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Sample records for monoxide emission lines-into

  1. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop...

  2. Carbon Monoxide Emissions in Middle Aged Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Morgan; Gorti, Uma; Hales, Antonio; Carpenter, John M.; Hughes, A. Meredith

    2017-01-01

    Circumstellar disks greater than 10 Myr old, referred to as debris disks, are expected to be gas poor. The original gas and dust in these disks is thought to be accreted onto the host stars, used up in the formation of planets and other bodies, or blown out of the disks via stellar radiation. However, recent ALMA observations at millimeter wavelengths have led to the detection of carbon monoxide (J=2-1) emission in a few debris disks, prompting further investigation.Using ALMA data, two separate models of gas genesis were tested against observations of the CO emissions in the disks around HIP 73145, HIP 76310, and HIP 84881 in the Upper Sco association. One of these models was built on the hypothesis that the gas in these debris disks is left over from stellar formation and has persisted over uncommonly long periods of time. The other model is built on the hypothesis that this gas is of secondary nature, produced by collisions between planetary bodies in the debris disks. Model emissions were calculated using the Line Modeling Engine (LIME) radiative transfer code and were compared with observational data to infer gas masses under both production scenarios. The implications of the masses of carbon monoxide in the disks suggested by each of the two models are discussed.

  3. OMI Observations of Bromine Monoxide Emissions from Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Kurosu, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze bromine monoxide (BrO) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for emissions from various volcanoes. We use OMI data from 2005 to 2014 to investigate BrO signatures from Galapagos, Kasatochi and Eyjafjallajökull volcanoes. Elevated signatures of BrO daily averages were found over Eyjafjallajökull. SO2 cross sections are updated in the operational BrO algorithm and their effect on the volcanic BrO signature is studied. Comparison between two different sets of SO2 cross sections is made and results still show BrO enhancement over the Eyjafjallajökull region.

  4. The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

  5. Statistical parametric mapping in brain single photon computed emission tomography after carbon monoxide intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N; Nohara, S; Matsuda, H; Sumiya, H; Noguchi, K; Shimizu, M; Tsuji, S; Kinuya, S; Shuke, N; Yokoyama, K; Seto, H

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess regional cerebral blood flow in patients after carbon monoxide intoxication by using brain single photon emission computed tomography and statistical parametric mapping. Eight patients with delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae and ten patients with no neuropsychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide intoxication were studied with brain single photon emission tomography imaging with 99mTc-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime. Forty-four control subjects were also studied. We used the adjusted regional cerebral blood flow images in relative flow distribution (normalization of global cerebral blood flow for each subject to 50 ml x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) with proportional scaling) to compare these groups with statistical parametric mapping. Using this technique, significantly decreased regional cerebral blood flow was noted extensively in the bilateral frontal lobes as well as the bilateral insula and a part of the right temporal lobe in the patients with delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae as compared with normal volunteers (Pparametric mapping is a useful technique for highlighting differences in regional cerebral blood flow in patients following carbon monoxide intoxication as compared with normal volunteers. The selectively reduced blood flow noted in this investigation supports the contention that the decrease following carbon monoxide intoxication may be prolonged and further worsen in the frontal lobe. In addition, the present study may help to clarify the characteristics of the pathophysiological alteration underlying delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae.

  6. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from sand and living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide, CO, is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential of UV-induced CO emission by terrestrial surfaces. Real-time measurements of [CO] were made with a cavity enhanced laser connected in closed loop to either an ecosystem chamber or a leaf scale......−1, almost two-thirds of the latest estimated global CO burden of 360 Tg yr−1 (IPCC, 2001)....

  7. Effect of different emission inventories on modeled ozone and carbon monoxide in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amnuaylojaroen, T.; Barth, M. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Kreasuwun, J.; Prasitwattanaseree, S.; Chantara, S.

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve our understanding of air quality in Southeast Asia, the anthropogenic emissions inventory must be well represented. In this work, we apply different anthropogenic emission inventories in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.3 using Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART) gas-phase chemistry and Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) aerosols to examine the differences in predicted carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) surface mixing ratios for Southeast Asia in March and December 2008. The anthropogenic emission inventories include the Reanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition (RETRO), the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B), the MACCity emissions (adapted from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate and megacity Zoom for the Environment projects), the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS) emissions, and a combination of MACCity and SEAC4RS emissions. Biomass-burning emissions are from the Fire Inventory from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) (FINNv1) model. WRF-Chem reasonably predicts the 2 m temperature, 10 m wind, and precipitation. In general, surface CO is underpredicted by WRF-Chem while surface O3 is overpredicted. The NO2 tropospheric column predicted by WRF-Chem has the same magnitude as observations, but tends to underpredict the NO2 column over the equatorial ocean and near Indonesia. Simulations using different anthropogenic emissions produce only a slight variability of O3 and CO mixing ratios, while biomass-burning emissions add more variability. The different anthropogenic emissions differ by up to 30% in CO emissions, but O3 and CO mixing ratios averaged over the land areas of the model domain differ by ~4.5% and ~8%, respectively, among the simulations. Biomass-burning emissions create a substantial increase for both O3 and CO by ~29% and ~16

  8. Effect of different emission inventories on modeled ozone and carbon monoxide in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Amnuaylojaroen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve our understanding of air quality in Southeast Asia, the anthropogenic emissions inventory must be well represented. In this work, we apply different anthropogenic emission inventories in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem version 3.3 using MOZART gas-phase chemistry and GOCART aerosols to examine the differences in predicted carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 surface mixing ratios for Southeast Asia in March and December 2008. The anthropogenic emission inventories include the Reanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition (RETRO, the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B, the MACCity emissions (adapted from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate and megacity Zoom for the Environment projects, the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS emissions, and a combination of MACCity and SEAC4RS emissions. Biomass burning emissions are from the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINNv1 model. WRF-chem reasonably predicts the 2 m temperature, 10 m wind, and precipitation. In general, surface CO is underpredicted by WRF-Chem while surface O3 is overpredicted. The NO2 tropospheric column predicted by WRF-Chem has the same magnitude as observations, but tends to underpredict NO2 column over the equatorial ocean and near Indonesia. Simulations using different anthropogenic emissions produce only a slight variability of O3 and CO mixing ratios, while biomass burning emissions add more variability. The different anthropogenic emissions differ by up to 20% in CO emissions, but O3 and CO mixing ratios differ by ~4.5% and ~8%, respectively, among the simulations. Biomass burning emissions create a substantial increase for both O3 and CO by ~29% and ~16%, respectively, when comparing the March biomass burning period to December with low biomass burning emissions. The simulations show that none of the anthropogenic emission inventories are

  9. Satellite Carbon Monoxide Measurements as Top-Down Constraints on Fire Trace Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasibhatla, P.; Randerson, J.; van der Werf, G.; Giglio, L.; Collatz, J.; Defries, R.; Morton, D.

    2008-12-01

    There has been considerable progress in recent years in characterizing trace gas emissions from vegetation fires on a global scale. This progress has been driven by the availability of remotely-sensed vegetation and fire products, combined with the development of global-scale, process-based terrestrial biogeochemistry models that explicitly include fire. Nevertheless, significant uncertainties remain in our understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of trace gas emissions from fires, and in the underlying climatic and human factors that drive this variability. Here, we examine the extent to which remote sensing measurements of atmospheric trace gas concentrations can provide additional constraints of emissions from fires. Specifically, we focus on using the multi-year record of carbon monoxide measurements from the MOPITT instrument on the Terra platform in an inverse modeling framework to elucidate the reduction in uncertainty in fire emissions at regional scales afforded by these measurements. We further examine the sensitivity of our estimates to various aspects of the inverse modeling set-up in an attempt to characterize the robustness of the derived uncertainty estimates, with a specific emphasis on regions with high deforestation rates in South America and Equatorial Asia.

  10. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ...

  11. Anthropogenic emissions and space-borne observations of carbon monoxide over South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, Zia; Tariq, Salman; Ali, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    The focus of this study is to understand anthropogenic emissions, spatiotemporal variability and trends of carbon monoxide (CO) over South Asia by using datasets from MACCity (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate, MACC and megaCITY - Zoom for the Environment, CityZEN), REAS (Regional Emission inventory in Asia), AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) and SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY). MACCity anthropogenic emissions show an overall increase of 16.5% during 2000-2010. Elevated levels of MACCity CO are found in Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB), eastern mining region of India, Bangladesh and large urban areas. Some of the major contributors of these emissions have been identified as agricultural waste burning, land transport, industrial production, and energy generation and distribution. An area averaged mean value of AIRS CO at 600 hPa is found to be 114 ± 2 ppbv (slope -0.48 ± 0.2 ppbv yr-1, y-intercept 117 ± 1 ppbv and r = 0.68) with a minor declining trend at -0.41 ± 0.18% yr-1 over the region during 2003-2015. A strong seasonality in AIRS CO concentration is observed with spring season peak in March 129 ± 1.9 ppbv, whereas low values have been observed in summer monsoon with sturdy dip in July 99.6 ± 1.94 ppbv. AIRS CO and SCIAMACHY CO Total Column (CO TC) over the study region show spatial patterns similar to MACCity and REAS emissions. An analysis of SCIAMACHY CO TC tendencies has been performed which indicates minor rising trends over some parts of the region. Background CO, Recent Emissions (RE), and spatial anomalies in RE over high anthropogenic activity zones of Indus Basin, Ganges Basin and Eastern Region were analyzed using AIRS and SCIAMACHY CO data.

  12. Carbon monoxide formation and emissions during waste incineration in a grate-circulating fluidized bed incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguo Zhang; Qinghai Li; Aihong Meng; Changhe Chen

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of carbon monoxide (CO) formation and emissions in both grate drying bed incinerators and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerators to simulate the two key parts of a combined grate and circulating fluidized bed (grate-CFB) incinerator in order to investigate pollutant emission control in municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion that occurs in a grate-CFB incinerator utilizing a patented technology. Polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, kitchen waste, paper, textile, etc. were chosen to simulate the MSW. The effects of temperature, air staging, and moisture on the CO formation and emissions were analysed for both the grate drying bed combustion and the CFB combustion. In the grate drying bed, the low temperatures increased the carbon to CO conversion rate which also increased slightly with the moisture content. Industrial field tests in a commercial grate-CFB incinerator showed that the CO concentration at the grate drying bed exit was very high and decreased along furnace height. The carbon to CO conversion rates were 0-20% for the grate drying bed which exceeded the range of 0.8-16% measured in a grate drying bed exit of the commercial grate-CFB incinerator tests. In the commercial grate-CFB incinerator tests, at excess air ratios ranging from 1.5-2.0 or more, the CO emissions decreased to a low and stable level, whose corresponding carbon to CO conversion rates were far lower than 0-10%. The low CO emission is one of the factors enabling the polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran emissions to satisfy the Chinese national regulations.

  13. Effect of Combustion Air Pre-Heating In Carbon Monoxide Emission in Diesel Fired Heat Treatment Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E B Muhammed Shafi,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effect of combustion air pre- heating in Diesel fired heat Treatment Furnace. The main heat treatment processes are Normalizing, Tempering, Hardening, Annealing, Solution Annealing and Stress Relieving. The emission of carbon monoxide is measured with combustion air pre-heating and without preheating. The results are then compared and it is found that the emission of CO is reduced by 29.12%. With the Combustion air pre-heating a considerable reduction in Specific Furnace Fuel Consumption (SFFC is obtained. The test was caaried out at Peekay Steels Casting (P ltd, Nallalam, Calicut.

  14. A 3D model for carbon monoxide molecular line emission as a potential cosmic microwave background polarization contaminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, G.; Fabbian, G.; Baccigalupi, C.

    2017-08-01

    We present a model for simulating carbon monoxide (CO) rotational line emission in molecular clouds, taking account of their 3D spatial distribution in galaxies with different geometrical properties. The model implemented is based on recent results in the literature and has been designed for performing Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of this emission. We compare the simulations produced with this model and calibrate them, both on the map and the power spectrum levels, using the second release of data from the Planck satellite for the Galactic plane, where the signal-to-noise ratio is highest. We use the calibrated model to extrapolate the CO power spectrum at low Galactic latitudes where no high sensitivity observations are available yet. We then forecast the level of unresolved polarized emission from CO molecular clouds which could contaminate the power spectrum of cosmic microwave background polarization B modes away from the Galactic plane. Assuming realistic levels of the polarization fraction, we show that the level of contamination is equivalent to a cosmological signal with r ≲ 0.02. The MC MOlecular Line Emission (mcmole3d) python package, which implements this model, is being made publicly available.

  15. Process for the manufacture of a monolithic support for catalysts suitable for use in controlling carbon monoxide emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paolasini, S.

    1981-07-07

    A monolithic support for a catalyst suitable for use in controlling carbon monoxide emission is prepared by forming a homogeneous, fluid semi-solid mass by admixing colloidal gamma alumina, alpha alumina monohydrate and ceramic fibres with fluidizing and binding agents, water and a mineral acid, said acid being used in an amount sufficient to convert said alpha Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ monohydrate into a gel, forming the mass into a body of the desired shape, drying the body to substantially remove the added water, at least 10% of said added water being removed at a temperature lower than 50/sup 0/ C., and heat-treating the dried body at 800/sup 0/-1000/sup 0/ C.

  16. Interannual variability of carbon monoxide emission estimates over South America from 2006 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghiemstra, P. B.; Krol, M. C.; van Leeuwen, T. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Novelli, P. C.; Deeter, M. N.; Aben, I.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-08-01

    We present the first inverse modeling study to estimate CO emissions constrained by both surface and satellite observations. Our 4D-Var system assimilates National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) surface and Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite observations jointly by fitting a bias correction scheme. This approach leads to the identification of a positive bias of maximum 5 ppb in MOPITT column-averaged CO mixing ratios in the remote Southern Hemisphere (SH). The 4D-Var system is used to estimate CO emissions over South America in the period 2006-2010 and to analyze the interannual variability (IAV) of these emissions. We infer robust, high spatial resolution CO emission estimates that show slightly smaller IAV due to fires compared to the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) prior emissions. South American dry season (August and September) biomass burning emission estimates amount to 60, 92, 42, 16 and 93 Tg CO/yr for 2006 to 2010, respectively. Moreover, CO emissions probably associated with pre-harvest burning of sugar cane plantations in São Paulo state are underestimated in current inventories by 50-100%. We conclude that climatic conditions (such as the widespread drought in 2010) seem the most likely cause for the IAV in biomass burning CO emissions. However, socio-economic factors (such as the growing global demand for soy, beef and sugar cane ethanol) and associated deforestation fires, are also likely as drivers for the IAV of CO emissions, but are difficult to link directly to CO emissions.

  17. Laboratory and field investigations of particulate and carbon monoxide emissions from traditional and improved cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Christoph A.; Bond, Tami C.; Conway, Stuart; Osorto Pinel, Anibal Benjamin; MacCarty, Nordica; Still, Dean

    We implemented a program in which emission characterization is enabled through collaborations between academic, US and international non-governmental entities that focus on evaluation, dissemination, and in-use testing, of improved cookstoves. This effort resulted in a study of field and laboratory emissions from traditional and improved biofuel cookstoves. We found that field measured particulate emissions of actual cooking average three times those measured during simulated cooking in the laboratory. Emission factors are highly dependent on the care and skill of the operator and the resulting combustion; these do not appear to be accurately reproduced in laboratory settings. The single scattering albedo (SSA) of the emissions was very low in both lab and field measurements, averaging about 0.3 for lab tests and around 0.5 for field tests, indicating that the primary particles are climate warming. Over the course of three summers in Honduras, we measured field emissions from traditional cookstoves, relatively new improved cookstoves, and "broken-in" improved cookstoves. We found that well-designed improved cookstoves can significantly reduce PM and CO emission factors below traditional cookstoves. For improved stoves, the presence of a chimney generally resulted in lower emission factors but left the SSA unaffected. Traditional cookstoves had an average PM emission factor of 8.2 g kg -1 - significantly larger than previous studies. Particulate emission factors for improved cookstoves without and with chimneys averaged about 6.6 g kg -1 and 4.5 g kg -1, respectively. The elemental carbon (EC) fraction of PM varied significantly between individual tests, but averaged about 25% for each of the categories.

  18. Top-down estimation of carbon monoxide emissions from the Mexico Megacity based on FTIR measurements from ground and space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Stremme

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Continuous carbon monoxide (CO total column densities above the UNAM campus in Mexico City have been derived from solar absorption infrared spectroscopic measurements since October 2007. Its diurnal evolution is used in the present study in conjunction with other ground-based and satellite data to develop a top-down emission estimate of the annual CO emission of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The growth-rate of the total column around noon under low ventilation conditions is calculated and allows us to derive the average surface emission-flux at UNAM, while similar measurements taken at the edge of the MCMA in Tecámac provides information on background CO levels in the Mexico basin. Based on 3 yr of measurements, CO column measurements from the IASI satellite instrument are used to reconstruct the spatial distribution of this anthropogenic pollutant over the MCMA. The agreement between the measured columns of the satellite and ground-based measurements is excellent, particularly when a comparison strategy based on time-displaced air masses is used. The annual emission of the Mexico Megacity is estimated to be (2.15 ± 0.5 Tg yr−1 for the year 2008, while the official inventory for that year reported 1.6 Tg yr−1. The difference is slightly higher than the conservative uncertainty estimated in this work suggesting that the emission might be underestimated by the conventional bottom-up method. A larger discrepancy is found in the spatial distribution of the emissions, when comparing the emission flux over UNAM (derived from the ground-based measurement with that of the inventory integrated over a representative area. The methodology presented here represents a new and useful strategy to evaluate the contribution of megacities to the global anthropogenic gas emissions. Additionally, three different strategies to compare ground and space-based measurements above an inhomogeneous and strongly contaminated area like

  19. Interannual variability of carbon monoxide emission estimates over South America from 2006 to 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghiemstra, P.B.; Krol, M.C.; Leeuwen, van T.T.; Werf, van der G.R.; Novelli, P.C.; Deeter, M.N.; Aben, I.; Rockmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first inverse modeling study to estimate CO emissions constrained by both surface and satellite observations. Our 4D-Var system assimilates National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) surface and Measure

  20. Interannual variability of carbon monoxide emission estimates over South America from 2006 to 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghiemstra, P.B.; Krol, M.C.; van Leeuwen, T.T.; van der Werf, G.R.; Novelli, P.C.; Deeter, M.N.; Aben, I.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first inverse modeling study to estimate CO emissions constrained by both surface and satellite observations. Our 4D-Var system assimilates National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) surface and Measure

  1. Connecting Surface Emissions, Convective Uplifting, and Long-Range Transport of Carbon Monoxide in the Upper Troposphere: New Observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jonathan H.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Su, Hui; Neary, Lori; McConnell, John C.; Richards, Nigel A. D.

    2007-01-01

    Two years of observations of upper tropospheric (UT) carbon monoxide (CO) from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder are analyzed; in combination with the CO surface emission climatology and data from the NCEP analyses. It is shown that spatial distribution, temporal variation and long-range transport of UT CO are closely related to the surface emissions, deep-convection and horizontal winds. Over the Asian monsoon region, surface emission of CO peaks in boreal spring due to high biomass burning in addition to anthropogenic emission. However, the UT CO peaks in summer when convection is strongest and surface emission of CO is dominated by anthropogenic source. The long-range transport of CO from Southeast Asia across the Pacific to North America, which occurs most frequently during boreal summer, is thus a clear imprint of Asian anthropogenic pollution influencing global air quality.

  2. Semi-coke briquettes: towards reducing emissions of primary PM2.5, particulate carbon, and carbon monoxide from household coal combustion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Jiang, Jingkun; Duan, Lei; Ge, Su; Zhang, Qi; Deng, Jianguo; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Direct household use of unprocessed raw coals for cooking and heating without any air pollution control device has caused serious indoor and outdoor environment problems by emitting particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. This study examined household emission reduction by switching from unprocessed bituminous and anthracite coals to processed semi-coke briquettes. Two typical stoves were used to test emission characteristics when burning 20 raw coal samples commonly used in residential heating activities and 15 semi-coke briquette samples which were made from bituminous coals by industrial carbonization treatment. The carbonization treatment removes volatile compounds from raw coals which are the major precursors for PM formation and carbon emission. The average emission factors of primary PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and carbon monoxide for the tested semi-coke briquettes are much lower than those of the tested raw coals. Based on the current coal consumption data in China, switching to semi-coke briquettes can reduce average emission factors of these species by about 92%, 98%, 91%, and 34%, respectively. Additionally, semi-coke briquette has relatively lower price and higher burnout ratio. The replacement of raw coals with semi-coke briquettes is a feasible path to reduce pollution emissions from household activities.

  3. Effect of varying the combustion parameters on the emissions of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases from propane-fueled vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, B

    2000-05-01

    Propane-fueled forklifts are one source of carbon monoxide (CO) contamination of workplace air. The previous study carried out by the Quebec Occupational Health and Safety Research Institute dealt with worker exposure to CO during forklift use in buildings. It recommends that exhaust gas emissions be kept below a 1 percent concentration. However, this control has not produced a significant reduction in worker exposure to CO, when factors (ventilation, type of work tasks, and management of vehicle fleet) specific to companies are taken into account. Consequently, a reduction in CO emissions below the threshold of 0.3 percent should be considered. The experience acquired with propane-fueled ice resurfacers can be used to determine the effect of combustion parameters on exhaust gas emissions. It is known that a reduction in CO emissions from ice resurfacers resulted in the appearance of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and eventually in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) poisoning. Few publications present NOx results in relation to the CO measured in the exhaust gases of propane-fueled vehicles. The objective of this study is to define the level to which CO emissions can be reduced without increasing NOx concentrations. This real-situation study quantified the CO, NO, and NOx in the exhaust gases of a fleet of propane-fueled forklifts in relation to the mixture ratio. The results show the impact of the motor speed and mixture ratio on the CO, NO, and NO2 concentrations. They confirm an increase in NOx concentrations when CO concentrations are reduced. They also show that proper maintenance of forklifts combined with optimal adjustments can reduce CO and NOx emissions. The study proposes a compromise between CO and NOx emissions by taking into account worker health and safety as well as vehicle performance. Monitoring must be done to control air quality in work areas and worker exposure to CO and NO2. A forklift preventive maintenance program and general building ventilation are the favored

  4. Highly-resolved Modeling of Emissions and Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Fine Particulate Matter in Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Lin, J. C.; Mitchell, L.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate, high-resolution data on air pollutant emissions and concentrations are needed to understand human exposures and for both policy and pollutant management purposes. An important step in this process is also quantification of uncertainties. We present a spatially explicit and highly resolved emissions inventory for Salt Lake County, Utah, and trace gas concentration estimates for carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particles (PM2.5) within Salt Lake City. We assess the validity of this approach by comparing measured concentrations against simulated values derived from combining the emissions inventory with an atmospheric model. The emissions inventory for the criteria pollutants was constructed using the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The spatial and temporal allocation methods from the Emission Modeling Clearinghouse data set are used to downscale the NEI data from annual to hourly scales and from county-level to 500 m x 500 m resolution. Onroad mobile source emissions were estimated by combining a bottom-up emissions calculation approach for large roadway links with a top-down spatial allocation approach for other roadways. Vehicle activity data for road links were derived from automatic traffic responder data. The emissions inventory for CO2 was obtained from the Hestia emissions data product at an hourly, building, facility, and road link resolution. The AERMOD and CALPUFF dispersion models were used to transport emissions and estimate air pollutant concentrations at an hourly temporal and 500 m x 500 m spatial resolution. Modeled results were compared against measurements from a mobile lab equipped with trace gas measurement equipment traveling on pre-determined routes in the Salt Lake City area. The comparison between both approaches to concentration estimation highlights spatial locations and hours of high variability/uncertainty. Results presented here will inform understanding of variability and

  5. Constraints on emissions of carbon monoxide, methane, and a suite of hydrocarbons in the Colorado Front Range using observations of 14CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Tans

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric radiocarbon (14CO represents an important observational constraint on emissions of fossil-fuel derived carbon into the atmosphere due to the absence of 14CO in fossil fuel reservoirs. The high sensitivity and precision that accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS affords in atmospheric 14CO analysis has greatly increased the potential for using such measurements to evaluate bottom-up emissions inventories of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff, as well as those for other co-emitted species. Here we use observations of 14CO2 and a series of hydrocarbons and combustion tracers from discrete air samples collected between June 2009 and September 2010 at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO; Lat: 40.050° N, Lon: 105.004° W to derive emission ratios of each species to CO2ff. From these emission ratios, we estimate emissions of these species by using the Vulcan CO2ff high resolution data product as a reference. The species considered in this analysis are carbon monoxide (CO, methane (CH4, acetylene (C2H2, benzene (C6H6, and C3–C5 alkanes. Comparisons of top-down emissions estimates are made to existing inventories of these species for Denver and adjacent counties, as well as to previous efforts to estimate emissions from atmospheric observations over the same area. We find that CO is overestimated in the 2008 National Emissions Inventory (NEI, 2008 by a factor of ~2. A close evaluation of the inventory suggests that the ratio of CO emitted per unit fuel burned from on-road gasoline vehicles is likely over-estimated by a factor of 2.5. The results also suggest that while the oil and gas sector is the largest contributor to the CH4 signal in air arriving from the north and east, it is very likely that other sources, including agricultural sources, contribute to this signal and must be accounted for when attributing these signals to oil and gas industry activity from a top-down perspective. Our results are

  6. Accounting for representativeness errors in the inversion of atmospheric constituent emissions: application to the retrieval of regional carbon monoxide fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Koohkan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A four-dimensional variational data assimilation system (4D-Var is developed to retrieve carbon monoxide (CO fluxes at regional scale, using an air quality network. The air quality stations that monitor CO are proximity stations located close to industrial, urban or traffic sources. The mismatch between the coarsely discretised Eulerian transport model and the observations, inferred to be mainly due to representativeness errors in this context, lead to a bias (average simulated concentrations minus observed concentrations of the same order of magnitude as the concentrations. 4D-Var leads to a mild improvement in the bias because it does not adequately handle the representativeness issue. For this reason, a simple statistical subgrid model is introduced and is coupled to 4D-Var. In addition to CO fluxes, the optimisation seeks to jointly retrieve influence coefficients, which quantify each station's representativeness. The method leads to a much better representation of the CO concentration variability, with a significant improvement of statistical indicators. The resulting increase in the total inventory estimate is close to the one obtained from remote sensing data assimilation. This methodology and experiments suggest that information useful at coarse scales can be better extracted from atmospheric constituent observations strongly impacted by representativeness errors.

  7. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Satellite Validations of Ammonia, Methanol, Formic Acid, and Carbon Monoxide over the Canadian Oil Sands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The URLs link to the data archive of the Troposphere Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrievals. These include the transects included in the Canadian Tar Sands study. A...

  8. EXTREMELY STRONG CARBON-MONOXIDE EMISSION FROM THE CLOVERLEAF QUASAR AT A REDSHIFT OF 2.5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BARVAINIS, R; TACCONI, L; ANTONUCCI, R; ALLOIN, D; COLEMAN, P

    1994-01-01

    GALAXIES at high redshift are very faint and difficult to study at optical and near-infrared wavelengths, but detection of far-infrared emission(1) and molecular gas(2,3) in a galaxy at redshift z approximate to 2.3 has suggested that their early evolution may be investigated by these means instead.

  9. Detection of Far-Infrared Water Vapor, Hydroxyl, and Carbon Monoxide Emissions from the Supernova Remnant 3C 391

    CERN Document Server

    Reach, W T; Reach, William T.; Rho, Jeonghee

    1998-01-01

    We report the detection of shock-excited far-infrared emission of H2O, OH, and CO from the supernova remnant 3C 391, using the ISO Long-Wavelength Spectrometer. This is the first detection of thermal H2O and OH emission from a supernova remnant. For two other remnants, W~28 and W~44, CO emission was detected but OH was only detected in absorption. The observed H2O and OH emission lines arise from levels within ~400 K of the ground state, consistent with collisional excitation in warm, dense gas created after the passage of the shock front through the dense clumps in the pre-shock cloud. The post-shock gas we observe has a density ~2x10^5 cm^{-3} and temperature 100-1000 K, and the relative abundances of CO:OH:H2O in the emitting region are 100:1:7 for a temperature of 200 K. The presence of a significant column of warm H2O suggests that the chemistry has been significantly changed by the shock. The existence of significant column densities of both OH and H2O, which is at odds with models for non-dissociative ...

  10. EXTREMELY STRONG CARBON-MONOXIDE EMISSION FROM THE CLOVERLEAF QUASAR AT A REDSHIFT OF 2.5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BARVAINIS, R; TACCONI, L; ANTONUCCI, R; ALLOIN, D; COLEMAN, P

    1994-01-01

    GALAXIES at high redshift are very faint and difficult to study at optical and near-infrared wavelengths, but detection of far-infrared emission(1) and molecular gas(2,3) in a galaxy at redshift z approximate to 2.3 has suggested that their early evolution may be investigated by these means instead.

  11. Ambient particulate matter and carbon monoxide at an urban site of India: Influence of anthropogenic emissions and dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ravi; Sahu, L K; Beig, G; Tripathi, Nidhi; Jaaffrey, S N A

    2017-06-01

    Continuous measurements of PM2.5, PM10 and CO were conducted at an urban site of Udaipur in India from April 2011 to March 2012. The annual mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and CO were 42 ± 17 μg m(-3), 114 ± 31 μg m(-3) and 343 ± 136 ppbv, respectively. Concentrations of both particulate and CO showed high values during winter/pre-monsoon (dry) period and lowest in the monsoon season (wet). Local anthropogenic emission and long-range transport from open biomass burning sources along with favourable synoptic meteorology led to elevated levels of pollutants in the dry season. However, higher values of PM10/PM2.5 ratio during pre-monsoon season were caused by the episodes of dust storm. In the monsoon season, flow of cleaner air, rainfall and negligible emissions from biomass burning resulted in the lowest levels of pollutants. The concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and CO showed highest values during morning and evening rush hours, while lowest in the afternoon hours. In winter season, reductions of PM2.5, CO and PM10 during weekends were highest of 15%, 13% and 9%, respectively. In each season, the highest PM2.5/PM10 ratio coincided with the highest concentrations of pollutants (CO and NOX) indicating predominant emissions from anthropogenic sources. Exceptionally high concentrations of PM10 during the episode of dust storm were due to transport from the Arabian Peninsula and Thar Desert. Up to ∼32% enhancements of PM10 were observed during strong dust storms. Relatively low levels of O3 and NOx during the storm periods indicate the role of heterogeneous removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence of Convective Redistribution of Carbon Monoxide in Aura Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyin, Michael; Douglass, Anne; Schoeberl, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Vertical convective transport is a key element of the tropospheric circulation. Convection lofts air from the boundary layer into the free troposphere, allowing surface emissions to travel much further, and altering the rate of chemical processes such as ozone production. This study uses satellite observations to focus on the convective transport of CO from the boundary layer to the mid and upper troposphere. Our hypothesis is that strong convection associated with high rain rate regions leads to a correlation between mid level and upper level CO amounts. We first test this hypothesis using the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model. We find the correlation is robust and increases as the precipitation rate (the strength of convection) increases. We next examine three years of CO profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments aboard EOS Aura. Rain rates are taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B-42 multi-satellite product. Again we find a correlation between mid-level and upper tropospheric CO, which increases with rain rate. Our result shows the critical importance of tropical convection in coupling vertical levels of the troposphere in the transport of trace gases. The effect is seen most clearly in strong convective regions such as the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone.

  13. CO in the galactic center: A complete survey of carbon monoxide emission in the inner 4 KPC of the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitrancarreno, Mauricio Ernesto

    The first well-sampled, large scale survey of CO-12 (J = 1 yields 0) emission from the inner 4 kpc of the Galaxy is presented and used to study the distribution of molecular clouds and the kinematics of the molecular gas in the inner Galaxy. The survey samples a 4 deg wide strip along the Galactic equator from 1 = -12 deg to 1 = 13 deg. The over 8000 spectra obtained with the Columbia University Southern millimeter telescope (La Serena, Chile) have a velocity resolution of 1.3 km/s, a rms sensitivity better than 0.12 K, and are spaced by approximately one beamwidth (8.8 minutes). This is the first survey to encompass the complete latitude and velocity spans of the CO emission from the inner Galaxy. The survey is presented as a collection of 1-V, b-V, and 1-b maps. Features with the largest CO luminosities and velocity widths in the inner Galaxy, outside the nuclear regions, were fully mapped and analyzed. Molecular clouds in the surveyed area were identified and cataloged. The inclination and thickness of the molecular layer in the inner Galaxy were measured and their relevance to current models of the regions discussed. A lower limit for the surface density at the center was found and a CO rotation curve was calculated and compared to available H I rotation curves.

  14. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and smokers. Carbon monoxide can harm a fetus (unborn baby still in the womb). Symptoms of carbon ... symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. For those who survive, recovery is slow. How ...

  15. Measurements of hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides in an urban basin in Colorado: Implications for Emission Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldan, P. D.; Trainer, M.; Kuster, W. C.; Parrish, D. D.; Carpenter, J.; Roberts, J. M.; Yee, J. E.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    1995-11-01

    Concentrations of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the C3 to C10 range, CO, NOy (total reactive oxidized nitrogen), SO2, and meteorological parameters were measured concurrently at a site on the western perimeter of Boulder, Colorado, during February 1991. The measurement site, located some 150 m above the Boulder urban basin, receives air masses typifying averaged local sources. The highest hydrocarbon concentrations observed showed little effects of photochemical loss processes and reflect the pattern of the local emission sources. The observed ratios of CO and the VOCs to NOy are compared to those predicted by the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) inventory.These comparisons indicate (1) good agreement for CO/NOY, (2) significant overpredictions by the NAPAP inventory for many of the hydrocarbon to NOY ratios, (3) much more benzene from mobile sources (and less from area sources) than predicted by the NAPAP inventory, and (4) large underpredictions of the light alcohols and carbonyls by the NAPAP inventory. These first two results are in marked contrast to the conclusions of the recent tunnel study reported by Ingalls in 1989. Source profile reconciliation implies substantial input from both a local propane source and gasoline headspace venting.

  16. CARBON MONOXIDE TREATMENT GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is the leading cause of unintentional poisoning-related death in Slovenia. It is an odorless, colorless gas that usually remains undetectable until exposures result in injury or death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is most commonly accompanied by headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, confusion, drowsiness, fatigue and collapse. Carbon monoxide poisoning management includes normobaric oxygen therapy. Hyperbaric-oxygen treatments reduce the risk of cognitive sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning. 

  17. CO in the Galactic center: A complete survey of carbon monoxide emission in the inner 4 kpc of the Galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitran, C.; Ernesto, M.

    1987-01-01

    The first well-sampled, large scale survey of {sup 12}CO (J = 1 {yields} 0) emission from the inner 4 kpc of the Galaxy is presented and used to study the distribution of molecular clouds and the kinematics of the molecular gas in the inner Galaxy. The survey samples a 4{degree} wide strip along the Galactic equator from 1 = {minus}12{degree} to 1 = 13{degree}. The over 8000 spectra obtained with the Columbia University Southern millimeter telescope have a velocity resolution of 1.3 km s{sup {minus}1}, a rms sensitivity better than 0.12 K, and are spaced by approximately one beamwidth. The survey is presented as collection of 1-V, b-V, and 1-b maps. Several new CO features were observed, and the molecular counterparts of the classic H I structures appear with unprecedented clarity owing to the dense sampling, high sensitivity, and extended latitude coverage of this survey. Features with the largest CO luminosities and velocity widths in the inner Galaxy, outside the nuclear region, were fully mapped and analyzed. The author argues that these features are peculiar molecular clouds located in the vicinity of the Galactic center, and that their large internal kinetic energies (of the order of 10{sup 54} ergs) may have originated in a Seyfert-like event at the Galactic nucleus about one million years ago. Molecular clouds in the surveyed area were identified and catalogued. The inclination and thickness of the molecular layer in the inner Galaxy were measured and their relevance to current models of the region discussed. A lower limit for the surface density at the center was found, and a CO rotation curve was calculated and compared to available H I rotation curves.

  18. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main content Languages 简体中文 English Bahasa Indonesia 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase ... Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as ...

  19. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup.

  20. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

  1. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite observations of ammonia, methanol, formic acid, and carbon monoxide over the Canadian oil sands: validation and model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wealth of air quality information provided by satellite infrared observations of ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), formic acid (HCOOH), and methanol (CH3OH) is currently being explored and used for a number of applications, especially at regional or global scales. These ap...

  2. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide from Engine-Driven Generators and ... Engine-Driven Tools, 2004–2014 JANUARY 08, 2015 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2011 Annual Estimates View All ... Inside CPSC Accessibility ...

  3. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Search CPSC Search Menu Home Recalls Recall List CPSC Recall API Recall Lawsuits ... and Bans Report an Unsafe Product Consumers Businesses Home Safety Education Safety Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information ...

  4. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ... 2011 Annual Estimates View All CO-Related Injury Statistics and Technical Reports Related Links Recalls Safety Education ...

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ... Related Links Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources OnSafety Blogs ...

  6. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Community Outreach Resource Center Toy Recall Statistics CO Poster Contest Pool Safely Business & Manufacturing Business & Manufacturing Business ... Featured Resources CPSC announces winners of carbon monoxide poster contest Video View the blog Clues You Can ...

  7. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury Data ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 Annual Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire ...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  10. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & ... 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 ...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  12. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  13. Evaluation of anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide in East Asia derived from the observations of atmospheric radon-222 over the western North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We used the observed CO/222Rn ratio in the Asian outflows at Minamitorishima (MNM, Yonagunijima (YON, and Ryori (RYO in the western North Pacific from 2007 to 2011, together with a three-dimensional chemical transport model (STAG, in order to estimate anthropogenic emissions of CO in East Asia. The measurements captured high-frequency synoptic variations of enhanced 222Rn (ERN events associated with the long-range transport of continental air masses. 222Rn and CO showed high correlation during the ERN events observed at MNM and YON in the winter and spring, but not at RYO. The STAG transport model reproduced well the concentrations of observed 222Rn when forced with a constant and uniform flux density of 1.0 atom cm−2 s−1, but underestimated the associated enhancement of synoptically variable CO caused by the underestimated flux values in the EDGAR ver. 4.1 emission database used in the model for East Asia. Better estimates for the East Asian emission were derived using a radon tracer method based on the difference in the enhancement ratio of CO/222Rn between the observation and the model. The anthropogenic emissions of CO for China, Japan, and Korea were estimated to be 203 Tg CO yr−1, 91% of which originated in China. When compared with other estimated emissions of CO, our estimated result showed consistency with those of the inverse method, whereas the emission database of EDGAR was about 45% smaller than our anthropogenic estimation for China.

  14. Evaluation of anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide in East Asia derived from observations of atmospheric radon-222 over the Western North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We used the observed CO/222Rn ratio in Asian outflows at Minamitorishima (MNM, Yonagunijima (YON, and Ryori (RYO over the Western North Pacific from 2007 to 2011, together with a three-dimensional chemical transport model (STAG, in order to estimate anthropogenic emissions of CO in East Asia. The measurements captured high-frequency synoptic variations of enhanced 222Rn (ERN events associated with long-range transport of continental air masses. 222Rn and CO showed high correlation during the ERN events observed at MNM and YON in the winter and spring, but not at RYO. The STAG transport model reproduced well the concentration of observed 222Rn when forced with constant and uniform flux density of 1.0 atom cm−2 s−1, but underestimated the associated enhancement of synoptically variable CO caused by the underestimated flux values in the EDGAR ver. 4.1 emission database used in the model for East Asia. Better estimates for the East Asian emission were derived using a radon tracer method based on the difference in the enhancement ratio of CO/222Rn between observation and model. The anthropogenic emission of CO for China, Japan, and Korea was estimated to be 203 Tg CO yr−1, 93% of which originated in China. When compared with other estimated emissions of CO, our estimated result showed consistency with those of the inverse method, whereas the emission database of EDGAR was about 45% smaller than our anthropogenic estimation for China.

  15. Applications for waiver of effective date of the 1981 model year carbon monoxide (CO) emission standard for light-duty motor vehicles. second consolidated decision of the administrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-03

    Under the amended Clean Air Act of 1978, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has granted a waiver of the 3.4 g/mi CO emission standard to Toyo Kogyo Co. Ltd.'s 91 and 120 CID (cubic inch displacement) 1981 model year light-duty motor vehicles and has established an interim standard of 7.0 g/mi, because these models will be unable to incorporate an effective CO control technology to meet the statutory standard by 1981 and because the public health will not be unduly threatened by non-attainment of the 3.4 g/mi standard. This decision should enable Toyo Kogyo to market two of its engines without catalyst changes. CO emission standard waivers were denied to Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd., Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., and Renault for their respective 1981 light-duty motor vehicles, and to Toyo Kogyo for two 1982 vehicles and a rotary engine, mainly because these vehicles are thought able to meet the statutory standard for 1981 and 1982 even if costs, drivability, and fuel economy are considered.

  16. Influence of biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions on ozone, carbon monoxide and black carbon at the Mt. Cimone GAW-WMO global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cristofanelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the variability of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO and equivalent black carbon (BC at the Italian Climate Observatory "O. Vittori" (ICO-OV, part of the Mt. Cimone global GAW-WMO station (Italy. For this purpose, ICO-OV observations carried out in the period January 2007–June 2009, have been analyzed and correlated with the outputs of the FLEXPART Lagrangian dispersion model to specifically evaluate the influence of biomass burning (BB and anthropogenic emissions younger than 20 days. During the investigation period, the average O3, CO and BC at ICO-OV were 54 ± 3 ppb, 122 ± 7 ppb and 213 ± 34 ng m−3 (mean ± expanded uncertainty with p < 95%, with clear seasonal cycles characterized by summer maxima and winter minima for O3 and BC and spring maximum and summer minimum for CO.

    According to FLEXPART outputs, BB impact is maximized during the warm months from July to September but appeared to have a significant contribution to the observed tracers only during specific transport events. We characterised in detail five "representative" events with respect to transport scales (i.e. global, regional and local, source regions and O3, CO and BC variations. For these events, very large variability of enhancement ratios O3/CO (from −0.22 to 0.71 and BC/CO (from 2.69 to 29.83 ng m−3 ppb−1 were observed.

    CO contributions related with anthropogenic emissions (COant contributed to 17.4% of the mean CO value observed at ICO-OV, with the warm months appearing particularly affected by transport events of air-masses rich in anthropogenic pollution. The proportion of tracer variability that is described by FLEXPART COant peaked to 37% (in May–September for CO, 19% (in May–September for O3 and 32% (in January–April for BC. During May–September, the analysis of the correlation

  17. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When power outages occur after severe weather (such as winter storms, hurricanes or tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a ...

  18. Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Carbon Monoxide (CO) system provides high-precision atmospheric concentration measurements of CO mixing ratio (ppbv dry air) every 10...

  19. Carbon monoxide distributions from the upper troposphere to the mesosphere inferred from 4.7 μm non-local thermal equilibrium emissions measured by MIPAS on Envisat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Funke

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present global distributions of carbon monoxide (CO from the upper troposphere to the mesosphere observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on Envisat. Vertically resolved volume mixing ratio profiles have been retrieved from 4.7 μm limb emission spectra under consideration of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium. The precision of individual CO profiles is typically 5–30 ppbv (15–40% for altitudes greater than 40 km and lower than 15 km and 30–90% within 15–40 km. Estimated systematic errors are in the order of 8–15%. Below 60 km, the vertical resolution is 4–7 km. The data set which covers 54 days from September 2003 to March 2004 has been derived with an improved retrieval version including (i the retrieval of log(vmr, (ii the consideration of illumination-dependent vibrational population gradients along the instrument's line of sight, and (iii joint-fitted vmr horizontal gradients in latitudinal and longitudinal directions. A detailed analysis of spatially resolved CO distributions during the 2003/2004 Northern Hemisphere major warming event demonstrate the potential of MIPAS CO observations to obtain new information on transport processes during dynamical active episodes, particularly on those acting in the vertical. From the temporal evolution of zonally averaged CO abundances, we derived extraordinary polar winter descent velocities of 1200 m per day inside the recovered polar vortex in January 2004. Middle stratospheric CO abundances show a well established correlation with the chemical source CH4, particularly in the tropics. In the upper troposphere, a moderate CO decrease from September 2003 to March 2004 was observed. Upper tropospheric CO observations provide a detailed picture of long-range transport of polluted air masses and uplift events. MIPAS observations taken on 9–11 September 2003 confirm the trapping of convective outflow of polluted CO-rich air from

  20. (Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  1. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  2. Carbon monoxide formation in tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladon, R.J.; Staby, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is not emanated to any large extent from tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. cvs. Rutgers and Ohio MR-13), but is retained within the internal atmosphere. CO is found during all stages of fruit development, but no set pattern of CO concentration is evident.

  3. MOPITT Carbon Monoxide Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    MOPITT observed high levels of carbon monoxide (red and yellow pixels) over the Indian sub-continent during March. These values are associated with industrial activity in the region just south of the Himalayan Mountains. Notice that to the north, the Himalayas are characterized by low values (blue pixels).

  4. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, A.S. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI); Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  5. Investigations for the minimization of nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions of an atmospheric stationary fluidized-bed combustion process by primary measures; Untersuchungen zur Minimierung der Stickoxid- und Kohlenmonoxidemissionen einer atmosphaerischen, stationaeren Wirbelschichtfeuerung durch Primaermassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, G.

    1993-12-31

    The emissions of gaseous pollutants, particularly CO and NO{sub x} emissions, are to be reduced by up to 50% compared to the requirements of the current TA-Luft (air pollution abatement regulation). For this purpose apart from the bases of emission behaviour of fluidized bed combustion also the effects of special equipment for gradual air supply and measures which increase the temperature in the free space were investigated. Moreover the influence of different coal qualities on the pollutant concentration in the exhaust gas was evaluated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Emission an gasfoermigen Schadstoffen sind, insbesondere hinsichtlich der CO- und der NO{sub x}-Emission, um bis zu 50% gegenueber den Anforderungen der derzeit gueltigen TA-Luft zu vermindern. Dazu wurden neben den Grundsaetzen des Emissionsverhaltens der WSF auch die Einfluesse spezieller Vorrichtungen zur Stufenluftzufuhr und Massnahmen, die einer Temperaturerhoehung im Freiraum dienen, untersucht. Weiterhin wurde der Einfluss diverser Kohlequalitaeten auf die Schadstoffkonzentration im Rauchgas ermittelt. (orig.)

  6. Carbon monoxide conversion by anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and 55degreesC
    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and

  7. Design and fabrication of the high-power RF transmission line into the PEFP linac tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2012-07-01

    The 100-MeV proton linear accelerator (linac) for the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) has been developed and will be installed at the Gyeong-ju site. For the linac, a total of 11 sets of RF systems are required, and the waveguide layout was fixed to install high-power RF (HPRF) systems. One of the important interfaces with the building construction is the high-power radio-frequency (HPRF) transmission line embedded in the tunnel, which is used to transmit 1-MW RF power to each cavity in the tunnel. The waveguide section penetrating into the linac tunnel was designed with a bending structure for radiation shielding, and the dependence of its voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) on the chamfer length of the bending was calculated. The HPRF transmission line was fabricated into a piece of waveguide to prevent moisture and any foreign debris inside the 2.5-m thick concrete block. Air leakage was checked with a pressure of 0.25 psig of nitrogen gas, and a maximum VSWR of 1.196 was obtained by measuring the vector reflection coefficients with the quarter-wave transmission section. In this paper, the design and the fabrication of the HPRF transmission line into the PEFP linac tunnel are presented.

  8. The LINKS motif zippers trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthase assembly lines into a biosynthetic megacomplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Darren C; Wagner, Drew T; Meinke, Jessica L; Zogzas, Charles E; Gay, Glen R; Keatinge-Clay, Adrian T

    2016-03-01

    Polyketides such as the clinically-valuable antibacterial agent mupirocin are constructed by architecturally-sophisticated assembly lines known as trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthases. Organelle-sized megacomplexes composed of several copies of trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthase assembly lines have been observed by others through transmission electron microscopy to be located at the Bacillus subtilis plasma membrane, where the synthesis and export of the antibacterial polyketide bacillaene takes place. In this work we analyze ten crystal structures of trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthases ketosynthase domains, seven of which are reported here for the first time, to characterize a motif capable of zippering assembly lines into a megacomplex. While each of the three-helix LINKS (Laterally-INteracting Ketosynthase Sequence) motifs is observed to similarly dock with a spatially-reversed copy of itself through hydrophobic and ionic interactions, the amino acid sequences of this motif are not conserved. Such a code is appropriate for mediating homotypic contacts between assembly lines to ensure the ordered self-assembly of a noncovalent, yet tightly-knit, enzymatic network. LINKS-mediated lateral interactions would also have the effect of bolstering the vertical association of the polypeptides that comprise a polyketide synthase assembly line. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Carbon monoxide exposure in households in Ciudad Juárez, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Teresa; Gurian, Patrick L; Velázquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Rojo, Analila; Graham, Jay P

    2008-03-01

    This study assessed exposure to carbon monoxide from gas and wood heater emissions in a sample of 64 households in peri-urban residential areas in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Indoor and outdoor carbon monoxide concentrations and temperatures were monitored for a continuous period of 1 week at 1 and 6-min intervals, respectively. The moving average carbon monoxide concentrations were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for carbon monoxide. Sixty-seven percent of households with gas heaters and 60% of households with wood heaters exceeded a health-based standard at some point during the monitoring. The difference between indoor and outdoor temperatures was modestly correlated with average carbon monoxide exposure (r=0.35, p-value <0.01). Heater type may be a stronger determinant of exposure, as households with a particular heater model (the El Sol FM-210) were significantly more likely to be among the more highly exposed households (odds ratio of 4.8, p-value of 0.02). A variety of health effects were pooled and found at elevated frequency in the households that exceeded the 8-h standard of 9ppm (odds ratio=5.1, p-value=0.031). These results highlight the need for further efforts to identify and mitigate potentially hazardous carbon monoxide exposures, particularly in moderate-income countries with cooler climates.

  10. Chlorine Monoxide in the Antarctic Spring Stratosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Ayerbe, Mauricio

    1988-06-01

    A series of observations of stratospheric chlorine monoxide (ClO) were carried out during the austral springs of 1986 and 1987 in McMurdo Station, Antarctica, as part of two experimental campaigns sent to investigate the seasonal decrease in ozone over the antarctic continent (the ozone "hole"). Measurements of the vertical distribution of ClO were obtained by high resolution ground-based emission spectroscopy at 278 GHz, using the Stony Brook mm-wave receiver. They show the presence of an anomalous layer of lower stratospheric ClO which is not observed at other latitudes. This anomalous layer is centered at ~20 km altitude and exhibits a pronounced diurnal variation, reaching a maximum at midday and disappearing at night. During the period of Sep. 20-24, 1987, the lower-stratospheric ClO had a maximum volume mixing ratio of 1.8_sp{+0cdot5}{ -0cdot9} ppbv. A normal ClO layer centered at ~36 km was also observed, with concentrations and diurnal behavior similar to those seen in tropical latitudes. These findings are evidence of anomalous chlorine chemistry taking place in the lower stratosphere during the antarctic spring, and indicate that increasing anthropogenic chlorine is a prime causative agent in the formation of the ozone hole.

  11. The Carbon Monoxide Tape Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Filipiak, M.

    2006-01-01

    Using Aura MLS data we have identified the stratospheric tape recorder in carbon monoxide (CO). Unlike the water vapor tape recorder, which is controlled by upper troposphere processes, the CO tape recorder is linked to seasonal biomass burning. Since CO has a lifetime of only a few months, the CO tape recorder barely extends above 20 km. The tape head for CO appears to be close to 360K near the same location as the water vapor tape head [Read et al, 20041. Both tape heads are below the equatorial cold point tropopause but above the base of the tropical tropopause layer. The tape recorder signal becomes more distinct from 360K to 380K suggesting that convective detrainment of plays a decreasingly important role with altitude. The Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model forced by the climatology of biomass burning reproduces the CO tape recorder.

  12. Engineering evidence for carbon monoxide toxicity cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatsis, Kosmas

    2016-07-01

    Unintentional carbon monoxide poisonings and fatalities lead to many toxicity cases. Given the unusual physical properties of carbon monoxide-in that the gas is odorless and invisible-unorganized and erroneous methods in obtaining engineering evidence as required during the discovery process often occurs. Such evidence gathering spans domains that include building construction, appliance installation, industrial hygiene, mechanical engineering, combustion and physics. In this paper, we attempt to place a systematic framework that is relevant to key aspects in engineering evidence gathering for unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning cases. Such a framework aims to increase awareness of this process and relevant issues to help guide legal counsel and expert witnesses.

  13. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  14. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  15. Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 11/20/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 12/4/2007.

  16. Integrated electricity and carbon monoxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, J.

    1994-03-23

    In a process for the production of carbon monoxide and electric power in an IGCC with the removal of sulphur compounds, between the outlet of quenched gas from a partial oxidation unit and a fuel inlet to a combined cycle gas turbine there is a permeable membrane unit to separate a non-permeable stream, which is utilised as a source of carbon monoxide, and a permeate stream, which is used as fuel for the gas turbine of the combined cycle unit. (author)

  17. Variation characteristics of carbon monoxide and ozone over the course of the 2014 Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bokun; BIAN Lingen; ZHENG Xiangdong; DING Minghu; XIE Zhouqing

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of carbon monoxide and ozone in the marine boundary layer were measured during the 6th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (from July to September, 2014). Carbon monoxide concentration ranged between 47.00 and 528.52 ppbv with an average of 103.59 ± 40.37 ppbv. A slight decrease with increasing latitude was observed, except for the extremely high values over the East China Sea which may be attributed to anthropogenic emissions. Ozone concentration ranged between 3.27 and 77.82 ppbv with an average of 29.46±10.48 ppbv. Ozone concentration decreased sharply with increasing latitude outside the Arctic Ocean (during both the northward and the southward course), while no significant variation was observed over the Arctic Ocean. The positive correlation between carbon monoxide and ozone in most sections suggests that the ozone in the marine boundary layer mainly originated from photochemical reactions involving carbon monoxide.

  18. Microwave Radiometer for Spectral Observations of Mesospheric Carbon Monoxide at 115 GHz Over Kharkiv, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piddyachiy, Valeriy; Shulga, Valerii; Myshenko, Valeriy; Korolev, Alexey; Antyufeyev, Oleksandr; Shulga, Dmytro; Forkman, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of the development of high sensitivity microwave radiometer designed for observation of the atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) emission lines at 115 GHz. The receiver of this radiometer has the double-sideband noise temperature of 250 K at a temperature of 10°C. To date, this is the best noise performance for uncooled Schottky diode mixer receiver systems. The designed radiometer was tested during the 2014-2015 period at observations of the carbon monoxide emission lines over Kharkiv, Ukraine (50° N, 36.3° E). These tests have shown the reliability of the receiver system, which allows us in the future to use designed radiometer for continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide. The first observations of the atmospheric carbon monoxide spectral lines over Kharkiv have confirmed seasonal changes in the CO abundance and gave us reasons to assume the spread of the influence of the polar vortex on the state of the atmosphere up to the latitude of 50° N where our measurement system is located.

  19. Microwave Radiometer for Spectral Observations of Mesospheric Carbon Monoxide at 115 GHz Over Kharkiv, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piddyachiy, Valeriy; Shulga, Valerii; Myshenko, Valeriy; Korolev, Alexey; Antyufeyev, Oleksandr; Shulga, Dmytro; Forkman, Peter

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of the development of high sensitivity microwave radiometer designed for observation of the atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) emission lines at 115 GHz. The receiver of this radiometer has the double-sideband noise temperature of 250 K at a temperature of 10°C. To date, this is the best noise performance for uncooled Schottky diode mixer receiver systems. The designed radiometer was tested during the 2014-2015 period at observations of the carbon monoxide emission lines over Kharkiv, Ukraine (50° N, 36.3° E). These tests have shown the reliability of the receiver system, which allows us in the future to use designed radiometer for continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide. The first observations of the atmospheric carbon monoxide spectral lines over Kharkiv have confirmed seasonal changes in the CO abundance and gave us reasons to assume the spread of the influence of the polar vortex on the state of the atmosphere up to the latitude of 50° N where our measurement system is located.

  20. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  1. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... regenerator any gases that contain carbon monoxide (CO) in excess of 500 ppm by volume (dry basis)....

  2. [Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  3. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH CARBON MONOXIDE Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Recommendations NIOSH Publications Worker Notification Program Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines Many ...

  4. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb...

  5. 40 CFR 52.348 - Emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.348 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.348 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Colorado submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventories for...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1391 - Emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1391 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1391 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Montana submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission...

  7. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...

  8. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS , spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  9. Modelling of Carbon Monoxide Air Pollution in Larg Cities by Evaluetion of Spectral LANDSAT8 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; Sadeghian, S.; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS ), spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  10. 75 FR 48860 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Revisions to Emissions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... criteria pollutants such as ozone, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide. The revisions add new... Mexico outside of Bernalillo County to report emissions location information, PM 2.5 emissions, and..., and currently address six criteria pollutants: carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone,...

  11. Database of normal human cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, cerebral oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen measured by positron emission tomography with {sup 15}O-labelled carbon dioxide or water, carbon monoxide and oxygen: a multicentre study in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Akita Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Division of Brain Sciences, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-Machi, 980-8575, Aoba-Ku, Sendai (Japan); Kanno, Iwao [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Akita Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan); Kato, Chietsugu [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Sasaki, Toshiaki [Cyclotoron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Morioka (Japan); Ishii, Kenji [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo (Japan); Ouchi, Yasuomi [Positron Medical Center, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamakita (Japan); Iida, Akihiko [Nagoya City Rehabilitation Center, Nagoya (Japan); Okazawa, Hidehiko [PET Unit, Research Institute, Shiga Medical Center, Moriyama (Japan); Hayashida, Kohei [Department of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka (Japan); Ishii, Kazunari [Division of Imaging Research, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Kuwabara, Yasuo [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Senda, Michio [Department of Image-based Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan)

    2004-05-01

    Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) by positron emission tomography (PET) with oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide (C{sup 15}O{sub 2}) or {sup 15}O-labelled water (H{sub 2}{sup 15}O), {sup 15}O-labelled carbon monoxide (C{sup 15}O) and {sup 15}O-labelled oxygen ({sup 15}O{sub 2}) is useful for diagnosis and treatment planning in cases of cerebrovascular disease. The measured values theoretically depend on various factors, which may differ between PET centres. This study explored the applicability of a database of {sup 15}O-PET by examining between-centre and within-centre variation in values. Eleven PET centres participated in this multicentre study; seven used the steady-state inhalation method, one used build-up inhalation and three used bolus administration of C{sup 15}O{sub 2} (or H{sub 2}{sup 15}O) and {sup 15}O{sub 2}. All used C{sup 15}O for measurement of CBV. Subjects comprised 70 healthy volunteers (43 men and 27 women; mean age 51.8{+-}15.1 years). Overall mean{+-}SD values for cerebral cortical regions were: CBF=44.4{+-}6.5 ml 100 ml{sup -1} min{sup -1}; CBV=3.8{+-}0.7 ml 100 ml{sup -1}; OEF=0.44{+-}0.06; CMRO{sub 2}=3.3{+-}0.5 ml 100 ml{sup -1} min{sup -1}. Significant between-centre variation was observed in CBV, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} by one-way analysis of variance. However, the overall inter-individual variation in CBF, CBV, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} was acceptably small. Building a database of normal cerebral haemodynamics obtained by the{sup 15}O-PET methods may be practicable. (orig.)

  12. Description and History of the MOBILE Highway Vehicle Emission Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOBILE is an EPA model for estimating pollution from highway vehicles. It has been superseded by the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES). MOBILE calculates emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO).

  13. Atomic hydrogen and diatomic titanium-monoxide molecular spectroscopy in laser-induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parigger, Christian G.; Woods, Alexander C.

    2017-03-01

    This article gives a brief review of experimental studies of hydrogen Balmer series emission spectra. Ongoing research aims to evaluate early plasma evolution following optical breakdown in laboratory air. Of interest is as well laser ablation of metallic titanium and characterization of plasma evolution. Emission of titanium monoxide is discussed together with modeling of diatomic spectra to infer temperature. The behavior of titanium particles in plasma draws research interests ranging from the modeling of stellar atmospheres to the enhancement of thin film production via pulsed laser deposition.

  14. Photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortschak, H.P.; Nickell, L.G.

    1973-01-01

    The photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane was studied to determine whether substantial quantities of CO are removed from the air by fields in Hawaii. Leaves metabolized low CO concentrations photosynthetically, with sucrose as an end product. Rates of uptake were of the order of 10/sup -4/ power mg/d sq m/hr. This was to low to be significant in removing CO from the atmosphere.

  15. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Pillion

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

  16. Shock tube measurements of growth constants in the branched chain formaldehyde-carbon monoxide-oxygen system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabbs, T. A.; Brokaw, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Exponential free radical growth constants were measured for formaldehyde carbon monoxide-oxygen systems by monitoring the growth of oxygen atom concentration as manifested by CO flame band emission. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 1200 to 2000 K. The data were analyzed using a formaldehyde oxidation mechanism involving 12 elementary reaction steps. The computed growth constants are roughly in accord with experimental values, but are much more temperature dependent. The data was also analyzed assuming formaldehyde is rapidly decomposed to carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Growth constants computed for the resulting carbon monoxide hydrogen oxygen mixtures have a temperature dependence similar to experiments; however, for most mixtures, the computed growth constants were larger than experimental values.

  17. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

  18. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposed the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide...

  19. On Estimation of Contamination from Hydrogen Cyanide in Carbon Monoxide Line-intensity Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Dongwoo T.; Li, Tony Y.; Viero, Marco P.; Church, Sarah E.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2017-09-01

    Line-intensity mapping surveys probe large-scale structure through spatial variations in molecular line emission from a population of unresolved cosmological sources. Future such surveys of carbon monoxide line emission, specifically the CO(1-0) line, face potential contamination from a disjointed population of sources emitting in a hydrogen cyanide emission line, HCN(1-0). This paper explores the potential range of the strength of HCN emission and its effect on the CO auto power spectrum, using simulations with an empirical model of the CO/HCN–halo connection. We find that effects on the observed CO power spectrum depend on modeling assumptions but are very small for our fiducial model, which is based on current understanding of the galaxy–halo connection. Given the fiducial model, we expect the bias in overall CO detection significance due to HCN to be less than 1%.

  20. Constraining CO emission estimates using atmospheric observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghiemstra, P.B.

    2012-01-01

    We apply a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system to optimize carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and to reduce the uncertainty of emission estimates from individual sources using the chemistry transport model TM5. In the first study only a limited amount of surface network obs

  1. Analysis of Carbon Monoxide in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Benjamin P.; Stephens, Joseph C.

    2003-04-01

    Forensic tests used to perform the qualitative and quantitative analyses of carbon monoxide in blood are described. The qualitative test uses the diffusion of CO, which is released from blood by reaction with H2SO4, into a PdCl2 solution in a Conway cell and the resultant formation of a palladium mirror. The quantitative analysis is based on the absorption of visible light by carboxyhemoglobin at 541 nm and reduced hemoglobin at 555 nm. Both procedures are suitable for undergraduate chemistry experiments.

  2. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms.

  3. Observations of iodine monoxide columns from satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schönhardt

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodine species in the troposphere are linked to ozone depletion and new particle formation. In this study, a full year of iodine monoxide (IO columns retrieved from measurements of the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument is presented, coupled with a discussion of their uncertainties and the detection limits. The largest amounts of IO are found near springtime in the Antarctic. A seasonal variation of iodine monoxide in Antarctica is revealed with high values in springtime, slightly less IO in the summer period and again larger amounts in autumn. In winter, no elevated IO levels are found in the areas accessible to satellite measurements. This seasonal cycle is in good agreement with recent ground-based measurements in Antarctica. In the Arctic region, no elevated IO levels were found in the period analysed. This implies that different conditions with respect to iodine release exist in the two Polar Regions. To investigate possible release mechanisms, comparisons of IO columns with those of tropospheric BrO, and ice coverage are described and discussed. Some parallels and interesting differences between IO and BrO temporal and spatial distributions are identified. Overall, the large spatial coverage of satellite retrieved IO data and the availability of a long-term dataset provide new insight about the abundances and distributions of iodine compounds in the troposphere.

  4. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I. van der

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large.

  5. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I. van der

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large. There

  6. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented.

  7. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

    1983-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

  8. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  9. A Southern Hemisphere atmospheric history of carbon monoxide from South Pole firn air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, M.; Novelli, P. C.; Holmes, C. D.; Prather, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a reactive trace gas and is important to tropospheric photochemistry as a major sink of hydroxyl radicals (OH). Major sources of CO are fossil fuel combustion, linked mostly to automotive emissions, biomass burning, and oxidation of atmospheric methane. Understanding changes in carbon monoxide over the past century will improve our understanding of man's influence on the reactivity of the atmosphere. Little observational information is available about CO levels and emissions prior to the 1990s, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. The NOAA global flask network provides the most complete instrumental record of CO, extending back to 1988. Annually averaged surface flask measurements suggest atmospheric CO levels at South Pole were relatively stable from 2004-2009 at about 51 nmol mol-1 [Novelli and Masarie, 2013]. In this study, a 20th century atmospheric history of CO is reconstructed from South Pole firn air measurements, using a 1-D firn air diffusion model. Firn air samples were collected in glass flasks from two adjacent holes drilled from the surface to 118 m at South Pole, Antarctica during the 2008/2009 field season and CO analysis was carried out by NOAA/CCG. Carbon monoxide levels increase from about 45 nmol mol-1 in the deepest firn sample at 116 m to 52 nmol mol-1 at 107 m, and remain constant at about 51-52 nmol mol-1 at shallower depths. Atmospheric histories based on the firn air reconstructions suggest that CO levels over Antarctica increased by roughly 40% (from about 36 to 50 nmol mol-1) between 1930-1990, at a rate of about 0.18 nmol mol-1 yr-1. Firn air and surface air results suggest the rate of CO increase at South Pole slowed considerably after 1990. The firn air-based atmospheric history is used to infer changes in Southern Hemisphere CO emissions over the 20th century.

  10. Detection of the J = 6 - 5 transition of carbon monoxide. [in Orion molecular cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, P. F.; Erickson, N. R.; Fetterman, H. R.; Clifton, B. J.; Peck, D. D.; Tannenwald, P. E.; Koepf, G. A.; Buhl, D.; Mcavoy, N.

    1981-01-01

    The J = 6 - 5 rotational transition of carbon monoxide has been detected in emission from the KL 'plateau source' in the Orion molecular cloud. The corrected peak antenna temperature is 100 K, and the FWHM line width is 26 km/sec. These observations were carried out using the 3 m telescope of the NASA IRTF (Infrared Telescope Facility) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and constitute the first astronomical data obtained at submillimeter wavelengths with a heterodyne system using a laser local oscillator. The data support the idea that the high-velocity dispersion CO in Orion is optically thin and set a lower limit to its temperature of approximately 180 K.

  11. Modeling Potential Carbon Monoxide Exposure Due to Operation of a Major Rocket Engine Altitude Test Facility Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotzer, Michael J.; Woods, Jody L.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews computational fluid dynamics as a tool for modelling the dispersion of carbon monoxide at the Stennis Space Center's A3 Test Stand. The contents include: 1) Constellation Program; 2) Constellation Launch Vehicles; 3) J2X Engine; 4) A-3 Test Stand; 5) Chemical Steam Generators; 6) Emission Estimates; 7) Located in Existing Test Complex; 8) Computational Fluid Dynamics; 9) Computational Tools; 10) CO Modeling; 11) CO Model results; and 12) Next steps.

  12. Carbon monoxide exchange and partitioning of a managed mountain meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerle, Albin; Kitz, Florian; Spielmann, Felix; Gerdel, Katharina; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2016-04-01

    With an average mole fraction of 100 ppb carbon monoxide (CO) plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and thus has an indirect global warming potential. While sources/sinks of CO on land at least partially cancel out each other, the magnitude of CO sources and sinks is highly uncertain. Even if direct CO fluxes from/to land ecosystems are very much likely clearly lower in magnitude compared to anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, emissions from chemical precursors and the OH sink, it may be premature to neglect any direct contributions of land ecosystems to the CO budget. In addition, changes in global climate and resulting changes in global productivity may require re-evaluating older data and assumptions. One major reason for the large uncertainty is a general scarcity of empirical data. An additional factor contributing to the uncertainty is the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present data on continuous eddy covariance measurements of CO-fluxes above a managed mountain grassland in combination with soil chamber flux measurements, within- and above-canopy concentration profiles and an inverse Lagrangian analysis to disentangle sinks and sources of CO. Results show the grassland ecosystem to be a net source for CO during daytime, with increasing flux rates at higher solar radiation. At night, if at all, the meadow is a slight sink for CO. The same holds true regarding the soil flux measurements. Additionally, a two-month rainout experiment revealed hardly any differences in CO soil fluxes between rainout- and control-plots unless extremely dry conditions were reached.

  13. Reduction of carbon monoxide. Past research summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, R.R.

    1981-10-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  14. Syncope Associated with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning due to Narghile Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Narghile smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, and it has been practiced extensively for 400 years. Traditionally, narghile smoking is a matter of culture mainly in Middle East, Asia, and Africa. In recent years, its use as a social activity has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking is an unusual cause of carbon monoxide poisoning. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide. We present an acute syncope case of a 19-year-old male patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning after narghile smoking.

  15. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  16. US EPA Region 9 carbon monoxide designated areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon Feature class of Nonattainment Areas for Carbon Monoxide. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  17. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaabi, Juma M; Wheatley, Andrew D; Barss, Peter; Al Shamsi, Mariam; Lababidi, Anis; Mushtaq, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is rare in the Arabian Peninsula and occurs almost exclusively during the winter months. Knowledge and perception of the hazards of carbon monoxide is limited. Migrant workers from warm climates appear particularly at risk. We investigated 46 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning presenting at emergency departments from 2007-2009 of the two main hospitals in Al Ain city, United Arab Emirates. Interviews, hospital records, and administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Among the 46 cases investigated, 24 (52%) were males. Foreign nationals compromised 80% of the cases and the incidence was 3.1 cases per 100,000 residents per year. Burning charcoal in poorly ventilated residences was the predominant source of the carbon monoxide poisoning. Almost all cases (98%) were admitted during the winter months, most in the early morning hours. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) was significantly increased in cases with loss of consciousness and depressed consciousness. There were no reported fatalities.

  18. Same Exposure, Various Clinical Pictures: The Carbon Monoxide Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Salmanoglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available -Children and adolescents exposed to the same source of carbon monoxide have been shown to demonstrate different clinical pictures (1,2. The same condition probably may be extrapolated between children with varying ages and hence lung surface areas. Smaller children will receive larger doses of carbon monoxide, because they have greater lung surface area/body weight ratios and increased minute volumes/weight ratios. As carbon monoxide accumulation is expected to be more significant nearer to the ground, another explanation for varying clinical pictures in poisoning events may be the different level of sleeping positions of the casualties. Herein, we report a cluster poisoning of carbon monoxide affecting 5 children from the same family at the same time but in different clinical pictures. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 118-118

  19. A 60-yr record of atmospheric carbon monoxide reconstructed from Greenland firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Petrenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere (NH high latitude atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO mole fraction from Greenland firn air. Firn air samples were collected at three deep ice core sites in Greenland (NGRIP in 2001, Summit in 2006 and NEEM in 2008. CO records from the three sites agree well with each other as well as with recent atmospheric measurements, indicating that CO is well preserved in the firn at these sites. CO atmospheric history was reconstructed back to the year 1950 from the measurements using a combination of two forward models of gas transport in firn and an inverse model. The reconstructed history suggests that Arctic CO was already higher in 1950 than it is today. CO mole fractions rose gradually until the 1970s and peaked in the 1970s or early 1980s, followed by a decline to today's levels. We compare the CO history with the atmospheric histories of methane, light hydrocarbons, molecular hydrogen, CO stable isotopes and hydroxyl radical (OH, as well as with published CO emission inventories and results of a historical run from a chemistry-transport model. We find that the reconstructed Greenland CO history cannot be reconciled with available emission inventories unless large changes in OH are assumed. We argue that the available CO emission inventories chronically underestimate NH emissions, and fail to capture the emission decline starting in the late 1970s, which was most likely due to reduced emissions from road transportation in North America and Europe.

  20. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure.

  1. Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Brian E.

    Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

  2. First-Principles Investigations on Europium Monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2011-05-01

    Europium monoxide is both an insulator and a Heisenberg ferromagnet (Tc=69 K). In the present thesis, the author has investigated the electronic structure of different types of EuO by density functional theory. The on-site Coulomb interaction of the localized Eu 4f and 5d electrons, which is wrongly treated in the standard generalized gradient approximation method, is found to be crucial to obtain the correct insulating ground state as observed in experiments. Our results show that the ferromagnetism is stable under pressure, both hydrostatic and uniaxial. For both types of pressure an insulator-metal transition is demonstrated. Moreover, the experimentally observed insulator-metal transition in oxygen deficient and gadolinium-doped EuO is reproduced in our calculations for impurity concentrations of 6.25% and 25%. Furthermore, a 10- layer EuO thin film is theoretically predicted to be an insulator with a narrow band gap of around 0.08 eV, while the Si/EuO interface shows metallic properties with the Si and O 2p as well as Eu 5d bands crossing the Fermi level.

  3. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) ......) in arterial blood. The objectives were to determine the level of correlation and to determine whether the methods showed agreement and evaluate them as diagnostic tests in discriminating between heavy and light smokers....

  4. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Pt-, Fe-, and Zn-doped SnO2 Nanospheres and Carbon Monoxide Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure and M-doped (M = Pt, Fe, and Zn SnO2 nanospheres were successfully synthesized via a simple and facile hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Chemical gas sensors were fabricated based on the as-synthesized nanostructures, and carbon monoxide sensing properties were systematically measured. Compared to pure, Fe-, and Zn-doped SnO2 nanospheres, the Pt-doped SnO2 nanospheres sensor exhibits higher sensitivity, lower operating temperature, more rapid response and recovery, better stability, and excellent selectivity. In addition, a theoretical study based on the first principles calculation was conducted. All results demonstrate the potential of Pt dopant for improving the gas sensing properties of SnO2-based sensors to carbon monoxide.

  5. Aerial sampling of emissions from biomass pile burns in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), ...

  6. CO Emissions from Gas Engines Operating on Biomass Producer Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, T. K.; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2004-01-01

    High carbon monoxide (CO) emission from gas engines fueled by producer gas is a concerning problem in the struggle to make biomass gasification for heat and power production a success. CO emissions from engines operating on biomass producer gases are high, especially at very lean conditions where...

  7. High temperature thermodynamics and vaporization of stoichiometric titanium monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.I.; Gilles, P.W.

    1976-08-17

    Three vaporization experiments were performed on samples of nearly stoichiometric titanium monoxide. Two experiments were constant temperature experiments (1806/sup 0/K) designed to measure the equilibrium vapor pressures of Ti(g) and TiO(g). In one experiment titanium monoxide was vaporized from a tungsten Knudsen effusion cell; the vapor was collected on a water cooled quartz cap surrounding the cell; and the total amount of titanium deposited on the cap was analyzed colorimetrically. In the second constant temperature experiment (1806/sup 0/K) the vapor composition in equilibrium with nearly stoichiometric titanium monoxide was measured mass spectrometrically. The mass spectrometer results were used to apportion the total titanium collected in the first experiment to Ti(g) and TiO(g). In the third experiment the temperature dependence of the ions Ti/sup +/(48) and TiO(64) was measured spectrometrically. The results obtained in this work are compared with published thermodynamic properties of the titanium oxygen system, and indicate the standard free energy of formation of titanium monoxide obtained from the earliest calorimetric measurements yielded a result not negative enough and also oxygen pressures obtained by emf measurements for stoichiometric titanium monoxide at 1806/sup 0/K are high by a factor of 42.6. The present results are in good agreement with the thermodynamic properties reported in recently issued pages of the JANAF Thermochemical Tables.

  8. External influences on Europe's air quality: Baseline methane, carbon monoxide and ozone from 1990 to 2030 at Mace Head, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwent, R. G.; Simmonds, P. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Stevenson, D. S.; Collins, W. J.; Sanderson, M. G.; Johnson, C. E.; Dentener, F.; Cofala, J.; Mechler, R.; Amann, M.

    A global 3-D chemistry-transport model STOCHEM has been employed to study trends in the mole fractions of methane, carbon monoxide and ozone in baseline air masses entering Europe from the Atlantic Ocean over the period from 1990 to 2030. With a range of emission scenarios for man-made ozone precursor emission sources available, a wide range of model trends were predicted for the period up to 2030. In the scenario based on current planned air pollution controls, IIASA CLE, methane shows a strong upward trend, ozone shows a weaker upward trend, and carbon monoxide is approximately flat in baseline air masses. In one of the more pessimistic IPCC SRES scenarios, A2, all three gases show future increases. However, in the scenario based on maximum feasible emission reductions, IIASA MFR all three trace gases decline. By 2030, projected climate change reduces the growth in CH 4, but has insignificant effects on baseline CO and O 3 in these simulations. Global or hemispheric ozone precursor emissions and their controls exert a potentially large external influence on Europe's air quality. This influence is currently not taken into account in future European air quality policy formulation.

  9. An overview of carbon monoxide generation and release by home appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batey, J. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas which is highly toxic and can be produced by many combustion sources commonly found within homes. Potential sources include boilers and furnaces, water heaters, space heaters, stoves, ovens, clothes dryers, wood stoves, fireplaces, charcoal grilles, automobiles, cigarettes, oil lamps, and candles. Any fuel that contains carbon can form CO including, natural gas, propane, kerosene, fuel oil, wood, and coal. Exposure to elevated CO levels typically requires its production by a combustion source and its release into the home through a venting system malfunction. The health effects of CO range from headaches and flue-like symptoms to loss of concentration, coma and death depending on the concentration of CO and the exposure time. At levels of only 1%, which is the order of magnitude produced by automobile exhaust, carbon monoxide can cause death in less than 3 minutes. While most combustion equipment operate with low CO levels, many operating factors can contribute to elevated CO levels in the home including: burner adjustment, combustion air supply, house air-tightness, exhaust fan operation, cracked heat exchangers, vent blockages, and flue pipe damage. Test data on CO emissions is presented from a wide range of sources including Brookhaven National Laboratory, Gas Research Institute, American Gas Association, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for many potential CO sources in and near the home.

  10. [Massive poisoning with carbon monoxide: an update from a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Mariano; Crapanzano, Gabriel; Cabrerizo, Silvia; Aichele, Cristina; Deurtiaga, Alejandra; Vallejos, Yamila

    2017-02-01

    Carbon monoxide is known as the "silent murderer" because it is a colorless and odorless gas. According to these characteristics, toxicity goes unnoticed which makes the diagnosis difficult. In most cases, the cold periods and group poisoning make suspect its presence because inappropriate heat both in home or public environments. Our goal is to inform about a mass carbon monoxide poisoning in a children's parties room using a combustion source installed, not for the purpose of heating, but as a supply of light (generator), emphasizing that it can occur in any time of the year.

  11. Structural and magnetic properties of mechanochemically synthesized nanocrystalline titanium monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barudžija Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-sized titanium monoxide (TiO powder was prepared by mechanochemical synthesis. A mixture of commercial Ti and TiO2 (rutile powders with the molar ratio of 1:1 was milled in a planetary ball mill for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min under argon atmosphere. The final single-phase titanium monoxide sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, magnetic measurements using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The temperature dependency of the magnetic susceptibility is characterized by significant contribution of Pauli paramagnetism due to conduction electrons.

  12. The Effects of Low Level Prenatal Carbon Monoxide on Neocortical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    378.1958). Ginsberg MD, Myers RE (Fetal brain damage following maternal carbon monoxide intoxication: an experimental study. Acta obstetricia et...monoxide production and blood loss at delivery. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica 48:362-370.1969). Longo LD (Carbon monoxide in the

  13. Shock tube measurements of growth constants in the branched-chain ethane-carbon monoxide-oxygen system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, R. S.; Brabbs, T. A.; Snyder, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Exponential free radical growth constants have been measured for ethane carbon monoxide oxygen mixtures by monitoring the growth of oxygen atom concentration as manifested by CO flame band emission. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 1200 to 1700 K. The data were analyzed using an ethane oxidation mechanism involving seven elementary reaction steps. Calculated growth constants were close to experimental values at lower temperatures, up to about 1400 K, but at higher temperatures computed growth constants were considerably smaller than experiment. In attempts to explain these results additional branching reactions were added to the mechanism. However, these additional reactions did not appreciably change calculated growth constants.

  14. Sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from comet nuclei at large distances from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1991-01-01

    One of the more attractive among the plausible scenarios for the major emission event recently observed on Comet Halley at a heliocentric distance of 14.3 AU is activation of a source of ejecta driven by an icy substance much more volatile than water. As prerequisite for the forthcoming detailed analysis of the imaging observations of this event, a simple model is proposed that yields the sublimation rate versus time at any location on the surface of a rotating cometary nucleus for two candidate ices: carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The model's variable parameters are the comet's heliocentric distance r and the Sun's instantaneous zenith angle z.

  15. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) ... Kiswahili) Tagalog (Tagalog) Tigrinya (tigrinya) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Amharic (amarunya) Prevention Guidelines: You Can Prevent Carbon Monoxide ...

  16. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Fons; Machado de Sousa, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the poten

  17. Study on Response Time of SPE Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The influence of structural design and the parameters of the working electrode on the response time of a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) carbon monoxide sensor has been studied. Results show that the response time is mainly determined by the RC time constant of the catalyst layer and also related with the working electrode potential.

  18. Carbon monoxide : A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf E. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Schroeder, Hartwig; Levin, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon ((CO2)-C-14) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The obs

  19. Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bullister, John Logan

    1980-01-01

    EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): The horizontal and vertical distribution of three dissolved trace gases, namely molecular hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane, was measured in coastal and oceanic areas. Atmospheric concentrations of these gases were measured both at locations influenced by nearby human activity, and in areas far removed from these inputs.

  20. Carbon monoxide poisoning mimicking long-QT induced syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Onvlee-Dekker (Irene); A.C.H. de Vries (Andrica); A.D.J. ten Harkel (Arend)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCarbon monoxide (CO)poisoning is a rare cause of QT prolongation, and is therefore easily missed. The case of a patient with unexplained syncope and QT prologation on the electrocardiogram that turned out to be related to CO poisoning is reported here. In patients with QT prolongation,

  1. Optimization of Treatment Policy for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Akalayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, succinate-containing solutions, and anti-edematous agents in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 32 patients admitted in 2009—2011 for severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning and a Glasgow coma score of 6—8. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 patients whose combination therapy involved hyperbaric oxygenation, Succinasol infusions, and L-lysine-aescinate injections; 2 those who received traditional therapy. All the patients underwent complex clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiologic examinations. Results. Just 24 hours after the combination use of Succinasol and L-lysine-aescinate, Group I patients were observed to have substantially reduced lactate, the content of the latter approached the normal value following 48 hours, which was much below the values in the control group. The similar pattern was observed when endogenous intoxication parameters were examined. During the performed therapy, the level of consciousness and that of intellect according to the MMSE and FAB scales were restored more rapidly in the study group patients than in Group 2. Conclusion. The combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, the succinate-containing solution Succinasol, and the anti-edematous agent L-lysine-aescinate considerably enhances the efficiency of intensive therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Key words: carbon monoxide, toxic hypoxic encephalopathy, combination therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, succinic acid, L-lysine-aescinate.

  2. Emissions Characterisation of residential pellet boilers during start-up and stop periods

    OpenAIRE

    Win, Kaung Myat; Paavilainen, Janne; Persson, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    In this study, gaseous emissions and particles are measured during start-up and stop periods for an over-fed boiler and an under-fed boiler. Both gaseous and particulate matter emissions are continuously measured in the laboratory. The measurement of gaseous emissions includes oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide and (NO). The emissions rates are calculated from measured emissions concentrations and flue gas flow. The behaviours of the boilers during start-u...

  3. A 60 yr record of atmospheric carbon monoxide reconstructed from Greenland firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Petrenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the first reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere (NH high latitude atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO mole fraction from Greenland firn air. Firn air samples were collected at three deep ice core sites in Greenland (NGRIP in 2001, Summit in 2006 and NEEM in 2008. CO records from the three sites agree well with each other as well as with recent atmospheric measurements, indicating that CO is well preserved in the firn at these sites. CO atmospheric history was reconstructed back to the year 1950 from the measurements using a combination of two forward models of gas transport in firn and an inverse model. The reconstructed history suggests that Arctic CO in 1950 was 140–150 nmol mol−1, which is higher than today's values. CO mole fractions rose by 10–15 nmol mol−1 from 1950 to the 1970s and peaked in the 1970s or early 1980s, followed by a ≈ 30 nmol mol−1 decline to today's levels. We compare the CO history with the atmospheric histories of methane, light hydrocarbons, molecular hydrogen, CO stable isotopes and hydroxyl radicals (OH, as well as with published CO emission inventories and results of a historical run from a chemistry-transport model. We find that the reconstructed Greenland CO history cannot be reconciled with available emission inventories unless unrealistically large changes in OH are assumed. We argue that the available CO emission inventories strongly underestimate historical NH emissions, and fail to capture the emission decline starting in the late 1970s, which was most likely due to reduced emissions from road transportation in North America and Europe.

  4. Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Oxides From a 25 kW Boiler Supplied Periodically and Continuously with Wood Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juszczak Marek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the fuel feeding mode (continuous or periodic with different stand-by/operation time ratios on carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen oxides (NO, NOx concentration values in the flue gas was analysed for coniferous wood pellet firing. Experiments were performed in a 25 kW water boiler equipped with an over-fed wood pellet furnace located in a full scale heat station simulating real-life conditions. Influence of oxygen concentration and temperature in the combustion chamber on carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide concentrations was presented in diagrams. Dust and hydrocarbon concentrations were also monitored. It was concluded that the commonly used periodic fuel supply does not necessarily cause a significant increase of carbon monoxide concentration, as compared to the continuous fuel feeding mode. Continuous fuel supply can even induce higher carbon monoxide concentrations when fuel mass stream is not chosen properly. Each time new fuel type is used in a specific furnace, one should perform experiments to determine the adequate settings (stand-by/operation time ratio, fuel mass streams, air stream to obtain the optimal, lowest possible emission for a certain boiler heat output

  5. On the wintertime low bias of Northern Hemisphere carbon monoxide in global model studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, O.; Schultz, M. G.; Bouarar, I.; Clark, H.; Huijnen, V.; Gaudel, A.; George, M.; Clerbaux, C.

    2014-01-01

    The uncertainties in the global budget of carbon monoxide (CO) are assessed to explain causes for the long-standing issue of Northern Hemispheric wintertime underestimation of CO concentrations in global models. With a series of MOZART sensitivity simulations for the year 2008, the impacts from changing a variety of surface sources and sinks were analyzed. The model results were evaluated with monthly averages of surface station observations from the global CO monitoring network as well as with total columns observed from satellites and with vertical profiles from measurements on passenger aircraft. Our basic simulation using MACCity anthropogenic emissions underestimated Northern Hemispheric near-surface CO concentrations on average by more than 20 ppb from December to April with the largest bias over Europe of up to 75 ppb in January. An increase in global biomass burning or biogenic emissions of CO or volatile organic compounds (VOC) is not able to reduce the annual course of the model bias and yields too high concentrations over the Southern Hemisphere. Raising global annual anthropogenic emissions results in overestimations of surface concentrations in most regions all-year-round. Instead, our results indicate that anthropogenic emissions in the MACCity inventory are too low for the industrialized countries during winter and spring. Thus we found it necessary to adjust emissions seasonally with regionally varying scaling factors. Moreover, exchanging the original resistance-type dry deposition scheme with a parameterization for CO uptake by oxidation from soil bacteria and microbes reduced the boreal winter dry deposition fluxes and could partly correct for the model bias. When combining the modified dry deposition scheme with increased wintertime road traffic emissions over Europe and North America (factors up to 4.5 and 2, respectively) we were able to optimize the match to surface observations and to reduce the model bias significantly with respect to the

  6. On the wintertime low bias of Northern Hemisphere carbon monoxide in global model studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Stein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainties in the global budget of carbon monoxide (CO are assessed to explain causes for the long-standing issue of Northern Hemispheric wintertime underestimation of CO concentrations in global models. With a series of MOZART sensitivity simulations for the year 2008, the impacts from changing a variety of surface sources and sinks were analyzed. The model results were evaluated with monthly averages of surface station observations from the global CO monitoring network as well as with total columns observed from satellites and with vertical profiles from measurements on passenger aircraft. Our basic simulation using MACCity anthropogenic emissions underestimated Northern Hemispheric near-surface CO concentrations on average by more than 20 ppb from December to April with the largest bias over Europe of up to 75 ppb in January. An increase in global biomass burning or biogenic emissions of CO or volatile organic compounds (VOC is not able to reduce the annual course of the model bias and yields too high concentrations over the Southern Hemisphere. Raising global annual anthropogenic emissions results in overestimations of surface concentrations in most regions all-year-round. Instead, our results indicate that anthropogenic emissions in the MACCity inventory are too low for the industrialized countries during winter and spring. Thus we found it necessary to adjust emissions seasonally with regionally varying scaling factors. Moreover, exchanging the original resistance-type dry deposition scheme with a parameterization for CO uptake by oxidation from soil bacteria and microbes reduced the boreal winter dry deposition fluxes and could partly correct for the model bias. When combining the modified dry deposition scheme with increased wintertime road traffic emissions over Europe and North America (factors up to 4.5 and 2, respectively we were able to optimize the match to surface observations and to reduce the model bias significantly with

  7. Emission system upgrades for older vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.R.; Finkenbiner, K.; Sommerville, R.J.

    1996-09-01

    Thirteen 1975--1980 model year vehicles were equipped with a set of components to upgrade their emission control systems. Each vehicle was tested before maintenance (as-received), after tune-up and correction of original equipment emission system defects (baseline), and after installation of the emission upgrade system (upgrade). Average emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (NHMC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) with the emission upgrade system installed were reduced more than 60% from the baseline immediately after upgrade. Six of the vehicles accumulated 48,000 kilometers with the upgrade system. After 48,000 kilometers, average emissions of NMHC and NOx were still reduced approximately 50% compared to the baseline and average emissions of CO were reduced approximately 20%.

  8. Short-term forecast of the carbon monoxide concentration over the Moscow megacity region by COSMO-ART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislov, Alexander; Revokatova, Anastasia; Surkova, Galina; Rivin, Gdaliy

    2016-04-01

    Introduction. Atmospheric pollution in the cities is constantly increasing. It makes air pollution forecast extremely important for modern meteorology. Short-range spatial detailed forecast of air pollutants distribution should be done as a part of weather forecast. A short-term forecast of city 'chemical weather' requires real daily data on pollutant emissions. For the operational daily forecast of pollutant concentrations, long-term emissions averages are usually used, which may differ significantly from real emissions on the particular day, especially in big cities. Methodology. The method of calculation of pollutant emissions is described for the short-term forecast. An on-line coupled chemical transport model, COSMO-ART (https://www.imk-tro.kit.edu/english/3509.php), was applied for the Moscow megasity region, Russia. Because it is impossible to have real daily emissions values, the method of emission estimation on the basis of measurements of the concentrations of air pollutants is proposed. The method is based on the assumption that the pollutant concentrations reflect the intensity of emissions sources. The proposed method allows the hourly measurements of air pollutant concentrations to be transformed into emissions values as fast as the measurements can be done. Results. This method is described and its application is shown for carbon monoxide (one of the most dangerous pollutant). Around 90% of CO in Moscow is emitted by traffic. Conclusions. Verification of the COSMO-ART results demonstrates that the calculated emissions gave better results compared with the results from mean emission values (TNO emissions dataset) that were used previously. This approach provides the possibility of running an operational short-term pollutant concentration forecast with more detailed spatial structure.

  9. 40 CFR 88.105-94 - Clean-fuel fleet emission standards for heavy-duty engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... set forth in Part 86 for total hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, particulate, and organic material...) Particulate emissions shall not exceed 0.05 grams per brake horsepower-hour. (4) Formaldehyde emissions shall... brake horsepower-hour. (3) Particulate emissions shall not exceed 0.10 grams per brake...

  10. 40 CFR 60.3039 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? 60.3039 Section 60.3039 Protection of Environment... emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? (a) Conduct initial, daily, quarterly, and annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen....

  11. Digit and letter alexia in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Rui Pan; Ying Peng; Wei Peng; Yamei Tang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a 24-year-old patient with delayed encephalopathy, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and visual impairment 1 week after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. The results of a visual field assessment, electroencephalography and head magnetic resonance imaging indicated damage to the cerebral cortex. After a 2-week treatment period, the patient had recovered from the visual impairment, but exhibited digit- and letter-reading difficulty. The Chinese aphasia battery and the number and letter battery supplement were conducted. The results revealed that the patient exhibited digit and letter alexia, while the ability to read Chinese characters was preserved. In contrast, the patient exhibited a deficit in Chinese character writing, while number and letter writing remained intact. Following treatment, reading and writing ability was improved and electroencephalographic abnormalities were ameliorated. Overall, our experimental findings demonstrated that delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning was characterized by digit and letter alexia.

  12. Catalysis of carbon monoxide methanation by deep sea manganate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, A. L.; Maple, M. B.; Arrhenius, G.

    1990-01-01

    The catalytic activity of deep sea manganese nodule minerals for the methanation of carbon monoxide was measured with a microcatalytic technique between 200 and 460 degrees C. The manganate minerals were activated at 248 degrees C by immersion into a stream of hydrogen in which pulses of carbon monoxide were injected. Activation energies for the methanation reaction and hydrogen desorption from the manganate minerals were obtained and compared with those of pure nickel. Similar energy values indicate that the activity of the nodule materials for the reaction appears to be related to the amount of reducible transition metals present in the samples (ca. 11 wt.-%). Since the activity of the nodule minerals per gram is comparable to that of pure nickel, most of the transition metal ions located between manganese oxide layers appear to be exposed and available to catalyze the reaction.

  13. Effect of carbon monoxide on plants. [Mimosa pudica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Crocker, W.; Hitchcock, A.E.

    1933-01-01

    Of 108 species of plants treated with one per cent carbon monoxide, 45 showed epinastic growth of leaves. Several species showed hyponasty which caused upward curling of leaves. Other effects included: retarded stem elongation; abnormally small new leaves; abnormal yellowing of the leaves, beginning with the oldest; abscission of leaves usually associated with yellowing; and hypertrophied tissues on stems and roots. During recovery an abnormally large number of side shoots arose from latent buds of many species. Motion pictures of Mimosa pudica showed a loss of correlation, normal equilibrium position to gravity, and sensitiveness to contact or heat stimuli; however, the leaves moved about more rapidly than those of controls. Since carbon monoxide causes growth rigor and loss of sensitiveness to external stimuli, it is here considered as an anesthetic.

  14. [Sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss after carbon monoxide intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska-Piechowiak, Teresa; Miarzyńska, Maria; Perlik-Gattner, Irena

    2004-01-01

    A case of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss of the left ear after carbon monoxide intoxication was presented. The diagnosis was based upon an interview, medical examinations and audiometric investigations. Results of diagnostic evaluations, clinical presentation and treatment were discussed. Hearing improvement was obtained after 6 days of treatment and normal hearing returned after 14 days. Patients who suffer from CO intoxication are at risk of hearing impairment, therefore, there is a need for audiometric follow up in these patients.

  15. Pregnancy Hypertenssion and Preeclampsia in Enviromental Expossure to Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In this study relationship between carbon monoxide (CO) with pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia in mothers in various levels of CO pollution was evaluated. Methods: The study was carried out in three teaching hospitals and 4500 pregnant women living area divided in one low-level CO polluted and as the second level, three moderate to high polluted areas (central, south and west). The subjects, residence places were within 5 kilometers of the air pollution monitoring ...

  16. Mobile Carbon Monoxide Monitoring System Based on Arduino-Matlab for Environmental Monitoring Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azieda Mohd Bakri, Nur; Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the increasing level of carbon monoxide globally has become a serious environmental issue which has been highlighted in most of the country globally. The monitoring of carbon monoxide content is one of the approaches to identify the level of carbon monoxide pollution towards providing the solution for control the level of carbon monoxide produced. Thus, this paper proposed a mobile carbon monoxide monitoring system for measuring the carbon monoxide content based on Arduino-Matlab General User Interface (GUI). The objective of this project is to design, develop and implement the real-time mobile carbon monoxide sensor system and interfacing for measuring the level of carbon monoxide contamination in real environment. Four phases or stages of work have been carried out for the accomplishment of the project, which classified as sensor development, controlling and integrating sensor, data collection and data analysis. As a result, a complete design and developed system has been verified with the handheld industrial standard carbon monoxide sensor for calibrating the sensor sensitivity and measurement in the laboratory. Moreover, the system has been tested in real environments by measuring the level of carbon monoxide in three different lands used location; industrial area; residential area and main road (commercial area). In this real environment test, the industrial area recorded the highest reading with 71.23 ppm and 82.59 ppm for sensor 1 and sensor 2 respectively. As a conclusion, the mobile realtime carbon monoxide system based on the Arduino-Matlab is the best approach to measure the carbon monoxide concentration in different land-used since it does not require a manual data collection and reduce the complexity of the existing carbon monoxide level concentration measurement practise at the same time with a complete data analysis facilities.

  17. Concept for lowest emissions of a hydrogen internal combustion engine; Niedrigstemissionskonzept fuer einen wasserstoffbetriebenen Verbrennungsmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Marcel Christian Thomas

    2012-03-15

    This paper describes a concept with lowest emissions for a hydrogen internal combustion engine for passenger cars. With optimisation of the combustion concept the level of nitrogen oxide is below 90%, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide below 99% of the SULEV target (CARB). This concept enables a potential in power density that is comparable to current supercharged combustion engines at lowest emission level without catalytic aftertreatment. Additionally with a catalytic aftertreatment system, the emission level of a current hydrogen combustion engine (mono-fuel) is lowered to a level, that this car can be labeled as air cleaning vehicle for hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  18. Arctic chlorine monoxide observations during spring 1993 over Thule, Greenland, and implications for ozone depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D. T.; Reeves, J. M.; Emmons, L. K.; De Zafra, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    We have determined the vertical distribution of chlorine monoxide (ClO), from measurements of pressure-broadened molecular-emission spectra made over Thule, Greenland, during the 1993 Arctic spring. The measurements show a weak lower stratospheric layer of chlorine monoxide inside the vortex in late February, which was, however, significantly greater in mixing ratio than that seen in observations we made in the spring of 1992. ClO was also observed in much smaller quantities in early to mid-March 1993 when Thule was outside the vortex. The amount of ClO within the vortex was severely reduced by the time it returned over Thule in late March. This reduction occurred several weeks earlier relative to the winter solstice than the decline of ClO inside the Antarctic vortex in 1993. The enhanced Arctic lower stratospheric layer seen in late February 1993 at a nearly equivalent photochemical period, and beyond. We have calculated daily ozone loss rates, due primarily to the dimer chlorine catalytic cycle, from both sets of measurements. The vertical integral of the Arctic daily percentage ozone loss when the largest ClO levels were present, at the end of February, is found to be approximately one quarter of that in the Antarctic at a photochemical period only 1 week later. The relative weakness of daily ozone depletion, combined with the early disappearance of ClO in the Arctic, suggests that hemispheric dilution by ozone-poor air from within the Arctic vortex is unlikely to be sufficient to explain the historically extreme loss of midlatitude northern hemisphere ozone which began in 1992 and persisted throughout 1993.

  19. Arctic chlorine monoxide observations during spring 1993 over Thule, Greenland, and implications for ozone depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D. T.; Reeves, J. M.; Emmons, L. K.; de Zafra, R. L.

    1994-12-01

    We have determined the vertical distribution of chlorine monoxide (ClO), from measurements of pressure-broadened molecular-emission spectra made over Thule, Greenland, during the 1993 Arctic spring. The measurements show a weak lower stratospheric layer of chlorine monoxide inside the vortex in late February, which was, however, significantly greater in mixing ratio than that seen in observations we made in the spring of 1992. ClO was also observed in much smaller quantities in early to mid-March 1993 when Thule was outside the vortex. The amount of ClO within the vortex was severely reduced by the time it returned over Thule in late March. This reduction occurred several weeks earlier relative to the winter solstice than the decline of ClO inside the Antarctic vortex in 1993. The enhanced Arctic lower stratospheric layer seen in late February 1993 had a peak mixing ratio of about 0.5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), slightly less than a factor of 3 smaller than that observed in the Antarctic in 1993 at a nearly equivalent photochemical period, and beyond. We have calculated daily ozone loss rates, due primarily to the dimer chlorine catalytic cycle, from both sets of measurements. The vertical integral of the Arctic daily percentage ozone loss when the largest ClO levels were present, at the end of February, is found to be approximately one quarter of that in the Antarctic at a photochemical period only 1 week later. The relative weakness of daily ozone depletion, combined with the early disappearance of ClO in the Arctic, suggests that hemispheric dilution by ozone-poor air from within the Arctic vortex is unlikely to be sufficient to explain the historically extreme loss of midlatitude northern hemisphere ozone which began in 1992 and persisted throughout 1993.

  20. Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: Comparison with observations and projected near-future changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.; Stevenson, D. S.; Krol, M. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Lamarque, J.-F.; PéTron, G.; Dentener, F. J.; Ellingsen, K.; Schultz, M. G.; Wild, O.; Amann, M.; Atherton, C. S.; Bergmann, D. J.; Bey, I.; Butler, T.; Cofala, J.; Collins, W. J.; Derwent, R. G.; Doherty, R. M.; Drevet, J.; Eskes, H. J.; Fiore, A. M.; Gauss, M.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Horowitz, L. W.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Lawrence, M. G.; Montanaro, V.; Müller, J.-F.; Pitari, G.; Prather, M. J.; Pyle, J. A.; Rast, S.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Sanderson, M. G.; Savage, N. H.; Strahan, S. E.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Unger, N.; van Noije, T. P. C.; Zeng, G.

    2006-10-01

    We analyze present-day and future carbon monoxide (CO) simulations in 26 state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry models run to study future air quality and climate change. In comparison with near-global satellite observations from the MOPITT instrument and local surface measurements, the models show large underestimates of Northern Hemisphere (NH) extratropical CO, while typically performing reasonably well elsewhere. The results suggest that year-round emissions, probably from fossil fuel burning in east Asia and seasonal biomass burning emissions in south-central Africa, are greatly underestimated in current inventories such as IIASA and EDGAR3.2. Variability among models is large, likely resulting primarily from intermodel differences in representations and emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and in hydrologic cycles, which affect OH and soluble hydrocarbon intermediates. Global mean projections of the 2030 CO response to emissions changes are quite robust. Global mean midtropospheric (500 hPa) CO increases by 12.6 ± 3.5 ppbv (16%) for the high-emissions (A2) scenario, by 1.7 ± 1.8 ppbv (2%) for the midrange (CLE) scenario, and decreases by 8.1 ± 2.3 ppbv (11%) for the low-emissions (MFR) scenario. Projected 2030 climate changes decrease global 500 hPa CO by 1.4 ± 1.4 ppbv. Local changes can be much larger. In response to climate change, substantial effects are seen in the tropics, but intermodel variability is quite large. The regional CO responses to emissions changes are robust across models, however. These range from decreases of 10-20 ppbv over much of the industrialized NH for the CLE scenario to CO increases worldwide and year-round under A2, with the largest changes over central Africa (20-30 ppbv), southern Brazil (20-35 ppbv) and south and east Asia (30-70 ppbv). The trajectory of future emissions thus has the potential to profoundly affect air quality over most of the world's populated areas.

  1. Minimizing the wintertime low bias of Northern Hemisphere carbon monoxide in global model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Olaf; Schultz, Martin G.; Bouarar, Idir; Clark, Hannah; Huijnen, Vincent; Gaudel, Audrey; George, Maya; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2015-04-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of incomplete combustion and is also produced from oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the atmosphere. It is of interest as an indirect greenhouse gas and an air pollutant causing health effects and is thus subject to emission restrictions. CO acts as a major sink for the OH radical and as a precursor for tropospheric ozone and affects the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere as well as regional air quality. Despite the developments in the global modelling of chemistry and of the parameterization of the physical processes, CO concentrations remain underestimated during NH winter by most state-of-the-art chemical transport models. The resulting model bias can in principle originate from either an underestimation of CO sources or an overestimation of its sinks. We address both the role of sources and sinks with a series of MOZART chemistry transport model sensitivity simulations for the year 2008 and compare our results to observational data from ground-based stations, satellite observations, and from MOZAIC tropospheric profile measurements on passenger aircraft. Our base case simulation using the MACCity emission inventory (Granier et al. 2011) underestimates the near-surface Northern Hemispheric CO mixing ratios by more than 20 ppb from December to April with a maximal bias of 40 ppb in January. The bias is strongest for the European region (up to 75 ppb in January). From our sensitivity studies the mismatch between observed and modelled atmospheric CO concentrations can be explained by a combination of the following emission inventory shortcuts: (i) missing anthropogenic wintertime CO emissions from traffic or other combustion processes, (ii) missing anthropogenic VOC emissions, (iii) an exaggerated downward trend in the RCP8.5 scenario underlying the MACCity inventory, (iv) a lack of knowledge about the seasonality of emissions. Deficiencies in the parameterization of the dry deposition velocities can also lead to

  2. CO and PAH Emissions from Engines Operating on Biomass Producer Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, Torben Kvist; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    High carbon monoxide (CO) emission from gas engines fueled by producer gas is a concerning problem in the struggle to make biomass gasification for heat and power production a success. The standing regulations concerning CO emissions from producer gas engine based power plants in most EU countries...

  3. Avco Lycoming/NASA contract status. [on reduction of emissions from aircraft piston engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The standards promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), and oxides-of-nitrogen (NOx) emissions were the basis in a study of ways to reduce emissions from aircraft piston engines. A variable valve timing system, ultrasonic fuel atomization, and ignition system changes were postulated.

  4. ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CO, POHC, AND PIC EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements conducted on full-scale hazardous waste incinerators have occasionally shown a relationship between carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and emissions of toxic organic compounds. In this study, four mixtures of chlorinated C1 and C2 hydrocarbons were diluted in commercial...

  5. Model simulated trend of surface carbon monoxide for the 2001-2010 decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J.; Pozzer, A.

    2014-05-01

    We present decadal trend estimates of surface carbon monoxide (CO), simulated using the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy (EMAC) based on the emission scenarios, Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 for anthropogenic activity and Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) v3.1 for biomass burning from 2001 through 2010. The spatial distribution of the modelled surface CO is evaluated with monthly Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) thermal infrared product. The global means of correlation coefficient and relative bias for the 2001-2010 are 0.95 and -4.29%, respectively. We also find a reasonable correlation (R = 0.78) between the trends of EMAC surface CO and full 10 year monthly records from ground-based observation (World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases, WDCGG). Over Western Europe, Eastern USA, and Northern Australia, the significant decreases of EMAC surface CO are estimated at -35.5 ± 5.8, -59.6 ± 9.1, and -13.7 ± 9.5 ppbv decade-1, respectively, with a 95% confidence interval. In contrast, the surface CO increases by +8.9 ± 4.8 ppbv decade-1 over South Asia. A high correlation (R = 0.92) between the significant changes in EMAC-simulated surface CO and total emission flux shows that the significant regional trends are attributed to the changes in primary/direct emissions from both anthropogenic activity and biomass burning. In particular, increasing trends of surface hydroxyl radical (OH) partially contribute to the decreasing trends of surface CO in Western Europe and Eastern USA.

  6. Stable isotope composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide. A modelling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, Sergey S.

    2014-11-01

    This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 18}O and Δ{sup 17}O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated {sup 13}CO/{sup 12}CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in {sup 13}C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH{sub 4} to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in {sup 13}C, were found significant

  7. Changing distributions of carbon monoxide (CO) over Africa from climate and land use driven fire patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Helen; Bloom, Anthony; Worden, John

    2017-04-01

    Satellite measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) provide a signature for biomass burning and anthropogenic combustion-related pollution emissions. CO plays an important role in both air quality and climate as a precursor for tropospheric ozone and as a major sink of OH, the atmospheric "detergent" that affects the lifetime of methane and other pollutants. Worden et al., [2013] showed decreasing global CO values in time series of satellite total column CO measurements over the past decade. All of the satellite instruments that measure CO in the thermal infrared showed consistent inter-annual variability due to fires and possibly the global recession in late 2008. Observed decreases in CO over N. America and Europe were consistent with expected decreases in CO emissions inventories [Granier et al., 2011], however, the decrease is not uniform globally. In particular, some regions of Africa show negligible trends in CO. Here we examine the 14-year time series (2002-2015) of surface and total column CO concentrations from MOPITT and fire radiative power (FRP) from MODIS over Africa to study the attribution of changes in CO. We are interested in changes in fires due to climate variability (El Nino) and land-use, including urbanization, and their effect on atmospheric CO burden.

  8. Changing distributions of carbon monoxide (CO) from climate and land use driven fire patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    Satellite measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) provide a signature for biomass burning and anthropogenic combustion-related pollution emissions. CO plays an important role in both air quality and climate as a precursor for tropospheric ozone and as a major sink of OH, the atmospheric "detergent" that affects the lifetime of methane and other pollutants. Worden et al., [2013] showed decreasing global CO values in time series of satellite total column CO measurements over the past decade. All of the satellite instruments that measure CO in the thermal infrared showed consistent inter-annual variability due to fires and possibly the global recession in late 2008. Observed decreases in CO over N. America and Europe were consistent with expected decreases in CO emissions inventories [Granier et al., 2011], however, the decrease is not uniform globally. In particular, some regions of Africa show negligible trends in CO. Here we examine the 14-year time series (2002-2015) of surface and total column CO concentrations from MOPITT and fire radiative power (FRP) from MODIS over Africa and Indonesia to study the attribution of changes in CO. We are interested in changes in fires due to climate variability (El Nino) and land-use, including urbanization, and their effect on atmospheric CO burden.

  9. Monitoring carbon monoxide pollution over the largest ten cities in the US using satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B.; de Beurs, K.; Owsley, B.; Krehbiel, C. P.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the several air pollutants that are largely produced by anthropogenic activities in urban areas as a result of incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels. Long-term satellite data can monitor spatial and temporal changes in CO globally. Here we investigated spatial, vertical, and temporal changes in CO concentrations over the largest ten US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) using Version 6 MOPITT TIR-only CO retrievals. The 15-year average of MOPITT Surface CO concentrations over urban areas were highest (388 ppbv) over New York City and lowest (151 ppbv) over Miami. The influence of cities on elevated CO levels extends well beyond the immediate urban area. The CO seasonal profiles above the surface show distinct seasonality with peaks March-April and troughs September-October. However, larger cities show a lack of CO seasonality near the surface. We applied the nonparametric Seasonal Kendall (SK) trend test to the CO time series. Results revealed significant decreasing trends in CO concentration, with stronger trends in the lower atmosphere (>700 hPa) than in the mid-troposphere (500-700 hPa). Our results demonstrate the strong influence of local urban emissions on (near-) surface CO concentrations. Decreasing urban CO over the past 15 years reflects improved urban metabolism through improved energy efficiency, and increasing use of alternative transportation and zero-emission vehicles.

  10. Tropospheric carbon monoxide and hydrogen measurements over Kalimantan in Indonesia and northern Australia during October, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Yousuke; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Tsutsumi, Yukitomo; Jensen, Jørgen B.; Inoue, Hisayuki Y.; Makino, Yukio

    During the PACE-5 campaign over Australia and Indonesia in October 1997, we used an aircraft to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2). Latitudinal distributions of CO and H2 clearly showed a large increase from northern Australia to Kalimantan in Indonesia. Elevated CO levels over northern Australia were observed only in the smoke plumes of savanna fires. A thick smoke haze from forest fires over Kalimantan contained very high CO mixing ratios of 3 to 9 ppm. These enhanced CO mixing ratios correlated well with increased concentrations of H2, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and aerosols. Emission ratios from biomass burning in Kalimantan ranged 0.06 0.1 for H2/CO (ppb/ppb), 0.0002 to 0.0005 for NOx/CO (ppb/ppb), and 0.43 to 1.0 for number of aerosols/CO (cm-3/ppb). These values were much lower than emission ratios in northern Australia. This difference suggests that the biomass burning in Indonesia was intense and that, due to a strong El Niño event, an unique composition of trace gases was formed in the smoke haze.

  11. Gas turbine combustion performance test of hydrogen and carbon monoxide synthetic gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Chul Lee; Seok Bin Seo; Jae Hwa Chung; Si Moon Kim; Yong Jin Joo; Dal Hong Ahn [Korea Electric Power Corporation, Daejeon (Republic of Korea). Green Growth Laboratory

    2010-07-15

    The development of coal IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) technology has made it possible to exploit electricity generated from coal at a low cost. Furthermore, IGCC is a pre-requisite for the development of CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technology and hydrogen generated from coal. To achieve the need to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, Korea's 300 MW IGCC RDD&D (Research Development, Demonstration and Dissemination) project was launched in December 2006 under the leadership of the Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO), with the support of the Korea Ministry of Knowledge Economy. When a new fuel is adapted to a gas turbine (such as syngas for IGCC), it is necessary to study the gas turbine combustion characteristics of the fuel, because gas turbines are very sensitive to its physical and chemical properties. This experimental study was conducted by investigating the combustion performance of synthetic gas, which is composed chiefly of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The results of a test on synthetic gas combustion performance were compared with the results of methane combustion, which is a major component of natural gas. The results of the combustion test of both gases were examined in terms of the turbine's inlet temperature, combustion dynamics, emission characteristics, and flame structure. From the results of this experimental study, we were able to understand the combustion characteristics of synthetic gas and anticipate the problems when synthetic gas rather than natural gas is fuelled to a gas turbine. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Central Diabetes Insipidus and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State Following Accidental Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Abideen, Zain; Mahmud, Syed Nayer; Rasheed, Amna; Farooq Qasim, Yusaf; Ali, Furqan

    2017-06-03

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is common and carries significant morbidity and mortality. The nervous system, particularly the brain, is frequently affected by it, owing to its high metabolic activity and oxygen requirements. Carbon monoxide damages the nervous system by both hypoxic and inflammatory mechanisms. Central diabetes insipidus is an extremely rare complication of carbon monoxide poisoning. Herein, we report the case of a young lady, who developed this complication and severe hypernatremia after accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. She also developed a hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state during the treatment for hypernatremia. To the best of our knowledge, both these entities have not been reported together in association with carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the anticipation and early recognition of central diabetes insipidus in carbon monoxide poisoning. This can prevent severe hypernatremia and complications associated with its presence and treatment.

  13. Inter-comparison of four different carbon monoxide measurements techniques and evaluation of the long-term carbon monoxide time series of Jungfraujoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zellweger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The 12-year record (1996–2007 of continuous carbon monoxide (CO measurements of the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch (JFJ, Switzerland, was investigated with a focus on trend analysis. To date this is one of the longest time series of continuous CO measurements in the free troposphere over Central Europe. A significant negative trend was observed at JFJ with a decrease of 21.4±0.3% in the investigated period, or an average annual decrease of 2.65±0.04 ppb/yr (1.78%/yr. These results were compared with emission inventory data reported to the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention. It could be shown that long range transport significantly influences the CO levels observed at JFJ, with air masses of non-European origin contributing to at least a third to observed mixing ratios.

    Such trend analysis and inter-comparison with emission inventories are only possible with data of known quality. To this end, the Non-dispersive Infrared Absorption (NDIR technique used for CO measurements at JFJ was inter-compared over two months using three additional analytical techniques, namely Vacuum UV Resonance Fluorescence (VURF, gas chromatographic separation with a mercuric oxide reduction detector (GC/HgO, and gas chromatographic separation followed by reduction on a nickel catalyst and analysis by a flame ionization detector (GC/FID. The agreement among all techniques was better than 2% for one-hourly averages which confirmed the suitability of the NDIR method for CO measurements even at remote sites.

  14. Carbon monoxide may be an important molecule in migraine and other headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik W; Hauge, Mette K

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide was previously considered to just be a toxic gas. A wealth of recent information has, however, shown that it is also an important endogenously produced signalling molecule involved in multiple biological processes. Endogenously produced carbon monoxide may thus play...... an important role in nociceptive processing and in regulation of cerebral arterial tone. DISCUSSION: Carbon monoxide-induced headache shares many characteristics with migraine and other headaches. The mechanisms whereby carbon monoxide causes headache may include hypoxia, nitric oxide signalling and activation...

  15. Regional and hemispheric influences on temporal variability in baseline carbon monoxide and ozone over the Northeast US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Mao, H.; Demerjian, K.; Hogrefe, C.; Liu, J.

    2017-09-01

    Interannual variability in baseline carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3), defined as mixing ratios under minimal influence of recent and local emissions, was studied for seven rural sites in the Northeast US over 2001-2010. Annual baseline CO exhibited statistically significant decreasing trends (-4.3 to -2.3 ppbv yr-1), while baseline O3 did not display trends at any site. In examining the data by season, wintertime and springtime baseline CO at the two highest sites (1.5 km and 2 km asl) did not experience significant trends. Decadal increasing trends (∼2.55 ppbv yr-1) were found in springtime and wintertime baseline O3 in southern New Hampshire, which was associated with anthropogenic NOx emission reductions from the urban corridor. Biomass burning emissions impacted summertime baseline CO with ∼38% variability from wildfire emissions in Russia and ∼22% from Canada at five sites and impacted baseline O3 at the two high elevation sites only with ∼27% variability from wildfires in both Russia and Canada. The Arctic Oscillation was negatively correlated with summertime baseline O3, while the North Atlantic Oscillation was positively correlated with springtime baseline O3. This study suggested that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, and meteorological conditions were important factors working together to determine baseline O3 and CO in the Northeast U.S. during the 2000s.

  16. Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, P.C.; Steele, L.P. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Tans, P.P. (NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-12-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured in air samples collected weekly at eight locations. The air was collected as part of the CMDL/NOAA cooperative flask sampling program (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, formerly Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, Air Resources Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) at Point Barrow, Alaska, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, Mauna Loa and Cape Kumakahi, Hawaii, Guam, Marianas Islands, Christmas Island, Ascension Island and American Samoa. Half-liter or 3-L glass flasks fitted with glass piston stopcocks holding teflon O rings were used for sample collection. CO levels were determined within several weeks of collection using gas chromatography followed by mercuric oxide reduction detection, and mixing ratios were referenced against the CMDL/NOAA carbon monoxide standard scale. During the period of study (mid-1988 through December 1990) CO levels were greatest in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere (mean mixing ratio from January 1989 to December 1990 at Point Barrow was approximately 154 ppb) and decreased towards the south (mean mixing ratio at Samoa over a similar period was 65 ppb). Mixing ratios varied seasonally, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle was greatest in the north and decreased to the south. Carbon monoxide levels were affected by both local and regional scale processes. The difference in CO levels between northern and southern latitudes also varied seasonally. The greatest difference in CO mixing ratios between Barrow and Samoa was observed during the northern winter (about 150 ppb). The smallest difference, 40 ppb, occurred during the austral winter. The annually averaged CO difference between 71[degrees]N and 14[degrees]S was approximately 90 ppb in both 1989 and 1990; the annually averaged interhemispheric gradient from 71[degrees]N to 41[degrees]S is estimated as approximately 95 ppb. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Thermal Degradation of Lead Monoxide Filled Polymer Composite Radiation Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, V.; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-07-01

    Lead monoxide filled Isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the thermo gravimetric analysis of the composites done to understand their thermal properties especially the effect of filler concentration on the thermal stability & degradation rate of composites. Pristine polymer exhibits single stage degradation whereas filled composites exhibit two stage degradation processes. Further, the IDT values as well as degradation rates decrease with the increased filler content in the composite.

  18. Modeling of Carbon Monoxide Removal by Corona Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jingwei; SUN Yabing; ZHAO Dayong; ZHENG Zheng; XU Yuewu; YANG Haifeng; ZHU Hongbiao; ZHOU Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of carbon monoxide (CO) removal by a corona plasma was conducted in this study.The purification efficiency of CO was calculated theoretically and the factors affecting the removal of CO were analyzed.The results showed that the main removal mechanisms of CO were direct dissociation by generated high-energy electrons and indirect oxidation by generated hydroxyl radicals.The purification efficiency of CO was dependent on the plasma parameters,indoor air humidity and initial concentration of CO.Good consistency between the theoretical calculation and the experimental results was observed.

  19. Pathways and Bioenergetics of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Alfons J M; Sousa, Diana Z

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO-rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis, and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  20. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn eDiender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  1. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  2. Dipolar dissociation dynamics in electron collisions with carbon monoxide

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Dipayan; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2016-01-01

    Dipolar dissociation processes in the electron collisions with carbon monoxide have been studied using time of flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy in combination with the highly differential velocity slice imaging (VSI) technique. Probing ion-pair states both positive and/or negative ions may be detected. The ion yield curve of negative ions provides the threshold energy for the ion-pair production. On the other hand, the kinetic energy distributions and angular distributions of the fragment anion provide detailed dynamics of the dipolar dissociation process. Two ion-pair states have been identified based on angular distribution measurements using VSI technique.

  3. On the relationship between acetone and carbon monoxide in different air masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Reus

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide and acetone measurements are presented for five aircraft measurement campaigns at mid-latitudes, polar and tropical regions in the northern hemisphere. Throughout all campaigns, free tropospheric air masses, which were influenced by anthropogenic emissions, showed a similar linear relation between acetone and CO, with a slope of 21-25 pptv acetone/ppbv CO. Measurements in the anthropogenically influenced marine boundary layer revealed a slope of 13-16 pptv acetone/ppbv CO. The different slopes observed in the marine boundary layer and the free troposphere indicate that acetone is emitted by the ocean in relatively clean air masses and taken up by the ocean in polluted air masses. In the lowermost stratosphere, a good correlation between acetone and CO was observed as well, however, with a much smaller slope (~5 pptv acetone/ppbv CO compared to the troposphere. This is caused by the longer photochemical lifetime of CO compared to acetone in the lower stratosphere, due to the increasing photolytic loss of acetone and the decreasing OH concentration with altitude. No significant correlation between acetone and CO was observed over the tropical rain forest due to the large direct and indirect biogenic emissions of acetone. The common slopes of the linear acetone-CO relation in various layers of the atmosphere, during five field experiments, makes them useful for model calculations. Often a single observation of the acetone-CO correlation, determined from stratospheric measurements, has been used in box model applications. This study shows that different slopes have to be considered for marine boundary layer, free tropospheric and stratospheric air masses, and that the acetone-CO relation cannot be used for air masses which are strongly influenced by biogenic emissions.

  4. Sources of greenhouse gases and carbon monoxide in central London (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Tremper, Anja; Zazzeri, Giulia; Barlow, Janet F.; Nemitz, Eiko

    2015-04-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been on the scientific agenda for several decades and new technology now also allows for high-precision, continuous monitoring of fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Compared to the natural environment, flux measurements in the urban environment, which is home to over 50% of the population globally, are still rare despite high densities of anthropogenic sources of pollutants. We report on over three years of measurements atop a 192 m tower in central London (UK), Europe's largest city, which started in October 2011. Fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide are measured by eddy-covariance (EC) at the British Telecom tower (51° 31' 17.4' N 0° 8' 20.04' W). In addition to the long-term measurements, EC fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured in February 2014. All four trace gases exhibit diurnal trends consistent with anthropogenic activities with minimum emissions at night and early afternoon maxima. Segregating emissions by wind direction reveals heterogeneous source distributions with temporal patterns and source strengths that differ between compounds. The lowest emissions for CO, CO2 and CH4 were recorded for NW winds. The highest emissions of methane were in the SE sector, in the NE for CO2 and in the W for CO. Fluxes of all 3 gases exhibited marked seasonal trends characterised by a decrease in emissions in summer (63% reduction for CO, 36% for CO2 and 22% for CH4). Monthly fluxes of CO and CO2 were linearly correlated to air temperature (R2 = 0.7 and 0.59 respectively); a weaker dependence upon temperature was also observed for CH4 (R2 = 0.31). Diurnal and seasonal emissions of CO and CO2 are mainly controlled by local fossil fuel combustion and vehicle cold starts are thought to account for 20-30% of additional emissions of CO during the winter. Fugitive emissions of CH4 from the natural gas distribution network are thought to be substantial, which is consistent

  5. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrogen. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquids. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  6. Formation of orthorhombic tin dioxide from mechanically milled monoxide powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamelas, F. J.

    2004-12-01

    X-ray scattering measurements are used to show that the metastable orthorhombic phase of tin dioxide is produced by the oxidation of mechanically milled litharge-phase tin monoxide. After milling to a grain size of approximately 20nm, followed by heating to 575°C, the fraction of the orthorhombic phase is approximately 80%. The orthorhombic phase was originally observed in high-pressure experiments, but more recently, it has been produced in a wide variety of thin-film and nanoparticle samples. The data presented here demonstrate the importance of small-grain-size tin monoxide as a precursor in the ambient-pressure synthesis of the orthorhombic phase. This result has practical importance in the production of tin dioxide gas sensors. A more fundamental observation is that the particle size of a precursor phase can have a marked effect on subsequent phases produced during oxidation. Lastly, a formula for determining the orthorhombic fraction in two-phase tin dioxide samples is developed using the method of standard additions.

  7. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  8. Space-based observation of volcanic iodine monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions inject substantial amounts of halogens into the atmosphere. Chlorine and bromine oxides have frequently been observed in volcanic plumes from different instrumental platforms such as from ground, aircraft and satellites. The present study is the first observational evidence that iodine oxides are also emitted into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions. Large column amounts of iodine monoxide, IO, are observed in satellite measurements following the major eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in 2008. The IO signal is detected in measurements made both by SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY) on ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) and GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2) on MetOp-A (Meteorological Operational Satellite A). Following the eruption on 7 August 2008, strongly elevated levels of IO slant columns of more than 4 × 1013 molec cm-2 are retrieved along the volcanic plume trajectories for several days. The retrieved IO columns from the different instruments are consistent, and the spatial distribution of the IO plume is similar to that of bromine monoxide, BrO. Details in the spatial distribution, however, differ between IO, BrO and sulfur dioxide, SO2. The column amounts of IO are approximately 1 order of magnitude smaller than those of BrO. Using the GOME-2A observations, the total mass of IO in the volcanic plume injected into the atmosphere from the eruption of Kasatochi on 7 August 2008, is determined to be on the order of 10 Mg.

  9. The electric dipole moment of cobalt monoxide, CoO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiujuan; Steimle, Timothy C

    2014-03-28

    A number of low-rotational lines of the E(4)Δ7/2 ← X(4)Δ7/2 (1,0) band system of cobalt monoxide, CoO, were recorded field free and in the presence of a static electric field. The magnetic hyperfine parameter, h7/2, and the electron quadrupole parameter, eQq0, for the E(4)Δ7/2(υ = 1) state were optimized from the analysis of the field-free spectrum. The permanent electric dipole moment, μ(→)(el), for the X(4)Δ7/2 (υ = 0) and E(4)Δ7/2 (υ = 1) states were determined to be 4.18 ± 0.05 D and 3.28 ± 0.05 D, respectively, from the analysis of the observed Stark spectra of F' = 7 ← F″ = 6 branch feature in the Q(7/2) line and the F' = 8 ← F″ = 7 branch feature in the R(7/2) line. The measured dipole moments of CoO are compared to those from theoretical predictions and the trend across the 3d-metal monoxide series discussed.

  10. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The...

  11. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Environmental variables and levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin in elderly people taking exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Mana, Viviane Aparecida Martins; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Botelho, Clovis

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to analyze levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobinand cardiopulmonary variables in old people practicing exercise in external environments, and correlate them with climate and pollution factors. Temporal ecological study with118 active elderly people in the city of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were obtained on use of medication, smoking, anthropometric measurements, spirometry, peak flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate, exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin, climate, number of farm fires and pollution. Correlations were found between on the one hand environmental temperature, relative humidity of the air and number of farmers' fires, and on the other hand levels of carbon monoxide exhaled and carboxyhemoglobin (p elderly people, environmental factors influence levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin and heart rate. There is thus a need for these to be monitored during exercise. The use of a carbon monoxide monitor to evaluate exposure to pollutants is suggested.

  13. Evaluation of gas emissions from coal stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozinc, J.; Zupancic-Kralj, L.; Zapusek, A. [University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Chemistry & Chemical Technology

    2004-05-01

    Gas emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, dimethylsulfide, carbon monoxide and oxygen from a coal stockpile in Velenje were determined. Gases from the coal stockpile were collected in Alltech Standard sampling bags and then analysed using a capillary gas chromatograph and electrochemical sensors. A flame ionisation detector equipped with a Zr/Ni catalytic reactor was used for the determination of methane and carbon dioxide. Dimethylsulfide was detected with a flame photometric detector, and the concentrations of carbon monoxide and oxygen were determined by use of electrochemical sensors. The results showed that the main influence on gas emissions is related to the ambient temperature. Emissions of carbon dioxide during summer 2001 (average temperature during sampling period was 24{sup o}C) were approximately 30-times higher than during winter 2002 (average temperature during sampling period was -2{sup o}C) and were also influenced by the oxygen concentration. Carbon dioxide is mainly formed by oxidation of coal. Methane and dimethylsulfide are desorbed from coal, and are present in higher concentrations in stockpile emissions when stockpiles are renewed. The dimethylsulfide concentration, in contrast to laboratory experiments in stockpile emissions, falls immediately due to photo-degradation.

  14. Global carbon monoxide products from combined AIRS, TES and MLS measurements on A-train satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Warner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite datasets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background model-based field is replaced by a satellite dataset, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder carbon monoxide (CO measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder. We show that combining these datasets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS/TES and AIRS/MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20–30% and above 20%, respectively as compared with AIRS-only retrievals, and improved coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  15. Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of carbon monoxide: Wavelength, pressure and temperature dependency.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Subrata; Davis, Ryan; Ahmed, Musahid; Jackson, Teresa L.; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2012-01-03

    Several absorption bands exist in the VUV region of Carbon monoxide (CO). Emission spectra indicate that these bands are all predissociative. An experimental investigation of CO photodissociation by vacuum ultraviolet photons (90 to 108 nm; ~13 to 11 eV) from the Advanced Light Source Synchrotron and direct measurement of the associated oxygen isotopic composition of the products are presented here. A wavelength dependency of the oxygen isotopic composition in the photodissociation product was observed. Slope values (δ'{sup 18}O/ δ'{sup 17}O) ranging from 0.76 to 1.32 were observed in oxygen three-isotope space (δ'{sup 18}O vs. δ'{sup 17}O) which correlated with increasing synchrotron photon energy, and indicate a dependency of the upper electronic state specific dissociation dynamics (e.g., perturbation and coupling associated with a particular state). An unprecedented magnitude in isotope separation was observed for photodissociation at the 105 and 107 nm synchrotron bands and are found to be associated with accidental predissociation of the vibrational states ({nu} = 0 and 1) of the upper electronic state E{sup 1}Π. For each synchrotron band, a large (few hundred per mil) extent of isotopic fractionation was observed and the range of fractionation is a combination of column density and exposure time. A significant temperature dependency in oxygen isotopic fractionation was observed, indicating a rotational level dependency in the predissociation process.

  16. Zinc Oxide-Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites for Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensor Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Najlaa D; Ansari, M Shahnawaze; Salah, Numan; Khayyat, Suzan A; Khan, Zishan H

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)/multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites based sensors with different ZnO concentrations were fabricated to improve carbon monoxide (CO) gas sensing properties in comparison to the sensors based on bare MWCNTs. To study the structure, morphology and elemental composition of the resultant products, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were carried out. It has been observed that as the concentration of ZnO is increased more and more ZnO nanoparticles in the form of nodes get attached to MWCNTs resulting the reduction in average diameter of MWCNTs. The typical response of ZnO/MWCNTs composites based gas sensors for different CO concentrations (40, 100, 140 and 200 ppm) was studied by using very advanced sensing setup attached to I-V measurement system. Different sensing parameters such as: resistive response, sensitivity and response time were estimated at room temperature for all the fabricated sensors. The results indicated that the sensor based on nanocomposite which has 30 mg ZnO dispersed on 20 mg MWCNTs showing highest sensitivity and fastest response. All the sensors showed response times ranging from 8 to 23 seconds. The sensing mechanism behind the sensors based on ZnO/MWCNTs nanocomposites for CO gas at room temperature is also discussed in the present report.

  17. Sources of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde in North America determined from high-resolution atmospheric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Miller

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the North American budget for carbon monoxide using data for CO and formaldehyde concentrations from tall towers and aircraft in a model-data assimilation framework. The Stochastic Time-Inverted, Lagrangian Transport model for CO (STILT-CO determines local to regional-scale CO contributions associated with production from fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, and oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs using an ensemble of Lagrangian particles driven by high resolution assimilated meteorology. In most cases, the model demonstrates high fidelity simulations of hourly surface data from tall towers and point measurements from aircraft, with somewhat less satisfactory performance in coastal regions and when CO from large biomass fires in Alaska and the Yukon Territory influence the continental US.

    Inversions of STILT-CO simulations for CO and formaldehyde show that current inventories of CO emissions from fossil fuel combustion are significantly too high, by almost a factor of three in summer and a factor two in early spring, consistent with recent analyses of data from the INTEX-A aircraft program. Formaldehyde data help to show that sources of CO from oxidation of CH4 and other VOCs represent the dominant sources of CO over North America in summer.

  18. The chemistry and transport of methane and carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, L. K.; Chameides, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    The present understanding of the physical and chemical behavior of methane, carbon monoxide and the chemical species involved in the conversion of CH4 to CO in the troposphere is reviewed. Following a brief summary of CO and CH4 emission and reactions in urban areas, attention is given to measurements of the spatial and temporal distributions of CO and CH4 in the rural atmosphere, the contribution of the oceans to atmospheric CO and CH4 concentrations, and interactions of CH4 and CO with soils and vegetation. Estimates of the transport of CH4 and CO from the troposphere to the stratosphere are discussed, and photochemical reactions of the constituents are examined. Two- and three-dimensional models for CH4 and CO transport are presented, and possible future variations in atmospheric abundances of the molecules are considered. Finally, present estimates of the global methane and carbon dioxide budgets are summarized, and it is pointed out that, despite the large contribution of anthropogenic sources, the budgets appear to be in balance.

  19. Time series analysis of Carbon Monoxide from MOPITT over the Asian Continent from 2000-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, P. S.; Roy, P.

    2005-12-01

    The human population continues to grow and large parts of the world industrialize rapidly, causing changes in the global atmospheric chemistry. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a poisonous gas in the troposphere when highly concentrated, and is produced by fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and through natural emissions from plants. It is also an important trace gas in the atmosphere and plays a major role in the atmospheric chemistry. We present a study of CO from the measurement of MOPITT (Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere-Level 3 gridded data) instrument on NASA Terra satellite over India and Eastern Asia for the period of 2000-2004. Day- and night-time total column CO measurements are considered over the selected regions in India, China, Thailand and Japan. The selected regions comprise of industrial cities in the Asian continent which form the source of high CO in the atmosphere. The time series data do not show an overall increasing or decreasing trend, but CO is affected by seasonal variations, wind, and precipitation patterns. East Asian regions have higher and wider seasonal fluctuations than the Indian region. CO total column values over the Bay of Bengal are also high and can be explained through wind patterns from the land towards the ocean. Although the sources of CO are mostly confined to the land, it is transported globally through the atmosphere, and has high concentrations over the ocean.

  20. Global Carbon Monoxide Products from Combined AIRS, TES and MLS Measurements on A-Train Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Juying X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attie, J. L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite data sets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background modelbased field is replaced by a satellite data set, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these data sets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS-TES and AIRS-MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only version 5 CO retrievals, and improved daily coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  1. Generalized chorea due to delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Feng Sung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Movement disorder due to delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide (CO intoxication is uncommon. Generalized chorea, presenting as an initial symptom of delayed encephalopathy, is extremely rare. We describe a 60-year-old woman, who had completely recovered from acute CO poisoning, developed mental and behavioral changes, urinary incontinence and generalized chorea 2 weeks thereafter. T2-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive hyperintensity of the bilateral periventricular and subcortical white matter and the globus pallidus. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT with technetium-99 ethylene cysteine dimer showed inhomogeneous perfusion in the cerebral cortex, with decreased uptake in bilateral frontal regions. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO intoxication was diagnosed, and the symptoms gradually improved after hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT. This case report demonstrates that generalized chorea may be one of the initial presenting symptoms of delayed encephalopathy after acute CO intoxication. We hypothesize that the generalized chorea in our patient may have been caused by the subcortical white matter lesions, which most likely interrupted the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits and that HBOT may be the treatment of choice for such patients.

  2. Carbon monoxide in clouds at low metallicity in the dwarf irregular galaxy WLM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G; Rubio, Monica; Hunter, Deidre A; Verdugo, Celia; Brinks, Elias; Schruba, Andreas

    2013-03-28

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the primary tracer for interstellar clouds where stars form, but it has never been detected in galaxies in which the oxygen abundance relative to hydrogen is less than 20 per cent of that of the Sun, even though such 'low-metallicity' galaxies often form stars. This raises the question of whether stars can form in dense gas without molecules, cooling to the required near-zero temperatures by atomic transitions and dust radiation rather than by molecular line emission; and it highlights uncertainties about star formation in the early Universe, when the metallicity was generally low. Here we report the detection of CO in two regions of a local dwarf irregular galaxy, WLM, where the metallicity is 13 per cent of the solar value. We use new submillimetre observations and archival far-infrared observations to estimate the cloud masses, which are both slightly greater than 100,000 solar masses. The clouds have produced stars at a rate per molecule equal to 10 per cent of that in the local Orion nebula cloud. The CO fraction of the molecular gas is also low, about 3 per cent of the Milky Way value. These results suggest that in small galaxies both star-forming cores and CO molecules become increasingly rare in molecular hydrogen clouds as the metallicity decreases.

  3. Radiation thermo-chemical models of protoplanetary discs. IV. Modelling CO ro-vibrational emission from Herbig Ae discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; Woitke, P.; van der Plas, G.; Bertelsen, R.; Wiesenfeld, L.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The carbon monoxide (CO) ro-vibrational emission from discs around Herbig Ae stars and T Tauri stars with strong ultraviolet emissions suggests that fluorescence pumping from the ground X1Σ+ to the electronic A1Π state of CO should be taken into account in disc models. Aims: We wish to unde

  4. Radiation thermo-chemical models of protoplanetary discs IV. Modelling CO ro-vibrational emission from Herbig Ae discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; Woitke, P.; van der Plas, G.; Bertelsen, R.; Wiesenfeld, L.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The carbon monoxide (CO) ro-vibrational emission from discs around Herbig Ae stars and T Tauri stars with strong ultraviolet emissions suggests that fluorescence pumping from the ground X-1 Sigma(+) to the electronic A(1)Pi state of CO should be taken into account in disc models. Aims. We w

  5. 40 CFR 60.2940 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? 60.2940 Section 60.2940 Protection of Environment... monitoring systems are operating correctly? (a) Conduct initial, daily, quarterly, and annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b) Complete...

  6. Baseline carbon monoxide and ozone in the northeast US over 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Baseline carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 were studied at seven rural sites in the northeast US during varying periods over 2001–2010. Interannual and seasonal variations of baseline CO and O3 were examined for the effects of changes in anthropogenic emissions, stratospheric intrusion, transport pathways and O3 photochemistry. Baseline CO generally exhibited decreasing trends at most sites, except at Castle Spring (CS, an elevated (~ 400 m a.s.l. site in rural central New Hampshire. Over April 2001–December 2010, baseline CO at Thompson Farm (TF, Pinnacle State Park (PSP, and Whiteface Mountain (WFM decreased at rates ranging from −4.3 to −2.5 ppbv yr−1. Baseline CO decreased significantly at a rate of −2.3 ppbv yr−1 at Mt. Washington (MWO over April 2001–March 2009, and −3.5 ppbv yr−1 at Pack Monadnock (PM over July 2004–October 2010. Unlike baseline CO, baseline O3 did not display a significant long term trend at any of the sites, resulting probably from opposite trends in NOx emissions worldwide and possibly from the overall relatively constant mixing ratios of CH4 in the 2000s. In looking into long term trends by season, wintertime baseline CO at MWO and WFM, the highest sites, did not exhibit a significant trend, probably due to the competing effects of decreasing CO emissions in the US and increasing emissions in Asia. Springtime and wintertime baseline O3 at TF increased significantly at a rate of 2.4 and 2.7 ppbv yr−1, respectively, which was likely linked to nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions reductions over urban areas and possible resultant increases in O3 due to less titration by NO in urban plumes. The effects of meteorology on baseline O3 and CO were investigated. A negative correlation was found between springtime baseline O3 and the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO index. It was found that during positive NAO years, lower baseline O3 in the northeast US was linked to less solar radiation flux, weakened

  7. Uplifting of carbon monoxide from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources to the free troposphere in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ke; Liu, Jane; Ding, Aijun; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Tianliang; Shi, Jiancheng; Han, Yong; Wang, Hengmao; Jiang, Fei

    2016-04-01

    East Asia has experienced rapid development with increasing carbon monoxide (CO) emission in the past decades. Therefore, uplifting CO from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in East Asia can have great implications on regional air quality around the world. It can also influence global climate due to the longer lifetime of CO at higher altitudes. In this study, three cases of high CO episodes in the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan from 2003 to 2005 are examined with spaceborne Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) data, in combination with aircraft measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. Through analyses of the simulations from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and a trajectory dispersion model FLEXPART, we found different CO signatures in the elevated CO and distinct transport pathways and mechanisms for these cases.

  8. Ozone and carbon monoxide at the Ushuaia GAW-WMO global station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adame, Jose; Cupeiro, Manuel; Yela, Margarita; Cuevas, Emilio; Carbajal, Gerardo

    2016-04-01

    Ozone and carbon monoxide have been investigated in the GAW-WMO station of Ushuaia (Argentina), using hourly values during five years (2010-2014). This work has been developed in the framework of HELADO (Halogens in the Antarctic atmosphere and its role in the Ozone distribution) project and under the collaboration between INTA (National Institute for Aerospace Technology - Spain), SMN (National Meteorological Service - Argentina) and AEMET (State Meteorological Agency - Spain). Meteorological features have been analyzed with in-situ observations and meteorological fields from ECMWF 0.5° as spatial resolution model. These fields have been applied to compute back trajectories with HYSPLIT model. Independently of season, mostly atmospheric flows coming from W-SW (South Pacific Ocean), theses westerlies winds are associated with low pressure systems; in addition with lower frequencies are collected winds from South (Antarctic Peninsula and Weddell Sea), polar easterlies. Hourly averages of surface (in-situ) ozone and CO levels were 20±7 and 71±45 ppb respectively, typical values of remote environments. A clear seasonal pattern has been obtained for surface ozone with monthly peaks in winter of 25 ppb and minimum in summer with 12 ppb; a similar behaviour is found for CO, 93 and 48 ppb for maximum and minimum values, respectively. A weak daily cycle has been obtained in both species, amplitude for ozone of 2-4 ppb and 13-20 ppb for CO. The seasonal levels behaviour for surface ozone is also observed in upper levels, approximately from surface up to 5 km. This result has been obtained from 139 ozone profiles launched in the studied period. Since the ozone precursors and carbon monoxide emissions are low in this area, the origin of the values observed could be in the atmospheric transport processes. As hypothesis to explain the behaviour observed, we suggest that in the warm season with solar radiation, the photochemical mechanisms are active, and the elimination

  9. Free troposphere ozone and carbon monoxide over the North Atlantic for 2001–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In-situ measurements of carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 at the Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO located in the Azores, Portugal are analyzed together with results from atmospheric chemical transport modeling (GEOS-Chem and satellite remote sensing (AIRS for CO and TES for O3 to examine the evolution of free-troposphere CO and O3 over the North Atlantic for 2001–2011. GEOS-Chem captured the seasonal cycles for CO and O3 well but significantly underestimated the mixing ratios of CO, particularly in spring. Statistically significant (using a significance level of 0.05 decreasing trends were found for both CO and O3 based on harmonic regression analysis of the measurement data. The best estimates of the trend for CO and O3 measurements are −0.31 ± 0.30 (2-σ ppbv yr−1 and −0.21 ± 0.11 (2-σ ppbv yr−1, respectively. Similar decreasing trends for both species were obtained with GEOS-Chem simulation results. The major factor contributing to the reported decrease in CO and O3 mixing ratios at PMO over the past decade is the decline in anthropogenic CO and O3-precursor emissions in regions such as North America and Europe. The increase in Asian emissions does not seem to outweigh the impact of these declines resulting in overall decreasing trends for both CO and O3. For O3, however, increase in atmospheric water vapor content associated with climate change also appears to be a contributing factor causing enhanced destruction of the O3 during transport from source regions. These hypotheses are supported by results from the GEOS-Chem tagged CO and tagged O3 simulations.

  10. Exposure to Elevated Carbon Monoxide Levels at an Indoor Ice Arena--Wisconsin, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Paul D; Meiman, Jon G; Nehls-Lowe, Henry; Vogt, Christy; Wozniak, Ryan J; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry

    2015-11-20

    On December 13, 2014, the emergency management system in Lake Delton, Wisconsin, was notified when a male hockey player aged 20 years lost consciousness after participation in an indoor hockey tournament that included approximately 50 hockey players and 100 other attendees. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) (range = 45 ppm-165 ppm) were detected by the fire department inside the arena. The emergency management system encouraged all players and attendees to seek medical evaluation for possible CO poisoning. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine what caused the exposure and to recommend preventive strategies. Investigators abstracted medical records from area emergency departments (EDs) for patients who sought care for CO exposure during December 13-14, 2014, conducted a follow-up survey of ED patients approximately 2 months after the event, and conducted informant interviews. Ninety-two persons sought ED evaluation for possible CO exposure, all of whom were tested for CO poisoning. Seventy-four (80%) patients had blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels consistent with CO poisoning; 32 (43%) CO poisoning cases were among hockey players. On December 15, the CO emissions from the propane-fueled ice resurfacer were demonstrated to be 4.8% of total emissions when actively resurfacing and 2.3% when idling, both above the optimal range of 0.5%-1.0%. Incomplete fuel combustion by the ice resurfacer was the most likely source of elevated CO. CO poisonings in ice arenas can be prevented through regular maintenance of ice resurfacers, installation of CO detectors, and provision of adequate ventilation.

  11. Black carbon and carbon monoxide over Bay of Bengal during W_ICARB: Source characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girach, I. A.; Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Babu, S. Suresh; Nair, Prabha R.

    2014-09-01

    The ship borne measurements of near-surface black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) were carried out over Bay of Bengal (BoB) during the winter period of 2009 under W_ICARB, the second phase of ‘Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)'. The CO mixing ratio and BC mass concentration varied in the ranges of 80-480 ppbv and 75-10,000 ng m-3, respectively over this marine region. The BC and CO showed similar variations over northern BoB where airmass from Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) region prevailed during the observations period leading to a very strong positive correlation. The association of BC and CO was poor over the eastern and southern part of BoB could be due to the removal of BC aerosols by rain and/or processes of dilution and mixing while transported over to BoB. The highest value of CO observed over eastern BoB was partially due to biomass burning over East Asia. The BC/CO ratio for IGP airmass found to be 20.3 ng m-3 ppb-1 and ∼16 ng m-3 ppb-1 during winter and pre-monsoon, respectively which indicate the role of biomass burning as the source of BC over the region. Based on the emission flux of CO from various inventories and observed BC/CO ratios during pre-monsoon and winter, the BC emission for India is estimated to be in the range of 0.78-1.23 Tg year-1. The analysis of scavenging of BC revealed the loss rate of BC due to relative humidity 0.39 ± 0.08 ng m-3 ppb-1 RH (%)-1 over northern BoB and 0.53 ± 0.04 ng m-3 ppb-1 RH (%)-1 over the southern-BoB during winter.

  12. Data assimilation of satellite retrieved ozone, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide with ECMWF's Composition-IFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Inness

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Daily global analyses and 5 day forecasts are generated in the context of the European Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC project using an extended version of the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. IFS now includes modules for chemistry, deposition and emission of reactive gases, aerosols, and greenhouse gases, and the 4-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme makes use of multiple satellite observations of atmospheric composition in addition to meteorological observations. This paper describes the data assimilation setup of the new Composition-IFS (C-IFS with respect to reactive gases and validates analysis fields of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 for the year 2008 against independent observations and a control run without data assimilation. The largest improvement in CO by assimilation of MOPITT CO columns is seen in the lower troposphere of the Northern Hemisphere (NH Extratropics during winter, and during the South African biomass burning season. The assimilation of several O3 total column and stratospheric profile retrievals greatly improves the total column, stratospheric and upper tropospheric O3 analysis fields relative to the control run. The impact on lower tropospheric ozone, which comes from the residual of the total column and stratospheric profile O3 data, is smaller, but nevertheless there is some improvement particularly in the NH during winter and spring. The impact of the assimilation of OMI tropospheric NO2 columns is small because of the short lifetime of NO2, suggesting that NO2 observations would be better used to adjust emissions instead of initial conditions. The results further indicate that the quality of the tropospheric analyses and of the stratospheric ozone analysis obtained with the C-IFS system has improved compared to the previous "coupled" model system of MACC.

  13. Ecosystem-scale carbon monoxide exchange and partitioning across major biomes in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerle, Albin; Spielmann, Felix; Kitz, Florian; Ibrom, Andreas; Migliavacca, Mirco; Noe, Steffen; Kolle, Olaf; Moreno, Gerardo; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2017-04-01

    With an average mole fraction of 100 ppb carbon monoxide (CO) plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and has an indirect global warming potential. While sources/sinks of CO on land at least partially cancel out each other and their magnitude is very likely lower compared to other sinks and sources, the magnitude of CO sources and sinks is highly uncertain. Thus it may be premature to neglect any direct contributions of land ecosystems to the CO budget. In addition, changes in global climate and resulting changes in global productivity may require re-evaluating older data and assumptions. One major reason for the large uncertainty is a general scarcity of empirical data. Here we present data on continuous eddy covariance measurements of CO-fluxes above different biomes in Europe in combination with soil-chamber flux measurements. Eddy covariance and soil-chamber measurements were conducted during the vegetation periods in 2015 and 2016 at a temperate grassland (AUT), a Mediterranean savanna (ESP), a temperate mixed deciduous (DEN) and a hemi-boreal forest (EST). While a clear diel pattern in ecosystem-scale CO-fluxes could be observed at the two grassland sites, with comparatively high emission rates at daytime conditions and fluxes around zero at night, no such pattern could be found for the two forest sites. Soil-chamber measurements mimicked the ecosystem-scale fluxes with CO-emissions during the day at the grassland ecosystems and slightly negative fluxes at night. Applying different treatments the influence of radiation and the availability of litter on these fluxes could be shown. Furthermore, a two-month rainout experiment revealed hardly any differences in CO soil fluxes between rainout- and control-plots at the grassland site (AUT), unless extremely dry conditions were reached.

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on the preceding research related to global environment industry technologies. Survey and research on reduction of nitrogen monoxide; 1998 nendo chikyu sangyo gijutsu ni kakawaru sendo kenkyu asanka chisso no haishutsu teigen ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Nitrogen monoxide is a strong greenhouse effect gas having warming up index per molecule 300 times greater than that of CO2, and is designated as the object of reduction in the Kyoto Conference. The present preceding research discusses necessity of performing research and development works related to reducing the emission of nitrogen monoxide, and if it is necessary, places the final objective on proposition of what researches should be planned. Fiscal 1997 being the first fiscal year of the preceding research has surveyed emission amount from different emission sources, and enumerated the research and development assignments. Fiscal 1998 falling under the final fiscal year summarizes the emission amount including the future trends, surveys the feasibility of the promising technological measures through experiments, and proposed finally a research and development plan desired of implementation in the future. The proposal contains a research plan placing development of nitrogen monoxide decomposing catalysts and automobile catalysts as the main objectives. Among the domestic nitrogen monoxide generating sources, about 2/3 is the man-made generation sources, hence catalysts, if developed, may be applied to such facilities as combustion furnaces. (NEDO)

  15. On the wintertime low bias of Northern Hemisphere carbon monoxide found in global model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, O.; Schultz, M. G.; Bouarar, I.; Clark, H.; Huijnen, V.; Gaudel, A.; George, M.; Clerbaux, C.

    2014-09-01

    Despite the developments in the global modelling of chemistry and of the parameterization of the physical processes, carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations remain underestimated during Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter by most state-of-the-art chemistry transport models. The consequential model bias can in principle originate from either an underestimation of CO sources or an overestimation of its sinks. We address both the role of surface sources and sinks with a series of MOZART (Model for Ozone And Related Tracers) model sensitivity studies for the year 2008 and compare our results to observational data from ground-based stations, satellite observations, and vertical profiles from measurements on passenger aircraft. In our base case simulation using MACCity (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate project) anthropogenic emissions, the near-surface CO mixing ratios are underestimated in the Northern Hemisphere by more than 20 ppb from December to April, with the largest bias of up to 75 ppb over Europe in January. An increase in global biomass burning or biogenic emissions of CO or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is not able to reduce the annual course of the model bias and yields concentrations over the Southern Hemisphere which are too high. Raising global annual anthropogenic emissions with a simple scaling factor results in overestimations of surface mixing ratios in most regions all year round. Instead, our results indicate that anthropogenic CO and, possibly, VOC emissions in the MACCity inventory are too low for the industrialized countries only during winter and spring. Reasonable agreement with observations can only be achieved if the CO emissions are adjusted seasonally with regionally varying scaling factors. A part of the model bias could also be eliminated by exchanging the original resistance-type dry deposition scheme with a parameterization for CO uptake by oxidation from soil bacteria and microbes, which reduces the boreal winter dry

  16. Hypervalence in monoxides and dioxides of superalkali clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Elizabeth; Meloni, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    F2Li3, a superalkali cluster, is characterized as having a lower adiabatic ionization energy than its elemental alkali counterpart and, coupled with the presence of complex molecular orbitals, suggests promise for novel bonding possibilities. CBS-QB3 composite method was used to study three distinct cluster isomers, as well as their cationic (+1) and anionic (-1) species, to identify energetic trends and observe geometric changes. Oxides were then generated from these clusters, of which three distinct monoxides and nine dioxides were obtained upon structure optimization. Identical calculations were performed for the oxide species and their charged counterparts. Some of the most stable oxides produced appear to possess hypervalent lithium and oxygen atoms, forming unique structures with exceptional stability.

  17. Carbon monoxide expedites metabolic exhaustion to inhibit tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegiel, Barbara; Gallo, David; Csizmadia, Eva; Harris, Clair; Belcher, John; Vercellotti, Gregory M; Penacho, Nuno; Seth, Pankaj; Sukhatme, Vikas; Ahmed, Asif; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Helczynski, Leszek; Bjartell, Anders; Persson, Jenny Liao; Otterbein, Leo E

    2013-12-01

    One classical feature of cancer cells is their metabolic acquisition of a highly glycolytic phenotype. Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the products of the cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cancer cells, has been implicated in carcinogenesis and therapeutic resistance. However, the functional contributions of CO and HO-1 to these processes are poorly defined. In human prostate cancers, we found that HO-1 was nuclear localized in malignant cells, with low enzymatic activity in moderately differentiated tumors correlating with relatively worse clinical outcomes. Exposure to CO sensitized prostate cancer cells but not normal cells to chemotherapy, with growth arrest and apoptosis induced in vivo in part through mitotic catastrophe. CO targeted mitochondria activity in cancer cells as evidenced by higher oxygen consumption, free radical generation, and mitochondrial collapse. Collectively, our findings indicated that CO transiently induces an anti-Warburg effect by rapidly fueling cancer cell bioenergetics, ultimately resulting in metabolic exhaustion.

  18. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A, E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} to a variety of energy sources. However, many N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  19. Prevention of carbon monoxide exposure in general and recreational aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelnick, Sanford D; Lischak, Michael W; Young, David G; Massa, Thomas V

    2002-08-01

    Carbon monoxide exposure is an important public health issue that poses a significant, albeit uncommon risk in aviation. Exposure is most common in single engine piston-driven aircraft where air is passed over the exhaust manifold to serve as cabin heat. Effective primary prevention of this exposure is the regular inspection and maintenance of aircraft exhaust systems, as required by law. For situations at special risk should exposure occur, and where there is concern for the public safety, installation of active warning devices for CO intrusion into cockpits may improve secondary prevention. Modern studies should be performed of occupation-specific abilities to support the 50 ppm FAA CO exposure standard and 50-70 ppm FAA Technical Standard Order (TSO) for CO monitors alerting pilots to the possibility of exhaust gas intrusion into their cockpits.

  20. ROLE OF ENDOGENOUS CARBON MONOXIDE IN ENDOTOXIN SHOCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in endotoxin shock. Methods. The changes of CO levels and the effects of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP),an inhibitor of heme-oxygenase (HO), in endotoxin shock and the efficacy of hemin,an inducer of HO were investigated.Results. The plasma CO levels were found to be significantly increased during the course of endotoxin shock. Injection of ZnPP was shown to abrogate the endotoxin-induced hypotension and metabolic derangements markedly. Administration of hemin to healthy rabbits revealed the hypotension and metabolic derangements similar to the animals given endotoxin.Conclusion.CO is a newly found endogenously produced mediator which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock.

  1. ROLE OF ENDOGENOUS CARBON MONOXIDE IN ENDOTOXIN SHOCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史源; 李华强; 潘捷; 覃世文; 潘凤; 蒋东波; 沈际皋

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in endotoxin shock. Methods. The changes of CO levels and the effects of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), an inhibitor of hemeoxygenase (HO), in endotoxin shock and the efficacy of heroin, an inducer of HO were investigated. Results. The plasma CO levels were found to be significantly increased during the comse of endotoxin shock. Injection of ZnPP was shown to abrogate the endotoxin-induced hypotension and metabolic derangements markedly. Administration of hemin to healthy rabbits revealed the hypotension and metabolic derangements similar to the animsls given endotoxin. Conclusion. CO is a newly found endogenously produced mediator which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock.

  2. Technique for measuring carbon monoxide uptake in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depledge, M.H.; Collis, C.H.; Chir, B.; Barrett, A.

    1981-04-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring carbon monoxide (CO) uptake in mice. Each animal was placed in a syringe and allowed to rebreathe a mixture of CO and helium (He) for 60 s. CO uptake was detemined from a comparison of CO and He concentrations before and after rebreathing. Weight specific CO uptake increased with body weight in CBA mice weighing between 20 to 35 gr. In larger mice, size dependence was less marked, although a slight fall in CO uptake was observed in older animals. Anaesthesia reduced ventilatory rate and CO uptake to a variable extent. The method is reproducible, non-invasive and does not require anaesthesia; consequently, it can be used to study serial changes in lung function. It is sensitive enough to detect lung damage in CBA mice following 16 Gy total body irradiation. Values of diffusing capacity obtained for mice using this method are consistent with published values.

  3. Terahertz Time Domain Gas-phase Spectroscopy of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcullen, Patrick; Hartley, I. D.; Jensen, E. T.; Reid, M.

    2015-04-01

    Free induction decay signals emitted from Carbon Monoxide (CO) excited by sub-picosecond pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation are directly measured in the time domain and compared to model calculations using a linear dispersion model to good agreement. Best fitting techniques of the data using the model allow the self-pressure broadening of CO to be measured across a range of absolute pressures, and the rotational constant to be determined. We find B V = 5.770 ± 0.003 × 1010 Hz in agreement with previous measurements. A partial pressure limit of detection for CO of 7900 ppm is estimated at atmosphere through extrapolating the calculated commensurate echo peaks down to low pressures with respect to the RMS noise floor of our THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) apparatus, which implies a limit of detection in the range of 40 ppm for commercial THz-TDS systems.

  4. An Unusual Cause of Supraventricular Tachycardia: Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Zengin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available      Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds. Exposure to high concentrations of CO can be letha and is the most common cause of death from poisoning worldwide. Cardiac manifestations after exposure to CO, including myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmias, have been reported. A 28-year-old a patient was admitted to our emergency department with altered consciousness as a consequence of acute domestic exposure to CO from a stove. His carboxyhemoglobin level was 39%. The oxygen treatment was started promptly, and therapeutic red cell exchange was performed. An electrocardiogram revealed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, and an echocardiographic examination demonstrated normal cardiac functions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the second to report a case of SVT attack due to acute CO intoxication. This paper discusses the management of this complication in patients poisoned with CO.

  5. An Examination of Carbon Monoxide and Organic Aerosol Mass Sources in the Southeastern United States during the SENEX Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrook, A. M.; Angevine, W. M.; Brioude, J. F.; Brock, C. A.; De Gouw, J. A.; Gilman, J.; Graus, M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Holloway, J. S.; Horowitz, L. W.; Kaiser, J.; Keutsch, F. N.; Lerner, B. M.; Liao, J.; Mao, J.; Trainer, M.; Warneke, C.; Welti, A.; Wolfe, G. M., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The NOAA Southeast Nexus (SENEX) project occurred during the summer of 2013 over the southeastern United States and involved studying the interactions between natural and anthropogenic emissions at the nexus of climate change and air quality. As part of the project, a suite of instruments for aerosol and gas-phase species was deployed on the NOAA WP-3D aircraft and models were used to calculate trace gas and aerosol species in the region and along the aircraft flight tracks. Throughout the study, the measured non-refractory submicron aerosol mass was dominated by organic material (58% +/- 9%) with smaller contributions from sulfate (27% +/- 8%), ammonium (10% +/- 3%), nitrate (3% +/- 1%), and chloride (0.1% +/- 0.1%). Here we examine the influence of urban emissions on the organic aerosol (OA) mass in regions characterized by higher and lower biogenic emissions. For the air around and downwind of urban areas, OA mass is highly correlated with carbon monoxide (CO), a tracer of anthropogenic emissions as well as an oxidation product of isoprene, a biogenic species. The slope of this correlation is roughly 0.15 micrograms per standard cubic meter per ppbv, which is significantly higher than observed in prior studies downwind of urban areas. The enhancement in OA mass relative to the enhancement in CO is independent of the concentration of biogenic species. In contrast, formaldehyde enhancements are clearly higher in the presence of biogenic species in agreement with the NOAA GFDL AM3 model. Downwind from the urban areas, CO and OA mass were not strongly enhanced relatively to a region-wide enhancement in these species that can only be explained from the accumulation of emissions in the eastern U.S. for several days. Back-trajectories of air parcels with emissions from biogenic and anthropogenic sources will be examined to elucidate the impact of both sources on CO and OA mass.

  6. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eTechtmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is commonly known as a toxic gas, yet it is used by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and many archaea. In this study, we determined the prevalence of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (anaerobic CODHs, or [Ni,Fe]-CODHs in currently available genomic sequence databases. More than 6% (185 genomes out of 2887 bacterial and archaeal genome sequences in the IMG database possess at least one gene encoding [Ni,Fe]-CODH, the key enzyme for anaerobic CO utilization. The phylogenetic study of this extended protein family revealed nine distinct clades of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs. These clades consisted of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs that, while apparently monophyletic within the clades, were encoded by microorganisms of disparate phylogeny, based on 16S rRNA sequences, and widely ranging physiology. Following this discovery, it was therefore of interest to examine the extent and possible routes of horizontal gene transfer (HGT affecting [Ni,Fe]-CODH genes and gene clusters that include [Ni,Fe]-CODHs.The genome sequence of the extreme thermophile Thermosinus carboxydivorans was used as a case study for HGT. The [Ni,Fe]-CODH operon of T. carboxydivorans differs from its whole genome in its G+C content by 8.2 mol%. Here, we apply statistical methods to establish acquisition by T. carboxydivorans of the gene cluster including [Ni,Fe]-CODH via HGT. Analysis of tetranucleotide frequency and codon usage with application of the Kullback-Leibler divergence metric showed that the [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon of T. carboxidyvorans is quite dissimilar to the whole genome. Using the same metrics, the T. carboxydivorans [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon is highly similar to the genome of the phylogenetically distant anaerobic carboxydotroph Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans. These results allow to assume recent HTG of the gene cluster from a relative of C. hydrogenoformans to T. carboxydivorans or a more ancient transfer from a C. hydrogenoformans ancestor to a T. carboxydivorans

  7. Global biogeochemical modeling of contemporary fire emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Depaz, J. M.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Morton, D. C.; Kasibhatla, P.; Defries, R. S.; Jin, Y.; Mu, M.; Collatz, G. J.

    2008-12-01

    Improved estimates of contemporary fire emissions are needed to better understand the effects of a changing fire regime on climate and air quality. At a global scale, uncertainties in fire emissions arise from several sources, including estimates of burned area, aboveground biomass, combustion completeness, and emission factors. The development of long-term time series requires addressing additional sources of uncertainty related to the integration of different satellite fire products, the representation of organic soils and peatlands, and the use of fire in the deforestation process. Here we describe improvements to a global fire emissions time series (Global Fire Emissions Database version 3) that reduce uncertainties associated with many of the factors described above. We then characterized long-term trends in fire emissions for different continental-scale regions during 1996-2007. Using South America as an example, we show how climate and human activity contribute to interannual variability in emissions and how the spatial pattern of emissions has changed over time. In a final step we use atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide (CO) from Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) to refine and validate our bottom-up emissions estimates for South America.

  8. High-frequency urban measurements of molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grant

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency measurements of atmospheric molecular hydrogen (H2 and carbon monoxide (CO were made at an urban site in the United Kingdom (UK from mid-December, 2008 until early March, 2009. Very few measurements of H2 exist in the urban environment, particularly within the UK, but are an essential component in the assessment of anthropogenic emissions of H2 and to a certain extent CO. These data provide detailed information on urban time-series, diurnal cycles as well as sources and sinks of both H2 and CO at urban locations. High-frequency data were found to be strongly influenced by local meteorological conditions of wind speed and temperature. Diurnal cycles were found to follow transport frequency very closely due to the sites proximity to major carriageways, consequently a strong correlation was found between H2 and CO mole fractions. Background subtracted mean and rush hour molar H2/CO emission ratios of 0.53±0.08 and 0.57±0.06 respectively, were calculated from linear fitting of data. The scatter plot of all H2 and CO data displayed an unusual two population pattern, thought to be associated with a large industrial area 85 km to the west of the site. However, the definitive source of this two branch pattern could not be fully elucidated. H2 emissions from transport in the UK were estimated to be 188±39 Gg H2/yr, with 8.1±2.3 Tg/yr of H2 produced from vehicle emissions globally. H2 and CO deposition velocities were calculated during stable night-time inversion events when a clear decay of both species was observed. CO was found to have a much higher deposition velocity than H2, 1.3±0.8×10−3 and 2.2±1.5×10−4 m s−1 (1σ respectively, going against the law of molecular diffusivity. The source of this unusual result was investigated, however no conclusive

  9. The influence of traffic and wood combustion on the stable isotopic composition of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saurer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide in the atmosphere is originating from various combustion and oxidation processes. Recently, the proportion of CO resulting from the combustion of wood for domestic heating may have increased due to political measures promoting this renewable energy source. Here, we used the stable isotope composition of CO (δ13C and δ18O for the characterization of different CO sources in Switzerland, along with other indicators for traffic and wood combustion (NOx-concentration, aerosol light absorption at different wavelengths. We assessed diurnal variations of the isotopic composition of CO at 3 sites during winter: a village site dominated by domestic heating, a site close to a motorway and a rural site. The isotope ratios of wood combustion emissions were studied at a test facility, indicating significantly lower δ18O of CO from wood combustion compared to traffic emissions. At the village and the motorway site, we observed very pronounced diurnal δ18O-variations of CO with an amplitude of up to 8‰. Solving the isotope mass balance equation for three distinct sources (wood combustion, traffic, clean background air resulted in diurnal patterns consistent with other indicators for wood burning and traffic. The average night-time contribution of wood-burning to total CO was 70% at the village site, 49% at the motorway site and 29% at the rural site based on the isotope mass balance. The results, however, depend strongly on the pure source isotope values, which are not very well known. We therefore additionally applied a combined CO/NOx-isotope model for verification. Here, we separated the CO emissions into different sources based on distinct CO/NOx emissions ratios for wood combustion and traffic, and inserted this information in the isotope mass balance equation. Accordingly, a highly significant agreement between measured and calculated δ18

  10. A PREDICTIVE STUDY: CARBON MONOXIDE EMISSION MODELING AT A SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY WEE LIANG KHO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available CAL3QHC dispersion model was used to predict the present and future carbonmonoxide (CO levels at a busy signalized intersection. This study attempted to identify CO “hot-spots” at nearby areas of the intersection during typical A.M. and P.M. peak hours. The CO concentration “hot-spots” had been identified at 101 Commercial Park and the simulated maximum 1-hour Time-Weighted Average (1-h TWA ground level CO concentrations of 18.3 ppm and 18.6 ppm had been observed during A.M. and P.M. peaks, respectively in year 2006. This study shows that there would be no significant increment in CO level for year 2014 although a substantial increase in the number of vehicles is assumed to affect CO levels. It was also found that CO levels would be well below the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guideline of 30 ppm (1-h TWA. Comparisons between the measured and simulated CO levels using quantitative data analysis technique and statistical methods indicated that CAL3QHC dispersion model correlated well with measured data.

  11. Atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide and fossil fuel CO2 emissions from East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Tans, Pieter P.; Lehman, Scott J.;

    2011-01-01

    Flask samples from two sites in East Asia, Tae-Ahn Peninsula, Korea (TAP), and Shangdianzi, China (SDZ), were measured for trace gases including CO2, CO and fossil fuel CO2(CO(2)ff, derived from Delta(CO2)-C-14 observations). The five-year TAP record shows high CO(2)ff when local air comes from t...

  12. Adsorption of nitrogen and carbon monoxide on clinoptilolite: determination and prediction of pure and binary isotherms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triebe, R.W.; Tezel, F.H. [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1995-10-01

    The adsorption of carbon monoxide and nitrogen on clinoptilolite is studied to determine the natural zeolite`s potential for air purification. Pure and binary isotherms were determined for nitrogen and carbon monoxide on a natural Turkish clinoptilolite under near ambient conditions. Experimentally determined isotherms are compared to predictions based on various models from the literature. The Wilson form of the Vacancy Solution Theory is the only model that provides reasonable agreement with the binary isotherm. Clinoptilolite is concluded to be a promising sorbent for separation of carbon monoxide and nitrogen. 30 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Spatial and temporal variability of urban fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide above London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Tremper, Anja H.; Halios, Christoforos H.; Kotthaus, Simone; Bjorkegren, Alex; Grimmond, C. Sue B.; Barlow, Janet F.; Nemitz, Eiko

    2016-08-01

    We report on more than 3 years of measurements of fluxes of methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) taken by eddy-covariance in central London, UK. Mean annual emissions of CO2 in the period 2012-2014 (39.1 ± 2.4 ktons km-2 yr-1) and CO (89 ± 16 tons km-2 yr-1) were consistent (within 1 and 5 % respectively) with values from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, but measured CH4 emissions (72 ± 3 tons km-2 yr-1) were over two-fold larger than the inventory value. Seasonal variability was large for CO with a winter to summer reduction of 69 %, and monthly fluxes were strongly anti-correlated with mean air temperature. The winter increment in CO emissions was attributed mainly to vehicle cold starts and reduced fuel combustion efficiency. CO2 fluxes were 33 % higher in winter than in summer and anti-correlated with mean air temperature, albeit to a lesser extent than for CO. This was attributed to an increased demand for natural gas for heating during the winter. CH4 fluxes exhibited moderate seasonality (21 % larger in winter), and a spatially variable linear anti-correlation with air temperature. Differences in resident population within the flux footprint explained up to 90 % of the spatial variability of the annual CO2 fluxes and up to 99 % for CH4. Furthermore, we suggest that biogenic sources of CH4, such as wastewater, which is unaccounted for by the atmospheric emissions inventories, make a substantial contribution to the overall budget and that commuting dynamics in and out of central business districts could explain some of the spatial and temporal variability of CO2 and CH4 emissions. To our knowledge, this study is unique given the length of the data sets presented, especially for CO and CH4 fluxes. This study offers an independent assessment of "bottom-up" emissions inventories and demonstrates that the urban sources of CO and CO2 are well characterized in London. This is however not the case for CH4 emissions which are

  14. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Personal Exposure Monitoring of Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Carbon Monoxide, including Susceptible Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. M. Harrison; C. A. Thornton; R. G. Lawrence; D. Mark; R. P. Kinnersley; J. G. Ayres

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the relation between personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and PM10, and exposures estimated from static concentrations of these pollutants measured within the same...

  17. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. The influence of tobacco blend composition on carbon monoxide formation in mainstream cigarette smoke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Djulančić, Nermina; Radojičić, Vesna; Srbinovska, Marija

    2013-01-01

    ...) in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. The results showed that the type of tobacco examined had a significant impact on the amount of carbon monoxide production in the gas phase of cigarette smoke...

  20. Cobalt promoted copper manganese oxide catalysts for ambient temperature carbon monoxide oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher; Taylor, Stuart H; Burrows, Andrew; Crudace, Mandy J; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2008-04-14

    Low levels of cobalt doping (1 wt%) of copper manganese oxide enhances its activity for carbon monoxide oxidation under ambient conditions and the doped catalyst can display higher activity than current commercial catalysts.

  1. Electronic structure and optical properties of a new type of semiconductor material:graphene monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Gui; Zhang Yufeng; Yan Xunwang

    2013-01-01

    The electronic and optical properties of graphene monoxide,a new type of semiconductor material,are theoretically studied by first-principles density functional theory.The calculated band structure shows that graphene monoxide is a semiconductor with a direct band gap of 0.95 eV.The density of states of graphene monoxide and the partial density of states for C and O are given to understand the electronic structure.In addition,we calculate the optical properties of graphene monoxide,including the complex dielectric function,absorption coefficient,complex refractive index,loss-function,reflectivity and conductivity.These results provide a physical basis for potential application in optoelectronic devices.

  2. Emission Trading

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The work concerns Emission Trading Scheme from perspektive of taxes and accounting. I should show problems with emission trading. The work concerns practical example of trading with emission allowance.

  3. Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Techtmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO, well known as a toxic gas, is increasingly recognized as a key metabolite and signaling molecule. Microbial utilization of CO is quite common, evidenced by the rapid escalation in description of new species of CO-utilizing bacteria and archaea. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH, the protein complex that enables anaerobic CO utilization has been well-characterized from an increasing number of microorganisms, however the regulation of multiple CO-related gene clusters in single isolates remains unexplored. Many species are extroraordinarily resistant to high CO concentrations, thiriving under pure CO at more than one atmosphere. We hypothesized that, in strains that can grow exclusively on CO, both carbon acquisition via the CODH/Acetyl CoA synthase complex and energy conservation via a CODH-linked hydrogenase must be differentially regulated in response to the availability of CO. The CO-sensing transcriptional activator, CooA is present in most CO-oxidizing bacteria. Here we present a genomic and phylogenetic survey of CODH operons and cooA genes found in CooA-containing bacteria. Two distinct groups of CooA homologs were found: One clade (CooA-1 is found in the majority of CooA containing bacteria, whereas the other clade (CooA-2 is found only in genomes that encode multiple CODH clusters, suggesting that the CooA-2 might be important for cross-regulation of competing CODH operons. Recombinant CooA-1 and CooA-2 regulators from the prototypical CO-utilizing bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans were purified, and promoter binding analyses revealed that CooA-1 specifically regulates the hydrogenase-linked CODH, whereas CooA-2 is able to regulate both the hydrogenase-linked CODH and the CODH/ACS operons. These studies point to the ability of dual CooA homologs to partition CO into divergent CO-utilizing pathways resulting in efficient consumption of a single limiting growth substrate available across a wide range of

  4. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  5. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate us...

  6. Delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome after carbon monoxide poisoning: inclusion of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the recovery protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dante Lo Pardo; Davide Amedola; Giuliana Senatore; Alberto Damiano; Gabriela Pezzuti; Nicola Pugliese; Gianpiero Locatelli; Alfredo Siani; Nicola Maria Vitola

    2016-01-01

    The delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome can arise in the period from 4 days to 5 weeks following carbon monoxide poisoning, and is characterized by neuropsychological deficits, which in some cases become chronic. This case report describes an adult female who apparently suffered self-inflicted carbon monoxide poisoning. She was not treated with hyperbaric oxygen and developed delayed sequelae on day 20. The treatment started with 40 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and subsequently with ne...

  7. The Range of 1-3 keV Electrons in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, Jørgen

    1985-01-01

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than...... that in nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen....

  8. Selected constituents in the smokes of foreign commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide contents of the smokes of 220 brands of foreign commercial cigarettes are reported. In some instances, filter cigarettes of certain brands were found to deliver as much or more smoke constituents than their nonfilter counterparts. Also, data indicated that there can be a great variation in the tar, nicotine, or carbon monoxide content of the smoke of samples of a given brand of cigarettes, depending on the nation in which they are purchased. 24 tables.

  9. Characterization of on-road CO, HC and NO emissions for petrol vehicle fleet in China city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hui; ZHANG Qing-yu; SHI Yao; WANG Da-hui; DING Shu-ying; YAN Sha-sha

    2006-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are a major source of air pollution in urban areas. The impact on urban air quality could be reduced if the trends of vehicle emissions are well understood. In the present study, the real-world emissions of vehicles were measured using a remote sensing system at five sites in Hangzhou, China from February 2004 to August 2005. More than 48000 valid gasoline powered vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were measured. The results show that petrol vehicle fleet in Nangzhou has considerably high CO emissions, with the average emission concentration of 2.71%±0.02% , while HC and NO emissions are relatively lower, with the average emission concentration of (153.72± 1.16)× 10-6 and (233.53±1.80)× 10-6, respectively. Quintile analysis of both average emission concentration and total amount emissions by model year suggests that in-use emission differences between well maintained and badly maintained vehicles are larger than the age-dependent deterioration of emissions. In addition, relatively new high polluting vehicles are the greatest contributors to fleet emissions with, for example, 46.55% of carbon monoxide fleet emissions being produced by the top quintile high emitting vehicles from model years 2000~2004. Therefore, fleet emissions could be significantly reduced if new highly polluting vehicles were subject to effective emissions testing followed by appropriate remedial action.

  10. DISCOVERY OF THE TRANSITION OF A MINI-BROAD ABSORPTION LINE INTO A BROAD ABSORPTION LINE IN THE SDSS QUASAR J115122.14+020426.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Paola Rodriguez; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hamann, Fred [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Murphy, Michael T. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Nestor, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present the detection of a rare case of dramatic strengthening in the UV absorption profiles in the spectrum of the quasar J115122.14+020426.3 between observations {approx}2.86 yr apart in the quasar rest frame. A spectrum obtained in 2001 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows a C IV ''mini-broad'' absorption line (FWHM = 1220 km s{sup -1}) with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}9520 km s{sup -1}, while a later spectrum from the Very Large Telescope shows a significantly broader and stronger absorption line, with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}12, 240 km s{sup -1} that qualifies as a broad absorption line. A similar variability pattern is observed in two additional systems at lower blueshifted velocities and in the Ly{alpha} and N V transitions as well. One of the absorption systems appears to be resolved and shows evidence for partial covering of the quasar continuum source (C{sub f} {approx} 0.65), indicating a transverse absorber size of, at least, {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm. In contrast, a cluster of narrower C IV lines appears to originate in gas that fully covers the continuum and broad emission line sources. There is no evidence for changes in the centroid velocity of the absorption troughs. This case suggests that at least some of the absorbers that produce ''mini-broad'' and broad absorption lines in quasar spectra do not belong to intrinsically separate classes. Here, the ''mini-broad'' absorption line is most likely interpreted as an intermediate phase before the appearance of a broad absorption line due to their similar velocities. While the current observations do not provide enough constraints to discern among the possible causes for this variability, future monitoring of multiple transitions at high resolution will help achieve this goal.

  11. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  12. The particulate project 2005-2007; Emissions from traffic in Copenhagen, Denmark; Partikelprojektet 2005-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlin, P.

    2008-11-15

    Measurements during 2004 to 2007 of emissions of particles, soot, carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the local traffic in Copenhagen and in the countryside west of Copenhagen are analysed. The analysis shows that the use of sulphur-free petrol and diesel fuels from 2005 has resulted in reduced amount of fine particles released from the traffic. (ln)

  13. VERIFICATION TESTING OF EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF A-55 CLEAN FUELS IN A FIRETUBE BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of testing three fuels in a small (732 kW) firetube package boiler to determine emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), particulate matter (PM), and total hydrocarbons (THCs). The tests were part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verificat...

  14. 78 FR 34911 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Low Emission Vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... argues that the current pace in limiting GHG emissions is insufficient to limit climate change or to... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Low...

  15. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Bhopale, Veena M; Thom, Stephen R

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries.

  16. Carbon monoxide: from toxin to endogenous modulator of cardiovascular functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a pollutant commonly recognized for its toxicological attributes, including CNS and cardiovascular effects. But CO is also formed endogenously in mammalian tissues. Endogenously formed CO normally arises from heme degradation in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. While inhibitors of endogenous CO production can raise arterial pressure, heme loading can enhance CO production and lead to vasodepression. Both central and peripheral tissues possess heme oxygenases and generate CO from heme, but the inability of heme substrate to cross the blood brain barrier suggests the CNS heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may be independent of the periphery. In the CNS, CO apparently acts in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS promoting changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission and lowering blood pressure. At the periphery, the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system can affect cardiovascular functions in a two-fold manner; specifically: 1 heme-derived CO generated within vascular smooth muscle (VSM can promote vasodilation, but 2 its actions on the endothelium apparently can promote vasoconstriction. Thus, it seems reasonable that the CNS-, VSM- and endothelial-dependent actions of the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may all affect cardiac output and vascular resistance, and subsequently blood pressure.

  17. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: animal models: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, D G

    1990-05-31

    Animals have been used for well over a century in an attempt to understand the toxicology, physiology, and pathology of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Whether the toxic effects of this gas result from primary hypoxia, as in hypoxic hypoxia to which it is frequently compared, or from direct tissue effects since it enters cells and binds to certain vital components, remains a point of controversy. Acute severe poisoning in man and animals affects primarily the cardiovascular and nervous systems, and frequently produces neurologic dysfunction. Morphologically, tissue damage is usually confined to the white matter. The root cause is at best poorly understood and major investigative efforts have been made toward its elucidation. Many studies with rats, cats and primates indicate a major role for CO-induced hypotension, which serves to compromise blood flow and exacerbate acidosis. The likely cellular mechanisms in this process are only now becoming apparent. This review critically examines the recent as well as a few older CO-animal studies. In scope, they fall into several broad categories: general cardiopulmonary effects, metabolic and tissue effects, general resistance (i.e. tolerance), effects on the central nervous system including blood flow, neurochemistry, morphology and behavior, and finally, experimental therapeutic approaches.

  18. The Role of Oxygen Therapies in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Metin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate and socio-economic issues in Turkey, the incidence of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is high, especially in winter. Clinical manifestations may vary depending on the type of CO source, concentration and duration of exposure. The symptoms of CO poisoning predominantly manifest in lots of organs and systems with high oxygen utilization, especially the brain and the heart. The primary aim in oxygen therapy is to eliminate CO and to reduce its toxic effects. In this context, normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are used to achieve these goals. Normobaric oxygen (NBO treatment is an easily accessible and relatively not expensive modality, where hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy requires specific equipment, certified staff and is available only in some centers. Additionally, HBO treatment has several additional advantages over NBO treatment. Despite its benefits, it is compulsory to search for some criteria in selecting patients to be treated because of the limited availability and access of hyperbaric facilities. For an effective evaluation and an optimal treatment, advanced education of the healthcare professionals on the use of oxygen delivery modalities in the management of CO poisoning is imperative. In this review, it has been aimed to outline the significance of oxygen treatment modalities and to determine patient selection criteria for HBO treatment in the management of CO poisoning which continues to be an important threat to community health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 487-494

  19. Carbon monoxide exposures after hurricane Ike - Texas, September 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    During power outages after hurricanes, survivors can be at risk for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning if they use portable generators improperly. On September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike struck the coast of Texas, leaving approximately 2.3 million households in the southeastern portion of the state without electricity. Six days later, 1.3 million homes were still without electrical power. To assess the impact of storm-related CO exposures and to enhance prevention efforts, CDC analyzed data from five disparate surveillance sources on CO exposures reported during September 13--26 in counties of southeast Texas that were declared disaster areas by the federal government. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that one data source, Texas poison centers, received reports of 54 persons with storm-related CO exposures during the surveillance period. Another data source, the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) hyperbaric oxygen treatment database, reported that 15 persons received hyperbaric oxygen treatment for storm-related CO poisoning. Medical examiners, public health officials, and hospitals in Texas reported that seven persons died from storm-related CO poisoning. Among the data sources, the percentage of reported storm-related CO exposures caused by improper generator use ranged from 82% to 87%. These findings underscore the need for effective prevention messages during storm preparation, warnings, and response periods regarding the correct use of generators and the installation and maintenance of battery-powered CO detectors.

  20. The immunomodulatory role of carbon monoxide during transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amano Mariane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of organ and tissue transplants has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, graft rejection, infections due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs and a shortage of graft donors remain major concerns. Carbon monoxide (CO had long been regarded solely as a poisonous gas. Ultimately, physiological studies unveiled the endogenous production of CO, particularly by the heme oxygenase (HO-1 enzyme, recognizing CO as a beneficial gas when used at therapeutic doses. The protective properties of CO led researchers to develop uses for it, resulting in devices and molecules that can deliver CO in vitro and in vivo. The resulting interest in clinical investigations was immediate. Studies regarding the CO/HO-1 modulation of immune responses and their effects on various immune disorders gave rise to transplantation research, where CO was shown to be essential in the protection against organ rejection in animal models. This review provides a perspective of how CO modulates the immune system to improve transplantation and suggests its use as a therapy in the field.

  1. Carbon monoxide and iron modulate plasmatic coagulation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G; Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Jacobsen, Wayne K; Boyle, Patrick K; Reinhard, Joao P

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality for millions of people worldwide, and multiple potential etiologies have been postulated to contribute to AD. Among these, spontaneous cerebral emboli and increased cerebral and circulating heme oxygenase (Hmox) activity in AD patients are of particular interest, as two of the products of Hmox activity, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron enhance plasmatic coagulation and modify the ultrastructure of thrombi. We hypothesized that patients afflicted with AD would have coagulation kinetics modulated by CO and iron. Using viscoelastic assessments of coagulation, it was determined with a small cohort (n=11) of AD patients that all had enhancement of coagulation by CO, iron, or both. In a complementary fashion, it was determined that a separate cohort (n=12) of AD patients had thrombi with ultrastructural features consistent with iron and CO exposure as assessed with scanning electron microscopy. Further, when stratified by normal or abnormally increased serum ferritin concentrations (which can be increased by Hmox), the AD patients with abnormal ferritin concentrations had significantly thinner fibrin fiber diameters, not unlike that noted when normal plasma is mixed with iron or CO. In sum, AD patients were noted to have plasmatic coagulation kinetic and thrombus ultrastructural changes consistent with exposure to CO and iron. Future investigation of CO and iron in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is warranted.

  2. Density-functional study of plutonium monoxide monohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ruizhi; Lu, Haiyan; Ao, Bingyun; Tang, Tao; Chen, Piheng

    2017-03-01

    The structural, electronic, mechanical, optical, thermodynamic properties of plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH) are studied by density-functional calculations within the framework of LDA/GGA and LDA/GGA+U. From the total energy calculation, the lowest-energy crystal structure of PuOH is predicted to have space group F 4 bar 3 m (No. 216). Within the LDA+U framework, the calculated lattice parameter of F 4 bar 3 m -PuOH is in good agreement with the experimental value and the corresponding ground state is predicted to be an antiferromagnetic charge-transfer insulator. Furthermore, we investigate the bonding character of PuOH by analyzing the electron structure and find that there are a stronger Pu-O bond and a weaker Pu-H bond. The mechanical properties including the elastic constants, elastic moduli and Debye's temperature, and the optical properties including the reflectivity and absorption coefficient are also calculated. We then compute the phonon spectrum which verified the dynamical stability of F 4 bar 3 m -PuOH. Some thermodynamic quantities such as the specific heat are evaluated. Finally we calculate the formation energy of PuOH, and the reaction energies for the oxidation of PuOH and PuOH-coated Pu, which are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values.

  3. Carbon monoxide: an emerging regulator of ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, William J; Kemp, Paul J

    2011-07-01

    Carbon monoxide is rapidly emerging as an important cellular messenger, regulating a wide range of physiological processes. Crucial to its role in both physiology and disease is its ability differentially to regulate several classes of ion channels, including examples from calcium-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)), voltage-activated K(+) (K(v)) and Ca(2+) channel (L-type) families, ligand-gated P2X receptors (P2X2 and P2X4), tandem P domain K(+) channels (TREK1) and the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). The mechanisms by which CO regulates these ion channels are still unclear and remain somewhat controversial. However, available structure-function studies suggest that a limited range of amino acid residues confer CO sensitivity, either directly or indirectly, to particular ion channels and that cellular redox state appears to be important to the final integrated response. Whatever the molecular mechanism by which CO regulates ion channels, endogenous production of this gasotransmitter has physiologically important roles and is currently being explored as a potential therapeutic.

  4. Discovery of carbon monoxide in the upper atmosphere of Pluto

    CERN Document Server

    Greaves, J S; Friberg, P

    2011-01-01

    Pluto's icy surface has changed colour and its atmosphere has swelled since its last closest approach to the Sun in 1989. The thin atmosphere is produced by evaporating ices, and so can also change rapidly, and in particular carbon monoxide should be present as an active thermostat. Here we report the discovery of gaseous CO via the 1.3mm wavelength J=2-1 rotational transition, and find that the line-centre signal is more than twice as bright as a tentative result obtained by Bockelee-Morvan et al. in 2000. Greater surface-ice evaporation over the last decade could explain this, or increased pressure could have caused the atmosphere to expand. The gas must be cold, with a narrow line-width consistent with temperatures around 50 K, as predicted for the very high atmosphere, and the line brightness implies that CO molecules extend up to approximately 3 Pluto radii above the surface. The upper atmosphere must have changed markedly over only a decade since the prior search, and more alterations could occur by the...

  5. Regulation of ROS Production and Vascular Function by Carbon Monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kyung Choi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO. CO interacts with reduced iron of heme-containing proteins, leading to its involvement in various cellular events via its production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS. CO-mediated ROS production initiates intracellular signal events, which regulate the expression of adaptive genes implicated in oxidative stress and functions as signaling molecule for promoting vascular functions, including angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, CO generated either by exogenous delivery or by HO activity can be fundamentally involved in regulating mitochondria-mediated redox cascades for adaptive gene expression and improving blood circulation (i.e., O2 delivery via neovascularization, leading to the regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. This paper will highlight the biological effects of CO on ROS generation and cellular redox changes involved in mitochondrial metabolism and angiogenesis. Moreover, cellular mechanisms by which CO is exploited for disease prevention and therapeutic applications will also be discussed.

  6. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide in pulmonary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2003-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a number of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. By virtue of anti-inflammatory effects, HO-1 limits tissue damage in response to proinflammatory stimuli and prevents allograft rejection after transplantation. The transcriptional upregulation of HO-1 responds to many agents, such as hypoxia, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. HO-1 and its constitutively expressed isozyme, heme oxygenase-2, catalyze the rate-limiting step in the conversion of heme to its metabolites, bilirubin IXalpha, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide (CO). The mechanisms by which HO-1 provides protection most likely involve its enzymatic reaction products. Remarkably, administration of CO at low concentrations can substitute for HO-1 with respect to anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, suggesting a role for CO as a key mediator of HO-1 function. Chronic, low-level, exogenous exposure to CO from cigarette smoking contributes to the importance of CO in pulmonary medicine. The implications of the HO-1/CO system in pulmonary diseases will be discussed in this review, with an emphasis on inflammatory states.

  7. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide in pulmonary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Augustine MK

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a number of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. By virtue of anti-inflammatory effects, HO-1 limits tissue damage in response to proinflammatory stimuli and prevents allograft rejection after transplantation. The transcriptional upregulation of HO-1 responds to many agents, such as hypoxia, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. HO-1 and its constitutively expressed isozyme, heme oxygenase-2, catalyze the rate-limiting step in the conversion of heme to its metabolites, bilirubin IXα, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide (CO. The mechanisms by which HO-1 provides protection most likely involve its enzymatic reaction products. Remarkably, administration of CO at low concentrations can substitute for HO-1 with respect to anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, suggesting a role for CO as a key mediator of HO-1 function. Chronic, low-level, exogenous exposure to CO from cigarette smoking contributes to the importance of CO in pulmonary medicine. The implications of the HO-1/CO system in pulmonary diseases will be discussed in this review, with an emphasis on inflammatory states.

  8. Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide: from metabolism to molecular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2009-09-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a ubiquitous inducible stress-response protein, serves a major metabolic function in heme turnover. HO activity cleaves heme to form biliverdin-IXalpha, carbon monoxide (CO), and iron. Genetic experiments have revealed a central role for HO-1 in tissue homeostasis, protection against oxidative stress, and in the pathogenesis of disease. Four decades of research have witnessed not only progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation and function of this illustrious enzyme, but also have opened remarkable translational applications for HO-1 and its reaction products. CO, once regarded as a metabolic waste, can act as an endogenous mediator of cellular signaling and vascular function. Exogenous application of CO by inhalation or pharmacologic delivery can confer cytoprotection in preclinical models of lung/vascular injury and disease, based on anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties. The bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin, end products of heme degradation, have also shown potential as therapeutics in vascular disease based on anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. Further translational and clinical trials research will unveil whether the HO-1 system or any of its reaction products can be successfully applied as molecular medicine in human disease.

  9. Carbon Monoxide Binding by Hemoglobin and Myoglobin under Photodissociating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Maurizio; Bonaventura, Joseph; Bonaventura, Celia; Antonini, Eraldo; Wyman, Jeffries

    1972-01-01

    Carbon monoxide binding by myoglobin and hemoglobin has been studied under conditions of constant illumination. For hemoglobin, the homotropic heme-heme interaction (cooperativity) and the heterotropic Bohr effect are invariant with light intensity over a 1000-fold change of c½. The dissociation constant, measured as c½, increases linearly with light intensity, indicating that photodissociation is a one-quantum process. At sufficiently high illumination the apparent enthalpy of ligand binding becomes positive, although in the absence of light it is known to be negative. This finding indicates that light acts primarily by increasing the “off” constants by an additive factor. The invariance of both cooperativity and Bohr effect raises a perplexing issue. It would appear to demand either that the “off” constants for the various elementary steps are all alike (which is contrary to current ideas) or that the additive factor is in each case proportional to the particular “off” constant to which it is added (a seemingly improbable alternative). PMID:4502938

  10. Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide over carbon supported palladium catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Avanish Kumar [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Saxena, Amit [Centre for Fire Explosive and Environmental Safety, Timarpur, Delhi-110054 (India); Shah, Dilip; Mahato, T.H. [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Singh, Beer, E-mail: beerbs5@rediffmail.com [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Shrivastava, A.R.; Gutch, P.K. [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Shinde, C.P. [School of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon supported palladium (Pd/C) catalyst was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic removal of CO over Pd/C catalyst was studied under dynamic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of Pd %, CO conc., humidity, GHSV and reaction environment were studied. - Abstract: Carbon supported palladium (Pd/C) catalyst was prepared by impregnation of palladium chloride using incipient wetness technique, which was followed by liquid phase reduction with formaldehyde. Thereafter, Pd/C catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffractometery, scanning electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermo gravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and surface characterization techniques. Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide (CO) over Pd/C catalyst was studied under dynamic conditions. Pd/C catalyst was found to be continuously converting CO to CO{sub 2} through the catalyzed reaction, i.e., CO + 1/2O{sub 2} {yields} CO{sub 2}. Pd/C catalyst provided excellent protection against CO. Effects of palladium wt%, CO concentration, humidity, space velocity and reaction environment were also studied on the breakthrough behavior of CO.

  11. In-utero carbon monoxide poisoning and multiple fetal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennequin, Y.; Blum, D.; Vamos, E.; Steppe, M.; Goedseels, J.; Cavatorta, E. (Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Queen Fabiola Children' s Hospital)

    1993-01-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during pregnancy can lead to feto-maternal fatalities and stillbirths. Teratogenic effects have been reported. The authors strongly suspected an association between mild but chronic CO poisoning of the mother and major multiple malformations in the baby. Retrospective interviews of the mother disclosed that at 10 weeks' gestation, she had complained of headache and dizziness. At the same time, her 16-month-old daughter had an episode of unconsciousness. A faulty kitchen gas water-heater was suspected but the family did not have it repaired. The mother continued to have headaches regularly. During the 7th month of pregnancy, the daughter was found comatose. In the emergency ward, carboxyhemoglobins levels were 27.5% for the child and 14% for the pregnant mother. Both were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Investigations by the gas company revealed a highly abnormal CO production from the kitchen and bathroom gas-water heaters: 120 and 100 parts per million, respectively, after 2 minutes of use.

  12. Effect of water on carbon monoxide-oxygen flame velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Glen E

    1954-01-01

    The flame velocities were measured of 20 percent oxygen and 80 percent carbon monoxide mixtures containing either light water or heavy water. The flame velocity increased from 34.5 centimeters per second with no added water to about 104 centimeters per second for a 1.8 percent addition of light water and to 84 centimeters per second for an equal addition of heavy water. The addition of heavy water caused greater increases in flame velocity with equilibrium hydrogen-atom concentration than would be predicted by the Tanford and Pease square-root relation. The ratio of the flame velocity of a mixture containing light water to that of a mixture containing heavy water was found to be 1.4. This value is the same as the ratio of the reaction rate of hydrogen to that of deuterium and oxygen. A ratio of reaction rates of 1.4 would also be required for the square-root law to give the observed ratio of flame-velocity changes.

  13. Tsukamurella carboxydivorans sp. nov., a carbon monoxide-oxidizing actinomycete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sae W; Kim, Sung M; Park, Sang T; Kim, Young M

    2009-06-01

    A Gram-positive, slightly acid-alcohol-fast, carbon monoxide-oxidizing bacterium, strain Y2(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from a roadside in Seoul, Korea. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparative analyses, strain Y2(T) was shown to belong to the genus Tsukamurella and was most closely related to Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens DSM 44234(T) (GenBank accession no. AY238514; 99.8 %). The predominant fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega9c and C(16 : 0). The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain Y2(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. Strain Y2(T) contained galactose and arabinose as the whole cell sugars. The DNA G+C content was 77 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain Y2(T) and T. tyrosinosolvens DSM 44234(T) was 62.7 %. Based on the combination of the carbon source utilization pattern, fatty acid profile, cell-wall chemotype, DNA G+C content and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, it is proposed that strain Y2(T) (=KCCM 42885(T)=JCM 15482(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species, Tsukamurella carboxydivorans sp. nov.

  14. A Wireless and Batteryless Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Chia; Sung, Gang-Neng; Chen, Wen-Ching; Kuo, Chih-Ting; Chue, Jin-Ju; Wu, Chieh-Ming; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-09-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB) (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min), and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway. When the CO level reaches a dangerous level, the COSWOB alarm sounds loudly. Meanwhile, the intelligent gateway also sends a trigger to activate Wi-Fi alarms and sends notifications to the mobile device through the Internet. Our strategy can warn people indoors and outdoors, thereby reducing CO poisoning accidents. We also believe that our technique not only can be used for home security but also can be used in industrial applications (for example, to monitor leak occurrence in a pipeline).

  15. Mopra Central Molecular Zone Carbon Monoxide Survey Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Rebecca; Burton, Michael; Rowell, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    We present an update on the Mopra Central Molecular Zone Carbon Monoxide (CO) survey, with data taken in 2016 extending the original 3.5° >= l >= 358.5°, +1.0° >= b >= -0.5° to 4.0° >= l >= 358.0°, +1.0° >= b >= -1.0°. Using the four simultaneously observed lines of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and C17O Nyquist sampled at 0.6' spatial and 0.1 km/s spectral resolution, we are building an optical-thickness-corrected three-dimensional model of the diffuse gas, and making cloud mass estimates. This data, as part of the Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey (Braiding et al. (2015), Burton et al. (2013)), is at the highest resolution available across such a widespread region, and includes the Sagittarius A, Sagittarius B2, Sagittarius C, and G1.3 cloud complexes, as well as Bania's Clump 2.

  16. The Hydration Structure of Carbon Monoxide by Ab Initio Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Awoonor-Williams, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The solvation of carbon monoxide (CO) in liquid water is important for understanding its toxicological effects and biochemical roles. In this paper, we use ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and CCSD(T)-F12 calculations to assess the accuracy of the Straub and Karplus molecular mechanical (MM) model for CO(aq). The CCSD(T)-F12 CO--H2O potential energy surfaces show that the most stable structure corresponds to water donating a hydrogen bond to the C center. The MM-calculated surface it incorrectly predicts that the O atom is a stronger hydrogen bond acceptor than the C atom. The AIMD simulations indicate that CO is solvated like a hydrophobic solute, with very limited hydrogen bonding with water. The MM model tends to overestimate the degree of hydrogen bonding and overestimates the atomic radius of the C atom. The calculated Gibbs energy of hydration is in good agreement with experiment (9.3 kJ/mol calc. vs 10.7 kJ/mol exptl.). The calculated diffusivity of CO(aq) in TIP3P-model water was 5.19 x 10-5 cm2/s ...

  17. Gene expression in rat striatum following carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Hara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes brain damage, which is attenuated by treatment with hydrogen [1,2], a scavenger selective to hydroxyl radical (·≡OH [3]. This suggests a role of ·≡OH in brain damage due to CO poisoning. Studies have shown strong enhancement of ·≡OH production in rat striatum by severe CO poisoning with a blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb level >70% due to 3000 ppm CO, but not less severe CO poisoning with a blood COHb level at approximately 50% due to 1000 ppm CO [4]. Interestingly, 5% O2 causes hypoxia comparable with that by 3000 ppm CO and produces much less •OH than 3000 ppm CO does [4]. In addition, cAMP production in parallel with ·≡OH production [5] might contribute to ·≡OH production [6]. It is likely that mechanisms other than hypoxia contribute to brain damage due to CO poisoning [7]. To search for the mechanisms, we examined the effects of 1000 ppm CO, 3000 ppm CO and 5% O2 on gene expression in rat striatum. All array data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE94780.

  18. A Wireless and Batteryless Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chia Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min, and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway. When the CO level reaches a dangerous level, the COSWOB alarm sounds loudly. Meanwhile, the intelligent gateway also sends a trigger to activate Wi-Fi alarms and sends notifications to the mobile device through the Internet. Our strategy can warn people indoors and outdoors, thereby reducing CO poisoning accidents. We also believe that our technique not only can be used for home security but also can be used in industrial applications (for example, to monitor leak occurrence in a pipeline.

  19. Carbon monoxide: silent killer and expert imitator (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Petrolini

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is still the most common unintentional poisoning in the Western Countries, and it may often produce potentially serious or lethal acute and delayed clinical manifestations. The considerable variety of symptoms of presentation is the principal reason of the non infrequent diagnostic errors at admission. In emergency medicine it is essential to consider this diagnosis every time a patient is found in state of unconsciousness in an environment with possible exposure to CO, as well as in patients presenting with non-specific syndromes. The prompt identification of the intoxication is essential in order to plan a correct therapy at the proper time, and for prevention of risks of a late neurologic syndrome. Nowadays the diagnosis may be performed through determination of COHb in a fast and non-invasive way, both outside and inside hospitals, thanks to a new generation of specific pulsoxymetrers. After confirmation the patient has to be classified with a grading score for severity depending on clinical presentation, that may be useful also for the choice between normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Eventually, it is essential to plan the follow up for the patient during the months following the acute event.

  20. Carbon monoxide: silent killer and expert imitator (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Petrolini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is still the most common unintentional poisoning in the Western Countries, and it may often produce potentially serious or lethal acute and delayed clinical manifestations. The considerable variety of symptoms of presentation is the main reason of the non infrequent diagnostic errors at admission. In emergency medicine it is essential to consider this diagnosis every time a patient is found in state of unconsciousness in an environment with possible exposure to CO, as well as in patients presenting with non-specific syndromes. The prompt identification of the intoxication is essential in order to plan a correct therapy at the proper time, and for preventing of risks of a late neurologic syndrome. After confirmation of the diagnosis through determination of COHb, that may nowadays be performed in a fast and non-invasive way both outside and inside hospitals thanks to a new generation of specific pulsoxyimeters, the patient has to be classified with a grading score for the severity depending on clinical presentation, that may be useful also for choice between normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Eventually, it is essential to plan the follow-up for the patient during the months following the acute event.

  1. A satellite observation system simulation experiment for carbon monoxide in the lowermost troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David P.; Arellano, Avelino F.; Deeter, Merritt N.

    2009-07-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) studies to help define quantitative trace gas measurement requirements for satellite missions and to evaluate the expected performance of proposed observing strategies. The 2007 U.S. National Research Council Decadal Survey calls for a geostationary (GEO) satellite mission for atmospheric composition and air quality applications (Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events Mission (GEO-CAPE)). The requirement includes a multispectral (near-infrared and thermal infrared) measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) at high spatiotemporal resolution with information on lowermost troposphere concentration. We present an OSSE to assess the improvement in surface CO characterization that would result from the addition of a GEO-CAPE CO measurement to current low Earth orbit (LEO) thermal infrared-only measurements. We construct instrument simulators for these two measurement scenarios and study the case of July 2004 when wildfires in Alaska and Canada led to significant CO pollution over the contiguous United States. Compared to a control experiment, an ensemble-based data assimilation of simulated satellite observations in a global model leads to improvements in both the surface CO distributions and the time evolution of CO profiles at locations affected by wildfire plumes and by urban emissions. In all cases, an experiment with the GEO-CAPE CO measurement scenario (overall model skill of 0.84) performed considerably better than the experiment with the current LEO/thermal infrared measurement (skill of 0.58) and the control (skill of 0.07). This demonstrates the advantages of increased sampling from GEO and enhanced measurement sensitivity to the lowermost troposphere with a multispectral retrieval.

  2. Long-term trend in tropospheric carbon monoxide over the globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girach, I. A.; Nair, Prabha R.

    2016-05-01

    Tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) is an air pollutant and indirect greenhouse gas which plays a major role in atmospheric chemistry involving hydroxyl (OH) radical. We utilised the remote-sensing retrievals of lower-tropospheric CO (at 900 hPa) from Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) aboard Terra-satellite for the period of ~15 years. Using simple linear regression model, we estimated the decreasing trend of ~0-2 %year-1 in the lowertropospheric CO over the globe. Utilising the in-situ measurements of surface-CO over 83 locations carried out by the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) network, we confirmed the observed negative trend as surface-CO showed decreasing trend over most of the locations. To estimate the trend in columnar CO, we utilised multiple retrievals of from different satellites, MOPITT, AIRS (Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder), and TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer). All data sets show the decreasing trend of 0.2-0.5 %year-1 in columnar CO when averaged over entire globe. However, the heterogeneity in the trend is observed on regional basis. The retrievals of upper-tropospheric CO (at 200 hPa) from MOPITT and AIRS show an increasing trend of 1-4 %year-1 over the globe. However, the retrievals of upper-tropospheric CO from MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) show decreasing trend. Further investigations are needed to confirm the trend in the upper-tropospheric CO over the globe. The decreasing trend in lower-tropospheric CO and columnar CO could be due to moistening of troposphere and/or increase in tropospheric ozone, causing increase in OH radical (strengthening the depletion of lower-tropospheric CO).

  3. IASI's sensitivity to near-surface carbon monoxide (CO): Theoretical analyses and retrievals on test cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauduin, Sophie; Clarisse, Lieven; Theunissen, Michael; George, Maya; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2017-03-01

    Separating concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the boundary layer from the rest of the atmosphere with nadir satellite measurements is of particular importance to differentiate emission from transport. Although thermal infrared (TIR) satellite sounders are considered to have limited sensitivity to the composition of the near-surface atmosphere, previous studies show that they can provide information on CO close to the ground in case of high thermal contrast. In this work we investigate the capability of IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) to retrieve near-surface CO concentrations, and we quantitatively assess the influence of thermal contrast on such retrievals. We present a 3-part analysis, which relies on both theoretical forward simulations and retrievals on real data, performed for a large range of negative and positive thermal contrast situations. First, we derive theoretically the IASI detection threshold of CO enhancement in the boundary layer, and we assess its dependence on thermal contrast. Then, using the optimal estimation formalism, we quantify the role of thermal contrast on the error budget and information content of near-surface CO retrievals. We demonstrate that, contrary to what is usually accepted, large negative thermal contrast values (ground cooler than air) lead to a better decorrelation between CO concentrations in the low and the high troposphere than large positive thermal contrast (ground warmer than the air). In the last part of the paper we use Mexico City and Barrow as test cases to contrast our theoretical predictions with real retrievals, and to assess the accuracy of IASI surface CO retrievals through comparisons to ground-based in-situ measurements.

  4. Satellite Based Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Levels Over Alberta Oil Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid expansion of oil sands activities and massive energy requirements to extract and upgrade the bitumen require a comprehensive understanding of their potential environmental impacts, particularly on air quality. In this study, satellite-based analysis of carbon monoxide (CO) levels was used to assess the magnitude and distribution of this pollutant throughout Alberta oil sands region. Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) V5 multispectral product that uses both near-infrared and the thermal-infrared radiances for CO retrieval were used. MOPITT-based climatology and inter-annual variations were examined for 12 years (2002-2013) on spatial and temporal scales. Seasonal climatological maps for CO total columns indicated conspicuous spatial variations in all seasons except in winter where the CO spatial variations are less prominent. High CO loadings are observed to extend from the North East to North West regions of Alberta, with highest values in spring. The CO mixing ratios at the surface level in winter and spring seasons exhibited dissimilar spatial distribution pattern where the enhancements are detected in south eastern rather than northern Alberta. Analyzing spatial distributions of Omega at 850 mb pressure level for four seasons implied that, conditions in northeastern Alberta are more favorable for up lofting while in southern Alberta, subsidence of CO emissions are more likely. Time altitude CO profile climatology as well as the inter-annual variability were investigated for the oil sands and main urban regions in Alberta to assess the impact of various sources on CO loading. Monthly variations over urban regions are consistent with the general seasonal cycle of CO in Northern Hemisphere which exhibits significant enhancement in winter and spring, and minimum mixing ratios in summer. The typical seasonal CO variations over the oil sands region are less prominent. This study has demonstrated the potential use of multispectral CO

  5. Carbon monoxide poisoning in Beirut, Lebanon: Patient′s characteristics and exposure sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen J El Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is a preventable disease. Patients present with nonspecific symptoms post CO exposure. Causal factors are well described in developed countries, but less in developing countries. Objectives: This study examined the characteristics of patients with CO poisoning treated at a tertiary care center in Beirut, Lebanon, and their association with the CO poisoning source. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review of all patients who presented to the Emergency Department (ED of the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC over 4-year period and for whom a carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb level was available. Patients with CO poisoning diagnosis were included in the study. Patients′ characteristics and their association with CO poisoning source were described. Results: Twenty-seven patients were treated for CO poisoning during the study period, 55% of whom were males. Headache was the most common presenting symptom (51.9%. Burning charcoal indoors was the most common causal factor (44.4%, whereas fire-related smoke was another causal factor. The median arterial CO-Hb level on presentation for all cases was 12.0% (interquartile range (IQR 7.3-20.2. All patients received normobaric oxygen therapy. No complications were documented in the ED. All patients were discharged from the ED with a median ED length of stay of 255 min (IQR 210-270. Young females were more likely to present with CO poisoning from burning charcoal indoors than from another cause. Conclusion: CO poisoning in Beirut, Lebanon is mainly due to charcoal burning grills used indoors and to fire-related smoke. A clinically significant association was present between gender and CO poisoning source. An opportunity for prevention is present in terms of education and increased awareness regarding CO emission sources.

  6. Analysis of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide profiles over South America based on MOZAIC/IAGOS database and model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia A. Yamasoe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We analysed ozone and carbon monoxide profiles measured by commercial aircrafts from the MOZAIC/IAGOS fleet, during ascending and descending flights over Caracas, in Venezuela, from August 1994 to December 2009, over Rio de Janeiro, from 1994 to 2004 and from July 2012 to June 2013, and over São Paulo, in Brazil, from August 1994 to 2005. For ozone, results showed a clean atmosphere over Caracas presenting the highest seasonal mean in March, April and May. Backward trajectory analyses with FLEXPART, of case studies for which the measured concentrations were high, showed that contributions from local, Central and North America, the Caribbean and Africa either from anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning or lightning were possible. Satellite products as fire counts from MODIS, lightning flash rates from LIS, and CO and O3 from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer and wind maps at different levels helped corroborate previous findings. Sensitivity studies performed with the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem captured the effect of anthropogenic emissions but underestimated the influence of biomass burning, which could be due to an underestimation of GFEDv2 emission inventory. The model detected the contribution of lightning from Africa in JJA and SON and from South America in DJF, possibly from the northeast of Brazil. Over São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, GEOS-Chem captured the seasonal variability of lightning produced in South America and attributed this source as the most important in this region, except in JJA, when anthropogenic emissions were addressed as the more impacting source of ozone precursors. However, comparison with the measurements indicated that the model overestimated ozone formation, which could be due to the convective parameterisation or the stratospheric influence. The highest ozone concentration was observed during September to November, but the model attributed only a small influence of biomass burning from South

  7. Tracing the boundary layer sources of carbon monoxide in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone using WRF-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Renchang; Bian, Jianchun

    2015-07-01

    The Asian summer monsoon (ASM) anticyclone is a dominant feature of the circulation in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS) during boreal summer, which is found to have persistent maxima in carbon monoxide (CO). This enhancement is due to the upward transport of air with high CO from the planetary boundary layer (PBL), and confinement within the anticyclonic circulation. With rapid urbanization and industrialization, CO surface emissions are relatively high in the ASM region, especially in India and East China. To reveal the transport pathway of CO surface emissions over these two regions, and investigate the contribution of these to the CO distribution within the ASM anticyclone, a source sensitivity experiment was performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) with chemistry model (WRF-Chem). According to the experiment results, the CO within the ASM anticyclone mostly comes from India, while the contribution from East China is insignificant. The result ismainly caused by the different transportation mechanisms. In India, CO transportation is primarily affected by convection. The surface air with high CO over India is directly transported to the upper troposphere, and then confined within the ASM anticyclone, leading to a maximum value in the UTLS region. The CO transportation over East China is affected by deep convection and large-scale circulation, resulting mainly in transportation to Korea, Japan, and the North Pacific Ocean, with little upward transport to the anticyclone, leading to a high CO value at 215 hPa over these regions.

  8. Stable Isotopes of Carbon Monoxide in an Urban Environment: A Study at Indianapolis, IN as part of the INFLUX Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimont, I.; Petrenko, V. V.; Turnbull, J. C.; Place, P.; White, J. W. C.; Karion, A.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a new system capable of measuring stable isotopes of carbon monoxide (CO) in small atmospheric samples. Measurements at 3 tall tower sites in Indianapolis, IN, USA have been ongoing since July 2013 as part of the INdianapolis FLUX (INFLUX) project. These three towers consist of an upwind, or background site, a site in the urban center, and a site on the downwind edge of the city. The tower collections are discrete, one hour integrated samples taken using NOAA's Portable Flask Package system. These sites have been measured for CO mole fraction, 13CO, and C18O approximately 6 times per month. We present a time series of data from these three sites, as well as a source analysis of the CO produced during the winter months (the winter data allow the use of several simplifying assumptions). We have identified mobile (vehicular) fossil fuel emissions as the only clearly significant wintertime source of CO, and quantified the stable isotopic signature of that source. We also present data from a traffic study done in March of 2015. A vehicle-based collection system was used for this study, and both continuous CO mole fraction and discrete CO mole fraction, 13CO, and C18O measurements were made. The results for CO stable isotopes are consistent with the vehicular emission CO isotopic signatures inferred from the tower samples.

  9. Effect of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and sulfate on thermophilic (55°C) hydrogenogenic carbon monoxide conversion in two anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Meulepas, R.J.W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion routes of carbon monoxide (CO) at 55°C by full-scale grown anaerobic sludges treating paper mill and distillery wastewater were elucidated. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) and vancomycin showed that CO conversion was performed by a hydrogenogenic population an

  10. Performance and Emission Studies of a SI Engine using Distilled Plastic Pyrolysis Oil-Petrol Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Kareddula Vijaya; Puli Ravi Kumar; Swarna Kumari A.; Shailesh P.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, an experimental investigation is carried out to evaluate the use of plastic oil derived from waste plastic which used in a Spark Ignition engine. Experiments are conducted, the measured performance and emissions of plastic oil blends at different proportions are compared with the baseline operation of the SI engine running with gasoline fuel. Engine performance and exhaust gas emissions such as carbon monoxide, total unburned hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and oxides of nit...

  11. Towards a sustainable automotive industry : experiences from the development of emission control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bauner, David

    2007-01-01

    From the mid-1970s and on, the contribution to air pollution of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from gasoline passenger cars in the developed world has been reduced through co-evolution of regulation and commercial introduction of catalytic emission control technology, now part of hundreds of millions of cars, trucks and buses worldwide. This dissertation is a disaggregated study of the global introduction of catalytic emission control technology as a measure to reduce local...

  12. Search for aluminium monoxide in the winds of oxygen-rich AGB stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; Ramstedt, S.; Olofsson, H.; Menten, K. M.; Patel, N. A.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Aluminium monoxide (AlO) is likely efficiently depleted from the gas around oxygen-rich evolved stars to form alumina (Al2O3) clusters and dust seeds. The presence of AlO gas in the extended atmospheres of evolved stars has been derived from optical spectroscopy. More recently, AlO gas was also detected at long wavelengths around the supergiant VY CMa and the oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch star o Cet (Mira A). The central role aluminium might play in dust formation and wind driving, in combination with these first detections of AlO at long wavelengths, shows the need for a wider search for this molecule in the winds of evolved stars. Aims: The detection at long wavelengths of emission in rotational transitions of AlO towards asymptotic giant branch stars can help constrain the presence and location of AlO gas in the outflows and ultimately also the efficiency of the depletion process. Methods: In search of AlO, we mined data obtained with APEX, the IRAM 30 m telescope, Herschel/HIFI, SMA, and ALMA, which were primarily aimed at studying other species around asymptotic giant branch stars. We report here on observations of AlO towards a sample of eight oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch stars in different rotational transitions, up to seven for some stars. Results: We present definite detections of one rotational transition of AlO for o Cet and R Aqr, and tentative detections of one transition for R Dor and o Cet and two transitions for IK Tau and W Hya. The presented spectra of WX Psc, R Cas, and TX Cam show no signature of AlO. For o Cet, R Aqr, and IK Tau, we find that the AlO (N = 9-8) emission likely traces the inner parts of the wind, out to only a few tens of AU, where the gas has not yet been accelerated to its terminal velocity. This is in agreement with recently published results from a detailed study on o Cet. Conclusions: The conclusive detections of AlO emission in the case of o Cet and R Aqr confirm the presence of AlO in the gas phase in

  13. Exhaled carbon monoxide in asthmatics: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language articles published between 1997 and 2009 was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Observational studies comparing eCO in non-smoking asthmatics and healthy subjects or asthmatics before and after steroid treatment were included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed to generate weighted mean differences using either a fixed or random effects meta-analysis depending upon the degree of heterogeneity. Results 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The eCO level was significantly higher in asthmatics as compared to healthy subjects and in intermittent asthma as compared to persistent asthma. However, eCO could not distinguish between steroid-treated asthmatics and steroid-free patients nor separate controlled and partly-controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma in cross-sectional studies. In contrast, eCO was significantly reduced following a course of corticosteroid treatment. Conclusions eCO is elevated in asthmatics but levels only partially reflect disease severity and control. eCO might be a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in nonsmoking asthmatics.

  14. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Is a Novel Inhibitor of Connexin Hemichannels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Paravic, Carmen G.; Figueroa, Vania A.; Guzmán, Diego J.; Valderrama, Carlos F.; Vallejos, Antonio A.; Fiori, Mariana C.; Altenberg, Guillermo A.; Reuss, Luis; Retamal, Mauricio A.

    2014-01-01

    Hemichannels (HCs) are hexamers of connexins that can form gap-junction channels at points of cell contacts or “free HCs” at non-contacting regions. HCs are involved in paracrine and autocrine cell signaling, and under pathological conditions may induce and/or accelerate cell death. Therefore, studies of HC regulation are of great significance. Nitric oxide affects the activity of Cx43 and Cx46 HCs, whereas carbon monoxide (CO), another gaseous transmitter, modulates the activity of several ion channels, but its effect on HCs has not been explored. We studied the effect of CO donors (CORMs) on Cx46 HCs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp and on Cx43 and Cx46 expressed in HeLa cells using a dye-uptake technique. CORM-2 inhibited Cx46 HC currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The C-terminal domain and intracellular Cys were not necessary for the inhibition. The effect of CORM-2 was not prevented by guanylyl-cyclase, protein kinase G, or thioredoxin inhibitors, and was not due to endocytosis of HCs. However, the effect of CORM-2 was reversed by reducing agents that act extracellularly. Additionally, CO inhibited dye uptake of HeLa cells expressing Cx43 or Cx46, and MCF-7 cells, which endogenously express Cx43 and Cx46. Because CORM-2 carbonylates Cx46 in vitro and induces conformational changes, a direct effect of that CO on Cx46 is possible. The inhibition of HCs could help to understand some of the biological actions of CO in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25384983

  15. Carbon monoxide total column retrievals from TROPOMI shortwave infrared measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Jochen; aan de Brugh, Joost; Scheepmaker, Remco; Borsdorff, Tobias; Hu, Haili; Houweling, Sander; Butz, Andre; Aben, Ilse; Hasekamp, Otto

    2016-10-01

    The Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) spectrometer is the single payload of the Copernicus Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P) mission. It measures Earth radiance spectra in the shortwave infrared spectral range around 2.3 µm with a dedicated instrument module. These measurements provide carbon monoxide (CO) total column densities over land, which for clear sky conditions are highly sensitive to the tropospheric boundary layer. For cloudy atmospheres over land and ocean, the column sensitivity changes according to the light path through the atmosphere. In this study, we present the physics-based operational S5P algorithm to infer atmospheric CO columns satisfying the envisaged accuracy ( information on atmospheric scattering. For efficient processing, we deploy a linearized two-stream radiative transfer model as forward model and a profile scaling approach to adjust the CO abundance in the inversion. Based on generic measurement ensembles, including clear sky and cloudy observations, we estimated the CO retrieval precision to be ≤ 11 % for surface albedo ≥ 0.03 and solar zenith angle ≤ 70°. CO biases of ≤ 3 % are introduced by inaccuracies in the methane a priori knowledge. For strongly enhanced CO concentrations in the tropospheric boundary layer and for cloudy conditions, CO errors in the order of 8 % can be introduced by the retrieval of cloud parameters of our algorithm. Moreover, we estimated the effect of a distorted spectral instrument response due to the inhomogeneous illumination of the instrument entrance slit in the flight direction to be < 2 % with pseudo-random characteristics when averaging over space and time. Finally, the CO data exploitation is demonstrated for a TROPOMI orbit of simulated shortwave infrared measurements. Overall, the study demonstrates that for an instrument that performs in compliance with the pre-flight specifications, the CO product will meet the required product performance well.

  16. Inhibition of cellular respiration by endogenously produced carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Gabriela; Lam, Francis; Hagen, Thilo; Moncada, Salvador

    2006-06-01

    Endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) interacts with mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, leading to inhibition of cellular respiration. This interaction has been shown to have important physiological and pathophysiological consequences. Exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) is also known to inhibit cytochrome c oxidase in vitro; however, it is not clear whether endogenously produced CO can inhibit cellular respiration and, if so, what the significance of this might be. In this study, we show that exogenous CO inhibits respiration in a moderate but persistent manner in HEK293 cells under ambient (21%) oxygen concentrations (K(i) = 1.44 microM). This effect of CO was increased (K(i) = 0.35 microM) by incubation in hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen). Endogenous CO, generated by HEK293 cells transfected with the inducible isoform of haem oxygenase (haem oxygenase-1; HO-1), also inhibited cellular respiration moderately (by 12%) and this was accompanied by inhibition (23%) of cytochrome c oxidase activity. When the cells were incubated in hypoxic conditions during HO-1 induction, the inhibitory effect of CO on cell respiration was markedly increased to 70%. Furthermore, endogenously produced CO was found to be responsible for the respiratory inhibition that occurs in RAW264.7 cells activated in hypoxic conditions with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma, in the presence of N-(iminoethyl)-L-ornithine to prevent the synthesis of NO. Our results indicate that CO contributes significantly to the respiratory inhibition in activated cells, particularly under hypoxic conditions. Inhibition of cell respiration by endogenous CO through its interaction with cytochrome c oxidase might have an important role in inflammatory and hypoxic conditions.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Chronic Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durak, A. C.; Coskun, A.; Yikilmaz, A.; Erdogan, F.; Mavili, E.; Guven, M. [Hospital of Erciyes Univ., Kayseri (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To define the cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the chronic stage of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in patients with and without neuropsychiatric sequelae. Material and Methods: Eight patients who had neither symptoms nor neurological sequelae and eight patients with neuropsychiatric sequelae were included in the study. Patients aged between 9 to 57 (mean 32.2 years). All patients had been comatose at initial admittance and awoke after normobaric 100% oxygen therapy within 1-7 days. In this study, the patients were being examined with routine cranial MRI between 1 and 10 years (mean 3.4 years) after exposure to CO. Results: The most common finding was bilateral symmetric hyperintensity of the white matter, which was more significant in the centrum semiovale, with relative sparing of the temporal lobes and anterior parts of the frontal lobes on T2-weighted and FLAIR images in all patients. Cerebral cortical atrophy was seen in 10 patients; mild atrophy of cerebellar hemispheres in 8; and vermian atrophy in 11. Corpus callosum was atrophic in one patient. Bilateral globus pallidus lesions were seen in three patients. The lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Conclusion: Patients with severe CO intoxication may develop persistent cerebral changes independently of their neuropsychiatric findings in the chronic stage. They may present with characteristic MRI findings as described here, even if asymptomatic. The history of CO exposure is therefore helpful for recognizing and interpreting the MRI findings of chronic stage CO intoxication.

  18. Carbon monoxide pollution and neurodevelopment: A public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between air pollution and adverse systemic health effects has been known for years, the effect of pollutants on neurodevelopment has been underappreciated. Recent evidence suggests a possible link between air pollution and neurocognitive impairment and behavioral disorders in children, however, the exact nature of this relationship remains poorly understood. Infants and children are uniquely vulnerable due to the potential for exposure in both the fetal and postnatal environments during critical periods in development. Carbon monoxide (CO), a common component of indoor and outdoor air pollution, can cross the placenta to gain access to the fetal circulation and the developing brain. Thus, CO is of particular interest as a known neurotoxin and a potential public health threat. Here we review overt CO toxicity and the policies regulating CO exposure, detail the evidence suggesting a potential link between CO-associated ambient air pollution, tobacco smoke, and learning and behavioral abnormalities in children, describe the effects of subclinical CO exposure on the brain during development, and provide mechanistic insight into a potential connection between CO exposure and neurodevelopmental outcome. CO can disrupt a number of critical processes in the developing brain, providing a better understanding of how this specific neurotoxin may impair neurodevelopment. However, further investigation is needed to better define the effects of perinatal CO exposure on the immature brain. Current policies regarding CO standards were established based on evidence of cardiovascular risk in adults with pre-existing comorbidities. Thus, recent and emerging data highlighted in this review regarding CO exposure in the fetus and developing child may be important to consider when the standards and guidelines are evaluated and revised in the future.

  19. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kosterin, Paul [Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Salzberg, Brian M. [Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Thom, Stephen R., E-mail: sthom@smail.umaryland.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  20. Compliance with Washington State's requirement for residential carbon monoxide alarms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil B. Hampson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the US. In response, a majority of states have passed legislation in recent years requiring the installation of residential CO alarms. There is, however, no published information evaluating compliance with such laws. Employees of a Seattle medical center were surveyed in 2008 regarding home use of CO and smoke alarms. Washington State enacted legislation requiring residential CO alarms by all residences by January 1, 2013. The survey was repeated in mid-2016 to evaluate compliance. In 2016, a total of 354 employees completed the survey and their responses were compared to an equal number of 2008 survey respondents matched by home ownership and ZIP code. Residential CO alarm use rose from 37% to 78% (p < 0.0001. Among homeowners, 78% had alarms while 80% of renters had them. Homeowners with the highest compliance (96% had purchased their homes since January 1, 2013 while those with the lowest compliance (73% had purchased them earlier. A majority (79% of renters without alarms reported the reason was that their landlord did not provide one, a violation of the law. Only one-half to two-thirds of all equipped homes had the required number of either CO or smoke alarms. Use of residential CO alarms increased significantly in this study population three years after law required them. Areas for further improvement include education of landlords, tenants, and longtime homeowners about the law, as well as public education regarding the number of CO and smoke alarms needed.

  1. A Fire Department Community Health Intervention to Prevent Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Following a Hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Matthew; Jenkins, J Lee; Seaman, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Portable generators are commonly used during electrical service interruptions that occur following large storms such as hurricanes. Nearly all portable generators use carbon based fuels and produce deadly carbon monoxide gas. Despite universal warnings to operate these generators outside only, the improper placement of generators makes these devices the leading cause of engine related carbon monoxide deaths in the United States. The medical literature reports many cases of Carbon Monoxide (CO) toxicity associated with generator use following hurricanes and other weather events. This paper describes how Howard County, Maryland Fire and Rescue (HCFR) Services implemented a public education program that focused on prevention of Carbon Monoxide poisoning from portable generator use in the wake of events where electrical service interruptions occurred or had the potential to occur. A major challenge faced was communication with those members of the population who were almost completely dependent upon electronic and wireless technologies and were without redundancies. HCFR utilized several tactics to overcome this challenge including helicopter based surveillance and the use of geocoded information from the electrical service provider to identify outage areas. Once outage areas were identified, HCFR personnel conducted a door-to-door canvasing of effected communities, assessing for hazards and distributing information flyers about the dangers of generator use. This effort represents one of the first reported examples of a community-based endeavor by a fire department to provide proactive interventions designed to prevent carbon monoxide illness. PMID:24596660

  2. Correlation of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and clinical outcome in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Namik; Ozcam, Giray; Kosar, Pinar; Ozcan, Ayse; Basar, Hulya; Kaymak, Cetin

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas for humans and is still a silent killer in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this case series was to evaluate early radiological images as a predictor of subsequent neuropsychological sequelae, following carbon monoxide poisoning. After carbon monoxide exposure, early computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 52-year-old woman showed bilateral lesions in the globus pallidus. This patient was discharged and followed for 90 days. The patient recovered without any neurological sequela. In a 58-year-old woman exposed to carbon monoxide, computed tomography showed lesions in bilateral globus pallidus and periventricular white matter. Early magnetic resonance imaging revealed changes similar to that like in early tomography images. The patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. On the 27th day of exposure, the patient developed disorientation and memory impairment. Late magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse hyperintensity in the cerebral white matter. White matter lesions which progress to demyelination and end up in neuropsychological sequelae cannot always be diagnosed by early computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in carbon monoxide poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Murchie, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft began taking observations in September 2006 and has now collected more than a full Martian year of data. Retrievals performed using the near-infrared spectra obtained by CRISM are used to characterize the seasonal and spatial variation of the column abundance of water vapor and the column-averaged mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. CRISM retrievals show nominal behavior in water vapor during northern hemisphere spring and summer with maximum abundance reaching 50 precipitable micrometers. Water vapor abundance during the southern hemisphere spring and summer appears significantly reduced compared to observations by other instruments taken during previous years. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be 700 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations at high latitudes. The summertime near-polar carbon monoxide mixing ratio falls to 200 ppm in the south and 400 ppm in the north as carbon dioxide sublimates from the seasonal polar ice caps and dilutes noncondensable species including carbon monoxide. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure.

  4. Vapor Pressure and Evaporation Coefficient of Silicon Monoxide over a Mixture of Silicon and Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Frank T.; Nuth, Joseph A., III

    2012-01-01

    The evaporation coefficient and equilibrium vapor pressure of silicon monoxide over a mixture of silicon and vitreous silica have been studied over the temperature range (1433 to 1608) K. The evaporation coefficient for this temperature range was (0.007 plus or minus 0.002) and is approximately an order of magnitude lower than the evaporation coefficient over amorphous silicon monoxide powder and in general agreement with previous measurements of this quantity. The enthalpy of reaction at 298.15 K for this reaction was calculated via second and third law analyses as (355 plus or minus 25) kJ per mol and (363.6 plus or minus 4.1) kJ per mol respectively. In comparison with previous work with the evaporation of amorphous silicon monoxide powder as well as other experimental measurements of the vapor pressure of silicon monoxide gas over mixtures of silicon and silica, these systems all tend to give similar equilibrium vapor pressures when the evaporation coefficient is correctly taken into account. This provides further evidence that amorphous silicon monoxide is an intimate mixture of small domains of silicon and silica and not strictly a true compound.

  5. Correlation of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and clinical outcome in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Ozcan

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas for humans and is still a silent killer in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this case series was to evaluate early radiological images as a predictor of subsequent neuropsychological sequelae, following carbon monoxide poisoning. Case 1: After carbon monoxide exposure, early computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 52-year-old woman showed bilateral lesions in the globus pallidus. This patient was discharged and followed for 90 days. The patient recovered without any neurological sequela. Case 2: In a 58-year-old woman exposed to carbon monoxide, computed tomography showed lesions in bilateral globus pallidus and periventricular white matter. Early magnetic resonance imaging revealed changes similar to that like in early tomography images. The patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. On the 27th day of exposure, the patient developed disorientation and memory impairment. Late magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse hyperintensity in the cerebral white matter. Conclusion: White matter lesions which progress to demyelination and end up in neuropsychological sequelae cannot always be diagnosed by early computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in carbon monoxide poisoning.

  6. The Effect of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning on Platelet Volume in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halise Akça

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality. There is increasing evidence supporting the important role of mean platelet volume (MPV as a marker of hypoxia and inflammation. In this study, we aimed to determine changes in MPV values in pediatric patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated children who were diagnosed with carbon monoxide poisoning in our hospital between January 2005 and 2014. Results: We included 228 children with carbon monoxide poisoning (49% male in this retrospective, controlled study. The mean age of the patients was 88±56 months. Control group consisted of 200 age-matched healthy children. There was no statistically significant difference in MPV levels between the study and control groups (8.43±1.1 fL and 8.26±0.7 fL, respectively. No correlation of MPV and platelet count with carboxyhemoglobin (COHb was found. Conclusion: In our study, it was determined that MPV value was not a helpful parameter for predicting the diagnosis of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in childhood. The difference between the MPV values and the lack of significance and the absence of correlation between MPV value and COHb level led to the fact that MPV was not a guide indicating the clinical severity of the condition.

  7. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, M.G.

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  8. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10°C to 30°C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  9. The sectoral trends of multigas emissions inventory of India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, A.; Shukla, P.R.; Kapshe, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides the trends of greenhouse gas (GHG) and local air pollutant emissions of India for 1985-2005. The GHGs covered are six Kyoto gases, namely carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6......). The local air pollutants are sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO) and total suspended particulates (TSP). These estimates incorporate some of the most recent scientific assessments for India. The multigas emissions have varied sectoral and fuel-based dominance, as well......, exploring co-benefits Of CO2 and SO2 mitigation, and technology and development pathway dependence of emissions. The'present inventory assessment is a pointer to the future emission pathways for India wherein local air pollutant and GHG emissions, although connected, may not move in synchronization...

  10. Diesel emission control: Catalytic filters for particulate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Fino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European diesel engine industry represents a vital sector across the Continent, with more than 2 million direct work positions and a turnover of over 400 billion Euro. Diesel engines provide large paybacks to society since they are extensively used to transport goods, services and people. In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the emissions from diesel engines which, like gasoline engine emissions, include carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Diesel engines also produce significant levels of particulate matter (PM, which consists mostly of carbonaceous soot and a soluble organic fraction (SOF of hydrocarbons that have condensed on the soot.

  11. Evaluation of UTLS Carbon Monoxide Simulations in GMI and GEOS-Chem Chemical Transport Models using Aura MLS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Murray, Lee T.; Damon, Megan R.; Su, Hui; Livesey, Nathaniel J.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the distribution and variation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) during 2004-2012 as simulated by two chemical transport models, using the latest version of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations. The simulated spatial distributions, temporal variations and vertical transport of CO in the UTLS region are compared with those observed by MLS. We also investigate the impact of surface emissions and deep convection on CO concentrations in the UTLS over different regions, using both model simulations and MLS observations. Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) and GEOS-Chem simulations of UTLS CO both show similar spatial distributions to observations. The global mean CO values simulated by both models agree with MLS observations at 215 and 147 hPa, but are significantly underestimated by more than 40% at 100 hPa. In addition, the models underestimate the peak CO values by up to 70% at 100 hPa, 60% at 147 hPa and 40% at 215 hPa, with GEOS-Chem generally simulating more CO at 100 hPa and less CO at 215 hPa than GMI. The seasonal distributions of CO simulated by both models are in better agreement with MLS in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) than in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), with disagreements between model and observations over enhanced CO regions such as southern Africa. The simulated vertical transport of CO shows better agreement with MLS in the tropics and the SH subtropics than the NH subtropics. We also examine regional variations in the relationships among surface CO emission, convection and UTLS CO concentrations. The two models exhibit emission-convection- CO relationships similar to those observed by MLS over the tropics and some regions with enhanced UTLS CO.

  12. Evaluation of UTLS carbon monoxide simulations in GMI and GEOS-Chem chemical transport models using Aura MLS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Murray, Lee T.; Damon, Megan R.; Su, Hui; Livesey, Nathaniel J.

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates the distribution and variation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) during 2004-2012 as simulated by two chemical transport models, using the latest version of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations. The simulated spatial distributions, temporal variations and vertical transport of CO in the UTLS region are compared with those observed by MLS. We also investigate the impact of surface emissions and deep convection on CO concentrations in the UTLS over different regions, using both model simulations and MLS observations. Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) and GEOS-Chem simulations of UTLS CO both show similar spatial distributions to observations. The global mean CO values simulated by both models agree with MLS observations at 215 and 147 hPa, but are significantly underestimated by more than 40 % at 100 hPa. In addition, the models underestimate the peak CO values by up to 70 % at 100 hPa, 60 % at 147 hPa and 40 % at 215 hPa, with GEOS-Chem generally simulating more CO at 100 hPa and less CO at 215 hPa than GMI. The seasonal distributions of CO simulated by both models are in better agreement with MLS in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) than in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), with disagreements between model and observations over enhanced CO regions such as southern Africa. The simulated vertical transport of CO shows better agreement with MLS in the tropics and the SH subtropics than the NH subtropics. We also examine regional variations in the relationships among surface CO emission, convection and UTLS CO concentrations. The two models exhibit emission-convection-CO relationships similar to those observed by MLS over the tropics and some regions with enhanced UTLS CO.

  13. Carbon monoxide and nitric oxide from biofuel fires in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kituyi, E.; Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O. [University of Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. of Chemistry; Marufu, L.; Andreae, M.O.; Helas, G. [Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2001-09-01

    Emission ratios (ER) of CO and NO relative to CO{sub 2} are reported from real time emission measurements on biofuel fires in Kenya. The experiments were based on available fuels burning in local popular traditional and improved stoves. The mean dCO/dCO{sub 2} ratios were 71, 79 and 74 mmol mol{sup -1} for firewood, charcoal and agricultural residues, respectively, while the corresponding mean dNO/dCO{sub 2} ratios for these fuels, in the same order, were 1.8, 2 and 2.2 mmol mol{sup -1}, respectively. Whereas stove design characteristics largely influenced the dCO/dCO{sub 2} ratios, the fuel nitrogen content was the major factor determining the dNO/dCO{sub 2} ratios. The dCO/dCO{sub 2} ratio for fuel derived NO is not affected by fire temperature but linearly depend on the fuel nitrogen content. Other important fuel parameters that influenced the observed emission ratio patterns include fuel moisture content, size and volatile matter content in the case of charcoal. In comparison to savanna and forest fires, biofuel fires tend to favour formation of reduced or partially oxidized compounds. It is clear that a change in energy preference up the ''energy ladder'' leads to a reduction in the CO ER, and important results for emission mitigation policy design. (author)

  14. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  15. Carbon Monoxide Promotes Lateral Root Formation in Rapeseed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), an odorless, tasteless and colorless gas, has recently proved to be an important bioactive or signal molecule in mammalian cells, with its effects mediated mainly by nitric oxide (NO). In the present report, we show that exogenous CO induces lateral root (LR) formation, an NO-dependent process. Administration of the CO donor hematin to rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Yangyou 6) seedlings for 3 days, dose-dependently promoted the total length and number of LRs. These responses were also seen following the application of gaseous CO aqueous solutions of different saturated concentrations. Furthermore, the actions of CO on seedlings were fully reversed when the CO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb)or the CO-specific synthetic inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin-Ⅸ (ZnPPIX) were added. Interestingly, depletion of endogenous NO using its specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO)or the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), led to the complete abolition of LR development, illustrating an important role for endogenous NO in the action of CO on LR formation. However, the or absence of ZnPPIX. Furthermore, using an anatomical approach combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy with the NO-specific fluorophore 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate, we observed that both hematin and SNP increased NO release compared with control samples and that the NO signal was mainly distributed in the LR primordia (LRP), especially after 36 h treatment. The LRP were found to have similar morphology in control, SNP- and hematin-treated seedlings.Similarly, the enhancement of the NO signal by CO at 36 h was differentially quenched by the addition of cPTIO, L-NAME,ZnPPIX and Hb. In contrast, the induction of NO caused by SNP was not affected by the application of ZnPPIX. Therefore,we further deduced that CO induces LR formation probably mediated by the NO/NOS pathway and NO may act

  16. Snowmelt onset hinders bromine monoxide heterogeneous recycling in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Justine A.; Peterson, Peter K.; Nghiem, Son V.; Perovich, Don K.; Simpson, William R.

    2017-08-01

    Reactive bromine radicals (bromine atoms, Br, and bromine monoxide, BrO) deplete ozone and alter tropospheric oxidation chemistry during the Arctic springtime (February-June). As spring transitions to summer (May-June) and snow begins to melt, reactive bromine events cease and BrO becomes low in summer. In this study, we explore the relationship between the end of the reactive bromine season and snowmelt timing. BrO was measured by Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer at Utqiaġvik (Barrow), AK, from 2012 to 2016 and on drifting buoys deployed in Arctic sea ice from 2011 to 2016, a total of 13 site and year combinations. The BrO seasonal end date (SED) was objectively determined and was compared to surface-air-temperature-derived melt onset date (MOD). The SED was highly correlated with the MOD (N = 13, R2 = 0.983, RMS = 1.9 days), and BrO is only observed at subfreezing temperatures. In subsets of these sites and years where ancillary data were available, we observed that snowpack depth reduced and rain precipitation occurred within a few days of the SED. These data are consistent with snowpack melting hindering BrO recycling, which is necessary to maintain enhanced BrO concentrations. With a projected warmer Arctic, a shift to earlier snowmelt seasons could alter the timing and role of halogen chemical reactions in the Arctic with impacts on ozone depletion and mercury deposition.Plain Language SummaryReactive bromine events in the Arctic are common in spring and deplete ozone and cause mercury deposition. These events are affected by snow and ice, which are changing in the Arctic; therefore, we need to understand how environmental conditions affect reactive bromine chemistry. We find that the reactive bromine season ends when snowpack begins to melt. Through these full seasonal observations, we find that reactive bromine events occur to warmer temperatures than previously reported, with 0°C being the observed threshold above which reactive

  17. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  18. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this instr

  19. Exploration of the labeling of [11C]Tubastatin A at the hydroxamic acid site with [11C]carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuiyu; Zhang, Yi; Kalin, Jay; Cai, Lisheng; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Pike, Victor W.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to label tubastatin A (1) with carbon-11 (t1/2 = 20.4 min) in the hydroxamic acid site to provide a potential radiotracer for imaging histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET). Initial attempts at a one-pot Pd-mediated insertion of [11C]carbon monoxide between the aryl iodide (2) and hydroxylamine gave low radiochemical yields (< 5%) of [11C]1. Labeling was achieved in useful radiochemical yields (16.1 ± 5.6%, n = 4) through a two-step process based on Pd-mediated insertion of [11C]carbon monoxide between the aryl iodide (2) and p-nitrophenol to give the [11C]p-nitrophenyl ester ([11C]5), followed by ultrasound-assisted hydroxyaminolysis of the activated ester with excess hydroxylamine in DMSO/THF mixture in the presence of a strong phosphazene base P1-t-Bu. However, the success in labeling the hydroxamic acid group of [11C]tubastatin A was not transferable to the labeling of three other model hydroxamic acids. PMID:26647018

  20. Multimodality evoked potentials in patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiahong Wang; Bo Xiao; Renjun Gu; Lan Xiao; Yi Yang; Yinhui Hao; Nini Wang; Junlin Mu; Jinggang Yin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic values in patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods: The tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), vision evoked potentials (VEPs), and brain stem audition evoked potentials(BAEPs) were performed in 32 healthy adults and 43 patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Results: This paper indicated abnormalities of tibial nerve SEPs in 31 patients (31/43, 72.1%), VEPs in 17 patients (17/28, 60.7%), and BAEPs in 14 patients (14/43, 32.6%). These results showed that the greatest diagnostic value was SEPs, followed by VEPs and, BAEPs with the lowest sensitivity. Conclusion: Multimodality evoked potentials (EPs) can be used for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic values in cases of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  1. Effect of carbon monoxide inhibition on the growth of an aquatic streptomycete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, D.E.; Silvey, J.K.G.

    1971-01-01

    A recent investigation has shown that the primary mycelium of aquatic streptomycetes is facultatively aerobic while the secondary mycelium is obligately aerobic. The nature of the differences in aerobic metabolism of various morphological phases in the life history was determined by carbon monoxide inhibition. A slide culture chamber technique which allowed continuous microscopic observation of the growing organism while in various gas environments was used. Two distinct patterns of inhibition were observed. The development of early stages of the life history was inhibited by carbon monoxide in the light and the dark. The site of this inhibition could not be determined. The later stages were inhibited only by carbon monoxide in the dark. This suggested a dependence of the secondary mycelium on the activity of cytochrome oxidase. Thus, the primary and secondary mycelial stages were found to be physiologically distinct.

  2. St. Mary's Villa carbon monoxide accumulation incident review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    On December 26th 2010, carbon monoxide accumulation within St. Mary's Villa led to the deaths of 3 residents. This extended care facility, located in Humboldt, Saskatchewan, was constructed in 1962 and periodic additions to the building were made up to 1990. The Saskatoon Health Region, which operates the facility, hired March Consulting Associates Inc. to perform a review of the investigation reports of the incident. This review demonstrated that during the night of December 25th to December 26th, 2010, several factors, including large gaps in the make-up air unit and extreme wind, led to backdraft conditions in a boiler of the dust wing mechanical room. Exhaust gases, including carbon monoxide, then built up in the room and were blown into the dust wing by the supply air fan. The report indicates the accumulation of carbon monoxide was not caused by one factor but several.

  3. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayusman; Jiang, Zhaozhong

    1996-01-01

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

  4. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres. We construct analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios (from 0.1 to 100), we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if th...

  5. Compilation and evaluation of a Paso del Norte emission inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, T.H.; Chinkin, L.R.; Roberts, P.T. [Sonoma Technology, Inc., 1360 Redwood Way, Suite C, 94954-1169 Petaluma, CA (United States); Saeger, M.; Mulligan, S. [Pacific Environmental Services, 5001 S. Miami Blvd., Suite 300, 27709 Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Paramo Figueroa, V.H. [Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, Avenue Revolucion 1425, Nivel 10, Col. Tlacopac San Angel, Delegacion Alvaro Obregon, C.P., 01040, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Yarbrough, J. [US Environmental Protection Agency - Region 6, 1445 Ross Avenue, Suite 1200, 75202-2733 Dallas, TX (United States)

    2001-08-10

    Emission inventories of ozone precursors are routinely used as input to comprehensive photochemical air quality models. Photochemical model performance and the development of effective control strategies rely on the accuracy and representativeness of an underlying emission inventory. This paper describes the tasks undertaken to compile and evaluate an ozone precursor emission inventory for the El Paso/Ciudad Juarez/Southern Dona Ana region. Point, area and mobile source emission data were obtained from local government agencies and were spatially and temporally allocated to a gridded domain using region-specific demographic and land-cover information. The inventory was then processed using the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended Emissions Preprocessor System 2.0 (UAM-EPS 2.0) which generates emissions files compatible with the Urban Airshed Model (UAM). A top-down evaluation of the emission inventory was performed to examine how well the inventory represented ambient pollutant compositions. The top-down evaluation methodology employed in this study compares emission inventory ratios of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC)/nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO)/NO{sub x} ratios to corresponding ambient ratios. Detailed NMHC species comparisons were made in order to investigate the relative composition of individual hydrocarbon species in the emission inventory and in the ambient data. The emission inventory compiled during this effort has since been used to model ozone in the Paso del Norte airshed (Emery et al., CAMx modeling of ozone and carbon monoxide in the Paso del Norte airshed. In: Proc of Ninety-Third Annual Meeting of Air and Waste Management Association, 18-22 June 2000, Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 2000)

  6. Assessment of exposure to carbon monoxide group of firefighters from fire fighting and rescue units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Lembas-Bogaczyk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Firemen threat during fire burning of chemical substances indicated presence of carbon monoxide (CO in all cases. Carbon monoxide causes death of fire. Inhaled through respiratory system, links with hemoglobin, thus blocking transport and distribution of oxygen in the body. This leads to tissue anoxia, which is a direct threat to firefighters’ life. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure to carbon monoxide of participating firefighters extinguishing fire. Estimation of carbon monoxide quantity absorbed by firefighters was isolated in a group of 40 firefighters from Fire Extinguishing and Rescue Unit of State Fire in Nysa. The study was conducted by measuring carbon monoxide in exhaled air. For measurement of carbon monoxide concentration in exhaled air Micro CO meter was used. Results were demonstrated separately for nonsmokers (n425 and smokers (n415. Mean COHb[%] levels in nonsmokers, measured prior the rescue action was 0,3950,3% and increased statistically significant after the action to 0,6150,34%, while in the group smokers, this level was 2,1750,64% before the action and increased insignificantly after the action to 2,3350,63%. The average COHb level in the same groups before and after exercise, was respectively: for nonsmokers prior to exercise was 0,4850,28% and after exercise decreased statistically significant to 0,3050,27%. In the group of smokers before exercise was 2,2350,61% and decreased statistically significant up to 1,5450,71%. It was no difference between the group of age and time of employment.

  7. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  8. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  9. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-lee

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  10. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation study of successive hydrogenation reactions of carbon monoxide producing methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Nu; Ono, Shota; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-04-01

    Doing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate a possibility of hydrogenation of carbon monoxide producing methanol step by step. At first, the hydrogen atom reacts with the carbon monoxide molecule at the excited state forming the formyl radical. Formaldehyde was formed after adding one more hydrogen atom to the system. Finally, absorption of two hydrogen atoms to formaldehyde produces methanol molecule. This study is performed by using the all-electron mixed basis approach based on the time dependent density functional theory within the adiabatic local density approximation for an electronic ground-state configuration and the one-shot GW approximation for an electronic excited state configuration.

  11. [Effect of lead and carbon monoxide under the condition of diabetic metabolism (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlipköter, H W; Klitzke, M; Unnewehr, J

    1979-06-01

    The NZO-Mice were used to study the influence of carbon monoxide and lead under the condition of diabetic metabolism. The animals treated with 80 ppm (COHb 10.81) showed significantly lower tolerance for glucose. Even after removing the burden of carbon monoxide for 50 days, the blood sugar level after glucose tolerance test remained in experimental animals significantly higher than in controls (20-min-value). The NZO-Mice after enteral lead exposition showed no significant changes of the condition of the diabetic metabolism after the glucose tolerance test. However, the NZO-Mice, compared to NMRI mice and rats, reached significantly higher level of blood sugar.

  12. Toward Carbon Monoxide-Based Therapeutics: Critical Drug Delivery and Developability Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xingyue; Damera, Krishna; Zheng, Yueqin; Yu, Bingchen; Otterbein, Leo E; Wang, Binghe

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an intrinsic signaling molecule with importance on par with that of nitric oxide. During the past decade, pharmacologic studies have amply demonstrated the therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide. However, such studies were mostly based on CO inhalation and metal-based CO-releasing molecules. The field is now at the stage that a major effort is needed to develop pharmaceutically acceptable forms of CO for delivery via various routes such as oral, injection, infusion, or topical applications. This review examines the state of the art, discusses the existing hurdles to overcome, and proposes developmental strategies necessary to address remaining drug delivery issues.

  13. Range Measurements of keV Hydrogen Ions in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Andersen, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    Ranges of 1.3–3.5 keV/atom hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions have been measured by a thin-film reflection method. The technique, used here for range measurements in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide targets, is identical to the one used previously for range measurements in hydrogen and nitrogen....... The main aim was to look for phase-effects, i.e. gas-solid differences in the stopping processes. While measured ranges in solid oxygen were in agreement with known gas data, the ranges in solid carbon monoxide were up to 50% larger than those calculated from gas-stopping data. The latter result agrees...

  14. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning during Pregnancy: Presentation of a Rare Severe Case with Fetal Bladder Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Delomenie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning during pregnancy is a rare and potentially serious condition. Fetal complications are uncommon, related to anoxic lesions. The severity of these complications does not depend on the level of maternal COHb. We report the case of a 22-year-old pregnant woman who at 30 weeks of gestation had carbon monoxide poisoning secondary to a fire in her home, complicated by cardiac arrest and severe fetal damage. The child had not brain damage, but presented bladder lesions not previously described, with urinary ascites complicating megacystis.

  15. Isolated symmetrical bilateral basal ganglia T2 hyperintensity in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhaschandra S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is not uncommon during the winter months. To make a diagnosis, strong clinical suspicion and acumen, and history of the exposure are necessary. Many a time, the presenting complaints may fail to help reach a diagnosis, in the absence of history. Imaging plays a role in the diagnosis of brain injury with the characteristic features, which are correlated with the clinical profile. Isolated bilateral basal ganglia injury revealing T2 hyperintensity in MRI may be observed in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  16. Untangling the Energetics and Dynamics of Boron Monoxide Radical Reactions (11BO; X2Sigma+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-15

    energy-density molecules and builds up on our previously successful synthesis of higher carbon oxides COx (x=3-6). Higher-order carbon sulfides - carbon...3.1. Crossed Beam Reactions of Boron Monoxide with Acetylene anmd Ethylene (P1, P8) The reaction dynamics of boron monoxide (BO; X2Σ...with acetylene (C2H2; X1Σg+) and with ethylene (C2H4; X1Ag) were investigated under single collision conditions at collision energy of 12 to 13 kJ mol

  17. Modeling natural emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ Model–I: building an emissions data base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Mueller

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A natural emissions inventory for the continental United States and surrounding territories is needed in order to use the US Environmental Protection Agency Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ Model for simulating natural air quality. The CMAQ air modeling system (including the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE emissions processing system currently estimates non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC emissions from biogenic sources, nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from soils, ammonia from animals, several types of particulate and reactive gas emissions from fires, as well as sea salt emissions. However, there are several emission categories that are not commonly treated by the standard CMAQ Model system. Most notable among these are nitrogen oxide emissions from lightning, reduced sulfur emissions from oceans, geothermal features and other continental sources, windblown dust particulate, and reactive chlorine gas emissions linked with sea salt chloride. A review of past emissions modeling work and existing global emissions data bases provides information and data necessary for preparing a more complete natural emissions data base for CMAQ applications. A model-ready natural emissions data base is developed to complement the anthropogenic emissions inventory used by the VISTAS Regional Planning Organization in its work analyzing regional haze based on the year 2002. This new data base covers a modeling domain that includes the continental United States plus large portions of Canada, Mexico and surrounding oceans. Comparing July 2002 source data reveals that natural emissions account for 16% of total gaseous sulfur (sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide and hydrogen sulfide, 44% of total NOx, 80% of reactive carbonaceous gases (NMVOCs and carbon monoxide, 28% of ammonia, 96% of total chlorine (hydrochloric acid, nitryl chloride and sea salt chloride, and 84% of fine particles (i.e., those smaller than 2.5 μm in size released into the

  18. Modeling natural emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model – Part 1: Building an emissions data base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A natural emissions inventory for the continental United States and surrounding territories is needed in order to use the US Environmental Protection Agency Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ Model for simulating natural air quality. The CMAQ air modeling system (including the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE emissions processing system currently estimates volatile organic compound (VOC emissions from biogenic sources, nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from soils, ammonia from animals, several types of particulate and reactive gas emissions from fires, as well as windblown dust and sea salt emissions. However, there are several emission categories that are not commonly treated by the standard CMAQ Model system. Most notable among these are nitrogen oxide emissions from lightning, reduced sulfur emissions from oceans, geothermal features and other continental sources, and reactive chlorine gas emissions linked with sea salt chloride. A review of past emissions modeling work and existing global emissions data bases provides information and data necessary for preparing a more complete natural emissions data base for CMAQ applications. A model-ready natural emissions data base is developed to complement the anthropogenic emissions inventory used by the VISTAS Regional Planning Organization in its work analyzing regional haze based on the year 2002. This new data base covers a modeling domain that includes the continental United States plus large portions of Canada, Mexico and surrounding oceans. Comparing July 2002 source data reveals that natural emissions account for 16% of total gaseous sulfur (sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide and hydrogen sulfide, 44% of total NOx, 80% of reactive carbonaceous gases (VOCs and carbon monoxide, 28% of ammonia, 96% of total chlorine (hydrochloric acid, nitryl chloride and sea salt chloride, and 84% of fine particles (i.e., those smaller than 2.5 μm in size released into the

  19. Modeling natural emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model-I: building an emissions data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. N.; Mueller, S. F.

    2010-05-01

    A natural emissions inventory for the continental United States and surrounding territories is needed in order to use the US Environmental Protection Agency Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model for simulating natural air quality. The CMAQ air modeling system (including the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) emissions processing system) currently estimates non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions from biogenic sources, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from soils, ammonia from animals, several types of particulate and reactive gas emissions from fires, as well as sea salt emissions. However, there are several emission categories that are not commonly treated by the standard CMAQ Model system. Most notable among these are nitrogen oxide emissions from lightning, reduced sulfur emissions from oceans, geothermal features and other continental sources, windblown dust particulate, and reactive chlorine gas emissions linked with sea salt chloride. A review of past emissions modeling work and existing global emissions data bases provides information and data necessary for preparing a more complete natural emissions data base for CMAQ applications. A model-ready natural emissions data base is developed to complement the anthropogenic emissions inventory used by the VISTAS Regional Planning Organization in its work analyzing regional haze based on the year 2002. This new data base covers a modeling domain that includes the continental United States plus large portions of Canada, Mexico and surrounding oceans. Comparing July 2002 source data reveals that natural emissions account for 16% of total gaseous sulfur (sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide and hydrogen sulfide), 44% of total NOx, 80% of reactive carbonaceous gases (NMVOCs and carbon monoxide), 28% of ammonia, 96% of total chlorine (hydrochloric acid, nitryl chloride and sea salt chloride), and 84% of fine particles (i.e., those smaller than 2.5 μm in size) released into the atmosphere

  20. Modeling natural emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model - Part 1: Building an emissions data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. N.; Mueller, S. F.

    2010-01-01

    A natural emissions inventory for the continental United States and surrounding territories is needed in order to use the US Environmental Protection Agency Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model for simulating natural air quality. The CMAQ air modeling system (including the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) emissions processing system) currently estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from biogenic sources, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from soils, ammonia from animals, several types of particulate and reactive gas emissions from fires, as well as windblown dust and sea salt emissions. However, there are several emission categories that are not commonly treated by the standard CMAQ Model system. Most notable among these are nitrogen oxide emissions from lightning, reduced sulfur emissions from oceans, geothermal features and other continental sources, and reactive chlorine gas emissions linked with sea salt chloride. A review of past emissions modeling work and existing global emissions data bases provides information and data necessary for preparing a more complete natural emissions data base for CMAQ applications. A model-ready natural emissions data base is developed to complement the anthropogenic emissions inventory used by the VISTAS Regional Planning Organization in its work analyzing regional haze based on the year 2002. This new data base covers a modeling domain that includes the continental United States plus large portions of Canada, Mexico and surrounding oceans. Comparing July 2002 source data reveals that natural emissions account for 16% of total gaseous sulfur (sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide and hydrogen sulfide), 44% of total NOx, 80% of reactive carbonaceous gases (VOCs and carbon monoxide), 28% of ammonia, 96% of total chlorine (hydrochloric acid, nitryl chloride and sea salt chloride), and 84% of fine particles (i.e., those smaller than 2.5 μm in size) released into the atmosphere. The seasonality and

  1. 77 FR 31351 - Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM10 and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans' Motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... 93.118(e)(4), which was promulgated August 15, 1997 (62 FR 43780). We described our process for... (69 FR 40004). In addition, in certain areas with monitored ambient carbon monoxide (CO) values... AGENCY Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans'...

  2. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Onodera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p=0.021, but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time.

  3. Emission inventory; Inventaire des emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontelle, J.P. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    Statistics on air pollutant (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ammonium) emissions, acid equivalent emissions and their evolution since 1990 in the various countries of Europe and the USA, are presented. Emission data from the industrial, agricultural, transportation and power sectors are given, and comparisons are carried out between countries based on Gnp and population, pollution import/export fluxes and compliance to the previous emission reduction objectives

  4. Electrochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide: from platinum single crystals to low temperature fuel cells catalysts. Part I: Carbon monoxide oxidation onto low index platinum single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PHILIP N. ROSS JR

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide and the interfacial structure of the CO adlayer (COads on platinum low index single crystals, Pt(111, Pt(100 and two reconstruction of Pt(110, were examined using the rotation disk electrode method in combination with the in situ surface X-ray diffraction scattering technique. The mechanism of CO oxidation is discussed on the basis of the findings that, depending on the potential, two energetic states of COads exist on the platinum surfaces. Thus, at lower potentials, weakly bonded states (COads,w and at higher potentials strongly bonded states (COads,s are formed. The mechanism of the oxidation of hydrogen-carbon monoxide mixtures is also proposed.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Depletion in Orion B Molecular Cloud Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Savva, D; Phillips, R R; Gibb, A G

    2003-01-01

    We have observed several cloud cores in the Orion B (L1630) molecular cloud in the 2-1 transitions of C18O, C17O and 13C18O. We use these data to show that a model where the cores consist of very optically thick C18O clumps cannot explain their relative intensities. There is strong evidence that the C18O is not very optically thick. The CO emission is compared to previous observations of dust continuum emission to deduce apparent molecular abundances. The abundance values depend somewhat on the temperature but relative to `normal abundance' values, the CO appears to be depleted by about a factor of 10 at the core positions. CO condensation on dust grains provides a natural explanation for the apparent depletion both through gas-phase depletion of CO, and through a possible increase in dust emissivity in the cores. The high brightness of HCO+ relative to CO is then naturally accounted for by time-dependent interstellar chemistry starting from `evolved' initial conditions. Theoretical work has shown that conden...

  6. Constraining CO emission estimates using atmospheric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghiemstra, P. B.

    2012-06-01

    We apply a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system to optimize carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and to reduce the uncertainty of emission estimates from individual sources using the chemistry transport model TM5. In the first study only a limited amount of surface network observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) is used to test the 4D-Var system. Uncertainty reduction up to 60% in yearly emissions is observed over well-constrained regions and the inferred emissions compare well with recent studies for 2004. However, since the observations only constrain total CO emissions, the 4D-Var system has difficulties separating anthropogenic and biogenic sources in particular. The inferred emissions are validated with NOAA aircraft data over North America and the agreement is significantly improved from the prior to posterior simulation. Validation with the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument shows a slight improved agreement over the well-constrained Northern Hemisphere and in the tropics (except for the African continent). However, the model simulation with posterior emissions underestimates MOPITT CO total columns on the remote Southern Hemisphere (SH) by about 10%. This is caused by a reduction in SH CO sources mainly due to surface stations on the high southern latitudes. In the second study, we compare two global inversions to estimate carbon monoxide (CO) emissions for 2004. Either surface flask observations from NOAA or CO total columns from the MOPITT instrument are assimilated in a 4D-Var framework. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH) three important findings are reported. First, due to their different vertical sensitivity, the stations-only inversion increases SH biomass burning emissions by 108 Tg CO/yr more than the MOPITT-only inversion. Conversely, the MOPITT-only inversion results in SH natural emissions

  7. Evaluation of in situ measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide at Mount Waliguan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Zhou, L. X.; Novelli, P. C.; Worthy, D. E. J.; Zellweger, C.; Klausen, J.; Ernst, M.; Steinbacher, M.; Cai, Y. X.; Xu, L.; Fang, S. X.; Yao, B.

    2011-06-01

    Quasicontinuous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) recorded over three years at Mount Waliguan (WLG), a global baseline station in remote western China, were examined using back trajectory analysis. The data include a revision to correct the working reference scale to the WMO2000 scale and corrections for drift in the reference gases. Between July 2004 and June 2007, CO exhibited large fluctuations and the 5 %, 50 % and 95 %-percentiles of relevant CO mixing ratios were 102 ppb, 126 ppb and 194 ppb. Approximately 50 % of all observed data were selected as CO background data using a mathematical procedure of robust local regression, with the remainder affected by regional-scale pollution. The monthly mean background CO mixing ratios showed a minimum in summer and a maximum in late winter, although all seasons were affected by short-term enhancements that exceeded background levels. The CO data were compared to values observed at the high alpine research station at Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. Smaller seasonal amplitudes were observed at WLG compared to the Jungfraujoch due to lower winter and spring CO levels, however, episodic enhancements of polluted air were greater at WLG. The air parcels arriving at WLG came predominately from the west, except in summer when advection from the east and southeast prevailed. Transport from the east or southeast typically brought polluted air to the site, having passed over populated urban areas upwind. A large number of elevated CO mixing ratios could also be associated with advection from the northwest of WLG via the central Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and the Ge'ermu urban area where growing industrial activities as well as crops residue burning provide sources of CO. Air masses passing over northwestern Gansu were associated with relatively high CO values suggesting an anthropogenic influence, which was likely due to anthropogenic emissions from northwestern China (based on back-trajectory and potential source

  8. Evaluation of in situ measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide at Mount Waliguan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zhang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Quasicontinuous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO recorded over three years at Mount Waliguan (WLG, a global baseline station in remote western China, were examined using back trajectory analysis. The data include a revision to correct the working reference scale to the WMO2000 scale and corrections for drift in the reference gases. Between July 2004 and June 2007, CO exhibited large fluctuations and the 5 %, 50 % and 95 %-percentiles of relevant CO mixing ratios were 102 ppb, 126 ppb and 194 ppb. Approximately 50 % of all observed data were selected as CO background data using a mathematical procedure of robust local regression, with the remainder affected by regional-scale pollution. The monthly mean background CO mixing ratios showed a minimum in summer and a maximum in late winter, although all seasons were affected by short-term enhancements that exceeded background levels. The CO data were compared to values observed at the high alpine research station at Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. Smaller seasonal amplitudes were observed at WLG compared to the Jungfraujoch due to lower winter and spring CO levels, however, episodic enhancements of polluted air were greater at WLG. The air parcels arriving at WLG came predominately from the west, except in summer when advection from the east and southeast prevailed. Transport from the east or southeast typically brought polluted air to the site, having passed over populated urban areas upwind. A large number of elevated CO mixing ratios could also be associated with advection from the northwest of WLG via the central Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR and the Ge'ermu urban area where growing industrial activities as well as crops residue burning provide sources of CO. Air masses passing over northwestern Gansu were associated with relatively high CO values suggesting an anthropogenic influence, which was likely due to anthropogenic emissions from northwestern China (based on back-trajectory and

  9. Seasonal variation of bromine monoxide over the Rann of Kutch salt marsh seen from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörmann, Christoph; Beirle, Steffen; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Sihler, Holger; Platt, Ulrich; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Bromine monoxide (BrO) is an important catalyst in the depletion of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone (O3). In the troposphere, reactive bromine can be released from sea ice, volcanoes, sea-salt aerosol or salt lakes. For all of these natural sources enhanced BrO vertical column densities (VCDs) have been successfully observed from ground using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Until now, satellite observations were only reported for polar regions during springtime and volcanic emissions (mostly for major eruptions). We present the first satellite observations of enhanced monthly mean BrO VCDs over a salt marsh, the Rann of Kutch (India/Pakistan), during 2004-2014 as seen by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The Rann of Kutch is a so-called 'seasonal' salt marsh. During India's summer monsoon (June/July - September/October), the flat desert of salty clay and mudflats, which average 15 meters above sea level, fills with standing rain and sea water. With more than 7500 km2 it is the largest salt desert in the world and additionally one of the hottest areas of India with summer temperatures around 50 ° C and winter temperatures decreasing below 0 ° C. Probably due to these rather extreme conditions, the Rann of Kutch has not been yet investigated for atmospheric composition measurements by ground-based instruments. Satellite observations, however, provide the unique possibility to investigate the entire area remotely over a long-time period. The OMI data reveals recurring maximum BrO VCDs during April/May, but no enhanced column densities during the monsoon season while the area is flooded. In the following months the signal only recovers slowly while the salty surface dries up. We discuss the possible effects of temperature, precipitation and relative humidity on the release of enhanced reactive bromine concentrations. In order to investigate a possible diurnal cycle of the BrO concentration, the OMI results (at a local overflight time

  10. Carbon monoxide distributions from the IASI/METOP mission: evaluation with other space-borne remote sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. George

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI onboard the MetOp satellite measures carbon monoxide (CO on a global scale, twice a day. CO total columns and vertical profiles are retrieved in near real time from the nadir radiance spectra measured by the instrument in the thermal infrared (TIR spectral range. This paper describes the measurement vertical sensitivity of IASI. On the global scale, 0.8 to 2.4 independent pieces of information are available for the retrieval. At mid latitudes, the information ranges between 1.5 and 2, which enables the lower and upper troposphere to be distinguished, especially when thermal contrast is important. Global distributions of column CO are evaluated with correlative observations available from other nadir looking TIR missions currently in operation: the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT onboard TERRA, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS onboard AQUA and the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES onboard AURA. On the global scale and on average, total column discrepancies ranging from 10 to 15% are found for latitudes above 45° N and lower than 15° S, but can reach 30% in cases of strong CO concentrations, e.g. when fires events occur. The choice of the a priori assumptions influences the retrievals and can explain some of the observed differences. Instrument specifications of IASI versus other missions are also discussed.

  11. Impact of spaceborne carbon monoxide observations from the S-5P platform on tropospheric composition analyses and forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abida, Rachid; Attié, Jean-Luc; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Ricaud, Philippe; Lahoz, William; Eskes, Henk; Segers, Arjo; Curier, Lyana; de Haan, Johan; Kujanpää, Jukka; Oude Nijhuis, Albert; Tamminen, Johanna; Timmermans, Renske; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2017-01-01

    We use the technique of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) to quantify the impact of spaceborne carbon monoxide (CO) total column observations from the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S-5P) platform on tropospheric analyses and forecasts. We focus on Europe for the period of northern summer 2003, when there was a severe heat wave episode associated with extremely hot and dry weather conditions. We describe different elements of the OSSE: (i) the nature run (NR), i.e., the truth; (ii) the CO synthetic observations; (iii) the assimilation run (AR), where we assimilate the observations of interest; (iv) the control run (CR), in this study a free model run without assimilation; and (v) efforts to establish the fidelity of the OSSE results. Comparison of the results from AR and the CR, against the NR, shows that CO total column observations from S-5P provide a significant benefit (at the 99 % confidence level) at the surface, with the largest benefit occurring over land in regions far away from emission sources. Furthermore, the S-5P CO total column observations are able to capture phenomena such as the forest fires that occurred in Portugal during northern summer 2003. These results provide evidence of the benefit of S-5P observations for monitoring processes contributing to atmospheric pollution.

  12. Oceanic source strength of carbon monoxide on the basis of basin-wide observations in the Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keyhong; Rhee, Tae Siek

    2016-01-01

    We measured the carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the marine boundary layer and the surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean from 50°N to 50°S during the UK Atlantic Meridional Transect expedition (AMT-7) in October 1998, covering the open ocean and coastal regions. Throughout the cruise track, atmospheric CO concentrations continually decreased southwards in the northern hemisphere with sporadic low and high concentrations encountered. South of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) atmospheric CO was enhanced by ∼10 ppb compared to north of the ITCZ due likely to biomass burning emissions prevailing in the tropical continents. The remainder of the southern hemisphere remains nearly invariable except for the vicinity of Rio de la Plata. The surface seawater was supersaturated everywhere along the track and its saturation anomaly oscillated up to 90, exhibiting a typical diurnal cycle. The maximal dissolved CO concentration in the diurnal cycle appeared 2-5 hours behind the local maximum of solar insolation in the open ocean and the time lag further increased in the coastal region. The global ocean flux of CO to the atmosphere was estimated to be 14 Tg(CO) a(-1) within the range of 4-24 Tg(CO) a(-1). This is within uncertainty almost identical to what was estimated on the basis of the basin-wide observations in the Pacific and the Atlantic, but more than ∼4 times lower than the values appeared in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports.

  13. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, J.; Norcrosss, J. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Sanders, R. W.; Makowski, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Life support technology in large closed systems like submarines and space stations catalyzes carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. However, in a small system like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), spacesuit, CO from exogenous (contaminated oxygen (O (sub 2) supply) and endogenous (human metabolism) sources will accumulate in the free suit volume. The free volume becomes a sink for CO that is rebreathed by the astronaut. The accumulation through time depends on many variables: the amount absorbed by the astronaut, the amount produced by the astronaut (between 0.28 and 0.34 ?moles per hour per kilogram)[1], the amount that enters the suit from contaminated O (sub 2), the amount removed through suit leak, the free volume of the suit, and the O (sub 2) partial pressure[2], just to list a few. Contamination of the EMU O (sub 2) supply with no greater than 1 part per million CO was the motivation for empirical measurements from CO pulse oximetry (SpCO) as well as mathematical modeling of the EMU as a rebreather for CO. Methods: We developed a first-order differential mixing equation as well as an iterative method to compute CO accumulation in the EMU. Pre-post measurements of SpCO (Rad-57, Masimo Corporation) from EMU ground training and on-orbit extravehicular activities (EVAs) were collected. Results: Initial modeling without consideration of the astronaut as a sink but only the source of CO showed that after 8 hours breathing 100 percent O (sub 2) with a 10 milliliter per minute (760 millimeters Hg at 21 degrees Centigrade standard) suit leak, an endogenous production rate of 0.23 moles per hour per kilogram for a 70 kilogram person with 42 liters (1.5 cubic feet) free suit volume resulted in a peak CO partial pressure (pCO) of 0.047 millimeters Hg at 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (222 millimeters Hg). Preliminary results based on a 2008 model[3] with consideration of the astronaut as a sink and source of CO

  14. Effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning natural gas fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of direct water injection on the exhaust gas emissions of a turbojet combustor burning natural gas fuel was investigated. The results are compared with the results from similar tests using ASTM Jet-A fuel. Increasing water injection decreased the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and increased the emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. The greatest percentage decrease in NOX with increasing water injection was at the lowest inlet-air temperature tested. The effect of increasing inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. The reduction in NOX due to water injection was almost identical to the results obtained with Jet-A fuel. However, the emission indices of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and percentage nitric oxide in NOX were not.

  15. Quantifying correlations between galaxy emission lines and stellar continua

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Róbert; Yip, Ching-Wa; Szalay, Alexander S; Csabai, István

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the correlations between continuum properties and emission line equivalent widths of star-forming and active galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Since upcoming large sky surveys will make broad-band observations only, including strong emission lines into theoretical modelling of spectra will be essential to estimate physical properties of photometric galaxies. We show that emission line equivalent widths can be fairly well reconstructed from the stellar continuum using local multiple linear regression in the continuum principal component analysis (PCA) space. Line reconstruction is good for star-forming galaxies and reasonable for galaxies with active nuclei. We propose a practical method to combine stellar population synthesis models with empirical modelling of emission lines. The technique will help generate more accurate model spectra and mock catalogues of galaxies to fit observations of the new surveys. More accurate modelling of emission lines is also expected to improve template-base...

  16. Feasibility study of a lead monoxide-based dosimeter for quality assurance in radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. T.; Han, M. J.; Heo, Y. J.; Park, J. E.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. N.; Oh, K. M.; Cho, H. L.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Nam, S. H.; Park, S. K.

    2016-11-01

    Lately, cancer has been treated using high-energy radiation, and this requires highly reliable treatment plans. Therefore, a dosimeter with excellent performance, which is capable of precise dose measurement, is critical. In current clinical practices, an ionization chamber and diode utilizing the ionization reaction mechanism are widely used. Several studies have been carried out to determine optimal materials for the detector in a dosimeter to enable diagnostic imaging. Recently, studies with lead monoxide, which was shown to have low drift current and high resolving power at a high bias, were reported with the dosimeter exhibiting a fast response time against incident photons. This research aims to investigate the feasibility of a lead monoxide-based dosimeter for QA (quality assurance) in radiotherapy. In this paper, we report that the manufactured dosimeter shows similar linearity to a silicon diode and demonstrates similar characteristics in terms of PDD (percent depth dose) results for the thimble ionization chamber. Based on these results, it is demonstrated that the lead monoxide-based dosimeter complies with radiotherapy QA requirements, namely rapid response time, dose linearity, dose rate independence. Thus, we expect the lead monoxide-based dosimeter to be used commercially in the future.

  17. CARBON MONOXIDE FLUXES OF DIFFERENT SOIL LAYERS IN UPLAND CANADIAN BOREAL FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark or low-light carbon monoxide fluxes at upland Canadian boreal forest sites were measured on-site with static chambers and with a laboratory incubation technique using cores from different depths at the same sites. Three different upland black spruce sites, burned in 1987,199...

  18. An infrared spectroscopic study of the adsorption of carbon monoxide on silica-supported copper oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, K.P. de; Geus, John W.; Joziasse, J.

    1980-01-01

    Adsorption of carbon monoxide at room temperature (0.1–50 Torr) on silica-supported copper oxide was studied by infrared spectroscopy. Catalysts were prepared by deposition-precipitation or impregnation. After calcination two types of adsorbed CO were identified showing absorption bands at 2136 ± 3

  19. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides using near stoichiometric carbon monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Karoline T.; Laursen, Simon R.; Lindhardt, Anders T.

    2014-01-01

    A general procedure for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides is reported, using near stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide. The method allows a broad substrate scope in moderate to excellent yields. The formed alkynone motive serves as a platform...

  20. Characterization of Fe-Co-Mn catalysts after carbon monoxide hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez C, S.L.; Serbia, M.A.; Baechler, R.; Orozco, J. [Laboratorio de Cinetica y Catalisis, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101A (Venezuela); e-mail: goncor@ula.ve

    2003-07-01

    An Fe-Co-Mn catalysts series after hydrogenation of carbon monoxide has been characterized. The XRD analysis shows the magnetite as main crystalline phase after reaction, in addition of carbon and carbide phases. All these phases lead to hydrogen consumption and oxidation rate changes on Fe-Co-Mn catalysts. A phase transformation superficial diagram is analysed. (Author)

  1. Synthesis of Diethyl Oxalate by a Coupling-Regeneration Reaction of Carbon Monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fandong Meng; Genhui Xu; Baowei Wang; Xinbin Ma

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a process for the synthesis of diethyl oxalate by a coupling reaction ofcarbon monoxide, catalyzed by palladium in the presence of ethyl nitrite. The kinetics and mechanism ofthe coupling and regeneration reaction are also discussed. This paper presents the results of a scale-uptest of the catalyst and the process based on an a priori computer simulation.

  2. Short-term effects of carbon monoxide on mortality : An analysis within the APHEA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samoli, Evangelia; Touloumi, Giota; Schwartz, Joel; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Schindler, Christian; Forsberg, Bertil; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Vonk, Judith; Kosnik, Mitja; Skorkovsky, Jiri; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the short-term effects of carbon monoxide on total and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cities participating in the APHEA-2 (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach) project. METHODS: We examined the association using hierarchical models implemented in two st

  3. The impacts of temperature on the absorption spectral lines of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Jianqiang; Xu Yuanze; Gao Xiaorong; Wang Li; Wang Zeyong, E-mail: jianqguo@home.swjtu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2011-02-01

    In order to study the change of temperature on the effects of carbon monoxide absorption spectral lines, first of all proceed from the principle of absorption spectra, using theoretical analysis method, and the transmission and absorption database of the high-resolution molecular educed the carbon monoxide absorption spectrum intensity of spectral lines, integrated widening line type function and absorption coefficient concerned with temperature, then we got the change curve between carbon monoxide absorption spectrum intensity of spectral lines, integrated widening line type function and absorption coefficient with temperature by the numerical simulation of MATLAB, and analyzed and discussed the relationship between the temperature and them. The results showed that the temperature on the effects of carbon monoxide absorption spectral lines, especially on an Integrated widening line type function is complex, and different laser frequencies will also affect the relationship of the line type function and the absorption coefficient change with temperature, which has important reference value for the absorption and measurement of carbon in practical application.

  4. Separation of hydrogen from carbon monoxide using a hollow fiber polyimide membrane: experimental and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peer, M.; Mehdi Kamali, S.; Mahdeyarfar, M.; Mohammadi, T. [Research Laboratory for Separation Processes, Chemical Engineering Department, Tehran (Iran)

    2007-10-15

    The separation of hydrogen from carbon monoxide (syngas ratio adjustment) with polymeric membranes was investigated in this work. A polyimide hollow fiber membrane module was used for hydrogen separation. This polymer has shown large permeability and selectivity for hydrogen separation (selectivity of ca. 30). Permeation tests were carried out at different feed conditions. Feed flow rates were varied between 150-300 mL/min, temperature was varied in the range of 20-80 C and feed pressure was varied between 5-9 bar. Mixtures containing 0-50 % carbon monoxide were used when carrying out experiments. Measured membrane permeances for hydrogen and carbon monoxide were about 70-100 GPU (gas permeation units) and 3-5.5 GPU, respectively. In addition, a mathematical model for simulation of gas separation in hollow fiber membrane modules with all flow patterns (crossflow, countercurrent and cocurrent) was presented. This model can be used for calculation of membrane performance or its required surface area for a specific separation. Experimental results have shown good correlation with simulation results. Plasticization, competitive sorption and concentration polarization effect of carbon monoxide on membrane performance is shown with experimental results. This effect reduced hydrogen permeances in mixed gas experiments. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.; Molton, P.M.; Li, C.T.; Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1977-11-01

    Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization of CO in the synthesis of ammonia and methanol are included. Preliminary technical and economic feasibility studies were made of producing ammonia and methanol from the by-product CO produced by a typical elemental phosphorus plant. Methanol synthesis appears to be more attractive than ammonia synthesis when using CO feedstock because of reduced water gas shift and carbon dioxide removal requirements. The economic studies indicate that methanol synthesis from CO appears to be competitive with conventional technology when the price of natural gas exceeds $0.82/million Btu, while ammonia synthesis from CO is probably not competitive until the price of natural gas exceeds $1.90/million Btu. It is concluded that there appears to be considerable potential for energy conservation in the chemical industry, by collecting CO rather than flaring it, and using it to make major chemicals such as ammonia and methanol.

  6. Characteristics of Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Detection for Carbon Monoxide Gas Based on DFB Diode Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Weigen; PENG Xiaojuan; LIU Bingjie; SUN Caixin

    2012-01-01

    The dissolved gas analysis is one of the most effective and convenient methods to diagnose the early discharge faults of transformers. When the fault involves the solid insulation, oil-paper insulation cracks and releases carbon monoxide (CO) gas. Therefore, the detection of CO can forecast the potential inner faults of oil-filled transformers.

  7. Effects of chemical modifications of heme on kinetics of carbon monoxide binding to free home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sono, M.; McCray, J.A.; Asakura, T.

    1977-11-10

    The rates of carbon monoxide recombination to six different kinds of chemically modified heme with various substituents at positions 2 and 4 have been studied in the protein-free state (free heme) by the laser flash photolysis method in a mixture of ethylene glycol and 0.02 N NaOH (80:20, v/v) (80% ethylene glycol). The carbon monoxide combination rate constants to the various free hemes obtained in 80% ethylene glycol at 22/sup 0/ were 1.4, 2.1, 2.1, 3.7, 4.5, and 6.4 x 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ for 2,4-diformyl-, spirographis (2-formyl-4-vinyl-), isospirographis (2-vinyl-4-formyl-) proto-(2,4-divinyl-), deutero-(2,4-dihydrogen-), and meso-(2,4-diethyl-), hemes, respectively. This order of increase in carbon monoxide combination rate constants for these hemes correlates exactly with decrease in electron attractivity of heme side chains (i.e., increase in pK/sub 3/, basicity of nitrogen base of prophyrin) and is completely opposite to that obtained for carbon monoxide binding to these hemes reconstituted with apomyoglobin. Contrary to the results for myoglobin, the two isomers of monoformyl-monovinylheme exhibited similar optical properties and the same combination rate constant indicating that the differences in the optical and kinetic results observed in myoglobin are due to different interactions of these isomeric hemes with protein.

  8. Calculated Specific Volumes and Magnetic Moments of the 3d Transition Metal Monoxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1980-01-01

    We have performed self-consistent, spin-polarized band structure calculations as a function of the lattice spacing for the 3d metal monoxides in order to obtain the equilibrium lattice constants. The calculated binding from the 3d electrons and the occurrence of antiferromagnetism account...

  9. Gaseous persufflation with carbon monoxide during ischemia protects the isolated liver and enhances energetic recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetting, Martina; Leuvenink, Henri; Dombrowski, Frank; Minor, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background: The benefit of carbon monoxide as applied by controlled, continuous gaseous persufflation during liver preservation on postischemic graft recovery was investigated in an isolated rat liver model. Methods: Livers from male Wistar rats were retrieved 30 min after cardiac arrest of the dono

  10. Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: comparison with observations and projected near-future changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shindell, D.T.; Krol, M.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/078760410

    2006-01-01

    We analyze present-day and future carbon monoxide (CO) simulations in 26 state-ofthe- art atmospheric chemistry models run to study future air quality and climate change. In comparison with near-global satellite observations from the MOPITT instrument and local surface measurements, the models show

  11. Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: Comparison with observations and projected near-future changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shindell, D.T.; Faluvegi, G.; Stevenson, D.S.; Krol, M.C.; Emmons, L.K.; Lamarque, J.F.; Petron, G.; Dentener, F.J.; Ellingsen, K.; Schultz, M.G.; Wild, O.; Amann, M.; Atherton, C.S.; Bergmann, D.J.; Bey, I.; Butler, T.; Cofala, J.; Collins, W.J.; Derwent, R.G.; Doherty, R.M.; Drevet, J.; Eskes, H.J.; Fiore, A.M.; Gauss, M.; Hauglustaine, D.A.; Horowitz, L.W.; Isaksen, I.S.A.; Lawrence, M.G.; Montanaro, V.; Muller, J.F.; Pitari, G.; Prather, M.J.; Pyle, J.A.; Rast, S.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Sanderson, M.G.; Savage, N.H.; Strahan, S.E.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Unger, N.; Noije, van T.P.C.; Zeng, G.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze present-day and future carbon monoxide (CO) simulations in 26 state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry models run to study future air quality and climate change. In comparison with near-global satellite observations from the MOPITT instrument and local surface measurements, the models show

  12. Short-term effects of carbon monoxide on mortality : An analysis within the APHEA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samoli, Evangelia; Touloumi, Giota; Schwartz, Joel; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Schindler, Christian; Forsberg, Bertil; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Vonk, Judith; Kosnik, Mitja; Skorkovsky, Jiri; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the short-term effects of carbon monoxide on total and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cities participating in the APHEA-2 (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach) project. METHODS: We examined the association using hierarchical models implemented in two

  13. Carbon monoxide oxidation using Zn-Cu-Ti hydrotalcite-derived catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Saber; T Zaki

    2014-07-01

    Multioxide catalysts of zinc, copper and titanium with different ratios obtained from layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors were used in the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The catalysts were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG, DTG and DTA) and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction showed different phases of double hydroxide structures. On increasing the percentage of zinc, hydrotalcite structure became the main phase in these samples. SEM images confirmed the presence of layered double hydroxide as plate-like structure. Experimental results indicated a sharp increase in the catalytic activities of the calcined samples towards the oxidation of carbon monoxide at temperatures in the range of 225-275°C. High conversion of carbon monoxide (90 ∼ 95%) was achieved at reaction temperature of 275°C by samples having ZnTiO3 as a main phase. These results suggested that hydrotalcite structure of Zn-Ti has a positive catalytic effect towards carbon monoxide oxidation.

  14. 75 FR 54773 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... ambient monitoring data collected between 1998 and July of 2009, that the Twin Cities area is meeting both... Monoxide (CO) Limited Maintenance Plan for the Twin Cities Area AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Minneapolis-St. Paul (Twin Cities) area. The one hour CO NAAQS and eight hour CO NAAQS are 35 parts...

  15. Inhalation Toxicology. 11. The Effect of Elevated Temperature on Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    TEMPERATURE ON CARBON MONOXIDE TOXICITY INTRODUCTION The use of the laboratory rat as an animal model for determining the toxicity of combustion gases is...response of rats during exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1968; 24:747-50. 7. Hubbard RW, Matthew WT, Linduska JD, et al. The laboratory rat as a model for

  16. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... have developed and have begun to implement a program to identify urban and suburban core areas and... control strategies to insure that such air quality standards will be achieved at such areas. Plans shall... implemented strategies will not create carbon monoxide violations elsewhere in the vicinity after the measures...

  17. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air...

  18. 40 CFR 52.269 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide. 52.269 Section 52.269 Protection of Environment... PLANS California § 52.269 Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and... provide for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for photochemical oxidants...

  19. [Suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning in an electric car. An unusual case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, M; Zollinger, U

    1994-01-01

    The authors report a case of a man who committed suicide by poisoning with carbon monoxide in his electric vehicle. He applied a small motor generator with no exhaust normally used for charging the vehicle's batteries at home, that was found on the loading space behind the seat. This demonstrates the value of a thorough scene investigation.

  20. Anaesthetic properties of carbon monoxide and other gases in relation to plants, insects, and centipedes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.

    1935-01-01

    The anaesthetic effect of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, propylene, butylene, ethylene, and acetylene, when mixed with oxygen, was tested on ten different species of insects and centipedes. The lowest concentrations found to cause anaesthesia are given in per cent by volume as follows: propylene, for centipede, 30; katydid, 75; rose chafer, 60. Carbon monoxide, for centipede, 81.5; katydid, 89, rose chafer, 85. Butylene, for centipede, 5; katydid, 10; rose chafer, 40. Ethylene or acetylene, for centipede, katydid, and rose chafer, 100. Carbon dioxide, for rose chafer, 30. Ethylene was the most effective plant anaesthetic, 0.0005 per cent stopping growth movements of tomato and sunflower plants as shown by motion pictures; 0.001 per cent stopped elongation of sweet pea seedlings, while 0.00001 per cent retarded elongation nearly 50 per cent. The degree of retardation in growth from ethylene gas varied with the concentration and the plant species. Acetylene and propylene were about equally effective as plant anaesthetics. Both were approximately 10 times as effective as carbon monoxide. Mimosa pudica lost its capacity to respond to external stimuli while being exposed to 0.25 per cent of carbon monoxide, but became normal again upon being removed from the gas. 3 references, 4 tables.

  1. Oxalyl chloride as a practical carbon monoxide source for carbonylation reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen V F; Ulven, Trond

    2015-01-01

    A method for generation of high-quality carbon monoxide by decomposition of oxalyl chloride in an aqueous hydroxide solution is described. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated in the synthesis of heterocycles and for hydroxy-, alkoxy-, amino-, and reductive carbonylation reactions...

  2. Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-A1 (CORM-A1) Improves Neurogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Ana S; Soares, Nuno L; Vieira, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases lead to impairment or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Stem cell based therapies are promising strategies currently under investigation. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous product of heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) activity...

  3. Rapid Evaluation of the Severity and Prognosis of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. N. Marupov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess whether cardiointervalography (CIG might be used to define the health status of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The autonomic nervous system (ANS was studied in 114 patients aged 16 to 80 years with carbon monohydrate poisoning who were treated at the N. V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Care, Moscow, in 2004—2009. Cardiointervalographic readings were analyzed in relation to condition severity and disease outcome. Results. Within the first hours after carbon monoxide poisoning, the function of the ANS was found to be impaired, which was associated with the development of hypersym-pathicotonia caused by the increased activity of its sympathetic part and the decreased tone of the parasympathet-ic one. The magnitude of hypersympathicotonia depended on the severity of poisoning and the outcome of the disease. The preponderance of ANS parasympathetic part tone suggests disturbed adaptive and compensatory mechanisms and poor prognosis. Conclusion. Cardiointervalography is recommended for the objective evaluation of the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning and the efficiency of performed treatment and prediction of the outcome of the disease. Key words: carbon monoxide, autonomic nervous system, cardiointervalography, adaptive and compensatory mechanisms.

  4. Occupational poisoning by carbon monoxide aboard a gas carrier. Report on 8 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, David; Loddé, Brice; Jegaden, Dominique; Bronstein, Jean-Ariel; Pougnet, Richard; Bell, S; Dewitte, Jean-Dominique

    2010-01-01

    - To determine the accidental factors and the clinical symptoms in eight cases of occupational poisoning of port workers by carbon monoxide. - To consider the primary prevention of this serious pathology occurring at work. - To analyze the circumstances of the exposure to carbon monoxide in the employees in the naval repair sector. - To indicate the systemic failures causing this accidental poisoning, the means for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, and to discuss the prevention of such accidents. The poisoning occurred in eight mechanics and electricians working without any protective means in a gas carrier tank in dry dock. The employees, unaware of carbon monoxide exposure, stayed for 45 minutes in an atmosphere polluted with carbon monoxide concentrations of over 500 ppm. The main complaints were of headache, muscular weakness, and drowsiness. No post-interval syndrome was found three weeks after poisoning. The levels of carboxyhaemoglobin varied from 1.8 to 31.2%. Early normal pressure oxygen therapy reduced the symptoms. No delayed syndrome was found three weeks after poisoning. The inclusion of poisonous gas in gas-free certification, adherence to maritime harbour regulations, greater respect for working instructions in hazardous environments, and the use of detectors appropriate to the conditions for each ship would avoid exposure and decrease the risk of poisoning.

  5. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Greenberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were mostly oxygenated and included acetic acid, furylaldehyde, acetol, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 gC/kgC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC/gC(CO2 measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and endothermic pyrolysis under low turbulence conditions may produce flammable concentrations near leaves and may facilitate the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  6. Methane Emissions from Point and Area Sources in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Frost, G. J.; Holloway, J. S.; McKeen, S. A.; Neuman, J.; Nowak, J. B.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D. D.

    2010-12-01

    Airborne measurements of methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide, ammonia, and nitric oxides were made aboard the NOAA WP-3D during May and June 2010, during the CalNex (Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) field campaign based out of Ontario, California. Emission ratios of CH4 to these other trace gas species are calculated from observations downwind of point sources and compared to national emissions inventories. Further, background urban ratios of CH4 to CO are established, and enhancements from known area CH4 sources, such as rice paddies and cattle ranches, are analyzed. Finally, significant methane emissions from point sources not in emissions inventories are examined.

  7. New technologies reducing emissions from combustion of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H.

    1997-12-31

    In reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, bioenergy will be the most important source of renewable energy in the next few decades. In principle, combustion of biomass is friendly to the environment because CO{sub 2} released during combustion is recycled back into natural circulation. Biofuels normally contain little nitrogen and sulphur. However, depending on the combustion technology used, emissions may be quite high. This is true of combustion of biomass fuels in small appliances like wood stoves, fireplaces, small boilers etc. When fuels having high content of volatile matter are burnt in appliances using batch type combustion, the process is rather an unsteady-state combustion. Emissions of carbon monoxide, other combustible gases and particulates are quite difficult to avoid. With continuous combustion processes this is not normally a problem. This conference paper presents some means of reducing emissions from combustion of biofuels. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Disulfide S-monoxides convert xanthine dehydrogenase into oxidase in rat liver cytosol more potently than their respective disulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Satoru; Fujita, Junko; Nakanishi, Masahiko; Wada, Shun-ich; Fujimoto, Yohko

    2008-05-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO)/xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) oxidizes oxypurines to uric acid, with only the XO form producing reactive oxygen species. In the present study, the effects of cystamine S-monoxide and cystine S-monoxide (disulfide S-monoxides) on the conversion of XD to XO in rat liver were examined. A partially purified enzyme fraction from the rat liver was incubated with xanthine in the presence or absence of NAD+, and the uric acid formed was measured by HPLC. Under basal conditions, XO activity represented about 15% of the total XO plus XD activity. Cystamine S-monoxide and cystine S-monoxide converted XD into XO in a dose-dependent manner, and the concentrations required to increase XO activity by 50% were approximately 1 and 2 microM, respectively. Their respective thiols (cysteamine and cysteine) and disulfides (cystamine and cystine) up to 10 microM showed weak or no effects on the activities of XO and XD and their conversion. Experiments utilizing a sulfhydryl reducing reagent (dithiothreitol) and sulfhydryl modifiers (4,4'-dithiodipyridine and 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) indicated that disulfide S-monoxides-induced conversion of XD to XO occurs via disulfide bridge formation in XD, but not the modification of sulfhydryl groups. These results suggest that disulfide S-monoxides have the potential to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species through the conversion of XD to XO in liver.

  9. Methyl halide emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Atlas, E.; Harris, G. W.; Helas, G.; de Kock, A.; Koppmann, R.; Maenhaut, W.; Manø, S.; Pollock, W. H.; Rudolph, J.; Scharffe, D.; Schebeske, G.; Welling, M.

    1996-10-01

    The methyl halides, methyl chloride (CH3Cl), methyl bromide (CH3Br), and methyl iodide (CH3I), were measured in regional air samples and smoke from savanna fires in southern Africa during the Southern Africa Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative-92 (SAFARI-92) experiment (August-October 1992). All three species were significantly enhanced in the smoke plumes relative to the regional background. Good correlations were found between the methyl halides and carbon monoxide, suggesting that emission was predominantly associated with the smoldering phase of the fires. About 90% of the halogen content of the fuel burned was released to the atmosphere, mostly as halide species, but a significant fraction (3-38%) was emitted in methylated form. On the basis of comparison with the composition of the regional background atmosphere, emission ratios to carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide were determined for the methyl halide species. The emission ratios decreased in the sequence CH3Cl > CH3Br > CH3I. Extrapolation of these results in combination with data from other types of biomass burning, e.g. forest fires, suggests that vegetation fires make a significant contribution to the atmospheric budget of CH3Cl and CH3Br. For tropospheric CH3I, on the other hand, fires appear to be a minor source. Our results suggest that pyrogenic emissions of CH3Cl and CH3Br need to be considered as significant contributors to stratospheric ozone destruction.

  10. Carbon monoxide is not always a poison gas for human organism: Physiological and pharmacological features of CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata

    2014-10-05

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and non-irritating gas. Even a small amount of CO exposure is possibly associated with specific toxic effects. CO is also produced endogenously in the body as a byproduct of heme degradation catalyzed by heme oxygenase. More recently CO has been identified as a gasotransmitter in various biological systems. However, the biological role and the therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide is not clear. This review summarizes the negative and the positive functions of carbon monoxide in various biological systems, including cardiovascular system.

  11. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLuchi, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

    1993-11-01

    This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

  12. Hydrogen cyanide exhaust emissions from in-use motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Marc M; Moss, John A; Pastel, Stephen H; Poskrebyshev, Gregory A

    2007-02-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust emissions are known to contain hydrogen cyanide (HCN), but emission rate data are scarce and, in the case of idling vehicles, date back over 20 years. For the first time, vehicular HCN exhaust emissions from a modern, in-use fleet at idle have been measured. The 14 tested light duty motor vehicles were operating at idle as these conditions are associated with the highest risk exposure scenarios (i.e., enclosed spaces). Vehicular HCN was detected in 89% of the sampled exhaust streams and did not correlate with instantaneous air-fuel-ratio or with any single, coemitted pollutant. However, a moderate correlation between HCN emissions and the product of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide emissions was observed under cold-start conditions. Fleet average, cold-start, undiluted HCN emissions were 105 +/- 97 ppbV (maximum: 278 ppbV), whereas corresponding emissions from vehicles operating under stabilized conditions were 79 +/- 71 ppbV (maximum: 245 ppbV); mean idle fleet HCN emission rates were 39 +/- 35 and 21 +/- 18 microg-min(-1) for cold-start and stabilized vehicles, respectively. The significance of these results is discussed in terms of HCN emissions inventories in the South Coast Air Basin of California and of health risks due to exposure to vehicular HCN.

  13. Outcome of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning at a far-east poison center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsuan Ku

    Full Text Available Many cases of carbon monoxide poisoning in Taiwan are due to burning charcoal. Nevertheless, few reports have analyzed the mortality rate of these patients who survive to reach a hospital and die despite intensive treatment. Therefore, this study examined the clinical features, physiological markers, and outcomes after carbon monoxide poisoning and the associations between these findings.We analyzed the records of 261 patients who were referred for management of carbon monoxide intoxication between 2000 and 2010. Patients were grouped according to status at discharge as alive (survivor, n = 242 or dead (non-survivor, n = 19. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained for analysis.Approximately half of the cases (49.4% attempted suicide by burning charcoal. Most of the patients were middle-aged adults (33±19 years, and were referred to our hospital in a relatively short period of time (6±10 hours. Carbon monoxide produced many serious complications after exposure: fever (26.1%, hypothermia (9.6%, respiratory failure (34.1%, shock (8.4%, myocardial infarction (8.0%, gastrointestinal upset (34.9%, hepatitis (18.4%, renal failure (25.3%, coma (18.0% and rhabdomyolysis (21.8%. Furthermore, the non-survivors suffered greater incidences of hypothermia (P<0.001, respiratory failure (P<0.001, shock (P<0.001, hepatitis ((P=0.016, renal failure (P=0.003, coma (P<0.001 than survivors. All patients were treated with high concentration of oxygen therapy using non-rebreather mask. However, hyperbaric oxygen therapy was only used in 18.8% of the patients. In a multivariate-Cox-regression model, it was revealed that shock status was a significant predictor for mortality after carbon monoxide poisoning (OR 8.696, 95% CI 2.053-37.370, P=0.003. Finally, Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed that patients with shock suffered greater cumulative mortality than without shock (Log-rank test, Chi-square 147.404, P<0.001.The mortality rate for

  14. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myriokefalitakis, S; Daskalakis, N; Fanourgakis, G S; Voulgarakis, A; Krol, M C; Aan de Brugh, J M J; Kanakidou, M

    2016-09-01

    The importance of the long-range transport (LRT) on O3 and CO budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean has been investigated using the state-of-the-art 3-dimensional global chemistry-transport model TM4-ECPL. A 3-D budget analysis has been performed separating the Eastern from the Western basins and the boundary layer (BL) from the free troposphere (FT). The FT of the Eastern Mediterranean is shown to be a strong receptor of polluted air masses from the Western Mediterranean, and the most important source of polluted air masses for the Eastern Mediterranean BL, with about 40% of O3 and of CO in the BL to be transported from the FT aloft. Regional anthropogenic sources are found to have relatively small impact on regional air quality in the area, contributing by about 8% and 18% to surface levels of O3 and CO, respectively. Projections using anthropogenic emissions for the year 2050 but neglecting climate change calculate a surface O3 decrease of about 11% together with a surface CO increase of roughly 10% in the Eastern Mediterranean.

  15. Evolution of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of air pollutants at global and regional scales during the 1980-2010 period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granier, C.; Bessagnet, B.; Bond, T.; D'Angiola, A.; Gon, H.D. van der; Frost, G.J.; Heil, A.; Kaiser, J.W.; Kinne, S.; Klimont, Z.; Kloster, S.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Liousse, C.; Masui, T.; Meleux, F.; Mieville, A.; Ohara, T.; Raut, J.-C.; Riahi, K.; Schultz, M.G.; Smith, S.J.; Thompson, A.; Aardenne, J. van; Werf, G.R. van der; Vuuren, D.P. van

    2011-01-01

    Several different inventories of global and regional anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions are assessed for the 1980-2010 period. The species considered in this study are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and black carbon. The inventories considered include the ACCMIP historical

  16. Carbon monoxide and related trace gases and aerosols over the Amazon Basin during the wet and dry seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of airborne measurements of carbon monoxide (CO and aerosol particle number concentration (CN made during the Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA program. The primary goal of BARCA is to address the question of basin-scale sources and sinks of CO2 and other atmospheric carbon species, a central issue of the Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA program. The experiment consisted of two aircraft campaigns during November–December 2008 (BARCA-A and May–June 2009 (BARCA-B, which covered the altitude range from the surface up to about 4500 m, and spanned most of the Amazon Basin.

    Based on meteorological analysis and measurements of the tracer, SF6, we found that airmasses over the Amazon Basin during the late dry season (BARCA-A, November 2008 originated predominantly from the Southern Hemisphere, while during the late wet season (BARCA-B, May 2009 low-level airmasses were dominated by northern-hemispheric inflow and mid-tropospheric airmasses were of mixed origin. In BARCA-A we found strong influence of biomass burning emissions on the composition of the atmosphere over much of the Amazon Basin, with CO enhancements up to 300 ppb and CN concentrations approaching 10 000 cm−3; the highest values were in the southern part of the Basin at altitudes of 1–3 km. The ΔCN/ΔCO ratios were diagnostic for biomass burning emissions, and were lower in aged than in fresh smoke. Fresh emissions indicated CO/CO2 and CN/CO emission ratios in good agreement with previous work, but our results also highlight the need to consider the residual smoldering combustion that takes place after the active flaming phase of deforestation fires.

    During the late wet season, in contrast, there was little evidence for a significant presence of biomass smoke. Low CN concentrations (300–500 cm−3 prevailed basinwide, and CO mixing ratios were enhanced

  17. Is carbon monoxide-mediated cyclic guanosine monophosphate production responsible for low blood pressure in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bel, F; Latour, [No Value; Vreman, HJ; Wong, RJ; Stevenson, DK; Steendijk, P; Egberts, J; Krediet, TG

    Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) involves inflammatory processes, causing an increased expression of inducible heme oxygenase with subsequent production of carbon monoxide (CO). We hypothesized that increased production of CO during RDS might be responsible for increased plasma levels of

  18. Non-convulsive status epilepticus in a patient with carbon-monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, Simone; Di Giuliano, Francesca; Picchi, Eliseo; Natoli, Silvia; Leonardis, Carlo; Leonardis, Francesca; Garaci, Francesco; Floris, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    The presentation of carbon monoxide poisoning is non-specific and highly variable. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is used for the treatment of this condition. Various reports show the occurrence of self-limiting seizures after carbon monoxide poisoning and as a consequence of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Contrary to the seizures, status epilepticus has been rarely observed in these conditions. The exact pathophysiology underlying seizures and status epilepticus associated with carbon monoxide poisoning and hyperbaric oxygen therapy is not really clear, and some elements appear to be common to both conditions. We describe a case of non-convulsive status epilepticus in a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The mechanism, MRI findings and implications are discussed.

  19. Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography carbon monoxide total columns: statistical evaluation and comparison with chemistry transport model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, A.T.J.; Gloudemans, A.M.S.; Aben, I.; Krol, M.C.; Meirink, J.F.; van der Werf, G.R.; Schrijver, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed statistical analysis of one year (September 2003 to August 2004) of global Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) carbon monoxide (CO) total column retrievals from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM) algorithm, vers

  20. Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon monoxide total columns: Statistical evaluation and comparison with chemistry transport model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, de A.T.J.; Gloudemans, A.M.S.; Aben, I.; Krol, M.C.; Meirink, J.F.; Werf, van der G.R.; Schrijver, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed statistical analysis of one year (September 2003 to August 2004) of global Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) carbon monoxide (CO) total column retrievals from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM) algorithm, vers

  1. Hydrogen Oxidation on Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells in the Presence of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, Hans Aage

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogen oxidation has been studied on a carbon-supported platinum gas diffusion electrode in a phosphoric acidelectrolyte in the presence of carbon monoxide and oxygen in the feed gas. The poisoning effect of carbon monoxide presentin the feed gas was measured in the temperature range from 80...... to 150°C. It was found that throughout the temperaturerange, the potential loss due to the CO poisoning can be reduced to a great extent by the injection of small amounts ofgaseous oxygen into the hydrogen gas containing carbon monoxide. By adding 5 volume percent (v/o) oxygen, an almost......CO-free performance can be obtained for carbon monoxide concentrations up to 0.5 v/o CO at 130°C, 0.2 v/o CO at 100°C,and 0.1 v/o CO at 80°C, respectively....

  2. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Region of Fez-Boulemane, Morocco: Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors (2009-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awatef Tahouri

    2013-12-01

    How to cite this article: Tahouri A, Lyoussi B, Achour S. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Region of Fez-Boulemane, Morocco: Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors (2009-2012. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:131-5.

  3. Selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of butane and maleic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbin, D.R.; Bonifaz, C. (DuPont Company, Wilmington, DE (United States))

    1994-03-01

    The selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of butane and maleic anhydride has been studied over platinum- and palladium-containing zeolites as well as palladium-on-silica (Pd/SiO[sub 2]) catalysts. The results show that although a zeolite support is needed in many systems to effect a kinetic control to improve selectivity, thermodynamic control using Pd([approximately]2-4 ppm)/SiO[sub 2] is sufficient to give the desired selectivities in this system. In addition, a palladium-containing vanadium-phosphate catalyst was prepared that showed complete oxidation of carbon monoxide, conversion of butane to maleic anhydride, and no observable decomposition of the maleic anhydride. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Hydrogen bonding of formamide, urea, urea monoxide and their thio-analogs with water and homodimers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Damanjit Kaur; Shweta Khanna

    2014-11-01

    Ab initio and DFT methods have been employed to study the hydrogen bonding ability of formamide, urea, urea monoxide, thioformamide, thiourea and thiourea monoxide with one water molecule and the homodimers of the selected molecules. The stabilization energies associated with themonohydrated adducts and homodimers’ formation were evaluated at B3LYP/6-311++G** and MP2/6-311++G∗∗ levels. The energies were corrected for zero-point vibrational energies and basis set superposition error using counterpoise method. Atoms in molecules study has been carried out in order to characterize the hydrogen bonds through the changes in electron density and laplacian of electron density. A natural energy decomposition and natural bond orbital analysis was performed to understand the nature of hydrogen bonding.

  5. Electricity generation from carbon monoxide and syngas in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abid; Guiot, Serge R; Mehta, Punita; Raghavan, Vijaya; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2011-05-01

    Electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been a subject of significant research efforts. MFCs employ the ability of electricigenic bacteria to oxidize organic substrates using an electrode as an electron acceptor. While MFC application for electricity production from a variety of organic sources has been demonstrated, very little research on electricity production from carbon monoxide and synthesis gas (syngas) in an MFC has been reported. Although most of the syngas today is produced from non-renewable sources, syngas production from renewable biomass or poorly degradable organic matter makes energy generation from syngas a sustainable process, which combines energy production with the reprocessing of solid wastes. An MFC-based process of syngas conversion to electricity might offer a number of advantages such as high Coulombic efficiency and biocatalytic activity in the presence of carbon monoxide and sulfur components. This paper presents a discussion on microorganisms and reactor designs that can be used for operating an MFC on syngas.

  6. Unique case of fatal carbon monoxide poisoning in the absence of a combustible fossil fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D R; Poon, P; Titley, J; Jagger, S F; Rutty, G N

    2001-09-01

    A 37-year-old man died as a result of exposure to carbon monoxide within an apartment. An investigation of the apartment showed no gas appliances or gas supply to the apartment and no evidence of any combustion event to any part of the apartment or roof space. Inhalation of dichloromethane was excluded. Heating to the apartment was found to be via an electrical storage heater, the examination of which revealed that the cast-iron core and insulating material showed evidence of heat damage with significant areas devoid of carbon. This electric storage heater is hypothesized to be the source of carbon for the fatal production of carbon monoxide within the apartment.

  7. The Effect of Water Vapor on Flame Velocity in Equivalent Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiock, Ernest F; King, H Kendall

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to study the effect of water vapor upon the spatial speed of flame in equivalent mixtures of carbon monoxide and oxygen at various total pressures from 100 to 780 mm.hg. These results show that, within this pressure range, an increase in flame speed is produced by increasing the mole fraction of water vapor at least as far as saturation at 25 degrees c., and that the rate of this increase is greater the higher the pressure. It is evident that water vapor plays an important part in the explosive oxidation of carbon monoxide; the need for further experimental evidence as to the nature of its action is indicated.

  8. Vibrationally Excited Carbon Monoxide Produced via a Chemical Reaction Between Carbon Vapor and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Elijah R.; Eckert, Zakari; Frederickson, Kraig; Rich, Bill; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2017-06-01

    Measurements of the vibrational distribution function of carbon monoxide produced via a reaction between carbon vapor and molecular oxygen has shown a total population inversion on vibrational levels 4-7. Carbon vapor, produced using an arc discharge to sublimate graphite, is mixed with an argon oxygen flow. The excited carbon monoxide is vibrationally populated up to level v=14, at low temperatures, T=400-450 K, in a collision-dominated environment, 15-20 Torr, with total population inversions between v=4-7. The average vibrational energy per CO molecule formed by the reaction is 0.6-1.2 eV/molecule, which corresponds to 10-20% of the reaction enthalpy. Kinetic modeling of the flow reactor, including state specific vibrational processes, was performed to infer the vibrational distribution of the products of the reaction. The results show viability of developing of a new chemical CO laser from the reaction of carbon vapor and oxygen.

  9. Alexithymia Associated With Bilateral Globus Pallidus Lesions After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Feng Huang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexithymia refers to a person's inability to identify and describe feelings. We present a patient who developed alexithymia after carbon monoxide poisoning following a suicide attempt by burning charcoal in an enclosed space. Brain computed tomography revealed bilateral globus pallidus hypoxic lesions. Because of the time frame and the presence of brain structural lesions, the alexithymia in this patient was thought to be caused by bilateral globus pallidus hypoxic lesions resulting from carbon monoxide poisoning. The alexithymia in this patient did not respond to a variety of psychotropic drugs, including sertraline, venalfaxine, bupropion or methylphenidate. We suggest that alexithymia, which was associated with brain hypoxic lesions in this case, is resistant to treatment.

  10. Research progress in immunological mechanism of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai FENG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP is a syndrome constituted by acute dementia, psychiatric symptoms, pyramidal and extrapyramidal symptoms, which can be developed after the original clinical symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning recovered. Lots of studies have been done to explain the mechanisms of DEACMP, and more and more researches have demonstrated that the immunological mechanism may be involved in or play an important role on the pathogenesis of the process. This article will review the researches of immunological mechanism of DEACMP in recent years and give some prompts to clinical study in the future. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.006

  11. Delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome after carbon monoxide poisoning: inclusion of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the recovery protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Lo Pardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome can arise in the period from 4 days to 5 weeks following carbon monoxide poisoning, and is characterized by neuropsychological deficits, which in some cases become chronic. This case report describes an adult female who apparently suffered self-inflicted carbon monoxide poisoning. She was not treated with hyperbaric oxygen and developed delayed sequelae on day 20. The treatment started with 40 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and subsequently with neuropsychological rehabilitation and physiotherapy. The treatment resulted in a progressive and almost complete physical and psychological recovery as evidenced by neuropsychometric tests and diagnostic imaging performed in the follow-up. Recovery was attributed to hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Although further research is required, we propose hyperbaric oxygen therapy also in the recovery protocol in the treatment of delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome.

  12. Ozone sensitivity to isoprene chemistry and emissions and anthropogenic emissions in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunker, Alan M.; Koo, Bonyoung; Yarwood, Greg

    2016-11-01

    Ozone formation in California in year 2017 was simulated using three chemical mechanisms: the Statewide Air Pollution Research Center 2007 mechanism with updated toxics and isoprene chemistry (S07TIC); the Carbon Bond 6, revision 2 (CB6r2) mechanism; a modified CB6r2 mechanism with increased hydroxyl radical (OH) production from isoprene oxidation at low nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations (CB6r2OH). The simulations with a photochemical grid model (PGM) showed little difference in ozone between CB6r2 and CB6r2OH. Further analysis with a box model found little sensitivity of ozone to OH production in the isoprene chemistry of all three mechanisms under conditions representative of California. The S07TIC generally predicts greater ozone than the CB6r2, and the difference in the predicted concentrations exceeds the uncertainty estimated from uncertainties in the emissions inventory. The sensitivity of ozone to anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC), NOx and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and to isoprene emissions was also calculated with the PGM. Accounting for uncertainties in the emissions inventory, the sensitivity to NOx emissions is significantly different between S07TIC and CB6r2 in central and northern California; the sensitivity to isoprene emissions is significantly different in southern California. All mechanisms give a negative sensitivity of ozone to isoprene emissions in areas of northern California where NOx emissions are small. The CB6r2 and S07TIC differ in the sensitivity of ozone to organic nitrate (ON) formation from isoprene oxidation, likely because all ONs recycle to NOx in the S07TIC mechanism but only first-generation ONs do so in the CB6r2. For current California conditions, uncertainties in OH production from isoprene have little impact on ozone, but the extent to which isoprene ONs recycle NOx does impact ozone concentration and ozone sensitivity to NOx emissions.

  13. Diverse mechanisms underlying the regulation of ion channels by carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Peers, C; Boyle, J. P.; Scragg, J. L.; Dallas, M L; Al-Owais, M. M.; Hettiarachichi, N T; Elies, J; Johnson, E.; Gamper, N; Steele, D S

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is firmly established as an important, physiological signalling molecule as well as a potent toxin. Through its ability to bind metal-containing proteins, it is known to interfere with a number of intracellular signalling pathways, and such actions can account for its physiological and pathological effects. In particular, CO can modulate the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species, NO and cGMP levels, as well as regulate MAPK signalling. In this review, we con...

  14. Resveratrol Induces Hepatic Mitochondrial Biogenesis Through the Sequential Activation of Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seul-Ki; Joe, Yeonsoo; Min ZHENG; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Yu, Jae-Kyoung; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Chang, Ki Churl; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin; Ryter, Stefan W.; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Nitric oxide (NO) can induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cultured cells, through increased guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP), and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). We sought to determine the role of NO, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and its reaction product (carbon monoxide [CO]) in the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis by the natural antioxidant resveratrol. Results: S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), an NO donor, induced ...

  15. Hemeoxygenase-1 inhibits human myometrial contractility via carbon monoxide and is upregulated by progesterone during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, C H; Ahmed, A

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide was proposed as an endogenous inhibitor of myometrial contractility during pregnancy. Carbon monoxide (CO) like nitric oxide increases cGMP and is generated during the degradation of heme to biliverdin IX by hemeoxygenases (HO). Here we report that the expression of both HO-1 (inducible) and HO-2 (constitutive) were > 15-fold higher in pregnant myometrium compared to nonpregnant myometrium (n = 4, P < 0.001, P < 0.005, respectively). Moreover, the activation of the HO-CO pathway ...

  16. Dielectric Properties of Lead Monoxide Filled Unsaturated Polyester Based Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, V.; Kumar, H. G. Harish; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-07-01

    Lead monoxide filled isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the dielectric properties of the composites. The present study showed that the dielectric constant (ɛ'), dielectric loss (ɛ″) and ac conductivity (σac) of isopthalate based unsaturated polyester resin increases with the increase in wt% PbO filler in polymer matrix.

  17. Synthesis of Diethyl Oxalate by a Coupling—Regeneration Reaction of Carbon Monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FandongMeng; GenhuiXu; 等

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a process for the synthesis of diethyl oxalate by a copling reaction of carbon monoxide,catalyzed by palladium in the presence of ethyl nitrite ,The kinetics and mechanism of the coupling and regeneration reaction are also discussed ,This paper presents the results of a scale-up test of the catalyst and the process based on an a priori computer simulation.

  18. Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-A1 (CORM-A1) Improves Neurogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Ana S; Soares, Nuno L; Vieira, Melissa;

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases lead to impairment or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Stem cell based therapies are promising strategies currently under investigation. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous product of heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) activit...... cell mechanisms involved in neuronal differentiation. In summary, CO appears as a promising therapeutic molecule to stimulate endogenous neurogenesis or to improve in vitro neuronal production for cell therapy strategies....

  19. Extended Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Carbon Monoxide Migration in Sperm Whale Myoglobin

    OpenAIRE

    Bossa, Cecilia; Anselmi, Massimiliano; Roccatano, Danilo; Amadei, Andrea; Vallone, Beatrice; Brunori, Maurizio; Di Nola, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of an extended molecular dynamics simulation on the migration of photodissociated carbon monoxide in wild-type sperm whale myoglobin. Our results allow following one possible ligand migration dynamics from the distal pocket to the Xe1 cavity via a path involving the other xenon binding cavities and momentarily two additional packing defects along the pathway. Comparison with recent time resolved structural data obtained by Laue crystallography with subnanosecond to milli...

  20. Recovery of energy metabolism in rat brain after carbon monoxide hypoxia.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S D; Piantadosi, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) may inhibit mitochondrial electron transport in the brain and increase the toxic effects of the gas. This hypothesis was investigated in anesthetized rats during CO exposure and recovery at either normobaric or hyperbaric O2 concentrations. During exposure and recovery, we measured the oxidation level of cerebrocortical cytochrome c oxidase by differential spectroscopy and biochemical metabolites known to reflect aerobic energy provision in the brain. CO exposure (HbCO = ...

  1. Carbon Monoxide Effects onHuman Ventricle Action PotentialAssessed by Mathematical Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz eTrenor; Karen eCardona; Javier eSaiz; Sridharan eRajamani; Luiz eBelardinelli; Wayne Rodney Giles

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) that is produced in a number of different mammalian tissues is now known to have significant effects on the cardiovascular system. These include: i) vasodilation, ii) changes in heart rate and strength of contractions and iii) modulation of autonomic nervous system input to both the pacemaker and the working myocardium. Excessive CO in the environment is toxic and can initiate or mediate life threatening cardiac rhythm disturbances. Recent reports link these ventricular...

  2. Noninvasive Ambulatory Assessment of Cardiac Function and Myocardial Ischemia in Healthy Subjects Exposed to Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-30

    1007 by Paul N. Kizakevich, M.S., P.E. Principal Investigator with Linda Van Hoose, B.S.M.T., Michael L. McCartney, Sc.D., Karen Bolick, M.D., Warren...Calabro and D.E. Hutcheon . "Effects of Carbon Monoxide on the Vulnerability of the Ventricles to Drug-Induced Arrhythmias." J of Clin Pharma 1974;14(1):25

  3. P-chiral phosphine-sulfonate/palladium-catalyzed asymmetric copolymerization of vinyl acetate with carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akifumi; Kageyama, Takeharu; Goto, Hiroki; Carrow, Brad P; Ito, Shingo; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2012-08-01

    Utilization of palladium catalysts bearing a P-chiral phosphine-sulfonate ligand enabled asymmetric copolymerization of vinyl acetate with carbon monoxide. The obtained γ-polyketones have head-to-tail and isotactic polymer structures. The origin of the regio- and stereoregularities was elucidated by stoichiometric reactions of acylpalladium complexes with vinyl acetate. The present report for the first time demonstrates successful asymmetric coordination-insertion (co)polymerization of vinyl acetate.

  4. Reactions of Vanadocene-Carbyls with Carbon Monoxide, Xylylisocyanide and Carbon Dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieman, J.; Teuben, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Vanadocene-allyl Cp2V(η1-C3H5) (1a) reacts with strong π-acceptor substrate ligands such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and isonitriles. No reactions are observed with poorer π-acceptor substrates such as alkynes and nitriles. Reaction of 1a with CO gives Cp[η4-C5H5(C3H5)]V(CO)2, showing that

  5. Moving towards Sustainability: Road Grades and On-Road Emissions of Heavy-Duty Vehicles—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendan Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On-road vehicle emissions are one of the major sources of transport emissions. As a key design factor, road grades (or road slopes have significant effects on on-road vehicle emissions, particularly on Heavy-Duty Vehicles (HDVs. However, the research into the relationship between road grades and on-road vehicle emissions is very rare in China. Taking a road network in Taiyuan, China, as a study area, this paper explored the influences of road grades on carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbon (HC, and nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions of HDVs. Combining emissions data collected by Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS with Vehicle Specific Power (VSP, we developed an emission rate model of HDVs. Then, we integrated it with the traffic simulation model VISSIM to attain the emissions of HDVs on nine scenarios differentiated by road grades. The results showed that the three emissions are found to be highly correlated to road grades, among which the CO emissions are most sensitive to the change of road grades and the HC emissions least. Compared to the emissions at 0% grade, the emissions at 4% grade will be boosted from 39.0% to 60.6%. The CO and NOx emissions increase with the road grades in all nine scenarios, while the variations of HC emissions in different scenarios were complicated. The findings of this research will provide insights for policy-makers, scholars, and practitioners into strategies for improving road design to reduce traffic emissions and develop sustainable transportation in China.

  6. Ferromagnetic semiconductor-metal transition in heterostructures of electron doped europium monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stollenwerk, Tobias

    2013-09-15

    In the present work, we develop and solve a self-consistent theory for the description of the simultaneous ferromagnetic semiconductor-metal transition in electron doped Europium monoxide. We investigate two different types of electron doping, Gadolinium impurities and Oxygen vacancies. Besides the conduction band occupation, we can identify low lying spin fluctuations on magnetic impurities as the driving force behind the doping induced enhancement of the Curie temperature. Moreover, we predict the signatures of these magnetic impurities in the spectra of scanning tunneling microscope experiments. By extending the theory to allow for inhomogeneities in one spatial direction, we are able to investigate thin films and heterostructures of Gadolinium doped Europium monoxide. Here, we are able to reproduce the experimentally observed decrease of the Curie temperature with the film thickness. This behavior is attributed to missing coupling partners of the localized 4f moments as well as to an electron depletion at the surface which leads to a reduction of the number of itinerant electrons. By investigating the influence of a metallic substrate onto the phase transition in Gadolinium doped Europium monoxide, we find that the Curie temperature can be increased up to 20%. However, as we show, the underlying mechanism of metal-interface induced charge carrier accumulation is inextricably connected to a suppression of the semiconductor-metal transition.

  7. CHANGE OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN PLASMA AND TISSUE DURING ACUTE HYPOXIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁学琴; 刘贵明; 王俊科; 盛卓人

    2003-01-01

    Objective.To investigate the role of endogenous carbon monoxide(CO)in hypoxia. Methods. After rats were inhaled with hypoxic gases and the heme oxygenase inhibitor ZnPPIX was administered,we measured the CO levels in plasma,liver,lung and kidney. Meanwhile plasma cGMP levels were observed. Furthermore,we recorded the changes of hemodynamic and blood gases. Results. Acute mild hypoxia(10%O2)significantly increased CO levels in plasma as well as liver,kidney and lung,while acute severe hypoxia(5%O2)significantly decreased CO levels in plasma as well as liver,kidney and lung. In addition,the former significantly elevated cGMP levels in plasma while the latter markedly reduced cGMP levels in plasma. The hemodynamic changes occurred in accordance with the changes of carbon monoxide. Conclusions. Our results indicate,for the first time ,that the endogenous carbon monoxide plays an important role in regulating the vessel tone during hypoxia.

  8. Evidence for iodine monoxide in the Antarctic snowpack from spectroscopic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friess, Udo; Deutschmann, Tim; Platt, Ulrich [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Gilfedder, Ben [Institut fuer Umweltgeologie, TU-Braunschweig (Germany); Weller, Rolf [Alfred Wegener Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Recent ground-based and space borne observations suggest the presence of significant amounts of iodine monoxide in the boundary layer of Antarctica, which are expected to have an impact on the ozone budget and might contribute to the formation of new airborne particles. So far, the source of these iodine radicals has been unknown. Here we present long-term measurements of iodine monoxide at the German Antarctic research station Neumayer, which indicate that the snowpack is the main source for iodine radicals. The measurements have been performed using multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS). Using a coupled atmosphere - snowpack radiative transfer model, the comparison of the signals observed from scattered skylight and from light reflected by the snowpack yields several ppb of iodine monoxide in the upper layers of the sunlit snowpack throughout the year. Snow pit samples from Neumayer Station contain up to 700 ng/l of total iodine, representing a sufficient reservoir for these extraordinarily high IO concentrations.

  9. Natural clinoptilolite exchanged with iron: characterization and catalytic activity in nitrogen monoxide reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Tito-Ferro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the natural clinoptilolite from Tasajeras deposit, Cuba, modified by hydrothermal ion-exchange with solutions of iron (II sulfate and iron (III nitrate in acid medium. Besides this, its catalytic activity to reduce nitrogen monoxide with carbon monoxide/propene in the presence of oxygen was evaluated. The characterization was performed by Mössbauer and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopies and adsorption measurements. The obtained results lead to conclude that in exchanged samples, incorporated divalent and trivalent irons are found in octahedral coordination. Both irons should be mainly in cationic extra-framework positions inside clinoptilolite channels as charge compensating cations, and also as iron oxy-hydroxides resulting from limited hydrolysis of these cations. The iron (III exchanged samples has a larger amount of iron oxy-hydroxides agglomerates. The iron (II exchanged samples have additionally iron (II sulfate adsorbed. The catalytic activity in the nitrogen monoxide reduction is higher in the exchanged zeolites than starting. Among all samples, those exchanged of iron (II has the higher catalytic activity. This lead to outline that, main catalytically active centers are associated with divalent iron.

  10. Changes in the Autonomic Nervous System in Patients with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Badalyan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to examine changes in the autonomic nervous system (ANS function in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning in relation to the condition severity. Subjects and methods. The ANS was studied in 114 patients aged 15 to 82 years with carbon monohydrate poisoning who were treated at the N. V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Care, Moscow, in 2004—2008. Cardiointervalographic readings were analyzed in relation to the condition severity, the presence of thermal damages to the skin and upper airway, and that of blood alcohol. Results. Within the first hours after poisoning, the function of the ANS was found to be impaired, which was associated with the development of hypersympathicotonia caused by the increased activity of its sympathetic part and the decreased tone of the parasympathetic one. The magnitude of hypersympathicotonia depends on the severity of poisoning, on the presence of thermal damages to the upper respiratory tract and that of blood alcohol. The preponderance of the tone of the ANS parasympathetic part suggests the disturbance of adaptive and compensatory mechanisms and the likely poor prognosis of the poisoning. Conclusion. Cardiointervalography is recommended for the objective evaluation of the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning. Key words: carbon monoxide, autonomic nervous system, cardiointervalog-raphy, adaptive and compensatory mechanisms.

  11. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennetto Luke

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found by friends in a confused, incontinent state. Initial signs included respiratory failure, cardiac ischaemia, hypotension, encephalopathy and a rash, whilst subsequent features included rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, amnesia, dysarthria, parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, supranuclear gaze palsy and cerebral haemorrhage. Despite numerous investigations including magnetic resonance cerebral imaging, lumbar puncture, skin biopsy, muscle biopsy and electroencephalogram a diagnosis remained elusive. Several weeks after admission, diagnostic breakthrough was achieved when the gradual resolution of the patient's amnesia, encephalopathy and dysarthria allowed an accurate history to be taken for the first time. The patient's last recollection was turning on his gas heating for the first time since the spring. A gas heating engineer found the patient's gas boiler to be in a dangerous state of disrepair and it was immediately decommissioned. Conclusion This case highlights several important issues: the bewildering myriad of clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning, the importance of making the diagnosis even at a late stage and preventing the patient's return to a potentially fatal toxic environment, and the paramount importance of the history in the diagnostic method.

  12. Toxicological Investigation of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Four Occupants of a Fuming Sport Utility Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nnoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This toxicological investigation involves a report on the death of four occupants of a sport utility vehicle on one of the major busy Federal roads of Nigeria where they were held for up to three hours in a traffic jam while the car was steaming. Methods: Autopsy was executed using the standard procedure and toxicological analysis was done using simple spectrophotometric method to establish the level of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO in peripheral blood in the four occupants. Results: The autopsy report indicated generalized cyanosis, sub-conjuctival hemorrhages, marked laryngo-trachea edema with severe hyperemia with frothy fluid discharges characteristic of carbon monoxide poisoning. Toxicological report of the level of HbCO in part per million (ppm in the peripheral blood of the four occupants was A= 650 ppm; B= 500 ppm; C= 480 ppm, and D= 495 ppm against the maximum permissible level of 50 ppm. Conclusion: The sudden death of the four occupants was due to excessive inhalation of the carbon monoxide gas from the exhaust fumes leaking into the cabin of the car. The poor road network, numerous potholes, and traffic jam in most of roads in Nigeria could have exacerbated a leaky exhaust of the smoky second hand SUV car leading to the acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  13. Aerial sampling of emissions from biomass pile burns in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, semi-volatile organics (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans), filter-based metals, and volatile organics were sampled for determination of emission factors. The effect on emissions from covering or not covering piles with polyethylene sheets to prevent fuel wetting was determined. Results showed that the uncovered (“wet”) piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emissions of volatile organic compounds. Results for other pollutants will also be discussed. This work determined the emissions from open burning of forest slash wood, with and without plastic sheeting. The foresters advocate the use of plastic to keep the slash wood dry and aid in the controlled combustion of the slash to reduce fuel loading. Concerns about the emissions from the burning plastic prompted this work which conducted an extensive characterization of dry, wet, and dry with plastic slash pile emissions.

  14. Exposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Julian D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-05-22

    Motor vehicles are a significant source of population exposure to air pollution. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin as a case study, the author combines ambient monitoring station data with hourly time-activity patterns to determine the population intake of motor vehicle emissions during 1996-1999. Three microenvironments are considered wherein the exposure to motor vehicle emissions is higher than in ambient air: in and near vehicles, inside a building that is near a freeway, and inside a residence with an attached garage. Total motor vehicle emissions are taken from the EMFAC model. The 15 million people in the South Coast inhale 0.0048% of primary, nonreactive compounds emitted into the basin by motor vehicles. Intake of motor vehicle emissions is 46% higher than the average ambient concentration times the average breathing rate, because of microenvironments and because of temporal and spatial correlation among breathing rates, concentrations, and population densities. Intake fraction (iF) summarizes the emissions-to-intake relationship as the ratio of population intake to total emissions. iF is a population level exposure metric that incorporates spatial, temporal, and interindividual variability in exposures. iFs can facilitate the calculation of population exposures by distilling complex emissions-transport-receptor relationships. The author demonstrates this point by predicting the population intake of various primary gaseous emissions from motor vehicles, based on the intake fraction for benzene and carbon monoxide.

  15. Exposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Julian D.

    2002-05-01

    Motor vehicles are a significant source of population exposure to air pollution. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin as a case study, the author combines ambient monitoring station data with hourly time-activity patterns to determine the population intake of motor vehicle emissions during 1996-1999. Three microenvironments are considered wherein the exposure to motor vehicle emissions is higher than in ambient air: in and near vehicles, inside a building that is near a freeway, and inside a residence with an attached garage. Total motor vehicle emissions are taken from the EMFAC model. The 15 million people in the South Coast inhale 0.0048% of primary, nonreactive compounds emitted into the basin by motor vehicles. Intake of motor vehicle emissions is 46% higher than the average ambient concentration times the average breathing rate, because of microenvironments and because of temporal and spatial correlation among breathing rates, concentrations, and population densities. Intake fraction (iF) summarizes the emissions-to-intake relationship as the ratio of population intake to total emissions. iF is a population level exposure metric that incorporates spatial, temporal, and interindividual variability in exposures. iFs can facilitate the calculation of population exposures by distilling complex emissions-transport-receptor relationships. The author demonstrates this point by predicting the population intake of various primary gaseous emissions from motor vehicles, based on the intake fraction for benzene and carbon monoxide.

  16. Controlling automotive exhaust emissions: successes and underlying science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Martyn V

    2005-04-15

    Photochemical reactions of vehicle exhaust pollutants were responsible for photochemical smog in many cities during the 1960s and 1970s. Engine improvements helped, but additional measures were needed to achieve legislated emissions levels. First oxidation catalysts lowered hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, and later nitrogen oxides were reduced to nitrogen in a two-stage process. By the 1980s, exhaust gas could be kept stoichiometric and hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were simultaneously converted over a single 'three-way catalyst'. Today, advanced three-way catalyst systems emissions are exceptionally low. NOx control from lean-burn engines demands an additional approach because NO cannot be dissociated under lean conditions. Current lean-burn gasoline engine NOx control involves forming a nitrate phase and periodically enriching the exhaust to reduce it to nitrogen, and this is being modified for use on diesel engines. Selective catalytic reduction with ammonia is an alternative that can be very efficient, but it requires ammonia or a compound from which it can be obtained. Diesel engines produce particulate matter, and, because of health concerns, filtration processes are being introduced to control these emissions. On heavy duty diesel engines the exhaust gas temperature is high enough for NO in the exhaust to be oxidised over a catalyst to NO2 that smoothly oxidises particulate material (PM) in the filter. Passenger cars operate at lower temperatures, and it is necessary to periodically burn the PM in air at high temperatures.

  17. Statistical analysis of the operating parameters which affect cupola emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.W.; Draper, A.B.

    1977-12-01

    A sampling program was undertaken to determine the operating parameters which affected air pollution emission from gray iron foundry cupolas. The experimental design utilized the analysis of variance routine. Four independent variables were selected for examination on the basis of previous work reported in the literature. These were: (1) blast rate; (2) iron-coke ratio; (3) blast temperature; and (4) cupola size. The last variable was chosen since it most directly affects melt rate. Emissions from cupolas for which concern has been expressed are particle matter and carbon monoxide. The dependent variables were, therefore, particle loading, particle size distribution, and carbon monoxide concentration. Seven production foundries were visited and samples taken under conditions prescribed by the experimental plan. The data obtained from these tests were analyzed using the analysis of variance and other statistical techniques where applicable. The results indicated that blast rate, blast temperature, and cupola size affected particle emissions and the latter two also affected the particle size distribution. The particle size information was also unique in that it showed a consistent particle size distribution at all seven foundaries with a sizable fraction of the particles less than 1.0 micrometers in diameter.

  18. Comparison of global 3-D aviation emissions datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Olsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aviation emissions are unique from other transportation emissions, e.g., from road transportation and shipping, in that they occur at higher altitudes as well as at the surface. Aviation emissions of carbon dioxide, soot, and water vapor have direct radiative impacts on the Earth's climate system while emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide (CO, and hydrocarbons (HC impact air quality and climate through their effects on ozone, methane, and clouds. The most accurate estimates of the impact of aviation on air quality and climate utilize three-dimensional chemistry-climate models and gridded four dimensional (space and time aviation emissions datasets. We compare five available aviation emissions datasets currently and historically used to evaluate the impact of aviation on climate and air quality: NASA-Boeing 1992, NASA-Boeing 1999, QUANTIFY 2000, Aero2k 2002, and AEDT 2006 and aviation fuel usage estimates from the International Energy Agency. Roughly 90% of all aviation emissions are in the Northern Hemisphere and nearly 60% of all fuelburn and NOx emissions occur at cruise altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While these datasets were created by independent methods and are thus not strictly suitable for analyzing trends they suggest that commercial aviation fuelburn and NOx emissions increased over the last two decades while HC emissions likely decreased and CO emissions did not change significantly. The bottom-up estimates compared here are consistently lower than International Energy Agency fuelburn statistics although the gap is significantly smaller in the more recent datasets. Overall the emissions distributions are quite similar for fuelburn and NOx with regional peaks over the populated land masses of North America, Europe, and East Asia. For CO and HC there are relatively larger differences. There are however some distinct differences in the altitude distribution

  19. Comparison of global 3-D aviation emissions datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Olsen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aviation emissions are unique from other transportation emissions, e.g., from road transportation and shipping, in that they occur at higher altitudes as well as at the surface. Aviation emissions of carbon dioxide, soot, and water vapor have direct radiative impacts on the Earth's climate system while emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide (CO, and hydrocarbons (HC impact air quality and climate through their effects on ozone, methane, and clouds. The most accurate estimates of the impact of aviation on air quality and climate utilize three-dimensional chemistry-climate models and gridded four dimensional (space and time aviation emissions datasets. We compare five available aviation emissions datasets currently and historically used to evaluate the impact of aviation on climate and air quality: NASA-Boeing 1992, NASA-Boeing 1999, QUANTIFY 2000, Aero2k 2002, and AEDT 2006 and aviation fuel usage estimates from the International Energy Agency. Roughly 90% of all aviation emissions are in the Northern Hemisphere and nearly 60% of all fuelburn and NOx emissions occur at cruise altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While these datasets were created by independent methods and are thus not strictly suitable for analyzing trends they suggest that commercial aviation fuelburn and NOx emissions increased over the last two decades while HC emissions likely decreased and CO emissions did not change significantly. The bottom-up estimates compared here are consistently lower than International Energy Agency fuelburn statistics although the gap is significantly lower in the more recent datasets. Overall the emissions distributions are quite similar for fuelburn and NOx while for CO and HC there are relatively larger differences. There are however some distinct differences in the altitude distribution of emissions in certain regions for the Aero2k dataset.

  20. Emission inventory of criteria pollutants Costa Rica in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Criteria pollutant emissions were determined in Costa Rica in 2011, from the application of emission factors, measurement sources, the application of mechanistic models and material balance. A total of 1,898,591 tons of criteria pollutants which were recorded, mobile sources are the main contributions with nearly 61%, followed by the area and stationary sources, with 21 and 18 % respectively. The most abundant pollutant in weight, anthropogenically generated during 2011 was the carbon monoxide ( CO , issuing into the atmosphere about 856 264 tonnes per year, mainly for mobile sources; next in order of importance emissions of total organic gases (GOT with more than 434 777 tonnes per year, with mobile sources which generate 40 %.

  1. Infrared emission from holmium doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, T.; Samson, B. N.; Hector, J. R.; Brocklesby, W. S.; Hewak, D. W.; Payne, D. N.

    1999-08-01

    Infrared emission at 1.2, 1.25, 1.67, 2.0, 2.2, 2.9, 3.9, and 4.9 μm is measured in holmium (Ho 3+) doped gallium lanthanum sulphide (GLS) glass. Branching ratios, radiative quantum efficiencies, and emission cross-sections are calculated from lifetime, absorption, and emission measurements using Judd-Ofelt analysis and the Füchtbauer-Ladenburg equation. The fluorescence band at 3.9 μm coincides with an atmospheric transmission window and the fluorescence band at 4.9 μm overlaps with the fundamental absorption of carbon monoxide, making the glass a potential fibre laser source for remote sensing and gas sensing applications. This is the first time this latter transition has been reported in any holmium doped host.

  2. Carbon monoxide climatology derived from the trajectory mapping of global MOZAIC-IAGOS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Osman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional gridded climatology of carbon monoxide (CO has been developed by trajectory mapping of global MOZAIC-IAGOS in situ measurements from commercial aircraft data. CO measurements made during aircraft ascent and descent, comprising nearly 41 200 profiles at 148 airports worldwide from December 2001 to December 2012 are used. Forward and backward trajectories are calculated from meteorological reanalysis data in order to map the CO measurements to other locations, and so to fill in the spatial domain. This domain-filling technique employs 15 800 000 calculated trajectories to map otherwise sparse MOZAIC-IAGOS data into a quasi-global field. The resulting trajectory-mapped CO dataset is archived monthly from 2001–2012 on a grid of 5° longitude × 5° latitude × 1 km altitude, from the surface to 14 km altitude. The mapping product has been carefully evaluated, by comparing maps constructed using only forward trajectories and using only backward trajectories. The two methods show similar global CO distribution patterns. The magnitude of their differences is most commonly 10 % or less, and found to be less than 30 % for almost all cases. The trajectory-mapped CO dataset has also been validated by comparison profiles for individual airports with those produced by the mapping method when data from that site are excluded. While there are larger differences below 2 km, the two methods agree very well between 2 and 10 km with the magnitude of biases within 20 %. Maps are also compared with Version 6 data from the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT satellite instrument. While agreement is good in the lowermost troposphere, the MOPITT CO profile shows negative biases of ~ 20 % between 500 and 300 hPa. These upper troposphere biases are not related to the mapping procedure, as almost identical differences are found with the original in situ MOZAIC-IAGOS data. The total CO trajectory-mapped MOZAIC-IAGOS climatology column

  3. Carbon monoxide climatology derived from the trajectory mapping of global MOZAIC-IAGOS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mohammed K.; Tarasick, David W.; Liu, Jane; Moeini, Omid; Thouret, Valerie; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Parrington, Mark; Nédélec, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    A three-dimensional gridded climatology of carbon monoxide (CO) has been developed by trajectory mapping of global MOZAIC-IAGOS in situ measurements from commercial aircraft data. CO measurements made during aircraft ascent and descent, comprising nearly 41 200 profiles at 148 airports worldwide from December 2001 to December 2012, are used. Forward and backward trajectories are calculated from meteorological reanalysis data in order to map the CO measurements to other locations and so to fill in the spatial domain. This domain-filling technique employs 15 800 000 calculated trajectories to map otherwise sparse MOZAIC-IAGOS data into a quasi-global field. The resulting trajectory-mapped CO data set is archived monthly from 2001 to 2012 on a grid of 5° longitude × 5° latitude × 1 km altitude, from the surface to 14 km altitude.The mapping product has been carefully evaluated, firstly by comparing maps constructed using only forward trajectories and using only backward trajectories. The two methods show similar global CO distribution patterns. The magnitude of their differences is most commonly 10 % or less and found to be less than 30 % for almost all cases. Secondly, the method has been validated by comparing profiles for individual airports with those produced by the mapping method when data from that site are excluded. While there are larger differences below 2 km, the two methods agree very well between 2 and 10 km with the magnitude of biases within 20 %. Finally, the mapping product is compared with global MOZAIC-IAGOS cruise-level data, which were not included in the trajectory-mapped data set, and with independent data from the NOAA aircraft flask sampling program. The trajectory-mapped MOZAIC-IAGOS CO values show generally good agreement with both independent data sets.Maps are also compared with version 6 data from the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument. Both data sets clearly show major regional CO sources such

  4. Validation of lower tropospheric carbon monoxide inferred from MOZART model simulation over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarragunta, Y.; Srivastava, S.; Mitra, D.

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, MOZART-4 (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers-Version-4) simulation has been made from 2003 to 2007 and compared with satellite and in-situ observations with a specific focus on Indian subcontinent to illustrate the capabilities of MOZART-4 model. The model simulated CO have been compared with latest version (version-6) of MOPITT (Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere) carbon monoxide (CO) retrievals at 900, 800 and 700 hPa. Model reproduces major features present in satellite observations. However model significantly overestimates CO over the entire Indian region at 900 hPa and moderately overestimates at 800 hPa and 700 hPa. The frequency distribution of all simulated data points with respect to MOZART error shows maximum in the error range of 10-20% at all pressure levels. Over total Indian landmass, the percentage of gridded CO data that are being overestimated in the range of 0-30% at 900 hPa, 800 hPa and 700 hPa are 58%, 62% and 66% respectively. The study reflects very good correlation between two datasets over Central India (CI) and Southern India (SI). The coefficient of determination (r2) is found to be 0.68-0.78 and 0.70-0.78 over the CI and SI respectively. The weak correlation is evident over Northern India (NI) with r2 values of 0.1-0.3. Over Eastern India (EI), Good correlation at 800 hPa (r2 = 0.72) and 700 hPa (r2 = 0.66) whereas moderately weak correlation at 900 hPa (r2 = 0.48) has been observed. In contrast, Over Western India (WI), strong correlation is evident at 900 hPa (r2 = 0.64) and moderately weak association is found to be present at 800 hPa and 700 hPa. Model fairly reproduces seasonal cycle of CO in the lower troposphere over most of the Indian regions. However, during June to December, model shows overestimation over NI. The magnitude of overestimation is increasing linearly from 900 hPa to 700 hPa level. During April-June months, model results are coinciding with observed CO concentrations over SI

  5. On the feasibility of monitoring carbon monoxide in the lower troposphere from a constellation of northern hemisphere geostationary satellites: Global scale assimilation experiments (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Jérôme; Edwards, David; Worden, Helen; Arellano, Avelino; Gaubert, Benjamin; Da Silva, Arlindo; Lahoz, William; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the second phase of an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) that utilizes the synthetic measurements from a constellation of satellites measuring atmospheric composition from geostationary (GEO) Earth orbit presented in part I of the study. Our OSSE is focused on carbon monoxide observations over North America, East Asia and Europe where most of the anthropogenic sources are located. Here we assess the impact of a potential GEO constellation on constraining northern hemisphere (NH) carbon monoxide (CO) using data assimilation. We show how cloud cover affects the GEO constellation data density with the largest cloud cover (i.e., lowest data density) occurring during Asian summer. We compare the modeled state of the atmosphere (Control Run), before CO data assimilation, with the known "true" state of the atmosphere (Nature Run) and show that our setup provides realistic atmospheric CO fields and emission budgets. Overall, the Control Run underestimates CO concentrations in the northern hemisphere, especially in areas close to CO sources. Assimilation experiments show that constraining CO close to the main anthropogenic sources significantly reduces errors in NH CO compared to the Control Run. We assess the changes in error reduction when only single satellite instruments are available as compared to the full constellation. We find large differences in how measurements for each continental scale observation system affect the hemispherical improvement in long-range transport patterns, especially due to seasonal cloud cover. A GEO constellation will provide the most efficient constraint on NH CO during winter when CO lifetime is longer and increments from data assimilation associated with source regions are advected further around the globe.

  6. De-etiolation of wheat seedling leaves: cross talk between heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide and nitric oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Liu

    Full Text Available Greening of etiolated plants is predominantly stimulated by light but the complete molecular mechanism is still unknown. Multiple studies currently focus on the important physiological effects of heme oxygenase (HO/carbon monoxide (CO in plants. In this report, firstly, the role of HO/CO in light-induced de-etiolation process was investigated. We discovered that light could significantly increase HO activities, HO-1 gene expression, CO release, and chlorophyll accumulation, all of which were sensitive to zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPPIX, the potent inhibitor of HO-1, respectively. Both HO-1 inducer hematin (H and CO aqueous solution were able to relieve etiolation in wheat seedling leaves under completely darkness by up-regulating endogenous HO/CO system, so as nitric oxide (NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP did. Similarly, endogenous NO production was also boost in response to light, SNP, hematin and CO aqueous solution in wheat seedling leaves. Additionally, the restoration of chlorophyll contents was blocked, when the inhibitor of mammalian nitric oxide synthase N(G-nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME or the specific scavenger of NO 2-(4-carboxyphenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO was added, respectively. Furthermore, the inducible effects of light were different from those of SNP, hematin, and CO on Pfr accumulation and PHYA transcripts. However, all of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, hematin, and CO could accelerate NO emission, which suggested that HO/CO in wheat seedlings de-etiolation under dark-light transition may have a cross talk with NO.

  7. Carbon monoxide levels measured in major commuting corridors covering different landuse and roadway microenvironments in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L. Y.; Liu, Y. M.; Lee, S. C.; Chan, C. Y.

    Vehicle exhaust is the major source of pollutant in modern cities. About half of Hong Kong residents are living in suburban or rural areas. They need to traverse through tunnels, highways, urban street canyons and other road conditions in different landuse areas when they traverse to work in urban centres or new towns. Also, there is increasing traffic, especially trucks across the border between Hong Kong and mainland China via several border highways. This study helps us in assessing the exposure level of suburban and cross border commuters. Carbon monoxide (CO) is used as a tracer for traffic emission. An experimental vehicle traversing major commuting corridors were used to measure CO levels in different landuse and roadway microenvironments including tunnels and highways. The air samples were taken simultaneously at the outside and inside of a travelling vehicle. Result indicates that the pattern of fluctuation of the out-vehicle and in-vehicle CO level vary with different landuse areas. The variation pattern of in-vehicle CO level is closely related to that of out-vehicle level. The effects of the out-vehicle CO concentration on the in-vehicle CO concentration under different roadway conditions in various landuse categories are examined. There is an indication that external air pollutants penetrated into the in-vehicle compartment through car body cracks, ventilation system. From our observation, the exhaust of a nearby petrol vehicle contributed significantly to the in-vehicle CO level. The use of low standard of diesel fuel from Shenzhen in mainland China leads to higher CO level near border area.

  8. On the Variability and Correlation of Surface Ozone and Carbon Monoxide Observed in Hong Kong Using Trajectory and Regression Analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tijian(王体健); K. S. LAM; C. W. TSANG; S. C. KOT

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates,the variability and correlation of surface ozone (03) and carbon monoxide (CO) observed at Cape D'Aguilar in Hong Kong from I January 1994 to 31 December 1995.Statistical analysis shows that the average 03 and CO mixing ratios during the two years are 32:k17 ppbv and 305:k191ppbv,respectively.The O3/CO ratio ranges from 0.05 to 0.6 ppbv/ppbv with its frequency peaking at 0.15.The raw dataset is divided into six groups using backward trajectory and cluster analyses.For data assigned to the same trajectory type,three groups are further sorted out based on CO and NOx mixing ratios.The correlation coefficients and slopes of O3/CO for the 18 groups are calculated using linear regression analysis.Final]y,five kinds of air masses with different chemical features are identified:continental background (CB),marine background (MB),regional polluted continental (RPC),perturbed marine (P'M),and local polluted (LP) air masses.Further studies indicate that 03 and CO in the continental and marine background air masses (CB and MB) are positively correlated for the reason that they are well mixed over the long range transport before arriving at the site.The negative correlation between 03 and CO in air mass LP is believed to be associated with heavy anthropogenic influence,which results from the enhancement by local sources as indicated by high CO and NOx and depletion of 03 when mixed with fresh emissions.The positive correlation in the perturbed marine air mass P*M favors the low photochemical production of 03.The negative,correlation found in the regional polluted continental air mass RPC is different from the observations at Oki Island in Japan due to the more complex 03 chemistry at Cape D'Aguilar.

  9. On the representation of IAGOS/MOZAIC vertical profiles in chemical transport models: contribution of different error sources in the example of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Boschetti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Utilising a fleet of commercial airliners, MOZAIC/IAGOS provides atmospheric composition data on a regular basis that are widely used for modelling applications. Due to the specific operational context of the platforms, such observations are collected close to international airports and hence in an environment characterised by high anthropogenic emissions. This provides opportunities for assessing emission inventories of major metropolitan areas around the world, but also challenges in representing the observations in typical chemical transport models. We assess here the contribution of different sources of error to overall model–data mismatch using the example of MOZAIC/IAGOS carbon monoxide (CO profiles collected over the European regional domain in a time window of 5 yr (2006–2011. The different sources of error addressed in the present study are: 1 mismatch in modelled and observed mixed layer height; 2 bias in emission fluxes and 3 spatial representation error (related to unresolved spatial variations in emissions. The modelling framework combines a regional Lagrangian transport model (STILT with EDGARv4.3 emission inventory and lateral boundary conditions from the MACC reanalysis. The representation error was derived by coupling STILT with emission fluxes aggregated to different spatial resolutions. We also use the MACC reanalysis to assess uncertainty related to uncertainty sources 2 and 3. We treat the random and the bias components of the uncertainty separately and found that 1 and 3 have a comparable impact on the random component for both models, while 2 is far less important. On the other hand, the bias component shows comparable impacts from each source of uncertainty, despite both models being affected by a low bias of a factor of 2–2.5 in the emission fluxes. In addition, we suggested methods to correct for biases in emission fluxes and in mixing heights. Lastly, the evaluation of the spatial representation error against

  10. Discussion on Passenger and Freight Traffic Upgrading Scheme for Leading Shenyang-Dandong Railway Passenger Lines into Railway Terminal%沈丹客专引入枢纽客货运改建方案的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉昆

    2012-01-01

    研究目的:本溪枢纽既有线路复杂,车站改建困难,既有铁路和城市规划存在冲突,沈丹客运专线引入枢纽方案不但需解决既有铁路存在的不足,还要兼顾枢纽的长远发展,其枢纽改建方案具有代表性.本文通过分析本线引入枢纽的客货运方案改建过程,总结出客运专线引入枢纽的研究思路和设计经验.研究结论:本文通过对沈丹客运专线引入本溪枢纽客货运改建方案的比选分析,得出客运专线引入枢纽改建方案应综合考虑枢纽总图规划、城市规划、既有车站作业性质、作业量、周边条件以及经济、环保、地形地质、施工风险等因素,通过技术经济比较综合比选,推选出最佳方案.本文所探讨的客运专线引入山区铁路枢纽车站改建方案为以后类似项目的设计有一定的借鉴作用.%Research purposes: There are many existing railways in Benxi railway terminal and it is difficult to upgrade the existing stations because there is the conflict between the existing railway network and the city development plan. Leading Shenyang-dandong Passenger Dedicated Line not only needs to overcome the shortages of the existing terminal, but also needs to consider the city long-term development plan. This paper studies the passenger and freight traffic upgrading scheme for leading the Shenyang-Dandong Passenger Dedicated Line into the Benxi railway terminal and sums up the experience in this field. Research conclusions: From studying the optional passenger and freight traffic upgrading schemes for leading the Shenyang-Dandong Railway Passenger Line into the Benxi railway terminal, it is concluded the passenger and freight traffic upgrading scheme should consider the factors of the overall terminal planning, the functions and operation quantitis of the existing stations, the surrounding conditions, the economic factor, enviromental protection, topographical and geological conditions and the

  11. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalek, Imad A; Blanks, Matthew G; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines' regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially (90

  12. Emissions from prescribed burning of timber slash piles in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, Johanna; Gullett, Brian K.; Tabor, Dennis; Yonker, Nick

    2017-02-01

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash (Douglas-fir) in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, filter-based metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled to determine emission factors, the amount of pollutant formed per amount of biomass burned. The effect on emissions from covering the piles with polyethylene (PE) sheets to prevent fuel wetting versus uncovered piles was also determined. Results showed that the uncovered ("wet") piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emission factors for VOCs, PM2.5, PCDD/PCDF, and PAHs. Removal of the PE prior to ignition, variation of PE size, and changing PE thickness resulted in no statistical distinction between emissions. Results suggest that dry piles, whether covered with PE or not, exhibited statistically significant lower emissions than wet piles due to better combustion efficiency.

  13. Development of a forecast model for global air traffic emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Martin

    2012-07-01

    The thesis describes the methodology and results of a simulation model that quantifies fuel consumption and emissions of civil air traffic. Besides covering historical emissions, the model aims at forecasting emissions in the medium-term future. For this purpose, simulation models of aircraft and engine types are used in combination with a database of global flight movements and assumptions about traffic growth, fleet rollover and operational aspects. Results from an application of the model include emissions of scheduled air traffic for the years 2000 to 2010 as well as forecasted emissions until the year 2030. In a baseline scenario of the forecast, input assumptions (e.g. traffic growth rates) are in line with predictions by the aircraft industry. Considering the effects of advanced technologies of the short-term and medium-term future, the forecast focusses on fuel consumption and emissions of nitric oxides. Calculations for historical air traffic additionally cover emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and soot. Results are validated against reference data including studies by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and simulation results from international research projects. (orig.)

  14. Reducing the Green House Gas Emissions from the Transportation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewande Akinnikawe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, two thirds of the carbon monoxide and about one third of carbon dioxide emissions come from the transportation sector. Ways to reduce these emissions in the future include replacing gasoline and diesel by biofuels, or by blend of biofuels with conventional gasoline and diesel, or by compressed natural gas (CNG, or by replacing internal combustion engines by electric motors powered by hydrogen fuel cells or battery-powered electric vehicles recharged from the electric grid. This presentation will review these technologies the fuel production pathways, when they are likely to be available, and by what fraction transportation sector green house gas emissions could be reduced by each. A well-to-wheels (WTW analysis is performed on each vehicle/ fuel technology using the GREET model and the total energy use, the CO 2 emissions, NO x emissions, SO x emissions for the life cycle of the vehicle technologies are calculated. Prospects for reducing foreign oil dependence as well as mitigating green house gases emission from the transportation sector will be considered in the analysis.

  15. Kiln emissions and potters' exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtle, B; Teschke, K; van Netten, C; Brauer, M

    1998-10-01

    Some ten thousand British Columbia potters work in small private studios, cooperative facilities, educational institutions, or recreation centers. There has been considerable concern that this diffuse, largely unregulated activity may involve exposures to unacceptable levels of kiln emissions. Pottery kiln emissions were measured at 50 sites--10 from each of 5 categories: professional studios, recreation centers, elementary schools, secondary schools, and colleges. Area monitoring was done 76 cm from firing kilns and 1.6 m above the floor to assess breathing zone concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, fluorides, aldehydes, aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc. Personal exposures to the same metals were measured at 24 sites. Almost all measured values were well below permissible concentrations for British Columbia work sites and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) with the following two exceptions. A single firing duration (495 minute) acrolein measurement adjacent to an electric kiln (0.109 ppm) exceeded these guidelines. One 15-minute sulfur dioxide measurement collected adjacent to a gas kiln (5.7 ppm) exceeded the ACGIH short-term exposure limit. The fact that concentrations in small, ventilated kiln rooms ranked among the highest measured gives rise to concern that unacceptable levels of contamination may exist where small kiln rooms remain unventilated. Custom designed exhaust hoods and industrial heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems were the most effective ventilation strategies. Passive diffusion and wall/window fans were least effective.

  16. Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning hospitalization and emergency department counts and rates by county, year, and fire-relatedness among California residents,2000-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains case counts, rates, and confidence intervals of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning (CO) inpatient hospitalizations and emergency...

  17. [Estimation of average traffic emission factor based on synchronized incremental traffic flow and air pollutant concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-Kui; Zhao, Tong; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ding, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Qun; Song, Xian-Feng

    2014-04-01

    On-road vehicle emissions have become the main source of urban air pollution and attracted broad attentions. Vehicle emission factor is a basic parameter to reflect the status of vehicle emissions, but the measured emission factor is difficult to obtain, and the simulated emission factor is not localized in China. Based on the synchronized increments of traffic flow and concentration of air pollutants in the morning rush hour period, while meteorological condition and background air pollution concentration retain relatively stable, the relationship between the increase of traffic and the increase of air pollution concentration close to a road is established. Infinite line source Gaussian dispersion model was transformed for the inversion of average vehicle emission factors. A case study was conducted on a main road in Beijing. Traffic flow, meteorological data and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration were collected to estimate average vehicle emission factors of CO. The results were compared with simulated emission factors of COPERT4 model. Results showed that the average emission factors estimated by the proposed approach and COPERT4 in August were 2.0 g x km(-1) and 1.2 g x km(-1), respectively, and in December were 5.5 g x km(-1) and 5.2 g x km(-1), respectively. The emission factors from the proposed approach and COPERT4 showed close values and similar seasonal trends. The proposed method for average emission factor estimation eliminates the disturbance of background concentrations and potentially provides real-time access to vehicle fleet emission factors.

  18. Gaseous emissions in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion. Analysis and summary of the pilot experiments; Kaasumaiset paeaestoet paineistetussa leijukerrospoltossa. Koetulosten kaesittely ja yhteenveto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Hippinen, I.; Konkola, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The influence of operating conditions on gaseous emissions in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion have been studied. The research objectives have been behaviour of sulphur absorbents and reduction of sulphur dioxide emissions, reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions, release of vapour-phase alkalimetals and carbon monoxide emissions. The sulphur capture capacities of calcium-based sorbents under PFBC conditions have been studied at a pressurised fluidised-bed reactor and at a pressurised thermogravimetric apparatus. The project has also connected results of the experimental PFBC at HUT/EVO. (author)

  19. Emissions of CO2, CO, NOx, HC, PM, HFC-134a, N2O and CH4 from the global light duty vehicle fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Wallington

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles emit carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, hydrocarbons (HC, particulate matter (PM, hydrofluorocarbon 134a (HFC-134a, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O. An understanding of these emissions is needed in discussions of climate change and local air pollution issues. To facilitate such discussions an overview of past, present, and likely future emissions from light duty vehicles is presented. Emission control technologies have reduced the emissions of CO, VOCs, PM, HFC-134a, CH4, and N2O from modern vehicles to very low levels.

  20. Low temperature operation and exhaust emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurikko, J.

    1987-01-01

    Ambient temperature has the greatest effect on the exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines during the initial cold star and before the engine is fully warmed-up. Fuel evaporation is poor in a cold engine and the fuel-air mixture must be made richer to ensure that the engine weill start and be driveable. However, the combustion of a rich fuel-air mixture is incomplete because of the lack of oxygen, and the exhaust gases will contain an excessive amount of carbon monoxide (CO). The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) in a combustion engine is tied to high temperatures and oxygen concentrations. The conditions in a non-warmed engine using a rich fuel-air mixture are unfavourable for the formation of NO/sub x/ and the emission of NO/sub x/ may even diminish with falling ambient temperature. When the engine has reached its normal operating temperature the exhaust emissions are usually independent of the ambient temperature if the engine is equipped with intake air preheating that is sufficiently powerful. The reduction efficiency of a catalytic converter mainly depends on its operation temperature. Continuous operation at low temperatures may cause rapid poisoning of the converter. At low temperatures, carbon and other particles that do not burn collect on the active surface of the converter reducing its effectiveness.

  1. Emission characteristics of a turbocharged diesel engine fueled with gas-to-liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tao; ZHANG Wugao; FANG Junhua; HUANG Zhen

    2007-01-01

    Emission characteristics of a turbocharged,intercooled,heavy-duty diesel engine operating on neat gas-toliquids (GTL) and blends of GTL with conventional diesel were investigated and a comparison was made with those of diesel fuel.The results show that nitrogen oxides (NOx),smoke,and particulate matter (PM) emissions can be decreased when operating on GTL and diesel-GTL blends.Engine emissions decrease with an increase of GTL fraction in the blends.Compared with diesel fuel,an engine operatingon GTL can reduce NOx,PM,carbon monoxide (CO),and hydrocarbon (HC) by 23.7%,27.6%,16.6% and 12.9% in ECE R49 13-mode procedure,respectively.Engine speed and load have great influences on emissions when operating on diesel-GTL blends and diesel fuel in the turbocharged diesel engine.The study indicates that GTL is a promisingalternative fuel for diesel engines to reduce emissions.

  2. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...... and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was taken to be the ultimate formula of FT gasoline. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline......The described investigation was carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from...

  3. Assessing the emission factors of low-pour-fuel-oil and diesel in steam boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohijeagbon, I.O.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the emissions effects resulting from the use of low pour fuel oil (LPFO and diesel fuels in industrial steam boilers operation. The method of ultimate analysis of the products of combustion and emissions of pollutant analysis were used to estimate the annual rate of emissions of boilers. The results shows that the levels of uncontrolled boiler emissions on the environment can lead to increased greenhouse effects, global warming, and pollution and toxilogical impacts on human health. Only carbon monoxide emission was found to vary with the levels of oxygen generation in the products of combustion, while other substances were generally in relation to constituents and rates of consumption of fuel.

  4. Combustor concepts for aircraft gas turbine low-power emissions reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mularz, E. J.; Gleason, C. C.; Dodds, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Three combustor concepts have been designed and tested to demonstrate significant reductions in aircraft engine idle pollutant emissions. Each concept used a different approach for pollutant reductions: the Hot Wall Combustor employs a thermal barrier coating and impingement cooled liners, the Recuperative Cooling Combustor preheats the air before entering the combustion chamber, and the Catalytic Converter Combustor is composed of a conventional primary zone followed by a catalytic bed for pollutant cleanup. The designs are discussed in detail and test results are presented for a range of aircraft engine idle conditions. The results indicate that ultra-low levels of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions can be achieved with this technology.

  5. Quantification of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Windrow Composting of Garden Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Boldrin, Alessio; Samuelsson, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    Microbial degradation of organic wastes entails the production of various gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon monoxide (CO). Some of these gases are classified as greenhouse gases (GHGs), thus contributing to climate change. A study was performed...... to give a more accurate estimate of the GHG emissions, with CO2 emissions measured to be 127 +/- 15% of the degraded C. Additionally, with this method, 2.7 +/- 0.6% and 0.34 +/- 0.16% of the degraded C was determined to be emitted as CH4 and CO. In this study, the dynamic plume method was a more effective...

  6. Vehicular emissions in China in 2006 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guiqian; Chao, Na; Wang, Yuesi; Chen, Jiashan

    2016-10-01

    Vehicular emissions in China in 2006 and 2010 were calculated at a high spatial resolution based on the data released by the National Bureau of Statistics, by taking the emission standards into consideration. China's vehicular emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), fine particulate matters (PM2.5), inhalable particulate matters (PM10), black carbon (BC), and organic carbon (OC) were 30,113.9, 4593.7, 6838.0, 20.9, 400.2, 430.5, 285.6, and 105.1Gg, respectively, in 2006 and 34,175.2, 5167.5, 7029.4, 74.0, 386.4, 417.1, 270.9, and 106.2Gg, respectively, in 2010. CO, VOCs, and NH3 emissions were mainly from motorcycles and light-duty gasoline vehicles, whereas NOX, PM2.5, PM10, and BC emissions were mainly from rural vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. OC emissions were mainly from motorcycles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Vehicles of pre-China I (vehicular emission standard of China before phase I) and China I (vehicular emission standard of China in phase I) were the primary contributors to all of the pollutant emissions except NH3, which was mainly from China III and China IV gasoline vehicles. The total emissions of all the pollutants except NH3 changed little from 2006 to 2010. This finding can be attributed to the implementation of strict emission standards and to improvements in oil quality.

  7. Duri Indonesia air emission inventory and dispersion modeling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetjiptono, T.E.; Nugraha, S.; VanDerZanden, D.F. [and others

    1996-11-01

    The Caltex Pacific Indonesia production field located in Duri, Indonesia, is the world`s largest steam flood. Because of the large scale of these operations, there is an interest in understanding the emissions into the atmosphere from the various sources in the field as well as the possible impact on the air quality resulting from these emissions. To be proactive and to fulfill this need, a study was done to inventory emissions from the facilities in the field and to use air dispersion models to estimate impacts on the air quality using the inventory results. This paper will discuss methods and procedures used in & study to quantify the emissions from the following sources in the Duri field: process vents, production impoundments and wastewater canals, roads, fugitive emissions, storage links, and combustion sources. Emissions of the following pounds were addressed in the study: non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX), hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter (PM), and carbon monoxide. Because of the diverse nature of the sources in the field, a wide range of emission estimating procedures were used including direct measurement methods, empirical methods based on mass transfer principles, and standard emission factors or procedures available from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). To quantify and track the emissions data generated, a computerized emissions inventory was developed. This paper will also discuss the dispersion modeling methods that were used to estimate the ground level concentrations in the surrounding areas using the data developed in the emission inventory. These discussions are based upon the results of a preliminary study which is limited to a portion of the Duri production field.

  8. Aspiration Pneumonia in Patients with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Who Had Loss of Consciousness: Prevalence, Outcomes, and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Chang Hwan; Huh, Jin Won; Seo, Dong Woo; Oh, Bum Jin; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2017-08-09

    Aspiration pneumonia is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, however little is known about in patients with carbon monoxide intoxication which is the leading cause of poisoning-related death. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical impacts and risk factors for developing aspiration pneumonia in carbon monoxide poisoning patients with loss of consciousness. A retrospective analysis of a carbon monoxide poisoning registry was performed at our emergency department from January, 2008 to December, 2015. All adult carbon monoxide poisoning patients with loss of consciousness were included. Aspiration pneumonia developed in 103 (19.2%) of 537 patients. It was associated with increased ventilator use (52.4 vs. 3.2%), length of hospital stay (3.6 (2.1-5.1) vs. 1.3 (0.6-2.1) days), and in-hospital mortality (5.8 vs. 0.0%) (all, P 12,000/mm(3), odds ratio was increased up to 17.75 (95% CI, 10.65-29.59; P < .001). The prevalence of aspiration pneumonia was 19.2% in carbon monoxide poisoning patients with loss of consciousness and was associated with poor outcomes. Also, altered mental status on emergency department arrival, white blood cells, and increased exposure duration were independently associated with the development of aspiration pneumonia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Effect of N-Acetylcysteine in Protecting from Simultaneous Noise and Carbon Monoxide Induced Hair Cell Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Pourbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor and reactive oxygen species scavenger, is reported to be effective in reducing noise-induced hearing loss. Many workers in industry are exposed simultaneously to noise and chemical pollutants such as carbon monoxide. We investigated effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine in protecting the cochlea from simultaneous noise and carbon monoxide damages.Methods: Twelve rabbits were exposed simeltaneously to 100 dB sound pressure level of broad band noise and carbon monoxide 8 hours a day for 5 days. One hour before exposure, experimental group received 325 mg/kg of N-acetylcysteine while normal saline was administered for the control group. The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine was evaluated 3 weeks after exposure by histological assessment of the hair cells.Results: Simultaneous exposure to noise and carbon monoxide resulted in a considerable damage to the outer hair cells; however, the inner hair cells and the pillar cells remained intact. Use of N-acetylcysteine in the experimental group significantly reduced the extent of outer hair cell loss.Conclusion: N-acetylcysteine attenuates simultaneous noise and carbon monoxide induced hair cell damage in rabbits.

  10. Interaction and reactivity of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide on ruthenium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, E.E.

    1980-03-01

    A multifaceted investigation of the reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide using a ruthenium (102) single crystal catalyst in the pressure range 10/sup -3/ to 10 Torr and temperature range of 300 to 475/sup 0/C has been undertaken. Kinetic and isotopic results indicate that the reaction products CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ were produced via two reaction mechanisms. Using a reducing gas mixture (low P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) a two site mechanism was operative involving NO dissociation. The carbon monoxide kinetic order varied from +1 to -3 and the nitric oxide order varied from +1 to 0. The catalyst under these conditions was determined to be metallic ruthenium with oxygen bonded within the first surface layer. The oxygen was unreactive and formed a (1 x 3)-0 LEED pattern. Under oxidizing conditions (high P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) the catalyst was ruthenium dioxide and the functional mechanism under these reaction conditions yielded a nitric oxide order of +2 to -4. Inclusion of a site poisoning mechanism under reducing conditions and an RuO/sub 2/ growth mechanism involving ruthenium cation transfer under oxidizing conditions into the kinetic rate laws led to an overall rate law which could be fit to the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide order plots. Using isotopically oxygen labelled reactants, it was observed that the three possible isotopes of carbon dioxide were produced. A ..gamma..-CO surface species is postulated as an intermediate in the exchange process. The reaction was observed to be initially surface structure insensitive and the reaction kinetics were derived using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism.

  11. Exposure assessment for nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in German hard coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmann, Dirk; Morfeld, Peter; Monz, Christian; Noll, Birgit; Gast, Frank

    2009-11-01

    The exposure situation of German hard coal miners with respect to the components nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Carbon monoxide was measured additionally and the results are displayed but not discussed in detail in this paper. The data were used to estimate personal long-term exposures in an inception cohort. For all three components, time weighted 8-h shift values were determined for typical groups of coalminers according to the European measurement standard. An expert panel from the coal mining company made an effort to estimate major potential changes in the exposure situation. The main sources of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in hard coal mining were the diesel engines. Blasting fumes contributed only to a lesser degree and with different exposure characteristics, e.g. much reduced NO(2) levels compared to the mines' rear areas. As rough 8 h-shift averages describing the current exposure situation, we found 1.35 ppm NO and 0.21 ppm NO(2) for the diesel engine drivers. Blasting specialists were more difficult to evaluate but rough 8 h-shift averages of 0.84 ppm NO and 0.014 ppm NO(2) could be estimated from our measurement series. By applying these data and the estimates of experts about the retrospective exposure situation to a cohort of 1,369 coalminers, we derived mean (max) cumulative exposures in ppm x number of shifts of 1,748 (5,928) for NO and 19.6 (1,013) for NO(2) when summarizing over the follow-up period from 1974 until 1998. Especially for the diesel engine drivers, exposure can be regarded as rather high, in particular, when compared to recommended limits by SCOEL and MAK, though the exposures have been in line with the enforced German occupational exposure limits. Whether this exposure situation has caused adverse health effects will be investigated epidemiologically.

  12. Silicon Monoxide at 1 atm and Elevated Pressures: Crystalline or Amorphous?

    KAUST Repository

    AlKaabi, Khalid

    2014-03-05

    The absence of a crystalline SiO phase under ordinary conditions is an anomaly in the sequence of group 14 monoxides. We explore theoretically ordered ground-state and amorphous structures for SiO at P = 1 atm, and crystalline phases also at pressures up to 200 GPa. Several competitive ground-state P = 1 atm structures are found, perforce with Si-Si bonds, and possessing Si-O-Si bridges similar to those in silica (SiO2) polymorphs. The most stable of these static structures is enthalpically just a little more stable than a calculated random bond model of amorphous SiO. In that model we find no segregation into regions of amorphous Si and amorphous SiO2. The P = 1 atm structures are all semiconducting. As the pressure is increased, intriguing new crystalline structures evolve, incorporating Si triangular nets or strips and stishovite-like regions. A heat of formation of crystalline SiO is computed; it is found to be the most negative of all the group 14 monoxides. Yet, given the stability of SiO2, the disproportionation 2SiO (s) → Si(s)+SiO2(s) is exothermic, falling right into the series of group 14 monoxides, and ranging from a highly negative ΔH of disproportionation for CO to highly positive for PbO. There is no major change in the heat of disproportionation with pressure, i.e., no range of stability of SiO with respect to SiO2. The high-pressure SiO phases are metallic. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  13. Plume-based analysis of vehicle fleet air pollutant emissions and the contribution from high emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An automated identification and integration method has been developed to investigate in-use vehicle emissions under real-world conditions. This technique was applied to high time resolution air pollutant measurements of in-use vehicle emissions performed under real-world conditions at a near-road monitoring station in Toronto, Canada during four seasons, through month-long campaigns in 2013–2014. Based on carbon dioxide measurements, over 100 000 vehicle-related plumes were automatically identified and fuel-based emission factors for nitrogen oxides; carbon monoxide; particle number, black carbon; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX; and methanol were determined for each plume. Thus the automated identification enabled the measurement of an unprecedented number of plumes and pollutants over an extended duration. Emission factors for volatile organic compounds were also measured roadside for the first time using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer; this instrument provided the time resolution required for the plume capture technique. Mean emission factors were characteristic of the light-duty gasoline dominated vehicle fleet present at the measurement site, with mean black carbon and particle number emission factors of 35 mg kg−1 and 7.7 × 1014 kg−1, respectively. The use of the plume-by-plume analysis enabled isolation of vehicle emissions, and the elucidation of co-emitted pollutants from similar vehicle types, variability of emissions across the fleet, and the relative contribution from heavy emitters. It was found that a small proportion of the fleet (< 25% contributed significantly to total fleet emissions; 95, 93, 76, and 75% for black carbon, carbon monoxide, BTEX, and particle number, respectively. Emission factors of a single pollutant may help classify a vehicle as a high emitter. However, regulatory strategies to more efficiently target multi-pollutants mixtures may be better developed by

  14. Influence of sulphur addition on emissions of organic substances during combustion; Inverkan av formen av svaveladditiv paa emissionerna av kolmonoxid och organiska aemnen vid foerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik; Jonsson, Claes; Almark, Matts; Berg, Magnus; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2008-02-15

    Reduction of emissions of carbon monoxide and organic substances by injecting either ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur and the importance of the point of injection has been investigated in full scale in a grate-fired bark boiler. The effect was monitored downstream of the economizer and air preheater, immediately upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. Concentrations determined in the comprehensive monitoring program include principally carbon monoxide, TOC and several organic substances, including PAH, PCDD/F and polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz). Additionally, the gaseous PAH were determined on-line using a novel mass spectrometer, REMPI-TOF MS, that measures specifically the 2- to 4-ring PAH's. All concentrations of substances of interest here fluctuate in concert and peak simultaneously. The relationship between the concentrations is not straightforward: there appears to be a threshold in carbon monoxide concentration. Below this threshold, the concentration of organics is low and above it concentrations increase rapidly with increasing carbon monoxide concentration. It has been confirmed that using sulphur additives not only reduces the concentration of carbon monoxide, but also that of organic substances in the flue gases. These additives do not only reduce the mean level of concentrations, but also dampen the fluctuations in these concentrations. Any measure leading to a reduction in carbon monoxide will also decrease the concentration of most organics, under the conditions prevalent in this boiler. Both additives tested are equally effective per kg of pure sulphur. The point of injection, in the fuel or above the grate, is not important. The PCDD/F concentration in the flue gases is very low even without additives, and the effect of sulphur on these emissions is therefore difficult to observe. Here, the effect is masked by the variation of data. The PAH concentration is lowered by an injection of sulphur additives. The variation in data is

  15. Smooth muscle cell-derived carbon monoxide is a regulator of vascular cGMP.

    OpenAIRE

    Morita, T.; Perrella, M A; Lee, M E; Kourembanas, S

    1995-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO; EC 1.14.99.3). In vascular smooth muscle cells, exogenously administered CO increases cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP), which is an important regulator of vessel tone. We report here that smooth muscle cells produce CO via HO and that it regulates cGMP levels in these cells. Hypoxia, which has profound effects on vessel tone, significantly increased the transcriptional rate of the HO-1 gene resulting in correspondi...

  16. The Effect of Carbon Monoxide Co-Adsorption on Ni-Catalysed Water Dissociation

    OpenAIRE

    Abas Mohsenzadeh; Anders Borjesson; Jeng-Han Wang; Tobias Richards; Kim Bolton

    2013-01-01

    The effect of carbon monoxide (CO) co-adsorption on the dissociation of water on the Ni(111) surface has been studied using density functional theory. The structures of the adsorbed water molecule and of the transition state are changed by the presence of the CO molecule. The water O–H bond that is closest to the CO is lengthened compared to the structure in the absence of the CO, and the breaking O–H bond in the transition state structure has a larger imaginary frequency in the presence of C...

  17. Detection of the Carbon Monoxide Ion (CO+) in the Interstellar Medium and a Planetary Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latter, William B.; Walker, Christopher K.; Maloney, Philip R.

    1993-01-01

    We report detection of the carbon monoxide ion (CO+) in the interstellar medium (Ml7SW) and a planetary nebula (NGC 7027). These detections are based on observations of three millimeter and submillimeter transitions in M17SW and one in NGC 7027. Chemical models suggest that CO+ should be most abundant where complex molecules are least likely to be present. In our search for CO+ we therefore minimized the chance of confusion while maximizing the probability of detection by observing regions whose chemistry is dominated by the effects of ultraviolet radiation.

  18. Selective methanation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen rich stream over Ni/CeO2 nanocatalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Behzad Nematollahi; Mehran Rezaei; Ebrahim Nemati Lay

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, selective methanation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen rich stream was investigated over Ni/CeO2 nanocatalysts. The obtained results revealed that increasing in nickel loading decreased the BET surface area, pore volume and nickel dispersion. The 25%Ni/CeO2 with a NiO crystal size of 12 nm exhibited the highest activity in CO methanation reaction and reached to maximum CO conversion and CH4 selectivity at temperatures above 230 ºC. The catalytic results revealed that CO selective methanation well progressed at lower temperatures while CO2 methanation was completely suppressed until CO conversion reached to maximum value.

  19. Forensic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning by charcoal burning in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Rude; Gheorghe, Alexandra; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is a well-known method of committing suicide. There has been a drastic increase in suicide by inhalation of CO, produced from burning charcoal, in some parts of Asia, and a few studies have reported an increased number of these deaths in Europe. CO-related deaths...... found in 9 cases. Data suggest that this method of death has increased significantly in Denmark. Therefore, it is highly relevant to draw attention to the subject, to increase awareness as well as prevent future escalation....

  20. DFT studies on the SCR reaction mechanism of nitrogen monoxide with propylene catalyzed by copper oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Ying; XU Jing; ZHAO Jing-xiang

    2007-01-01

    The SCR reaction mechanism of NO with C3H6catalyzed by CuO was studied by the method of Density Functional Theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/LanL2DZ levels. The optimized geometries of the stationary points on the potential surface were obtained and the transition state was confirmed by IRC and vibration analysis. The activation energy was calculated being 34. 26 kJ/mol. It was shown that propylene reacted firstly with Cu forming intermediate, and then nitrogen monoxide immediately reacted with the intermediate to be reduced. It was proved to be a direct interaction mechanism.

  1. Carbon monoxide poisoning at a lowered myocardial adaptation capacity: animal ECG models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikisková, H; Frantík, E

    1988-12-01

    Two animal models for testing foreign substances for the hypoxic type of cardiotoxicity proved to be valid and reproducible: i.e. decreased reserve capacity of the heart in rats recovered from the calciferol cardiopathy and increased heart work provoked by isoproterenol (5 mg/kg i.p.). In both cases obvious hypoxic ECG changes appeared at lower levels of exposure to carbon monoxide (500 ppm, 572 mg.m-3) and carboxyhemoglobin (18%), when compared with nonpretreated animals. The models have shown, that injured or overloaded heart displays a substantially increased sensitivity to CO poisoning.

  2. Diurnal variation of stratospheric chlorine monoxide - A critical test of chlorine chemistry in the ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, P. M.; De Zafra, R.; Parrish, A.; Barrett, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-based observations of a mm-wave spectral line at 278 GHz have yielded stratospheric chlorine monoxide column density diurnal variation records which indicate that the mixing ratio and column density of this compound above 30 km are about 20 percent lower than model predictions based on 2.1 parts/billion of total stratospheric chlorine. The observed day-to-night variation is, however, in good agreement with recent model predictions, both confirming the existence of a nighttime reservoir for chlorine and verifying the predicted general rate of its storage and retrieval.

  3. Surveillance for the effects of carbon monoxide on health in a Tianjin gas factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin-xin [Tianjiin Lab. of Health and Occupational Diseases Prevention and Treatment Hospital, Tianjiin (China); Ma, Xiang-min; Dong, Zi-zhen; Xie, Ping [Sanitation and Diseases Prevention Centre, Tianjin (China); Li, Gang [First Tianjin Gas Factory, Tianjin (China)

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the surveillance over the past 8 years of carbon monoxide (CO) levels in a factory producing gas from coal. Where workers were working in areas of the factory where the air might be polluted by CO we found that measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) levels in their blood was a sufficiently sensitive test of exposure. Measurements on samples taken before and after a shift showed a significant difference. Our measurements of a HbCO blank control in two normal population groups was very close to the biological limit value of that for normal groups in the USA and Germany. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs., 3 refs.

  4. Carbon nanotube prepared from carbon monoxide by CVD method and its application as electrode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Yuliang; YUAN Xia; CHENG Shinan; GEN Xin

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes with larger inner diameter were synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition of carbon monoxide (CO) on iron catalyst using H2S as promoting agent.It is found that the structure and morphology of carbon nanotubes can be tailored, to some degree, by varying the experimental conditions such as precursor components and process parameters.The results show that the presence of H2S may play key role for growing Y-branched carbon nanotubes.The products were characterized by SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy, respectively.Furthermore, the obtained carbon nanotubes were explored as electrode materials for supercapacitor.

  5. Effects of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on garden pea and string bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, A.G.

    1976-02-01

    Garden Peas (Pisum Sativum) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were exposed to 24 ppM of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/). Germination of bean seeds was delayed about 48 hours. On the 18th day after exposure none of the bean seedlings exposed to NO/sub 2/ survived while about 30 percent of the beans exposed to CO survived. The survival of the pea seedlings was not affected. No effect was noted on stem length. Formation of new leaves was decreased and dropping of old leaves was increased in both test species with more drastic effects noted in the beans. (JTE)

  6. Surface structure and relaxation during the oxidation of carbon monoxide on Pt Pd bimetallic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C. A.; Markovic, N. M.; Ball, M.; Stamenkovic, V.; Climent, V.; Ross, P. N.

    2001-05-01

    The atomic structure and surface relaxation of Pd monolayer on Pt(1 1 1) has been studied by surface X-ray scattering, in an aqueous environment under electrostatic potential control, during the adsorption and oxidation of carbon monoxide. The results show that the Pd-Pt layer spacing contracts at the onset of CO oxidation before the Pd adlayer forms an oxide structure that is incommensurate with the Pt lattice. Both the oxide formation and the lattice contraction are fully reversible over many cycles of the applied electrode potential.

  7. FTIR study of carbon monoxide adsorption on ion-exchanged X, Y and mordenite type zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. HERCIGONJA

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work Fourier transform infrared (FTIR study has been applied to study the adsorption of carbon monoxide on transition metal (Mn+, Co2+, Ni2+ ion-exchanged zeolites type Y, X and mordenites. The adsorption of CO at room temperature produces overlapping IR absorption bands in the 2120–2200 cm-1 region. The frequency of the band around 2200 cm-1 is found to be dependent not only on the charge-balancing transition metal cation, but also on the framework composition. The frequencies of the band near 1600 cm-1 was found to be dependent on the Si/Al ratio of the investigated zeolites.

  8. Synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A by carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex from acetate-grown Methanosarcina thermophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbanat, D R; Ferry, J G

    1990-01-01

    The carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) complex from Methanosarcina thermophila catalyzed the synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) from CH3I, CO, and coenzyme A (CoA) at a rate of 65 nmol/min/mg at 55 degrees C. The reaction ended after 5 min with the synthesis of 52 nmol of acetyl-CoA per nmol of CODH complex. The optimum temperature for acetyl-CoA synthesis in the assay was between 55 and 60 degrees C; the rate of synthesis at 55 degrees C was not significantly different between pHs...

  9. Lead Monoxide: Two-Dimensional Ferromagnetic Semiconductor Induced by Hole-Doping

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yao

    2017-04-12

    We employ first-principles calculations to demonstrate ferromagnetic ground states for single- and multi-layer lead monoxide (PbO) under hole-doping, originating from a van Hove singularity at the valence band edge. Both the sample thickness and applied strain are found to have huge effects on the electronic and magnetic properties. Multi-layer PbO is an indirect band gap semiconductor, while a direct band gap is realized in the single-layer limit. In hole-doped single-layer PbO, biaxial tensile strain can enhance the stability of the ferromagnetic state.

  10. Sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from comets at large heliocentric distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1992-01-01

    Using a simple model for outgassing from a small flat surface area, the sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, two species more volatile than water ice that are known to be present in comets, are calculated for a suddenly activated discrete source on the rotating nucleus. The instantaneous sublimation rate depends upon the comet's heliocentric distance and the Sun's zenith angle at the location of the source. The values are derived for the constants of CO and CO2 in an expression that yields the local rotation-averaged sublimation rate as a function of the comet's spin parameters and the source's cometocentric latitude.

  11. Chemical Reactions and Kinetics of the Carbon Monoxide Coupling in the Presence of Hydrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fandong Meng; Genhui Xu; Zhenhua Li; Pa Du

    2002-01-01

    The chemical reactions and kinetics of the catalytic coupling reaction of carbon monoxide to diethyl oxalate were studied in the presence of hydrogen over a supported palladium catalyst in the gaseous phase at the typical coupling reaction conditions. The experiments were performed in a continuous flow fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that hydrogen only reacts with ethyl nitrite to form ethanol, and kinetic studies revealed that the rate-determining step is the surface reaction of adsorbed hydrogen and the ethoxy radical (EtO-). A kinetic model is proposed and a comparison of the observed and calculated conversions showed that the rate expressions are of rather high confidence.

  12. Carbon monoxide, skeletal muscle oxidative stress, and mitochondrial biogenesis in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Michael A.; Carraway, Martha Sue; Piantadosi, Claude A.; Reynolds, Crystal M; Cherry, Anne D.; Wester, T. E.; Natoli, Michael J.; Massey, E. Wayne; Moon, Richard E.; Suliman, Hagir B.

    2009-01-01

    Given that the physiology of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) encompasses mitochondrial biogenesis, we tested the hypothesis that the HO-1 product, carbon monoxide (CO), activates mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and enhances maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) in humans. In 10 healthy subjects, we biopsied the vastus lateralis and performed V̇o2max tests followed by blinded randomization to air or CO breathing (1 h/day at 100 parts/million for 5 days), a contralateral muscle biopsy on day 5, a...

  13. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide by carbon monoxide over iron oxide supported on activated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The selective reduction of sulfur dioxide with carbon monoxide to elemental sulfur was studied over AC-supported transition-metal oxide catalysts. According to the study, Fe2O3/AC was the most active catalyst among the 4 AC-supported catalysts tested. By using Fe2O3/AC, the best catalyst, when the feed conditions were properly optimized (CO/SO2 molar ratio = 2:1; sulfidation temperature, 400 °C; Fe content, 20 wt%; GHSV = 7000 mL g-1 h-1), 95.43% sulfur dioxide conversion and 86.59% sulfur yi...

  14. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide. Technical progress report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  15. Neurobehavioral Aspects of the Delayed Encephalopathy of Carbon Monoxide Intoxication: Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Mendez

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the neurobehavioral aspects of the delayed encephalopathy of carbon monoxide (CO intoxication in a 29 year old woman and review the literature. Four weeks after CO poisoning, the patient developed a frontal lobe syndrome, visuoperceptual impairment, and diffuse white matter lesions with an otherwise normal neurological examination. In contrast, patients with the classical syndrome also have a parkinsonian state or an akinetic–mute state. The delayed encephalopathy of CO poisoning usually results from demyelination of subcortical white matter, necrosis of the globus pallidus, or both. The clinical aspects, risk factors, neurobiological features, and therapy and prognosis are discussed.

  16. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoogman, P.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Pennington, W. F.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Hilton, B. B.; Nicks, D. K.; Newchurch, M. J.; Carr, J. L.; hide

    2016-01-01

    TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) was selected in 2012 by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument, for launch between 2018 and 2021. It will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO observes from Mexico City, Cuba, and the Bahamas to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution (approximately 2.1 kilometers N/S by 4.4 kilometers E/W at 36.5 degrees N, 100 degrees W). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry, as well as contributing to carbon cycle knowledge. Measurements are made hourly from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the high variability present in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry that are unobservable from current low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellites that measure once per day. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a commercial GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde (H2CO), glyoxal (C2H2O2), bromine monoxide (BrO), IO (iodine monoxide),water vapor, aerosols, cloud parameters, ultraviolet radiation, and foliage properties. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides these near-real-time air quality products that will be made publicly available. TEMPO will launch at a prime time to be the

  17. The variability in the relationship between black carbon and carbon monoxide over the eastern coast of China: BC aging during transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available East Asia is a densely populated region with a myriad of primary emissions of pollutants such as black carbon (BC and carbon monoxide (CO. To characterize primary emissions over the eastern coast of China, a series of field campaigns were conducted in 2011, including measurements from a ship cruise, island, and coastal receptor sites. The relationship between BC and CO is presented here for the first ship cruise (C1, the second ship cruise (C2, an island site (Changdao Island, CD, and a coastal site (Wenling, WL. The average BC mass concentrations were 2.43, 2.73, 1.09, 0.94, and 0.77 µg m−3 for CD, WL, C1-YS (Yellow Sea, C1-ES (East China Sea, and C2-ES, respectively. For those locations, the average CO mixing ratios were 0.55, 0.48, 0.31, 0.36, and 0.27 ppm. The high loadings of both BC and CO imply severe anthropogenic pollution over the eastern coast of China. Additionally, the linear correlation between BC and CO was regressed for each location. The slopes, i.e., the ratios of ΔBC to ΔCO derived from their relationship, correlated well with the ratios of diesel consumption to gasoline consumption in each province/city, which reveals vehicular emission to be the common source for BC and CO and that there are distinct fuel structures between North and South China. The ΔBC/ΔCO values at coastal sites (Changdao Island and Wenling were much higher than those over the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and the correlation coefficients also showed a decreasing trend from the coast to the sea. Therefore, the quantity of ΔBC/ΔCO and the correlation coefficients are possible indicators for the aging and removal of BC.

  18. Source attribution and interannual variability of Arctic pollution in spring constrained by aircraft (ARCTAS, ARCPAC and satellite (AIRS observations of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Fisher

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We use aircraft observations of carbon monoxide (CO from the NASA ARCTAS and NOAA ARCPAC campaigns in April 2008 together with multiyear (2003–2008 CO satellite data from the AIRS instrument and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to better understand the sources, transport, and interannual variability of pollution in the Arctic in spring. Model simulation of the aircraft data gives best estimates of CO emissions in April 2008 of 26 Tg month−1 for Asian anthropogenic, 9.4 for European anthropogenic, 4.1 for North American anthropogenic, 15 for Russian biomass burning (anomalously large that year, and 23 for Southeast Asian biomass burning. We find that Asian anthropogenic emissions are the dominant source of Arctic CO pollution everywhere except in surface air where European anthropogenic emissions are of similar importance. Russian biomass burning makes little contribution to mean CO (reflecting the long CO lifetime but makes a large contribution to CO variability in the form of combustion plumes. Analysis of two pollution events sampled by the aircraft demonstrates that AIRS can successfully observe pollution transport to the Arctic in the mid-troposphere. The 2003–2008 record of CO from AIRS shows that interannual variability averaged over the Arctic cap is very small. AIRS CO columns over Alaska are highly correlated with the Ocean Niño Index, suggesting a link between El Niño and Asian pollution transport to the Arctic. AIRS shows lower-than-average CO columns over Alaska during April 2008, despite the Russian fires, due to a weakened Aleutian Low hindering transport from Asia and associated with the moderate 2007–2008 La Niña. This suggests that Asian pollution influence over the Arctic may be particularly large under strong El Niño conditions.

  19. SO sub 2 and NO sub X emissions in the German Democratic Republic in 1982. SO sub 2 - und NO sub X -Emissionen in der DDR 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethkenhagen, J.; Hopf, R.; Melzer, M.; Schwartau, C.; Cornelsen, D. (Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1988-01-01

    The results of an investigation on the emission of sulphur dioxide, nitric oxide, several hydrocarbons, halogens and their compounds, carbon monoxide, ammonia, hydrogen sulphide as well as chemical solvents in the GDR are documented for the year 1982 with a large collection of texts and tables. The emission mapping was carried out according to the most important groups of emittors: power plants and heating stations, industrial producers, households and small consumers as well as traffic. The results concerning the emission of the most important substances with regard to the traffic sector, i.e. sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide as well as carbon monoxide and organic compounds, were assigned to a planning grid with field sizes of 1/4 degree of longitude and 1/2 degree of latitude - that is about 30x35 km. (MOS).

  20. A crossed beam and ab initio investigation of the reaction of boron monoxide ((11)BO; X(2)Σ+) with acetylene (C2H2; X(1)Σ(g)+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dorian S N; Zhang, Fangtong; Maksyutenko, Pavlo; Kaiser, Ralf I; Chang, Agnes H H

    2011-05-14

    The reaction dynamics of boron monoxide (BO; X(2)Σ(+)) with acetylene (C(2)H(2); X(1)Σ(g)(+)) were investigated under single collision conditions at a collision energy of 13 kJ mol(-1) employing the crossed molecular beam technique; electronic structure RRKM calculations were conducted to complement the experimental data. The reaction was found to have no entrance barrier and proceeded via indirect scattering dynamics initiated by an addition of the boron monoxide radical with its boron atom to the carbon-carbon triple bond forming the O(11)BHCCH intermediate. The latter decomposed via hydrogen atom emission to form the linear O(11)BCCH product through a tight exit transition state. The experimentally observed sideways scattering suggests that the hydrogen atom leaves perpendicularly to the rotational plane of the decomposing complex and almost parallel to the total angular momentum vector. RRKM calculations indicate that a minor micro channel could involve a hydrogen migration in the initial collision to form an O(11)BCCH(2) intermediate, which in turn can also emit atomic hydrogen. The overall reaction to form O(11)BCCH plus atomic hydrogen from the separated reactants was determined to be exoergic by 62 ± 8 kJ mol(-1). The reaction dynamics were also compared with the isoelectronic reaction of the cyano radical (CN; X(2)Σ(+)) with acetylene (C(2)H(2); X(1)Σ(g)(+)) studied earlier.