxygen (NBO treatment is an easily accessible and relatively not expensive modality, where hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy requires specific equipment, certified staff and is available only in some centers. Additionally, HBO treatment has several additional advantages over NBO treatment. Despite its benefits, it is compulsory to search for some criteria in selecting patients to be treated because of the limited availability and access of hyperbaric facilities. For an effective evaluation and an optimal treatment, advanced education of the healthcare professionals on the use of oxygen delivery modalities in the management of CO poisoning is imperative. In this review, it has been aimed to outline the significance of oxygen treatment modalities and to determine patient selection criteria for HBO treatment in the management of CO poisoning which continues to be an important threat to community health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 487-494