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Sample records for monovalent ph1n1 vaccine

  1. Characterization of functional antibody and memory B-cell responses to pH1N1 monovalent vaccine in HIV-infected children and youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J Curtis

    Full Text Available We investigated immune determinants of antibody responses and B-cell memory to pH1N1 vaccine in HIV-infected children.Ninety subjects 4 to <25 years of age received two double doses of pH1N1 vaccine. Serum and cells were frozen at baseline, after each vaccination, and at 28 weeks post-immunization. Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI titers, avidity indices (AI, B-cell subsets, and pH1N1 IgG and IgA antigen secreting cells (ASC were measured at baseline and after each vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies and pH1N1-specific Th1, Th2 and Tfh cytokines were measured at baseline and post-dose 1.At entry, 26 (29% subjects had pH1N1 protective HAI titers (≥1:40. pH1N1-specific HAI, neutralizing titers, AI, IgG ASC, IL-2 and IL-4 increased in response to vaccination (p<0.05, but IgA ASC, IL-5, IL-13, IL-21, IFNγ and B-cell subsets did not change. Subjects with baseline HAI ≥1:40 had significantly greater increases in IgG ASC and AI after immunization compared with those with HAI <1:40. Neutralizing titers and AI after vaccination increased with older age. High pH1N1 HAI responses were associated with increased IgG ASC, IFNγ, IL-2, microneutralizion titers, and AI. Microneutralization titers after vaccination increased with high IgG ASC and IL-2 responses. IgG ASC also increased with high IFNγ responses. CD4% and viral load did not predict the immune responses post-vaccination, but the B-cell distribution did. Notably, vaccine immunogenicity increased with high CD19+CD21+CD27+% resting memory, high CD19+CD10+CD27+% immature activated, low CD19+CD21-CD27-CD20-% tissue-like, low CD19+CD21-CD27-CD20-% transitional and low CD19+CD38+HLADR+% activated B-cell subsets.HIV-infected children on HAART mount a broad B-cell memory response to pH1N1 vaccine, which was higher for subjects with baseline HAI≥1:40 and increased with age, presumably due to prior exposure to pH1N1 or to other influenza vaccination/infection. The response to the vaccine was dependent

  2. High proportions of regulatory B and T cells are associated with decreased cellular responses to pH1N1 influenza vaccine in HIV-infected children and youth (IMPAACT P1088).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Adriana; Muresan, Petronella; Fenton, Terence; Richardson, Kelly; Dominguez, Teresa; Bloom, Anthony; Petzold, Elizabeth; Anthony, Patricia; Cunningham, Coleen K; Spector, Stephen A; Nachman, Sharon; Siberry, George K; Handelsman, Edward; Flynn, Patricia M

    2013-05-01

    HIV-infected individuals have poor responses to inactivated influenza vaccines. To evaluate the potential role of regulatory T (Treg) and B cells (Breg), we analyzed their correlation with humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to pandemic influenza (pH1N1) monovalent vaccine in HIV-infected children and youth. Seventy-four HIV-infected, 4- to 25-y old participants in a 2-dose pH1N1 vaccine study had circulating and pH1N1-stimulated Treg and Breg measured by flow cytometry at baseline, post-dose 1 and post-dose 2. Concomitantly, CMI was measured by ELISPOT and flow cytometry; and antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI). At baseline, most of the participants had pH1N1-specific IFNγ ELISPOT responses, whose magnitude positively correlated with the baseline pH1N1, but not with seasonal H1N1 HAI titers. pH1N1-specific IFNγ ELISPOT responses did not change post-dose 1 and significantly decreased post-dose 2. In contrast, circulating CD4+CD25+% and CD4+FOXP3+% Treg increased after vaccination. The decrease in IFNγ ELISPOT results was marginally associated with higher pH1N1-specific CD19+FOXP3+ and CD4+TGFβ+% Breg and Treg, respectively. In contrast, increases in HAI titers post-dose 1 were associated with significantly higher circulating CD19+CD25+% post-dose 1, whereas increases in IFNγ ELISPOT results post-dose 1 were associated with higher circulating CD4+/C8+CD25+FOXP3+%. In conclusion, in HIV-infected children and youth, influenza-specific Treg and Breg may contribute to poor responses to vaccination. However, robust humoral and CMI responses to vaccination may result in increased circulating Treg and/or Breg, establishing a feed-back mechanism.

  3. Learning from Successful School-based Vaccination Clinics during 2009 pH1N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaiman, Tamar; O'Connell, Katherine; Stoto, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2009 H1N1 vaccination campaign was the largest in US history. State health departments received vaccines from the federal government and sent them to local health departments (LHDs) who were responsible for getting vaccines to the public. Many LHD's used school-based clinics to ensure children were the first to receive limited…

  4. Hemagglutinin-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses following 2009-pH1N1 inactivated split-vaccine inoculation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuguang; Zhang, Shihong; Wu, Bin; Zhao, Yingze; Zhang, Wei; Han, Min; Wu, Ying; Shi, Guoli; Liu, Yingxia; Yan, Jinghua; Wu, Guizhen; Wang, Hua; Gao, George F; Zhu, Fengcai; Liu, William J

    2017-09-13

    Influenza A virus remains a major threat to public health, and the inactivated split-virus vaccine is the most prevalent vaccine used worldwide. However, our knowledge about cellular immune responses to the inactivated influenza virus vaccine and its correlation with humoral responses are yet limited, which has restricted our understanding of the vaccine's protective mechanisms. Herein, in two clinical trials, T-cell responses specific for both previously identified human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-I-restricted epitopes from influenza virus and hemagglutinin (HA) protein were longitudinally investigated before, during, and after a two-dose vaccination with the inactivated 2009 pandemic H1N1 (2009-pH1N1) vaccine. A robust antibody response in all of the donors after vaccination was observed. Though no CD8(+) T-cell responses to known epitopes were detected, HA-specific T-cell responses were primed following vaccination, and the responses were found to be mainly CD4(+) T-cell dependent. However, HA-specific T-cells circulating in peripheral blood dropped to baseline levels 6weeks after vaccination, but humoral immune responses maintained a high level for 4months post-vaccination. Significant correlations between the magnitude of the HA-specific T-cell responses and hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers were demonstrated, indicating a priming role of HA-specific T-cells for humoral immune responses. In conclusion, our study indicates that HA-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses can be primed by the inactivated 2009-pH1N1 vaccine, which may coordinate with the elicitation of antibody protection. These findings would benefit a better understanding of the immune protective mechanisms of the widely used inactivated 2009-pH1N1 vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Pandemrix and Arepanrix, two pH1N1 AS03-adjuvanted vaccines differentially associated with narcolepsy development.

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    Jacob, Louis; Leib, Ryan; Ollila, Hanna M; Bonvalet, Mélodie; Adams, Christopher M; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-07-01

    Narcolepsy onset in children has been associated with the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic and vaccination with Pandemrix. However it was not clearly observed with other adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccines such as Arepanrix or Focetria. Our aim was to characterize the differences between Pandemrix and Arepanrix that might explain the risk for narcolepsy after Pandemrix vaccination using 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry (MS). We found that Pandemrix (2009 batch) and Arepanrix (2010 batch) showed 5 main viral proteins: hemagglutinin HA1 and HA2 subunits, neuraminidase NA, nucleoprotein NP, and matrix protein MA1 and non-viral proteins from the Gallus gallus growth matrix used in the manufacturing of the vaccines. Latticed patterns of HA1, HA2 and NA indicated charge and molecular weight heterogeneity, a phenomenon likely caused by glycosylation and sulfation. Overall, Pandemrix contained more NP and NA, while Arepanrix displayed a larger diversity of viral and chicken proteins, with the exception of five chicken proteins (PDCD6IP, TSPAN8, H-FABP, HSP and TUB proteins) that were relatively more abundant in Pandemrix. Glycosylation patterns were similar in both vaccines. A higher degree of deamidation and dioxidation was found in Pandemrix, probably reflecting differential degradation across batches. Interestingly, HA1 146N (residue 129N in the mature protein) displayed a 10-fold higher deamidation in Arepanrix versus Pandemrix. In recent vaccine strains and Focetria, 146N is mutated to D which is associated with increased production yields suggesting that 146N deamidation may have also occurred during the manufacturing of Arepanrix. The presence of 146N in large relative amounts in Pandemrix and the wild type virus and in lower relative quantities in Arepanrix or other H1N1 vaccines may have affected predisposition to narcolepsy.

  6. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barre Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodd, Caitlin N.; Romio, Silvana A.; Black, Steven; Vellozzi, Claudia; Andrews, Nick; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Zuber, Patrick; Hua, Wei; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Buttery, Jim; Crawford, Nigel; Deceuninck, Genevieve; de Vries, Corinne; De Wals, Philippe; Gutierrez-Gimeno, M. Victoria; Heijbel, Harald; Hughes, Hayley; Hur, Kwan; Hviid, Anders; Kelman, Jeffrey; Kilpi, Tehri; Chuang, S. K.; Macartney, Kristine; Rett, Melisa; Lopez-Callada, Vesta Richardson; Salmon, Daniel; Sanchez, Francisco Gimenez; Sanz, Nuria; Silverman, Barbara; Storsaeter, Jann; Thirugnanam, Umapathi; van der Maas, Nicoline; Yih, Katherine; Zhang, Tao; Izurieta, Hector

    2013-01-01

    Background: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), which has been an

  7. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barré Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Dodd (Caitlin); S.A. Romio (Silvana); S. Black (Steve); C. Vellozzi (Claudia); N.J. Andrews (Nick); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); P. Zuber (Patrick); W. Hua (Wei); J. Bonhoeffer (Jan); J. Buttery (Jim); N. Crawford (Nigel); G. Deceuninck (Genevieve); C.S. de Vries (Corinne); P. de Wals (Philippe); D. Gimeno (David); H. Heijbel (Harald); H. Hughes (Hayley); K. Hur (Kwan); A. Hviid (Anders); J. Kelman (Jeffrey); T. Kilpi (Tehri); S.K. Chuang (S.); T. Macartney (Thomas); M. Rett (Melisa); V.R. Lopez-Callada (Vesta Richardson); D. Salmon (Daniel); F.G. Sanchez (Francisco Gimenez); N. Sanz (Nuria); B. Silverman (Bernard); J. Storsaeter (Jann); U. Thirugnanam (Umapathi); N.A.T. van der Maas (Nicoline); K. Yih (Katherine); T. Zhang (Teng Fei); H.S. Izurieta (Hector); B.J. Addis; A. Akhtar (Aysha); J. Cope (Judith); R.L. Davis (Robert); P. Gargiullo (Paul); X. Kurz (Xavier); B. Law (Barbara); I. Sahinovic (Isabelle); J. Tokars (Jerry); P. Serrano (Pedro); A. Cheng (Aixin); N.J. Andrews (Nick); P. Charles (Pat); H. Clothier (Hazel); B. Day (Bruce); T. Day (Timothy); P. Gates (Peter); R. MacDonnell (Richard); L. Roberts (Les); V. Rodriguez-Casero (Vic-toria); T. Wijeratne (Tissa); H.A.L. Kiers (Henk); C. Blyth (Christopher); R. Booy (Robert); E. Elliott (Elizabeth); M.R. Gold (Michael); H. Marshall; P. McIntyre (Peter); P. Richmond (Peter); J. Royle (Jenny); N.W. Wood (Nicholas); Y. Zurynski (Yvonne); G. Calvo (Gonzalo); M. Campins (Magda); N. Corominas (Nuria); F. Torres (Ferran); V. Valls; A. Vilella (Ángels); A. Dutra (Amalia); A. Eick-Cost (Angelia); H.M. Jackson (Henry); K. Garman (Katherine); Z. Hu (Zheng); J. Rigo; J. Badoo (Judith); D Cho (David); L.L. Polakowski (Laura); S.K. Sandhu (Sukhminder); G. Sun (Guoying); H.-S.S. Chan (Hoi-Shan Sophelia); K.-Y. Chan (Kwok-Yin); R. Cheung (Raymond); Y-F. Cheung (Yuk-Fai); S. Cherk (Sharon); S.K Chuang (S.); D. Fok (Dennis); B.-H. Fung (Bun-Hey); K.-F. Ko (Kwai-Fu); K.W. Lau (Ka Wing); K.-K. Lau (Kwok-Kwong); P. Li (Pulin); H.-T. Liu (Hui-Tung); S.-H. Liu (Shao-Haei); K. Mok (Kin); J. So (Joanna); W. Wong (Winnie); S.-P. Wu (Shun-Ping); V. Avagyan (Vardan); R. Ball (Robert); D. Burwen (Dale); R.L. Franks (Riley); J.M. Gibbs (Jonathan); R.E. Kliman (Rebecca); S. Kropp (Silke); T.E. MaCurdy (Thomas); D.B. Martin (David); S.-D.K. Sandhu (Sukhmin-Der); B.B. Worrall (Bradford B.); D.E.F. Fuentes (Dra. Elvira Fuentes); P.C.O. González (Paola Carolina Ojeda); V.F. Reyna (Valerie ); M. Kulldorff (Martin); G. Lee (Grace); T.A. Lieu (Tracy); S. Platt; G.D. Serres (Gaston De); K. Jabin (Kamilah); B.L.S. Soh (Bee Leng Sally); L. Arnheim-Dahlström (Lisen); A. Castot (Anne); H.E. de Melker (Hester); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); J. Hallgren (Jonal); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); K. Johansen (Kari); P Kramarz (Piotr); M. Lapeyre (Maryse); T. Leino (Tuija); D. Mølgaard-Nielsen (Ditte); M. Mosseveld (Mees); H.K. Olberg (Henning K); C.-M. Sammon (Cor-Mac); C. Saussier (Christel); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); A. Sommet (Agnès); P. Sparen (Pär); H. Svanström (Henrik); A.M. Vanrolleghem (Ann M.); D.M. Weibel (Daniel); J.D. Domingo (Javier Diez); J.L. Esparza (José LuísMicó); R.M.O. Lucas (Rafael M. Ortí); J.B.M. Maseres (Juan B. Mollar); J.L.A. Sánchez (José Luís Alfonso); M.G. Sánchez (Mercedes Garcés); V.Z. Viguer (Vicente Zanón); F. Cunningham (Francesca); B. Thakkar (Bharat); R. Zhang (Rongping)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which

  8. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barré Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Dodd (Caitlin); S.A. Romio (Silvana); S. Black (Steve); C. Vellozzi (Claudia); N.J. Andrews (Nick); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); P. Zuber (Patrick); W. Hua (Wei); J. Bonhoeffer (Jan); J. Buttery (Jim); N. Crawford (Nigel); G. Deceuninck (Genevieve); C.S. de Vries (Corinne); P. de Wals (Philippe); D. Gimeno (David); H. Heijbel (Harald); H. Hughes (Hayley); K. Hur (Kwan); A. Hviid (Anders); J. Kelman (Jeffrey); T. Kilpi (Tehri); S.K. Chuang (S.); T. Macartney (Thomas); M. Rett (Melisa); V.R. Lopez-Callada (Vesta Richardson); D. Salmon (Daniel); F.G. Sanchez (Francisco Gimenez); N. Sanz (Nuria); B. Silverman (Bernard); J. Storsaeter (Jann); U. Thirugnanam (Umapathi); N.A.T. van der Maas (Nicoline); K. Yih (Katherine); T. Zhang (Teng Fei); H.S. Izurieta (Hector); B.J. Addis; A. Akhtar (Aysha); J. Cope (Judith); R.L. Davis (Robert); P. Gargiullo (Paul); X. Kurz (Xavier); B. Law (Barbara); I. Sahinovic (Isabelle); J. Tokars (Jerry); P. Serrano (Pedro); A. Cheng (Aixin); N.J. Andrews (Nick); P. Charles (Pat); H. Clothier (Hazel); B. Day (Bruce); T. Day (Timothy); P. Gates (Peter); R. MacDonnell (Richard); L. Roberts (Les); V. Rodriguez-Casero (Vic-toria); T. Wijeratne (Tissa); H.A.L. Kiers (Henk); C. Blyth (Christopher); R. Booy (Robert); E. Elliott (Elizabeth); M.R. Gold (Michael); H. Marshall; P. McIntyre (Peter); P. Richmond (Peter); J. Royle (Jenny); N.W. Wood (Nicholas); Y. Zurynski (Yvonne); G. Calvo (Gonzalo); M. Campins (Magda); N. Corominas (Nuria); F. Torres (Ferran); V. Valls; A. Vilella (Ángels); A. Dutra (Amalia); A. Eick-Cost (Angelia); H.M. Jackson (Henry); K. Garman (Katherine); Z. Hu (Zheng); J. Rigo; J. Badoo (Judith); D Cho (David); L.L. Polakowski (Laura); S.K. Sandhu (Sukhminder); G. Sun (Guoying); H.-S.S. Chan (Hoi-Shan Sophelia); K.-Y. Chan (Kwok-Yin); R. Cheung (Raymond); Y-F. Cheung (Yuk-Fai); S. Cherk (Sharon); S.K Chuang (S.); D. Fok (Dennis); B.-H. Fung (Bun-Hey); K.-F. Ko (Kwai-Fu); K.W. Lau (Ka Wing); K.-K. Lau (Kwok-Kwong); P. Li (Pulin); H.-T. Liu (Hui-Tung); S.-H. Liu (Shao-Haei); K. Mok (Kin); J. So (Joanna); W. Wong (Winnie); S.-P. Wu (Shun-Ping); V. Avagyan (Vardan); R. Ball (Robert); D. Burwen (Dale); R.L. Franks (Riley); J.M. Gibbs (Jonathan); R.E. Kliman (Rebecca); S. Kropp (Silke); T.E. MaCurdy (Thomas); D.B. Martin (David); S.-D.K. Sandhu (Sukhmin-Der); B.B. Worrall (Bradford B.); D.E.F. Fuentes (Dra. Elvira Fuentes); P.C.O. González (Paola Carolina Ojeda); V.F. Reyna (Valerie ); M. Kulldorff (Martin); G. Lee (Grace); T.A. Lieu (Tracy); S. Platt; G.D. Serres (Gaston De); K. Jabin (Kamilah); B.L.S. Soh (Bee Leng Sally); L. Arnheim-Dahlström (Lisen); A. Castot (Anne); H.E. de Melker (Hester); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); J. Hallgren (Jonal); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); K. Johansen (Kari); P Kramarz (Piotr); M. Lapeyre (Maryse); T. Leino (Tuija); D. Mølgaard-Nielsen (Ditte); M. Mosseveld (Mees); H.K. Olberg (Henning K); C.-M. Sammon (Cor-Mac); C. Saussier (Christel); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); A. Sommet (Agnès); P. Sparen (Pär); H. Svanström (Henrik); A.M. Vanrolleghem (Ann M.); D.M. Weibel (Daniel); J.D. Domingo (Javier Diez); J.L. Esparza (José LuísMicó); R.M.O. Lucas (Rafael M. Ortí); J.B.M. Maseres (Juan B. Mollar); J.L.A. Sánchez (José Luís Alfonso); M.G. Sánchez (Mercedes Garcés); V.Z. Viguer (Vicente Zanón); F. Cunningham (Francesca); B. Thakkar (Bharat); R. Zhang (Rongping)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which

  9. Potential pediatric intensive care unit demand/capacity mismatch due to novel pH1N1 in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiff, David; Kumar, Anand; Kissoon, Niranjan; Fowler, Robert; Jouvet, Philippe; Skippen, Peter; Smetanin, Paul; Kesselman, Murray; Veroukis, Stasa

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the possibility of pediatric intensive care unit shortfalls, using pandemic models for a range of attack rates and durations. The emergence of the swine origin pH1N1 virus has led to concerns about shortfalls in our ability to provide pediatric ventilation and critical care support. Modeling of pediatric intensive care demand based on pH1N1 predictions using simulation techniques. Simulation laboratory. None. None. Data collected during the first wave of the pH1N1 in children in Canada were applied to several second wave pandemic models to explore potential pediatric intensive care unit ventilatory demands for Canada and to investigate the impact of vaccination upon these demands. In almost all cases studied, even for relatively low attack rates of 15%, significant pediatric intensive care unit shortages would be expected to occur. Vaccination strategies targeting 50% of the population significantly reduced demand, but shortages may still be expected. Although shortfalls can occur in all provinces, Ontario and British Columbia may experience the greatest supply-demand difference, even at low attack rates. Reducing the attack rate among children, whether through vaccination or additional measures, such as social distancing, will be critical to ensure sufficient pediatric intensive care unit capacity for continued pediatric care.

  10. Prospective hospital-based case–control study to assess the effectiveness of pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination and risk factors for hospitalization in 2009–2010 using matched hospital and test-negative controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellenbrand Wiebke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We performed a case–control study to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE for prevention of hospitalization due to pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09 (pH1N1 and to identify risk factors for pH1N1 and acute respiratory infection (ARI in 10 hospitals in Berlin from December 2009 to April 2010. Methods Cases were patients aged 18–65 years with onset of ARI ≤10 days before admission testing positive for pH1N1 by PCR performed on nasal and throat swabs or by serological testing. Cases were compared to (1 matched hospital controls with acute surgical, traumatological or other diagnoses matched on age, sex and vaccination probability, and (2 ARI patients testing negative for pH1N1. Additionally, ARI cases were compared to matched hospital controls. A standardized interview and chart review elicited demographic and clinical data as well as potential risk factors for pH1N1/ARI. VE was estimated by 1-(Odds ratio for pH1N1-vaccination ≥10 days before symptom onset using exact logistic regression analysis. Results Of 177 ARI cases recruited, 27 tested pH1N1 positive. A monovalent AS03-adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccine was the only pandemic vaccine type identified among cases and controls (vaccination coverage in control group 1 and 2: 15% and 5.9%. The only breakthrough infections were observed in 2 of 3 vaccinated HIV positive pH1N1 patients. After exclusion of HIV positive participants, VE was 96% (95%CI: 26-100% in the matched multivariate analysis and 46% (95%CI: -376-100% in the test-negative analysis. Exposure to children in the household was independently associated with hospitalization for pH1N1 and ARI. Conclusions Though limited by low vaccination coverage and number of pH1N1 cases, our results suggest a protective effect of the AS03-adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccine for the prevention of pH1N1 hospitalization. The use of hospital but not test-negative controls showed a statistically protective effect of pH1N1-vaccination and permitted

  11. Determinants of vaccine immunogenicity in HIV-infected pregnant women: analysis of B and T cell responses to pandemic H1N1 monovalent vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Weinberg

    Full Text Available Influenza infections have high frequency and morbidity in HIV-infected pregnant women, underscoring the importance of vaccine-conferred protection. To identify the factors that determine vaccine immunogenicity in this group, we characterized the relationship of B- and T-cell responses to pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 vaccine with HIV-associated immunologic and virologic characteristics. pH1N1 and seasonal-H1N1 (sH1N1 antibodies were measured in 119 HIV-infected pregnant women after two double-strength pH1N1 vaccine doses. pH1N1-IgG and IgA B-cell FluoroSpot, pH1N1- and sH1N1-interferon γ (IFNγ and granzyme B (GrB T-cell FluoroSpot, and flow cytometric characterization of B- and T-cell subsets were performed in 57 subjects. pH1N1-antibodies increased after vaccination, but less than previously described in healthy adults. pH1N1-IgG memory B cells (Bmem increased, IFNγ-effector T-cells (Teff decreased, and IgA Bmem and GrB Teff did not change. pH1N1-antibodies and Teff were significantly correlated with each other and with sH1N1-HAI and Teff, respectively, before and after vaccination. pH1N1-antibody responses to the vaccine significantly increased with high proportions of CD4+, low CD8+ and low CD8+HLADR+CD38+ activated (Tact cells. pH1N1-IgG Bmem responses increased with high proportions of CD19+CD27+CD21- activated B cells (Bact, high CD8+CD39+ regulatory T cells (Treg, and low CD19+CD27-CD21- exhausted B cells (Bexhaust. IFNγ-Teff responses increased with low HIV plasma RNA, CD8+HLADR+CD38+ Tact, CD4+FoxP3+ Treg and CD19+IL10+ Breg. In conclusion, pre-existing antibody and Teff responses to sH1N1 were associated with increased responses to pH1N1 vaccination in HIV-infected pregnant women suggesting an important role for heterosubtypic immunologic memory. High CD4+% T cells were associated with increased, whereas high HIV replication, Tact and Bexhaust were associated with decreased vaccine immunogenicity. High Treg increased antibody responses but

  12. Monovalent RIVM meningococcal B OMP vesicle F91 vaccines in toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber AB; Limpt CJP van; Labadie J; Berbers GAM; Kleijn ED de; Groot R de; Rumke HC; Alphen AJW; Sophia Kinderziekenhuis /; LVO

    2001-01-01

    This report gives the results of a randomised phase-II clinical study into the safety and immunogenicity of a monovalent MenB OMV vaccine expressing P1.7h,4 PorA (MonoMen) in toddlers. Safety and immunogenicity are compared for two types of vaccine that are differently adjuvated (either aluminium ph

  13. Impact of universal mass vaccination with monovalent inactivated hepatitis A vaccines – A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuurman, Anke L.; Marano, Cinzia; Bunge, Eveline M.; De Moerlooze, Laurence; Shouval, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The WHO recommends integration of universal mass vaccination (UMV) against hepatitis A virus (HAV) in national immunization schedules for children aged ≥1 year, if justified on the basis of acute HAV incidence, declining endemicity from high to intermediate and cost-effectiveness. This recommendation has been implemented in several countries. Our aim was to assess the impact of UMV using monovalent inactivated hepatitis A vaccines on incidence and persistence of anti-HAV (IgG) antibodies in pediatric populations. We conducted a systematic review of literature published between 2000 and 2015 in PubMed, Cochrane Library, LILACS, IBECS identifying a total of 27 studies (Argentina, Belgium, China, Greece, Israel, Panama, the United States and Uruguay). All except one study showed a marked decline in the incidence of hepatitis A post introduction of UMV. The incidence in non-vaccinated age groups decreased as well, suggesting herd immunity but also rising susceptibility. Long-term anti-HAV antibody persistence was documented up to 17 y after a 2-dose primary vaccination. In conclusion, introduction of UMV in countries with intermediate endemicity for HAV infection led to a considerable decrease in the incidence of hepatitis A in vaccinated and in non-vaccinated age groups alike. PMID:27786671

  14. [Safety and tolerability of monovalent measles and combined measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, D; Meyer, H; Keller-Stanislawski, B

    2013-09-01

    Although effective monovalent and combined measles vaccines have been available for several decades in Germany, measles outbreaks continue to occur leading to severe cases of measles and even death. Possible reasons for the low acceptance of the measles vaccination are concerns about adverse events and serious complications following vaccination. In this report, we have summarized and assessed all adverse events reported in Germany from 2001 to 2012 after vaccination with monovalent- and combined measles-containing vaccines. A total of 1,696 suspected adverse reaction reports describing 5,297 adverse events were sent to the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI) between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2012. The calculated mean reporting rate was 5.7 reports per 100,000 vaccine doses released by the PEI. Analysis of the reports indicates that measles-containing vaccines are well tolerated with a constantly low rate of adverse events reported. Compared to the high rate of serious complications following wild-type measles infection, the benefit of measles-containing vaccines clearly outweighs the anticipated risks of adverse events.

  15. Students in Differential Equations and Epidemiology Model a Campus Outbreak of pH1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith L. Greer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe a semester-long collaboration between a mathematics class and a biology class. Students worked together to understand and model the trajectory of the pandemic H1N1, pH1N1, outbreak across campus in fall 2009. Each course had about 30 students and was an upper-level elective for majors. Some mathematics students had taken no college-level biology, and some biology students had taken no college-level mathematics. All students had taken at least three quantitative courses, so they had some experience working with data. Our goals were to allow students to work with and model a real data set that affected them personally, to explore how the outbreak spread within our small campus, and for students to share their areas of expertise. This project created opportunities for synthesis and evaluation.  

  16. Immunogenicity and safety of monovalent RIVM meningococcal B OMP vesicle F91 vaccine administered to children that received hexavalent meningococcal B vaccine 2.5 years ago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber AB; Limpt CJP van; Berbers GAM; Labadie J; Kleijn ED de; Groot R de; Rumke HC; Alphen AJW van; Sophia Kinderziekenhuis /; LVO

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results with respect to immunogenicity as well as reactogenicity of a monovalent P1.7h,4 OMV vaccine (MonoMen) used as booster vaccination in children previously vaccinated with a hexavalent MenB vaccine. The participants in this study were immunised in 1995-1996 with hexav

  17. Molecular evolutionary analysis of pH1N1 2009 influenza virus in Reunion Island, South West Indian Ocean region: a cohort study.

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    Hervé Pascalis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Molecular epidemiology is a powerful tool to decipher the dynamics of viral transmission, quasispecies temporal evolution and origins. Little is known about the pH1N1 molecular dynamics in general population. A prospective study (CoPanFlu-RUN was carried out in Reunion Island to characterize pH1N1 genetic variability and molecular evolution occurring in population during the pH1N1 Influenza pandemic in 2009. METHODOLOGY: We directly amplified pH1N1 genomes from 28 different nasal swabs (26 individuals from 21 households. Fifteen strains were fully sequenced and 13 partially. This includes pairs of sequences from different members of 5 separate households; and two pairs from individuals, collected at different times. We assessed the molecular evolution of pH1N1 by genetic variability and phylogenetic analyses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that i Reunion pH1N1 sequences stemmed from global "clade 7" but shaped two phylogenetic sub-clades; ii D239E mutation was identified in the hemagglutinin protein of all Reunion sequences, a mutation which has been associated elsewhere with mild-, upper-respiratory tract pH1N1 infecting strains; iii Date estimates from molecular phylogenies predicted clade emergence some time before the first detection of pH1N1 by the epidemiological surveillance system; iv Phylogenetic relatedness was observed between Reunion pH1N1 viruses and those from other countries in South-western Indian Ocean area; v Quasispecies populations were observed within households and individuals of the cohort-study. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance and/or prevention systems presently based on Influenza virus sequence variation should take into account that the majority of studies of pH1N1 Influenza generate genetic data for the HA/NA viral segments obtained from hospitalized-patients, which is potentially non-representative of the overall viral diversity within whole populations. Our observations highlight the importance of collecting unbiased data at the community level and conducting whole genome analysis to accurately understand viral dynamics.

  18. Antigenic specificity of a monovalent versus polyvalent MOMP based Chlamydia pecorum vaccine in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollipara, Avinash; Wan, Charles; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2013-02-06

    Chlamydia continues to be a major pathogen of koalas. The bacterium is associated with ocular, respiratory and urogenital tract infections and a vaccine is considered the best option to limit the decline of mainland koala populations. Over the last 20 years, efforts to develop a chlamydial vaccine in humans have focussed on the use of the chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP). Potential problems with the use of MOMP-based vaccines relate to the wide range of genetic diversity in its four variable domains. In the present study, we evaluated the immune response of koalas vaccinated with a MOMP-based C. pecorum vaccine formulated with genetically and serologically diverse MOMPs. Animals immunised with individual MOMPs developed strong antibody and lymphocyte proliferation responses to both homologous as well as heterologous MOMP proteins. Importantly, we also showed that vaccine induced antibodies which effectively neutralised various heterologous strains of koala C. pecorum in an in vitro assay. Finally, we also demonstrated that the immune responses in monovalent as well as polyvalent MOMP vaccine groups were able to recognise whole chlamydial elementary bodies, illustrating the feasibility of developing an effective MOMP based C. pecorum vaccine that could protect against a range of strains. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of monovalent RIVM meningococcal B OMP vesicle F91 vaccine administered to children that received hexavalent meningococcal B vaccine 2.5 years ago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber AB; van Limpt CJP; Berbers GAM; Labadie J; de Kleijn ED; de Groot R; Rumke HC; van Alphen AJW; LVO

    2000-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft een follow-up studie naar veiligheid en immunogeniciteit van monovalent P1.7h,4 OMV vaccin (MonoMen) gebruikt als boostervaccinatie in kinderen eerder gevaccineerd met hexavalent MenB vaccin. De deelnemers aan deze studie zijn in het kader van een eerdere studie gevaccineerd

  20. Paralytic poliomyelitis associated with Sabin monovalent and bivalent oral polio vaccines in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estívariz, Concepción F; Molnár, Zsuzsanna; Venczel, Linda; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Zingeser, James A; Lipskaya, Galina Y; Kew, Olen M; Berencsi, György; Csohán, Agnes

    2011-08-01

    Historical records of patients with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in Hungary during 1961-1981 were reviewed to assess the risk of VAPP after oral polio vaccine (OPV) administration. A confirmed VAPP case was defined as a diagnosis of paralytic poliomyelitis and residual paralysis at 60 days in a patient with an epidemiologic link to the vaccine. Archived poliovirus isolates were retested using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the viral protein 1 capsid region. This review confirmed 46 of 47 cases previously reported as VAPP. Three cases originally linked to monovalent OPV (mOPV) 3 and one case linked to mOPV1 presented after administration of bivalent OPV 1 + 3 (bOPV). The adjusted VAPP risk per million doses administered was 0.18 for mOPV1 (2 cases/11.13 million doses), 2.96 for mOPV3 (32 cases/10.81 million doses), and 12.82 for bOPV (5 cases/390,000 doses). Absence of protection from immunization with inactivated poliovirus vaccine or exposure to OPV virus from routine immunization and recent injections could explain the higher relative risk of VAPP in Hungarian children. In polio-endemic areas in which mOPV3 and bOPV are needed to achieve eradication, the higher risk of VAPP would be offset by the high risk of paralysis due to wild poliovirus and higher per-dose efficacy of mOPV3 and bOPV compared with trivalent OPV.

  1. Investigating the efficacy of monovalent and tetravalent dengue vaccine formulations against DENV-4 challenge in AG129 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jeremy; Chu, Haiyan; O'Day, Peter; Pyles, Richard; Bourne, Nigel; Das, Subash C; Milligan, Gregg N; Barrett, Alan D T; Partidos, Charalambos D; Osorio, Jorge E

    2014-11-12

    Dengue (DEN) is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease, with a major impact on global health and economics, caused by four serologically and distinct viruses termed DENV-1 to DENV-4. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine to prevent DEN. We have developed a live attenuated tetravalent DENV vaccine candidate (TDV) (formally known as DENVax) that has shown promise in preclinical and clinical studies and elicits neutralizing antibody responses to all four DENVs. As these responses are lowest to DENV-4 we have used the AG129 mouse model to investigate the immunogenicity of monovalent TDV-4 or tetravalent TDV vaccines, and their efficacy against lethal DENV-4 challenge. Since the common backbone of TDV is based on an attenuated DENV-2 strain (TDV-2) we also tested the efficacy of TDV-2 against DENV-4 challenge. Single doses of the tetravalent or monovalent vaccines elicited neutralizing antibodies, anti-NS1 antibodies, and cellular responses to both envelope and nonstructural proteins. All vaccinated animals were protected against challenge at 60 days post-immunization, whereas all control animals died. Investigation of DENV-4 viremias post-challenge showed that only the control animals had high viremias on day 3 post-challenge, whereas vaccinated mice had no detectable viremia. Overall, these data highlight the excellent immunogenicity and efficacy profile of our candidate dengue vaccine in AG129 mice.

  2. Monovalent rotavirus vaccine provides protection against an emerging fully heterotypic G9P[4] rotavirus strain in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Catherine; Figueroa, Jesùs Reyna; Uribe, Edgar Sánchez; Carmen-Hernández, Luz Del; Tate, Jacqueline E; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M; Richardson López-Collado, Vesta

    2011-09-01

    After the introduction of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in Mexico in 2006-2007, diarrhea mortality and morbidity declined substantially among Mexican children under 5 years of age. In January 2010, surveillance identified the emergence of a novel G9P[4] rotavirus strain nationwide. We conducted a case-control study to assess the field effectiveness of RV1 against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by this unusual strain and to determine whether the G9P[4] emergence was related to vaccine failure or failure to vaccinate. RV1 was 94% effective (95% confidence interval, 16%-100%) against G9P[4] rotavirus-related hospitalization, indicating that its emergence was likely unrelated to vaccine pressure.

  3. Estimation of the Serial Interval for Pandemic Influenza (pH1N1 in the Most Southern Province of Argentina

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    PW Orellano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A retrospective cohort study, in the context of household transmission, to estimate the serial interval (SI of pH1N1 influenza in the island of Tierra del Fuego was carried out.Methods: We collected data from the epidemiological surveillance system during disease outbreak in Ushuaia and Rio Grande, the two main cities of the southernmost province of Argentina. Only the records of patients and households with a positive result of RT-PCR assay for pH1N1 virus were used.Results: A total of 283 laboratory confirmed cases were detected, from 550 samples analyzed. Hospitalizations were necessary in 13.8% of patients, yet no deaths were reported. Complete data of household contacts were available in 13 patients. We calculated an SI of 2.0 days (95% CI = 1.5 – 2.6 days, fitting to a log-normal distribution, the one that presented the best adjustment.Conclusion: These results were consistent with estimates of SI calculated from Mexico, but lower than estimations from Canada, Germany and USA. We discuss these differences in relation to limitations of the current study design.

  4. Establishment of an in vivo potency assay for the recombinant hepatit is B surface antigen in monovalent and combined vaccines

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    Mabel Izquierdo-López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the development of potency assay in animals (mice was made, with the objective of demonstrating the immunogenic power of the recombinant Hepatitis B surface antigen in monovalent and combined vaccines, produced at the Center of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. The potency test is a parameter in quality control and it is also a tool to demonstrate the consistency of the production process. Parameters such as duration of the test, number of animals in the test, as well as different areas for the maintenance of the animals were evaluated. The results on the applicability of the potency test, to two presentations of the vaccines; monovalent Heberbiovac HB and pentavalent liquid in one vial Heberpenta-L are shown, for which specificity studies, evaluating different vaccine lots, the behavior of linearity, and parallelism, as well as establishing quality specification of the test were performed. This assay led to the obtainment of reliable results for the vaccines evaluated, the consistent evaluation of the immunogenic power and the monitoring of different production processes.

  5. Policy statement—Prevention of varicella: update of recommendations for use of quadrivalent and monovalent varicella vaccines in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Two varicella-containing vaccines are licensed for use in the United States: monovalent varicella vaccine (Varivax [Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA]) and quadrivalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine (MMRV) (ProQuad [Merck & Co, Inc]). It is estimated from postlicensure data that after vaccination at 12 through 23 months of age, 7 to 9 febrile seizures occur per 10,000 children who receive the MMRV, and 3 to 4 febrile seizures occur per 10,000 children who receive the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella vaccines administered concurrently but at separate sites. Thus, 1 additional febrile seizure is expected to occur per approximately 2300 to 2600 children 12 to 23 months old vaccinated with the MMRV, when compared with separate MMR and varicella vaccine administration. The period of risk for febrile seizures is from 5 through 12 days after receipt of the vaccine(s). No increased risk of febrile seizures is seen among patients 4 to 6 years of age receiving MMRV. Febrile seizures do not predispose to epilepsy or neurodevelopmental delays later in life and are not associated with long-term health impairment. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that either MMR and varicella vaccines separately or the MMRV be used for the first dose of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccines administered at 12 through 47 months of age. For the first dose of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccines administered at ages 48 months and older, and for dose 2 at any age (15 months to 12 years), use of MMRV generally is preferred over separate injections of MMR and varicella vaccines.

  6. Assessment of epicutaneous testing of a monovalent Influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccine in egg allergic patients

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    Pitt Tracy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H1N1 is responsible for the first influenza pandemic in 41 years. In the fall of 2009, an H1N1 vaccine became available in Canada with the hopes of reducing the overall effect of the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of administering 2 different doses of a monovalent split virus 2009 H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients. Methods Patients were skin tested to the H1N1 vaccine in the outpatient paediatric and adult allergy and immunology clinics of the Health Sciences Centre and Children's Hospital of Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada. Individuals Results A total of 61 patients with egg allergy (history of an allergic reaction to egg with either positive skin test &/or specific IgE to egg >0.35 Ku/L were referred to our allergy clinics for skin testing to the H1N1 vaccine. 2 patients were excluded, one did not have a skin prick test to the H1N1 vaccine (only vaccine administration and the other passed an egg challenge during the study period. Ages ranged from 1 to 27 years (mean 5.6 years. There were 41(69.5% males and 18(30.5% females. All but one patient with a history of egg allergy, positive skin test to egg and/or elevated specific IgE level to egg had negative skin tests to the H1N1 vaccine. The 58 patients with negative skin testing to the H1N1 vaccine were administered the vaccine and observed for 30 minutes post vaccination with no adverse results. The patient with the positive skin test to the H1N1 vaccine was also administered the vaccine intramuscularly with no adverse results. Conclusions Despite concern regarding possible anaphylaxis to the H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients, in our case series 1/59(1.7% patients with sensitization to egg were also sensitized to the H1N1 vaccine. Administration of the H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients with negative H1N1 skin tests and observation is safe. Administering the vaccine in a 1 or 2 dose protocol without skin testing is a reasonable alternative

  7. The protective efficacy of cloned Moraxella bovis pili in monovalent and multivalent vaccine formulations against experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper, A W; Atwell, J L; Lehrbach, P R; Schwartzkoff, C L; Egerton, J R; Tennent, J M

    1995-07-01

    Calves were vaccinated with cloned Moraxella bovis pili of serogroup C (experiment 1) or B (experiment 2) either as a monovalent formulation or as part of a multivalent preparation with pili of six other serogroups. Within 4 weeks of the second vaccine dose vaccinated calves and non-vaccinated controls were challenged via the ocular route with either virulent M. bovis strain Dal2d (serogroup C) or M. bovis strain 3WO7 (serogroup B) in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Calves vaccinated with multivalent vaccines had significantly lower antibody titres than those vaccinated with monovalent preparations. Nevertheless, the levels of protection against infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) achieved with multivalent vaccines were 72% and 83% for the groups challenged with M. bovis strains of serogroups B and C, respectively. The serogroup C monovalent vaccine gave 100% protection against experimentally induced IBK and M. bovis isolates cultured from the eyes 6 days post-challenge were identified as belonging solely to serogroup C. Unexpectedly, only 25% protection was achieved against homologous strain challenge of calves that received the monovalent serogroup B vaccine. Furthermore, the majority of M. bovis isolates recovered from calves in this group belonged to serogroup C, as did half of those isolates cultured from the multivalent vaccinates. The remaining bacterial isolates from the latter group, together with all isolates from the non-vaccinated controls, belonged to serogroup B. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that derivatives of the serogroup B challenge inoculum had expressed serogroup C pilus antigen within 6 days of the challenge, possibly as a result of pilus gene inversion occurring in response to the presence of specific antibody in eye tissues and tears.

  8. Immunization-Safety Monitoring Systems for the 2009 H1N1 Monovalent Influenza Vaccination Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Daniel A.; Akhtar, Aysha; Mergler, Michelle J.; Vannice, Kirsten S.; Izurieta, Hector; Ball, Robert; Lee, Grace M.; Vellozzi, Claudia; Garman, Patrick; Cunningham, Francesca; Gellin, Bruce; Koh, Howard; Lurie, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The effort to vaccinate the US population against the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus hinged, in part, on public confidence in vaccine safety. Early in the vaccine program, >20% of parents reported that they would not vaccinate their children. Concerns about the safety of the vaccines were reported by man

  9. Immunization-Safety Monitoring Systems for the 2009 H1N1 Monovalent Influenza Vaccination Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Daniel A.; Akhtar, Aysha; Mergler, Michelle J.; Vannice, Kirsten S.; Izurieta, Hector; Ball, Robert; Lee, Grace M.; Vellozzi, Claudia; Garman, Patrick; Cunningham, Francesca; Gellin, Bruce; Koh, Howard; Lurie, Nicole

    The effort to vaccinate the US population against the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus hinged, in part, on public confidence in vaccine safety. Early in the vaccine program, >20% of parents reported that they would not vaccinate their children. Concerns about the safety of the vaccines were reported by

  10. Intense co-circulation of non-influenza respiratory viruses during the first wave of pandemic influenza pH1N1/2009: a cohort study in Reunion Island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Pascalis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to weigh up, at the community level, the respective roles played by pandemic Influenza (pH1N1 virus and co-circulating human Non-Influenza Respiratory Viruses (NIRVs during the first wave of the 2009 pH1N1 pandemic. METHODS: A population-based prospective cohort study was conducted in Reunion Island during the austral winter 2009 (weeks 30-44 that allowed identification of 125 households with at least one member who developed symptoms of Influenza-like illness (ILI. Three consecutive nasal swabs were collected from each household member (443 individuals on day 0, 3 and 8 post-ILI report and tested for pH1N1 and 15 NIRVs by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Two successive waves of viral infections were identified: a first wave (W33-37 when pH1N1 was dominant and co-circulated with NIRVs, sharply interrupted by a second wave (W38-44, almost exclusively composed of NIRVs, mainly human Rhinoviruses (hRV and Coronaviruses (hCoV. Data suggest that some interference may occur between NIRVs and pH1N1 when they co-circulate within the same household, where NIRVs were more likely to infect pH1N1 negative individuals than pH1N1 positive peers (relative risk: 3.13, 95% CI: 1.80-5.46, P<0.001. Viral shedding was significantly shorter (P = 0.035 in patients who were co-infected by pH1N1 and NIRV or by two different NIRVs compared to those who were infected with only one virus, whatever this virus was (pH1N1 or NIRVs. Although intense co-circulation of NIRVs (especially hRV likely brought pH1N1 under the detection threshold, it did not prevent spread of the pandemic Influenza virus within the susceptible population nor induction of an extensive herd immunity to it. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that NIRV co-infections during Influenza epidemics may act as cofactors that contribute to shape an outbreak and modulate the attack rate. They further warrant broad spectrum studies to fully understand viral epidemics.

  11. Changes in the viral distribution pattern after the appearance of the novel influenza A H1N1 (pH1N1 virus in influenza-like illness patients in Peru.

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    Victor Alberto Laguna-Torres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We describe the temporal variation in viral agents detected in influenza like illness (ILI patients before and after the appearance of the ongoing pandemic influenza A (H1N1 (pH1N1 in Peru between 4-January and 13-July 2009. METHODS: At the health centers, one oropharyngeal swab was obtained for viral isolation. From epidemiological week (EW 1 to 18, at the US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD in Lima, the specimens were inoculated into four cell lines for virus isolation. In addition, from EW 19 to 28, the specimens were also analyzed by real time-polymerase-chain-reaction (rRT-PCR. RESULTS: We enrolled 2,872 patients: 1,422 cases before the appearance of the pH1N1 virus, and 1,450 during the pandemic. Non-pH1N1 influenza A virus was the predominant viral strain circulating in Peru through (EW 18, representing 57.8% of the confirmed cases; however, this predominance shifted to pH1N1 (51.5% from EW 19-28. During this study period, most of pH1N1 cases were diagnosed in the capital city (Lima followed by other cities including Cusco and Trujillo. In contrast, novel influenza cases were essentially absent in the tropical rain forest (jungle cities during our study period. The city of Iquitos (Jungle had the highest number of influenza B cases and only one pH1N1 case. CONCLUSIONS: The viral distribution in Peru changed upon the introduction of the pH1N1 virus compared to previous months. Although influenza A viruses continue to be the predominant viral pathogen, the pH1N1 virus predominated over the other influenza A viruses.

  12. Low-dose aspirin use does not diminish the immune response to monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccine in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M L; Bellamy, A; Wolff, M; Hill, H; Jackson, L A

    2016-03-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may inhibit antibody production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells; one consequence of this could be decreased effectiveness of vaccines in NSAID users. Because many older adults use low-dose aspirin for primary or secondary prevention of coronary events, any inhibitory effect of aspirin on vaccine immune response could reduce the benefits of vaccination programmes in older adults. We tested whether immune response to vaccination differed between users vs. non-users of low-dose aspirin, using data from four randomized trials of monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine. Geometric mean haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres were not significantly lower in low-dose aspirin users compared to non-users. Our results provide reassurance that influenza vaccination effectiveness is probably not reduced in older adults taking chronic low-dose aspirin.

  13. Group a rotavirus and norovirus genotypes circulating in the northeastern Brazil in the post-monovalent vaccination era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Ana Caroline C; Gómez, Mariela M; Lima, Ila Fernanda N; Quetz, Josiane S; Havt, Alexandre; Oriá, Reinaldo B; Lima, Aldo A; Leite, José Paulo G

    2015-09-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) and noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. Childhood diarrhea deaths and hospital admissions have declined since the introduction of the monovalent (G1P[8]) vaccine (Rotarix(®) [RV1]) in the National Immunization Program in Brazil in 2006. This study aims to investigate the epidemiological profile of NoV and RVA infections from children with AGE in the Northeastern region of Brazil in the post vaccine season. Two-hundred fecal samples collected from children up to 10 years old in Fortaleza, Ceará between 2008-2009 were screened for the presence of RVA and NoV. Positive samples were genotyped and sequenced. The RVA screening revealed 12% prevalence and all RVA strains belonged to G2P[4] genotype. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 11 RVA genome segments sequenced from eight samples revealed a DS-1-like genotype constellation: I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. For NoV screening, the prevalence observed was 17% and the following genotypes were detected: GII.4 (59%), GII.12 (17%), GII.6 (9%), GII.3 (6%), and GII.? (9%). At least four different NoVs genotypes and two RVA G2P[4] variants were identified circulating in the Northeastern region of Brazil. RVA phylogenetic analysis suggests that the RVA G2P[4] strains might have originated from intragenogroup reassortment events. Whether the genetic modifications observed in these contemporary G2P[4] RVA strains may impact the long-term effectiveness of the current vaccination programs remains to be explored. These data reinforce the importance of surveillance for monitoring the emergence of new strains of RVA and NoV and their impact on cases of acute gastroenteritis.

  14. Response to 2009 pandemic influenza a (H1N1) vaccine in HIV-infected patients and the influence of prior seasonal influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Soonawala (Darius); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); L.B.S. Gelinck (Luc); L.G. Visser; F.P. Kroon (Frank)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The immunogenicity of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (pH1N1) vaccines and the effect of previous influenza vaccination is a matter of current interest and debate. We measured the immune response to pH1N1 vaccine in HIV-infected patients and in healthy controls. In addition w

  15. Response to 2009 pandemic influenza a (H1N1) vaccine in HIV-infected patients and the influence of prior seasonal influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Soonawala (Darius); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); L.B.S. Gelinck (Luc); L.G. Visser; F.P. Kroon (Frank)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The immunogenicity of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (pH1N1) vaccines and the effect of previous influenza vaccination is a matter of current interest and debate. We measured the immune response to pH1N1 vaccine in HIV-infected patients and in healthy controls. In addition

  16. Adverse events following pandemic A (H1N1 2009 monovalent vaccines in pregnant women--Taiwan, November 2009-August 2010.

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    Wan-Ting Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, pregnant women were prioritized to receive the unadjuvanted or MF59®-adjuvanted pandemic A (H1N1 2009 monovalent vaccines ("2009 H1N1 vaccines" in Taiwan regardless of stage of pregnancy. Monitoring adverse events following 2009 H1N1 vaccination in pregnant women was a priority for the mass immunization campaign beginning November 2009. METHODS/FINDINGS: We characterized reports to the national passive surveillance from November 2009 through August 2010 involving adverse events following 2009 H1N1 vaccines among pregnant women. Reports from the passive surveillance were matched to a large-linked database on a unique identifier, date of vaccination, and date of diagnosis in a capture-recapture analysis to estimate the true number of spontaneous abortion after 2009 H1N1 vaccination. We verified 16 spontaneous abortions, 11 stillbirths, 4 neonatal deaths, 4 nonpregnancy-specific adverse events, and 2 inadvertent immunizations in recipients who were unaware of pregnancy at time of vaccination. The Chapman capture-recapture estimator of true number of spontaneous abortion after 2009 H1N1 vaccination was 329 (95% confidence interval [CI] 196-553. Of the 14,474 pregnant women who received the 2009 H1N1 vaccines, the estimated risk of spontaneous abortion was 2.3 (95% CI, 1.4-3.8 per 100 pregnancies, compared with a local background rate of 12.8 (95% CI, 12.8-12.9 per 100 pregnancies. CONCLUSIONS: The passive surveillance provided rapid initial assessment of adverse events after 2009 H1N1 vaccination among pregnant women. Its findings were reassuring for the safety of 2009 H1N1 vaccines in pregnancy.

  17. Comparison of accelerated and rapid schedules for monovalent hepatitis B and combined hepatitis A/B vaccines in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Yavuz; Varan, Ali; Aydin, G Burca; Sari, Neriman; Yazici, Nalan; Yalcin, Bilgehan; Kutluk, Tezer; Akyuz, Canan; Büyükpamukçu, Münevver

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of immunization against hepatitis A and B infections with "rapid" or "accelerated" schedules in children with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Fifty-one children were recruited to receive either vaccination schedule, in the "rapid vaccination schedule"; hepatitis B (group I) or combined hepatitis A/B vaccines (group III) were administered at months 0, 1, 2, and 12; in the "accelerated vaccination schedule," hepatitis B (group II) or combined hepatitis A/B (group IV) vaccines were administered on days 0, 7, 21, and 365 intramuscularly. The seroconversion rates at months 1 and 3 were 35.7 and 57.1% in group I and 25 and 18.8% in group II, respectively. Group I developed higher seroconversion rates at month 3. In group III the seroconversion rates for hepatitis B at months 1 and 3 were 54.5 and 60% and in group IV 50 and 70%, respectively. For hepatitis A, the seroconversion rates at months 1 and 3 were 81.8 and 90% in group III and 80 and 88.9% in group IV, respectively. The accelerated vaccination schedule seems to have no advantage in children receiving cancer chemotherapy except for high antibody levels at month 1. In conclusion, the accelerated vaccination schedules are not good choices for cancer patients. The combined hepatitis A/B vaccine is more effective than monovalent vaccine in cancer patients, which probably can be explained by an adjuvant effect of the antigens. The seroconversion of hepatitis A by the combined hepatitis A/B vaccination is very good in cancer patients.

  18. Preliminary results: surveillance for Guillain-Barré syndrome after receipt of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine - United States, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an uncommon peripheral neuropathy causing paralysis and in severe cases respiratory failure and death. GBS often follows an antecedent gastrointestinal or upper respiratory illness but, in rare cases, can follow vaccination. In 1976, vaccination against a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus was associated with a statistically significant increased risk for GBS in the 42 days after vaccination (approximately 10 excess cases per 1 million vaccinations), a consideration in halting the vaccination program in the context of limited influenza virus transmission. To monitor influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine safety, several federal surveillance systems, including CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP), are being used. In October 2009, EIP began active surveillance to assess the risk for GBS after 2009 H1N1 vaccination. Preliminary results from an analysis in EIP comparing GBS patients hospitalized through March 31, 2010, who did and did not receive 2009 H1N1 vaccination showed an estimated age-adjusted rate ratio of 1.77 (GBS incidence of 1.92 per 100,000 person-years among vaccinated persons and 1.21 per 100,000 person-years among unvaccinated persons). If end-of-surveillance analysis confirms this finding, this would correspond to 0.8 excess cases of GBS per 1 million vaccinations, similar to that found in seasonal influenza vaccines. No other federal system to date has detected a statistically significant association between GBS and 2009 H1N1 vaccination. Surveillance and further analyses are ongoing. The 2009 H1N1 vaccine safety profile is similar to that for seasonal influenza vaccines, which have an excellent safety record. Vaccination remains the most effective method to prevent serious illness and death from 2009 H1N1 influenza infection; illness from the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus has been associated with a hospitalization rate of 222 per 1 million and a death rate of 9.7 per 1 million population.

  19. Estimates of pandemic influenza vaccine effectiveness in Europe, 2009-2010: results of Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE multicentre case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Valenciano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A multicentre case-control study based on sentinel practitioner surveillance networks from seven European countries was undertaken to estimate the effectiveness of 2009-2010 pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines against medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI laboratory-confirmed as pandemic influenza A (H1N1 (pH1N1. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sentinel practitioners swabbed ILI patients using systematic sampling. We included in the study patients meeting the European ILI case definition with onset of symptoms >14 days after the start of national pandemic vaccination campaigns. We compared pH1N1 cases to influenza laboratory-negative controls. A valid vaccination corresponded to >14 days between receiving a dose of vaccine and symptom onset. We estimated pooled vaccine effectiveness (VE as 1 minus the odds ratio with the study site as a fixed effect. Using logistic regression, we adjusted VE for potential confounding factors (age group, sex, month of onset, chronic diseases and related hospitalizations, smoking history, seasonal influenza vaccinations, practitioner visits in previous year. We conducted a complete case analysis excluding individuals with missing values and a multiple multivariate imputation to estimate missing values. The multivariate imputation (n = 2902 adjusted pandemic VE (PIVE estimates were 71.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 45.6-85.5 overall; 78.4% (95% CI 54.4-89.8 in patients <65 years; and 72.9% (95% CI 39.8-87.8 in individuals without chronic disease. The complete case (n = 1,502 adjusted PIVE were 66.0% (95% CI 23.9-84.8, 71.3% (95% CI 29.1-88.4, and 70.2% (95% CI 19.4-89.0, respectively. The adjusted PIVE was 66.0% (95% CI -69.9 to 93.2 if vaccinated 8-14 days before ILI onset. The adjusted 2009-2010 seasonal influenza VE was 9.9% (95% CI -65.2 to 50.9. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest good protection of the pandemic monovalent vaccine against medically attended pH1N1 and no effect of the

  20. Statistical and Ontological Analysis of Adverse Events Associated with Monovalent and Combination Vaccines against Hepatitis A and B Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiangan; Zhao, Lili; Zhou, Shangbo; He, Yongqun

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinations often induce various adverse events (AEs), and sometimes serious AEs (SAEs). While many vaccines are used in combination, the effects of vaccine-vaccine interactions (VVIs) on vaccine AEs are rarely studied. In this study, AE profiles induced by hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix), hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix-B), and hepatitis A and B combination vaccine (Twinrix) were studied using the VAERS data. From May 2001 to January 2015, VAERS recorded 941, 3,885, and 1,624 AE case reports where patients aged at least 18 years old were vaccinated with only Havrix, Engerix-B, and Twinrix, respectively. Using these data, our statistical analysis identified 46, 69, and 82 AEs significantly associated with Havrix, Engerix-B, and Twinrix, respectively. Based on the Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE) hierarchical classification, these AEs were enriched in the AEs related to behavioral and neurological conditions, immune system, and investigation results. Twenty-nine AEs were classified as SAEs and mainly related to immune conditions. Using a logistic regression model accompanied with MCMC sampling, 13 AEs (e.g., hepatosplenomegaly) were identified to result from VVI synergistic effects. Classifications of these 13 AEs using OAE and MedDRA hierarchies confirmed the advantages of the OAE-based method over MedDRA in AE term hierarchical analysis. PMID:27694888

  1. Single dose vaccination of the ASO3-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 monovalent vaccine in health care workers elicits homologous and cross-reactive cellular and humoral responses to H1N1 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Sarah; Pathirana, Rishi D; Zhou, Fan; Jul-Larsen, Åsne; Montomoli, Emanuele; Wood, John; Cox, Rebecca Jane

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCW) were prioritized for vaccination during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. We conducted a clinical trial in October 2009 where 237 HCWs were immunized with a AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 monovalent vaccine. In the current study, we analyzed the homologous and cross-reactive H1N1 humoral responses using prototype vaccine strains dating back to 1977 by the haemagglutinin inhibition (HI), single radial hemolysis SRH), antibody secreting cell (ASC) and memory B cell (MBC) assays. The cellular responses were assessed by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) ELISPOT and by intracellular staining (ICS) for the Th1 cytokines IFN-γ, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). All assays were performed using blood samples obtained prior to (day 0) and 7, 14 and 21 d post-pandemic vaccination, except for ASC (day 7) and ICS (days 0 and 21). Vaccination elicited rapid HI, SRH and ASC responses against A(H1N1)pdm09 which cross reacted with seasonal H1N1 strains. MBC responses were detected against the homologous and seasonal H1N1 strains before vaccination and were boosted 2 weeks post-vaccination. An increase in cellular responses as determined by IFN-γ ELISPOT and ICS were observed 1-3 weeks after vaccination. Collectively, our data show that the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine induced rapid cellular and humoral responses against the vaccine strain and the response cross-reacted against prototype H1N1 strains dating back to 1977.

  2. Monovalent Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Protects Guinea Pigs and Nonhuman Primates Against Infection with Multiple Marburg Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    equine encephalitis replicon particle, where the antigen of interest, in this case the MARV glyc- oprotein (GP), is inserted in place of the struc- tural... herpes B antibody-negative in testing prior to initiation of the study. The VLP-vaccinated monkeys received three intramuscular injec- tions at 42-day...date, the most successful filovirus vaccines have been based on viral vec- tors, such as adenovirus, venezulan equine encephalitis repli- con, human

  3. Effect of monovalent rotavirus vaccine on rotavirus disease burden and circulating rotavirus strains among children in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhafid, Mohammed; Elomari, Nezha; Azzouzi Idrissi, Meryem; Rguig, Ahmed; Gentsch, Jon R; Parashar, Umesh; Elaouad, Rajae

    2015-06-01

    Rotarix(TM) vaccine was introduced into the National Program of Immunization of Morocco in October 2010, reaching quickly 87% of the target population of children nationally. The incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis and the prevalence of circulating rotavirus strains has been monitored in three sentinel hospitals since June 2006. The average percentage of rotavirus positive cases among all children under 5 years old hospitalized for gastroenteritis during the pre-vaccine period (2006-2010) was 44%. This percentage dropped to 29%, 15% and 24% in the 3 years post vaccine introduction (2011, 2012 and 2013), which is a decline of 34%, 66%, and 45%, respectively. Declines in prevalence were greatest among children 0-1 years of age (53%) and were most prominent during the winter and autumn rotavirus season. The prevalence of the G2P[4] and G9P[8] genotype sharply increased in the post vaccine period (2011-2013) compared to the previous seasons (2006-2010). Rotavirus vaccines have reduced greatly the number of children hospitalized due to rotavirus infection at the three sentinel hospitals; it is however unclear if the predominance of G2P[4] and G9P[8] genotypes is related to the vaccine introduction, or if this is attributable to normal genotype fluctuations. Continued surveillance will be pivotal to answer this question in the future.

  4. [Immunogenicity of inactivated subunit adsorbed monovalent vaccine against influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, V V; Kostinov, M P; Mikhailova, N A; Zhirova, S N; Mironov, A N; Terkacheva, O A; Romanova, A A; Cherdantsev, A P

    2011-01-01

    The immunogenicity of Pandeflu subunit vaccine against influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) was evaluated in 70 healthy volunteers aged 18 to 60 years. The vaccine was intramuscularly injected twice at an interval of 28 days. Each dose (0.5 ml) contains A(HIN1) influenza virus hemagglutinin (15 +/- 2.2 microg), aluminum hydroxide (Denmark) (0.475 +/- 0.075 microg), and the preservative thiomerosal (merthiolate) (50 +/- 7.5 microg). The level of antibodies was determined in the microneutralization assay. After administration of two doses of the vaccine at a 28-day interval, the geometric mean antibody titer (GMAT) reached 1:21.1 with a further increase to 1:30 (the baseline GMAT) was 1:6.1). The frequencies of seroconversion and seroprotection were 71.4 and 59.2%, respectively; the antibody increase factor was 4.92, which meets the CPMP criteria. The administration of the vaccine did not result in adverse reactions in the postvaccination period.

  5. A clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (Whole Virion IP (Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine; VaxiFlu-S ™ in healthy Indian adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A H Kubavat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The pandemic of H1N1 2009 influenza has spread world over and low degree of virus transmission has continued in several regions of India. Aims : To assess the immunogenicity and safety of Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine in healthy adult Indian population. Settings and Design : Prospective, open label, multicentric, phase 2/3 clinical trial. Materials and Methods : Healthy adult Indian subjects belonging to either 18-59 years or ≥60 years age groups were enrolled and administered a single 0.5 ml (≥15 mcg of hemagglutinin antigen dose of vaccine in the deltoid muscle. Anti-hemagglutinin antibody titer was assessed at baseline and 21 (±2 days after vaccination by Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI test. Safety assessments were done for a period of 42 days. Statistical Analysis Used : Percentages of appropriate population with 95% confidence intervals calculated, log transformation of the data to calculate Geometric Mean Titers (GMTs and chi-square test and student′s t-test applied for significance testing. Results : 182/198 and 53/63 volunteers in age groups of 18-59 years and ≥60 years, respectively, achieved an HI titer ≥1 : 40 at Day 21 (91.9% [95% confidence interval: 88.1-95.7%] and 84.1% [75.1-93.2%]; P=0.072. Further, 171/198 and 50/63 volunteers in the respective age groups achieved seroconversion/four-fold increase in titer at Day 21 (86.4% [81.6-91.1%] and 79.4% [69.4-89.4%]; P=0.179. A significant rise of 22.6-fold [18.0-28.4] and 10.5-fold [7.4-15.0] was noted in GMT in the respective age groups (P<0.001 for both groups as compared to baseline. Nine vaccine-related adverse events were reported (3.4% incidence [1.2-5.6%], which were of low severity only. Conclusions : Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine produces excellent immunogenic response with a good tolerability profile in adult Indian population.

  6. Effective Protection Induced by a Monovalent DNA Vaccine against Dengue Virus (DV Serotype 1 and a Bivalent DNA Vaccine against DV1 and DV2 in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DV is the causal pathogen of dengue fever, which is one of the most rapidly spread mosquito-borne disease worldwide and has become a severe public health problem. Currently, there is no specific treatment for dengue; thus, a vaccine would be an effective countermeasure to reduce the morbidity and mortality. Although, the chimeric Yellow fever dengue tetravalent vaccine has been approved in some countries, it is still necessary to develop safer, more effective, and less costly vaccines. In this study, a DNA vaccine candidate pVAX1-D1ME expressing the prME protein of DV1 was inoculated in BALB/c mice via intramuscular injection or electroporation, and the immunogenicity and protection were evaluated. Compared with traditional intramuscular injection, administration with 50 μg pVAX1-D1ME via electroporation with three immunizations induced persistent humoral and cellular immune responses and effectively protected mice against lethal DV1 challenge. In addition, immunization with a bivalent vaccine consisting of pVAX1-D1ME and pVAX1-D2ME via electroporation generated a balanced IgG response and neutralizing antibodies against DV1 and DV2 and could protect mice from lethal challenge with DV1 and DV2. This study sheds new light on developing a dengue tetravalent DNA vaccine.

  7. Molecular characterization of poliovirus isolates from children who contracted vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) following administration of monovalent type 3 oral poliovirus vaccine in the 1960s in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Molnár, Zsuzsanna; Szomor, Katalin N; Berencsi, György

    2010-03-01

    Hungarian children were immunized with monovalent oral poliovaccine (mOPV) delivered at 6-week intervals in the order Sabin 1, Sabin 3, Sabin 2, from 1959 until 1992. During that period, 90 cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) were reported, 52 of which were associated with Sabin 3-related virus (76% of VAPP cases with virologic data). Because of renewed interest in type 3 mOPV (mOPV3), molecular methods were used to reanalyze 18 of the Sabin 3-related isolates from 15 VAPP patients, confirming the original identification. All isolates had the U472C 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) substitution associated with reversion to neurovirulence, and from zero to seven nucleotide substitutions in the virus protein 1 (VP1) region. No evidence was found for prolonged mOPV3 replication in the VAPP patients or for spread of Sabin 3-related viruses beyond close vaccinee contacts. The VAPP diseases were prevented by a single dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine from 1992 to 2006 in Hungary, as proved by continuous surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis.

  8. Immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine in children and adolescents with Williams or Cornelia De Lange syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Selicorni, Angelo; Daleno, Cristina; Valzano, Antonia; Cerutti, Marta; Galeone, Carlotta; Consolo, Silvia; Menni, Francesca; Principi, Nicola

    2011-06-01

    In some subjects with severe neurological diseases, a reduced immune response to seasonal influenza vaccine has been demonstrated. Patients with Williams or Cornelia de Lange syndrome frequently have abnormalities in neurodevelopment. This study has evaluated the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of a monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine in these subjects. Eighteen patients with Williams syndrome (ten males; mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 12.74 ± 4.49 years), 11 with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (six males; mean age 12.90 ± 4.85 years) and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (16 males; mean age 12.49 ± 4.55 years), never vaccinated against influenza, received a dose of the vaccine between 1 and 30 November 2009. Four weeks later, the seroconversion rates in the three groups were between 72% and 80% and the seroprotection rates were 100%, with a similar increase in antibody levels. Two months later, most of the subjects remained seroconverted with no statistically significant difference between the groups, and about 94% of the patients with Williams syndrome, all of those with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and all of the healthy controls were still seroprotected. Safety and tolerability were very good, with no difference between the groups. None of the patients developed documented influenza during the study period. These results show that the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of a single dose of the monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine in children and adolescents with Williams or Cornelia de Lange syndrome and moderate to severe mental disabilities is very good, and similar to that of healthy subjects.

  9. Association between monovalent influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine and pneumonia among the elderly in the 2009-2010 season in Japan: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kyoko; Suzuki, Kanzo; Washio, Masakazu; Ohfuji, Satoko; Fukushima, Wakaba; Maeda, Akiko; Hirota, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between monovalent influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 (H1N1pdm) vaccine and pneumonia in elderly people. Study design was a hospital-based, matched case-control study. Cases comprised patients ≥ 65 years old who had been newly diagnosed with pneumonia. For each case, 2 controls were defined as individuals with other diseases (not pneumonia) who were matched by sex, age, entry date, and the visited hospital. Study period was the interval from 1 September 2009 until 30 September 2010. Because a pandemic of influenza A (H1N1) occurred during study period, we analyzed selected subjects who had enrolled during the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for pneumonia in H1N1pdm-vaccinated subjects compared with unvaccinated subjects using a conditional logistic regression model to assess the association between H1N1pdm vaccine and pneumonia. The subjects during the period of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic were 20 cases and 40 controls. Subjects who had received H1N1pdm vaccine showed a significantly decreased OR for pneumonia (OR = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.01-0.98) compared with unvaccinated subjects. In conclusion, H1N1pdm vaccination may have prevented pneumonia among the elderly during the 2009-2010 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in Japan.

  10. Inmunogenicidad y capacidad protectora en hamsters de vacunas antileptospirósicas monovalentes de células enteras del serogrupo Ballum Immunogenicity and protective capacity of leptospiral whole-cell monovalent serogroup Ballum vaccines in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. González

    2005-12-01

    challenge with 100 and 10 000 LD50 of five virulent strains belonging to serogroups Ballum, Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona. Both monovalent serogroup Ballum vaccines were immunogenic and induced complete homologous protection in the animal model. Cross-protection was only significant in one of the two vaccines against challenge with 100 LD50 of serogroup Canicola. The results of this study demonstrate the high immunogenicity and protective capacity in hamsters of whole-cell monovalent vaccines formulated with two vaccine candidate strains belonging to the most prevalent serogroup of Leptospira in Cuba.

  11. Response to 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 vaccine in HIV-infected patients and the influence of prior seasonal influenza vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Soonawala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The immunogenicity of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 (pH1N1 vaccines and the effect of previous influenza vaccination is a matter of current interest and debate. We measured the immune response to pH1N1 vaccine in HIV-infected patients and in healthy controls. In addition we tested whether recent vaccination with seasonal trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV induced cross-reactive antibodies to pH1N1. (clinicaltrials.gov Identifier:NCT01066169. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this single-center prospective cohort study MF59-adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccine (Focetria®, Novartis was administered twice to 58 adult HIV-infected patients and 44 healthy controls in November 2009 (day 0 and day 21. Antibody responses were measured at baseline, day 21 and day 56 with hemagglutination-inhibition (HI assay. The seroprotection rate (defined as HI titers ≥ 1 : 40 for HIV-infected patients was 88% after the first and 91% after the second vaccination. These rates were comparable to those in healthy controls. Post-vaccination GMT, a sensitive marker of the immune competence of a group, was lower in HIV-infected patients. We found a high seroprotection rate at baseline (31%. Seroprotective titers at baseline were much more common in those who had received 2009-2010 seasonal TIV three weeks prior to the first dose of pH1N1 vaccine. Using stored serum samples of 51 HIV-infected participants we measured the pH1N1 specific response to 2009-2010 seasonal TIV. The seroprotection rate to pH1N1 increased from 22% to 49% after vaccination with 2009-2010 seasonal TIV. Seasonal TIV induced higher levels of antibodies to pH1N1 in older than in younger subjects. CONCLUSION: In HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy, with a median CD4+ T-lymphocyte count above 500 cells/mm(3, one dose of MF59-adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccine induced a high seroprotection rate comparable to that in healthy controls. A second dose had a modest additional effect. Furthermore

  12. Lasting immune memory against hepatitis B following challenge 10-11 years after primary vaccination with either three doses of hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib or monovalent hepatitis B vaccine at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdicova, Mária; Crasta, Priya D; Hardt, Karin; Kovac, Martina

    2015-05-28

    The combined hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis - Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (Infanrix hexa™; DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib: GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) induces robust responses to the HBV component when administered at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age. We assessed long term HBV antibody persistence 10-11 years after primary vaccination in infancy. Antibody persistence and immune memory were assessed post-primary vaccination at 3, 5, 11-12 months with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib, or monovalent HBV vaccine (Engerix™ B, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) co-administered with DTPa-IPV/Hib (Infanrix™-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) in 185 children aged 11-12 years. Blood samples were collected before and 1 month after a challenge dose of Engerix™ B (10μg dose). 10-11 years after primary vaccination the percentage of subjects with persisting anti-HBs antibody concentrations ≥10mIU/ml was 48.4% in the DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib group and 58.4% in the DTPa-IPV/Hib+HBV group. After the HBV challenge dose, the percentage with anti-HBs ≥100mIU/ml increased from 14.7% to 93.6% in the DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib group and 19.1% to 94.4% in the DTPa-IPV/Hib+HBV group. Anti-HBs GMCs increased by at least 187-fold in each group. An anamnestic response (≥4-fold increase in initially seropositive or anti-HBs concentration ≥10mIU/ml in initially seronegative subjects) was observed in 96.8% and 96.6% of subjects in the DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and DTPa-IPV/Hib+HBV groups, respectively. No serious adverse events occurred that were considered related to challenge vaccination. Administration of HBV as part of a combination vaccine or as a monovalent vaccine induced long lasting immune memory against HBV in children primed at 3, 5 and 11 months of age. Antibody persistence and immune memory were similar, suggesting that protection afforded by DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and monovalent HBV vaccines, is likely to be of similar duration. The administration of HBV challenge dose 10

  13. Efficacy of vaccination with different combinations of MF59-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines against pandemic H1N1 (2009) influenza virus infection in ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, Judith M A; Kreijtz, Joost H C M; Bodewes, Rogier; Stittelaar, Koert J; van Amerongen, Geert; Kuiken, Thijs; Simon, James; Fouchier, Ron A M; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2011-03-01

    Serum antibodies induced by seasonal influenza or seasonal influenza vaccination exhibit limited or no cross-reactivity against the 2009 pandemic swine-origin influenza virus of the H1N1 subtype (pH1N1). Ferrets immunized once or twice with MF59-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine exhibited significantly reduced lung virus titers but no substantial clinical protection against pH1N1-associated disease. However, priming with MF59-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine significantly increased the efficacy of a pandemic MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine against pH1N1 challenge. Elucidating the mechanism involved in this priming principle will contribute to our understanding of vaccine- and infection-induced correlates of protection. Furthermore, a practical consequence of these findings is that during an emerging pandemic, the implementation of a priming strategy with an available adjuvanted seasonal vaccine to precede the eventual pandemic vaccination campaign may be useful and life-saving.

  14. Vitamin A deficiency impairs adaptive B and T cell responses to a prototype monovalent attenuated human rotavirus vaccine and virulent human rotavirus challenge in a gnotobiotic piglet model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep S Chattha

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses (RV are a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Widespread vitamin A deficiency is associated with reduced efficacy of vaccines and higher incidence of diarrheal infections in children in developing countries. We established a vitamin A deficient (VAD gnotobiotic piglet model that mimics subclinical vitamin A deficiency in children to study its effects on an oral human rotavirus (HRV vaccine and virulent HRV challenge. Piglets derived from VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS sows were orally vaccinated with attenuated HRV or mock, with/without supplemental vitamin A and challenged with virulent HRV. Unvaccinated VAD control piglets had significantly lower hepatic vitamin A, higher severity and duration of diarrhea and HRV fecal shedding post-challenge as compared to VAS control pigs. Reduced protection coincided with significantly higher innate (IFNα cytokine and CD8 T cell frequencies in the blood and intestinal tissues, higher pro-inflammatory (IL12 and 2-3 fold lower anti-inflammatory (IL10 cytokines, in VAD compared to VAS control pigs. Vaccinated VAD pigs had higher diarrhea severity scores compared to vaccinated VAS pigs, which coincided with lower serum IgA HRV antibody titers and significantly lower intestinal IgA antibody secreting cells post-challenge in the former groups suggesting lower anamnestic responses. A trend for higher serum HRV IgG antibodies was observed in VAD vs VAS vaccinated groups post-challenge. The vaccinated VAD (non-vitamin A supplemented pigs had significantly higher serum IL12 (PID2 and IFNγ (PID6 compared to vaccinated VAS groups suggesting higher Th1 responses in VAD conditions. Furthermore, regulatory T-cell responses were compromised in VAD pigs. Supplemental vitamin A in VAD pigs did not fully restore the dysregulated immune responses to AttHRV vaccine or moderate virulent HRV diarrhea. Our findings suggest that that VAD in children in developing countries may partially contribute to more

  15. Immune response after one or two doses of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) monovalent, AS03-adjuvanted vaccine in HIV infected adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bybeck Nielsen, Allan; Nielsen, Henriette Schjønning; Nielsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Continued research is needed to evaluate and improve the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in HIV infected patients. We aimed to determine the antibody responses after one or two doses of the AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine in HIV infected patients. METHOD......: Following the influenza season 2009/2010, 219 HIV infected patients were included and divided into three groups depending on whether they received none (n=60), one (n=31) or two (n=128) doses of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. At inclusion, antibody titers for all patients were analyzed and compared.......7% and seroconversion rate of 86.7%. CONCLUSION: A single dose of AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine created an adequate immune response in HIV infected patients lasting as long as 4-9 months. Two doses improved the immunogenicity further....

  16. Cellular immunity of monovalent influenza vaccine lyophilized liposome%单价流感疫苗脂质体干粉细胞免疫研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁; 马波; 鲁卫东; 徐勇军; 林华; 代云波

    2011-01-01

    从细胞免疫水平考察流感疫苗脂质体干粉肺部免疫的免疫原性,以验证在稳定性提高的同时,流感疫苗脂质体干粉肺部免疫原性不低于现行应用的流感疫苗原液腹腔注射免疫.将实验小鼠分为2个大组,每组分为阴性对照组、疫苗脂质体冻干粉组、非脂质体流感疫苗原液组和阳性对照组(n=5).非脂质体流感疫苗原液组和疫苗脂质体冻干粉组分别以每只6μg血凝素(以H1N1计)肺部灌注免疫,同时以每只6μg非脂质体流感疫苗原液组腹腔免疫作为阳性对照.分别免疫14d和28 d后,用四甲基偶氮唑盐微量酶反应比色法(MTT法)检测脾淋巴细胞增殖情况,以考察其细胞免疫原性.脂质体肺部免疫可以诱导细胞免疫,且其免疫原性明显高于流感疫苗原液传统腹腔注射免疫组.与流感疫苗原液腹腔注射免疫相比,流感疫苗脂质体干粉通过肺部免疫,细胞免疫效果明显提高.%To evaluate the immunogenicity of the influenza vaccine lyophilized liposomes through cellular immunity, it could be confirm that, with the increasing of the stability, the immunogenicity of the influenza vaccine lyophilized liposomes by pulmonary delivery was better than that of the influenza vaccine non-liposome immunized by intraperitoneal injection. Experimental mice were divided into two groups, and each group was divided into the negative control group, the influenza vaccine lyophilized liposome group, the influenza vaccine non-liposome group, and the positive control group (n = 5). The influenza vaccine lyophilized liposome group and the influenza vaccine non-liposome group were immunized with 6 |xg hemagglutinin of H1N1 per mouse through pulmonary deli very, and the positive control group was immunized with 6 u,g hemagglutinin of H1N1 per mouse through intraperitoneal injection. MTT method was used to measure the spleen cell proliferation after immunization to mice 14 days and 28 days in order to study

  17. Effects of immunizing school children with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) monovalent vaccine on absenteeism among students and teachers in Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graitcer, Samuel B; Dube, Nancy L; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Smith, Peter F; Ferdinands, Jill; Thompson, Mark; Uzicanin, Amra; Gargiullo, Paul; Chaves, Sandra S; Robinson, Sara; Sears, Stephen; Tipton, Meredith; Monto, Arnold S; Mills, Dora; Shay, David K

    2012-07-06

    The overall and indirect effects of immunizing school children with influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic virus vaccine prior to and during the peak of virus circulation were evaluated on student and teacher school absenteeism. We used records collected from late 2009 through early 2010 from schools in four Maine counties. Mixed logistic regression models were used to estimate the daily association between school-level immunization coverage and absenteeism by level of influenza activity, after adjusting for the proportion of students receiving reduced-cost lunches, student minority status, absences adjacent to weekends and Thanksgiving, rural school location, and the circulation of other respiratory viruses. Increasing student immunization coverage was associated with reduced absenteeism during periods of high influenza activity. For example, as immunization coverage during the peak week of pandemic virus circulation increased from 38% to 69% (the 10th and 90th percentiles of observed coverage, respectively), relative reductions in daily absenteeism among all students, unimmunized students, and teachers were 8.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.5, 9.9), 5.7% (95% CI: 4.2, 7.3), and 8.7% (95% CI: 1.3, 16), respectively. Increased vaccination coverage among school-aged Maine children had modest overall and indirect effects on student and teacher absenteeism, despite vaccination occurring just prior and during peak pandemic virus circulation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Behavioral change with influenza vaccination: factors influencing increased uptake of the pandemic H1N1 versus seasonal influenza vaccine in health care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Allen; Graff, Lesley; McLean, Daria

    2011-10-26

    Many health care personnel (HCP) choose not to get vaccinated against influenza despite recommendations to do so. The pH1N1 epidemic gave a unique opportunity to evaluate the attitudes to influenza vaccination of a group of HCP who routinely choose not to get vaccinated, but accepted the pH1N1 vaccine. HCP employed at a tertiary care hospital in Winnipeg, Canada who received the pH1N1 vaccine were invited to participate in an online survey asking about attitudes and experiences regarding seasonal and pH1N1 influenza and vaccination. Those eligible included primarily nurses, other clinical staff, and support staff, as few physicians work as employees. Of the 684 respondents (29% return rate), 504 reported routinely getting vaccinated (RV) for seasonal influenza and 180 reported routinely not getting vaccinated (NRV). These two groups had different attitude towards the two strains of influenza, with markedly lower level of concern about seasonal influenza than pH1N1 for the NRV group. The contrast was especially notable regarding the NRV's view of the seriousness of the illness, their sense of exposure risk, and their confidence in the vaccine effectiveness (for all, seasonalvaccinated for both NRV and RV groups related to concerns about personal or family safety, while the choice to decline seasonal vaccination related primarily to lack concern about the illness and concerns about vaccine effectiveness and safety. Coworkers were influential in the decision to get the pH1N1 vaccine for the NRV group. For HCP who do not routinely get the seasonal vaccination, perception of risk outweighing side effect concerns appeared to be a major influence in going ahead with the pH1N1 vaccine. Educational campaigns that focus on personal benefit, engage peer champions, and address concerns about the vaccine may improve influenza vaccine uptake among health care personnel. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Malaysia 97 monovalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (>6PD50/dose) protects pigs against challenge with a variant FMDV A SEA-97 lineage virus, 4 and 7 days post vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Hong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Geoffrey, Fosgate T; Jacqueline, Morris Michelle; Andrew, Davis; Michelle, Giles; Van Phuc, Kim; Ngon, Quach Vo; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Phuc, Nguyen Ngoc Hong; Hanh, Tran Xuan; Van Hung, Vo; Quynhanh, Le Thi; Tan, Tran Minh; Long, Ngo Thanh; Wilna, Vosloo

    2015-08-26

    Pigs play a significant role during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) due to their ability to amplify the virus. It is therefore essential to determine what role vaccination could play to prevent clinical disease and lower virus excretion into the environment. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the double oil emulsion A Malaysia 97 vaccine (>6PD50/dose) against heterologous challenge with an isolate belonging to the A SEA-97 lineage at 4 and 7 days post vaccination (dpv). In addition, we determined whether physical separation of pigs in the same room could prevent virus transmission. Statistically there was no difference in the level of protection offered by 4 and 7 dpv. However, no clinical disease or viral RNA was detected in the blood of pigs challenged 4 dpv, although three of the pigs had antibodies to the non-structural proteins (NSPs), indicating viral replication. Viral RNA was also detected in nasal and saliva swabs, but on very few occasions. Two of the pigs vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had vesicles distal from the injection site, but on the inoculated foot, and two pigs had viral RNA detected in the blood. One pig sero-converted to the NSPs. In contrast, all unvaccinated and inoculated pigs had evidence of infection. No infection occurred in any of the susceptible pigs in the same room, but separated from the infected pigs, indicating that strict biosecurity measures were sufficient under these experimental conditions to prevent virus transmission. However, viral RNA was detected in the nasal swabs of one group of pigs, but apparently not at sufficient levels to cause clinical disease. Vaccination led to a significant decrease in viral RNA in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated and infected pigs, even with this heterologous challenge, and could therefore be considered as a control option during outbreaks.

  20. Haemagglutinin and nucleoprotein replicon particle vaccination of swine protects against the pandemic H1N1 2009 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Veen, R L; Mogler, M A; Russell, B J; Loynachan, A T; Harris, D L H; Kamrud, K I

    2013-10-12

    The recent emergence of the pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) and H3N2 variant influenza A viruses (IAV) in 2009 and 2011-2012, respectively, highlight the zoonotic potential of influenza viruses and the need for vaccines capable of eliciting heterosubtypic protection. In these studies, single-cycle, propagation-defective replicon particle (RP) vaccines expressing IAV haemagglutinin (HA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes were constructed and efficacy was evaluated in homologous and heterologous pig challenge studies with the pH1N1 2009 influenza virus (A/California/04/2009). Homologous HA RP vaccination eliminated virus shedding and decreased pulmonary pathology in pigs following pH1N1 2009 challenge. An RP vaccine expressing an H3N2-derived NP gene was able to decrease nasal shedding and viral load following heterosubtypic pH1N1 2009 challenge in pigs. These studies indicate that although homologous vaccination of swine remains the most effective means of preventing IAV infection, other vaccine alternatives do offer a level of heterosubtypic protection, and should continue to be evaluated for their ability to provide broader protection.

  1. Decreased serologic response in vaccinated military recruits during 2011 correspond to genetic drift in concurrent circulating pandemic A/H1N1 viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J Faix

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Population-based febrile respiratory illness surveillance conducted by the Department of Defense contributes to an estimate of vaccine effectiveness. Between January and March 2011, 64 cases of 2009 A/H1N1 (pH1N1, including one fatality, were confirmed in immunized recruits at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, suggesting insufficient efficacy for the pH1N1 component of the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test serologic protection, serum samples were collected at least 30 days post-vaccination from recruits at Fort Jackson (LAIV, Parris Island (LAIV and trivalent inactivated vaccine [TIV] at Cape May, New Jersey (TIV and responses measured against pre-vaccination sera. A subset of 78 LAIV and 64 TIV sera pairs from recruits who reported neither influenza vaccination in the prior year nor fever during training were tested by microneutralization (MN and hemagglutination inhibition (HI assays. MN results demonstrated that seroconversion in paired sera was greater in those who received TIV versus LAIV (74% and 37%. Additionally, the fold change associated with TIV vaccination was significantly different between circulating (2011 versus the vaccine strain (2009 of pH1N1 viruses (ANOVA p value = 0.0006. HI analyses revealed similar trends. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR analysis revealed that the quantity, IgG/IgM ratios, and affinity of anti-HA antibodies were significantly greater in TIV vaccinees. Finally, sequence analysis of the HA1 gene in concurrent circulating 2011 pH1N1 isolates from Fort Jackson exhibited modest amino acid divergence from the vaccine strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Among military recruits in 2011, serum antibody response differed by vaccine type (LAIV vs. TIV and pH1N1 virus year (2009 vs. 2011. We hypothesize that antigen drift in circulating pH1N1 viruses contributed to reduce vaccine effectiveness at Fort Jackson. Our findings have wider implications regarding

  2. Description of a large urban school-located 2009 pandemic H1N1 vaccination campaign, New York City 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Heather E; Pathela, Preeti; Morgenthau, Beth Maldin; Kansagra, Susan M; May, Linda; Scaccia, Allison; Zucker, Jane R

    2012-04-01

    In the spring of 2009, New York City (NYC) experienced the emergence and rapid spread of pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus (pH1N1), which had a high attack rate in children and caused many school closures. During the 2009 fall wave of pH1N1, a school-located vaccination campaign for elementary schoolchildren was conducted in order to reduce infection and transmission in the school setting, thereby reducing the impact of pH1N1 that was observed earlier in the year. In this paper, we describe the planning and outcomes of the NYC school-located vaccination campaign. We compared consent and vaccination data for three vaccination models (school nurse alone, school nurse plus contract nurse, team). Overall, >1,200 of almost 1,600 eligible schools participated, achieving 26.8% consent and 21.5% first-dose vaccination rates, which did not vary significantly by vaccination model. A total of 189,902 doses were administered during two vaccination rounds to 115,668 students at 998 schools included in the analysis; vaccination rates varied by borough, school type, and poverty level. The team model achieved vaccination of more children per day and required fewer vaccination days per school. NYC's campaign is the largest described school-located influenza vaccination campaign to date. Despite substantial challenges, school-located vaccination is feasible in large, urban settings, and during a public health emergency.

  3. A combined vaccine against Brucella abortus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the immune response in calves vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) vaccines in monovalent form and combined vaccine containing both antigen. The seroconversion of monovalent and combined vaccines was tested in seronegative cattle calves. IBR vaccine alone and combination with live Brucella abortus S19 vaccine elicited an anamnestic response on day 60 post booster but started declining from day 90 onwards ...

  4. Monovalent plasmonic nanoparticles for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Daeha; Lee, Hyunjung; Lee, Jung-uk; Haas, Thomas J.; Jun, Young-wook

    2016-03-01

    The multivalent nature of commercial nanoparticle imaging agents and the difficulties associated with producing monovalent nanoparticles challenge their use in biology, where clustering of target biomolecules can perturb dynamics of biomolecular targets. Here, we report production and purification of monovalent gold and silver nanoparticles for their single molecule imaging application. We first synthesized DNA-conjugated 20 nm and 40 nm gold and silver nanoparticles via conventional metal-thiol chemistry, yielding nanoparticles with mixed valency. By employing an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (AE-HPLC) method, we purified monovalent nanoparticles from the mixtures. To allow efficient peak-separation resolution while keeping the excellent colloidal stability of nanoparticles against harsh purification condition (e.g. high NaCl), we optimized surface properties of nanoparticles by modulating surface functional groups. We characterized the monovalent character of the purified nanoparticles by hybridizing two complementary conjugates, forming dimers. Finally, we demonstrate the use of the monovalent plasmonic nanoprobes as single molecule imaging probes by tracking single TrkA receptors diffusing on the cell membrane and compare to monovalent quantum dot probes.

  5. Long-term immunogenicity of two pediatric doses of combined hepatitis A and B or monovalent hepatitis B vaccine in 8 to 10-year-old children and the effect of a challenge dose given seven years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilca, Vladimir; Dionne, Marc; Boulianne, Nicole; Murphy, Donald; De Serres, Gaston

    2009-10-01

    A total of 465 children aged 8 to 10 years were vaccinated with 2 doses of Recombivax-HB 2.5 microg (RB) or Twinrix-Junior 10 microg/360 EL.U (TX), according to a 0 and 6 months schedule. Seven years postsecond dose, a challenge dose of vaccine was given. All vaccinees in the TX and 98% in the RB group showed an anamnestic response. Vaccination at the age of 8 to 10 years with two-pediatric doses of TX or RB given with a 6 months interval induces a long-lasting immunity in most vaccinees.

  6. Low influenza vaccination rates among child care workers in the United States: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Perio, Marie A; Wiegand, Douglas M; Evans, Stefanie M

    2012-04-01

    Influenza can spread quickly among children and caregivers in child day care settings. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza. We determined 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) and seasonal influenza vaccination rates during the 2009-2010 influenza season among child care center employees, assessed knowledge and attitudes regarding the vaccines, and determined factors associated with vaccine receipt. Using a cross-sectional study design, from January 30-March 1, 2010, we surveyed 384 (95%) of 403 employees at 32 licensed child centers in the United States about personal and work characteristics, vaccine receipt, and knowledge and attitudes regarding each vaccine. Forty-five (11%) and eighty five (22%) respondents reported receiving the pH1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccines, respectively. The most common reasons cited for not getting either vaccine were "I don't think I need the vaccine," "I don't think the vaccine will keep me from getting the flu," and "the vaccine is not safe." Factors independently associated with receipt of either vaccine included belief in its efficacy, having positive attitudes towards it, and feeling external pressure to get it. Child care center employees had low rates of pH1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccination largely due to misconceptions about the need for and efficacy of the vaccine. Public health messages should address misconceptions about vaccines, and employers should consider methods to maximize influenza vaccination of employees as part of a comprehensive influenza prevention program.

  7. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOLOGICAL SHIFTS IN ADULTS AFTER IMMUNIZATION AGAINST INFLUENZA WITH A SUBUNIT-BASED, ABSORBED MONOVALENT VACCINE STRAIN A/CALIFORNIA/7/2009/(H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Kostinov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.    Seventy    healthy    volunteers  were    immunized    with    influenza    subunit    vaccine    strain    A/California/7/2009  /  (H1N1,  in  order  to  test  possible  changes  in  auto-reactivity.  It  was  shown  that  the  vaccine  is  safe  and  immunogenic.  In  addition,  it  was  revealed  that  a  double  injection  of  the  vaccine  was  not  accompanied  by  development  of  autoantibody  response,  both  to  tissue  antigens    (specifically,    to    lung    tissue,    or    basic    myelin  protein,    and    to    those    against    non-tissue    antigens  (native  or  denatured  DNA.  In  some  cases,  application  of    the    vaccine    was    accompanied    by    a    significant  reduction  in  levels  of  autoantibodies.  It  was  also  noted  that  injection  of  the  vaccine  is  accompanied  by  a  reduction  in  total  IgE  levels  in  patients  with  increased  baseline  IgE  levels.  Following  double  injection  of  the  vaccine  at  a  single  dose  of  0.5  ml,  the  frequencies  of  seroconversion  was  71.4%,  seroprotection  levels  were  achieved  in  59,2%,  whereas  seroconversion  factor  proved  to  be  4.92,  thus  meeting  the  CPMP  criteria.  (Med.  Immunol.,  2011,  vol.  13,  N  1,  pp  35-40

  8. Poly-γ-glutamic acid/chitosan nanogel greatly enhances the efficacy and heterosubtypic cross-reactivity of H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihyun; Shim, Sang-Mu; Nguyen, Thi Quyen; Kim, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang; Lim, Yong Taik; Sung, Moon-Hee; Webby, Richard; Poo, Haryoung

    2017-01-01

    In 2009, the global outbreak of an influenza pandemic emphasized the need for an effective vaccine adjuvant. In this study, we examined the efficacy of poly-γ-glutamic acid/chitosan (PC) nanogel as an adjuvant for the influenza vaccine. PC nanogel significantly enhanced antigen-specific cross-presentation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity. Compared with alum, the protective efficacy of the pandemic H1N1 influenza (pH1N1) vaccine was substantially increased by PC nanogel, with increased hemagglutination-inhibition titers, CTL activity, and earlier virus clearance after homologous and heterosubtypic [A/Philippines/2/82 (H3N2)] virus challenges. However, CD8+ T cell-depleted mice displayed no protection against the heterosubtypic virus challenge after immunization with PC nanogel-adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccine. We also observed that using PC nanogel as a vaccine adjuvant had a dose-sparing effect and significantly enhanced the long-lasting protection of the pH1N1 vaccine. Together, these results suggest that PC nanogel is a promising vaccine adjuvant that could broadly prevent influenza virus infection. PMID:28322289

  9. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  10. Electron transport through monovalent atomic wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Y. J.; Brandbyge, Mads; Puska, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Using a first-principles density-functional method we model electron transport through linear chains of monovalent atoms between two bulk electrodes. For noble-metal chains the transport resembles that for free electrons over a potential barrier whereas for alkali-metal chains resonance states...... at the chain determine the conductance. As a result, the conductance for noble-metal chains is close to one quantum of conductance, and it oscillates moderately so that an even number of chain atoms yields a higher value than an odd number. The conductance oscillations are large for alkali-metal chains...

  11. Production and targeting of monovalent quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Daeha; Farlow, Justin; Southard, Kade; Jun, Young-Wook; Gartner, Zev J

    2014-10-23

    The multivalent nature of commercial quantum dots (QDs) and the difficulties associated with producing monovalent dots have limited their applications in biology, where clustering and the spatial organization of biomolecules is often the object of study. We describe here a protocol to produce monovalent quantum dots (mQDs) that can be accomplished in most biological research laboratories via a simple mixing of CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs with phosphorothioate DNA (ptDNA) of defined length. After a single ptDNA strand has wrapped the QD, additional strands are excluded from the surface. Production of mQDs in this manner can be accomplished at small and large scale, with commercial reagents, and in minimal steps. These mQDs can be specifically directed to biological targets by hybridization to a complementary single stranded targeting DNA. We demonstrate the use of these mQDs as imaging probes by labeling SNAP-tagged Notch receptors on live mammalian cells, targeted by mQDs bearing a benzylguanine moiety.

  12. Evaluation of in vitro cross-reactivity to avian H5N1 and pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza following prime boost regimens of seasonal influenza vaccination in healthy human subjects: a randomised trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Bethell

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have demonstrated that inactivated seasonal influenza vaccines (IIV may elicit production of heterosubtypic antibodies, which can neutralize avian H5N1 virus in a small proportion of subjects. We hypothesized that prime boost regimens of live and inactivated trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines (LAIV and IIV would enhance production of heterosubtypic immunity and provide evidence of cross-protection against other influenza viruses. METHODS: In an open-label study, 26 adult volunteers were randomized to receive one of four vaccine regimens containing two doses of 2009-10 seasonal influenza vaccines administered 8 (±1 weeks apart: 2 doses of LAIV; 2 doses of IIV; LAIV then IIV; IIV then LAIV. Humoral immunity assays for avian H5N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1, and seasonal vaccine strains were performed on blood collected pre-vaccine and 2 and 4 weeks later. The percentage of cytokine-producing T-cells was compared with baseline 14 days after each dose. RESULTS: Subjects receiving IIV had prompt serological responses to vaccine strains. Two subjects receiving heterologous prime boost regimens had enhanced haemagglutination inhibition (HI and neutralization (NT titres against pH1N1, and one subject against avian H5N1; all three had pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies detected at baseline. Significantly elevated titres to H5N1 and pH1N1 by neuraminidase inhibition (NI assay were observed following LAIV-IIV administration. Both vaccines elicited cross-reactive CD4+ T-cell responses to nucleoprotein of avian H5N1 and pH1N1. All regimens were safe and well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Neither homologous nor heterologous prime boost immunization enhanced serum HI and NT titres to 2009 pH1N1 or avian H5N1 compared to single dose vaccine. However heterologous prime-boost vaccination did lead to in vitro evidence of cross-reactivity by NI; the significance of this finding is unclear. These data support the strategy of

  13. Association between the 2008-09 seasonal influenza vaccine and pandemic H1N1 illness during Spring-Summer 2009: four observational studies from Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta M Skowronski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In late spring 2009, concern was raised in Canada that prior vaccination with the 2008-09 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV was associated with increased risk of pandemic influenza A (H1N1 (pH1N1 illness. Several epidemiologic investigations were conducted through the summer to assess this putative association.(1 test-negative case-control design based on Canada's sentinel vaccine effectiveness monitoring system in British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec; (2 conventional case-control design using population controls in Quebec; (3 test-negative case-control design in Ontario; and (4 prospective household transmission (cohort study in Quebec. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for TIV effect on community- or hospital-based laboratory-confirmed seasonal or pH1N1 influenza cases compared to controls with restriction, stratification, and adjustment for covariates including combinations of age, sex, comorbidity, timeliness of medical visit, prior physician visits, and/or health care worker (HCW status. For the prospective study risk ratios were computed. Based on the sentinel study of 672 cases and 857 controls, 2008-09 TIV was associated with statistically significant protection against seasonal influenza (odds ratio 0.44, 95% CI 0.33-0.59. In contrast, estimates from the sentinel and three other observational studies, involving a total of 1,226 laboratory-confirmed pH1N1 cases and 1,505 controls, indicated that prior receipt of 2008-09 TIV was associated with increased risk of medically attended pH1N1 illness during the spring-summer 2009, with estimated risk or odds ratios ranging from 1.4 to 2.5. Risk of pH1N1 hospitalization was not further increased among vaccinated people when comparing hospitalized to community cases.Prior receipt of 2008-09 TIV was associated with increased risk of medically attended pH1N1 illness during the spring-summer 2009 in Canada. The occurrence of bias (selection, information or

  14. Monovalent copper-activated oxygenated insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, C.; Boutinaud, P.; Flem, G. Le; Moine, B.; Pedrini, C.; Garcia, D.; Faucher, M.

    1994-12-01

    The photoluminescence of monovalent copper in oxygenated insulators has been extensively studied. The spectroscopy and the excited states dynamics of Cu + ions were investigated as a function of the copper concentration and temperature in various glassy and crystallized materials, essentially borates and phosphates. The broad band fluorescences observed in the visible range under UV excitation arise from two main emitting centers: isolated Cu + ions and (Cu +) 2 pairs. The spectroscopic characteristics of isolated Cu + depend strongly on the local structure, whereas those of the copper pairs remain nearly unaltered whatever the host-matrix. Energy diagrams are proposed for both centers, using ab initio LCAO calculations, in connection with structural investigations involving XRD, ND and EXAFS spectroscopies. Borate glasses can be considered as potential laser sources for tunable output in the whole visible range.

  15. Decreased Serologic Response in Vaccinated Military Recruits during 2011 Correspond to Genetic Drift in Concurrent Circulating Pandemic A/H1N1 Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    responsible pathogens , and pathogen subtypes. To counter outbreaks of influenza, the trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) has been used to protect...increased virulence in mouse models [47]. The reversion mutation S84N, Figure 4. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of influenza pH1N1...members for periodic HIV testing and operationally required pre- and post-deployment blood draws [51]. Baseline samples were shipped to NHRC on dry

  16. The Vaccine Safety Datalink: successes and challenges monitoring vaccine safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michael M; Gee, Julianne; Weintraub, Eric S; Belongia, Edward A; Lee, Grace M; Glanz, Jason M; Nordin, James D; Klein, Nicola P; Baxter, Roger; Naleway, Allison L; Jackson, Lisa A; Omer, Saad B; Jacobsen, Steven J; DeStefano, Frank

    2014-09-22

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) is a collaborative project between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 9 health care organizations. Established in 1990, VSD is a vital resource informing policy makers and the public about the safety of vaccines used in the United States. Large linked databases are used to identify and evaluate adverse events in over 9 million individuals annually. VSD generates rapid, important safety assessments for both routine vaccinations and emergency vaccination campaigns. VSD monitors safety of seasonal influenza vaccines in near-real time, and provided essential information on the safety of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine during the recent pandemic. VSD investigators have published important studies demonstrating that childhood vaccines are not associated with autism or other developmental disabilities. VSD prioritizes evaluation of new vaccines; searches for possible unusual health events after vaccination; monitors vaccine safety in pregnant women; and has pioneered development of biostatistical research methods.

  17. Attraction between like-charged monovalent ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangi, Ronen

    2012-05-01

    Ions with like-charges repel each other with a magnitude given by the Coulomb law. The repulsion is also known to persist in aqueous solutions albeit factored by the medium's dielectric constant. In this paper, we report results from molecular dynamics simulations of alkali halides salt solutions indicating an effective attraction between some of the like-charged monovalent ions. The attraction is observed between anions, as well as between cations, leading to the formation of dimers with lifetimes on the order of few picoseconds. Two mechanisms have been identified to drive this counterintuitive attraction. The first is exhibited by high-charge density ions, such as fluoride, at low salt concentrations, yielding effective attractions with magnitude up to the order of 1-2 kT. In this case, the stronger local electric field generated when the two ions are in contact augments the alignment of neighboring waters toward the ions. This results in a gain of substantial favorable ion-water interaction energy. For fluorides, this interaction constitutes the major change among the different energy components compensating for the anion-anion repulsion, and therefore, rendering like-charge association possible. The second mechanism involves mediation by counterions, the attractions increase with salt concentration and are characterized by small magnitudes. In particular, clusters of ion triplets, in which a counterion is either bridging the two like-charged ions or is paired to only one of them, are formed. Although these two mechanisms may not yield net attractions in many cases, they might still be operational and significant, explaining effective repulsions between like-charged ions with magnitudes much smaller than expected based on continuum electrostatics.

  18. Attraction between like-charged monovalent ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangi, Ronen

    2012-05-14

    Ions with like-charges repel each other with a magnitude given by the Coulomb law. The repulsion is also known to persist in aqueous solutions albeit factored by the medium's dielectric constant. In this paper, we report results from molecular dynamics simulations of alkali halides salt solutions indicating an effective attraction between some of the like-charged monovalent ions. The attraction is observed between anions, as well as between cations, leading to the formation of dimers with lifetimes on the order of few picoseconds. Two mechanisms have been identified to drive this counterintuitive attraction. The first is exhibited by high-charge density ions, such as fluoride, at low salt concentrations, yielding effective attractions with magnitude up to the order of 1-2 kT. In this case, the stronger local electric field generated when the two ions are in contact augments the alignment of neighboring waters toward the ions. This results in a gain of substantial favorable ion-water interaction energy. For fluorides, this interaction constitutes the major change among the different energy components compensating for the anion-anion repulsion, and therefore, rendering like-charge association possible. The second mechanism involves mediation by counterions, the attractions increase with salt concentration and are characterized by small magnitudes. In particular, clusters of ion triplets, in which a counterion is either bridging the two like-charged ions or is paired to only one of them, are formed. Although these two mechanisms may not yield net attractions in many cases, they might still be operational and significant, explaining effective repulsions between like-charged ions with magnitudes much smaller than expected based on continuum electrostatics.

  19. Multivalent Protein Assembly Using Monovalent Self-Assembling Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Petkau-Milroy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Discotic molecules, which self-assemble in water into columnar supramolecular polymers, emerged as an alternative platform for the organization of proteins. Here, a monovalent discotic decorated with one single biotin was synthesized to study the self-assembling multivalency of this system in regard to streptavidin. Next to tetravalent streptavidin, monovalent streptavidin was used to study the protein assembly along the supramolecular polymer in detail without the interference of cross-linking. Upon self-assembly of the monovalent biotinylated discotics, multivalent proteins can be assembled along the supramolecular polymer. The concentration of discotics, which influences the length of the final polymers at the same time dictates the amount of assembled proteins.

  20. Dressed counterions: Polyvalent and monovalent ions at charged dielectric interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanduč, Matej; Naji, Ali; Forsman, Jan; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the ion distribution and overcharging at charged interfaces with dielectric inhomogeneities in the presence of asymmetric electrolytes containing polyvalent and monovalent ions. We formulate an effective “dressed counterion” approach by integrating out the monovalent salt degrees of freedom and show that it agrees with results of explicit Monte Carlo simulations. We then apply the dressed counterion approach within the framework of the generalized strong-coupling theory, valid for polyvalent ions at low concentrations, which enables an analytical description for salt effects as well as dielectric inhomogeneities in the limit of strong Coulomb interactions. Limitations and applicability of this theory are examined by comparing the results with simulations.

  1. Immunogenicity of individual vaccine components in a bivalent nicotine vaccine differ according to vaccine formulation and administration conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Cornish

    Full Text Available Structurally distinct nicotine immunogens can elicit independent antibody responses against nicotine when administered concurrently. Co-administering different nicotine immunogens together as a multivalent vaccine could be a useful way to generate higher antibody levels than with monovalent vaccines alone. The immunogenicity and additivity of monovalent and bivalent nicotine vaccines was studied across a range of immunogen doses, adjuvants, and routes to assess the generality of this approach. Rats were vaccinated with total immunogen doses of 12.5-100 μg of 3'-aminomethyl nicotine conjugated to recombinant Pseudomonas exoprotein A (3'-AmNic-rEPA, 6-carboxymethylureido nicotine conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (6-CMUNic-KLH, or both. Vaccines were administered s.c. in alum or i.p. in Freund's adjuvant at matched total immunogen doses. When administered s.c. in alum, the contributions of the individual immunogens to total nicotine-specific antibody (NicAb titers and concentrations were preserved across a range of doses. Antibody affinity for nicotine varied greatly among individuals but was similar for monovalent and bivalent vaccines. However when administered i.p. in Freund's adjuvant the contributions of the individual immunogens to total NicAb titers and concentrations were compromised at some doses. These results support the possibility of co-administering structurally distinct nicotine immunogens to achieve a more robust immune response than can be obtained with monovalent immunogens alone. Choice of adjuvant was important for the preservation of immunogen component activity.

  2. A systematic review and meta-analysis for the adverse effects, immunogenicity and efficacy of Lyme disease vaccines: Guiding novel vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Alaa; Shering, Maria; Rahman, Shusmita; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2017-04-20

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne infectious disease in North America. Currently, no vaccine is available to prevent LB in humans, although monovalent and multivalent vaccines have been developed in the past. The aim of the current study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate and compare the findings from these two classes of vaccines for their reactogenicity, immunogenicity and efficacy, in the hope this may assist in the development of future vaccines. A search strategy was developed for online databases (PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Embase). Search terms used were "vaccine/vaccination", "Lyme disease/Borreliosis", "clinical trial(s)" and "efficacy". Only seven clinical trials were included to compare the results of the monovalent vaccines to those of the multivalent one. Meta-analyses were conducted to evaluate the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the two vaccine classes. Odds ratio (OR) for LB (and 95% confidence intervals; 95% CI) were calculated for the efficacy of the monovalent vaccine from three different clinical trials at different dose schedules. Incidence of redness (local adverse effect) and fever (systemic side effect) were, respectively, 6.8- and 2.9-fold significantly lower (p < 0.05) in individuals who received multivalent vaccines compared to those receiving the monovalent one. Incidences of all other local and systemic adverse effects were non-significantly lower in the multivalent vaccine compared to the monovalent vaccines. Seroprotection was comparable among individuals who received the two vaccine classes at the 30 μg dose level. Efficacy in the prevention of LB was only evaluated for the monovalent vaccines. OR of LB ranged from 0.49 (95% CI: 0.14-0.70; p < 0.005, vs. placebo) to 0.31 (95% CI: 0.26-0.63; p < 0.005) for the initial and final doses respectively, with an overall OR of 0.4 (95% CI: 0.26-0.63, p < 0.001). The current study further validates that the monovalent and multivalent

  3. Protection against Japanese encephalitis by inactivated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, C H; Nisalak, A; Sangawhipa, N; Jatanasen, S; Laorakapongse, T; Innis, B L; Kotchasenee, S; Gingrich, J B; Latendresse, J; Fukai, K

    1988-09-01

    Encephalitis caused by Japanese encephalitis virus occurs in annual epidemics throughout Asia, making it the principal cause of epidemic viral encephalitis in the world. No currently available vaccine has demonstrated efficacy in preventing this disease in a controlled trial. We performed a placebo-controlled, blinded, randomized trial in a northern Thai province, with two doses of monovalent (Nakayama strain) or bivalent (Nakayama plus Beijing strains) inactivated, purified Japanese encephalitis vaccine made from whole virus derived from mouse brain. We examined the effect of these vaccines on the incidence and severity of Japanese encephalitis and dengue hemorrhagic fever, a disease caused by a closely related flavivirus. Between November 1984 and March 1985, 65,224 children received two doses of monovalent Japanese encephalitis vaccine (n = 21,628), bivalent Japanese encephalitis vaccine (n = 22,080), or tetanus toxoid placebo (n = 21,516), with only minor side effects. The cumulative attack rate for encephalitis due to Japanese encephalitis virus was 51 per 100,000 in the placebo group and 5 per 100,000 in each vaccine group. The efficacy in both vaccine groups combined was 91 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 70 to 97 percent). Attack rates for dengue hemorrhagic fever declined, but not significantly. The severity of cases of dengue was also reduced. We conclude that two doses of inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine, either monovalent or bivalent, protect against encephalitis due to Japanese encephalitis virus and may have a limited beneficial effect on the severity of dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  4. 77 FR 63839 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... immunogenicity of an Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Monovalent Vaccine manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline. On November 15...

  5. Vaccine-preventable haemophilus influenza type B disease burden and cost-effectiveness of infant vaccination in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Bradford D; Sedyaningsih, Endang R; Griffiths, Ulla K; Sutanto, Agustinus; Linehan, Mary; Mercer, Dave; Mulholland, Edward Kim; Walker, Damian G; Steinhoff, Mark; Nadjib, Mardiati

    2008-05-01

    Most of Asia, including Indonesia, does not use Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines. We estimated total vaccine-preventable disease burden and the cost-effectiveness of Hib conjugate vaccine in Indonesia. Hib pneumonia and meningitis incidences for children with access to health care were derived from a randomized vaccine probe study on Lombok Island, Indonesia during 1998-2002. Incidences were adjusted for limited access to care. Health system and patient out-of-pocket treatment cost data were collected concurrent with the probe study. For Hib vaccine in monovalent and combined (with DTP-HepB) presentations, we used 2007 UNICEF vaccine prices of US$3.30 and $3.75 per dose. For the 2007 Indonesian birth cohort, Hib vaccine would prevent meningitis in 1 of every 179 children, pneumonia in 1 of every 18 children, and 4.9% of mortality among those younger than 5 years. The total incremental societal costs of introducing Hib vaccine in monovalent and pentavalent presentations were, respectively, US$11.74 and $8.93 per child vaccinated. Annual discounted treatment costs averted amounted to 20% of pentavalent vaccine costs. For the pentavalent vaccine, the incremental costs per discounted death and disability adjusted life-year averted amounted to US$3102 and $74, respectively, versus $4438 and $102 for monovalent vaccine. Routine infant Hib vaccination would prevent a large burden of pediatric illness and death in Indonesia. Even without external funding support, Hib vaccine will be a highly cost-effective intervention in either a monovalent or pentavalent presentation based on commonly used benchmarks.

  6. N-Trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles loaded with influenza subunit antigen for intranasal vaccination : Biological properties and immunogenicity in a mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amidi, Maryam; Romeijn, Stefan G.; Verhoef, J. Coos; Junginger, Hans E.; Bungener, Laura; Huckriede, Anke; Crommelin, Daan J. A.; Jiskoot, Wim

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the potential of N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles as a carrier system for the nasal delivery of a monovalent influenza subunit vaccine was investigated. The antigen-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by mixing a solution containing TMC and monovalent influenza A subunit H3N2

  7. N-Trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles loaded with influenza subunit antigen for intranasal vaccination : Biological properties and immunogenicity in a mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amidi, Maryam; Romeijn, Stefan G.; Verhoef, J. Coos; Junginger, Hans E.; Bungener, Laura; Huckriede, Anke; Crommelin, Daan J. A.; Jiskoot, Wim

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the potential of N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles as a carrier system for the nasal delivery of a monovalent influenza subunit vaccine was investigated. The antigen-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by mixing a solution containing TMC and monovalent influenza A subunit H3N2 w

  8. Polarized spectral complexes of optical functions of monovalent mercury iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, V. V.; Sobolev, V. Val.; Anisimov, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    Spectral complexes of optical functions of monovalent mercury iodide Hg2I2 were determined for E ⊥ c and E || c polarizations in the range from 2 to 5.5 eV at 4.2 K. The permittivity and characteristic electron energy loss spectra were expanded in simple components with the determination of their main parameters, including the energy of the maximum and the oscillator strength. The calculations were performed based on known reflectance spectra. Computer programs based on Kramers-Kronig relations and the improved parameter-free method of Argand diagrams were used.

  9. Vaccines against bluetongue in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Giovanni; MacLachlan, N James; Sanchez-Vizcaino, Jose-Manuel; Zientara, Stéphan

    2008-03-01

    After the incursion of bluetongue virus (BTV) into European Mediterranean countries in 1998, vaccination was used in an effort to minimize direct economic losses to animal production, reduce virus circulation and allow safe movements of animals from endemic areas. Vaccination strategies in different countries were developed according to their individual policies, the geographic distribution of the incurring serotypes of BTV and the availability of appropriate vaccines. Four monovalent modified live virus (MLV) vaccines were imported from South Africa and subsequently used extensively in both cattle and sheep. MLVs were found to be immunogenic and capable of generating strong protective immunity in vaccinated ruminants. Adverse side effects were principally evident in sheep. Specifically, some vaccinated sheep developed signs of clinical bluetongue with fever, facial oedema and lameness. Lactating sheep that developed fever also had reduced milk production. More severe clinical signs occurred in large numbers of sheep that were vaccinated with vaccine combinations containing the BTV-16 MLV, and the use of the monovalent BTV-16 MLV was discontinued as a consequence. Abortion occurred in sheep and cattle that received MLVs did not exceed 35 days, with the single notable exception of a cow vaccinated with a multivalent BTV-2, -4, -9 and -16 vaccine in which viraemia persisted at least 78 days. Viraemia of sufficient titre to infect Culicoides insects was observed transiently in MLV-vaccinated ruminants, and natural transmission of MLV strains has been confirmed. An inactivated vaccine was first developed against BTV-2 and used in the field. An inactivated vaccine against BTV-4 as well as a bivalent vaccine against serotypes 2 and 4 were subsequently developed and used in Corsica, Spain, Portugal and Italy. These inactivated vaccines were generally safe although on few occasions reactions occurred at the site of inoculation. Two doses of these BTV inactivated vaccines

  10. Clinical Severity and Rotavirus Vaccination among Children Hospitalized for Acute Gastroenteritis in Belém, Northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justino, Maria Cleonice A; Brasil, Patrícia; Abreu, Erika; Miranda, Yllen; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc P; Guerra, Sylvia F S; Linhares, Alexandre C

    2016-08-01

    In March 2006, Brazil introduced the monovalent rotavirus (RV) vaccine (Rotarix™) into the public sector. This study assessed the severity of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) according to the vaccination status among hospitalized children. We identified 1023 RVGE episodes among not vaccinated (n = 252), partially vaccinated (n = 156) and fully vaccinated (n = 615) children. Very severe gastroenteritis (scored ≥ 15) was reported in 16.7, 17.9 and 13.5% of not vaccinated, partially vaccinated and fully vaccinated children, respectively. There was a trend for a shorter duration of RV diarrhoea among vaccinated children than in not vaccinated children (p = 0.07). A protective effect of vaccination was noted when mean duration of symptoms and hospital stay are analysed, comparing unvaccinated, partially vaccinated and fully vaccinated children (p vaccination dose effect trend, with fully vaccinated children having less-severe RVGE than not vaccinated and partially vaccinated children.

  11. Profiling of Humoral Response to Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Infection and Vaccination Measured by a Protein Microarray in Persons with and without History of Seasonal Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Huijskens, Elisabeth G. W.; Johan Reimerink; Mulder, Paul G H; Janko van Beek; Adam Meijer; Erwin de Bruin; Ingrid Friesema; de Jong, Menno D.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Peeters, Marcel F.; Rossen, John W. A.; Marion Koopmans

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The influence of prior seasonal influenza vaccination on the antibody response produced by natural infection or vaccination is not well understood. Methods: We compared the profiles of antibody responses of 32 naturally infected subjects and 98 subjects vaccinated with a 2009 influenza A(H1N1) monovalent MF59-adjuvanted vaccine (Focetria®, Novartis), with and without a history of seasonal influenza vaccination. Antibodies were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (H...

  12. Seasonal influenza vaccine and protection against pandemic (H1N1 2009-associated illness among US military personnel.

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    Matthew C Johns

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A novel A/H1N1 virus is the cause of the present influenza pandemic; vaccination is a key countermeasure, however, few data assessing prior seasonal vaccine effectiveness (VE against the pandemic strain of H1N1 (pH1N1 virus are available. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surveillance of influenza-related medical encounter data of active duty military service members stationed in the United States during the period of April-October 2009 with comparison of pH1N1-confirmed cases and location and date-matched controls. Crude odds ratios (OR and VE estimates for immunized versus non-immunized were calculated as well as adjusted OR (AOR controlling for sex, age group, and history of prior influenza vaccination. Separate stratified VE analyses by vaccine type (trivalent inactivated [TIV] or live attenuated [LAIV], age groups and hospitalization status were also performed. For the period of April 20 to October 15, 2009, a total of 1,205 cases of pH1N1-confirmed cases were reported, 966 (80% among males and over one-half (58% under 25 years of age. Overall VE for service members was found to be 45% (95% CI, 33 to 55%. Immunization with prior season's TIV (VE = 44%, 95% CI, 32 to 54% as well as LAIV (VE = 24%, 95% CI, 6 to 38% were both found to be associated with protection. Of significance, VE against a severe disease outcome was higher (VE = 62%, 95% CI, 14 to 84% than against milder outcomes (VE = 42%, 95% CI, 29 to 53%. CONCLUSION: A moderate association with protection against clinically apparent, laboratory-confirmed Pandemic (H1N1 2009-associated illness was found for immunization with either TIV or LAIV 2008-09 seasonal influenza vaccines. This association with protection was found to be especially apparent for severe disease as compared to milder outcome, as well as in the youngest and older populations. Prior vaccination with seasonal influenza vaccines in 2004-08 was also independently associated with protection.

  13. Antibody persistence and immune memory 4 years post-vaccination with combined hepatitis A and B vaccine in adults aged over 40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlibek, Roman; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Van Damme, Pierre; Smetana, Jan; Tichy, Petr; Gunapalaiah, Bhavyashree; Leyssen, Maarten; Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Persistence of immune response was assessed in adults aged >40 years (N = 596) following primary vaccination with combined hepatitis A/B vaccine or concomitant monovalent hepatitis A and B vaccines. Anti-hepatitis A virus antibody responses persisted for at least 4 years regardless of the vaccine used, with anti-hepatitis B surface antibody responses higher and more sustained in subjects who received the combined hepatitis A/B vaccine. Response rates to an additional dose of the same vaccine(s) used for priming were high.

  14. Optimal pandemic influenza vaccine allocation strategies for the Canadian population.

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    Ashleigh R Tuite

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The world is currently confronting the first influenza pandemic of the 21(st century. Influenza vaccination is an effective preventive measure, but the unique epidemiological features of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 (pH1N1 introduce uncertainty as to the best strategy for prioritization of vaccine allocation. We sought to determine optimal prioritization of vaccine distribution among different age and risk groups within the Canadian population, to minimize influenza-attributable morbidity and mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a deterministic, age-structured compartmental model of influenza transmission, with key parameter values estimated from data collected during the initial phase of the epidemic in Ontario, Canada. We examined the effect of different vaccination strategies on attack rates, hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions, and mortality. In all scenarios, prioritization of high-risk individuals (those with underlying chronic conditions and pregnant women, regardless of age, markedly decreased the frequency of severe outcomes. When individuals with underlying medical conditions were not prioritized and an age group-based approach was used, preferential vaccination of age groups at increased risk of severe outcomes following infection generally resulted in decreased mortality compared to targeting vaccine to age groups with higher transmission, at a cost of higher population-level attack rates. All simulations were sensitive to the timing of the epidemic peak in relation to vaccine availability, with vaccination having the greatest impact when it was implemented well in advance of the epidemic peak. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our model simulations suggest that vaccine should be allocated to high-risk groups, regardless of age, followed by age groups at increased risk of severe outcomes. Vaccination may significantly reduce influenza-attributable morbidity and mortality, but the benefits are

  15. Bivalent inactivated hepatitis A and recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Jiri

    2007-12-01

    Hepatitis A and B remain serious global public health problems. Monovalent vaccines against hepatitis A and B have been available for many years. Since 1996, licenses have been gradually introduced for different formulations and immunization schedules of the first combined vaccines against both diseases. Twinrix Adult (with conventional and accelerated schedules) is available for the immunization of individuals aged 16 years or older in Europe and 18 years or older the USA. Twinrix Pediatric, with its three-dose schedule, and AmBirix, with its two-dose schedule, are licensed in Europe for ages 1-15 years. These vaccines offer a single injection for satisfactory protection against hepatitis A and B and an excellent safety and reactogenicity profile in comparison with monovalent vaccines. This article focuses on immunogenicity of the vaccines and proposes expert opinion and future directions in this field.

  16. Immunogenicity of Virus Like Particle Forming Baculoviral DNA Vaccine against Pandemic Influenza H1N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Dae Gwon

    Full Text Available An outbreak of influenza H1N1 in 2009, representing the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century, was transmitted to over a million individuals and claimed 18,449 lives. The current status in many countries is to prepare influenza vaccine using cell-based or egg-based killed vaccine. However, traditional influenza vaccine platforms have several limitations. To overcome these limitations, many researchers have tried various approaches to develop alternative production platforms. One of the alternative approach, we reported the efficacy of influenza HA vaccination using a baculoviral DNA vaccine (AcHERV-HA. However, the immune response elicited by the AcHERV-HA vaccine, which only targets the HA antigen, was lower than that of the commercial killed vaccine. To overcome the limitations of this previous vaccine, we constructed a human endogenous retrovirus (HERV envelope-coated, baculovirus-based, virus-like-particle (VLP-forming DNA vaccine (termed AcHERV-VLP against pandemic influenza A/California/04/2009 (pH1N1. BALB/c mice immunized with AcHERV-VLP (1×107 FFU AcHERV-VLP, i.m. and compared with mice immunized with the killed vaccine or mice immunized with AcHERV-HA. As a result, AcHERV-VLP immunization produced a greater humoral immune response and exhibited neutralizing activity with an intrasubgroup H1 strain (PR8, elicited neutralizing antibody production, a high level of interferon-γ secretion in splenocytes, and diminished virus shedding in the lung after challenge with a lethal dose of influenza virus. In conclusion, VLP-forming baculovirus DNA vaccine could be a potential vaccine candidate capable of efficiently delivering DNA to the vaccinee and VLP forming DNA eliciting stronger immunogenicity than egg-based killed vaccines.

  17. Interim estimates of 2013-14 seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness - United States, February 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Brendan; Thaker, Swathi N; Clippard, Jessie; Monto, Arnold S; Ohmit, Suzanne E; Zimmerman, Richard K; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Gaglani, Manjusha; Jackson, Michael L; Jackson, Lisa A; Belongia, Edward A; McLean, Huong Q; Berman, LaShondra; Foust, Angie; Sessions, Wendy; Spencer, Sarah; Fry, Alicia M

    2014-02-21

    In the United States, annual vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months. Each season since 2004-05, CDC has estimated the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine to prevent influenza-associated, medically attended acute respiratory illness (ARI). This report uses data from 2,319 children and adults enrolled in the U.S. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness (Flu VE) Network during December 2, 2013-January 23, 2014, to estimate an interim adjusted effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection associated with medically attended ARI. During this period, overall vaccine effectiveness (VE) (adjusted for study site, age, sex, race/ethnicity, self-rated health, and days from illness onset to enrollment) against influenza A and B virus infection associated with medically attended ARI was 61%. The influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) virus that emerged to cause a pandemic in 2009 accounted for 98% of influenza viruses detected. VE was estimated to be 62% against pH1N1 virus infections and was similar across age groups. As of February 8, 2014, influenza activity remained elevated in the United States, the proportion of persons seeing their health-care provider for influenza-like illness was lower than in early January but remained above the national baseline, and activity still might be increasing in some parts of the country. CDC and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices routinely recommend that annual influenza vaccination efforts continue as long as influenza viruses are circulating. Persons aged ≥6 months who have not yet been vaccinated this season should be vaccinated. Antiviral medications are an important second line of defense to treat influenza illness and should be used as recommended among suspected or confirmed influenza patients, regardless of patient vaccination status. Early antiviral treatment is recommended for persons with suspected influenza with

  18. Adverse events after hepatitis A B combination vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Emily Jane; Miller, Nancy B; Ball, Robert

    2006-03-24

    In May 2001, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Hepatitis A Inactivated and Hepatitis B Recombinant Vaccine (HEPAB) for immunization of adults. From May 2001 to September 2003, the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) received 305 reports of adverse events after HEPAB. Many events were similar to those reported after the monovalent hepatitis A and B vaccines. Non-serious events included constitutional symptoms and local reactions. Serious events included neurologic, hepatobiliary, and dermatologic conditions, and detailed medical and epidemiological review did not suggest a clear pattern of evidence supporting a causal relationship with the vaccine, except for injection site reactions and some allergic reactions.

  19. Development and field application of a new combined vaccine against Peste des Petits Ruminants and Sheep Pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fakri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined vaccine against Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR and Sheep/Goat Pox (SGP was developed and applied in the field, using a new association of vaccine strains: PPR Nigeria 75 strain with a titre of 104.1 TCID50 and Sheep Pox Romania strain with a titre of 104.0 TCID50. Safety and efficacy were evaluated on goats and sheep in comparison with monovalent PPR and SGP vaccines. Goats were challenged by PPR virulent strain and sheep by SP virulent strain. The result shows that the combined PPR/SGP vaccine confers a good protection against both PPR and SGP infection with no significant difference with monovalent vaccines. The combined vaccine was used in the field on sheep flocks and good sero-conversion was detected for both diseases as soon as 14 days post vaccination.

  20. Activation and inhibition of histone deacetylase 8 by monovalent cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Stephanie L; Joseph, Caleb G; Fierke, Carol A

    2010-02-26

    The metal-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze hydrolysis of acetyl groups from acetyllysine side chains and are targets of cancer therapeutics. Two bound monovalent cations (MVCs) of unknown function have been previously observed in crystal structures of HDAC8; site 1 is near the active site, whereas site 2 is located > 20 A from the catalytic metal ion. Here we demonstrate that one bound MVC activates catalytic activity (K(1/2) = 3.4 mM for K(+)), whereas the second, weaker-binding MVC (K(1/2) = 26 mM for K(+)) decreases catalytic activity by 11-fold. The weaker binding MVC also enhances the affinity of the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid by 5-fold. The site 1 MVC is coordinated by the side chain of Asp-176 that also forms a hydrogen bond with His-142, one of two histidines important for catalytic activity. The D176A and H142A mutants each increase the K(1/2) for potassium inhibition by > or = 40-fold, demonstrating that the inhibitory cation binds to site 1. Furthermore, the MVC inhibition is mediated by His-142, suggesting that this residue is protonated for maximal HDAC8 activity. Therefore, His-142 functions either as an electrostatic catalyst or a general acid. The activating MVC binds in the distal site and causes a time-dependent increase in activity, suggesting that the site 2 MVC stabilizes an active conformation of the enzyme. Sodium binds more weakly to both sites and activates HDAC8 to a lesser extent than potassium. Therefore, it is likely that potassium is the predominant MVC bound to HDAC8 in vivo.

  1. Selective removal of arsenic and monovalent ions from brackish water reverse osmosis concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Capito, Marissa; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2013-09-15

    Concentrate disposal and management is a considerable challenge for the implementation of desalination technologies, especially for inland applications where concentrate disposal options are limited. This study has focused on selective removal of arsenic and monovalent ions from brackish groundwater reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate for beneficial use and safe environmental disposal using in situ and pre-formed hydrous ferric oxides/hydroxides adsorption, and electrodialysis (ED) with monovalent permselective membranes. Coagulation with ferric salts is highly efficient at removing arsenic from RO concentrate to meet a drinking water standard of 10 μg/L. The chemical demand for ferric chloride however is much lower than ferric sulfate as coagulant. An alternative method using ferric sludge from surface water treatment plant is demonstrated as an efficient adsorbent to remove arsenic from RO concentrate, providing a promising low cost, "waste treat waste" approach. The monovalent permselective anion exchange membranes exhibit high selectivity in removing monovalent anions over di- and multi-valent anions. The transport of sulfate and phosphate through the anion exchange membranes was negligible over a broad range of electrical current density. However, the transport of divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium increases through monovalent permselective cation exchange membranes with increasing current density. Higher overall salt concentration reduction is achieved around limiting current density while higher normalized salt removal rate in terms of mass of salt per membrane area and applied energy is attained at lower current density because the energy unitization efficiency decreases at higher current density.

  2. Duration of immunity induced by an adjuvanted and inactivated equine influenza, tetanus and equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 combination vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldens, J G; Kersten, A J; Weststrate, M W; van den Hoven, R

    2001-11-01

    An adjuvanted vaccine containing inactivated equine influenza, herpesvirus antigens, and tetanus toxoid was administered to young seronegative foals of 8 months of age by deep intramuscular injection in the neck (Group A). The first two vaccinations were given 4 weeks apart. The third was administered 6 months later. Another group of foals (Group B) was vaccinated according to the same scheme at the same time with monovalent equine herpes virus (EHV) vaccine (EHV1.4) vaccine. Antibody responses to the equine influenza (single radial haemolysis; SRH) and tetanus (ToBi ELISA) components of the vaccines were examined from first vaccination until 1 year after the third vaccination. The influenza components of the combination vaccine induced high antibody titres at two weeks after the second vaccination whereafter titres declined until the time of the third vaccination. After the third vaccination, the titres rose rapidly again to remain high for at least 1 year. Antibody titres against tetanus peaked only after the third vaccination but remained high enough to offer protective immunity for at least 1 year. Foals vaccinated with monovalent EHV1.4 remained seronegative for influenza and tetanus throughout the study. Four and a half months after the third vaccination of groups A and B, a third group of animals was vaccinated twice with monovalent EHV1.4 vaccine 4 weeks apart (Group C). Two weeks after the administration of the second dose in the later group, all groups (A, B, C and an unvaccinated control group D) were challenged with EHV-4. Vaccinated foals (Group A, B, C) showed a clear reduction of clinical symptoms and virus excretion after EHV-4 challenge compared with the unvaccinated control foals. No difference could be demonstrated among the vaccinated groups, suggesting that the combination vaccine protects as well as the monovalent vaccine. In EHV1.4-vaccinated foals both antigenic fractions induced clear protection up to 6 months after vaccination (9). It can

  3. Immunization-Safety Monitoring Systems for the 2009 H1N1 Monovalent Influenza Vaccination Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    central nervous system, optic neuritis, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy ) 340, 341.0, 341.8, 341.9, 377.30, 377.31, 377.32, 377.34...neuropathy, polyneuropathy due to drugs or other toxic agents, critical illness polyneuropathy , other inflammatory and toxic neuropathy) 337.0, 337.9, 354.1...Popula- tions at high risk, such as those with chronic diseases, are sometimes not well represented in clinical studies; however, additional efforts

  4. Pricing strategies for combination pediatric vaccines based on the lowest overall cost formulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Banafsheh; Jacobson, Sheldon H; Sewell, Edward C

    2012-10-01

    This paper analyzes pricing strategies for US pediatric combination vaccines by comparing the lowest overall cost formularies (i.e., formularies that have the lowest overall cost). Three pharmaceutical companies compete pairwise over the sale of monovalent and combination vaccines. Particular emphasis is placed on examining the price of Sanofi Pasteur's DTaP-IPV/HIb under different conditions. The main contribution of the paper is to provide the lowest overall cost formularies for different prices of DTaP-IPV/HIb and other Sanofi Pasteur vaccines. The resulting analysis shows that DTaP-IPV/HIb could have been more competitively priced compared with the combination vaccine DTaP-HepB-IPV, for federal contract prices in 2009, 2010 and 2011. This study also proposes the lowest overall cost formularies when shortages of monovalent vaccines occur.

  5. Neutralizing capacity of a new monovalent anti-Bothrops atrox antivenom: comparison with two commercial antivenoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Otero

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Three horse-derived antivenoms were tested for their ability to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, defibrinating and myotoxic activities induced by the venom of Bothrops atrox from Antioquia and Chocó (Colombia. The following antivenoms were used: a polyvalent (crotaline antivenom produced by Instituto Clodomiro Picado (Costa Rica, b monovalent antibothropic antivenom produced by Instituto Nacional de Salud-INS (Bogotá, and c a new monovalent anti-B. atrox antivenom produced with the venom of B. atrox from Antioquia and Chocó. The three antivenoms neutralized all toxic activities tested albeit with different potencies. The new monovalent anti-B. atrox antivenom showed the highest neutralizing ability against edema-forming and defibrinating effects of B. atrox venom (41 ± 2 and 100 ± 32 µl antivenom/mg venom, respectively, suggesting that it should be useful in the treatment of B. atrox envenomation in Antioquia and Chocó

  6. Predicting 3D Structure, Flexibility, and Stability of RNA Hairpins in Monovalent and Divalent Ion Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-Zhou; Jin, Lei; Wang, Feng-Hua; Zhu, Xiao-Long; Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2015-01-01

    A full understanding of RNA-mediated biology would require the knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures, structural flexibility, and stability of RNAs. To predict RNA 3D structures and stability, we have previously proposed a three-bead coarse-grained predictive model with implicit salt/solvent potentials. In this study, we further develop the model by improving the implicit-salt electrostatic potential and including a sequence-dependent coaxial stacking potential to enable the model to simulate RNA 3D structure folding in divalent/monovalent ion solutions. The model presented here can predict 3D structures of RNA hairpins with bulges/internal loops (RNA hairpins with bulge loops of different lengths at several divalent/monovalent ion conditions. In addition, the model successfully predicts the stability of RNA hairpins with various loops/stems in divalent/monovalent ion solutions. PMID:26682822

  7. Potent tetravalent replicon vaccines against botulinum neurotoxins using DNA-based Semliki Forest virus replicon vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun-Zhou; Guo, Jin-Peng; An, Huai-Jie; Zhang, Shu-Ming; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Wei-Yuan; Sun, Zhi-Wei

    2013-05-07

    Human botulism is commonly associated with botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes A, B, E and F. This suggests that the greatest need is for a tetravalent vaccine that provides protection against all four of these serotypes. In current study, we investigated the feasibility of generating several tetravalent vaccines that protected mice against the four serotypes. Firstly, monovalent replicon vaccine against BoNT induced better antibody response and protection than that of corresponding conventional DNA vaccine. Secondly, dual-expression DNA replicon pSCARSE/FHc or replicon particle VRP-E/FHc vaccine was well resistant to the challenge of BoNT/E and BoNT/F mixture as a combination vaccine composed of two monovalent replicon vaccines. Finally, the dual-expression DNA replicon or replicon particle tetravalent vaccine could simultaneously and effectively neutralize and protect the four BoNT serotypes. Protection correlated directly with serum ELISA titers and neutralization antibody levels to BoNTs. Therefore, replicon-based DNA or particle might be effective vector to develop BoNT vaccines, which might be more desirable for use in clinical application than the conventional DNA vaccines. Our studies demonstrate the utility of combining dual-expression DNA replicon or replicon particle vaccines into multi-agent formulations as potent tetravalent vaccines for eliciting protective responses to four serotypes of BoNTs.

  8. Diagnosis of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (pH1N1) and Seasonal Influenza Using Rapid Influenza Antigen Tests, San Antonio, Texas, April-June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    CDC Atlanta US. CDC protocol of realtime RTPCR for influenza A(H1N1) revision 1. 30 April 2009. Available at: http://www.who.int/ csr / resources...2009; 325:483–7. 24. Munster VJ, de Wit E, van den Brand JM, et al. Pathogenesis and Transmission of Swine-Origin 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Virus in Fer

  9. The Mrp system: a giant among monovalent cation/proton antiporters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Talia H; Ikewada, Sayuri; Ishikawa, Osamu; Ito, Masahiro; Krulwich, Terry Ann

    2005-10-01

    Mrp systems are a novel and broadly distributed type of monovalent cation/proton antiporter of bacteria and archaea. Monovalent cation/proton antiporters are membrane transport proteins that catalyze efflux of cytoplasmic sodium, potassium or lithium ions in exchange for external hydrogen ions (protons). Other known monovalent cation antiporters are single gene products, whereas Mrp systems have been proposed to function as hetero-oligomers. A mrp operon typically has six or seven genes encoding hydrophobic proteins all of which are required for optimal Mrp-dependent sodium-resistance. There is little sequence similarity of Mrp proteins to other antiporters but three of these proteins have significant sequence similarity to membrane embedded subunits of ion-translocating electron transport complexes. Mrp antiporters have essential roles in the physiology of alkaliphilic and neutralophilic Bacillus species, nitrogen-fixing Sinorhizobium meliloti and in the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, although these bacteria contain multiple monovalent cation/proton antiporters. The wide distribution of Mrp systems leads to the anticipation of important roles in an even wider variety of pathogens, extremophiles and environmentally important organisms. Here, the distribution, established physiological roles and catalytic activities of Mrp systems are reviewed, hypotheses regarding their complexity are discussed and major open questions about their function are highlighted.

  10. Immunogenicity and efficacy of chimeric dengue vaccine (DENVax) formulations in interferon-deficient AG129 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewoo, Joseph N; Kinney, Richard M; Powell, Tim D; Arguello, John J; Silengo, Shawn J; Partidos, Charalambos D; Huang, Claire Y-H; Stinchcomb, Dan T; Osorio, Jorge E

    2012-02-14

    Formulations of chimeric dengue vaccine (DENVax) viruses containing the pre-membrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes of serotypes 1-4 expressed in the context of the attenuated DENV-2 PDK-53 genome were tested for safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in interferon receptor knock-out mice (AG129). Monovalent formulations were safe and elicited robust neutralizing antibody responses to the homologous virus and only limited cross-reactivity to other serotypes. A single dose of monovalent DENVax-1, -2, or -3 vaccine provided eighty or greater percent protection against both wild-type (wt) DENV-1 (Mochizuki strain) and DENV-2 (New Guinea C strain) challenge viruses. A single dose of monovalent DENVax-4 also provided complete protection against wt DENV-1 challenge and significantly increased the survival times after challenge with wt DENV-2. In studies using tetravalent mixtures, DENVax ratios were identified that: (i) caused limited viremia, (ii) induced serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies to all four DENV serotypes with different hierarchies, and (iii) conferred full protection against clinical signs of disease following challenge with either wt DENV-1 or DENV-2 viruses. Overall, these data highlight the immunogenic profile of DENVax, a novel candidate tetravalent dengue vaccine and the advantage of sharing a common attenuated genomic backbone among the DENVax monovalent vaccines that confer protection against homologous or heterologous virus challenge.

  11. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervix - HPV vaccine; Abnormal Pap smear - HPV vaccine; Vaccination - HPV vaccine ... and Gynecologists. Committee opinion No. 641: human papillomavirus vaccination. Obstet Gynecol . 2015;126(3):e38-e43. PMID: ...

  12. Rotavirus vaccines: viral shedding and risk of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Evan J

    2008-10-01

    Rotavirus causes gastroenteritis in almost all children by 5 years of age. Immunity to rotavirus is incomplete, with potential for recurrent infections occurring throughout life. Live rotavirus vaccines have been developed for the protection of children from severe wildtype rotavirus infections. Transmission of vaccine virus strains from vaccinated children to unvaccinated contacts harbours the potential for herd immunity, but also the risk of vaccine-derived disease in immunocompromised contacts. A review of rotavirus vaccine prelicensure studies shows that viral shedding and transmission were higher with the old tetravalent rhesus rotavirus vaccine than with the current human attenuated monovalent rotavirus vaccine and the pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine. Immunocompromised contacts should be advised to avoid contact with stool from the immunised child if possible, particularly after the first vaccine dose for at least 14 days. Since the risk of vaccine transmission and subsequent vaccine-derived disease with the current vaccines is much less than the risk of wildtype rotavirus disease in immunocompromised contacts, vaccination should be encouraged.

  13. Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines against influenza-associated illnesses among US military personnel in 2010-11: a case-control approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelia A Eick-Cost

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Following the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1 pandemic, both seasonal and pH1N1 viruses circulated in the US during the 2010-2011 influenza season; influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE may vary between live attenuated (LAIV and trivalent inactivated (TIV vaccines as well as by virus subtype. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vaccine type and virus subtype-specific VE were determined for US military active component personnel for the period of September 1, 2010 through April 30, 2011. Laboratory-confirmed influenza-related medical encounters were compared to matched individuals with a non-respiratory illness (healthy controls, and unmatched individuals who experienced a non-influenza respiratory illness (test-negative controls. Odds ratios (OR and VE estimates were calculated overall, by vaccine type and influenza subtype. RESULTS: A total of 603 influenza cases were identified. Overall VE was relatively low and similar regardless of whether healthy controls (VE = 26%, 95% CI: -1 to 45 or test-negative controls (VE = 29%, 95% CI: -6 to 53 were used as comparison groups. Using test-negative controls, vaccine type-specific VE was found to be higher for TIV (53%, 95% CI: 25 to 71 than for LAIV (VE = -13%, 95% CI: -77 to 27. Influenza subtype-specific analyses revealed moderate protection against A/H3 (VE = 58%, 95% CI: 21 to 78, but not against A/H1 (VE = -38%, 95% CI: -211 to 39 or B (VE = 34%, 95% CI: -122 to 80. CONCLUSION: Overall, a low level of protection against clinically-apparent, laboratory-confirmed, influenza was found for the 2010-11 seasonal influenza vaccines. TIV immunization was associated with higher protection than LAIV, however, no protection against A/H1 was noted, despite inclusion of a pandemic influenza strain as a vaccine component for two consecutive years. Vaccine virus mismatch or lower immunogenicity may have contributed to these findings and deserve further examination in controlled studies. Continued assessment of VE in

  14. Weighing the risks and benefits of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, L T

    1999-01-01

    are "just too dangerous." Some owners report that since they completely stopped vaccinating their animals, they have been healthy. What they fail to realize is that a high percentage of animal owners are responsible and do vaccinate their animals, thus providing "herd immunity" protection to the unvaccinated animals whom they contact. The solution to the vaccine controversy is not to abandon vaccination as an effective means of disease prevention and control, but rather to encourage vaccine research to answer important questions regarding safety and to identify the biological basis for adverse reactions. Key questions to be answered include these: What components of vaccines are responsible for adverse reactions? What is the genetic basis for susceptibility to adverse health effects in animals? How can susceptible individuals be identified? Do multivalent vaccines cause a higher rate of adverse reactions than monovalent vaccines? Is administration of multiple doses of monovalent vaccines really any safer than administering a single multivalent vaccine? These and other vaccine-related questions deserve our attention as veterinarians so we can fulfill our veterinary oath to relieve animal suffering and "above all else, do no harm."

  15. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Safety Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Vaccine Safety Smallpox Vaccine Safety Common Concerns Adjuvants Autism CDC Statement: 2004 Pediatrics Paper on MMR and Autism Fainting (Syncope) Febrile ...

  16. Neutralizing antibody responses in macaques induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 monovalent or trivalent envelope glycoproteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald V Quinnan

    Full Text Available A major goal of efforts to develop a vaccine to prevent HIV-1 infection is induction of broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (bcnAb. In previous studies we have demonstrated induction of neutralizing antibodies that did cross-react among multiple primary and laboratory strains of HIV-1, but neutralized with limited potency. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that immunization with multiple HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs would result in a more potent and cross-reactive neutralizing response. One Env, CM243(N610Q, was selected on the basis of studies of the effects of single and multiple mutations of the four gp41 glycosylation sites. The other two Envs included R2 (subtype B and 14/00/4 (subtype F, both of which were obtained from donors with bcnAb. Rhesus monkeys were immunized using a prime boost regimen as in previous studies. Individual groups of monkeys were immunized with either one of the three Envs or all three. The single N610Q and N615Q mutations of CM243 Env did not disrupt protein secretion, processing into, or reactivity with mAbs, unlike other single or multiple deglycosylation mutations. In rabbit studies the N610Q mutation alone or in combination was associated with an enhanced neutralizing response against homologous and heterologous subtype E viruses. In the subsequent monkey study the response induced by the R2 Env regimen was equivalent to the trivalent regimen and superior to the other monovalent regimens against the virus panel used for testing. The 14/00/4 Env induced responses superior to CM243(N610Q. The results indicate that elimination of the glycosylation site near the gp41 loop results in enhanced immunogenicity, but that immunization of monkeys with these three distinct Envs was not more immunogenic than with one.

  17. Burden of rotavirus in India - Is rotavirus vaccine an answer to it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davendra K Taneja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus is currently by far the most common cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide and of diarrheal deaths in developing countries. Worldwide Rotavirus is responsible for 611,000 childhood deaths out of which more than 80% occur in low-income countries. The resistance of rotavirus to commonly used disinfectants and ineffectiveness of oral rehydration therapy due to severe vomiting indicates that if an effective vaccine is the preferred option. WHO has recommended inclusion of rotavirus vaccine in the National Schedules where under 5 mortality due to diarrheal diseases is ≥ 10%. Currently two vaccines are available against rotavirus. Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline is a monovalent vaccine recommended to be orally administered in two doses at 6-12 weeks. Rota Teq (Merck is a pentavalent vaccine recommended to be orally administered in three doses starting at 6-12 weeks of age. Serodiversity of rotavirus in India and its regional variation favor either a monovalent vaccine that can induce heterotypic immunity or a polyvalent vaccine incorporating majority of serotypes prevalent in the country. However, the efficacy of available rotavirus vaccines is less in low-income countries. Both the candidate vaccines when coadministered with OPV, immune response to first dose of these vaccines is reduced. However, immune responses to subsequent rotavirus vaccine doses are not affected. In view of this, WHO recommends three doses of either vaccine to be given to children in developing countries to produce the optimum response. Indigenous vaccine, 116E (Bharat Biotech based on human rotavirus of serotype G9P [11] is still under Phase 2 trials. Another multivalent vaccine is being developed by Shantha Biotechnics in India. The cost effectiveness of the three dose schedule of the available and the rsults of the field trials of the indigenous vaccines should be assessed before inclusion of rotavirus vaccine in the National Immunization

  18. Meningococcal vaccine A,C,W135,Y: conjugated to tetanus toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    A meningococcal vaccine conjugated to protein CRM 197 (Menveo) is the standard vaccine for immunisation against invasive meningococcal infections caused by serogroups A, C, W135 andY, beginning at age 2 years. Nimenrix, another vaccine against meningococcal groups A, C,W135 and Y, conjugated to tetanus toxoid, was authorised for use in the European Union, starting at age 1 year. The two tetravalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines have not been compared in head-to-head trials. Four immunogenicity studies compared the tetravalent conjugate vaccine Nimenrix with an unconjugated tetravalent meningococcal vaccine in children and adults aged 2 to 55 years. The results showed that Nimenrix was more immunogenic than the unconjugated vaccine. Two immunogenicity studies showed that Nimenrix was at least as immunogenic as monovalent (group C) meningococcal conjugate vaccines in children aged from 1 to 2 years and from 2 to 10 years. In one study, prior vaccination with an unconjugated tetravalent meningococcal vaccine had little impact on the immunogenicity of a booster dose of the conjugate vaccine Nimenrix. Concomitant administration with other vaccines does not affect the immunogenicity of Nimenrix. Nimenrix causes more frequent local and systemic adverse reactions than the unconjugated tetravalent meningococcal vaccine and monovalent group C meningococcal conjugate vaccines. In children over 2 years of age, Nimenrix has no advantages over Menveo for vaccination against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W135 andY. In contrast, between the ages of 1 and 2 years, Nimenrix is the only vaccine with established immunogenicity. In addition, it has an acceptable harm-benefit balance.

  19. 美国伊利诺州斯科基2009年10月16日~12月31日甲型H1N1流行性感冒单价疫苗接种活动%Regional Influenza A(H1N1)2009 Monovalent Vaccination Campaign-Skokie,Illinois,October 16-December 31,2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C Counard; A Rigoni; J Lockerby; 尹锡玲

    2011-01-01

    @@ 2009年7月29日,美国免疫实施咨询委员会(Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.ACIP)对确定的甲型H1N1流行性感冒(甲流)高危人群接种第1剂甲流单价疫苗[Influenza A(H1N1)Vaccine,InfV(H1N1)]推荐了一个阶段性的方法.在伊利诺州,首先由州政府安排地方卫生当局和医院负责疫苗的管理工作.

  20. Fowl Cholera and Its Control Prospect With Locally isolated Pasteurella multocida Bivalent Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Ariyanti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurellosis or fowl cholera disease which associated with Pasteurella multocida group A and D infections occurred sporadically in many parts of the world, including in Indonesia. The pathogenic activity of P. multocida in chickens were based on lipopolysacharide (LPS antigens associated with group A and D capsules, and the resistance factor of complement mediated bacteriolysis in animals. In order to reduce common bacterial infections, antibiotics were routinely used as feed additive or by drinking water, but fowl cholera cases still occur. Fowl cholera control by vaccinations have been used more than a hundred years ago by means of inactive vaccine, but imported inactive vaccine was reported not effective due to lack of cross protection against heterologous serotype. At present, many local P. multocida isolates from chicken and ducks from many areas in Indonesia were characterised for their antigenicity, immunogenicity and prepared as monovalent or bivalent vaccine. Only the monovalent vaccine prepared from BCC 2331 or DY2 demonstrated the presence of immunoprotection against homologous and heterologous challenged with live bacteria. The prototype bivalent vaccine consisting of BCC 2331 + DY2 demonstrated high degree of cross protection against challenged individual with or mixed of BCC 2331 + DY2 at average of 60 – 75% and 75 – 100%, respectively. Monovalent and bivalent vaccine prepared from other isolates including imported reference strains of P. multocida demonstrated no protection in experimentally vaccinated ducks and chicken against challenged with live bacteria of neither BCC 2331 nor with DY2. From these retrospective studies, it was concluded that the local isolates P. multocida designated as BCC 2331 and DY2 could be used as candidates of prototype vaccine or master seed vaccine but their effectiveness still need to be evaluated under field conditions.

  1. Decline in rotavirus hospitalizations and health care visits for childhood diarrhea following rotavirus vaccination in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Catherine; Armero Guardado, Julio A; Alberto, Patricia; Rodriguez Araujo, David S; Mena, Carlos; Cuellar, Elizabeth; Nolasco, Jenny Brenda; De Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Pastor, Desiree; Tate, Jacqueline E; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M

    2011-01-01

    A recent postlicensure study from El Salvador showed that the monovalent rotavirus vaccine conferred 76% protection against rotavirus hospitalizations. We further examined the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the national burden of childhood diarrhea to help assess the total public health benefits of vaccination. We compared all-cause diarrhea and rotavirus-specific hospitalization rates during prevaccine year 2006, with postvaccine years 2008 and 2009 in children El Salvador. Important age-related changes in diarrheal incidence emphasize the need for ongoing rotavirus surveillance after vaccine introduction.

  2. [Results of Russian multicenter trial of immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of new combination vaccine against hepatitis A and B (Twinrix)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatochenko, V K; Il'ina, N I; Romanenko, V V; Alikova, O A; Fassakhov, R S; Miasnikova, T N; Patlusova, V V; Zima, Iu Iu; Reshetnikova, I D; Frolova, G S; Smolenov, I V

    2006-01-01

    Results of registration trial of combination vaccine for prevention of hepatitis A and B are presented. The trial was conducted in 5 centers of Russia in 2004-2005 with full accordance to good clinical practice requirements and standards for multicenter open randomized trials. Immunogenicity of studied combination vaccine Twinrix was evaluated in comparison with two simultaneously administered monovalent vaccines against hepatitis A and B (Havrix and Engerix-B) in 200 healthy subjects aged 18-40, which were seronegative to hepatitis A and B. Reactogenicity based on interviewed and non-interviewed symptoms ranged on intensity was assessed also. 1 month after completion of primary vaccination all subjects in both groups were seropositive to hepatitis A. Sero-protection level of antibodies to hepatitis B virus was detected in 98.9% of participants vaccinated with Twinrix and in 95.6% of participants vaccinated with Engerix-B and Havrix. Overall, reactogenicity of vaccines was minor, marked adverse events caused by vaccination were rare (approximately 1%). Study shows that combination vaccine against hepatitis A and B (Twinrix) at least non inferior in terms of immunogenicity, safety and tolerability to monovalent vaccines (Havrix and Engerix-B), were registered in Russia.

  3. Mixed polyvalent-monovalent metal coating for carbon-graphite fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper-Tervet, J.; Tervet, F. W.; Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An improved coating of gasification catalyst for carbon-graphite fibers is provided comprising a mixture of a polyvalent metal such as calcium and a monovalent metal such as lithium. The addition of lithium provides a lighter coating and a more flexible coating when applied to a coating of a carboxyl containing resin such as polyacrylic acid since it reduces the crosslink density. Furthermore, the presence of lithium provides a glass-like substance during combustion which holds the fiber together resulting in slow, even combustion with much reduced evolution of conductive fragments. The coated fibers are utilized as fiber reinforcement for composites.

  4. Coupled-cluster calculations of properties of Boron atom as a monovalent system

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibnejad, H

    2015-01-01

    We present relativistic coupled-cluster (CC) calculations of energies, magnetic-dipole hyperfine constants, and electric-dipole transition amplitudes for low-lying states of atomic boron. The trivalent boron atom is computationally treated as a monovalent system. We explore performance of the CC method at various approximations. Our most complete treatment involves singles, doubles and the leading valence triples. The calculations are done using several approximations in the coupled-cluster (CC) method. The results are within 0.2-0.4% of the energy benchmarks. The hyperfine constants are reproduced with 1-2% accuracy.

  5. [Travelers' vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2011-09-01

    The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.

  6. Antigen-Sparing and Enhanced Efficacy of Multivalent Vaccines Adjuvanted with Immunopotentiators in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peipei; Lu, Jihu; Feng, Lei; Wu, Hongzhuan; Zhang, Xuehua; Mei, Mei; Hou, Jibo; Liu, Xiufan; Tang, Yinghua

    2017-01-01

    We previously described that immunopotentiators, CVCVA5, increased the efficacy of H5 and H9 subtype avian influenza vaccines in chickens, ducks, and geese. In this study, we further investigated the effects of the CVCVA5 for improving the efficacy of other univalent or multivalent inactivated vaccines. The immune response administrated with half-dose of monovalent vaccine plus CVCVA5 were higher than those of one dose of monovalent vaccine without immunopotentiators as measured by levels of antibodies from serum, tears and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and cytokines of IFNγ and IL-4 from serum. Vaccines included the univalent vaccine of Newcastle Disease virus (ND), Egg Drop Syndrome virus (EDS), Infectious Bronchitis virus (IB), and Infectious Bursal Disease virus (IBD). The CVCVA5 also improved the immune response of both ND and IBD vaccines with less dosage. The sterile protective immunity was monitored with one- or a half-dose of adjuvanted ND vaccine or one dose of adjuvanted IBD vaccine, respectively. The improved immune efficacy was observed in a half-dose of adjuvanted bivalent vaccines compared to one dose of vaccines without CVCVA5 as measured by the antibody levels, including bivalent vaccine of ND-H9, ND-IB, and ND-IBD. The CVCVA5 also boosted the immune efficacy of the tetravalent vaccine (ND-IB-EDS-H9). A half-dose of adjuvanted commercial vaccine or 75% antigen-sparing adjuvanted vaccine elicited similar antibody levels to those of one dose non-adjuvanted commercial vaccines. The CVCVA5 improved the effect of a booster vaccination as measured by the antibody levels against H5 or H9 virus antigens, in which chickens primed with the adjuvanted ND-IB vaccines given a booster with H5–H9 bivalent vaccines without CVCVA5 using 5-day intervals. The inflammatory response may contribute to these additional effects by increasing the levels of IFNγ and IL-4 after the injection of the adjuvanted ND-IB vaccines. Results indicated that the CVCVA5 improved

  7. Antigen-Sparing and Enhanced Efficacy of Multivalent Vaccines Adjuvanted with Immunopotentiators in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We previously described that immunopotentiators, CVCVA5, increased the efficacy of H5 and H9 subtype avian influenza vaccines in chickens, ducks, and geese. In this study, we further investigated the effects of the CVCVA5 for improving the efficacy of other univalent or multivalent inactivated vaccines. The immune response administrated with half-dose of monovalent vaccine plus CVCVA5 were higher than those of one dose of monovalent vaccine without immunopotentiators as measured by levels of antibodies from serum, tears and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and cytokines of IFNγ and IL-4 from serum. Vaccines included the univalent vaccine of Newcastle Disease virus (ND, Egg Drop Syndrome virus (EDS, Infectious Bronchitis virus (IB, and Infectious Bursal Disease virus (IBD. The CVCVA5 also improved the immune response of both ND and IBD vaccines with less dosage. The sterile protective immunity was monitored with one- or a half-dose of adjuvanted ND vaccine or one dose of adjuvanted IBD vaccine, respectively. The improved immune efficacy was observed in a half-dose of adjuvanted bivalent vaccines compared to one dose of vaccines without CVCVA5 as measured by the antibody levels, including bivalent vaccine of ND-H9, ND-IB, and ND-IBD. The CVCVA5 also boosted the immune efficacy of the tetravalent vaccine (ND-IB-EDS-H9. A half-dose of adjuvanted commercial vaccine or 75% antigen-sparing adjuvanted vaccine elicited similar antibody levels to those of one dose non-adjuvanted commercial vaccines. The CVCVA5 improved the effect of a booster vaccination as measured by the antibody levels against H5 or H9 virus antigens, in which chickens primed with the adjuvanted ND-IB vaccines given a booster with H5–H9 bivalent vaccines without CVCVA5 using 5-day intervals. The inflammatory response may contribute to these additional effects by increasing the levels of IFNγ and IL-4 after the injection of the adjuvanted ND-IB vaccines. Results indicated that the

  8. Vaccination against 2009 pandemic H1N1 in a population dynamical model of Vancouver, Canada: timing is everything

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conway Jessica M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much remains unknown about the effect of timing and prioritization of vaccination against pandemic (pH1N1 2009 virus on health outcomes. We adapted a city-level contact network model to study different campaigns on influenza morbidity and mortality. Methods We modeled different distribution strategies initiated between July and November 2009 using a compartmental epidemic model that includes age structure and transmission network dynamics. The model represents the Greater Vancouver Regional District, a major North American city and surrounding suburbs with a population of 2 million, and is parameterized using data from the British Columbia Ministry of Health, published studies, and expert opinion. Outcomes are expressed as the number of infections and deaths averted due to vaccination. Results The model output was consistent with provincial surveillance data. Assuming a basic reproduction number = 1.4, an 8-week vaccination campaign initiated 2 weeks before the epidemic onset reduced morbidity and mortality by 79-91% and 80-87%, respectively, compared to no vaccination. Prioritizing children and parents for vaccination may have reduced transmission compared to actual practice, but the mortality benefit of this strategy appears highly sensitive to campaign timing. Modeling the actual late October start date resulted in modest reductions in morbidity and mortality (13-25% and 16-20%, respectively with little variation by prioritization scheme. Conclusion Delays in vaccine production due to technological or logistical barriers may reduce potential benefits of vaccination for pandemic influenza, and these temporal effects can outweigh any additional theoretical benefits from population targeting. Careful modeling may provide decision makers with estimates of these effects before the epidemic peak to guide production goals and inform policy. Integration of real-time surveillance data with mathematical models holds the promise of

  9. Cancer Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Vaccines On This Page What is the immune system? ... cells recognized by the immune system? What are vaccines? What are cancer vaccines? How do cancer preventive ...

  10. Leptospirosis vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the recent advancements of recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP vaccines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS vaccines, inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are reviewed. A comparison of these vaccines may lead to development of new potential methods to combat leptospirosis and facilitate the leptospirosis vaccine research. Moreover, a vaccine ontology database was built for the scientists working on the leptospirosis vaccines as a starting tool.

  11. Serial incorporation of a monovalent GalNAc phosphoramidite unit into hepatocyte-targeting antisense oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Sawamura, Motoki; Wada, Fumito; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Obika, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The targeting of abundant hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) with trivalent N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) is a reliable strategy for efficiently delivering antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to the liver. We here experimentally demonstrate the high systemic potential of the synthetically-accessible, phosphodiester-linked monovalent GalNAc unit when tethered to the 5'-terminus of well-characterised 2',4'-bridged nucleic acid (also known as locked nucleic acid)-modified apolipoprotein B-targeting ASO via a bio-labile linker. Quantitative analysis of the hepatic disposition of the ASOs revealed that phosphodiester is preferable to phosphorothioate as an interunit linkage in terms of ASGPR binding of the GalNAc moiety, as well as the subcellular behavior of the ASO. The flexibility of this monomeric unit was demonstrated by attaching up to 5 GalNAc units in a serial manner and showing that knockdown activity improves as the number of GalNAc units increases. Our study suggests the structural requirements for efficient hepatocellular targeting using monovalent GalNAc and could contribute to a new molecular design for suitably modifying ASO.

  12. Poisson-Helmholtz-Boltzmann model of the electric double layer: analysis of monovalent ionic mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohinc, Klemen; Shrestha, Ahis; Brumen, Milan; May, Sylvio

    2012-03-01

    In the classical mean-field description of the electric double layer, known as the Poisson-Boltzmann model, ions interact exclusively through their Coulomb potential. Ion specificity can arise through solvent-mediated, nonelectrostatic interactions between ions. We employ the Yukawa pair potential to model the presence of nonelectrostatic interactions. The combination of Yukawa and Coulomb potential on the mean-field level leads to the Poisson-Helmholtz-Boltzmann model, which employs two auxiliary potentials: one electrostatic and the other nonelectrostatic. In the present work we apply the Poisson-Helmholtz-Boltzmann model to ionic mixtures, consisting of monovalent cations and anions that exhibit different Yukawa interaction strengths. As a specific example we consider a single charged surface in contact with a symmetric monovalent electrolyte. From the minimization of the mean-field free energy we derive the Poisson-Boltzmann and Helmholtz-Boltzmann equations. These nonlinear equations can be solved analytically in the weak perturbation limit. This together with numerical solutions in the nonlinear regime suggests an intricate interplay between electrostatic and nonelectrostatic interactions. The structure and free energy of the electric double layer depends sensitively on the Yukawa interaction strengths between the different ion types and on the nonelectrostatic interactions of the mobile ions with the surface.

  13. Effects of monovalent cations on folding kinetics of G-quadruplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jing; Li, Hui; Lu, Xi-Ming; Li, Wei; Wang, Peng-Ye; Dou, Shuo-Xing; Xi, Xu-Guang

    2017-08-31

    G-quadruplexes are special structures existing at the ends of human telomeres, the folding kinetics of which are essential for their functions, such as in the maintenance of genome stability and the protection of chromosome ends. In the present study, we investigated the folding kinetics of G-quadruplex in different monovalent cation environments and determined the detailed kinetic parameters for Na(+)- and K(+)-induced G-quadruplex folding, and for its structural transition from the basket-type Na(+) form to the hybrid-type K(+) form. More interestingly, although Li(+) was often used in previous studies of G-quadruplex folding as a control ion supposed to have no effect, we have found that Li(+) can actually influence the folding kinetics of both Na(+)- and K(+)-induced G-quadruplexes significantly and in different ways, by changing the folding fraction of Na(+)-induced G-quadruplexes and greatly increasing the folding rates of K(+)-induced G-quadruplexes. The present study may shed new light on the roles of monovalent cations in G-quadruplex folding and should be useful for further studies of the underlying folding mechanism. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Circular Dichroism is Sensitive to Monovalent Cation Binding in Monensin Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedzhib, Ahmed; Kessler, Jiří; Bouř, Petr; Gyurcsik, Béla; Pantcheva, Ivayla

    2016-05-01

    Monensin is a natural antibiotic that exhibits high affinity to certain metal ions. In order to explore its potential in coordination chemistry, circular dichroism (CD) spectra of monensic acid A (MonH) and its derivatives containing monovalent cations (Li(+) , Na(+) , K(+) , Rb(+) , Ag(+) , and Et4 N(+) ) in methanolic solutions were measured and compared to computational models. Whereas the conventional CD spectroscopy allowed recording of the transitions down to 192 nm, synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) revealed other bands in the 178-192 nm wavelength range. CD signs and intensities significantly varied in the studied compounds, in spite of their similar crystal structure. Computational modeling based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) and continuum solvent model suggests that the solid state monensin structure is largely conserved in the solutions as well. Time-dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) simulations did not allow band-to-band comparison with experimental spectra due to their limited precision, but indicated that the spectral changes were caused by a combination of minor conformational changes upon the monovalent cation binding and a direct involvement of the metal electrons in monensin electronic transitions. Both the experiment and simulations thus show that the CD spectra of monensin complexes are very sensitive to the captured ions and can be used for their discrimination. Chirality 28:420-428, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Predicting 3D structure, flexibility and stability of RNA hairpins in monovalent and divalent ion solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Ya-Zhou; Wang, Feng-Hua; Zhu, Xiao-Long; Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2015-01-01

    A full understanding of RNA-mediated biology would require the knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures, structural flexibility and stability of RNAs. To predict RNA 3D structures and stability, we have previously proposed a three-bead coarse-grained predictive model with implicit salt/solvent potentials. In this study, we will further develop the model by improving the implicit-salt electrostatic potential and involving a sequence-dependent coaxial stacking potential to enable the model to simulate RNA 3D structure folding in divalent/monovalent ion solutions. As compared with the experimental data, the present model can predict 3D structures of RNA hairpins with bulge/internal loops (<77nt) from their sequences at the corresponding experimental ion conditions with an overall improved accuracy, and the model also makes reliable predictions for the flexibility of RNA hairpins with bulge loops of different length at extensive divalent/monovalent ion conditions. In addition, the model successfully pred...

  16. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact.

  17. Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage among pregnant women: pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Indu B; Singleton, James A; Jamieson, Denise J; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Harrison, Leslie

    2011-05-01

    Since 2004, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) have recommended that pregnant women receive the seasonal influenza vaccine, regardless of pregnancy trimester, because of their increased risk for severe complications from influenza. However, the uptake of the influenza vaccine by pregnant women has been low. During the 2009-2010 influenza season, pregnant women were identified as a priority population to receive the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 (2009 H1N1) monovalent vaccine in addition to the seasonal influenza vaccine. In this issue, we highlight information from the 10 states that collected data using the survey administered by the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) about seasonal vaccine coverage among women with recent live births and reasons for those who chose not to get vaccinated. The combined estimates from PRAMS of influenza vaccination coverage for the 2009-2010 season, which included data from October 2009 to March 2010, from 10 states were 50.7% for seasonal and 46.6% for 2009 H1N1 vaccine among women with recent live births. Among women who did not get vaccinated, reasons varied from worries about the safety of the vaccines for self and baby to not normally getting the vaccination. Further evaluation is needed on ways to increase influenza vaccination among pregnant women, effectively communicate the risk of influenza illness during pregnancy, and address women's concerns about influenza vaccination safety during pregnancy.

  18. Profiling of humoral response to influenza A(H1N1pdm09 infection and vaccination measured by a protein microarray in persons with and without history of seasonal vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth G W Huijskens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of prior seasonal influenza vaccination on the antibody response produced by natural infection or vaccination is not well understood. METHODS: We compared the profiles of antibody responses of 32 naturally infected subjects and 98 subjects vaccinated with a 2009 influenza A(H1N1 monovalent MF59-adjuvanted vaccine (Focetria, Novartis, with and without a history of seasonal influenza vaccination. Antibodies were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay for influenza A(H1N1pdm09 and by protein microarray (PA using the HA1 subunit for seven recent and historic H1, H2 and H3 influenza viruses, and three avian influenza viruses. Serum samples for the infection group were taken at the moment of collection of the diagnostic sample, 10 days and 30 days after onset of influenza symptoms. For the vaccination group, samples were drawn at baseline, 3 weeks after the first vaccination and 5 weeks after the second vaccination. RESULTS: We showed that subjects with a history of seasonal vaccination generally exhibited higher baseline titers for the various HA1 antigens than subjects without a seasonal vaccination history. Infection and pandemic influenza vaccination responses in persons with a history of seasonal vaccination were skewed towards historic antigens. CONCLUSIONS: Seasonal vaccination is of significant influence on the antibody response to subsequent infection and vaccination, and further research is needed to understand the effect of annual vaccination on protective immunity.

  19. In vitro neutralisation of rotavirus infection by two broadly specific recombinant monovalent llama-derived antibody fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Aladin (Farah); A.W.C. Einerhand (Sandra); J. Bouma (Janneke); S. Bezemer (Sandra); P. Hermans (Pim); D. Wolvers (Danielle); K. Bellamy (Kate); L.G.J. Frenken (Leon); J. Gray (Jim); M. Iturriza-Gómara (Miren)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRotavirus is the main cause of viral gastroenteritis in young children. Therefore, the development of inexpensive antiviral products for the prevention and/or treatment of rotavirus disease remains a priority. Previously we have shown that a recombinant monovalent antibody fragment (refe

  20. Polyelectrolyte-like behaviour of poly(ethylene-oxide) solutions with added monovalent salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Jyotsana; Hakem, Ilhem-Faiza

    2004-03-01

    Solvent effects on the conformation of poly(ethylene-oxide) (PEO) and complexation of PEO by monovalent cations, have been examined by using small-angle neutron scattering. In methanol and acetonitrile, a big change in interchain interaction, osmotic compressibility and local chain conformation have been observed upon addition of small amounts of potassium iodide. The amplitude of the total intensity decreases significantly and a peak at a certain value of the wavevector q* appears as signature of a polyelectrolyte-like behaviour. With further addition of salt, the ionic strength of the solution increases and potassium binding becomes less favorable: the binding constant decreases with the ionic strength and PEO behaves as a neutral polymer with excluded volume. No association between PEO and potassium iodide was observed in aqueous solutions. Reference: I.F. Hakem and J. Lal. Europhysics letters, 64 (2), 204, 2003

  1. Directed evolution of antibody fragments with monovalent femtomolar antigen-binding affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, E T; Midelfort, K S; Wittrup, K D

    2000-09-26

    Single-chain antibody mutants have been evolved in vitro with antigen-binding equilibrium dissociation constant K(d) = 48 fM and slower dissociation kinetics (half-time > 5 days) than those for the streptavidin-biotin complex. These mutants possess the highest monovalent ligand-binding affinity yet reported for an engineered protein by over two orders of magnitude. Optimal kinetic screening of randomly mutagenized libraries of 10(5)-10(7) yeast surface-displayed antibodies enabled a >1,000-fold decrease in the rate of dissociation after four cycles of affinity mutagenesis and screening. The consensus mutations are generally nonconservative by comparison with naturally occurring mouse Fv sequences and with residues that do not contact the fluorescein antigen in the wild-type complex. The existence of these mutants demonstrates that the antibody Fv architecture is not intrinsically responsible for an antigen-binding affinity ceiling during in vivo affinity maturation.

  2. Hepatitis A/B vaccination of adults over 40 years old: comparison of three vaccine regimens and effect of influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Wielen, Marie; Van Damme, Pierre; Chlibek, Roman; Smetana, Jan; von Sonnenburg, Frank

    2006-06-29

    Challenged by contrasting data on low immune responses in the elderly with a combined hepatitis A/B vaccine, a randomised, controlled study was conducted to assess the immunogenicity of three hepatitis A and B vaccination regimens (group 1: combined hepatitis A/B vaccine Twinrix [GSK]; group 2: co-administered hepatitis A vaccine, Havrix [GSK]+hepatitis B vaccine Engerix -B [GSK], group 3: co-administered hepatitis A vaccine, Vaqta [Sanofi-Pasteur MSD]+hepatitis B vaccine HB VAX PRO [Sanofi-Pasteur MSD]) and the effect of influencing factors in subjects >40 years. On completion of the full vaccination course, anti-HBs seroprotection (SP) rates were 92, 80 and 71% in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively; anti-HAV seropositivity (S+) rates were 97, 99 and 99%, respectively. In group 1, anti-HBs SP rate was non-inferior as well as superior and anti-HAV S+ rate was non-inferior to that in groups 2 and 3. Anti-HBs response was most significantly influenced by the vaccine regimen, followed by age, gender and BMI (stepwise multiple regression analysis). BMI had the most significant influence on HAV response followed by age, gender and vaccine regimen. In conclusion, Twinrix induced superior hepatitis B SP rates and similar hepatitis A S+ rates compared to concomitant administration of monovalent vaccines in subjects aged >40 years.

  3. An outer membrane vesicle vaccine for prevention of serogroup A and W-135 meningococcal disease in the African meningitis belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norheim, G; Tunheim, G; Næss, L M; Kristiansen, P A; Caugant, D A; Rosenqvist, E

    2012-08-01

    The bacterium Neisseria meningitidis of serogroups A and W-135 has in the recent decade caused most of the cases of meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt, and there is currently no efficient and affordable vaccine available demonstrated to protect against both these serogroups. Previously, deoxycholate-extracted outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines against serogroup B meningococci have been shown to be safe and induce protection in humans in clonal outbreaks. The serogroup A and W-135 strains isolated from meningitis belt epidemics demonstrate strikingly limited variation in major surface-exposed protein structures. We have here investigated whether the OMV vaccine strategy also can be applied to prevent both serogroups A and W-135 meningococcal disease. A novel vaccine combining OMV extracted from recent African serogroup A and W-135 strains and adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide was developed and its antigenic characteristics and immunogenicity were studied in mice. The specificity of the antibody responses was analysed by immunoblotting and serum bactericidal activity (SBA) assays. Moreover, the bivalent A+W-135 vaccine was compared with monovalent A and W-135 OMV vaccines. The bivalent OMV vaccine was able to induce similar SBA titres as the monovalent A or W-135 OMV towards both serogroups. High SBA titres were also observed against a meningococcal serogroup C strain. These results show that subcapsular antigens may be of importance when developing broadly protective and affordable vaccines for the meningitis belt. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Varicella-zoster virus: pathogenesis, incidence patterns and vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabutti, Giovanni; Franchi, Michele; Maniscalco, Licia; Stefanati, Armando

    2016-06-01

    Varicella or chickenpox is a common and highly contagious exanthematic disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that during primary infection has the ability to establish latency. VZV reactivation, even decades after primary infection, causes herpes zoster. In healthy immunocompetent subjects, children in particular, varicella results in mild to moderate illness and for this reason, regardless its high morbidity, it is not considered a public health priority. Varicella still represents the most widespread vaccine preventable childhood infectious disease in industrialized countries; due to its relevant burden on healthcare resources several countries has introduced varicella vaccination into the recommended routine childhood national immunization schedule. Nowadays, live attenuated monovalent and combined MMRV vaccines are licensed worldwide. The use of several millions of doses has demonstrated the excellent safety and efficacy level of varicella vaccines as well as of combined MMRV vaccines. Universal vaccination adopted in many countries with a two-dose strategy has allowed to significantly reducing morbidity and mortality of this infectious disease. Anyway, an ample international debate is ongoing on the time range to be used between the two doses, and on the safety issues related to the use as first-dose of MMRV vaccine. Taking into account the availability of a zoster vaccine in subjects older than 50 years of age, it will be relevant to clarify if an impact on exogenous boosters and on the epidemiology of herpes zoster can occur after the adoption of extensive varicella immunization.

  5. Monovalent metal ions play an essential role in catalysis and intersubunit communication in the tryptophan synthase bienzyme complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woehl, E U; Dunn, M F

    1995-07-25

    This investigation shows that the alpha 2 beta 2 tryptophan synthase bienzyme complex from Salmonella typhimurium is subject to monovalent metal ion activation. The effects of the monovalent metal ions Na+ and K+ were investigated using rapid scanning stopped-flow (RSSF), single-wavelength stopped-flow (SWSF), and steady-state techniques. RSSF measurements of individual steps in the reaction of L-serine and indole to give L-trytophan (the beta-reaction) as well as the reaction of 3-indole-D-glycerol 3'-phosphate (IGP) with L-serine (the alpha beta-reaction) demonstrate that monovalent metal ions such as Na+ and K+ change the distribution of intermediates in both the transient and steady states. Therefore the metal ion effect alters relative ground-state energies and the relative positions of ground- and transition-state energies. The RSSF spectra and SWSF time courses show that the turnover of indole is significantly reduced in the absence of either Na+ or K+. The alpha-aminoacrylate Schiff base species, E(A-A), is in a less active state in the absence of monovalent metal ions. Na+ decreases the steady-state rate of IGP cleavage (the alpha-reaction) to about 30% of the value obtained in the absence of metal ions. Steady-state investigations show that in the absence of monovalent metal ions the alpha- and alpha beta-reactions have the same activity. Na+ binding gives a 30-fold stimulation of the alpha-reaction when the beta-site is in the E(A-A) form.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Preparation and Competative Immune Responce Evaluation of Infectious Bronchitis (H-120 + Newcastle Disease (La-Sota Live Bivalent Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoudi, Sh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND and Infectious Bronchitis (IB are highly contagious, acute and common poultry viral diseases. Control of these two important diseases of poultry industry was based on biosecurity and vaccination program. There is discussion about viral interference between these two viruses when combined. The aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness of a Razi live bivalent vaccine containing LaSota strain of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV and H-120 strain of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV. The bivalent vaccine was formulated based on EID50 titer of viruses. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was compared with commercial and monovalent Razi live IB (H-120 and ND (La Sota vaccines in Specific pathogen free (SPF and commercial chickens. The vaccination response was evaluated by haemagglutination inhibition (HI, serum neutralization and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA antibody titers. SPF chickens that had received one dose of the Razi bivalent vaccine, has antibody titer (HI of Newcastle 5.87 based on Log2 and the serum neutralization index of Infectious bronchitis 6.5. Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs of HI were 3.20 and 3.30 for Razi bivalent vaccine and commercial one respectively. Serum IBV ELISA antibodies GMTs were 3569 and 1992 and 320 for Razi bivalent vaccine and commercial one and control group respectively. Therefore antibody titers against NDV and IBV in chickens that received Razi vaccine were similar to those that were given monovalent and commercial vaccine. Our results show that the combined ND+IB vaccine has the ability to induce a high level of immune response in vaccinated chickens and no interference was seen between Razi and commercial one.

  7. Multicenter Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of an Attenuated Measles Vaccine for NHP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Joann L; McChesney, Michael B; Christe, Kari L

    2015-10-01

    Measles is a highly contagious viral disease in NHP. The infection can range from asymptomatic to rapidly fatal, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in captive populations. In addition to appropriate quarantine practices, restricted access, the immunization of all personnel in contact with NHP, and the wearing of protective clothing including face masks, measles immunization further reduces the infection risk. Commercially available measles vaccines are effective for use in NHP, but interruptions in their availability have prevented the implementation of ongoing, consistent vaccination programs. This need for a readily available vaccine led us to perform a broad, multicenter safety and immunogenicity study of another candidate vaccine, MVac (Serum Institute of India), a monovalent measles vaccine derived from live Edmonston-Zagreb strain virus that had been attenuated after 22 passages on human diploid cells.

  8. Immunogenicity and Efficacy of Liposome-encapsulated Influenza Split Vaccine in BALB/c Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Feng-chun; WANG Chun-yi; WANG Ya-jun; ZHANG Xue-mei; ZHANG Yan; SUI Bo; LI Xiao-bo; SHENG Jun

    2007-01-01

    The cellular immunity of current influenza split vaccine is relatively low. It is necessary to develop a novel vaccine to improve the cellular immunity. The authors of this study prepared liposome-encapsulated influenza split vaccine and tested it in BALB/c mice. The mice were immunized once with 4 μg of haemagglutinin of monovalent A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1) encapsulated with liposomes or the split virus vaccine only through intrastomach injection. In a comparative study, it was observed that the liposome-encapsulated vaccine elicited a higher neutralizing antibody response, more effectively stimulated spleen cell proliferation, increased cell subsets like CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+, and triggered IL-4 and IFN-γ production.

  9. Predictors of Uptake and Timeliness of Newly Introduced Pneumococcal and Rotavirus Vaccines, and of Measles Vaccine in Rural Malawi: A Population Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazzie Mvula

    Full Text Available Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1 in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and is planning the introduction of a second-dose measles vaccine (MV. We assessed predictors of availability, uptake and timeliness of these vaccines in a rural Malawian setting.Commencing on the first date of PCV13 eligibility we conducted a prospective population-based birth cohort study of 2,616 children under demographic surveillance in Karonga District, northern Malawi who were eligible for PCV13, or from the date of RV1 introduction both PCV13 and RV1. Potential predictors of vaccine uptake and timeliness for PCV13, RV1 and MV were analysed respectively using robust Poisson and Cox regression.Vaccine coverage was high for all vaccines, ranging from 86.9% for RV1 dose 2 to 95.4% for PCV13 dose 1. Median time delay for PCV13 dose 1 was 17 days (IQR 7-36, 19 days (IQR 8-36 for RV1 dose 1 and 20 days (IQR 3-46 for MV. Infants born to lower educated or farming mothers and those living further away from the road or clinic were at greater risk of being not fully vaccinated and being vaccinated late. Delays in vaccination were also associated with non-facility birth. Vaccine stock-outs resulted in both a delay in vaccine timeliness and in a decrease in completion of schedule.Despite high vaccination coverage in this setting, delays in vaccination were common. We identified programmatic and socio-demographic risk factors for uptake and timeliness of vaccination. Understanding who remains most vulnerable to be unvaccinated allows for focussed delivery thereby increasing population coverage and maximising the equitable benefits of universal vaccination programmes.

  10. DENGUE VACCINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thisyakorn, Usa; Thisyakorn, Chule

    2015-01-01

    The uniqueness of the dengue viruses (DENVs) and the spectrum of disease resulting from infection have made dengue vaccine development difficult. Several vaccine candidates are currently being evaluated in clinical studies. The candidate currently at the most advanced clinical development stage, a live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine based on the chimeric yellow fever-dengue virus (CYD-TDV), has progressed to Phase 3 efficacy studies. Several other live-attenuated vaccines, as well as subunit, DNA, and purified inactivated vaccine candidates are at earlier stages of clinical development. Additional technological approaches, such as virus-vectored and Virus-Like Particles (VLP)-based vaccines are under evaluation in preclinical studies.

  11. Chart-confirmed guillain-barre syndrome after 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination among the Medicare population, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polakowski, Laura L; Sandhu, Sukhminder K; Martin, David B; Ball, Robert; Macurdy, Thomas E; Franks, Riley L; Gibbs, Jonathan M; Kropp, Garner F; Avagyan, Armen; Kelman, Jeffrey A; Worrall, Christopher M; Sun, Guoying; Kliman, Rebecca E; Burwen, Dale R

    2013-09-15

    Given the increased risk of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) found with the 1976 swine influenza vaccine, both active surveillance and end-of-season analyses on chart-confirmed cases were performed across multiple US vaccine safety monitoring systems, including the Medicare system, to evaluate the association of GBS after 2009 monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccination. Medically reviewed cases consisted of H1N1-vaccinated Medicare beneficiaries who were hospitalized for GBS. These cases were then classified by using Brighton Collaboration diagnostic criteria. Thirty-one persons had Brighton level 1, 2, or 3 GBS or Fisher Syndrome, with symptom onset 1-119 days after vaccination. Self-controlled risk interval analyses estimated GBS risk within the 6-week period immediately following H1N1 vaccination compared with a later control period, with additional adjustment for seasonality. Our results showed an elevated risk of GBS with 2009 monovalent H1N1 vaccination (incidence rate ratio = 2.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.14, 5.11; attributable risk = 2.84 per million doses administered, 95% confidence interval: 0.21, 5.48). This observed risk was slightly higher than that seen with previous seasonal influenza vaccines; however, additional results that used a stricter case definition (Brighton level 1 or 2) were not statistically significant, and our ability to account for preceding respiratory/gastrointestinal illness was limited. Furthermore, the observed risk was substantially lower than that seen with the 1976 swine influenza vaccine.

  12. Influence of serotype and virus strain on synergism between Marek's disease vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, R L

    1992-12-01

    The enhanced protective effect (synergism) when certain Marek's disease (MD) vaccine viruses are combined has been widely used in the development of improved vaccines, but the mechanism is poorly understood. To better characterize the basis for synergism among MD vaccine viruses, three vaccine viruses from each of the three MD viral serotypes were evaluated alone and in various combinations for protection against early challenge with very virulent MD viruses in four replicate trials. Synergism seemed to be influenced by viral serotype because significant enhancement occurred frequently between viruses of serotypes 2 and 3 (five of nine bivalent vaccines positive), but rarely between viruses of serotypes 1 and 3 (one of nine bivalent vaccines positive) and 1 and 2 (one of nine bivalent vaccines positive), and was not detectable between viruses of the same serotype (none of nine bivalent vaccines positive). With some exceptions, the degree of synergism tended to vary inversely with the mean protective efficacy of the most protective component virus. Little effect of virus dose, virus dose ratio or type and route of viral challenge was noted. The combination of strains 281MI/1 (serotype 2) and WTHV-1/1 (serotype 3), both poorly protective as monovalent vaccines, consistently demonstrated high levels of synergism (over 300%) in antibody-positive chickens challenged 5 days post-vaccination with Md5 virus. This protocol may be a useful model system for further studies on mechanisms of synergism. However, mixtures that optimize synergism are not necessarily as protective as commercial vaccines.

  13. Inactivated poliovirus type 2 vaccine delivered to rat skin via high density microprojection array elicits potent neutralising antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, David A; Pearson, Frances E; Fernando, Germain J P; Agyei-Yeboah, Christiana; Owens, Nick S; Corrie, Simon R; Crichton, Michael L; Wei, Jonathan C J; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Young, Paul R; Kendall, Mark A F

    2016-02-25

    Polio eradication is progressing rapidly, and the live attenuated Sabin strains in the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) are being removed sequentially, starting with type 2 in April 2016. For risk mitigation, countries are introducing inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into routine vaccination programs. After April 2016, monovalent type 2 OPV will be available for type 2 outbreak control. Because the current IPV is not suitable for house-to-house vaccination campaigns (the intramuscular injections require health professionals), we developed a high-density microprojection array, the Nanopatch, delivered monovalent type 2 IPV (IPV2) vaccine to the skin. To assess the immunogenicity of the Nanopatch, we performed a dose-matched study in rats, comparing the immunogenicity of IPV2 delivered by intramuscular injection or Nanopatch immunisation. A single dose of 0.2 D-antigen units of IPV2 elicited protective levels of poliovirus antibodies in 100% of animals. However, animals receiving IPV2 by IM required at least 3 immunisations to reach the same neutralising antibody titres. This level of dose reduction (1/40th of a full dose) is unprecedented for poliovirus vaccine delivery. The ease of administration coupled with the dose reduction observed in this study points to the Nanopatch as a potential tool for facilitating inexpensive IPV for mass vaccination campaigns.

  14. Inactivated poliovirus type 2 vaccine delivered to rat skin via high density microprojection array elicits potent neutralising antibody responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, David A.; Pearson, Frances E.; Fernando, Germain J.P.; Agyei-Yeboah, Christiana; Owens, Nick S.; Corrie, Simon R.; Crichton, Michael L.; Wei, Jonathan C.J.; Weldon, William C.; Oberste, M. Steven; Young, Paul R.; Kendall, Mark A. F.

    2016-01-01

    Polio eradication is progressing rapidly, and the live attenuated Sabin strains in the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) are being removed sequentially, starting with type 2 in April 2016. For risk mitigation, countries are introducing inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into routine vaccination programs. After April 2016, monovalent type 2 OPV will be available for type 2 outbreak control. Because the current IPV is not suitable for house-to-house vaccination campaigns (the intramuscular injections require health professionals), we developed a high-density microprojection array, the Nanopatch, delivered monovalent type 2 IPV (IPV2) vaccine to the skin. To assess the immunogenicity of the Nanopatch, we performed a dose-matched study in rats, comparing the immunogenicity of IPV2 delivered by intramuscular injection or Nanopatch immunisation. A single dose of 0.2 D-antigen units of IPV2 elicited protective levels of poliovirus antibodies in 100% of animals. However, animals receiving IPV2 by IM required at least 3 immunisations to reach the same neutralising antibody titres. This level of dose reduction (1/40th of a full dose) is unprecedented for poliovirus vaccine delivery. The ease of administration coupled with the dose reduction observed in this study points to the Nanopatch as a potential tool for facilitating inexpensive IPV for mass vaccination campaigns. PMID:26911254

  15. Rabies Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high risk of exposure to rabies, such as veterinarians, animal handlers, rabies laboratory workers, spelunkers, and rabies biologics production workers should be offered rabies vaccine. The vaccine should also be considered for: (1) ...

  16. Development of fowl cholera vaccine: I. Protection of Pasteurella multocida local isolate vaccine against challenge of homologous and heterologous strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida locally isolated from chicken and ducks (BCC 299, BCC 2331, DY1, DY2, 12TG, 15TG andimported strains (BCC 1359, 1362; HEDDLESTON group 1 and 6 respectively had been tested for its pathogenicity in theprevious study. The aims of this experiment were to study the preparation of local isolate pasteurellosis vaccines and to determine the protective effect of that vaccines in chicken against the highly pathogenic local isolates of P. multocida. Killed monovalent, bivalent and polyvalent pasteurellosis vaccines were prepared and each was adjunvanted with aluminum hydroxide gel at a final concentration of 1.5% and the cell concentration was equal to the No 10 of MacFarland tube standard. Each of the vaccine prepared was used to vaccinated on a group of six week old of layer chicken (8 per group. Each chicken was subcutaneously injected with 0.2 ml of vaccine, four weeks later each was boostered with similar vaccine with the same dose. Two weeks after giving the boostered vaccine each group of chicken were challenged, half with life bacterium of P. Multocida BCC 2331 and other with DY2. Any chick which survive after challenge was designated as protected by vaccination. Before vaccination 1 ml of blood was drawn from each of chicken and then two weeks apart up to challenge. Serum from each sample was separated and kept in deep freeze until tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Chicken vaccinated with killed whole cell P. multocida vaccines of monovalent (BCC 2331 or DY2 and bivalent (BCC 2331 + DY2 were protected against challenge with live bacterium of either BCC 2331 or DY2 at rate 67-100%. There was no protection in chicken vaccinated with either BCC 299, DY1, 12TG, 15TG, BCC 1359, or 1362 killed vaccine. Similarly no protection of chicken vaccinated with either DY1 + BCC299, 12TG + 15TG or BCC 1359 + BCC 1362 bivalent vaccines. The protection rate of the polyvalent local isolate vaccine was at average 50-75%. All

  17. Edible vaccines.

    OpenAIRE

    Artnzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    Vaccines were the result of trial and error research until molecular biology and genetic engineering made possible the creation of of many new and improved vaccines. New vaccines need to be inexpensive, easily administered, and capable of being stored and transported without refrigeration; without these characteristics, developing countries find it difficult to adopt vaccination as the central strategy for preventing their most devastating diseases. The authors describe a promising approach t...

  18. Periodontal vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan Malhotra; Anoop Kapoor; Vishakha Grover; Aaswin Kaur Tuli

    2011-01-01

    Vaccine is the name applied generally to a substance of the nature of dead or attenuated living infectious material introduced into the body with the object of increasing its power to resist or get rid of a disease. Vaccines are generally prophylactic, i.e. they ameliorate the effects of future infection. One such vaccine considered here is the "Periodontal vaccine". Till date, no preventive modality exists for periodontal disease and treatment rendered is palliative. Thus, availability of pe...

  19. Varicella vaccination in Europe – taking the practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadzot-Delvaux Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Varicella is a common viral disease affecting almost the entire birth cohort. Although usually self-limiting, some cases of varicella can be serious, with 2 to 6% of cases attending a general practice resulting in complications. The hospitalisation rate for varicella in Europe ranges from 1.3 to 4.5 per 100,000 population/year and up to 10.1% of hospitalised patients report permanent or possible permanent sequelae (for example, scarring or ataxia. However, in many countries the epidemiology of varicella remains largely unknown or incomplete. In countries where routine childhood vaccination against varicella has been implemented, it has had a positive effect on disease prevention and control. Furthermore, mathematical models indicate that this intervention strategy may provide economic benefits for the individual and society. Despite this evidence and recommendations for varicella vaccination by official bodies such as the World Health Organization, and scientific experts in the field, the majority of European countries (with the exception of Germany and Greece have delayed decisions on implementation of routine childhood varicella vaccination, choosing instead to vaccinate high-risk groups or not to vaccinate at all. In this paper, members of the Working Against Varicella in Europe group consider the practicalities of introducing routine childhood varicella vaccination in Europe, discussing the benefits and challenges of different vaccination options (vaccination vs. no vaccination, routine vaccination of infants vs. vaccination of susceptible adolescents or adults, two doses vs. one dose of varicella vaccine, monovalent varicella vaccines vs. tetravalent measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccines, as well as the optimal interval between two doses of measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccines. Assessment of the epidemiology of varicella in Europe and evidence for the effectiveness of varicella vaccination provides support for

  20. HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness HPV Vaccine KidsHealth > For Teens > HPV Vaccine Print A A A What's in this article? ... 11 or 12 through age 21 If needed, kids can get the vaccine starting at age 9. continue How Does the ...

  1. Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) as Multivalent Materials: Size Control and Surface Functionalization by Monovalent Capping Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnaarts, Timon; Mejia-Ariza, Raquel; Egberink, Richard J M; van Roosmalen, Wies; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2015-07-13

    Control over particle size and composition are pivotal to tune the properties of metal organic frameworks (MOFs), for example, for biomedical applications. Particle-size control and functionalization of MIL-88A were achieved by using stoichiometric replacement of a small fraction of the divalent fumarate by monovalent capping ligands. A fluorine-capping ligand was used to quantify the surface coverage of capping ligand at the surface of MIL-88A. Size control at the nanoscale was achieved by using a monovalent carboxylic acid-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-COOH) ligand at different concentrations. Finally, a biotin-carboxylic acid capping ligand was used to functionalize MIL-88A to bind fluorescently labeled streptavidin as an example towards bioapplications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuss Annicka M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella vaccination coverage in statutory health insured children under two years of age in twelve German Federal States using data from associations of statutory health insurance physicians (ASHIPs, in order to investigate the acceptance of the recommended routine varicella vaccination programme. Methods We analysed data on varicella vaccination from 13 of 17 ASHIPs of the years 2004 to 2007. The study population consisted of all statutory health insured children under two years of age born in 2004 (cohort 2004 or 2005 (cohort 2005 in one of the studied regions. Vaccination coverage was determined by the number of children vaccinated under 2 years of age within the study population. Results Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age with either one dose of the monovalent varicella vaccine or two doses of the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine increased from 34% (cohort 2004 to 51% (cohort 2005 in the studied regions (p Conclusions Our study shows increasing varicella vaccination coverage of young children, indicating a growing acceptance of the routine varicella vaccination programme by the parents and physicians. We recommend further monitoring of vaccination coverage using data from ASHIPs to investigate acceptance of the routine vaccination programmes over time.

  3. Vaccination with dengue virus-like particles induces humoral and cellular immune responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Quanfu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of dengue, an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV, has dramatically increased around the world in recent decades and is becoming a severe public health threat. However, there is currently no specific treatment for dengue fever, and licensed vaccine against dengue is not available. Vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs has shown considerable promise for many viral diseases, but the effect of DENV VLPs to induce specific immune responses has not been adequately investigated. Results By optimizing the expression plasmids, recombinant VLPs of four antigenically different DENV serotypes DENV1-4 were successfully produced in 293T cells. The vaccination effect of dengue VLPs in mice showed that monovalent VLPs of each serotype stimulated specific IgG responses and potent neutralizing antibodies against homotypic virus. Tetravalent VLPs efficiently enhanced specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies against all four serotypes of DENV. Moreover, vaccination with monovalent or tetravalent VLPs resulted in the induction of specific cytotoxic T cell responses. Conclusions Mammalian cell expressed dengue VLPs are capable to induce VLP-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice, and being a promising subunit vaccine candidate for prevention of dengue virus infection.

  4. How accurate is Poisson-Boltzmann theory for monovalent ions near highly charged interfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Vaknin, David; Travesset, Alex

    2006-06-20

    Surface sensitive synchrotron X-ray scattering studies were performed to obtain the distribution of monovalent ions next to a highly charged interface. A lipid phosphate (dihexadecyl hydrogen-phosphate) was spread as a monolayer at the air-water interface to control surface charge density. Using anomalous reflectivity off and at the L3 Cs+ resonance, we provide spatial counterion (Cs+) distributions next to the negatively charged interfaces. Five decades in bulk concentrations are investigated, demonstrating that the interfacial distribution is strongly dependent on bulk concentration. We show that this is due to the strong binding constant of hydronium H3O+ to the phosphate group, leading to proton-transfer back to the phosphate group and to a reduced surface charge. The increase of Cs+ concentration modifies the contact value potential, thereby causing proton release. This process effectively modifies surface charge density and enables exploration of ion distributions as a function of effective surface charge-density. The experimentally obtained ion distributions are compared to distributions calculated by Poisson-Boltzmann theory accounting for the variation of surface charge density due to proton release and binding. We also discuss the accuracy of our experimental results in discriminating possible deviations from Poisson-Boltzmann theory.

  5. Differences on the conversion of celestite in solutions bearing monovalent ions under hydrothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Angeles, J. C.; Pech-Canul, M. I.; López-Cuevas, J.; Matamoros-Veloza, Z.; Yanagisawa, K.

    2006-12-01

    The replacement of SO 42- ions by monovalent ions in mineral SrSO 4 crystals was investigated under hydrothermal conditions by using aqueous solutions bearing F - and OH - ions. Experiments were conducted at various temperatures (150-250 °C) for different reaction intervals (1-96 h), with M-/SO 42- molar ratios of 1, 5 and 10, where M-=F - or OH -. The celestite crystals were completely converted into SrF 2 crystals, at 200 °C using a F -/SO 42- molar ratio=5 for 24 h. The morphology of the converted SrF 2 crystals indicated that the heteroionic conversion proceeded by a pseudomorphic replacement process, because the transformed crystals maintained their original shape and dimensions. In contrast, the SrSO 4 crystals were instantaneously converted into the Sr(OH) 2 phase by a bulk dissolution-recrystallization mechanism, resulting in the formation of large transparent acicular Sr(OH) 2 crystals. The differences on the conversion process are mainly associated with the chemical interaction between the mineral crystal and the hydrothermal fluid. In addition, the chemical stability of the converted phase with low solubility is also essential for the heteroionic conversion to proceed by the pseudomorphic replacement process.

  6. Aqueous batteries based on mixed monovalence metal ions: a new battery family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Leyuan; Zhou, Xufeng; Liu, Zhaoping

    2014-08-01

    As existing battery technologies struggle to meet the requirements for widespread use in the field of large-scale energy storage, new concepts are urgently needed to build batteries with high energy density, low cost, and good safety. Here, we demonstrate two new aqueous batteries based on two monovalence metal ions (Li(+) /K(+) and Na(+) /K(+) ) as charge-transfer ions, Ni1 Zn1 HCF/TiP2 O7 and Ni1 Zn1 HCF/NaTi2 (PO4 )3 . These new batteries are unlike the conventional "rocking-chair" aqueous metal-ion batteries based on the migration of one type of shuttle ion between cathode and anode. They can deliver specific energy of 46 Wh kg(-1) and 53 Wh kg(-1) based on the total mass of active materials; this is superior to current aqueous battery systems based on sodium-ion and/or potassium-ion technologies. These two new batteries together with the previously developed Li(+) /Na(+) mixed-ion battery not only constitute a new battery family for energy storage, but also greatly broaden our horizons for battery research.

  7. Potent dengue virus neutralization by a therapeutic antibody with low monovalent affinity requires bivalent engagement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Edeling

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We recently described our most potently neutralizing monoclonal antibody, E106, which protected against lethal Dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1 infection in mice. To further understand its functional properties, we determined the crystal structure of E106 Fab in complex with domain III (DIII of DENV-1 envelope (E protein to 2.45 Å resolution. Analysis of the complex revealed a small antibody-antigen interface with the epitope on DIII composed of nine residues along the lateral ridge and A-strand regions. Despite strong virus neutralizing activity of E106 IgG at picomolar concentrations, E106 Fab exhibited a ∼20,000-fold decrease in virus neutralization and bound isolated DIII, E, or viral particles with only a micromolar monovalent affinity. In comparison, E106 IgG bound DENV-1 virions with nanomolar avidity. The E106 epitope appears readily accessible on virions, as neutralization was largely temperature-independent. Collectively, our data suggest that E106 neutralizes DENV-1 infection through bivalent engagement of adjacent DIII subunits on a single virion. The isolation of anti-flavivirus antibodies that require bivalent binding to inhibit infection efficiently may be a rare event due to the unique icosahedral arrangement of envelope proteins on the virion surface.

  8. Higher cytotoxicity of divalent antibody-toxins than monovalent antibody-toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, JaeSeon; Nam, PilWon; Lee, YongChan [College of Life Sciences and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, 5-ga Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, MuHyeon, E-mail: choemh@korea.ac.kr [College of Life Sciences and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, 5-ga Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-24

    Recombinant antibody-toxins are constructed via the fusion of a 'carcinoma-specific' antibody fragment to a toxin. Due to the high affinity and high selectivity of the antibody fragments, antibody-toxins can bind to surface antigens on cancer cells and kill them without harming normal cells [L.H. Pai, J.K. Batra, D.J. FitzGerald, M.C. Willingham, I. Pastan, Anti-tumor activities of immunotoxins made of monoclonal antibody B3 and various forms of Pseudomonas exotoxin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88 (1991) 3358-3362]. In this study, we constructed the antibody-toxin, Fab-SWn-PE38, with SWn (n = 3, 6, 9) sequences containing n-time repeated (G{sub 4}S) between the Fab fragment and PE38 (38 kDa truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A). The SWn sequence also harbored one cysteine residue that could form a disulfide bridge between two Fab-SWn-PE38 monomers. We assessed the cytotoxicity of the monovalent (Fab-SWn-PE38), and divalent ([Fab-SWn-PE38]{sub 2}) antibody-toxins. The cytotoxicity of the dimer against the CRL1739 cell line was approximately 18.8-fold higher than that of the monomer on the ng/ml scale, which was approximately 37.6-fold higher on the pM scale. These results strongly indicate that divalency provides higher cytotoxicity for an antibody-toxin.

  9. Independent adsorption of monovalent cations and cationic polymers at PE/PG lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomich, Daria A.; Nesterenko, Alexey M.; Kostritskii, Andrei Yu; Kondinskaia, Diana A.; Ermakov, Yuri A.; Gurtovenko, Andrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic cationic polymers constitute a wide class of polymeric biocides. Commonly their antimicrobial effect is associated to their interaction with bacterial membranes. In the present study we analyze the interaction of various cationic polymers with model bacterial membranes comprised of a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). We describe a polymer-membrane interaction as a process of modification of the surface charge. It is well known that small monovalent inorganic cations (Na+, K+) cannot overcharge the surface of a bilayer containing anionic lipids. In contrast, polycations are able to overcharge anionic membranes and demonstrate a very large input to the electric field distribution at the membrane-water interface. We aimed here to study the electrostatic effects associated with the interaction of polycations of different types with a model lipid membrane whose composition closely resembles that of bacterial membranes (PE:PG = 1:4). Four different cationic polymers (polyvinylamine, polyallylamine, poly-L-lysine and polyethylenimine) were adsorbed at a model PE/PG bilayer in MD simulations. Adsorption of sodium cations was inspected separately for PE/PG bilayers of different composition and cation’s binding parameters were determined. From computational experiments and consequent theoretical analysis we concluded that sodium adsorption at anionic binding sites does not depend on the presence of polycations. Therefore, we hypothesize that antimicrobial activity of the studied cationic polymers should depend on the ionic composition of the medium.

  10. Monovalency Unleashes the Full Therapeutic Potential of the DN-30 Anti-Met Antibody*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiana, Giovanni; Chiriaco, Cristina; Stella, Maria C.; Petronzelli, Fiorella; De Santis, Rita; Galluzzo, Maria; Carminati, Paolo; Comoglio, Paolo M.; Michieli, Paolo; Vigna, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    Met, the high affinity receptor for hepatocyte growth factor, is one of the most frequently activated tyrosine kinases in human cancer and a validated target for cancer therapy. We previously developed a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular portion of Met (DN-30) that induces Met proteolytic cleavage (receptor “shedding”) followed by proteasome-mediated receptor degradation. This translates into inhibition of hepatocyte growth factor/Met-mediated biological activities. However, DN-30 binding to Met also results in partial activation of the Met kinase due to antibody-mediated receptor homodimerization. To safely harness the therapeutic potential of DN-30, its shedding activity must be disassociated from its agonistic activity. Here we show that the DN-30 Fab fragment maintains high affinity Met binding, elicits efficient receptor shedding and down-regulation, and does not promote kinase activation. In Met-addicted tumor cell lines, DN-30 Fab displays potent cytostatic and cytotoxic activity in a dose-dependent fashion. DN-30 Fab also inhibits anchorage-independent growth of several tumor cell lines. In mouse tumorigenesis assays using Met-addicted carcinoma cells, intratumor administration of DN-30 Fab or systemic delivery of a chemically stabilized form of the same molecule results in reduction of Met phosphorylation and inhibition of tumor growth. These data provide proof of concept that monovalency unleashes the full therapeutic potential of the DN-30 antibody and point at DN-30 Fab as a promising tool for Met-targeted therapy. PMID:20833723

  11. Monovalency unleashes the full therapeutic potential of the DN-30 anti-Met antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiana, Giovanni; Chiriaco, Cristina; Stella, Maria C; Petronzelli, Fiorella; De Santis, Rita; Galluzzo, Maria; Carminati, Paolo; Comoglio, Paolo M; Michieli, Paolo; Vigna, Elisa

    2010-11-12

    Met, the high affinity receptor for hepatocyte growth factor, is one of the most frequently activated tyrosine kinases in human cancer and a validated target for cancer therapy. We previously developed a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular portion of Met (DN-30) that induces Met proteolytic cleavage (receptor "shedding") followed by proteasome-mediated receptor degradation. This translates into inhibition of hepatocyte growth factor/Met-mediated biological activities. However, DN-30 binding to Met also results in partial activation of the Met kinase due to antibody-mediated receptor homodimerization. To safely harness the therapeutic potential of DN-30, its shedding activity must be disassociated from its agonistic activity. Here we show that the DN-30 Fab fragment maintains high affinity Met binding, elicits efficient receptor shedding and down-regulation, and does not promote kinase activation. In Met-addicted tumor cell lines, DN-30 Fab displays potent cytostatic and cytotoxic activity in a dose-dependent fashion. DN-30 Fab also inhibits anchorage-independent growth of several tumor cell lines. In mouse tumorigenesis assays using Met-addicted carcinoma cells, intratumor administration of DN-30 Fab or systemic delivery of a chemically stabilized form of the same molecule results in reduction of Met phosphorylation and inhibition of tumor growth. These data provide proof of concept that monovalency unleashes the full therapeutic potential of the DN-30 antibody and point at DN-30 Fab as a promising tool for Met-targeted therapy.

  12. DNA vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  13. Progress in the introduction of rotavirus vaccine--Latin America and the Caribbean, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Rotavirus disease is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality related to diarrhea in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), where an estimated 8,000 deaths related to rotavirus diarrhea occur annually among children aged rotavirus vaccines became available, the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2007 recommended inclusion of rotavirus vaccine in the immunization programs of Europe and the Americas, and in 2009 expanded the recommendation to all infants aged rotavirus vaccine in LAC, where it was first introduced in 2006 in Brazil, El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, and Venezuela; by January 2011, it was included in the national immunization schedules of 14 countries in LAC. Estimated national rotavirus vaccine coverage (2 doses of the monovalent vaccine or 3 doses of the pentavalent vaccine) among children aged rotavirus vaccine into their national immunization programs, 13 participate in a hospital-based rotavirus surveillance network. Data from some countries in this network and from other monitoring efforts in LAC countries have shown declines in hospitalizations and deaths related to severe diarrhea after rotavirus vaccine introduction. The rapid introduction of rotavirus vaccine in LAC demonstrates the benefits of the early commitment of national decision makers to introduce these vaccines in low-income and middle-income countries at the same time as in high-income countries.

  14. [Impact assessment of the rotavirus vaccine in Colombia using rapid evaluation methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotes, Karol; Alvis-Guzmán, Nelson; Rico, Alejandro; Porras, Alexandra; Cediel, Natalia; Chocontá Piraquive, Luz A; De la Hoz, Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Estimate the effectiveness of the monovalent rotavirus vaccine in preventing the need to hospitalize children under 2 years old for acute diarrheal disease in five Colombian cities. A population survey was conducted based on a probability sample of children over 2 months and under 24 months of age in five Colombian cities (Barranquilla, Bogotá, Cali, Cartagena, and Riohacha) over the period from August through October 2010. The vaccine had been introduced in the Expanded Program on Immunization in January 2009. Rotavirus vaccination coverage was estimated by age group; the cumulative incidence of hospitalization for severe diarrhea was determined; and the magnitude of correlation between vaccination with one or two doses of rotavirus vaccine and hospitalization for diarrhea was calculated using the age-adjusted probability ratio (PR) and other epidemiologically significant factors. Effectiveness of the vaccine was estimated using the expression 1-PR. Coverage with a single dose of the rotavirus vaccine was 87.3%. During the 12 months prior to the survey, 1 453 of the children under 24 months old in the study areas (43.2%) had presented with diarrhea, and of these, 174 (5.2%) had been hospitalized for this cause. The effectiveness of two doses of the vaccine in preventing hospitalization for severe diarrhea was 68% (CI 95% = 55%-77%). In Colombia, rotavirus vaccination protects against hospitalization for diarrhea due to any cause. The use of cross-sectional surveys appeared to be adequate for rapid evaluation of an immunization program's effectiveness with a new vaccine.

  15. Vaccines for the prevention of human papillomavirus and associated gynecologic diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Kevin A

    2006-06-01

    Routine vaccination programs have had a substantial impact on reducing the prevalence of a variety of infections diseases. In light of the fact that human papillomavirus (HPV) is a prerequisite for virtually every case of cervical cancer and genital warts occurring worldwide, vaccination may be the most effective mechanism to prevent HPV infection and HPV-associated disease. HPV vaccines are created from noninfectious virus-like particles (VLPs) of the major capsid protein, L1, that closely mimic natural HPV virions. Proof-of-principle trials of monovalent vaccines that protect against high-risk HPV types such as HPV 16 or 18 have confirmed that intramuscular injection with VLPs induces the production of HPV type-specific neutralizing antibodies. A bivalent vaccine incorporating oncogenic HPV types 16 and 18 was shown to be safe, well tolerated, and 100% efficacious in preventing persistent HPV infection. A quadrivalent vaccine that protects against genital wart-causing HPV types (HPV 6 and 11) and oncogenic HPV types (HPV 16 and 18) demonstrated 100% efficacy in preventing clinical disease. Because VLP vaccines are prophylactic, vaccination before exposure to HPV will result in the greatest public health benefit; therefore, a successful vaccination program should target preadolescents and stress the importance of vaccination before sexual debut.

  16. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  17. Periodontal vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Malhotra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine is the name applied generally to a substance of the nature of dead or attenuated living infectious material introduced into the body with the object of increasing its power to resist or get rid of a disease. Vaccines are generally prophylactic, i.e. they ameliorate the effects of future infection. One such vaccine considered here is the "Periodontal vaccine". Till date, no preventive modality exists for periodontal disease and treatment rendered is palliative. Thus, availability of periodontal vaccine would not only prevent and modulate periodontal disease, but also enhance the quality of life of people for whom periodontal treatment cannot be easily obtained. The aim of the research should be development of a multispecies vaccine targeting the four prime periodontal pathogens, viz. Porphyromonas gingivalis, T. forsythus, T. denticola and A. comitans. Success is still elusive in case of periodontal vaccine due to the complex etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urueña, Analía; Pippo, Tomás; Betelu, María Sol; Virgilio, Federico; Hernández, Laura; Giglio, Norberto; Gentile, Ángela; Diosque, Máximo; Vizzotti, Carla

    2015-05-07

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe diarrhea in children under 5. In Argentina, the most affected regions are the Northeast and Northwest, where hospitalizations and deaths are more frequent. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness of adding either of the two licensed rotavirus vaccines to the routine immunization schedule. The integrated TRIVAC vaccine cost-effectiveness model from the Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative (Version 2.0) was used to assess health benefits, costs savings, life-years gained (LYGs), DALYs averted, and cost/DALY averted of vaccinating 10 successive cohorts, from the health care system and societal perspectives. Two doses of monovalent (RV1) rotavirus vaccine and three doses of pentavalent (RV5) rotavirus vaccine were each compared to a scenario assuming no vaccination. The price/dose was US$ 7.50 and US$ 5.15 for RV1 and RV5, respectively. We ran both a national and sub-national analysis, discounting all costs and benefits 3% annually. Our base case results were compared to a range of alternative univariate and multivariate scenarios. The number of LYGs was 5962 and 6440 for RV1 and RV5, respectively. The cost/DALY averted when compared to no vaccination from the health care system and societal perspective was: US$ 3870 and US$ 1802 for RV1, and US$ 2414 and US$ 358 for RV5, respectively. Equivalent figures for the Northeast were US$ 1470 and US$ 636 for RV1, and US$ 913 and US$ 80 for RV5. Therefore, rotavirus vaccination was more cost-effective in the Northeast compared to the whole country; and, in the Northwest, health service's costs saved outweighed the cost of introducing the vaccine. Vaccination with either vaccine compared to no vaccination was highly cost-effective based on WHO guidelines and Argentina's 2011 per capita GDP of US$ 9090. Key variables influencing results were vaccine efficacy, annual loss of efficacy, relative coverage of deaths, vaccine price, and discount rate. Compared to no

  19. Blocking Babesia bovis vaccine reactions of dairy cattle in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Combrink

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30 resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11. Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5 testing ≥ 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6 tested ≥ 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended.

  20. Vaccination against Lyme disease: Are we ready for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaijk, Patricia; Luytjes, Willem

    2016-03-03

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in the Northern hemisphere and is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. A first sign of Borrelia infection is a circular skin rash, erythema migrans, but it can develop to more serious manifestations affecting skin, nervous system, joints, and/or heart. The marked increase in Lyme disease incidence over the past decades, the severity of the disease, and the associated high medical costs of, in particular, the persistent forms of Lyme disease requires adequate measures for control. Vaccination would be the most effective intervention for prevention, but at present no vaccine is available. In the 1990s, 2 vaccines against Lyme disease based on the OspA protein from the predominant Borrelia species of the US showed to be safe and effective in clinical phase III studies. However, failed public acceptance led to the demise of these monovalent OspA-based vaccines. Nowadays, public seem to be more aware of the serious health problems that Lyme disease can cause and seem more ready for the use of a broadly protective vaccine. This article discusses several aspects that should be considered to enable the development and implementation of a vaccine to prevent Lyme disease successfully.

  1. Meningococcal B vaccination strategies and their practical application in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, R; Amicizia, D; Lai, P L; Panatto, D

    2015-08-31

    Immunisation against meningococcal meningitis has a long history, which has passed through several phases: the studies by Flexner, extraction of the polysaccharide capsule, the development of monovalent and multivalent conjugate vaccines, the outer membrane vesicle vaccines up to the development of effective and safe vaccines for meningococcal B invasive disease through the application of the techniques of molecular biology and reverse vaccinology. The new available vaccines are Bexsero® and Trumenba®. Bexsero ® has been approved and is available in Europe, the USA, Canada, Australia and Chile, and is currently under review in Brazil for the prevention of MenB invasive disease in subjects ≥ 2 months. Trumemba® is currently approved only in the USA, for use in adolescents and young adults. At present, the greatest obstacle to the extensive use of these vaccines in industrialised countries is the high cost and the need administer multiple doses in infants. However, in some European countries and in some Italian Regions, strategies (free and active call) to fight the disease through vaccination (Bexsero®) are already in place.

  2. Strain diversity plays no major role in the varying efficacy of rotavirus vaccines: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Daniel E; Parashar, Umesh D; Jiang, Baoming

    2014-12-01

    While a monovalent Rotarix® [RV1] and a pentavalent RotaTeq® [RV5] have been extensively tested and found generally safe and equally efficacious in clinical trials, the question still lingers about the evolving diversity of circulating rotavirus strains over time and their relationship with protective immunity induced by rotavirus vaccines. We reviewed data from clinical trials and observational studies that assessed the efficacy or field effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines against different rotavirus strains worldwide. RV1 provided broad clinical efficacy and field effectiveness against severe diarrhea due to all major circulating strains, including the homotypic G1P[8] and the fully heterotypic G2P[4] strains. Similarly, RV5 provided broad efficacy and effectiveness against RV5 and non-RV5 strains throughout different locations. Rotavirus vaccination provides broad heterotypic protection; however continuing surveillance is needed to track the change of circulating strains and monitor the effectiveness and safety of vaccines.

  3. Immunogenicity of two adjuvant formulations of an inactivated African horse sickness vaccine in guinea-pigs and target animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Federico Ronchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Monovalent, inactivated and adjuvanted vaccines against African horse sickness, prepared with serotypes 5 and 9, were tested on guinea-pigs to select the formulation that offered the greatest immunity. The final formulation of the vaccines took into account the immune response in the guinea-pig and the inflammatory properties of two types of adjuvant previously tested on target animals. A pilot study was subsequently conducted on horses using a vaccine prepared with serotype 9. The vaccine stimulated neutralising antibodies from the first administration and, after the booster dose, 28 days later; high antibody levels were recorded for at least 10 months. The guinea-pig appears to be a useful laboratory model for the evaluation of the antigenic properties of African horse sickness vaccines.

  4. Deposition kinetics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on silica in monovalent and divalent salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pingting; Long, Guoyu; Ni, Jinren; Tong, Meiping

    2009-08-01

    The deposition kinetics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on silica surfaces were examined in both monovalent and divalent solutions under a variety of environmentally relevant ionic strength and pH conditions by employing a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (DCM-D). Soluble EPS (SEPS) and bound EPS (BEPS) were extracted from four bacterial strains with different characteristics. Maximum favorable deposition rates (k(fa)) were observed for all EPS at low ionic strengths in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. With the increase of ionic strength, k(fa) decreased due to the simultaneous occurrence of EPS aggregation in solutions. Deposition efficiency (alpha; the ratio of deposition rates obtained under unfavorable versus corresponding favorable conditions) for all EPS increased with increasing ionic strength in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions, which agreed with the trends of zeta potentials and was consistent with the classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Comparison of alpha for SEPS and BEPS extracted from the same strain showed that the trends of alpha did not totally agree with trends of zeta potentials, indicating the deposition kinetics of EPS on silica surfaces were not only controlled by DLVO interactions, but also non-DLVO forces. Close comparison of alpha for EPS extracted from different sources showed alpha increased with increasing proteins to polysaccharides ratio. Subsequent experiments for EPS extracted from the same strain but with different proteins to polysaccharides ratios and from activated sludge also showed that alpha were largest for EPS with greatest proteins to polysaccharides ratio. Additional experiments for pure protein and solutions with different pure proteins to pure saccharides ratios further corroborated that larger proteins to polysaccharides ratio resulted in greater EPS deposition.

  5. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  6. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  7. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  8. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  9. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  10. Immunogenicity of a Bivalent Adjuvanted Glycoconjugate Vaccine against Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Fabio; Rondini, Simona; Micoli, Francesca; Lanzilao, Luisa; Alfini, Renzo; Mancini, Francesca; MacLennan, Calman A.; Medaglini, Donata

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis are the predominant causes of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease. Considering the co-endemicity of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, a bivalent vaccine formulation against both pathogens is necessary for protection against iNTS disease, thus investigation of glycoconjugate combination is required. In the present work, we investigated the immune responses induced by S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis monovalent and bivalent glycoconjugate vaccines adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide (alum) only or in combination with cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG). Humoral and cellular, systemic and local, immune responses were characterized in two different mouse strains. All conjugate vaccines elicited high levels of serum IgG against the respective O-antigens (OAg) with bactericidal activity. The bivalent conjugate vaccine induced systemic production of antibodies against both S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis OAg. The presence of alum or alum + CpG adjuvants in vaccine formulations significantly increased the serum antigen-specific antibody production. The alum + CpG bivalent vaccine formulation triggered the highest systemic anti-OAg antibodies and also a significant increase of anti-OAg IgG in intestinal washes and fecal samples, with a positive correlation with serum levels. These data demonstrate the ability of monovalent and bivalent conjugate vaccines against S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis to induce systemic and local immune responses in different mouse strains, and highlight the suitability of a bivalent glycoconjugate formulation, especially when adjuvanted with alum + CpG, as a promising candidate vaccine against iNTS disease. PMID:28289411

  11. Leptospirosis vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Li; Wang Zhijun; Węgrzyn Alicja

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the...

  12. Design of different strategies of multivalent DNA-based vaccination against rabies and canine distemper in mice and dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touihri Leila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the vaccination campaigns, puppies younger than 3 months old are not targeted and remain unvaccinated for at least the first year of their lives. Almost half of the reported rabid dogs are 6 months or younger. Hence, we should recommend the vaccination against rabies of young puppies. Unfortunately, owing to the exposure of puppies to infections with either canine parvovirus (CPV or distemper virus (CDV after the intervention of the vaccinators, owners are reluctant to vaccinate puppies against rabies. Therefore, it is necessary to include the CPV and CDV valences in the vaccine against rabies. Multivalent DNA-based vaccination in dogs, including rabies and distemper valences, could help in raising vaccine coverage. Methods We have designed monovalent and multivalent DNA-based vaccine candidates for in vitro and in vivo assays. These plasmids encode to the rabies virus glycoprotein and/or the canine distemper virus hemagglutinin. The first strategy of multivalent DNA-based vaccination is by mixing plasmids encoding to a single antigen each. The second is by simply fusing the genes of the antigens together. The third is by adding the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV 2A oligopeptide gene into the antigen genes. The last strategy is by the design and use of a bicistronic plasmid with an “Internal Ribosome Entry Site” (IRES domain. Results The monovalent construct against canine distemper was efficiently validated by inducing higher humoral immune responses compared to cell-culture-derived vaccine both in mice and dogs. All multivalent plasmids efficiently expressed both valences after in vitro transfection of BHK-21 cells. In BALB/c mice, the bicistronic IRES-dependant construct was the most efficient inducer of virus-neutralizing antibodies against both valences. It was able to induce better humoral immune responses compared to the administration of either cell-culture-derived vaccines or monovalent plasmids. The

  13. Prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants and children: rotavirus vaccine safety, efficacy, and potential impact of vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Chandran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aruna Chandran1, Sean Fitzwater1, Anjie Zhen2, Mathuram Santosham11Department of International Health, Division of Health Systems, 2Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis globally, with greater than 86% of deaths occurring in low-income and middle-income countries. There are two rotavirus vaccines currently licensed in the United States and prequalified by the World Health Organization. RV1 is a monovalent attenuated human rotavirus strain, given orally in two doses. RV5 is a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine, given orally in three doses. A third rotavirus vaccine, LLV, is a lamb rotavirus strain given orally as a single dose, which is currently available only in China. RV1 and RV5 have been shown to be highly efficacious in developed countries, and initial results from trials in Africa and Asia are promising as well. At least three other vaccines are in development, which are being developed by manufacturers of developing countries. Further studies are needed to clarify issues including administration of oral rotavirus vaccines with breastfeeding and other oral vaccines, and alterations in dosing schedule. Using new data on global diarrheal burden, rotavirus is estimated to cause 390,000 deaths in children younger than 5 years. Should rotavirus vaccines be introduced in the routine immunization programs of all countries, a potential of 170,000 deaths could be prevented annually. The largest impact on mortality would be seen in low-income and middle-income countries, despite poor immunization coverage and lower efficacy. Therefore, international efforts are needed to ensure that rotavirus vaccines reach the populations with highest burden of rotavirus disease.Keywords: vaccination, mortality, rotavirus, gastroenteritis

  14. Persistence of antibodies 20 y after vaccination with a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Pierre; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Suryakiran, P.; Folschweiller, Nicolas; Van Der Meeren, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccination is the most effective and well-tolerated method of conferring long-term protection against hepatitis A and B viruses (HAV; HBV). Long-term studies are required to characterize the duration of protection and need for boosters. Following primary immunization of 150 and 157 healthy adults with 3-doses of combined hepatitis A/hepatitis B vaccine (HAB; Twinrix™, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) at 0-1-6 months in 2 separate studies, we measured vaccine-induced antibody persistence against HAV and HBV annually for 20 y (Study A: NCT01000324; Study B: NCT01037114). Subjects with circulating anti-HAV antibodies anti-hepatitis B surface antigen vaccine dose (Havrix™/Engerix™-B, GSK Vaccines, Belgium). Applying the immunogenicity results from these studies, mathematical modeling predicted long-term persistence. After 20 y, 18 and 25 subjects in studies A and B, respectively, comprised the long-term according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity; 100% and 96.0% retained anti-HAV antibodies ≥ 15 mIU/mL, respectively; 94.4% and 92.0% had anti-HBs antibodies ≥ 10 mIU/mL, respectively. Between Years 16–20, 4 subjects who received a challenge dose of monovalent hepatitis A vaccine (N = 2) or hepatitis B vaccine (N = 2), all mounted a strong anamnestic response suggestive of immune memory despite low antibody levels. Mathematical modeling predicts that 40 y after vaccination ≥ 97% vaccinees will maintain anti-HAV ≥ 15 mIU/mL and ≥ 50% vaccinees will retain anti-HBs ≥ 10 mIU/mL. Immunogenicity data confirm that primary immunization with 3-doses of HAB induces persisting anti-HAV and anti-HBs specific antibodies in most adults for up to 20 y; mathematical modeling predicts even longer-term protection. PMID:28281907

  15. Persistence of antibodies 20 y after vaccination with a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Pierre; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Suryakiran, P; Folschweiller, Nicolas; Van Der Meeren, Olivier

    2017-03-10

    Vaccination is the most effective and well-tolerated method of conferring long-term protection against hepatitis A and B viruses (HAV; HBV). Long-term studies are required to characterize the duration of protection and need for boosters. Following primary immunization of 150 and 157 healthy adults with 3-doses of combined hepatitis A/hepatitis B vaccine (HAB; Twinrix™, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) at 0-1-6 months in 2 separate studies, we measured vaccine-induced antibody persistence against HAV and HBV annually for 20 y (Study A: NCT01000324; Study B: NCT01037114). Subjects with circulating anti-HAV antibodies hepatitis B surface antigen hepatitis A and/or B vaccine dose (Havrix™/Engerix™-B, GSK Vaccines, Belgium). Applying the immunogenicity results from these studies, mathematical modeling predicted long-term persistence. After 20 y, 18 and 25 subjects in studies A and B, respectively, comprised the long-term according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity; 100% and 96.0% retained anti-HAV antibodies ≥ 15 mIU/mL, respectively; 94.4% and 92.0% had anti-HBs antibodies ≥ 10 mIU/mL, respectively. Between Years 16-20, 4 subjects who received a challenge dose of monovalent hepatitis A vaccine (N = 2) or hepatitis B vaccine (N = 2), all mounted a strong anamnestic response suggestive of immune memory despite low antibody levels. Mathematical modeling predicts that 40 y after vaccination ≥ 97% vaccinees will maintain anti-HAV ≥ 15 mIU/mL and ≥ 50% vaccinees will retain anti-HBs ≥ 10 mIU/mL. Immunogenicity data confirm that primary immunization with 3-doses of HAB induces persisting anti-HAV and anti-HBs specific antibodies in most adults for up to 20 y; mathematical modeling predicts even longer-term protection.

  16. Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Flu Vaccines Vaccine Effectiveness Types of Flu Vaccine Flu Shot Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine Intradermal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination ... Cell-Based Flu Vaccines Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Flu Vaccination by Jet Injector Adjuvant Vaccine Vaccine Virus ...

  17. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Flu Vaccines Vaccine Effectiveness Types of Flu Vaccine Flu Shot Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine Intradermal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination ... Cell-Based Flu Vaccines Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Flu Vaccination by Jet Injector Adjuvant Vaccine Vaccine Virus ...

  18. Effects of monovalent and divalent salts on the phospholipid and fatty acid compositions of a halotolerant Planococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K J

    1986-09-01

    The phospholipid headgroup and fatty acid compositions of a halotolerant Planococcus sp. (strain A4a) were examined when cells were grown in the presence of high concentrations of a variety of salts. The fatty acid composition of Planococcus sp. strain A4a was altered primarily as a function of the osmolality of the growth medium. The phospholipid headgroup composition was influenced by both the osmolality of the growth medium and the nature of the cation species present. An increase in the cardiolipin/phosphatidylglycerol molar ratio was detected when cells were grown in the presence of high concentrations of monovalent cations.

  19. Single crystal structures of thallium (I) thorium fluorides and crystal chemistry of monovalent tetravalent cation pentafluorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudahmane, Abdelghani; El-Ghozzi, Malika; Jouffret, Laurent; Avignant, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Two thallium (I) thorium (IV) fluorides, TlTh3F13 and TlThF5 were obtained by solid state synthesis and their crystal structures determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data recorded at room temperature with an APEX-II CCD diffractometer. TlTh3F13 is orthorhombic, space group Pmc21, with a=8.1801(2) Å, b=7.4479(2) Å, c=8.6375(2) Å, V=526.24(2) Å3, Z=2 and TlThF5 is monoclinic, space group P21/n, with a=8.1128(5) Å, b=7.2250(4) Å, c=8.8493(6) Å, β=116.683(3)°, V=463.46(5) Å3, Z=4. The structure of TlTh3F13 comprises layers of corner and edge-sharing ThF9 polyhedra further linked by chains of trans connected tricapped trigonal prisms ThF9 through corners and edges. The three dimensional thorium frameworks delimits channels parallel to [0 0 1] where the 11-coordinated Tl+ ions are arranged into double columns located in mirror planes of the structure. TlTh3F13 is isotypic with RbTh3F13, RbU3F13 and with one of the two polymorphs of CsTh3F13. The structure of TlThF5 may be regarded as a layer structure built up from the regular succession of 2∞[ M ‧F5 ] - corrugated layers further held by the Tl+ ions along the [1 0 1 ̅] direction. The layers are built up from edge and corner-sharing thorium polyhedra where each (ThF9)5- monocapped square antiprism is connected to five others by sharing three edges and two corners. TlThF5 is isostructural with β-NH4UF5 and with one of the polymorphs of CsThF5. A comparison of the different structural types of MM‧F5 pentafluorides is presented and a diagram of repartition of their structures is given. From the comparison of the Tl structures with their Rb or Cs homologs, where very similar monovalent cation environments are observed it should be concluded to a stereochemically inactivity of the 6s2 lone pair of Tl(I) in both TlTh3F13 and TlThF5, contrary to what is observed in richer Tl(I) content Tl3ThF7 fluorothorate.

  20. Levels of diphtheria and tetanus specific IgG of Portuguese adult women, before and after vaccination with adult type Td. Duration of immunity following vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Maria

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for tetanus toxoid decennial booster doses has been questioned by some experts. Several counter arguments have been presented, supporting the maintenance of decennial adult booster doses with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (adult formulation of the vaccine: Td. This study aimed to evaluate the use of Td in Portuguese adult women under routine conditions. For that purpose we selected a group of women 30+ years of age to which vaccination was recommended. We intended to know if pre-vaccination antibody concentrations were associated with factors as age at first and last vaccination, number of doses and time since last revaccination. We also intended to assess the serological efficacy of Td booster. Methods Following the Portuguese guidelines 100 women were vaccinated with Td. Antitetanus toxin IgG (ATT IgG and antidiphtheria toxin IgG (ADT IgG levels were measured (mIU/ml in 100 pre-vaccination and 91 post-vaccination sera. Detailed vaccination records were available from 88 participants. Results Twenty-two women (Group A began vaccination with DPT/DT in their early childhood and their pre-vaccination ATT IgG levels increased with the number of doses received (p = 0.022 and decreased with time since last vaccination (p = 0.016. Among the 66 women who began vaccination in adolescence and adulthood (Group B, with monovalent TT, ATT IgG levels decreased with age at first dose (p Conclusion Our study suggests that, to protect against tetanus, there is no need to administer decennial boosters to the Portuguese adults who have complied with the childhood/adolescent schedule (6 doses of tetanus toxoid. The adult booster intervals could be wider, probably of 20 years. This also seems to apply to protection against diphtheria, but issues on the herd immunity and on the circulation of toxigenic strains need to be better understood.

  1. Evaluation of storing hepatitis B vaccine outside the cold chain in the Solomon Islands: Identifying opportunities and barriers to implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, Lucy; Anga, Jenniffer; Dadari, Ibrahim; Sadr-Azodi, Nahad; Ogaoga, Divinal; Patel, Minal

    2017-05-15

    Monovalent Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) is heat stable, making it suitable for storage outside cold chain (OCC) at 37°C for 1month. We conducted an OCC project in the Solomon Islands to determine the feasibility of and barriers to national implementation and to evaluate impact on coverage. Healthcare workers at 13 facilities maintained monovalent HepB birth dose (HepB-BD) OCC for up to 28days over 7months. Vaccination data were recorded for children born during the project and those born during 7months before the project. Timely HepB-BD coverage among facility and home births increased from 30% to 68% and from 4% to 24%, respectively. Temperature excursions above 37°C were rare, but vaccine wastage was high and shortages common. Storing HepB OCC can increase HepB-BD coverage in countries with insufficient cold chain capacity or numerous home births. High vaccine wastage and unreliable vaccine supply must be addressed for successful implementation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Current and Emerging Cell Culture Manufacturing Technologies for Influenza Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Milián

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Annually, influenza virus infects millions of people worldwide. Vaccination programs against seasonal influenza infections require the production of hundreds of million doses within a very short period of time. The influenza vaccine is currently produced using a technology developed in the 1940s that relies on replicating the virus in embryonated hens’ eggs. The monovalent viral preparation is inactivated and purified before being formulated in trivalent or tetravalent influenza vaccines. The production process has depended on a continuous supply of eggs. In the case of pandemic outbreaks, this mode of production might be problematic because of a possible drastic reduction in the egg supply and the low flexibility of the manufacturing process resulting in a lack of supply of the required vaccine doses in a timely fashion. Novel production systems using mammalian or insect cell cultures have emerged to overcome the limitations of the egg-based production system. These industrially well-established production systems have been primarily selected for a faster and more flexible response to pandemic threats. Here, we review the most important cell culture manufacturing processes that have been developed in recent years for mass production of influenza vaccines.

  3. Safety and immunological effect of domestic split influenza virus vaccine%国产流行性感冒病毒裂解疫苗安全性及免疫效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佩如; 吴建林; 祝小平; 周良君; 刘友全; 凡娅; 陈果; 陈志; 刘颜; 孙宏英

    2009-01-01

    目的 评价国产流行性感冒(简称流感)病毒裂解疫苗的安全性和免疫效果.方法 选择6岁~、16岁~和>60岁3个年龄段人群共606名,每个年龄段人群按数字表法随机分入试验组(共213名)、对照组1(共195名)和对照组2(共198名),分别接种国产流感疫苗和2种进口流感疫苗,比较三组人群接种后副反应发牛率、抗体阳转率、保护率及几何平均滴度(GMT)增长倍数的差异.率的比较采用X2检验,几何平均滴度(GMT)增长倍数采用方差分析,P<0.05为差异有统计学意义.结果 试验组、对照组1、对照组2副反应发生率分别为3.76%(8/213)、4.10%(8/195)和3.54%(7/198),差异无统计学意义(X2=0.87,P=0.93).3个组H1N1、H3N2和B(亚)型血凝抑制(H1)抗体总阳转率分别为89.2%(190/213)、63.4%(135/213)、86.4%(184/213),88.7%(173/195)、61.5%(120/195)、87.2%(170/195),87.9%(174/198)、61.6%(122/198)、84.8%(168/198),各(亚)型抗体总阳转率差异无统计学意义(X2H1N1=0.94,PH1N1=0.63;X2H1N2=0.94,PH3N2=0.63;X2B=0.75,PB=0.69);3个组H1N1、H3N2及B型H1抗体平均增长倍数分别为10.7、7.3、8.4倍,10.5、6.3、8.3倍,10.2、7.1、8.8倍,各(亚)型H1抗体GMT增长倍数差异无统计学意义(FH1N1=0.35,PH1N1=0.70;FH3N2=2.22,PH3N2=0.11;FB=1.51,PB=0.35);3个组H1N1、H3N2及B型H1抗体保护率分别为100%(213/213)、70.0%(149/213)、95.3%(203/213),100%(195/195)、66.7%(130/195)、97.9%(191/195),99.5%(197/198)、66.2%(131/198)、96.5%(191/198),各(亚)型抗体保护率差异无统计学意义(X2H1N1=2.04,PH1N1=0.36;X2H3N2=0.74,PH3N2=0.69;X2B=0.42,PB=0.82).结论 国产裂解流感疫苗具有良好的安全性和免疫效果,可用于群体性接种.%Objective To evaluate the safety and immunological effect of domestic split influenza virus vaccine. Methods All 606 subjects were divided into three groups by under 6, 16-60 and above 60 years old. Each age group was divided as study group(n=213) ,control group 1 (n=195) and control

  4. Development and characterization of candidate rotavirus vaccine strains derived from children with diarrhoea in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Le T; Trang, Nguyen V; Phuong, Nguyen M; Nguyen, Huong T; Ngo, Huong T; Nguyen, Huong T M; Tran, Hanh B; Dang, Ha N; Dang, Anh D; Gentsch, Jon R; Wang, Yuhuan; Esona, Mathew D; Glass, Roger I; Steele, A Duncan; Kilgore, Paul E; Nguyen, Man V; Jiang, Baoming; Nguyen, Hien D

    2009-11-20

    In Vietnam, rotavirus infection accounts for more than one-half of all hospitalizations for diarrhoea among children less than 5 years of age. While new vaccines to prevent rotavirus diarrhoea have been developed and introduced into some countries by multinational manufacturers, the ability for developing countries such as Vietnam to introduce several new and important vaccines into the routine infant immunization schedule may be challenging. In order to be partially self-sufficient in vaccine production, Vietnam has pursued the development of several rotavirus strains as candidate vaccines using isolates obtained from Vietnamese children with diarrhoea. This paper describes the origin, isolation and characterization of 3 human rotavirus strains being considered for further vaccine development in Vietnam. The goal is to prepare a monovalent G1P [8] rotavirus vaccine using one of these strains obtained in Vietnam and naturally attenuated by multiple passages in cell culture. While this is an ambitious project that will require several years' work, we are using the lessons learned to improve the overall quality of vaccine production including the use of Vero cell techniques for the manufacture of other vaccines in Vietnam.

  5. Monovalent Cation Doping of CH3NH3PbI3 for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi-Jalebi, Mojtaba; Dar, M Ibrahim; Sadhanala, Aditya; Senanayak, Satyaprasad P; Grätzel, Michael; Friend, Richard H

    2017-03-19

    Here, we demonstrate the incorporation of monovalent cation additives into CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite in order to adjust the optical, excitonic, and electrical properties. The possibility of doping was investigated by adding monovalent cation halides with similar ionic radii to Pb(2+), including Cu(+), Na(+), and Ag(+). A shift in the Fermi level and a remarkable decrease of sub-bandgap optical absorption, along with a lower energetic disorder in the perovskite, was achieved. An order-of-magnitude enhancement in the bulk hole mobility and a significant reduction of transport activation energy within an additive-based perovskite device was attained. The confluence of the aforementioned improved properties in the presence of these cations led to an enhancement in the photovoltaic parameters of the perovskite solar cell. An increase of 70 mV in open circuit voltage for AgI and a 2 mA/cm(2) improvement in photocurrent density for NaI- and CuBr-based solar cells were achieved compared to the pristine device. Our work paves the way for further improvements in the optoelectronic quality of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite and subsequent devices. It highlights a new avenue for investigations on the role of dopant impurities in crystallization and controls the electronic defect density in perovskite structures.

  6. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-11-01

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl‑/SO42‑ separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl‑/SO42‑ permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm2 30 minutes later.

  7. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  8. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  9. Adults Need Vaccines, Too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Adult Vaccinations Adults Need Vaccines, Too! Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... of the millions of adults not receiving the vaccines you need? What vaccines do you need? All ...

  10. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Vaccinations and pregnancy Vaccinations and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... date before you get pregnant. What is a vaccination? A vaccination is a shot that contains a ...

  11. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should NOT ... to your doctor or pharmacist about the best flu vaccine option for you or your family.

  12. Antipneumococcal vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP is a gram-positive bacterium with more than 90 known serotypes causing around 11% of all deaths worldwide in children aged 1-59 months. A new era in prevention of SP-related diseases started in at the beginning of 2000s when a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was recommended as the vaccine of choice in pediatric age. PCV7 dramatically reduced invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD among children with indirect effects noted among other age groups as well. However, thanks to a strict surveillance network, an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs causing IPD was noted worldwide and in late 2000s a new second generation vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-PCV13 with an expanded serotype coverage was licensed. Due to the lack of solid effectiveness data, up to know it is difficult to predict how the composition of NVTs will change after the large-scale introduction of PCV13 or whether the characteristics of the serotypes will change. Long-term surveillance of both IPD, pneumonia, acute otitis media and carriage will be crucial to ascertain whether these second generation vaccines are having the desired effect of reducing the incidence of diseases in the long term. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  13. Induction of protective immunity against Eimeria tenella, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina infections using multivalent epitope DNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaokai; Ren, Zhe; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-06-04

    Avian coccidiosis is mostly caused by mixed infection of several Eimeria species under natural conditions and immunity to avian coccidiosis is largely dependent on T-cell immune response. In this study, 14 T-cell epitope fragments from eight antigens of Eimeria tenella (E. tenella), Eimeria necatrix (E. necatrix), Eimeria maxima (E. maxima) and Eimeria acervulina (E. acervulina) were ligated with pVAX1 producing 14 monovalent DNA vaccines, respectively. Protective immunity of the monovalent DNA vaccines was assessed by in vivo challenge experiments and then four most protective fragments of each species were chosen to construct multivalent epitope DNA vaccines with or without chicken IL-2 as genetic adjuvant. Protective efficacies of the epitope DNA vaccines on chickens against E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. maxima and E. acervulina were evaluated. The results showed that the constructed multivalent epitope DNA vaccines significantly increased body weight gain, alleviated enteric lesions and reduced oocyst output of the infected birds. Especially, the multivalent epitope DNA vaccines of pVAX1-NA4-1-TA4-1-LDH-2-EMCDPK-1 and pVAX1-NA4-1-TA4-1-LDH-2-EMCDPK-1-IL-2 not only significantly increased body weight gain, alleviated enteric lesions and reduced oocyst output of the infected birds, but also resulted in anti-coccidial index (ACI) more than 170 against E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. maxima and E. acervulina, which indicated they could induce protective immunity against E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. maxima and E. acervulina. Our findings suggest the constructed multivalent epitope DNA vaccines are the potential candidate multivalent vaccines against mixed infection of Eimeria.

  14. A review of the long-term protection after hepatitis A and B vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Pierre; Van Herck, Koen

    2007-03-01

    on early projections of observed antibody levels. However, recent follow-up studies with up to 12 year observation, as well as studies employing mathematical models predict that following primary vaccination, antibodies will persist for at least 25 years. In addition, experimental studies confirm that vaccination against hepatitis A induces immunological memory. Therefore hepatitis A booster vaccination is presently considered as unnecessary in fully vaccinated individuals. The above findings are of importance in the context of administering combined hepatitis A and B vaccine for which similar long-term data have been observed. All available data on monovalent and combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines indicates that there is no support for a hepatitis A or hepatitis B booster when a complete primary vaccination course is offered to immunocompetent individuals.

  15. Technology transfer of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant manufacturing for pandemic influenza vaccine production in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christopher B; Huynh, Chuong; O'Hara, Michael K; Onu, Adrian

    2013-03-15

    Many developing countries lack or have inadequate pandemic influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity. In the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, this led to delayed and inadequate vaccine coverage in the developing world. Thus, bolstering developing country influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity is urgently needed. The Cantacuzino Institute in Bucharest, Romania has been producing seasonal influenza vaccine since the 1970s, and has the capacity to produce ∼5 million doses of monovalent vaccine in the event of an influenza pandemic. Inclusion of an adjuvant in the vaccine could enable antigen dose sparing, expanding vaccine coverage and potentially allowing universal vaccination of the Romanian population and possibly neighboring countries. However, adjuvant formulation and manufacturing know-how are difficult to access. This manuscript describes the successful transfer of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant manufacturing and quality control technologies from the Infectious Disease Research Institute in Seattle, USA to the Cantacuzino Institute. By describing the challenges and accomplishments of the project, it is hoped that the knowledge and experience gained will benefit other institutes involved in similar technology transfer projects designed to facilitate increased vaccine manufacturing capacity in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mielitis transversa asociada a vacunación antigripal Transverse myelitis associated with influenza vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Docampo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente, de 37 años de edad, con mielitis transversa de comienzo agudo, luego de la aplicación de la vacuna monovalente contra el virus influenza A, subtipo H1N1. El diagnóstico se realizó con resonancia magnética.We report on a 37-year-old female with acute onset of transverse myelitis after having influenza A (H1N1 monovalent vaccine. The diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.

  17. Mielitis transversa asociada a vacunación antigripal Transverse myelitis associated with influenza vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Docampo; Carolina Mariluis; Mauricio Castillo; Claudio Bruno; Carlos Morales

    2011-01-01

    Presentamos el caso de una paciente, de 37 años de edad, con mielitis transversa de comienzo agudo, luego de la aplicación de la vacuna monovalente contra el virus influenza A, subtipo H1N1. El diagnóstico se realizó con resonancia magnética.We report on a 37-year-old female with acute onset of transverse myelitis after having influenza A (H1N1) monovalent vaccine. The diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  18. Serogroup quantitation of multivalent polysaccharide and polysaccharide-conjugate meningococcal vaccines from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Matthew C; Gibeault, Sabrina; Filippenko, Vasilisa; Ye, Qiang; Wang, Junzhi; Kunkel, Jeremy P

    2013-07-01

    The active components of most meningococcal vaccines are four antigenic serogroup capsular polysaccharides (A, C, Y, W135). The vaccines, monovalent or multivalent mixtures of either free polysaccharides or polysaccharides conjugated to antigenic carrier proteins, may be in liquid or lyophilised formulations, with or without excipients. Acid hydrolysis and chromatographic methods for serogroup quantitation, which were previously optimised and qualified using polysaccharide-based standards and a narrow range of real vaccines, are here challenged with multiple lots of a broad assortment of additional multivalent polysaccharide-based meningococcal vaccine products. Centrifugal filtration successfully removed all interfering lactose excipient without loss of polysaccharides to allow for the determination of Y and W135 serogroups. Replicate operations by three different analysts indicated high method reproducibility. Results indicated some lot-to-lot and product-to-product variations. However, all vaccines were within general specifications for each serogroup polysaccharide, with the exception of all lots of one polysaccharide vaccine - which by these methods were found to be deficient in the serogroup A component only. These robust techniques are very useful for the evaluation of antigen content and consistency of manufacture. The deformulation, hydrolysis and chromatographic methods may be adaptable for the evaluation of other types of polysaccharide-based vaccines.

  19. Evolution of the capsular operon of Streptococcus iniae in response to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Candice M; Baiano, Justice C F; Chan, Candy; Yuen, Benedict; Aviles, Fabian; Landos, Matt; Chong, Roger S M; Benedict, Suresh; Barnes, Andrew C

    2012-12-01

    Streptococcus iniae causes severe septicemia and meningitis in farmed fish and is also occasionally zoonotic. Vaccination against S. iniae is problematic, with frequent breakdown of protection in vaccinated fish. The major protective antigens in S. iniae are the polysaccharides of the capsule, which are essential for virulence. Capsular biosynthesis is driven and regulated by a 21-kb operon comprising up to 20 genes. In a long-term study, we have sequenced the capsular operon of strains that have been used in autogenous vaccines across Australia and compared it with the capsular operon sequences of strains subsequently isolated from infected vaccinated fish. Intriguingly, strains isolated from vaccinated fish that subsequently become infected have coding mutations that are confined to a limited number of genes in the cps operon, with the remainder of the genes in the operon remaining stable. Mutations in strains in diseased vaccinated fish occur in key genes in the capsular operon that are associated with polysaccharide configuration (cpsG) and with regulation of biosynthesis (cpsD and cpsE). This, along with high ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations within the cps genes, suggests that immune response directed predominantly against capsular polysaccharide may be driving evolution in a very specific set of genes in the operon. From these data, it may be possible to design a simple polyvalent vaccine with a greater operational life span than the current monovalent killed bacterins.

  20. Phase 1 study of pandemic H1 DNA vaccine in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Crank

    Full Text Available A novel, swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 virus was detected worldwide in April 2009, and the World Health Organization (WHO declared a global pandemic that June. DNA vaccine priming improves responses to inactivated influenza vaccines. We describe the rapid production and clinical evaluation of a DNA vaccine encoding the hemagglutinin protein of the 2009 pandemic A/California/04/2009(H1N1 influenza virus, accomplished nearly two months faster than production of A/California/07/2009(H1N1 licensed monovalent inactivated vaccine (MIV.20 subjects received three H1 DNA vaccinations (4 mg intramuscularly with Biojector at 4-week intervals. Eighteen subjects received an optional boost when the licensed H1N1 MIV became available. The interval between the third H1 DNA injection and MIV boost was 3-17 weeks. Vaccine safety was assessed by clinical observation, laboratory parameters, and 7-day solicited reactogenicity. Antibody responses were assessed by ELISA, HAI and neutralization assays, and T cell responses by ELISpot and flow cytometry.Vaccinations were safe and well-tolerated. As evaluated by HAI, 6/20 developed positive responses at 4 weeks after third DNA injection and 13/18 at 4 weeks after MIV boost. Similar results were detected in neutralization assays. T cell responses were detected after DNA and MIV. The antibody responses were significantly amplified by the MIV boost, however, the boost did not increased T cell responses induced by DNA vaccine.H1 DNA vaccine was produced quickly, was well-tolerated, and had modest immunogenicity as a single agent. Other HA DNA prime-MIV boost regimens utilizing one DNA prime vaccination and longer boost intervals have shown significant immunogenicity. Rapid and large-scale production of HA DNA vaccines has the potential to contribute to an efficient response against future influenza pandemics.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00973895.

  1. Vaccination priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Robert; Baños, Ana; deBernardis, Chiara

    2003-02-01

    Selection of immunizations should be based on requirements and on risk of infection. According to the International Health Regulations, many countries require yellow fever vaccination and proof thereof as the International Certificate of vaccination. Additionally selected countries require proof of vaccination against cholera and meningococcal disease. A consultation for travel health advice is always an opportunity to ascertain that routine immunizations have been performed. Recommended immunizations often are more important for traveller's health than the required or routine ones. The most frequent vaccine preventable infection in non-immune travellers to developing countries is hepatitis A with an average incidence rate of 0.3% per month; in high risk backpackers or foreign-aid-volunteers this rate is 2.0%. Many immunizations are recommended for special risk groups only: there is a growing tendency in many countries to immunize all young travellers to developing countries against hepatitis B, as it is uncertain who will voluntarily or involuntarily get exposed. The attack rate of influenza in intercontinental travel is estimated to be 1%. Immunity against poliomyelitis remains essential for travel to Africa and parts of Asia. Many of the 0.2-0.4% who experience an animal bite are at risk of rabies. Typhoid fever is diagnosed with an incidence rate of 0.03% per month among travellers to the Indian subcontinent, North and West Africa (except Tunisia), and Peru, elsewhere this rate is 10-fold lower. Meningococcal disease, Japanese encephalitis, cholera and tuberculosis have been reported in travellers, but these infections are rare in this population. Although no travel health vaccine is cost beneficial, most professionals will offer protection against the frequent risks, while most would find it ridiculous to use all available vaccines in every traveller. It is essentially an arbitrary decision made on the risk level one wishes to recommend protection--but the

  2. Immune memory to hepatitis B persists in children aged 7-8 years, who were vaccinated in infancy with 4 doses of hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (Infanrix™ hexa) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Bleckmann, Gerhard; Crasta, Priya D

    2014-01-01

    Protection against hepatitis B disease relies on either protective serum antibodies or on the ability of the immune system to mount an anamnestic response when confronted with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). This open multicenter study (EUDRACT: 2010-022538-10) measured antibodies to HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs) in 7-8-year-old children who had received 4 doses of hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-HBV-inactivated poliovirus-Hemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib: Infanrix™ hexa; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) in the first 2 years of life through routine vaccine services in Germany. The ability of these children to mount an anamnestic response to a challenge dose of monovalent HBV vaccine (Engerix™ B Kinder; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) was also assessed. Before the challenge dose, 78.5% of children had anti-HBs levels ≥6.2 mIU/mL (seropositive) and 72.2% had anti-HBs levels ≥10 mIU/mL (seroprotected). Post-challenge, 98.9% had anti-HBs levels ≥10 mIU/mL and 95.8% had anti-HBs ≥100 mIU/mL. An anamnestic response to the challenge was observed in 96.6% of all subjects. The challenge dose was well tolerated, with a reactogenicity and safety profile consistent with published data. DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib induces long-lasting immune memory to HBV that appears very similar to that induced by monovalent HBV vaccines. Protection against hepatitis B may be conferred through immune memory in subjects who responded to primary vaccination, even when they subsequently lose detectable levels of circulating anti-HBs antibodies.

  3. A two year BTV-8 vaccination follow up: molecular diagnostics and assessment of humoral and cellular immune reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Alexandra; Gollnick, Nicole; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Neubauer-Juric, Antonie; Lahm, Harald; Büttner, Mathias

    2012-01-27

    The compulsory vaccination campaign against Bluetongue virus serotype eight (BTV-8) in Germany was exercised in the state of Bavaria using three commercial monovalent inactivated vaccines given provisional marketing authorisation for emergency use. In eleven Bavarian farms representing a cross sectional area of the state the immune reactions of sheep and cattle were followed over a two year period (2008-2009) using cELISA, a serum neutralisation test (SNT) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) ELISPOT. For molecular diagnostics of BTV genome presence two recommended real time quantitative RT-PCR protocols were applied. The recommended vaccination scheme led to low or even undetectable antibody titers (ELISA) in serum samples of both cattle and sheep. A fourfold increase of the vaccine dose in cattle, however, induced higher ELISA titers and virus neutralising antibodies. Accordingly, repeated vaccination in sheep caused an increase in ELISA-antibody titers. BTV-8 neutralising antibodies occurred in most animals only after multiple vaccinations in the second year of the campaign. The secretion of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in ELISPOT after in vitro re-stimulation of PBMC of BTV-8 vaccinated animals with BTV was evaluated in the field for the first time. Sera of BTV-8 infected or vaccinated animals neutralising BTV-8 could also neutralise an Italian BTV serotype 1 cell culture adapted strain and PBMC of such animals secreted IFN-γ when stimulated with BTV-1.

  4. Polio Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Resources Share Polio Vaccine What is polio?Poliomyelitis (polio, for short) is a serious illness that can cause paralysis (when you can't move your arms and legs) or even death. Polio is caused by a virus. The virus can be spread by drinking water ...

  5. Vexing Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  6. Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including a severe allergy to latex. Babies with "severe combined immunodeficiency" (SCID) should not get rotavirus vaccine. Babies who have had a type of bowel blockage called "intussusception" should not get ... with moderate or severe diarrhea or vomiting. Check with your doctor if ...

  7. Valuing vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  8. Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ProQuad® (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine, Varicella Vaccine) ... up to about 1 person in 5) and measles-like rash (about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...

  9. Establishment of pandemic influenza vaccine production capacity at Bio Farma, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhardono, Mahendra; Ugiyadi, Dori; Nurnaeni, Ida; Emelia, Imelda

    2011-07-01

    In Indonesia, avian influenza A(H5N1) virus started to spread in humans in June 2005, with an alarming case-fatality rate of more than 80%. Considering that global influenza vaccine production capacity would barely have covered 10% of the world's pandemic vaccine needs, and that countries with no production facilities or prearranged contracts would be without access to a vaccine, the Government of Indonesia embarked on a programme to increase its readiness for a future influenza pandemic. This included the domestic production of influenza vaccine, which was entrusted to Bio Farma. This health security strategy consists of developing trivalent influenza vaccine production capacity in order to be able to convert immediately to monovalent production of up to 20 million pandemic doses for the Indonesian market upon receipt of the seed strain from the World Health Organization (WHO). For this purpose, a dedicated production facility is being constructed within the Bio Farma premises in Bandung. As an initial stage of influenza vaccine development, imported seasonal influenza bulk has been formulated and filled in the Bio Farma facility. Following three consecutive batches and successful clinical trials, the product was licensed by the Indonesian National Regulatory Authority and distributed commercially for the Hajj programme in 2009. With continued support from its technology transfer partners, Bio Farma is now advancing with the development of upstream processes to produce its own bulk for seasonal and pandemic use.

  10. Multivalent HA DNA vaccination protects against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza infection in chickens and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Rao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sustained outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 in avian species increase the risk of reassortment and adaptation to humans. The ability to contain its spread in chickens would reduce this threat and help maintain the capacity for egg-based vaccine production. While vaccines offer the potential to control avian disease, a major concern of current vaccines is their potency and inability to protect against evolving avian influenza viruses. METHODOLOGY / PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ability of DNA vaccines encoding hemagglutinin (HA proteins from different HPAI H5N1 serotypes was evaluated for its ability to elicit neutralizing antibodies and to protect against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5N1 strain challenge in mice and chickens after DNA immunization by needle and syringe or with a pressure injection device. These vaccines elicited antibodies that neutralized multiple strains of HPAI H5N1 when given in combinations containing up to 10 HAs. The response was dose-dependent, and breadth was determined by the choice of the influenza virus HA in the vaccine. Monovalent and trivalent HA vaccines were tested first in mice and conferred protection against lethal H5N1 A/Vietnam/1203/2004 challenge 68 weeks after vaccination. In chickens, protection was observed against heterologous strains of HPAI H5N1 after vaccination with a trivalent H5 serotype DNA vaccine with doses as low as 5 microg DNA given twice either by intramuscular needle injection or with a needle-free device. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DNA vaccines offer a generic approach to influenza virus immunization applicable to multiple animal species. In addition, the ability to substitute plasmids encoding different strains enables rapid adaptation of the vaccine to newly evolving field isolates.

  11. Vaccine adverse events reported in post-marketing study of the Kitasato Institute from 1994 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tetsuo; Onoda, Kazumasa

    2007-01-05

    General physicians, pediatricians and parents realize that serious adverse events occur with an extremely rare incidence, but have no information on the incidences of vaccine-associated adverse events. A proper understanding of vaccine adverse events would be helpful in promoting an immunization strategy. Causal association can rarely be determined in adverse events through laboratory examinations. We examined the cases reported in the post-marketing surveillance of the Kitasato Institute, categorizing them into two groups: allergic reactions and severe systemic illnesses. Anaphylactic patients with gelatin allergy after immunization with live measles, rubella and mumps monovalent vaccines have been reported since 1993, but the number of reported cases with anaphylaxis dramatically decreased after 1999 when gelatin was removed from all brands of DPT. The incidence of anaphylactic reaction was estimated to be 0.63 per million for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine, 0.95 for DPT and 0.68 for Influenza vaccine, but the causative component has not yet been specified. Among 67.2 million immunization practices, 6 cases with encephalitis or encephalopathy, 7 with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), 10 with Guillain-Barré syndrome and 12 with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) were reported. The wild-type measles virus genome was detected in a patient with encephalitis and in two of four bone marrow aspirates obtained from ITP after measles vaccination. Enterovirus infection was identified in two patients after mumps vaccination (one each with encephalitis and ADEM), one patient with encephalitis after immunization with JEV vaccine, and one with aseptic meningitis after immunization with influenza vaccine. The total estimated incidence of serious neurological illness after vaccination was 0.1-0.2 per million immunization practices. We found that enterovirus or wild-type measles virus infection was coincidentally associated with vaccination in

  12. Your Baby's First Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Link Vaccines & Immunizations Immunization Schedules Your Child's First Vaccines Format: Select one PDF [335 KB] RTF [260 ... child will get one or more of these vaccines today: DTaP Hib Hepatitis B Polio PCV13 Why ...

  13. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines On This Page What are human papillomaviruses? Which ... infections? Can HPV infections be prevented? What HPV vaccines are available? Who should get the HPV vaccines? ...

  14. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  15. Vaccines and Thimerosal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Thimerosal in Vaccines Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Thimerosal is ... harm. Thimerosal prevents the growth of bacteria in vaccines. Thimerosal is added to vials of vaccine that ...

  16. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines ... or her parents, and the doctor. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Meningococcal disease is caused by a ...

  17. Vaccines.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by science, on vaccine safety. Are your child’s vaccines up to date? Getting all recommended vaccines on time can protect your child from serious diseases. Protect your community! Did you ...

  18. Vaccine-Preventable Disease Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home | About | A-Z | Contact | Follow Vaccine Information You Need VACCINE BASICS Evaluating Online Health Information FAQs How Vaccines Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs ...

  19. [Vaccination against mouse pox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnel, H

    1985-01-01

    Attenuated MVA-strain of vaccinia virus has been efficient in the control of enzootic mousepox and in prophylactic vaccination. The virus has been used as a live vaccine for prophylactic and emergency vaccinations as well as for sanitation of populations. More than 100 000 vaccinations were carried out safely. Even after suspension of the obligatory vaccination of humans against smallpox the MVA-vaccine can be employed without risk and danger.

  20. Aflunov(®): a prepandemic influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela; Lai, Piero Luigi; Panatto, Donatella

    2012-02-01

    Influenza viruses are adept in human populations. Indeed, they have the capacity to evade the immune system through mechanisms of mutations (antigenic drift) and major variations in surface protein expression (antigenic shift). When a major change occurs, the risk of a human pandemic arises. Three influenza pandemics occurred during the 20th century, the most serious being the Spanish influenza. The last pandemic of the past century occurred in 1968, and the responsible virus infected an estimated 1-3 million people throughout the world. The first pandemic of the present century occurred in 2009 and was sustained by a H1N1 strain (A/California/07/09). In 1997, a novel avian influenza virus, H5N1, first infected humans in China. Since its emergence, the H5N1 virus has spread from Asia to Europe and Africa, resulting in the infection of millions of poultry and wild birds. So far, 522 human cases and 322 deaths have been reported by the WHO. Many studies have therefore been performed to obtain efficacious and safe H5N1 vaccines. One of these is Aflunov(®). Aflunov is a prepandemic monovalent A/H5N1 influenza vaccine adjuvanted with MF59 produced by Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics. In nonclinical studies conducted in rabbits, Aflunov proved to be well-tolerated, did not cause maternal or embryo-fetal toxicity, was not teratogenic, and had no effects on postnatal development. In clinical studies, Aflunov proved safe and well-tolerated in infants, children, adolescents, adults and the elderly. In the same subjects, the vaccine elicited robust immunogenicity against both homologous (A/Vietnam/1194/2004 clade 1) and heterologous viral strains (for instance, A/Indonesia/05/2005 or A/Turkey/15/2006) and induced immunologic memory. Thus, in 2010, the CHMP issued a positive opinion on Aflunov and in January 2011 Aflunov was given marketing authorization. This vaccine could be very useful in the event of adaptation of the H5N1 virus to humans, which could cause a new

  1. Immunology Update: New Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, S Paul

    2016-11-01

    A new 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is effective against more cancer-causing HPV types than previous vaccines. HPV vaccine series started with previous vaccines can be completed with the 9-valent vaccine. Two new influenza vaccines are available for adults 65 years and older: a high-dose vaccine and an enhanced adjuvant vaccine. These elicit stronger antibody responses than standard-dose vaccines. Current guidelines specify no preference for the new versus standard-dose vaccines. Two new group B meningococcal vaccines are intended for use during outbreaks and for patients with asplenia, complement deficiencies, frequent occupational meningococcus exposure, or for patients who desire protection from type B meningococcus. These are not substitutes for the quadrivalent vaccine already in use. For pneumococcus, new recommendations state that 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) should be administered to patients 65 years and older, followed at least 1 year later by the polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). For patients ages 19 to 64 years with immunocompromise and not previously vaccinated against pneumococcus, administration of these two vaccines should be separated by at least 8 weeks. Rotavirus vaccine is standard for infants at age 2 months. Also, there is a new cholera vaccine approved for use in the United States. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  2. Adjuvants for allergy vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moingeon, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    .... Aluminum hydroxide or calcium phosphate are broadly used as adjuvants for subcutaneous allergy vaccines, whereas commercial sublingual vaccines rely upon high doses of aqueous allergen extracts...

  3. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  4. A Single-Vector, Single-Injection Trivalent Filovirus Vaccine: Proof of Concept Study in Outbred Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mire, Chad E; Geisbert, Joan B; Versteeg, Krista M; Mamaeva, Natalia; Agans, Krystle N; Geisbert, Thomas W; Connor, John H

    2015-10-01

    The filoviruses, Marburg marburgvirus (MARV), Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), and Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV), cause severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs). Monovalent recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-based vaccine vectors, which encode a filovirus glycoprotein (GP) in place of the VSV glycoprotein, have shown 100% efficacy against homologous filovirus challenge in rodent and NHP studies. Here, we examined the utility of a single-vector, single-injection trivalent rVSV vector expressing MARV, ZEBOV, and SEBOV GPs to protect against MARV-, ZEBOV-, and SEBOV-induced disease in outbred Hartley guinea pigs where we observed protection from effects of all 3 filoviruses.

  5. Non-covalent ligand conjugation to biotinylated DNA nanoparticles using TAT peptide genetically fused to monovalent streptavidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenchao; Fletcher, David; van Heeckeren, Rolf Christiaan; Davis, Pamela B

    2012-09-01

    DNA nanoparticles (DNA NPs), which self-assemble from DNA plasmids and poly-L-lysine (pLL)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) block copolymers, transfect several cell types in vitro and in vivo with minimal toxicity and immune response. To further enhance the gene transfer efficiency of DNA NP and control its tropism, we established a strategy to efficiently attach peptide ligands to DNA NPs. The non-covalent biotin-streptavidin (SA) interaction was used for ligand conjugation to overcome problems associated with covalent conjugation methods. A fusion protein of SA with the HIV-1 TAT peptide was cloned, expressed, purified and attached to biotinylated DNA NPs. A modified SA system with tetrameric structure but monovalent biotin binding capacity was adopted and shown to reduce the aggregation of biotinylated DNA NPs compared to neutravidin. Compared to unmodified DNA NPs, TAT modified DNA NPs significantly enhanced in vitro gene transfer, particularly at low DNA concentrations. Studies of cellular uptake and cellular distribution of the DNA NPs indicated that attaching TAT enhanced binding of DNA NPs to cell surface but not internalization at high DNA concentrations. In vivo studies showed that TAT modified DNA NPs mediated equal level of gene transfer to the mouse airways via the luminal route compared to unmodified DNA NPs.

  6. Monovalent Ions and Water Dipoles in Contact with Dipolar Zwitterionic Lipid Headgroups-Theory and MD Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljaž Velikonja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid bilayer is a basic building block of biological membranes and can be pictured as a barrier separating two compartments filled with electrolyte solution. Artificial planar lipid bilayers are therefore commonly used as model systems to study the physical and electrical properties of the cell membranes in contact with electrolyte solution. Among them the glycerol-based polar phospholipids which have dipolar, but electrically neutral head groups, are most frequently used in formation of artificial lipid bilayers. In this work the electrical properties of the lipid layer composed of zwitterionic lipids with non-zero dipole moments are studied theoretically. In the model, the zwitterionic lipid bilayer is assumed to be in contact with aqueous solution of monovalent salt ions. The orientational ordering of water, resulting in spatial variation of permittivity, is explicitly taken into account. It is shown that due to saturation effect in orientational ordering of water dipoles the relative permittivity in the zwitterionic headgroup region is decreased, while the corresponding electric potential becomes strongly negative. Some of the predictions of the presented mean-field theoretical consideration are critically evaluated using the results of molecular dynamics (MD simulation.

  7. Influence of competing inorganic cations on the ion exchange equilibrium of the monovalent organic cation metoprolol on natural sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbala, Anne; Schaffer, Mario; Licha, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Börnick, Hilmar; Ruppert, Hans; Worch, Eckhard

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the influence of the mono- and divalent inorganic ions Na(+) and Ca(2+) on the sorption behavior of the monovalent organic cation metoprolol on a natural sandy sediment at pH=7. Isotherms for the beta-blocker metoprolol were obtained by sediment-water batch tests over a wide concentration range (1-100000 μg L(-1)). Concentrations of the competing inorganic ions were varied within freshwater relevant ranges. Data fitted well with the Freundlich sorption model and resulted in very similar Freundlich exponents (n=0.9), indicating slightly non-linear behavior. Results show that the influence of Ca(2+) compared to Na(+) is more pronounced. A logarithmic correlation between the Freundlich coefficient K(Fr) and the concentration or activity of the competing inorganic ions was found allowing the prediction of metoprolol sorption on the investigated sediment at different electrolyte concentrations. Additionally, the organic carbon of the sediment was completely removed for investigating the influence of organic matter on the sorption of metoprolol. The comparison between the experiments with and without organic carbon removal revealed no significant contribution of the organic carbon fraction (0.1%) to the sorption of metoprolol on the in this study investigated sediment. Results of this study will contribute to the development of predictive models for the transport of organic cations in the subsurface.

  8. In-vitro Neurotoxicity of Two Malaysian Krait Species (Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus Venoms: Neutralization by Monovalent and Polyvalent Antivenoms from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad Rusmili

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus are two species of krait found in Southeast Asia. Envenoming by these snakes is often characterized by neurotoxicity and, without treatment, causes considerable morbidity and mortality. In this study, the in vitro neurotoxicity of each species, and the effectiveness of two monovalent antivenoms and a polyvalent antivenom, against the neurotoxic effects of the venoms, were examined in a skeletal muscle preparation. Both venoms caused concentration-dependent inhibition of indirect twitches, and attenuated responses to exogenous nicotinic receptor agonists, in the chick biventer preparation, with B. candidus venom being more potent than B. fasciatus venom. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis indicated different profiles between the venoms. Despite these differences, most proteins bands were recognized by all three antivenoms. Antivenom, added prior to the venoms, attenuated the neurotoxic effect of the venoms. Interestingly, the respective monovalent antivenoms did not neutralize the effects of the venom from the other Bungarus species indicating a relative absence of cross-neutralization. Addition of a high concentration of polyvalent antivenom, at the t90 time point after addition of venom, partially reversed the neurotoxicity of B. fasciatus venom but not B. candidus venom. The monovalent antivenoms had no significant effect when added at the t90 time point. This study showed that B. candidus and B. fasciatus venoms display marked in vitro neurotoxicity in the chick biventer preparation and administration of antivenoms at high dose is necessary to prevent or reverse neurotoxicity.

  9. In-vitro neurotoxicity of two Malaysian krait species (Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus) venoms: neutralization by monovalent and polyvalent antivenoms from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusmili, Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad; Yee, Tee Ting; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Othman, Iekhsan; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2014-03-12

    Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus are two species of krait found in Southeast Asia. Envenoming by these snakes is often characterized by neurotoxicity and, without treatment, causes considerable morbidity and mortality. In this study, the in vitro neurotoxicity of each species, and the effectiveness of two monovalent antivenoms and a polyvalent antivenom, against the neurotoxic effects of the venoms, were examined in a skeletal muscle preparation. Both venoms caused concentration-dependent inhibition of indirect twitches, and attenuated responses to exogenous nicotinic receptor agonists, in the chick biventer preparation, with B. candidus venom being more potent than B. fasciatus venom. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis indicated different profiles between the venoms. Despite these differences, most proteins bands were recognized by all three antivenoms. Antivenom, added prior to the venoms, attenuated the neurotoxic effect of the venoms. Interestingly, the respective monovalent antivenoms did not neutralize the effects of the venom from the other Bungarus species indicating a relative absence of cross-neutralization. Addition of a high concentration of polyvalent antivenom, at the t90 time point after addition of venom, partially reversed the neurotoxicity of B. fasciatus venom but not B. candidus venom. The monovalent antivenoms had no significant effect when added at the t90 time point. This study showed that B. candidus and B. fasciatus venoms display marked in vitro neurotoxicity in the chick biventer preparation and administration of antivenoms at high dose is necessary to prevent or reverse neurotoxicity.

  10. Research progress on multiplex DNA vaccine,mixed vaccine and multiepitope vaccine against Toxoplas-ma gondii%刚地弓形虫复合基因疫苗、混合疫苗及多表位疫苗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔玉玲; 薛明福; 何深一

    2008-01-01

    Vaccine is the most ideal method for controlling Toxoplasma gondii infection.Although re-searches on toxoplasmosis vaccines have got lots of progress.the monovalent vaccines are less effective.To find more effective candidate antigens and appropriate vectors as well as to study on the optimizations of multiple an-tigens are the main orientations of research on toxoplasmosis vaccine in future.We reviewed the multiplex DNA vaccine.mixed vaccine and muhiepitope vaccine of toxoplasmosis in this article.%有效的疫苗免疫是预防弓形虫病的最理想方法.当前弓形虫疫苗的研制虽然取得了一些进展,但是单价疫苗的免疫效果并不理想.寻找更有效的候选抗原基因和合适的载体及研究多种抗原基因的优化组合将是今后弓形虫疫苗研究的主要方向.该文就弓形虫复合基因疫苗、混合疫苗及多表位疫苗的研究进展进行综述.

  11. Vaccines and vaccinations. The strategic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R B

    2001-05-01

    The rapid proliferation of companion animal vaccines, advances in diagnostic and vaccine technology, and concerns over vaccine safety are clearly among the most important issues practicing veterinarians face as we enter the 21st century. Although many would argue that these are already issues, the future promises to be especially challenging as the vaccines we currently use and the protocols we recommend undergo unprecedented review.

  12. Dried influenza vaccines : Over the counter vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, Vinay; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2010-01-01

    Since last year influenza pandemic has struck again after 40 years, this is the right moment to discuss the different available formulation options for influenza vaccine. Looking back to the last 4 decades, most vaccines are still formulated as liquid solution. These vaccines have shown a poor

  13. Dried influenza vaccines : Over the counter vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, Vinay; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2010-01-01

    Since last year influenza pandemic has struck again after 40 years, this is the right moment to discuss the different available formulation options for influenza vaccine. Looking back to the last 4 decades, most vaccines are still formulated as liquid solution. These vaccines have shown a poor stabi

  14. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Flu Vaccines Vaccine Effectiveness Types of Flu Vaccine Flu Shot Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine Intradermal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination ... Cell-Based Flu Vaccines Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Flu Vaccination by Jet Injector Adjuvant Vaccine Vaccine Virus ...

  15. Nucleic acid (DNA) immunization as a platform for dengue vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kevin R; Raviprakash, Kanakatte

    2015-12-10

    Since the early 1990s, DNA immunization has been used as a platform for developing a tetravalent dengue vaccine in response to the high priority need for protecting military personnel deployed to dengue endemic regions of the world. Several approaches have been explored ranging from naked DNA immunization to the use of live virus vectors to deliver the targeted genes for expression. Pre-clinical animal studies were largely successful in generating anti-dengue cellular and humoral immune responses that were protective either completely or partially against challenge with live dengue virus. However, Phase 1 clinical evaluation of a prototype monovalent dengue 1 DNA vaccine expressing prM and E genes revealed anti-dengue T cell IFNγ responses, but poor neutralizing antibody responses. These less than optimal results are thought to be due to poor uptake and expression of the DNA vaccine plasmids. Because DNA immunization as a vaccine platform has the advantages of ease of manufacture, flexible genetic manipulation and enhanced stability, efforts continue to improve the immunogenicity of these vaccines using a variety of methods.

  16. Comparative safety study of three inactivated BTV-8 vaccines in sheep and cattle under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethmann, J; Hüttner, K; Heyne, H; Probst, C; Ziller, M; Beer, M; Hoffmann, B; Mettenleiter, T C; Conraths, F J

    2009-06-24

    After massive epidemics of bluetongue disease in 2006 and 2007, Germany has started a compulsory vaccination program against bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8). Since the available vaccines had not yet been registered and only limited data were available on their performance, a safety study was conducted with three different inactivated monovalent vaccines under consideration for use in Germany. A total of 1007 sheep and 893 cattle were vaccinated and subsequently compared with 638 control animals (324 sheep and 314 cattle). During the study, all animals remained in good health condition. After the initial immunisation, only local swellings were observed in a small number of animals. Following revaccination, several sheep developed more distinct local reactions and a temporary rise in body temperature. Severe systemic reactions were not detected in any of the study groups. Among cattle, neither fever, nor a decrease in milk production and only temporary low-grade local reactions were observed. Overall, our results demonstrate a high level of safety of all vaccines tested.

  17. Mucosal vaccination of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Kiron, V.

    2014-01-01

    Among the novel vaccination methods, mucosal vaccination seems to possess all the desired criteria. The chapter reviews the state-of-the-art knowledge regarding this type of vaccination with a focus on their uptake, immune stimulation, and where possible, discusses their potential as future vaccines

  18. History of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-08-26

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  19. Nucleic Acid Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Anew method of immunization was discovered in the early 1990s. Several research groups independently demonstrated that direct inoculation of DNA plasmids coding for a specific protein antigen could elicit immune responses against that antigen[1-4].Since in theory the mRNA molecules also have the potential to be translated into the protein antigen, this vaccination approach was officially named by WHO as the nucleic acid vaccination even though the term DNA vaccine has been used more commonly in the literature. This novel approach is considered the fourth generation of vaccines after live attenuated vaccines, killed or inactivated vaccines and recombinant protein based subunit vaccines.

  20. Vaccine adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  1. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    significant losses in aquacultural enterprises but vaccination methods implemented since the 1990s have demonstrated their role as one of the most efficient disease control strategies. These have been particularly successful with regard to bacterial diseases in Norwegian salmon farming where multivalent...... vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...

  2. Safety and efficacy of an E2 glycoprotein subunit vaccine produced in mammalian cells to prevent experimental infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Andrea; Aguirreburualde, María Sol Pérez; Aguirreburualde, Alejandra; Leunda, Maria Rosa; Odeon, Anselmo; Chiavenna, Sebastián; Bochoeyer, Diego; Spitteler, Marcelo; Filippi, Jorge L; Dus Santos, Maria J; Levy, Susana M; Wigdorovitz, Andrés

    2012-09-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) infection caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a Pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family, is an important cause of morbidity, mortality and economical losses in cattle worldwide. E2 protein is the major glycoprotein of BVDV envelope and the main target for neutralising antibodies (NAbs). Different studies on protection against BVDV infection have focused on E2, supporting its putative use in subunit vaccines. A truncated version of type 1a BVDV E2 (tE2) expressed in mammalian cells was used to formulate an experimental oleous monovalent vaccine. Immunogenicity was studied through immunisation of guinea pigs and followed by trials in cattle. Calves of 8-12 months were vaccinated, twice with a 4 week interval, with either a tE2 subunit vaccine (n = 8), a whole virus inactivated vaccine (n = 8) or left untreated as negative control group (n = 8). Four weeks after the last immunisation the animals were experimentally challenged intranasally with a non-cythopathic BVDV strain. Following challenge, BVDV was isolated from all unvaccinated animals, while 6 out of 8 animals vaccinated with tE2 showed complete virological protection indicating that the tE2 vaccine presented a similar performance to a satisfactory whole virus inactivated vaccine.

  3. Vaccines against poverty

    OpenAIRE

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vacc...

  4. A cohort study to evaluate persistence of hepatitis B immunogenicity after administration of hexavalent vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chionne Paola

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2001, two hexavalent vaccines were licensed in Italy (Hexavac®, Infanrix Hexa®, and since 2002 were extensively used for primary immunization in the first year of life (at 3, 5, 11/12 months of age. In 2005, the market authorization of Hexavac® was precautionary suspended by EMEA, because of doubts on long-term protection against hepatitis B virus. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the persistence of antibodies to anti-HBs, in children in the third year of life, and to investigate the response to a booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine. Methods Participant children were enrolled concomitantly with the offering of anti-polio booster dose, in the third year of life. Anti-HBs titers were determined on capillary blood samples. A booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine was administered to children with anti-HBs titers Results Sera from 113 children previously vaccinated with Hexavac®, and from 124 vaccinated with Infanrix Hexa® were tested for anti-HBs. Titers were ≥ 10 mIU/ml in 69% and 96% (p Post-booster, 93% of children achieved titers ≥ 10 mIU/ml, with no significant difference by vaccine group. Discussion Fifteen months after third dose administration, a significant difference in anti-HBs titers was noted in the two vaccine groups considered. Monovalent hepatitis B vaccine administration in 3-year old children induced a proper booster response, confirming that immunologic memory persists in children with anti-HBs titers

  5. Explorations of a series of second order nonlinear optical materials based on monovalent metal gold(III) iodates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Hu, Chun-Li; Xu, Xiang; Yang, Bing-Ping; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2013-10-07

    The syntheses, crystal structures, and characterizations of a series of monovalent metal gold(III) iodates, namely, α-NaAu(IO3)4, β-NaAu(IO3)4, RbAu(IO3)4, α-CsAu(IO3)4, β-CsAu(IO3)4, and AgAu(IO3)4 are reported. Their structures feature Au(IO3)4(-) anions that are separated by alkali metal ions or silver(I) ions. The Au(IO3)4(-) anions in the polar α-NaAu(IO3)4, RbAu(IO3)4, and α-CsAu(IO3)4 are polar with all four iodate groups being located only above (or below) the AuO4 square plane (cis- configuration). α-NaAu(IO3)4, RbAu(IO3)4, and α-CsAu(IO3)4 display moderate strong Second-Hamonic Generation (SHG) responses of 1.17 ×, 1.33 ×, and 1.17 × KTP (KTiOPO4), respectively, and all three materials are type-I phase-matchable. The Au(IO3)4(-) anions in centrysymmetric β-NaAu(IO3)4, β-CsAu(IO3)4, and AgAu(IO3)4 are nonpolar with the four iodate groups of the Au(IO3)4(-) anion being located both above and below the AuO4 square plane (trans- configuration). IR and UV spectra, luminescent and ferroelectric properties have also been measured. Theoretical calculations of their optical properties based on density functional theory (DFT) methods were performed by using the CASTEP total-energy code.

  6. A trivalent virus-like particle vaccine elicits protective immune responses against seasonal influenza strains in mice and ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted M Ross

    Full Text Available There is need for improved human influenza vaccines, particularly for older adults who are at greatest risk for severe disease, as well as to address the continuous antigenic drift within circulating human subtypes of influenza virus. We have engineered an influenza virus-like particle (VLP as a new generation vaccine candidate purified from the supernatants of Sf9 insect cells following infection by recombinant baculoviruses to express three influenza virus proteins, hemagglutinin (HA, neuraminidase (NA, and matrix 1 (M1. In this study, a seasonal trivalent VLP vaccine (TVV formulation, composed of influenza A H1N1 and H3N2 and influenza B VLPs, was evaluated in mice and ferrets for the ability to elicit antigen-specific immune responses. Animals vaccinated with the TVV formulation had hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI antibody titers against all three homologous influenza virus strains, as well as HAI antibodies against a panel of heterologous influenza viruses. HAI titers elicited by the TVV were statistically similar to HAI titers elicited in animals vaccinated with the corresponding monovalent VLP. Mice vaccinated with the TVV had higher level of influenza specific CD8+ T cell responses than a commercial trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV. Ferrets vaccinated with the highest dose of the VLP vaccine and then challenged with the homologous H3N2 virus had the lowest titers of replicating virus in nasal washes and showed no signs of disease. Overall, a trivalent VLP vaccine elicits a broad array of immunity and can protect against influenza virus challenge.

  7. Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flu viruses. What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ... older people have weaker immune responses to flu vaccination, should they still get vaccinated? Despite the fact ...

  8. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  9. Cost comparison of 2 mass vaccination campaigns against influenza A H1N1 in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Susan M; McGinty, Meghan D; Morgenthau, Beth Maldin; Marquez, Monica L; Rosselli-Fraschilla, Annmarie; Zucker, Jane R; Farley, Thomas A

    2012-07-01

    Objectives. We estimated and compared total costs and costs per dose administered for 2 influenza A 2009 monovalent vaccine campaigns in New York City: an elementary school-located campaign targeting enrolled children aged 4 years and older, and a community-based points-of-dispensing campaign for anyone aged 4 years and older. Methods. We determined costs from invoices or we estimated costs. We obtained vaccination data from the Citywide Immunization Registry and reports from the community points of dispensing. Results. The school campaign delivered approximately 202,089 vaccines for $17.9 million and $88 per dose. The community campaign delivered 49,986 vaccines for $7.6 million and $151 per dose. At projected capacity, the school campaign could have delivered 371,827 doses at $53 each or $13 each when we excluded the value of in-kind resources. The community points of dispensing could have administered 174,000 doses at $51 each or $24 each when we excluded the value of in-kind resources. Conclusions. The school campaign delivered vaccines at a lower cost per dose than did the community campaign. Had demand been higher, both campaigns may have delivered vaccine at lower, more comparable cost per dose.

  10. Vaccination with Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons encoding cowpox virus structural proteins protects mice from intranasal cowpox virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, Natalie J; Ray, Caroline A; Collier, Martha L; Liao, Hua-Xin; Pickup, David J; Johnston, Robert E

    2007-06-05

    An anti-poxvirus vaccine based on replicon particles of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VRP) is being developed. The cowpox virus genes encoding structural proteins corresponding to vaccinia virus proteins A33, B5, and A27 were each expressed from VRP. High serum IgG titers against these proteins were generated in BALB/c mice vaccinated with each of these VRP. VRP induced both IgG1 and IgG2a with a strong predominance of IgG2a production. The response is long-lasting, as evidenced by the retention of high anti-B5 serum IgG titers through at least 50 weeks after priming immunization. Mice vaccinated with B5-, A33- or A27-VRP individually or together survived intranasal challenge with cowpox virus, with the multivalent vaccine formulation providing more effective protection from weight loss and clinical signs of illness than the monovalent vaccines. These results demonstrate that VRP may provide an effective alternative to vaccinia virus vaccines against poxvirus infection.

  11. A whole virus pandemic influenza H1N1 vaccine is highly immunogenic and protective in active immunization and passive protection mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otfried Kistner

    Full Text Available The recent emergence and rapid spread of a novel swine-derived H1N1 influenza virus has resulted in the first influenza pandemic of this century. Monovalent vaccines have undergone preclinical and clinical development prior to initiation of mass immunization campaigns. We have carried out a series of immunogenicity and protection studies following active immunization of mice, which indicate that a whole virus, nonadjuvanted vaccine is immunogenic at low doses and protects against live virus challenge. The immunogenicity in this model was comparable to that of a whole virus H5N1 vaccine, which had previously been demonstrated to induce high levels of seroprotection in clinical studies. The efficacy of the H1N1 pandemic vaccine in protecting against live virus challenge was also seen to be equivalent to that of the H5N1 vaccine. The protective efficacy of the H1N1 vaccine was also confirmed using a severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mouse model. It was demonstrated that mouse and guinea pig immune sera elicited following active H1N1 vaccination resulted in 100% protection of SCID mice following passive transfer of immune sera and lethal challenge. The immune responses to a whole virus pandemic H1N1 and a split seasonal H1N1 vaccine were also compared in this study. It was demonstrated that the whole virus vaccine induced a balanced Th-1 and Th-2 response in mice, whereas the split vaccine induced mainly a Th-2 response and only minimal levels of Th-1 responses. These data supported the initiation of clinical studies with the same low doses of whole virus vaccine that had previously been demonstrated to be immunogenic in clinical studies with a whole virus H5N1 vaccine.

  12. Neurologic complications of vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravalle, Augusto A; Schreiner, Teri

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the most common neurologic disorders associated with common vaccines, evaluates the data linking the disorder with the vaccine, and discusses the potential mechanism of disease. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using a combination of the following terms: vaccines, vaccination, immunization, and neurologic complications. Data were also gathered from publications of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, the World Health Organization, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. Neurologic complications of vaccination are rare. Many associations have been asserted without objective data to support a causal relationship. Rarely, patients with a neurologic complication will have a poor outcome. However, most patients recover fully from the neurologic complication. Vaccinations have altered the landscape of infectious disease. However, perception of risk associated with vaccinations has limited the success of disease eradication measures. Neurologic complications can be severe, and can provoke fear in potential vaccines. Evaluating whether there is causal link between neurologic disorders and vaccinations, not just temporal association, is critical to addressing public misperception of risk of vaccination. Among the vaccines available today, the cost-benefit analysis of vaccinations and complications strongly argues in favor of vaccination. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vaccination: An Act of Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefits of vaccines. For this reason, we created Vaccination Week in the Americas to get vaccines to ... and no one gets left behind. Help the vaccination teams when they come to your town, your ...

  14. Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It can be ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should not ...

  15. Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  16. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  17. Vaccines against poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan

    2014-08-26

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented.

  18. Vaccines and Immunization Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D; Meador, Anna E

    2016-03-01

    Vaccines are among most cost-effective public health strategies. Despite effective vaccines for many bacterial and viral illnesses, tens of thousands of adults and hundreds of children die each year in the United States from vaccine-preventable diseases. Underutilization of vaccines requires rethinking the approach to incorporating vaccines into practice. Arguably, immunizations could be a part all health care encounters. Shared responsibility is paramount if deaths are to be reduced. This article reviews the available vaccines in the US market, as well as practice recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vaccine Associated Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the cases of vaccine associated myocarditis have been following small pox vaccination. Reports have also been there after streptococcal pneumonia vaccine and influenza vaccine. In some cases, autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA used in the vaccine have been implicated. Exclusion of other causes is very important in the diagnostic process, especially that of acute coronary syndrome. Management is similar to that of other etiologies of myocarditis. These rare instances of myocarditis should not preclude one from taking necessary immunization for vaccine preventable diseases.

  20. Unidirectional Flux Balance of Monovalent Ions in Cells with Na/Na and Li/Na Exchange: Experimental and Computational Studies on Lymphoid U937 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A Vereninov

    Full Text Available Monovalent ion traffic across the cell membrane occurs via various pathways. Evaluation of individual fluxes in whole cell is hampered by their strong interdependence. This difficulty can be overcome by computational analysis of the whole cell flux balance. However, the previous computational studies disregarded ion movement of the self-exchange type. We have taken this exchange into account. The developed software allows determination of unidirectional fluxes of all monovalent ions via the major pathways both under the balanced state and during transient processes. We show how the problem of finding the rate coefficients can be solved by measurement of monovalent ion concentrations and some of the fluxes. Interdependence of fluxes due to the mandatory conditions of electroneutrality and osmotic balance and due to specific effects can be discriminated, enabling one to identify specific changes in ion transfer machinery under varied conditions. To test the effectiveness of the developed approach we made use of the fact that Li/Na exchange is known to be an analogue of the coupled Na/Na exchange. Thus, we compared the predicted and experimental data obtained on U937 cells under varied Li+ concentrations and following inhibition of the sodium pump with ouabain. We found that the coupled Na/Na exchange in U937 cells comprises a significant portion of the entire Na+ turnover. The data showed that the loading of the sodium pump by Li/Na exchange involved in the secondary active Li+ transport at 1-10 mM external Li+ is small. This result may be extrapolated to similar Li+ and Na+ flux relationships in erythrocytes and other cells in patients treated with Li+ in therapeutic doses. The developed computational approach is applicable for studying various cells and can be useful in education for demonstrating the effects of individual transporters and channels on ion gradients, cell water content and membrane potential.

  1. Unidirectional Flux Balance of Monovalent Ions in Cells with Na/Na and Li/Na Exchange: Experimental and Computational Studies on Lymphoid U937 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereninov, Igor A; Yurinskaya, Valentina E; Model, Michael A; Vereninov, Alexey A

    2016-01-01

    Monovalent ion traffic across the cell membrane occurs via various pathways. Evaluation of individual fluxes in whole cell is hampered by their strong interdependence. This difficulty can be overcome by computational analysis of the whole cell flux balance. However, the previous computational studies disregarded ion movement of the self-exchange type. We have taken this exchange into account. The developed software allows determination of unidirectional fluxes of all monovalent ions via the major pathways both under the balanced state and during transient processes. We show how the problem of finding the rate coefficients can be solved by measurement of monovalent ion concentrations and some of the fluxes. Interdependence of fluxes due to the mandatory conditions of electroneutrality and osmotic balance and due to specific effects can be discriminated, enabling one to identify specific changes in ion transfer machinery under varied conditions. To test the effectiveness of the developed approach we made use of the fact that Li/Na exchange is known to be an analogue of the coupled Na/Na exchange. Thus, we compared the predicted and experimental data obtained on U937 cells under varied Li+ concentrations and following inhibition of the sodium pump with ouabain. We found that the coupled Na/Na exchange in U937 cells comprises a significant portion of the entire Na+ turnover. The data showed that the loading of the sodium pump by Li/Na exchange involved in the secondary active Li+ transport at 1-10 mM external Li+ is small. This result may be extrapolated to similar Li+ and Na+ flux relationships in erythrocytes and other cells in patients treated with Li+ in therapeutic doses. The developed computational approach is applicable for studying various cells and can be useful in education for demonstrating the effects of individual transporters and channels on ion gradients, cell water content and membrane potential.

  2. Allergic reactions to vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert A

    2013-09-01

    Anaphylactic reactions to vaccines are rare but do occur, and have been reported for nearly every vaccine. And while the reaction rate per each dose of vaccine is low, this is a common clinical question due in large part to the enormous numbers of vaccines administered. Reactions are most often due to vaccine constituents rather than the microbial components of the vaccine, but in many instances, the specific ingredient triggering the reaction cannot be definitively identified. Evaluation of patients with suspected vaccine reactions should begin by determining whether the symptoms and timing of the reaction were consistent with a true allergic reaction, followed by an assessment to determine whether the patient needs further doses of the vaccine in question, or similar vaccines, in the future. Skin and serologic testing to vaccines and vaccine constituents can then be performed to further assess the potential cause of the reaction and to develop a plan for future immunizations. Specific guidelines for the administration of influenza vaccines to egg allergic patients have been revised to allow virtually all patients to receive this vaccine in a straightforward manner. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenuvax® Measles Vaccine ... R-Vax® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... M-R® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

  4. Immune status of health care personnel & post vaccination analysis of immunity against rubella in an eye hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasundari, Thanapal Amala; Chandrasekar, Keerthy; Vijayalakshmi, Perumalsamy; Muthukkaruppan, Veerappan

    2006-11-01

    Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) accounts for a significant amount of mortality and morbidity in India. Rubella vaccination is not included in our national immunization programme. Occupational exposure of the health care personnel to rubella infection is well known. This study aims to assess the serological status of health care workers against rubella virus in Aravind Eye Care System, Madurai and to follow the immune response in the seronegative individuals after vaccination. A total of 500 female and 81 male workers were enrolled in the study. Blood sample was collected for the analysis of rubella specific IgM and IgG antibodies. The seronegative individuals were vaccinated with monovalent rubella vaccine, RA 27/3. The post-vaccination samples were analysed for the antibody levels and their avidity using enzyme immunoassay. Of the 581 volunteers, 493 were seropositive with good protective immunity and 22 had both IgM and IgG antibodies. Sixty six volunteers (59 females and 7 males) were found to be seronegative to rubella. The seroconversion was observed in all the sixty vaccinated individuals, as seen by the appearance of anti-rubella IgG antibodies by fourth week, reaching the peak protective levels (>20 IU/ml) by third month. There was also a progressive increase in the avidity after vaccination. Nearly 11.4 per cent of the health care workers were found to be seronegative for rubella virus and after vaccination, these volunteers developed a good protective immunity, thereby reducing the risk of contracting the hospital based rubella infection. Therefore, rubella vaccination may be instituted in hospitals for the benefit of health care workers.

  5. A tetravalent alphavirus-vector based dengue vaccine provides effective immunity in an early life mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Syed Muaz; Tonkin, Daniel R; Mattocks, Melissa D; Snead, Andrew T; Johnston, Robert E; White, Laura J

    2014-07-07

    Dengue viruses (DENV1-4) cause 390 million clinical infections every year, several hundred thousand of which progress to severe hemorrhagic and shock syndromes. Preexisting immunity resulting from a previous DENV infection is the major risk factor for severe dengue during secondary heterologous infections. During primary infections in infants, maternal antibodies pose an analogous risk. At the same time, maternal antibodies are likely to prevent induction of endogenous anti-DENV antibodies in response to current live, attenuated virus (LAV) vaccine candidates. Any effective early life dengue vaccine has to overcome maternal antibody interference (leading to ineffective vaccination) and poor induction of antibody responses (increasing the risk of severe dengue disease upon primary infection). In a previous study, we demonstrated that a non-propagating Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon expression vector (VRP), expressing the ectodomain of DENV E protein (E85), overcomes maternal interference in a BALB/c mouse model. We report here that a single immunization with a tetravalent VRP vaccine induced NAb and T-cell responses to each serotype at a level equivalent to the monovalent vaccine components, suggesting that this vaccine modality can overcome serotype interference. Furthermore, neonatal immunization was durable and could be boosted later in life to further increase NAb and T-cell responses. Although the neonatal immune response was lower in magnitude than responses in adult BALB/c mice, we demonstrate that VRP vaccines generated protective immunity from a lethal challenge after a single neonatal immunization. In summary, VRP vaccines expressing DENV antigens were immunogenic and protective in neonates, and hence are promising candidates for safe and effective vaccination in early life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rotavirus genotype distribution during the pre-vaccine period in Bolivia: 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rosario; Forney, Kristen; Castro, Maria René; Rebolledo, Paulina A; Mamani, Nataniel; Patzi, Maritza; Halkyer, Percy; Leon, Juan S; Iñiguez, Volga

    2013-09-01

    Rotavirus is the most important etiology of severe diarrhea in Bolivia. The monovalent attenuated human oral rotavirus vaccine Rotarix(®) was introduced in Bolivia in 2008. We describe the molecular epidemiology of circulating rotavirus strains before vaccine introduction. Two thousand one hundred thirty-five diarrheal samples were collected from hospitals in four Bolivian cities during 2007-2008. Forty-three percent (445 of 1030 rotavirus-positive samples) were analyzed for G and P genotypes. Among those, 331 were electropherotyped by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Disease severity was quantified using a modified Vesikari scale. Among the 445 samples, five genotypes were found to be prevalent: G9P[8] (33%), G1P[6] (17%), G2P[4] (13%), G9P[6] (12%), and G1P[8] (4%). Co-infections with two or more strains accounted for 14% of samples. The most prevalent strain, G9, showed greater electropherotype diversity compared to other serogroups. Strain G1P[6] generally infected younger children and peaked later in the year than other strains. No particular genotype was associated with a higher severity score, though there was a significant difference in the duration of diarrhea between genotypes. During the 2-year pre-vaccine period, substantial diversity of rotavirus co-circulating strains was observed. These data constitute a baseline against which changes in circulating strains post-vaccine introduction can be monitored. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rotavirus genotype distribution during the pre-vaccine period in Bolivia: 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rosario; Forney, Kristen; Castro, Maria René; Rebolledo, Paulina A.; Mamani, Nataniel; Patzi, Maritza; Halkyer, Percy; Leon, Juan S.; Iñiguez, Volga

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objectives Rotavirus is the most important etiology of severe diarrhea in Bolivia. The monovalent attenuated human oral rotavirus vaccine Rotarix® was introduced in Bolivia in 2008. We describe the molecular epidemiology of circulating rotavirus strains before vaccine introduction. Methods Two thousand one hundred thirty-five diarrheal samples were collected from hospitals in four Bolivian cities during 2007–2008. Forty-three percent (445 of 1030 rotavirus-positive samples) were analyzed for G and P genotypes. Among those, 331 were electropherotyped by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Disease severity was quantified using a modified Vesikari scale. Results Among the 445 samples, five genotypes were found to be prevalent: G9P[8] (33%), G1P[6] (17%), G2P[4] (13%), G9P[6] (12%), and G1P[8] (4%). Co-infections with two or more strains accounted for 14% of samples. The most prevalent strain, G9, showed greater electropherotype diversity compared to other serogroups. Strain G1P[6] generally infected younger children and peaked later in the year than other strains. No particular genotype was associated with a higher severity score, though there was a significant difference in the duration of diarrhea between genotypes. Conclusions During the 2-year pre-vaccine period, substantial diversity of rotavirus co-circulating strains was observed. These data constitute a baseline against which changes in circulating strains post-vaccine introduction can be monitored. PMID:23688547

  8. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  9. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... vaccines are a good idea. Caring for Your Child After Immunization Your child might have a fever, soreness, and ...

  10. Vaccines and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Vaccines and Pregnancy Thursday, 01 September 2016 In every ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to vaccines may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  11. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy.

  12. Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Games, and the Internet Your Child's Immunizations: Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... or HIV infection); or cochlear implants. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Children younger than 2 years old, ...

  13. Adjuvants for malaria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coler, R N; Carter, D; Friede, M; Reed, S G

    2009-09-01

    There is a renewed enthusiasm about subunit vaccines for malaria coincident with the formation of new alliances and partnerships raising international public awareness, attracting increased resources and the re-focusing of research programs on adjuvant development for infectious disease vaccines. It is generally accepted that subunit vaccines for malaria will require adjuvants to induce protective immune responses, and availability of suitable adjuvants has in the past been a barrier to the development of malaria vaccines. Several novel adjuvants are now in licensed products or in late stage clinical development, while several others are in the earlier development pipeline. Successful vaccine development requires knowing which adjuvants to use and knowing how to formulate adjuvants and antigens to achieve stable, safe, and immunogenic vaccines. For the majority of vaccine researchers this information is not readily available, nor is access to well-characterized adjuvants. In this minireview, we outline the current state of adjuvant research and development as it pertains to effective malaria vaccines.

  14. Vaccine Safety Datalink

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

  15. Generating memory with vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellino, Flora; Galli, Grazia; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino

    2009-08-01

    The goal of vaccination is to induce long-lasting protective immune memory. Although most vaccines induce good memory responses, the type of memory induced by different vaccines may be considerably different. In addition, memory responses to the same vaccine may be influenced by age, environmental and genetic factors. Results emerging from detailed and integrated profiling of immune-responses to natural infection or vaccination suggest that the type and duration of immune memory are largely determined by the magnitude and complexity of innate immune signals that imprint the acquired immune primary responses. Here we summarize results obtained from analyzing human immune memory responses to different types of vaccines. We will also discuss how extending clinical investigation to events occurring early after vaccination can help identify early predictive markers of protective memory and thus contribute to faster development of better and safer vaccines.

  16. ERADIKASI POLIO DAN IPV (INACTIVATED POLIO VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gendrowahyuhono Gendrowahyuhono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the year 1988, World Health Organization (WHO claims that polio viruses should be eradicated after year 2000. However, until year 2010 the world have not been free from polio viruses circulation. So many effort had been achieved and it is estimated that the world will be free from polio virus after the year 2013. Control of poliomyelitis in Indonesia has been commenced since 1982 with routine immunization of polio program and the National Immunization Days (NID has been commenced since 1995,1996,2005 and 2006. When the world is free from polio virus, WHO suggests several alternative effort to maintain the world free from polio viruses : I stop the OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine and no polio immunization, 2 stop OPV and stock pile mOPV (monovalent OPV, 3 use OPV and IPV (Inactivated Polio Vaccine in a certain times, 4 use IPV only in a certain times. IPV has been used routinely in develop countries but has not been used in the developing countries. Several studies in development countries has been conducted, but had not been done in the developing countries. Indonesia collaboration with WHO has conducted the study of IPV in Yogyakarta Province since year 2002 until year 2010. The overall aim of the study is to compile the necessary data that will inform global and national decision-making regarding future polio immunization policies for the OPV cessation era. The data generated from the study will be particularly important to make decisions regarding optimal IPV use in developing tropical countries. It is unlikely that this data can be assembled through other means than through this study. The tentative result of the study shows that OPV immunization coverage in the year 2004 is 99% in four district and 93 % in the Yogyakarta city. Environment surveillance shows that there are 65.7% polio virus detected from 137 sewage samples pre IPV swich, and 4.8% polio virus detected from 83 sewage samples post IPV swich. Survey polio antibody serologis shows

  17. Induction of neutralizing antibody response against four dengue viruses in mice by intramuscular electroporation of tetravalent DNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prompetchara, Eakachai; Ketloy, Chutitorn; Keelapang, Poonsook; Sittisombut, Nopporn; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccine against dengue is an interesting strategy for a prime/boost approach. This study evaluated neutralizing antibody (NAb) induction of a dengue tetravalent DNA (TDNA) vaccine candidate administered by intramuscular-electroporation (IM-EP) and the benefit of homologous TDNA boosting in mice. Consensus humanized pre-membrane (prM) and envelope (E) of each serotypes, based on isolates from year 1962-2003, were separately cloned into a pCMVkan expression vector. ICR mice, five-six per group were immunized for three times (2-week interval) with TDNA at 100 µg (group I; 25 µg/monovalent) or 10 µg (group II; 2.5 µg/monovalent). In group I, mice received an additional TDNA boosting 13 weeks later. Plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT) were performed at 4 weeks post-last immunization. Both 100 µg and 10 µg doses of TDNA induced high NAb levels against all DENV serotypes. The median PRNT50 titers were comparable among four serotypes of DENV after TDNA immunization. Median PRNT50 titers ranged 240-320 in 100 µg and 160-240 in 10 µg groups (p = ns). A time course study of the 100 µg dose of TDNA showed detectable NAb at 2 weeks after the second injection. The NAb peaked at 4 weeks after the third injection then declined over time but remained detectable up to 13 weeks. An additional homologous TDNA boosting significantly enhanced the level of NAb from the nadir for at least ten-fold (pdengue viral strain for both vaccine immunogen design and neutralization assays is critical to avoid a mismatching outcome. In summary, this TDNA vaccine candidate induced good neutralizing antibody responses in mice; and the DNA/DNA prime/boost strategy is promising and warranted further evaluation in non-human primates.

  18. Antibody persistence and immune memory in adults, 15 years after a three-dose schedule of a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, P; Leroux-Roels, G; Crasta, P; Messier, M; Jacquet, J-M; Van Herck, K

    2012-01-01

    A combined hepatitis A and B vaccine is available since 1996. Two separate open-label primary studies evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of this hepatitis A and B vaccine (720 EI.U of HAV and 20 µg of HBsAg) in 306 healthy subjects aged 17-43 years who received three doses of the vaccine following a 0, 1, and 6 months schedule. These subjects were followed up annually for the next 15 years to evaluate long-term persistence of anti-HAV and anti-HBs antibodies. The subjects whose antibody concentrations fell below the cut-offs between Year 11 and Year 15 (anti-HAV: hepatitis A and/or B vaccine. In subjects who received the additional vaccine dose, a blood sample was collected 1 month after vaccination. At the Year 15 time point, all subjects in Study A and Study B were seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies and 89.3% and 92.9% of subjects in the respective studies had anti-HBs antibody concentrations ≥10 mIU/ml. Four subjects (two in each study) received an additional dose of monovalent hepatitis B vaccine and mounted anamnestic responses to vaccination. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. This study confirms the long-term immunogenicity of the three-dose regimen of the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine, as eliciting long-term persistence of antibodies and immune memory against hepatitis A and B for up to at least 15 years after a primary vaccination.

  19. Food and Drug Administration Approval for Use of Hiberix as a 3-Dose Primary Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccination Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Elizabeth C

    2016-04-29

    On January 14, 2016, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) received approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to expand use of Hiberix (Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine [Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate]) for a 3-dose infant primary vaccination series at ages 2, 4, and 6 months. Hiberix was first licensed in the United States in August 2009 for use as a booster dose in children aged 15 months through 4 years under the Accelerated Approval Regulations, in response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine shortage that lasted from December 2007 to July 2009 (1). Expanding the age indication to include infants provides another vaccine option in addition to other currently licensed monovalent or combination Hib vaccines recommended for the primary vaccination series.* Hiberix contains 10 μg purified capsular polyribosyl ribitolphosphate (PRP) conjugated to 25 μg tetanus toxoid (PRP-T) and is supplied as a single-dose vial of lyophilized vaccine to be reconstituted with saline diluent. For the 3-dose primary series, a single (0.5 mL) dose should be given by intramuscular injection at ages 2, 4, and 6 months; the first dose may be given as early as age 6 weeks. The recommended catch-up schedule for PRP-T vaccines (http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/child-adolescent.html) should be followed. As previously recommended, a single booster dose should be administered to children aged 15 months through 18 months; to facilitate timely booster vaccination, Hiberix can be administered as early as age 12 months, in accordance with Hib vaccination schedules for routine and catch-up immunization (1-3).

  20. Vaccines in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali M Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a specific disease. More than two centuries have passed since the first successful vaccine for smallpox was developed. We′ve come a long way since. Today′s vaccines are among the 21 st century′s most successful and cost-effective public health tools for preventing diseases.

  1. Pharmacy management of vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, H Eric

    2007-09-01

    Although standard vaccines have traditionally been granted full coverage in managed care, the recent introduction of several novel vaccine products has necessitated the revision of pharmacy management strategies throughout the nation. To review pharmacy management strategies for a number of emerging vaccines, with unique plan perspectives from SelectHealth, an Intermountain Healthcare company serving approximately 500,000 members in Utah. Because several recently introduced vaccines target previously unaddressed diseases and carry higher costs than traditional vaccines, several plans have adapted a novel approach to manage vaccine coverage on an individual product basis. At SelectHealth, recently introduced vaccines for rotavirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), herpes zoster, and human papillomavirus (HPV) have required special attention in terms of pharmacy management. After carefully weighing acquisition and administration costs, anticipated uptake and use, direct and indirect health care costs averted, and quality of life issues, plan leadership decided to cover many of the new vaccines (i.e., rotavirus, RSV, and herpes zoster) under a nonstandard vaccination benefit. However, because substantial cost savings and high use of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was anticipated within SelectHealth, the plan decided to fully cover the product. Although they complicate traditional pharmacy management, novel vaccines provide clinical benefit that managed care organizations cannot ignore. One universal strategy will not suffice in managing all the different vaccines entering the market, and a tailored approach should be employed based on the individual characteristics and use of each product.

  2. Plant expressed coccidial antigens as potential vaccine candidates in protecting chicken against coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, Kota; Sriraman, Rajan; Subramanian, B Mohana; Rao, N Hanumantha; Kasa, Balaji; Donikeni, Jagan; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Srinivasan, V A

    2012-06-22

    Coccidiosis is a disease caused by intracellular parasites belonging to the genus Eimeria. In the present study, we transiently expressed two coccidial antigens EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 as poly histidine-tagged fusion proteins in tobacco. We have evaluated the protective efficacy of plant expressed EtMIC1 as monovalent and as well as bi-valent formulation where EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 were used in combination. The protective efficacy of these formulations was evaluated using homologous challenge in chickens. We observed better serum antibody response, weight gain and reduced oocyst shedding in birds immunized with EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 as bivalent formulation compared to monovalent formulation. However, IFN-γ response was not significant in birds immunized with EtMIC1 compared to the birds immunized with EtMIC2. Our results indicate the potential use of these antigens as vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving newcastle disease vaccination with homologous vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    All Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) belong to a single serotype; however, current vaccine strains display important amino acid differences at the F and HN protein compared with virulent outbreak strains (vNDV). Previous studies have shown decreased viral shedding after challenge when vaccines were...

  4. Simultaneous Analysis of Monovalent Anions and Cations with a Sub-Microliter Dead-Volume Flow-Through Potentiometric Detector for Ion Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanli, Rukiye; Attar, Azade; Erci, Vildan; Isildak, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    A microliter dead-volume flow-through cell as a potentiometric detector is described in this article for sensitive, selective and simultaneous detection of common monovalent anions and cations in single column ion chromatography for the first time. The detection cell consisted of less selective anion- and cation-selective composite membrane electrodes together with a solid-state composite matrix reference electrode. The simultaneous separation and sensitive detection of sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), ammonium (NH4 (+)), chloride (Cl(-)) and nitrate (NO3 (-)) in a single run was achieved by using 98% 1.5 mM MgSO4 and 2% acetonitrile eluent with a mixed-bed ion-exchange separation column without suppressor column system. The separation and simultaneous detection of the anions and cations were completed in 6 min at the eluent flow-rate of 0.8 mL/min. Detection limits, at S/N = 3, were ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 µM for the anions and 0.3 to 3.0 µM for the cations, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of monovalent anions and cations in several environmental and biological samples.

  5. Effect of initial ion positions on the interactions of monovalent and divalent ions with a DNA duplex as revealed with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Timothy J; Wang, Yongmei

    2013-01-01

    Monovalent (Na(+)) and divalent (Mg(2+)) ion distributions around the Dickerson-Drew dodecamer were studied by atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with AMBER molecular modeling software. Different initial placements of ions were tried and the resulting effects on the ion distributions around DNA were investigated. For monovalent ions, results were found to be nearly independent of initial cation coordinates. However, Mg(2+) ions demonstrated a strong initial coordinate dependent behavior. While some divalent ions initially placed near the DNA formed essentially permanent direct coordination complexes with electronegative DNA atoms, Mg(2+) ions initially placed further away from the duplex formed a full, nonexchanging, octahedral first solvation shell. These fully solvated cations were still capable of binding with DNA with events lasting up to 20 ns, and in comparison were bound much longer than Na(+) ions. Force field parameters were also investigated with modest and little differences arising from ion (ions94 and ions08) and nucleic acid description (ff99, ff99bsc0, and ff10), respectively. Based on known Mg(2+) ion solvation structure, we conclude that in most cases Mg(2+) ions retain their first solvation shell, making only solvent-mediated contacts with DNA duplex. The proper way to simulate Mg(2+) ions around DNA duplex, therefore, should begin with ions placed in the bulk water.

  6. Brucellosis vaccines for livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Zakia I; Pascual, David W

    2016-11-15

    Brucellosis is a livestock disease responsible for fetal loss due to abortions. Worldwide, this disease has profound economic and social impact by reducing the ability of livestock producers to provide an adequate supply of disease-free meat and dairy products. In addition to its presence in domesticated animals, brucellosis is harbored in a number of wildlife species creating new disease reservoirs, which adds to the difficulty of eradicating this disease. Broad and consistent use of the available vaccines would contribute in reducing the incidence of brucellosis. Unfortunately, this practice is not common. In addition, the current brucellosis vaccines cannot provide sterilizing immunity, and in certain circumstances, vaccinated livestock are not protected against co-mingling Brucella-infected wildlife. Given that these vaccines are inadequate for conferring complete protection for some vaccinated livestock, alternatives are being sought, and these include genetic modifications of current vaccines or their reformulations. Alternatively, many groups have sought to develop new vaccines. Subunit vaccines, delivered as a combination of soluble vaccine plus adjuvant or the heterologous expression of Brucella epitopes by different vaccine vectors are currently being tested. New live attenuated Brucella vaccines are also being developed and tested in their natural hosts. Yet, what is rarely considered is the route of vaccination which could improve vaccine efficacy. Since Brucella infections are mostly transmitted mucosally, mucosal delivery of a vaccine has the potential of eliciting a more robust protective immune response for improved efficacy. Hence, this review will examine these questions and provide the status of new vaccines for livestock brucellosis.

  7. Advances in FIV vaccine technology

    OpenAIRE

    Uhl, Elizabeth W.; Martin, Marcus; Coleman, James K.; Yamamoto, Janet K.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in vaccine technology are occurring in the molecular techniques used to develop vaccines and in the assessment of vaccine efficacy, allowing more complete characterization of vaccine-induced immunity correlating to protection. FIV vaccine development has closely mirrored and occasionally surpassed the development of HIV-1 vaccine, leading to first licensed technology. This review will discuss technological advances in vaccine designs, challenge infection assessment, and characterizat...

  8. A Novel Virus-Like Particle Based Vaccine Platform Displaying the Placental Malaria Antigen VAR2CSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Thrane

    Full Text Available Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA and is responsible for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. It is imperative that a vaccine against malaria in pregnancy, if administered to women before they become pregnant, can induce a strong and long lasting immune response. While most soluble protein-based vaccines have failed during clinical testing, virus-like particle (VLP based vaccines (e.g., the licensed human papillomavirus vaccines have demonstrated high efficacy, suggesting that the spatial assembly of the vaccine antigen is a critical parameter for inducing an optimal long-lasting protective immune response. We have developed a VLP vaccine display platform by identifying regions of the HPV16 L1 coat protein where a biotin acceptor site (AviTagTM can be inserted without compromising VLP-assembly. Subsequent biotinylation of Avi-L1 VLPs allow us to anchor monovalent streptavidin (mSA-fused proteins to the biotin, thereby obtaining a dense and repetitive VLP-display of the vaccine antigen. The mSA-VAR2CSA antigen was delivered on the Avi-L1 VLP platform and tested in C57BL/6 mice in comparison to two soluble protein-based vaccines consisting of naked VAR2CSA and mSA-VAR2CSA. The mSA-VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP and soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however, this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of

  9. Adjuvants for Animal Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakova, Yulia; Madera, Rachel; McVey, Scott; Schlup, John R; Shi, Jishu

    2017-06-15

    Vaccines are essential tools for the prevention and control of infectious diseases in animals. One of the most important steps in vaccine development is the selection of a suitable adjuvant. The focus of this review is the adjuvants used in vaccines for animals. We will discuss current commercial adjuvants and experimental formulations with attention to mineral salts, emulsions, bacterial-derived components, saponins, and several other immunoactive compounds. In addition, we will also examine the mechanisms of action for different adjuvants, examples of adjuvant combinations in one vaccine formulation, and challenges in the research and development of veterinary vaccine adjuvants.

  10. Vaccination for Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehen, Stephan; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant virus vaccines that express a limited number of epitopes are currently being developed to prevent disease by changing the relative balance between viral spread and the immune response. Some circumstances, however, were found in infections with a noncytopathic virus in which vaccination caused disease; sensitive parameters included the genetic background of the host, the time or dose of infection, and the constituents of the vaccine. Thus, immunopathologic damage by T cells may be an unwanted consequence of vaccination with the new types of peptide or recombinant vaccines that are being investigated for the human immunodeficiency viruses and other pathogens.

  11. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources.

  12. Emerging Vaccine Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqun He

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine informatics is an emerging research area that focuses on development and applications of bioinformatics methods that can be used to facilitate every aspect of the preclinical, clinical, and postlicensure vaccine enterprises. Many immunoinformatics algorithms and resources have been developed to predict T- and B-cell immune epitopes for epitope vaccine development and protective immunity analysis. Vaccine protein candidates are predictable in silico from genome sequences using reverse vaccinology. Systematic transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression analyses facilitate rational vaccine design and identification of gene responses that are correlates of protection in vivo. Mathematical simulations have been used to model host-pathogen interactions and improve vaccine production and vaccination protocols. Computational methods have also been used for development of immunization registries or immunization information systems, assessment of vaccine safety and efficacy, and immunization modeling. Computational literature mining and databases effectively process, mine, and store large amounts of vaccine literature and data. Vaccine Ontology (VO has been initiated to integrate various vaccine data and support automated reasoning.

  13. Immune Activation and Viral Replication after Vaccination with an Influenza A H1N1 2009 Vaccine in HIV-Infected Children Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattawat Onlamoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization with a pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 was recommended for HIV-infected patients. However, there is limited information concerning the impact of immunization with this vaccine on immune activation and HIV viral replication. In this study, 45 HIV-infected children and adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy were immunized with a 2-dose series of nonadjuvated monovalent influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine upon enrollment and approximately 1 month later. Immunogenicity was determined by haemagglutination inhibition assay. The level of immune activation was determined by identification of CD38 and HLA-DR on CD8+ T cells. Patients were divided into 2 groups which include patients who had an undetectable HIV viral load (HIV detectable group and patients who show virological failure (HIV nondetectable group. The results showed seroconversion rate of 55.2% in HIV nondetectable group, whereas 31.3% was found in HIV detectable group. Both groups of patients showed no major increase in immune activation after immunization. Interestingly, a decrease in the frequency of CD8+ T cells that coexpressed CD38 and HLA-DR was observed after immunization in both groups of patients. We suggested that immunization with influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine can induce immune response to the pandemic virus without major impact on HIV viral replication and immune activation.

  14. Vaccines for allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic.

  15. [Vaccines and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Mariana Vide; Ramos, Vera Nobre; Tavares, Margarida; Moura, Paulo

    2011-12-01

    Routine vaccination is part of the pediatrics universe. In adulthood and particularly when women voluntarily access to medical care, immunization should be reviewed and updated. There are many doubts that generate in all health professionals anxiety and concern about the vaccination of a pregnant woman. This article aims to describe the immunological changes in pregnant women, to clarify the purpose of immunization during pregnancy, and to enumerate indications, contraindications and risks of vaccines of the Portuguese National Vaccine Plane and other vaccines against diseases with prevalence in other countries. Due to the medical and social impact of vaccination against seasonal influenza and influenza A (H1N1) in the winter of 2009, during an influenza (H1N1) pandemic flu, we make reference to the indications and vaccination against these infections in pregnancy.

  16. Preclinical and clinical development of a dengue recombinant subunit vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoff, Susan B; George, Sarah L; Bett, Andrew J; Yelmene, Michele L; Dhanasekaran, Govindarajan; Eggemeyer, Linda; Sausser, Michele L; Dubey, Sheri A; Casimiro, Danilo R; Clements, David E; Martyak, Timothy; Pai, Vidya; Parks, D Elliot; Coller, Beth-Ann G

    2015-12-10

    This review focuses on a dengue virus (DENV) vaccine candidate based on a recombinant subunit approach which targets the DENV envelope glycoprotein (E). Truncated versions of E consisting of the N-terminal portion of E (DEN-80E) have been expressed recombinantly in the Drosophila S2 expression system and shown to have native-like conformation. Preclinical studies demonstrate that formulations containing tetravalent DEN-80E adjuvanted with ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant induce high titer virus neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ producing T cells in flavivirus-naïve non-human primates. The preclinical data further suggest that administration of such formulations on a 0, 1, 6 month schedule may result in higher maximum virus neutralizing antibody titers and better durability of those titers compared to administration on a 0, 1, 2 month schedule. In addition, the virus neutralizing antibody titers induced by adjuvanted tetravalent DEN-80E compare favorably to the titers induced by a tetravalent live virus comparator. Furthermore, DEN-80E was demonstrated to be able to boost virus neutralizing antibody titers in macaques that have had a prior DENV exposure. A monovalent version of the vaccine candidate, DEN1-80E, was formulated with Alhydrogel™ and studied in a proof-of-principle Phase I clinical trial by Hawaii Biotech, Inc. (NCT00936429). The clinical trial results demonstrate that both the 10 μg and 50 μg formulations of DEN1-80E with 1.25 mg of elemental aluminum were immunogenic when administered in a 3-injection series (0, 1, 2 months) to healthy, flavivirus-naïve adults. The vaccine formulations induced DENV-1 neutralizing antibodies in the majority of subjects, although the titers in most subjects were modest and waned over time. Both the 10 μg DEN1-80E and the 50 μg DEN1-80E formulations with Alhydrogel™ were generally well tolerated.

  17. Paresthesia and sensory disturbances associated with 2009 pandemic vaccine receipt: Clinical features and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Serres, Gaston; Rouleau, Isabelle; Skowronski, Danuta M; Ouakki, Manale; Lacroix, Kevin; Bédard, Fernand; Toth, Eveline; Landry, Monique; Dupré, Nicolas

    2015-08-26

    Paresthesia was the third-most-common adverse event following immunization (AEFI) with 2009 monovalent AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine in Quebec, Canada and was also frequently reported in Europe. This study assessed clinical features and risk factors associated with this unexpected AEFI. Reports to the passive surveillance system were summarized. A case-control study was conducted to assess risk factors and additional investigations were undertaken among cases with symptoms persisting ≥12 months. There were 328 reports of paresthesia affecting the vaccinated arm (58%), but also face (45%), lower limbs (40%) and back/thorax (23%) with numbness but also muscle weakness (61%), motor impairment (61%), generalized myalgia (37%), visual (14%) and/or speech effects (15%). Reporting rate was highest in women of reproductive age, peaking at 30-39 years-old (28/100,000 doses administered) and exceeding that of men of the same age (7/100,000 doses) by 4-fold. Median time to onset was 2h. Symptoms subsided within one week in 37% but lasted ≥6 months in 26%. No consistent or objective neurological findings were identified. Risk was increased with allergy history, respiratory illness the day of vaccination, depressive symptoms and family history of pulmonary disease, but decreased with physical activity the day of vaccination, and regular weekly alcohol consumption. Paresthesia following 2009 pandemic vaccine receipt lasted several weeks and included other motor-sensory disturbances in an important subset of patients. Although it does not correspond with known neurological disease, and causality remains uncertain, further investigation is warranted to understand the nature and frequency of paresthesia as a possible AEFI with influenza vaccines. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The Meta-Analysis of Vaccine Protective Efficacy of Oral Rotavirus Attenuated Live Vaccine%口服轮状病毒减毒活疫苗保护效果研究Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡昱; 李倩; 陈恩富; 戚小华; 陈雅萍

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价口服轮状病毒减毒活疫苗(Oral Rotavirus Attenuated Live Vaccine,ORV)的流行病学保护效果.方法 电子检索《中国生物医学文献数据库》、《中国期刊全文数据库》、《万方全文数据库》、National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)(《美国国家医学图书馆数据库》)、《Cochrane(考柯兰)协作网图书馆》等数据库,将有关接种ORV流行病学保护效果的研究纳入分析.使用Rev Man4.2.10软件进行统计分析.结果 共纳入14篇文献,有6项为随机对照试验研究,8项为队列研究.单价兰州羊(Monovalent Lanzhou Lamb) ORV (ORV-L)对轮状病毒胃肠炎( Rotavirus Gastroenteritis,RVGE)的保护率为76% [95%可信区间(Confidence Interval,CI):67%~83%];单价人(Monovalent Human)ORV (ORV-H)和五价人-牛重配(Pentavalent Human-Bovine Reassortant)ORV(ORV-HB)对RVGE、严重(Severe) RVGE (SRVGE)和住院率(Hospitalized rate)的合并保护率分别为61% (95%CI:28%~79%)、71% (95%CI:44%~85%)和88% (95%CI:67%~96%).7篇文献报道了ORV的安全性,无严重不良反应和死亡报告.结论 接种不同种类的ORV可以不同程度地降低RVGE的发病,减少SRVGE和降低AR,具有良好的保护效果.%Objective To evaluate vaccine protective efficacy (VE) of oral rotavirus attenuated live vaccine(ORV) used in China. Methods Searching "China Biology Medicine disc,CBMd", "China National Knowledge Infrastructure, CNKI", "Wanfang Database, WF" database, "National Center for Biotechnology Information, NCBI"," Cochrane Library,CL", the studies of VE for ORV were included, and meta analysis were made by RevMan4.2.10 software. Results A total of 14 studies were included, 6 studies were random clinic trial (RCT), 8 studies were cohort studies. The VE of monovalent Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine(ORV-L) against rotavirus gastroenteritis(RVGE) was 76% [95% (confidence interval, C/) :61% ~83% ]. The combined VE of monovalent

  19. Current Ebola vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ebolaviruses cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, neither a specific treatment nor a vaccine licensed for use in humans is available. However, a number of vaccine candidates have been developed in the last decade that are highly protective in non-human primates, the gold standard animal model for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Areas covered This review analyzes a number of scenarios for the use of ebolavirus vaccines, discusses the requirements for ebolavirus vaccines in these scenarios, and describes current ebolavirus vaccines. Among these vaccines are recombinant Adenoviruses, recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, recombinant Human Parainfluenza viruses and virus-like particles. Interestingly, one of these vaccine platforms, based on recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, has also demonstrated post-exposure protection in non-human primates. Expert opinion The most pressing remaining challenge is now to move these vaccine candidates forward into human trials and towards licensure. In order to achieve this, it will be necessary to establish the mechanisms and correlates of protection for these vaccines, and to continue to demonstrate their safety, particularly in potentially immunocompromised populations. However, already now there is sufficient evidence that, from a scientific perspective, a vaccine protective against ebolaviruses is possible. PMID:22559078

  20. Systematic review and meta-analysis of L1-VLP-based human papillomavirus vaccine efficacy against anogenital pre-cancer in women with evidence of prior HPV exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Miltz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether L1-VLP-based human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines are efficacious in reducing the likelihood of anogenital pre-cancer in women with evidence of prior vaccine-type HPV exposure. This study aims to determine whether the combined results of the vaccine trials published to date provide evidence of efficacy compared with control (hepatitis A vaccine/placebo. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Randomized-controlled trials (RCTs were identified from MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and references of identified studies. The bivalent vaccine containing HPV-16 and 18 VLPs from GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (Rixenstart, Belgium, the quadrivalent vaccine containing HPV-6, 11, 16, and 18 VLPs from Merck & Co., Inc., (Whitehouse Station, NJ USA, and the HPV-16 monovalent vaccine from Merck Research Laboratories (West Point, PA USA were evaluated. FINDINGS: Three RCT reports and two post-trial cohort studies were eligible, comprising data from 13,482 women who were included in the vaccine studies but had evidence of HPV infection at study entry. Data on efficacy was synthesized using the Mantel-Haenszel weighted fixed-effect approach, or where there was heterogeneity between studies, the DerSimonian and Laird weighted random-effect approach. The mean odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI for the association between Cervarix, Gardasil and HPV-16 monovalent vaccine and HPV-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse was 0·90 (95% CI: 0·56, 1·44. For the association between Gardasil and HPV-associated vulval/vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2-3, the overall OR and 95% CI was 2.25 (95% CI: 0·78, 6.50. Sample size and follow-up were limited. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence that HPV vaccines are effective in preventing vaccine-type HPV associated pre-cancer in women with evidence of prior HPV exposure. Small

  1. Vaccine process technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory

  2. Vaccine herd effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.

  3. Vaccines and Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Dellepiane, Rosa Maria; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The distinctive immune system characteristics of children with Kawasaki disease (KD) could suggest that they respond in a particular way to all antigenic stimulations, including those due to vaccines. Moreover, treatment of KD is mainly based on immunomodulatory therapy. These factors suggest that vaccines and KD may interact in several ways. These interactions could be of clinical relevance because KD is a disease of younger children who receive most of the vaccines recommended for infectious disease prevention. This paper shows that available evidence does not support an association between KD development and vaccine administration. Moreover, it highlights that administration of routine vaccines is mandatory even in children with KD and all efforts must be made to ensure the highest degree of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases for these patients. However, studies are needed to clarify currently unsolved issues, especially issues related to immunologic interference induced by intravenous immunoglobulin and biological drugs.

  4. Vaccination against seasonal flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...

  5. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  6. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  7. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... percentage is less than 15%. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  8. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  9. What Vaccines Do You Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics The Adult Vaccine Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are recommended for adults based on age, health ...

  10. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... against the disease. Is There a Vaccine for HIV? No. There is currently no vaccine that will ... in this video! /* // ** // */ Why Do We Need an HIV Vaccine? Today, more people living with HIV than ...

  11. Vaccination in food allergic patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Important potential food allergens in vaccines include egg and gelatin. Rare cases of ... rabies vaccine: purified chick embryo cell (PCEC) culture vaccine; human diploid cell ... found in MMR, varicella, influenza, typhoid, yellow fever, Japanese.

  12. The Latest in Vaccine Policies: Selected Issues in School Vaccinations, Healthcare Worker Vaccinations, and Pharmacist Vaccination Authority Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Leila; Schmit, Cason; Hoss, Aila

    2017-03-01

    This paper discusses recent changes to state legal frameworks for mandatory vaccination in the context of school and healthcare worker vaccination. It then discusses state laws that allow pharmacists the authority to vaccinate.

  13. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back After Treatment Prostate Cancer Treating Prostate Cancer Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  14. Influenza Vaccine, Inactivated or Recombinant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... die from flu, and many more are hospitalized.Flu vaccine can:keep you from getting flu, make flu ... inactivated or recombinant influenza vaccine?A dose of flu vaccine is recommended every flu season. Children 6 months ...

  15. The effect of primycin on the intracellular monovalent ion and water contents of rat hepatocytes as revealed by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and interference microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, I; Nagy, I; Lustyik, G; Váradi, G

    1983-01-01

    Using energy-dispersive X-ray microanalytic and interference microscopic techniques, the intracellular concentration of the monovalent ions (Na+, K+, Cl+) as well as the intracytoplasmic and intracellular water contents were studied in normal and adrenalectomized rat hepatocytes with and without primycin treatment. Although primycin influenced significantly only the intracellular potassium content of the adrenalectomized group, it exerted a marked influence on the intranuclear water content in both the normal and adrenalectomized rats. The intranuclear water content increased significantly in the primycin-treated animals. The conclusion is drawn that the increased level of hydration of the nuclear substances reflects a 'decondensation' of the chromatin which on the other hand, may represent the basis for the various effects of primycin on the induction of certain hepatic enzymes.

  16. Existing antibacterial vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Natalia; Ravanfar, Parisa; Satyaprakash, Anita; Satyaprakah, Anita; Pillai, Sivaprabha; Creed, Rosella

    2009-01-01

    There are countless bacterial pathogens that cause disease in humans. Many of these bacterial infections not only cause significant morbidity and mortality in the human population but also cause a significant economic impact on society. Vaccines allow for reduction and potential eradication of such diseases. This article will review the currently approved antibacterial vaccines, which are vaccines for pertussis, tetanus, diphtheria, meningococcus, pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenza, cholera, typhoid, and anthrax.

  17. Alphavirus replicon vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Veen, Ryan L; Harris, D L Hank; Kamrud, Kurt I

    2012-06-01

    The alphavirus replicon technology has been utilized for many years to develop vaccines for both veterinary and human applications. Many developments have been made to the replicon platform recently, resulting in improved safety and efficacy of replicon particle (RP) vaccines. This review provides a broad overview of the replicon technology and safety features of the system and discusses the current literature on RP and replicon-based vaccines.

  18. Underutilization of Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall K. Cheney

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yearly influenza vaccination continues to be underutilized by those who would most benefit from it. The Health Belief Model was used to explain differences in beliefs about influenza vaccination among at-risk individuals resistant to influenza vaccination. Survey data were collected from 74 members of at-risk groups who were not vaccinated for influenza during the previous flu season. Accepting individuals were more likely to perceive flu as a threat to health and perceive access barriers, and cues to action were the most important influence on whether they plan to get vaccinated. In comparison, resistant individuals did not feel threatened by the flu, access barriers were not a problem, and they did not respond favorably to cues to action. Perceived threat, perceived access barriers, and cues to action were significantly associated with plans to be vaccinated for influenza in the next flu season. Participants who saw influenza as a threat to their health had 5.4 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated than those who did not. Participants reporting barriers to accessing influenza vaccination had 7.5 times the odds of reporting plans to be vaccinated. Those responding positively to cues to action had 12.2 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated in the next flu season than those who did not. Accepting and resistant individuals have significant differences in their beliefs, which require different intervention strategies to increase vaccination rates. These findings provide important information to researchers and practitioners working to increase influenza vaccination rates.

  19. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  20. Electrical transport and EPR investigations: A comparative study for d.c. conduction mechanism in monovalent and multivalent ions doped polyaniline

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suresh Kumar Gupta; Vandna Luthra; Ramadhar Singh

    2012-10-01

    A detailed comparative study of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in conjunction with d.c. electrical conductivity has been undertaken to know about the charge transport mechanism in polyaniline (PANI) doped with monovalent and multivalent protonic acids. This work is in continuation of our previous work for further understanding the conduction mechanism in conducting polymers. The results reveal that the polarons and bipolarons are the main charge carriers formed during doping process and these cause increase in electrical conductivity not only by increase in their concentration but also because of their enhanced mobility due to increased inter-chain transport in polyaniline at high doping levels. EPR line asymmetry having Dysonian line shape for highly doped samples shows a marked deviation of amplitudes / ratio from values close to one to much high values as usually observed in metals, thereby support the idea of high conductivity at higher doping levels. The nature of dopant ions and their doping levels control the charge carriers concentration as well as electrical conductivity of polyaniline. The electrical conductivity has also been studied as a function of temperature to know the thermally assisted transport process of these charge carriers at different doping levels which has been found to follow the Mott’s variable range hopping (VRH) conduction model for all the three dopants used. The charge carriers show a change over from 3D VRH to quasi 1D VRH hopping process for multivalent ions at higher doping levels whereas 1D VRH has been followed by monovalent ion for full doping range. These studies collectively give evidence of inter-chain percolation at higher doping levels causing increase in effective mobility of the charge carriers which mainly seems to govern the electrical conduction behaviour in this system.

  1. Regulation of formyl peptide receptor binding to rabbit neutrophil plasma membranes. Use of monovalent cations, guanine nucleotides, and bacterial toxins to discriminate among different states of the receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltner, D.E.; Marasco, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    The regulation by monovalent cations, guanine nucleotides, and bacterial toxins of (3H)FMLP binding to rabbit neutrophil plasma membranes was studied by using dissociation techniques to identify regulatory effects on separate receptor states. Under conditions of low receptor occupancy (1 nM (3H)FMLP) and in both Na+ and K+ buffers, dissociation is heterogenous, displaying two distinct, statistically significant off rates. (3H)FMLP binding was enhanced by substituting other monovalent cations for Na+. In particular, enhanced binding in the presence of K+ relative to Na+ was caused by additional binding to both rapidly and slowly dissociating receptors. Three receptor dissociation rates, two of which appear to correspond to the two affinity states detected in equilibrium binding studies, were defined by specific GTP and pertussis toxin (PT) treatments. Neither GTP, nor PT or cholera toxins (CT) had an effect on the rate of dissociation of (3H)FMLP from the rapidly dissociating form of the receptor. Both 100 microM GTP and PT treatments increased the percentage of rapidly dissociating receptors, correspondingly decreasing the percentage of slowly dissociating receptors. The observed changes in the rapidly and slowly dissociating receptors after GTP, PT, and CT treatments were caused by an absolute decrease in the amount of binding to the slowly dissociating receptors. However, complete inhibition of slowly dissociating receptor binding by GTP, PT, or both was never observed. Both GTP and PT treatments, but not CT treatment, increased by two-fold the rate of dissociation of 1 nM (3H)FMLP from the slowly dissociating form of the receptor, resulting in a third dissociation rate. Thus, slowly dissociating receptors comprise two different receptor states, a G protein-associated guanine nucleotide and PT-sensitive state and a guanine nucleotide-insensitive state.

  2. Developing vaccines against pandemic influenza.

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, J M

    2001-01-01

    Pandemic influenza presents special problems for vaccine development. There must be a balance between rapid availability of vaccine and the safeguards to ensure safety, quality and efficacy of vaccine. Vaccine was developed for the pandemics of 1957, 1968, 1977 and for the pandemic alert of 1976. This experience is compared with that gained in developing vaccines for a possible H5N1 pandemic in 1997-1998. Our ability to mass produce influenza vaccines against a pandemic threat was well illust...

  3. DNA priming prior to inactivated influenza A(H5N1) vaccination expands the antibody epitope repertoire and increases affinity maturation in a boost-interval-dependent manner in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Surender; Wu, Jian; Dimitrova, Milena; King, Lisa R; Manischewitz, Jody; Graham, Barney S; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Golding, Hana

    2013-08-01

    DNA priming improves the response to inactivated influenza A(H5N1) vaccination. We compared the immunogenicity of an H5 DNA prime (using strain A/Indonesia/5/2005) followed by an H5N1 monovalent inactivated vaccine boost at 4, 8, 12, 16, or 24 weeks to that of 2 doses of H5N1 monovalent inactivated vaccine in adults. Antibody epitope repertoires were elucidated by genome-fragment phage-display library analysis, and antibody avidities for HA1 and HA2 domains were measured by surface plasmon resonance. H5 DNA priming expanded the H5-specific antibody epitope repertoire and enhanced antibody avidity to the HA1 (but not the HA2) domain in an interval-dependent manner. Enhanced HA1 binding and avidity after an interval of ≥12 weeks between prime and boost correlated with improved neutralization of homologous and heterologous H5N1 strains. Clinical trials registration NCT01086657.

  4. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Vaccines and global health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Brian; Salisbury, David; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines have made a major contribution to global health in recent decades but they could do much more. In November 2011, a Royal Society discussion meeting, ‘New vaccines for global health’, was held in London to discuss the past contribution of vaccines to global health and to consider what more could be expected in the future. Papers presented at the meeting reviewed recent successes in the deployment of vaccines against major infections of childhood and the challenges faced in developing vaccines against some of the world's remaining major infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malaria and tuberculosis. The important contribution that development of more effective veterinary vaccines could make to global health was also addressed. Some of the social and financial challenges to the development and deployment of new vaccines were reviewed. The latter issues were also discussed at a subsequent satellite meeting, ‘Accelerating vaccine development’, held at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre. Delegates at this meeting considered challenges to the more rapid development and deployment of both human and veterinary vaccines and how these might be addressed. Papers based on presentations at the discussion meeting and a summary of the main conclusions of the satellite meeting are included in this issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. PMID:21893534

  6. Dengue virus vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yauch, Lauren E; Shresta, Sujan

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions, causing hundreds of millions of infections each year. Infections range from asymptomatic to a self-limited febrile illness, dengue fever (DF), to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). The expanding of the habitat of DENV-transmitting mosquitoes has resulted in dramatic increases in the number of cases over the past 50 years, and recent outbreaks have occurred in the United States. Developing a dengue vaccine is a global health priority. DENV vaccine development is challenging due to the existence of four serotypes of the virus (DENV1-4), which a vaccine must protect against. Additionally, the adaptive immune response to DENV may be both protective and pathogenic upon subsequent infection, and the precise features of protective versus pathogenic immune responses to DENV are unknown, complicating vaccine development. Numerous vaccine candidates, including live attenuated, inactivated, recombinant subunit, DNA, and viral vectored vaccines, are in various stages of clinical development, from preclinical to phase 3. This review will discuss the adaptive immune response to DENV, dengue vaccine challenges, animal models used to test dengue vaccine candidates, and historical and current dengue vaccine approaches.

  7. Persistence of serum bactericidal antibody one year after a booster dose of either a glycoconjugate or a plain polysaccharide vaccine against serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis given to adolescents previously immunized with a glycoconjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Whalley, Philip C S; Snape, Matthew D; Kelly, Dominic F; Banner, Carly; Lewis, Susan; Diggle, Linda; John, Tessa M; Yu, Ly-Mee; Omar, Omar; Borkowski, Astrid; Pollard, Andrew J

    2011-11-01

    Bactericidal antibody induced by immunization of infants with serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis (MenC) vaccines wanes rapidly during childhood. Adolescents are at particular risk from meningococcal disease, therefore they might benefit from a booster dose of vaccine. The duration of serologic response to such a booster in adolescents is unknown. In a previous study, English schoolchildren, aged 9 to 12 years, who had received a monovalent MenC glycoconjugate vaccine in 1999-2000, were given either a plain polysaccharide vaccine (MenC-PS group, n = 150) or a glycoconjugate vaccine (MenC-CRM group, n = 95) at 13 to 15 years of age. In this follow-up study, serum bactericidal antibody titers and specific immunoglobulin G concentrations were assessed 1 year later. Results were compared with unboosted controls of similar age (control group, n = 298). Compliance with study protocol was achieved for 146 of the MenC-PS group, 92 of the MenC-CRM group, and 293 of the control group. Compared with the control group, both the MenC-PS and MenC-CRM groups had a significantly higher (P CRM group 4417 [95% CI: 2951-6609]; control group 316 [95% CI: 252-396]). Specific immunoglobulin G concentration also rose and remained elevated 1 year after the booster. A booster dose of MenC vaccine given to adolescents produced a marked rise in bactericidal antibody, which remained elevated 1 year later. Introduction of an adolescent booster of MenC vaccine might provide enhanced long-term population control of the disease.

  8. Lasting immune memory against hepatitis B in 12-13-year-old adolescents previously vaccinated with 4 doses of hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behre, Ulrich; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Crasta, Priya; Hanssens, Linda; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2016-11-01

    Vaccinating infants against hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most effective way of preventing the disease. However, since HBV exposure can increase during adolescence, it is essential that antibody persistence is maintained. We evaluated the antibody persistence and immune memory against hepatitis B, in 12-13 y olds who had received complete primary + booster vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus/Haemophilus influenza type b (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) vaccine in infancy. Open phase-IV study conducted at 12 centers in Germany [NCT02052661]. Adolescents aged 12-13 y, vaccinated with 4 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (Infanrix hexa™, GSK Vaccines) in infancy, received a single challenge dose of monovalent pediatric hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix™-B Kinder; GSK Vaccines). Blood samples were taken before and 1-month post-challenge to measure anti-hepatitis B (anti-HBs) antibodies using a chemiluminescence immunoassay (seroprotection cut-off: ≥10 mIU/ml). Post-challenge adverse events (AEs) were monitored. 300 subjects were vaccinated; of 293 subjects in the ATP immunogenicity cohort, 60.5% had pre-challenge anti-HBs antibodies ≥10 mIU/ml, which rose to 97.6% post-challenge (≥100 mIU/ml in 94.1%). An anamnestic response was seen in 96.5% subjects. A 150-fold increase in antibody geometric mean concentrations was observed (22.4 to 3502.6 mIU/ml). Pain (44%) and fatigue (24.3%) were the most frequent solicited local and general AEs, respectively; 14.7% subjects reported unsolicited symptoms during the 31-day post-vaccination period. Two vaccine-unrelated serious AEs occurred. Vaccination with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib in infancy induces sustained seroprotection and immune memory against HBV, as shown by the strong anamnestic response to the hepatitis B vaccine challenge in 12-13 year-old adolescents.

  9. Antibody persistence and immune memory 15 months after priming with an investigational tetravalent meningococcal tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) in toddlers and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuf, Markus; Baine, Yaela; Bianco, Veronique; Boutriau, Dominique; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2012-07-01

    The present extension study, conducted in children originally vaccinated at 12-14 mo or 3-5 y of age, assessed antibody persistence and immune memory induced by an investigational tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT). In the original study, participants were randomized to receive one dose of MenACWY-TT or licensed age-appropriate meningococcal control vaccines. Fifteen months post-vaccination, all participants underwent serum sampling to evaluate antibody persistence and participants previously vaccinated as toddlers received a polysaccharide challenge to assess immune memory development. Exploratory comparisons showed that (1) All children and ≥ 92.3% of the toddlers maintained serum bactericidal (rSBA) titers ≥ 1:8 at 15 mo post MenACWY-TT vaccination; statistically significantly higher rSBA geometric mean titers (GMTs) were observed compared with control vaccines. (2) At one month after polysaccharide challenge, all toddlers primed with MenACWY-TT or with the monovalent serogroup C conjugate vaccine had rSBA titers ≥ 1:8 and ≥ 1:128 for serogroup C and similar rSBA-GMTs; rSBA-GMTs for serogroups A, W-135 and Y were statistically significantly higher in toddlers primed with MenACWY-TT compared with the control vaccine. Thus, a single dose of MenACWY-TT induced persisting antibodies in toddlers and children and immune memory in toddlers. This study has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00126984.

  10. Designing HER2 vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Teresa M; Fanger, Gary R; Hand, Susan; Gerard, Catherine; Bruck, Claudine; Cheever, Martin A

    2002-06-01

    HER2/neu is a compelling cancer vaccine candidate because it is overexpressed on some cancer cells relative to normal tissues, it is known to be immunogenic in both animal models and in humans, and it is already known to be targetable by the antibody component of the immune system in the form of monoclonal antibody therapy with trastuzumab. Vaccines offer the theoretical advantage of being able to elicit T-cell responses in addition to antibody responses. HER2 vaccines have been shown to provide benefit in animal models and to be immunogenic in humans. However, the optimal vaccine formulation is not yet known and the therapeutic efficacy of the vaccines in humans has not yet been evaluated. HER2 vaccine approaches currently being tested include peptide-based, DNA plasmid-based, and protein-based vaccines. Our group has developed and started testing a protein-based vaccine composed of both the extracellular domain of HER2 and the carboxyl terminal autophosphorylation portion of the intracellular domain. The extracellular domain was retained to provide for antibody targeting. The kinase domain of the intracellular domain was excluded because of its high degree of homology to other human kinases. The carboxyl terminal autophosphorylation domain was retained because it is the most unique and possibly most immunogenic portion of the HER2 molecule with the least homology to other members of the HER family. The vaccine, termed dHER2, is immunogenic in mice and primates. In animal models it can elicit CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses as well as antibody responses that suppress the growth of HER2-positive cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Vaccine trials are contemplated in patients with breast cancer that will determine whether the vaccine construct is similarly immunogenic in humans.

  11. Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine for infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Kristina A; Marshall, Gary S

    2011-07-01

    The highest rates of invasive meningococcal disease occur in children under 2 years of age, yet as of early 2011 no vaccine was licensed for the youngest infants. However, a novel vaccine consisting of capsular polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y conjugated to tetanus toxoid (HibMenCY-TT; MenHibrix, GlaxoSmithKline) is in the late stages of development. In clinical trials involving more than 7800 children, HibMenCY-TT was shown to be safe and immunogenic when administered at 2, 4, 6 and 12-15 months of age. Anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate antibody responses were noninferior to those elicited by licensed monovalent Hib vaccines, and most vaccinees developed bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis serogroups C and Y. The majority of subjects retained antibody responses as far as 3 years after vaccination. If licensed, HibMenCY-TT not only represents an incremental option for protection against invasive Hib, but also has the potential to prevent invasive meningococcal disease without increasing the number of injections.

  12. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-09-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines.

  13. EFSA Panel Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and its potential implications for animal health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Brown, Ian; Capua, Ilaria

    of wild birds with pH1N1 virus has been reported. From an animal health perspective, no specific disease control measures are considered necessary. Vaccines based on the pH1N1 virus appear to induce protection in swine similar to that induced by the existing swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccines...... are available but at present, there is no need to vaccinate poultry against pH1N1 virus. Monitoring of circulating influenza viruses in swine and poultry populations should be instigated to monitor the evolution of the pH1N1 virus including changes in virulence.......Analysis of the recent pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (pH1N1) virus indicates a probable origin in pigs. However, it was not reported in pigs prior to its detection in humans. Several cases of pH1N1 virus infections in animals have been reported, mainly in pigs but also in other animals including turkeys...

  14. Your child's first vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has ever had a severe reaction after any vaccination. A child who has a severe (life-threatening) allergy to ... in 1,000); fever over 105°F (1 child in 16,000). Serious Problems: ... These reports are extremely rare. Pneumococcal Vaccine Mild ...

  15. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto; Walker, Mary Jean

    2017-03-01

    Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible.

  16. Towards universal influenza vaccines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractVaccination is the most cost-effective way to reduce the considerable disease burden of seasonal influenza. Although seasonal influenza vaccines are effective, their performance in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals would benefit from improvement. Major problems related to the

  17. Trends in vaccine adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijns, V.E.J.C.; Lavelle, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvants are essential components of most clinically used vaccines. This is because the majority of nonliving vaccines are relatively poor inducers of adaptive immunity unless effective adjuvants are co-administered. Aluminum salts (alum) have been used as adjuvants with great success for almost a

  18. Vaccines and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Paz, Ziv; Israeli, Eitan; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2009-11-01

    Vaccines have been used for over 200 years and are the most effective way of preventing the morbidity and mortality associated with infections. Like other drugs, vaccines can cause adverse events, but unlike conventional medicines, which are prescribed to people who are ill, vaccines are administered to healthy individuals, thus increasing the concern over adverse reactions. Most side effects attributed to vaccines are mild, acute and transient; however, rare reactions such as hypersensitivity, induction of infection, and autoimmunity do occur and can be severe and even fatal. The rarity and subacute presentation of post-vaccination autoimmune phenomena means that ascertaining causality between these events can be difficult. Moreover, the latency period between vaccination and autoimmunity ranges from days to years. In this article, on the basis of published evidence and our own experience, we discuss the various aspects of the causal and temporal interactions between vaccines and autoimmune phenomena, as well as the possible mechanisms by which different components of vaccines might induce autoimmunity.

  19. Pricing of new vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-08-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

  20. Vaccines and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, M; Chiappini, E; Galli, L

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines have eradicated or controlled many infectious diseases, saving each year millions of lives and quality of life of many other millions of people. In spite of the success of vaccines over the last two centuries, parents (and also some health care workers) gloss over the devastating consequences of diseases, which are now avoided thanks to vaccines, and direct their attention to possible negative effects of immunization. Three immunological objections are raised: vaccines cause antigenic overload, natural immunity is safer and better than vaccine-induced immunity, and vaccines induce autoimmunity. The last point is examined in this review. Theoretically, vaccines could trigger autoimmunity by means of cytokine production, anti-idiotypic network, expression of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigens, modification of surface antigens and induction of novel antigens, molecular mimicry, bystander activation, epitope spreading, and polyclonal activation of B cells. There is strong evidence that none of these mechanisms is really effective in causing autoimmune diseases. Vaccines are not a source of autoimmune diseases. By contrast, absolute evidence exists that infectious agents can trigger autoimmune mechanisms and that they do cause autoimmune diseases.

  1. [Influenza vaccine and adjuvant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant is originated from the Latin word "adjuvare" which means "help" in English to enhance the immunological responses when given together with antigens. The beginning of adjuvant was mineral oil which enhanced the immune response when it was given with inactivated Salmonella typhimurium. Aluminium salt was used to precipitate diphtheria toxoid and increased level of antibody response was demonstrated when administered with alum-precipitated antigens. Since 1930, aluminium salt has been used as DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) adjuvant. Many candidates were tested for adjuvant activity but only aluminum salt is allowed to use for human vaccines. New adjuvant MF59, oil-in-water emulsion type, was developed for influenza vaccine for elderly (Fluad) and series of AS adjuvant are used for hepatitis B, pandemic flue, and human papiloma virus vaccines. Oil-adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccines induced higher antibody response than alum-adjuvanted vaccine with higher incidence of adverse events, especially for local reactions. Alum-adjuvanted whole virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine was developed in Japan, and it induced relatively well immune responses in adults. When it applied for children, febrile reaction was noted in approximately 60% of the subjects, with higher antibodies. Recent investigation on innate immunity demonstrates that adjuvant activity is initiated from the stimulation on innate immunity and/or inflammasome, resulting in cytokine induction and antigen uptake by monocytes and macrophages. The probable reason for high incidence of febrile reaction should be investigated to develop a safe and effective influenza vaccine.

  2. Against vaccine assay secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors.

  3. Against vaccine assay secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors. PMID:25826194

  4. Vaccines and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mia Topsøe; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2017-01-01

    Vaccinations are often the most effective tool against some disease known to mankind. This study offers a literature review on the role of vaccines regarding the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) and MS relapse. The method used in this study is a systematic literature review...... on the database PubMed. The study found no change in risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) after vaccination against hepatitis B virus, human papillomavirus, seasonal influenza, measles-mumps-rubella, variola, tetanus, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), polio, or diphtheria. No change in risk of relapse...... was found for influenza. Further research is needed for the potential therapeutic use of the BCG vaccine in patients in risk of developing MS and for the preventive potential of the tetanus and diphtheria vaccine....

  5. Vaccine-Hesitant Justifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases have re-emerged as more individuals have strayed from the recommended inoculation schedule. Previous work on vaccine hesitancy is generally limited to content analyses. Using grounded theory, this project examines vaccine debates on a prominent discussion board over a period of five years. Individuals generally justified opposition or hesitancy toward vaccines through personal experience and/or research, and the concepts of narrative persuasion and the conflation of expertise help describe the most prominent characteristics of such discourse. A consideration of online comments regarding vaccinations allows practitioners to not only become better prepared for patient concerns they might encounter, and but also become more familiar with the types of anecdotes and narratives that may be influential but left unspoken in face-to-face conversations. PMID:28508015

  6. Diseases and vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom; Almlund, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    between authorities, politicians, media and citizens. On the contrary, no broad commitment about the offer of a new pandemic vaccine to individuals from e.g. at-risk groups was reached. The vaccine was characterized by considerable uncertainty with regard to effects and side effects and many people...... considered the vaccine as risky and a threat more severe than the influenza. The health authorities? communication was more unclear on this question, confusion increased in the Danish population and more critical voices were raised. This uncertain communication about the vaccines? effects and side effects...... and the critical voices in the population are widespread in communication about vaccines in general and an increasing number of people are expressing skepticism and deselect this product. The communication processes are seen as a typical example of the difficulties of communicating science and risk and show how...

  7. Next generation vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2011-07-01

    In February this year, about 100 delegates gathered for three days in Vienna (Austria) for the Next Generation Vaccines conference. The meeting held in the Vienna Hilton Hotel from 23rd-25th February 2011 had a strong focus on biotech and industry. The conference organizer Jacob Fleming managed to put together a versatile program ranging from the future generation of vaccines to manufacturing, vaccine distribution and delivery, to regulatory and public health issues. Carefully selected top industry experts presented first-hand experience and shared solutions for overcoming the latest challenges in the field of vaccinology. The program also included several case study presentations on novel vaccine candidates in different stages of development. An interactive pre-conference workshop as well as interactive panel discussions during the meeting allowed all delegates to gain new knowledge and become involved in lively discussions on timely, interesting and sometimes controversial topics related to vaccines.

  8. Neisseria meningitidis B vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Lai, Piero Luigi; Gasparini, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Invasive infections caused by Neisseria meningitidis are a serious public health problem worldwide and have a heavy economic impact. The incidence of invasive disease due to Neisseria meningitidis is highly variable according to geographical area and serogroup distribution. Since the introduction of vaccination programs with conjugated vaccine C in children and adolescents, most cases of invasive meningococcal disease in developed countries have been caused by meningococcus B. It is important to underline that invasive meningococcal disease will not be controlled until safe and effective vaccines for meningococcal B are available and widely used. The aims of this article are to describe the most recent developments in meningococcal B vaccines and to discuss how these vaccines can contribute to containing meningococcal disease.

  9. Vaccine safety--vaccine benefits: science and the public's perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C B; Marcuse, E K

    2001-11-01

    The development of cowpox vaccination by Jenner led to the development of immunology as a scientific discipline. The subsequent eradication of smallpox and the remarkable effects of other vaccines are among the most important contributions of biomedical science to human health. Today, the need for new vaccines has never been greater. However, in developed countries, the public's fear of vaccine-preventable diseases has waned, and awareness of potential adverse effects has increased, which is threatening vaccine acceptance. To further the control of disease by vaccination, we must develop safe and effective new vaccines to combat infectious diseases, and address the public's concerns.

  10. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  11. Parental knowledge of paediatric vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borràs Eva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43 and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72. The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination.

  12. [Present status of vaccines in 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussey, M; Dabadie, A

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe 2 new vaccines now available in France: one is the GenHevac, an hepatitis B vaccine, the first virus recombinant vaccine; the other one is the Typhim Vi, a polysaccharide typhoid vaccine. Three other vaccines are currently used in foreign countries and will be soon available: the Hemophilus influenzae vaccine, the acellular pertussis vaccine and the varicella vaccine. Rotavirus and Cytomegalovirus vaccines are studied for their clinical efficacy.

  13. Technical Transformation of Biodefense Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia

    2013-01-01

    Biodefense vaccines are developed against a diverse group of pathogens. Vaccines were developed for some of these pathogens a long time ago but they are facing new challenges to move beyond the old manufacturing technologies. New vaccines to be developed against other pathogens have to determine whether to follow traditional vaccination strategies or to seek new approaches. Advances in basic immunology and recombinant DNA technology have fundamentally transformed the process of formulating a vaccine concept, optimizing protective antigens, and selecting the most effective vaccine delivery approach for candidate biodefense vaccines. PMID:19837293

  14. DNA vaccine: the miniature miracle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Kaliaperumal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA, the essential part of the life is making way in to new vaccine technology. Plasmid vectors from the bacteria have revolutionized the world of vaccine design by its new technology – DNA vaccines. Small portion of the nucleotides from the pathogen held under the control of promoter in a plasmid vector can be used as a vaccine. DNA vaccines alleviate the odds of the other vaccines by having good hold on both the faces of the immunity. The key to the success of DNA vaccine lies in the route of administration of the vaccine which can be done in many ways. Prime boost strategy is an approach used to boost the action of DNA vaccine. To date there are only four DNA vaccine available in the market. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 228-232

  15. Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Influenza Vaccination, and Antecedent Respiratory and Gastrointestinal Infections: A Case-Centered Analysis in the Vaccine Safety Datalink, 2009-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon K Greene

    Full Text Available Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS can be triggered by gastrointestinal or respiratory infections, including influenza. During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1 pandemic in the United States, monovalent inactivated influenza vaccine (MIV availability coincided with high rates of wildtype influenza infections. Several prior studies suggested an elevated GBS risk following MIV, but adjustment for antecedent infection was limited.We identified patients enrolled in health plans participating in the Vaccine Safety Datalink and diagnosed with GBS from July 2009 through June 2011. Medical records of GBS cases with 2009-10 MIV, 2010-11 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV, and/or a medically-attended respiratory or gastrointestinal infection in the 1 through 141 days prior to GBS diagnosis were reviewed and classified according to Brighton Collaboration criteria for diagnostic certainty. Using a case-centered design, logistic regression models adjusted for patient-level time-varying sources of confounding, including seasonal vaccinations and infections in GBS cases and population-level controls.Eighteen confirmed GBS cases received vaccination in the 6 weeks preceding onset, among 1.27 million 2009-10 MIV recipients and 2.80 million 2010-11 TIV recipients. Forty-four confirmed GBS cases had infection in the 6 weeks preceding onset, among 3.77 million patients diagnosed with medically-attended infection. The observed-versus-expected odds that 2009-10 MIV/2010-11 TIV was received in the 6 weeks preceding GBS onset was odds ratio = 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.59-3.99; risk difference = 0.93 per million doses, 95% CI, -0.71-5.16. The association between GBS and medically-attended infection was: odds ratio = 7.73, 95% CI, 3.60-16.61; risk difference = 11.62 per million infected patients, 95% CI, 4.49-26.94. These findings were consistent in sensitivity analyses using alternative infection definitions and risk intervals for prior

  16. Priorities for the national vaccine plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Review of Priorities in the National Vaccine Plan; Institute of Medicine

    .... Priorities for the National Vaccine Plan examines the extraordinarily complex vaccine enterprise, from research and development of new vaccines to financing and reimbursement of immunization services...

  17. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Safety Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Vaccine Safety Smallpox Vaccine Safety Common Concerns Adjuvants Autism CDC Statement: 2004 Pediatrics Paper on MMR and Autism Fainting (Syncope) Febrile ...

  18. Flu vaccination in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Siettou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1, pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in Pubmed data base mainly of the 2000 until 2009 and the words were used is pregnancy, flu vaccination, complications of the flu vaccination at the period of pregnancy. Results: Morbidity during periods of seasonal influenza in pregnant women is increased, while in times of pandemic are recorded fatalities. Based on this, specific recommendations have been made for a flu vaccination in pregnant women, both from the CDC, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in the U.S. and other official bodies like the World Health Organization, according to that the constitution of influenza vaccine in the pregnancy is necessary, given that the probability of morbidity in this period is increased at 10%. Conclusions: The studies so far to influenza vaccination in pregnancy, do not record serious complications for pregnant women and infants. However more research needs to be done on the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy.

  19. Human /avian influenza conjugated vaccines for human use%人用流感禽流感联合疫苗的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱函坪; 陈学奎; 姚苹苹; 徐芳; 谢荣辉; 杨章女; 李岩金; 朱智勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解人流感疫苗和H5N1禽流感疫苗联合后的安全性和疫苗之间产生抗体的相互干扰现象.方法 制成禽流感单价疫苗、人流感3价疫苗和流感禽流感联合4价疫苗,免疫家兔,测定中和抗体和血凝抑制抗体,并接种小鼠和豚鼠,观察毒性反应和过敏反应.结果 人流感疫苗和禽流感疫苗的联合,基本上没有发生疫苗对各自抗体产生的干扰;接种动物无毒性反应.结论 2种疫苗的联合是完全可能的.%In this study, the safety of the influenza vaccine conjugated with H5N1 avian influenza vaccine were investigated, and the cross-reaction between the two vaccines were tested.The monovalent-, tervalent- and quadrivalent- influenza vaccines and avian influenza were prepared, rabbits were immunized subsequently, and neutralizing antibodies and haemagglutination inhibition antibodies were further measured.Additionally, these vaccines were used to inoculate mouse and guinea pig, and monitored the toxicity and allergic effects.Our results demonstrated that no cross-reaction was observed using influenza vaccine conjugating with H5N1 avian influenza vaccine, nor toxicity occurred, indicating the potential application of these two conjgated vaccines.

  20. Cell-mediated immunity induced by chimeric tetravalent dengue vaccine in naive or flavivirus-primed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Bruno; Nougarede, Nolwenn; Begue, Sarah; Sanchez, Violette; Souag, Nadia; Carre, Murielle; Chambonneau, Laurent; Morrisson, Dennis N; Shaw, David; Qiao, Ming; Dumas, Rafaele; Lang, Jean; Forrat, Remi

    2008-10-23

    Three independent, phase 1 clinical trials were conducted in Australia and in USA to assess the safety and immunogenicity of sanofi pasteur dengue vaccine candidates. In this context, Dengue 1-4 and Yellow Fever 17D-204 (YF 17D)-specific CD4 and CD8 cellular responses induced by tetravalent chimeric dengue vaccines (CYD) were analyzed in flavivirus-naive or flavivirus-immune patients. Tetravalent CYD vaccine did not trigger detectable changes in serum pro-inflammatory cytokines, whatever the vaccinees immune status, while inducing significant YF 17D NS3-specific CD8 responses and dengue serotype-specific T helper responses. These responses were dominated by serotype 4 in naive individuals, but a booster vaccination (dose #2) performed 4 months following dose #1 broadened serotype-specific responses. A similar, broader response was seen after primary tetravalent immunization in subjects with pre-existing dengue 1 or 2 immunity caused by prior monovalent live-attenuated dengue vaccination. In all three trials, the profile of induced response was similar, whatever the subjects' immune status, i.e. an absence of Th2 response, and an IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha ratio dominated by IFN-gamma, for both CD4 and CD8 responses. Our results also showed an absence of cross-reactivity between YF 17D or Dengue NS3-specific CD8 responses, and allowed the identification of 3 new CD8 epitopes in the YF 17D NS3 antigen. These data are consistent with the previously demonstrated excellent safety of these dengue vaccines in flavivirus-naive and primed individuals.

  1. Febrile seizures after 2009 influenza A (H1N1) vaccination and infection: a nationwide registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Inger Johanne; Aaberg, Kari Modalsli; Ghaderi, Sara; Gunnes, Nina; Trogstad, Lill; Magnus, Per; Håberg, Siri Eldevik

    2015-11-09

    During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, a monovalent pandemic strain vaccine containing the oil-in-water adjuvant AS03 (Pandemrix®) was offered to the Norwegian population. The coverage among children reached 54%. Our aim was to estimate the risk of febrile seizure in children after exposure to pandemic influenza vaccination or infection. The study population comprised 226,889 children born 2006-2009 resident in Norway per October 1st, 2009. Febrile seizure episodes were defined by emergency hospital admissions / emergency outpatient hospital care with International Classification of Diseases, Version 10, codes R56.0 or R56.8. The self-controlled case series method was applied to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in pre-defined risk periods compared to the background period. The total observation window was ± 180 days from exposure day. Among 113,068 vaccinated children, 656 (0.6%) had at least one febrile seizure episode. The IRR of febrile seizures 1-3 days after vaccination was 2.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-3.51). In the period 4-7 days after vaccination, no increased risk was observed. Among the 8172 children diagnosed with pandemic influenza, 84 (1.0%) had at least one febrile seizure episode. The IRR of febrile seizures on the same day as a diagnosis of influenza was 116.70 (95% CI: 62.81-216.90). In the period 1-3 days after a diagnosis of influenza, a tenfold increased risk was observed (IRR 10.12, 95% CI: 3.82 - 26.82). In this large population-based study with precise timing of exposures and outcomes, we found a twofold increased risk of febrile seizures 1-3 days after pandemic influenza vaccination. However, we found that pandemic influenza infection was associated with a much stronger increase in risk of febrile seizures.

  2. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria

    2016-01-01

    the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...... cytotoxicity of the elicited memory CD8+ T cells, as well as the potential of these cells to respond to secondary infections and confer protection. We further tested the impact of maternal immunity against our replication-deficient adenoviral vector during early life vaccination. Overall, our results indicate...

  3. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Alphavirus vectors based on Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus have been widely applied for vaccine development. Naked RNA replicons, recombinant viral particles, and layered DNA vectors have been subjected to immunization in preclinical animal models with antigens for viral targets and tumor antigens. Moreover, a limited number of clinical trials have been conducted in humans. Vaccination with alphavirus vectors has demonstrated efficient immune responses and has showed protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus and tumor cells, respectively. Moreover, vaccines have been developed against alphaviruses causing epidemics such as Chikungunya virus.

  4. Cellular based cancer vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Met, O; Svane, I M;

    2012-01-01

    Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....

  5. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...

  6. Research toward Malaria Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Louis H.; Howard, Russell J.; Carter, Richard; Good, Michael F.; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.

    1986-12-01

    Malaria exacts a toll of disease to people in the Tropics that seems incomprehensible to those only familiar with medicine and human health in the developed world. The methods of molecular biology, immunology, and cell biology are now being used to develop an antimalarial vaccine. The Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria have many stages in their life cycle. Each stage is antigenically distinct and potentially could be interrupted by different vaccines. However, achieving complete protection by vaccination may require a better understanding of the complexities of B- and T-cell priming in natural infections and the development of an appropriate adjuvant for use in humans.

  7. Anti-addiction vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It also outlines the development challenges, ethical concerns, and likely future intervention for anti-addiction vaccines. PMID:22003367

  8. Meningococcal vaccine evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Bona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis worldwide. Although polysaccharide and glycoconjugate vaccines have been developed for serogroups A, C, Y and W-135, currently there are no broadly effective vaccines available for the prevention of meningococcal B disease. A general overview of the burden of the disease and the strains prevalence in the world with the focus in particular on the Italian situation is provided in this article, together with the vaccinations developed and under evaluation.

  9. DNA vaccines and intradermal vaccination by DNA tattooing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, K; van den Berg, J H; Schumacher, T N; Haanen, J B A G

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, DNA vaccination has been developed as a method for the induction of immune responses. However, in spite of high expectations based on their efficacy in preclinical models, immunogenicity of first generation DNA vaccines in clinical trials was shown to be poor, and no DNA vaccines have yet been licensed for human use. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of second generation DNA vaccines and DNA vaccine delivery methods. Here we review the key characteristics of DNA vaccines as compared to other vaccine platforms, and recent insights into the prerequisites for induction of immune responses by DNA vaccines will be discussed. We illustrate the development of second generation DNA vaccines with the description of DNA tattooing as a novel DNA delivery method. This technique has shown great promise both in a small animal model and in non-human primates and is currently under clinical evaluation.

  10. Vaccine safety controversies and the future of vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Guido; Duclos, Philippe; Margolis, Harold; Lavanchy, Daniel; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Meheus, André; Lambert, Paul-Henri; Emiroğlu, Nedret; Badur, Selim; Van Damme, Pierre

    2005-11-01

    In the years following the hepatitis B vaccination/multiple sclerosis controversy, a number of new issues regarding vaccine safety have been raised, in some cases leading to more debate and confusion. Against this background, an international group of experts was convened to review the current points of view concerning the use of thimerosal as a preservative and its potential risks; the suggested link between thimerosal-containing vaccines and acute lymphoblastic leukemia; the alleged association between aluminum-containing vaccines/macrophagic myofasciitis and general systemic complaints; a possible link between vaccination and autoimmune pathology; and a hypothetical link between measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and autism. At present, there are no data to conclude that childhood vaccines, and in particular hepatitis B vaccine, pose a serious health risk or justify a change in current immunization practice. However, vaccine "scares" continue to have an international impact on immunization coverage. Creating a positive environment for immunization can be achieved by repositioning the value of vaccines and vaccination, supported by evidence-based information. The role of international organizations, the media, and the industry in the implementation of communication strategies was discussed and the impact of litigation issues on vaccination was evaluated. The Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board confirms its commitment to current recommendations for universal and risk group hepatitis B vaccination and further encourages the conduct of vaccine safety studies and the dissemination of their results.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL MEASLES VACCINES: A RESEARCH TOOL IN VACCINATION EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Liashenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The review article considers different variants of measles vaccine that may be classified into two groups, i.e., vaccines that do not contain viable measles virus, and attenuated measles vaccines which could be employed in unusual manner.The first group includes DNA-vaccines, recombinant vaccine strains encoding synthesis of measles hemagglutinin and fusion protein, as well as peptide vaccines containing molecular fragments of these proteins. The mentioned variants of vaccines were effective in animal experiments, but they have not been tested in humans. The second group includes live attenuated mucosal measles vaccins applied in combination with immunomodulator(s, as aerosol and intranasally. Efficiency of these vaccines was tested and confirmed by immunization of children and adults. Mucosal measles vaccine induces local production of IgA measles antibodies, along with induced synthesis of circulating IgM and IgG antibodies against measles. The latter experimental variant could be a live attenuated measles vaccine containing some immunity-modulating agent. Elaboration of these variant was based on the known data about transient immunosuppressive activity of measles vaccine. An appropriate experimental variant represents a mixture of attenuated measles vaccine and synthetic immunomodulating agent (MP-2 peptide which protects T-lymphocytes from inhibitory effect of the measles virus. In present revue, some data are presented concerning the mechanisms of immunogenic activity and adverse effects of measles vaccines.

  12. Veterinary vaccines against toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elżbieta; Gatkowska, Justyna M; Grzybowski, Marcin M; Długońska, Henryka

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of mammal and bird species. Common infection leads to high economic (e.g., abortions in sheep) and human (e.g., congenital toxoplasmosis or neurotoxoplasmosis in humans) losses. With one exception (Toxovax for sheep), there are no vaccines to prevent human or animal toxoplasmosis. The paper presents the current state and challenges in the development of a vaccine against toxoplasmosis, designed for farm animals either bred for consumption or commonly kept on farms and involved in parasite transmission. So far, the trials have mostly revolved around conventional vaccines and, compared with the research using laboratory animals (mainly mice), they have not been very numerous. However, the results obtained are promising and could be a good starting point for developing an effective vaccine to prevent toxoplasmosis.

  13. Ingredients of Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quantities of mercury, aluminum, formaldehyde, human serum albumin, antibiotics, and yeast proteins in vaccines have not been found to be harmful in humans or experimental animals... Top of Page Related Pages Common Questions about ...

  14. [Development of new vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Romo, Fernando; Picazo, Juan J

    2015-10-01

    Recent and important advances in the fields of immunology, genomics, functional genomics, immunogenetics, immunogenomics, bioinformatics, microbiology, genetic engineering, systems biology, synthetic biochemistry, proteomics, metabolomics and nanotechnology, among others, have led to new approaches in the development of vaccines. The better identification of ideal epitopes, the strengthening of the immune response due to new adjuvants, and the search of new routes of vaccine administration, are good examples of advances that are already a reality and that will favour the development of more vaccines, their use in indicated population groups, or its production at a lower cost. There are currently more than 130 vaccines are under development against the more wished (malaria or HIV), difficult to get (CMV or RSV), severe re-emerging (Dengue or Ebola), increasing importance (Chagas disease or Leishmania), and nosocomial emerging (Clostridium difficile or Staphylococcus aureus) infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  15. Smallpox vaccine revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Teri

    2002-12-01

    Smallpox is a serious contagious disease which is back in the public eye. Yet, most health care providers are unprepared for its return. Nurses will be key health care professionals in a smallpox outbreak or vaccination program.

  16. Antibacterials: A sweet vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundle, David

    2016-03-01

    Vaccination with a synthetic glycoconjugate, in combination with the administration of an inhibitor that blocks capsular polysaccharide synthesis in bacteria, could offer an alternative route to combat bacterial infections.

  17. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the MMR and Varicella vaccines at the same time. Now it does not express a preference for giving them separately or at the same time. Protects against chickenpox, a usually mild infectious disease ...

  18. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  19. Vaccines against typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Carlos A; Borsutzky, Stefan; Griot-Wenk, Monika; Metcalfe, Ian C; Pearman, Jon; Collioud, Andre; Favre, Didier; Dietrich, Guido

    2006-05-01

    Because of high infectivity and significant disease burden, typhoid fever constitutes a major global health problem. Implementation of adequate food handling practices and establishment of safe water supplies are the cornerstone for the development of an effective prevention program. However, vaccination against typhoid fever remains an essential tool for the effective management of this disease. Currently, there are two well tolerated and effective licensed vaccines. One is based on defined subunit virulence (Vi) polysaccharide antigen and can be administered either intramuscularly or subcutaneously and the other is based on the use of live attenuated bacteria for oral administration. The advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches taken in the development of a vaccine against typhoid fever are discussed, along with the potential for future vaccine candidates.

  20. Tuberculosis vaccine types and timings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Ian M

    2015-03-01

    Traditionally, the design of new vaccines directed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most successful bacterial pathogen on the planet, has focused on prophylactic candidates that would be given to individuals while they are still young. It is becoming more apparent, however, that there are several types of vaccine candidates now under development that could be used under various conditions. Thus, in addition to prophylactic vaccines, such as recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG or BCG-boosting vaccines, other applications include vaccines that could prevent infection, vaccines that could be given in emergency situations as postexposure vaccines, vaccines that could be used to facilitate chemotherapy, and vaccines that could be used to reduce or prevent relapse and reactivation disease. These approaches are discussed here, including the type of immunity we are trying to specifically target, as well as the limitations of these approaches.

  1. Current status of rotavirus vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Min Wang; Shou-Chien Chen; Kow-Tong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Data sources: Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. Results: In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Conclusions: Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.

  2. Vaccines against cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Larralde, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major parasitic disease that seriously and frequently affects human health and economy in undeveloped countries. Since pigs are an indispensable intermediate host, it is conceivable to curb transmission by reducing pig cysticercosis through their effective vaccination. This article reviews current knowledge on the development vaccines against porcine cysticercosis. It highlights the development of several versions of S3Pvac aimed to increase effectiveness, reduce costs and increase feasibility by novel delivery systems and alternative routes of administration.

  3. Epilepsy and vaccinations: Italian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, Dario; Balestri, Paolo; Zamponi, Nelia; Grosso, Salvatore; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Franzoni, Emilio; Osti, Maria; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Longhi, Riccardo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Reports of childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have had a great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by health care providers, but little is known about this possible temporal association and about the types of seizures following vaccinations. For these reasons the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), in collaboration with other Italian scientific societies, has decided to generate Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy. The aim of Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy is to present recent unequivocal evidence from published reports on the possible relationship between vaccines and epilepsy in order to provide information about contraindications and risks of vaccinations in patients with epilepsy. The following main issues have been addressed: (1) whether contraindications to vaccinations exist in patients with febrile convulsions, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies; and (2) whether any vaccinations can cause febrile seizures, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR) increase significantly the risk of febrile seizures. Recent observations and data about the relationships between vaccination and epileptic encephalopathy show that some cases of apparent vaccine-induced encephalopathy could in fact be caused by an inherent genetic defect with no causal relationship with vaccination.

  4. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Nicol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  5. Yeast Kch1 and Kch2 membrane proteins play a pleiotropic role in membrane potential establishment and monovalent cation homeostasis regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felcmanova, Kristina; Neveceralova, Petra; Sychrova, Hana; Zimmermannova, Olga

    2017-08-01

    The Kch1 and Kch2 plasma-membrane proteins were identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as being essential for the activation of a high-affinity Ca2+ influx system. We searched for Kch proteins roles in the maintenance of cation homeostasis and tested the effect of kch1 and/or kch2 deletions on various physiological parameters. Compared to wild-type, kch1 kch2 mutant cells were smaller, relatively hyperpolarised, grew better under limited K+ conditions and exhibited altered growth in the presence of monovalent cations. The absence of Kch1 and Kch2 did not change the intracellular pH in cells growing at low potassium or the tolerance of cells to divalent cations, high concentration of sorbitol or extreme external pH. The overexpression of KCH1 only increased the intracellular pH in the presence of elevated K+ in media. None of the phenotypes associated with the deletion of KCH1 and KCH2 in wild type were observed in a strain lacking KCH genes and main K+ uptake systems Trk1 and Trk2. The role of the Kch homologue in cation homeostasis was also tested in Candida albicans cells. Our data demonstrate that Kch proteins significantly contribute to the maintenance of optimal cation homeostasis and membrane potential in S. cerevisiae but not in C. albicans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Military Infectious Diseases Update on Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    development thrusts • Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccines • Shigella vaccines • Campylobacter jejuni vaccines 2011 MHS Conference Vaccines...Injectisome extending from Shigella Injectisome Injectisome graphic 2011 MHS Conference  Campylobacter jejuni – Transmission: Foodborne – Inoculum

  7. Understanding Thimerosal, Mercury, and Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fungus. It is used as a preservative for flu vaccines in multi-dose vials, to keep the vaccine ... as much as possible. • Today, except for some flu vaccines in multi-dose vials, no recommended childhood vaccines ...

  8. Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  9. Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection This table shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  10. Rationalizing vaccine injury compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M

    2008-01-01

    Legislation recently adopted by the United States Congress provides producers of pandemic vaccines with near-total immunity from civil lawsuits without making individuals injured by those vaccines eligible for compensation through the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. The unusual decision not to provide an alternative mechanism for compensation is indicative of a broader problem of inconsistency in the American approach to vaccine-injury compensation policy. Compensation policies have tended to reflect political pressures and economic considerations more than any cognizable set of principles. This article identifies a set of ethical principles bearing on the circumstances in which vaccine injuries should be compensated, both inside and outside public health emergencies. A series of possible bases for compensation rules, some grounded in utilitarianism and some nonconsequentialist, are discussed and evaluated. Principles of fairness and reasonableness are found to constitute the strongest bases. An ethically defensible compensation policy grounded in these principles would make a compensation fund available to all individuals with severe injuries and to individuals with less-severe injuries whenever the vaccination was required by law or professional duty.

  11. Recombinant baculovirus displayed vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakaran, Mookkan; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    The rapid evolution of new sublineages of H5N1 influenza in Asia poses the greatest challenge in vaccine development for pre-pandemic preparedness. To overcome the antigenic diversity of H5N1 strains, multiple vaccine strains can be designed based on the distribution of neutralizing epitopes in the globular head of H5 hemagglutinin (HA). Recently, we selected two different HAs of H5N1 strains based on the neutralizing epitopes and reactivity with different neutralizing antibodies. The HAs of selected vaccine strains were individually expressed on the baculovirus envelope (bivalent-BacHA) with its native antigenic configuration. Further, oral delivery of live bivalent-BacHA elicited broadly reactive humoral, mucosal and cell-mediated immune responses and showed complete protection against antigenically distinct H5N1 strains in mice. The strategy for the vaccine strain selection, vaccine design and route of administration will provide an idea for development of a widely protective vaccine against highly pathogenic H5N1 for pre-pandemic preparedness. PMID:23941989

  12. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. DNA vaccines against influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachyra, Anna; Góra-Sochacka, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Genetic vaccine technology has been considerably developed within the last two decades. This cost effective and promising strategy can be applied for therapy of cancers and for curing allergy, chronic and infectious diseases, such as a seasonal and pandemic influenza. Despite numerous advantages, several limitations of this technology reduce its performance and can retard its commercial exploitation in humans and its veterinary applications. Inefficient delivery of the DNA vaccine into cells of immunized individuals results in low intracellular supply of suitable expression cassettes encoding an antigen, in its low expression level and, in turn, in reduced immune responses against the antigen. Improvement of DNA delivery into the host cells might significantly increase effectiveness of the DNA vaccine. A vast array of innovative methods and various experimental strategies have been applied in order to enhance the effectiveness of DNA vaccines. They include various strategies improving DNA delivery as well as expression and immunogenic potential of the proteins encoded by the DNA vaccines. Researchers focusing on DNA vaccines against influenza have applied many of these strategies. Recent examples of the most successful modern approaches are discussed in this review.

  14. Vaccination strategies against influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanon, E

    2009-01-01

    Every year, Influenza virus infection is at the origin of substantial excess in morbidity and mortality in developed as well as developing countries. Influenza viruses undergo antigenic drift which cause annual replacement of strain included in classical trivalent vaccines. Less frequently, this virus can also undergo antigenic shift, which corresponds to a major antigenic change and can lead to an extra medical burden. Several vaccines have been made available to immunize individuals against seasonal as well as pandemic influenza viruses. For seasonal Influenza vaccines, live attenuated and classical inactivated trivalent vaccines have been licensed and are widely used. Additionally, several strategies are under investigations to improve further the efficacy of existing seasonal vaccines in children and elderly. These include the use of adjuvant, increase in antigen content, or alternative route of delivery. Similarly, several approaches have been licensed to address additional challenge posed by pandemic viruses. The different vaccination strategies used to maximise protection against seasonal as well as pandemic influenza will be reviewed and discussed in the perspective the current threat posed by the H1N1v pandemic Influenza.

  15. [Adverse ocular effects of vaccinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, T; Hengel, H

    2016-07-01

    Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects.

  16. HIV Vaccination, is Breakthrough Underway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Da-Yong; Wu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Ting-Ren; Xu, Bin; Ding, Jian

    2016-01-01

    After long defeats-almost no marked breakthrough in HIV vaccination campaign has been observed during the past two decades, and we still have not lost our faiths for the development of highly effective and low risk HIV vaccines. Many effective vaccines have been discovered and will certainly enter into the markets within the next 5 to 10 years. In order to promote HIV vaccine developments and clinical HIV therapeutic improvements, this perspective addresses the good and bad sides of currently available HIV vaccines, discusses many subjects of medical significance and finally provides up-to-date information in the field of HIV studies, in particular regarding vaccine developments and HIV pathogenesis.

  17. Increasing Childhood Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Hannibal, Kristin; Reis, Evelyn C.; Gallik, Gregory; Moehling, Krissy K.; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Allred, Norma J.; Wolfson, David H.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the 2008 inception of universal childhood influenza vaccination, national rates have risen more dramatically among younger children than older children and reported rates across racial/ethnic groups are inconsistent. Interventions may be needed to address age and racial disparities to achieve the recommended childhood influenza vaccination target of 70%. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to increase childhood influenza vaccination across age and racial groups. Methods In 2011–2012, 20 primary care practices treating children were randomly assigned to Intervention and Control arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial to increase childhood influenza vaccination uptake using a toolkit and other strategies including early delivery of donated vaccine, in-service staff meetings, and publicity. Results The average vaccination differences from pre-intervention to the intervention year were significantly larger in the Intervention arm (n=10 practices) than the Control arm (n=10 practices), for children aged 2–8 years (10.2 percentage points (pct pts) Intervention vs 3.6 pct pts Control) and 9–18 years (11.1 pct pts Intervention vs 4.3 pct pts Control, p<0.05), for non-white children (16.7 pct pts Intervention vs 4.6 pct pts Control, p<0.001), and overall (9.9 pct pts Intervention vs 4.2 pct pts Control, p<0.01). In multi-level modeling that accounted for person- and practice-level variables and the interactions among age, race and intervention, the likelihood of vaccination increased with younger age group (6–23 months), white race, commercial insurance, the practice’s pre-intervention vaccination rate, and being in the Intervention arm. Estimates of the interaction terms indicated that the intervention increased the likelihood of vaccination for non-white children in all age groups and white children aged 9–18 years. Conclusions A multi-strategy intervention that includes a practice improvement toolkit can significantly improve influenza

  18. Immune Interference After Sequential Alphavirus Vaccine Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    biological weapons by adversary governments and/or terrorists [4–9]. For veterinary use, there are live, attenuated and inactivated VEE vaccines as...Alphaviruses. In: Knife DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields virology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007. p. 1023–67. [2] Kuhn RJ...Togaviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: Knife DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields virology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams

  19. Use of Recombinant Virus Replicon Particles for Vaccination against Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolz, Miriam; Kerber, Sarah; Zimmer, Gert; Pluschke, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Buruli ulcer, caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a necrotizing disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, which is most prevalent in rural regions of West African countries. The majority of clinical presentations seen in patients are ulcers on limbs that can be treated by eight weeks of antibiotic therapy. Nevertheless, scarring and permanent disabilities occur frequently and Buruli ulcer still causes high morbidity. A vaccine against the disease is so far not available but would be of great benefit if used for prophylaxis as well as therapy. In the present study, vesicular stomatitis virus-based RNA replicon particles encoding the M. ulcerans proteins MUL2232 and MUL3720 were generated and the expression of the recombinant antigens characterized in vitro. Immunisation of mice with the recombinant replicon particles elicited antibodies that reacted with the endogenous antigens of M. ulcerans cells. A prime-boost immunization regimen with MUL2232-recombinant replicon particles and recombinant MUL2232 protein induced a strong immune response but only slightly reduced bacterial multiplication in a mouse model of M. ulcerans infection. We conclude that a monovalent vaccine based on the MUL2232 antigen will probably not sufficiently control M. ulcerans infection in humans.

  20. Use of Recombinant Virus Replicon Particles for Vaccination against Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Bolz

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer, caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a necrotizing disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, which is most prevalent in rural regions of West African countries. The majority of clinical presentations seen in patients are ulcers on limbs that can be treated by eight weeks of antibiotic therapy. Nevertheless, scarring and permanent disabilities occur frequently and Buruli ulcer still causes high morbidity. A vaccine against the disease is so far not available but would be of great benefit if used for prophylaxis as well as therapy. In the present study, vesicular stomatitis virus-based RNA replicon particles encoding the M. ulcerans proteins MUL2232 and MUL3720 were generated and the expression of the recombinant antigens characterized in vitro. Immunisation of mice with the recombinant replicon particles elicited antibodies that reacted with the endogenous antigens of M. ulcerans cells. A prime-boost immunization regimen with MUL2232-recombinant replicon particles and recombinant MUL2232 protein induced a strong immune response but only slightly reduced bacterial multiplication in a mouse model of M. ulcerans infection. We conclude that a monovalent vaccine based on the MUL2232 antigen will probably not sufficiently control M. ulcerans infection in humans.

  1. Immunization with a live attenuated H7N9 influenza vaccine protects mice against lethal challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Yang

    Full Text Available The emergence of severe cases of human influenza A (H7N9 viral infection in China in the spring of 2003 resulted in a global effort to rapidly develop an effective candidate vaccine. In this study, a cold-adapted (ca, live attenuated monovalent reassortant influenza H7N9 virus (Ah01/AA ca was generated using reverse genetics that contained hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes from a 2013 pandemic A H7N9 isolate, A/Anhui/01/2013 virus (Ah01/H7N9; the remaining six backbone genes derived from the cold-adapted influenza H2N2 A/Ann Arbor/6/60 virus (AA virus. Ah01/AA ca virus exhibited temperature sensitivity (ts, ca, and attenuation (att phenotypes. Intranasal immunization of female BALB/c mice with Ah01/AA ca twice at a 2-week interval induced robust humoral, mucosal, and cell-mediated immune responses in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the candidate Ah01/AA ca virus was immunogenic and offered partial or complete protection of mice against a lethal challenge by the live 2013 influenza A H7N9 (A/Anhui/01/2013. Protection was demonstrated by the inhibition of viral replication and the attenuation of histopathological changes in the challenged mouse lung. Taken together, these data support the further evaluation of this Ah01/AA ca candidate vaccine in primates.

  2. Rhodococcus equi (Prescottella equi) vaccines; the future of vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, C; Vanniasinkam, T; Ndi, S; Barton, M D

    2015-09-01

    For decades researchers have been targeting prevention of Rhodococcus equi (Rhodococcus hoagui/Prescottella equi) by vaccination and the horse breeding industry has supported the ongoing efforts by researchers to develop a safe and cost effective vaccine to prevent disease in foals. Traditional vaccines including live, killed and attenuated (physical and chemical) vaccines have proved to be ineffective and more modern molecular-based vaccines including the DNA plasmid, genetically attenuated and subunit vaccines have provided inadequate protection of foals. Newer, bacterial vector vaccines have recently shown promise for R. equi in the mouse model. This article describes the findings of key research in R. equi vaccine development and looks at alternative methods that may potentially be utilised.

  3. Cancer Vaccines: A Brief Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sunil; Prendergast, George C

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine approaches for cancer differ from traditional vaccine approaches for infectious disease in tending to focus on clearing active disease rather than preventing disease. In this review, we provide a brief overview of different types of vaccines and adjuvants that have been investigated for the purpose of controlling cancer burdens in patients, some of which are approved for clinical use or in late-stage clinical trials, such as the personalized dendritic cell vaccine sipuleucel-T (Provenge) and the recombinant viral prostate cancer vaccine PSA-TRICOM (Prostvac-VF). Vaccines against human viruses implicated in the development and progression of certain cancers, such as human papillomavirus in cervical cancer, are not considered here. Cancers express "altered self" antigens that tend to induce weaker responses than the "foreign" antigens expressed by infectious agents. Thus, immune stimulants and adjuvant approaches have been explored widely. Vaccine types considered include autologous patient-derived immune cell vaccines, tumor antigen-expressing recombinant virus vaccines, peptide vaccines, DNA vaccines, and heterologous whole-cell vaccines derived from established human tumor cell lines. Opportunities to develop effective cancer vaccines may benefit from seminal recent advances in understanding how immunosuppressive barricades are erected by tumors to mediate immune escape. In particular, targeted ablation of these barricades with novel agents, such as the immune checkpoint drug ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) approved recently for clinical use, may offer significant leverage to vaccinologists seeking to control and prevent malignancy.

  4. Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Luísa Eça; Baker, Britain; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines and autoimmunity are linked fields. Vaccine efficacy is based on whether host immune response against an antigen can elicit a memory T-cell response over time. Although the described side effects thus far have been mostly transient and acute, vaccines are able to elicit the immune system towards an autoimmune reaction. The diagnosis of a definite autoimmune disease and the occurrence of fatal outcome post-vaccination have been less frequently reported. Since vaccines are given to previously healthy hosts, who may have never developed the disease had they not been immunized, adverse events should be carefully accessed and evaluated even if they represent a limited number of occurrences. In this review of the literature, there is evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome). In conclusion, there are several case reports of autoimmune diseases following vaccines, however, due to the limited number of cases, the different classifications of symptoms and the long latency period of the diseases, every attempt for an epidemiological study has so far failed to deliver a connection. Despite this, efforts to unveil the connection between the triggering of the immune system by adjuvants and the development of autoimmune conditions should be undertaken. Vaccinomics is a field that may bring to light novel customized, personalized treatment approaches in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficacy of a Trivalent Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Vaccine against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackieviruses A16 and A6 in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Caine

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD has recently emerged as a major public health concern across the Asian-Pacific region. Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 are the primary causative agents of HFMD, but other members of the Enterovirus A species, including Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6, can cause disease. The lack of small animal models for these viruses have hampered the development of a licensed HFMD vaccine or antivirals. We have previously reported on the development of a mouse model for EV71 and demonstrated the protective efficacy of an inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate. Here, mouse-adapted strains of CVA16 and CVA6 were produced by sequential passage of the viruses through mice deficient in interferon (IFN α/β (A129 and α/β and γ (AG129 receptors. Adapted viruses were capable of infecting 3 week-old A129 (CVA6 and 12 week-old AG129 (CVA16 mice. Accordingly, these models were used in active and passive immunization studies to test the efficacy of a trivalent vaccine candidate containing inactivated EV71, CVA16, and CVA6. Full protection from lethal challenge against EV71 and CVA16 was observed in trivalent vaccinated groups. In contrast, monovalent vaccinated groups with non-homologous challenges failed to cross protect. Protection from CVA6 challenge was accomplished through a passive transfer study involving serum raised against the trivalent vaccine. These animal models will be useful for future studies on HFMD related pathogenesis and the efficacy of vaccine candidates.

  6. [Results of Booster Vaccination in Children with Primary Vaccine Failure after Initial Varicella Vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozakiv, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Gotoh, Kensei; Funahashi, Keiji; Yoshii, Hironori; Okuno, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    In October 2014, the varicella vaccination policy in Japan was changed from a single voluntary inoculation to two routine inoculations. This paper reports the results of booster vaccination in children who did not show seroconversion after initial vaccination (i.e., primary vaccine failure : PVF) over a 7-year period prior to the introduction of routine varicella vaccination. Between November 2007 and May 2014, 273 healthy children aged between 1.1 and 14.5 years (median : 1.7 years) underwent varicella vaccination. Before and 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination, the antibody titers were measured using an immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) assay and a glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA). In addition, side reactions were examined during the four-week period after vaccination. Children who did not show IAHA seroconversion (PVF) were recommended to receive a booster vaccination, and the measurement of antibody titers and an assessment of side reactions were performed after the booster dose. In May 2015, a questionnaire was mailed to each of the 273 participants to investigate whether they had developed varicella and/or herpes zoster after vaccination. After initial vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 75% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 4.7, while the gpELISA seroconversion rate was 84% and the mean antibody titer (Log10) with seroconversion was 2.4. Among children with PVF, 54 received booster vaccination within 81 to 714 days (median : 139 days) after the initial vaccination. After booster vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 98% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 5.8. Both the seroconversion rate and the antibody titer were higher compared with the values after the initial vaccination (p vaccination, the gpELISA seropositive rate was 100% and the mean positive antibody titer (Log 10) was 3.6 ; similar results were obtained for the IAHA assay, with a significantly higher

  7. 75 FR 48712 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Influenza Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... beginning of the upcoming influenza vaccination season, the proposed materials included in this notice are... representative in the case of a child) receiving vaccines covered under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation... infection are highest among children. For most people, it lasts only a few days. It can cause: Fever...

  8. Evaluation of vaccine competition using HVT vector vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkey herpesvirus (HVT) has been widely used as a vaccine for Marek’s disease (MD) since the 1970s. Because HVT is a safe vaccine that is poorly sensitive to interference from maternally derived antibodies, it has seen rising use as a vector for vaccines developed for protection against other comm...

  9. Optimal vaccination choice, vaccination games, and rational exemption: an appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Piero; Posta, Pompeo Della; d'Onofrio, Alberto; Salinelli, Ernesto; Centrone, Francesca; Meo, Claudia; Poletti, Piero

    2009-12-10

    A threat for vaccination policies might be the onset of "rational" exemption, i.e. the family's decision not to vaccinate children after a seemingly rational comparison between the perceived risk of infection and the perceived risk of vaccine side effects. We study the implications of rational exemption by models of vaccination choice. By a simple model of individual choice we first prove the "elimination impossible" result in presence of informed families, i.e. aware of herd immunity, and suggest that limited information might explain patterns of universal vaccination. Next, we investigate vaccination choice in a game-theoretic framework for communities stratified into two groups, "pro" and "anti" vaccinators, having widely different perceived costs of infection and of vaccine side effects. We show that under informed families neither a Nash nor a Stackelberg behaviour (characterized, respectively, by players acting simultaneously and by an asymmetric situation with a "leader" and a "follower) allow elimination, unless "pro-vaccinators" assign no costs to vaccine side effects. Elimination turns out to be possible when cooperation is encouraged by a social planner, provided, however, he incorporates in the "social loss function" the preferences of anti-vaccinators only. This allows an interpretation of the current Italian vaccination policy.

  10. National Elk Refuge vaccination protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal by the State of Wyoming, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, to vaccinate elk on the National Elk Refuge. The proposal provides a protocol for vaccinating elk...

  11. Finding Your Adult Vaccination Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Is Your Adult Vaccination Record Up-To-Date? Language: English Español (Spanish) ... your medical history. Staying Up-To-Date on Vaccination is Important Every year thousands of adults in ...

  12. New Vaccines Help Protect You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues New Vaccines Help Protect You Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table ... this page please turn Javascript on. Important new vaccines have recently been approved for use and are ...

  13. Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nose and throat. Whooping cough causes uncontrollable coughing. Vaccines can protect you from these diseases. In the U.S., there are four combination vaccines: DTaP prevents all three diseases. It is for ...

  14. The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs The ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ189, October 2015 PDF Format The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is influenza (the flu)? ...

  15. Modern Technologies of Vaccine Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L.I. Chernyshova; F.I. Lapiy

    2014-01-01

    .... The article says about modern technology of vaccines that need to know the doctor to objectively and accurately inform patients before vaccination, to answer a number of questions from patients...

  16. Vaccines for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    The aging of the human population is posing serious challenges to research and to public health authorities in order to prevent diseases that more frequently affect the elderly, a portion of the population that will increase more and more in the coming years. While some vaccines exist and are used in the elderly to effectively fight against some infections (e.g. influenza, pneumococci, varicella-zoster virus, diphtheria, and tetanus), still a lot of work remains to be done to better adapt these vaccines and to develop new ones for this age group. The prevention of infectious diseases affecting the elderly can be successful only through a holistic approach. This approach will aim at the following: (1) a deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to the senescence of the immune system, (2) a better and broader use of vaccines recommended for the elderly, (3) the use of vaccines currently considered only for other age groups and (4) actively priming the population when they are immunological competent, before the physiological waning of immune responsiveness may affect the beneficial effects of vaccination. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. HIV-1 vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H

    2014-01-01

    The development of a safe and effective preventive HIV-1 vaccine remains a public health priority. Despite scientific difficulties and disappointing results, HIV-1 vaccine clinical development has, for the first time, established proof-of-concept efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition and identified vaccine-associated immune correlates of risk. The correlate of risk analysis showed that IgG antibodies against the gp120 V2 loop correlated with decreased risk of HIV infection, while Env-specific IgA directly correlated with increased risk. The development of vaccine strategies such as improved envelope proteins formulated with potent adjuvants and DNA and vectors expressing mosaics, or conserved sequences, capable of eliciting greater breadth and depth of potentially relevant immune responses including neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses, mucosal immune responses, and immunological memory, is now proceeding quickly. Additional human efficacy trials combined with other prevention modalities along with sustained funding and international collaboration remain key to bring an HIV-1 vaccine to licensure. PMID:24637946

  18. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...

  19. [Risks associated with vaccinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupi, E; Baudard, S; Debois, H; Pignato, F

    1998-10-01

    Since Jenner and Pasteur, various vaccines have been developed and administered in immunization program conducted by WHO in order to diminish the circulation of pathogenic agents and eradicate some diseases. Risks associated with immunization are revealed by the collection and assessment of adverse events reported after the use of these drugs. They vary according to the type of vaccines. With high rates of immunization and a low incidence of infectious diseases, adverse events receive increasing attention. Frequent and mostly expected adverse events are reported in clinical trials. Unexpected rare adverse events are reported after marketing authorization by spontaneous reporting and post marketing surveillance studies. Post marketing surveillance should be adapted to vaccines (vaccino-vigilance) and should take into account the risk linked to the disease they may protect against. Adverse events are often temporally associated with vaccines, that does not mean they are causally related. Specific studies should be conducted to assess the causal relationship between vaccines and post immunization adverse events. In order to reduce the risk associated with immunization, a strict follow-up of recommendations, warnings and contraindications in addition to appropriate information being delivered to both vaccinees and physicians are required.

  20. Economics of vaccines revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Maarten J; Standaert, Baudouin A

    2013-05-01

    Performing a total health economic analysis of a vaccine newly introduced into the market today is a challenge when using the conventional cost-effectiveness analysis we normally apply on pharmaceutical products. There are many reasons for that, such as: the uncertainty in the total benefit (direct and indirect) to be measured in a population when using a cohort model; (1) appropriate rules about discounting the long-term impact of vaccines are absent jeopardizing therefore their value at the initial investment; (2) the presence of opposite contexts when introducing the vaccine in developed vs. the developing world with high benefits, low initial health care investment for the latter vs. marginal benefit and high cost for the former; with a corresponding paradox for the vaccine becoming very cost-effective in low income countries but rather medium in middle low to high middle income countries; (3) and the type of trial assessment for the newer vaccines is now often performed with immunogenicity reaction instead of clinical endpoints which still leaves questions on their real impact and their head-to-head comparison. (4.)

  1. Vaccine hesitancy and healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Pauline; Meurice, François; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Glismann, Steffen; Rosenthal, Susan L; Larson, Heidi J

    2016-12-20

    While most people vaccinate according to the recommended schedule, this success is challenged by individuals and groups who delay or refuse vaccines. The aim of this article is to review studies on vaccine hesitancy among healthcare providers (HCPs), and the influences of their own vaccine confidence and vaccination behaviour on their vaccination recommendations to others. The search strategy was developed in Medline and then adapted across several multidisciplinary mainstream databases including Embase Classic & Embase, and PschInfo. All foreign language articles were included if the abstract was available in English. A total of 185 articles were included in the literature review. 66% studied the vaccine hesitancy among HCPs, 17% analysed concerns, attitudes and/or behaviour of HCPs towards vaccinating others, and 9% were about evaluating intervention(s). Overall, knowledge about particular vaccines, their efficacy and safety, helped to build HCPs own confidence in vaccines and their willingness to recommend vaccines to others. The importance of societal endorsement and support from colleagues was also reported. In the face of emerging vaccine hesitancy, HCPs still remain the most trusted advisor and influencer of vaccination decisions. The capacity and confidence of HCPs, though, are stretched as they are faced with time constraints, increased workload and limited resources, and often have inadequate information or training support to address parents' questions. Overall, HCPs need more support to manage the quickly evolving vaccine environment as well as changing public, especially those who are reluctant or refuse vaccination. Some recommended strategies included strengthening trust between HCPs, health authorities and policymakers, through more shared involvement in the establishment of vaccine recommendations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2014-04-01

    The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) (1978) and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) (1985) were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.

  3. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2014-01-01

    The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) (1978) and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) (1985) were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts. PMID:24927336

  4. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI (1978 and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP (1985 were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.

  5. Needle-free influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Huckriede, Anke

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination is the cornerstone of influenza control in epidemic and pandemic situations. Influenza vaccines are typically given by intramuscular injection. However, needle-free vaccinations could offer several distinct advantages over intramuscular injections: they are pain-free, easier to distribut

  6. Clinical Impact of Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Puja H; Daza, Alejandro Delgado; Livornese, Lawrence L

    2016-01-01

    The discovery and development of immunization has been a singular improvement in the health of mankind. This chapter reviews currently available vaccines, their historical development, and impact on public health. Specific mention is made in regard to the challenges and pursuit of a vaccine for the human immunodeficiency virus as well as the unfounded link between autism and measles vaccination.

  7. Current scenario of malaria vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarnail Singh Braich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the deadliest infectious diseases that affects millions of people worldwide including India. As an addition to chemoprophylaxis and other antimalarial interventions malaria vaccine is under extensive research since decades. The vaccine development is more difficult to predict than drug development and presents a unique challenge as already there has been no vaccine effective against a parasite. Effective malaria vaccine could help eliminate and eradicate malaria; there are currently 63 vaccine candidates, 41 in preclinical and clinical stages of development. Vaccines are being designed to target pre-erythrocytic stages, erythrocytic stage or the sexual stages of Plasmodium taken up by a feeding mosquito, or the multiple stages. Two vaccines in preclinical and clinical development target P. falciparum; and the most advanced candidate is the pre-erythrocytic vaccine RTS,S which is in phase-III clinical trials. It is likely that world's first malaria vaccine will be available by 2015 at the country level. More efficacious second generation malaria vaccines are on the way to development. Safety, efficacy, cost and provision of the vaccine to all communities are major concerns in malaria vaccine issue. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 60-66

  8. Effects of monovalent cation doping on the structure, microstructure, lattice distortion and magnetic behavior of single crystalline NdMnO3 compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Anshuman; Pradhan, S K

    2015-10-21

    Pure and 15 mol% Na, K-doped NdMnO3 compounds with perovskite structures are prepared by sol-gel method. Tiny single crystals are formed after sintering the compounds at 1000 °C. The effect of Na and K doping as well as the effect of sintering temperature on the formation and microstructure of NdMnO3 are studied in detail by the Rietveld refinement technique using X-ray powder diffraction data. Single phase formation and single crystalline growth are also confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Bond angles and bond lengths are calculated and shown by 3D diagrams. Monovalent doping induces noticeable changes in the microstructure and yields better structural stability in these compounds. Doping results in the change of Mn-O, Nd-O and Mn-O-Mn bond lengths which in turn reduces the lattice and octahedral distortion in the system along with an increase in the tolerance factor. The magnetic properties of these compounds are also modified as a result of doping. The temperature dependent magnetization results show that the Neel temperature of antiferromagnetic NdMnO3 compound is 67.2 K and the Curie temperatures of ferromagnetic Nd0.85Na0.15MnO3 and Nd0.85K0.15MnO3 compounds are 99.1 K and 98.6 K respectively. Both 15% Na and K doping results in a similar TC in doped NdMnO3 compounds.

  9. Cloning and identification of Group 1 mrp operon encoding a novel monovalent cation/proton antiporter system from the moderate halophile Halomonas zhaodongensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lin; Hong, Shan; Liu, Henan; Huang, Haipeng; Sun, Hao; Xu, Tong; Jiang, Juquan

    2014-11-01

    The novel species Halomonas zhaodongensis NEAU-ST10-25(T) recently identified by our group is a moderate halophile which can grow at the range of 0-2.5 M NaCl (optimum 0.5 M) and pH 6-12 (optimum pH 9). To explore its halo-alkaline tolerant mechanism, genomic DNA was screened from NEAU-ST10-25(T) in this study for Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiporter genes by selection in Escherichia coli KNabc lacking three major Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiporters. One mrp operon could confer tolerance of E. coli KNabc to 0.8 M NaCl and 100 mM LiCl, and an alkaline pH. This operon was previously mainly designated mrp (also mnh, pha or sha) due to its multiple resistance and pH-related activity. Here, we will also use mrp to designate the homolog from H. zhaodongensis (Hz_mrp). Sequence analysis and protein alignment showed that Hz_mrp should belong to Group 1 mrp operons. Further phylogenetic analysis reveals that Hz_Mrp system should represent a novel sub-class of Group 1 Mrp systems. This was confirmed by a significant difference in pH-dependent activity profile or the specificity and affinity for the transported monovalent cations between Hz_Mrp system and all the known Mrp systems. Therefore, we propose that Hz_Mrp should be categorized as a novel Group 1 Mrp system.

  10. Effective Vaccination Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, L; Spears, W; Billings, L; Maxim, P

    2010-10-01

    We present a framework for modeling the spread of pathogens throughout a population and generating policies that minimize the impact of those pathogens on the population. This framework is used to study the spread of human viruses between cities via airplane travel. It combines agent-based simulation, mathematical analysis, and an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) optimizer. The goal of this study is to develop tools that determine the optimal distribution of a vaccine supply in the model. Using plausible benchmark vaccine allocation policies of uniform and proportional distribution, we compared their effectiveness to policies found by the EA. We then designed and tested a new, more effective policy which increased the importance of vaccinating smaller cities that are flown to more often. This "importance factor" was validated using U.S. influenza data from the last four years.

  11. [About of vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Maria Luisa; Refolo, Pietro; González-Melado, Fermín J

    2012-01-01

    The debate over compulsory or merely recommended vaccination remains open, albeit latent, in those countries that have mandatory vaccine schedules. Despite the advantages of preventive immunization from the point of medical, economic and social features, it's clear, in the current status of medical ethics, that the exercise of patient autonomy calls for personal responsibility in the election of treatments and, in fact, the vaccines. Therefore, it is necessary to change the simple idea of prevention as , characteristic of a in order to pass to a preventative medicine concept that will be able to support the achievement of moral attitudes towards achieving the good for the individual and for the community. This is only possible from a wherever is possible to present an alternative between mandatory vs. recommendation from the concept of that, with the help of a series of measures, could combine the effective protection for the whole community with the responsible exercise of the personal autonomy.

  12. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... patterns that increase activation of the innate immune system. Importantly, viral-vectored vaccines that act through the induction of one or more of these factors also may benefit from cytokine coadministration and increased antigen presentation. In order to increase immunogenicity to the level achieved...

  13. Vaccines against Clostridium difficile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuzzi, Rosanna; Adamo, Roberto; Scarselli, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is recognized as a major cause of nosocomial diseases ranging from antibiotic related diarrhea to fulminant colitis. Emergence during the last 2 decades of C. difficile strains associated with high incidence, severity and lethal outcomes has increased the challenges for CDI treatment. A limited number of drugs have proven to be effective against CDI and concerns about antibiotic resistance as well as recurring disease solicited the search for novel therapeutic strategies. Active vaccination provides the attractive opportunity to prevent CDI, and intense research in recent years led to development of experimental vaccines, 3 of which are currently under clinical evaluation. This review summarizes recent achievements and remaining challenges in the field of C. difficile vaccines, and discusses future perspectives in view of newly-identified candidate antigens. PMID:24637887

  14. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not pr...

  15. Fundamentals of vaccine immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S Clem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From a literature review of the current literature, this article provides an introduction to vaccine immunology including a primer on the components of the immune system, passive vs. active immunization, the mechanism(s by which immunizations stimulate(s immunity, and the types of vaccines available. Both the innate and adaptive immune subsystems are necessary to provide an effective immune response to an immunization. Further, effective immunizations must induce long-term stimulation of both the humoral and cell-mediated arms of the adaptive system by the production of effector cells and memory cells. At least seven different types of vaccines are currently in use or in development that produce this effective immunity and have contributed greatly to the prevention of infectious disease around the world.

  16. Controversies in vaccine mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, John D; Jackson, Mary Anne; Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Myers, Angela L; Connelly, Beverly L

    2010-03-01

    Policies that mandate immunization have always been controversial. The controversies take different forms in different contexts. For routine childhood immunizations, many parents have fears about both short- and long-term side effects. Parental worries change as the rate of vaccination in the community changes. When most children are vaccinated, parents worry more about side effects than they do about disease. Because of these worries, immunization rates go down. As immunization rates go down, disease rates go up, and parents worry less about side effects of vaccination and more about the complications of the diseases. Immunization rates then go up. For teenagers, controversies arise about the criteria that should guide policies that mandate, rather than merely recommend and encourage, certain immunizations. In particular, policy makers have questioned whether immunizations for human papillomavirus, or other diseases that are not contagious, should be required. For healthcare workers, debates have focused on the strength of institutional mandates. For years, experts have recommended that all healthcare workers be immunized against influenza. Immunizations for other infections including pertussis, measles, mumps, and hepatitis are encouraged but few hospitals have mandated such immunizations-instead, they rely on incentives and education. Pandemics present a different set of problems as people demand vaccines that are in short supply. These issues erupt into controversy on a regular basis. Physicians and policy makers must respond both in their individual practices and as advisory experts to national and state agencies. The articles in this volume will discuss the evolution of national immunization programs in these various settings. We will critically examine the role of vaccine mandates. We will discuss ways that practitioners and public health officials should deal with vaccine refusal. We will contrast responses of the population as a whole, within the

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine among HIV-infected adults: Conventional vaccine vs. intradermal vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu Bin; Lee, Jacob; Song, Joon Young; Choi, Hee Jung; Cheong, Hee Jin; Kim, Woo Joo

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported poor immune responses to conventional influenza vaccines in HIV-infected individuals. This study sought to elicit more potent immunogenicity in HIV-infected adults using an intradermal vaccine compared with a conventional intramuscular vaccine. This multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted at 3 university hospitals during the 2011/2012 pre-influenza season. Three vaccines were used in HIV-infected adults aged 18 – 60 years: an inactivated intramuscular vaccine (Agrippal), a reduced-content intradermal vaccine (IDflu9μg) and a standard-content intradermal vaccine (IDflu15μg). Serum hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibodies and INF-γ ELISpot assay were measured at the time of vaccination and 1 month after vaccination. Adverse events were recorded for 7 d. A total of 28 Agrippal, 30 IDflu9μg, and 28 IDflu15μg volunteers were included in this analysis. One month after vaccination, the GMTs and differences in INF-γ ELISpot assay results were similar among the 3 groups. Seroprotection rates, seroconversion rates and mean fold increases (MFI) among the 3 groups were also similar, at approximately 80%, 50–60% and 2.5 – 10.0, respectively. All three vaccines satisfied the CHMP criteria for the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains, but not those for the B strain. In univariate analysis, no demographic or clinical factors, including age, CD4+ T-cell counts, HIV viral load, ART status and vaccine type, were related to failure to achieve seroprotection. The three vaccines were all well-tolerated and all reported reactions were mild to moderate. However, there was a tendency toward a higher incidence of local and systemic reactions in the intradermal vaccine groups. The intradermal vaccine did not result in higher immunogenicity compared to the conventional intramuscular vaccine, even with increased antigen dose. PMID:26431466

  18. 登革病毒1、2型单、双价病毒样颗粒的免疫原性研究%Immunogenicity research of monovalent and bivalent dengue 1 and dengue 2 virus-like particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻治准; 刘岩; 付春云; 方丹云; 江丽芳; 周俊梅

    2012-01-01

    was about 2-3 limes of VLP2. After dengue virus challenge, the inactivate DENV1 group and VLP2 group could induce high serum level of IFN-γ. The level of TNF-α in VLP2 group was always high. The level of TNF-α in bivalent VLP group with DENV2 challenge was higher than with DENVI challenge. After three times of vaccination, the ratios of CD4+ in all experiment groups were lower than the group of PBS, but the ratios of CD8+ showed no obvious change, except in the group of inactivate DENV1 showed a little increase, and other groups showed a little decrease. Conclusion Dengue 1 and 2 VLP both in monovalent and bivalent all can induce certain degree of humoral and cellular immunity, and combination of vaccination showed some coordination.

  19. Communicating vaccine safety during the development and introduction of vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are the best defense available against infectious diseases. Vaccine safety is of major focus for regulatory bodies, vaccine manufacturers, public health authorities, health care providers and the public as vaccines are often given to healthy children and adults as well as to pregnant woman. Safety assessment is critical at all stages of vaccine development. Effective, clear and consistent communication of the risks and benefits of vaccines and advocacy during all stages of clinical research (including the preparation, approvals, conduct of clinical trials through the post marketing phase) is critically important. This needs to be done for all major stakeholders (e.g. community members, Study Team, Health Care Providers, Ministry of Health, Regulators, Ethics Committee members, Public Health Authorities and Policy Makers). Improved stakeholder alignment would help to address some of the concerns that may affect the clinical research, licensing of vaccines and their wide-spread use in immunization programs around the world.

  20. Chinese vaccine products go global: vaccine development and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun; Xu, Yinghua; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-05-01

    Through the continuous efforts of several generations, China has become one of the few countries in the world that is capable of independently addressing all the requirements by the Expanded Program on Immunization. Regulatory science is applied to continuously improve the vaccine regulatory system. Passing the prequalification by WHO has allowed Chinese vaccine products to go global. Chinese vaccine products not only secure disease prevention and control domestically but also serve the needs for international public health. This article describes the history of Chinese vaccine development, the current situation of Chinese vaccine industry and its contribution to the prevention and control of infectious diseases. We also share our experience of national quality control and vaccine regulation during the past decades. China's experience in vaccine development and quality control can benefit other countries and regions worldwide, including the developing countries.

  1. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  2. Multiple Vaccinations: Friend or Foe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Sarah E.; Jensen, Shawn M.; Twitty, Chris; Bahjat, Keith; Hu, Hong-Ming; Urba, Walter J.; Fox, Bernard A.

    2013-01-01

    Few immunotherapists would accept the concept of a single vaccination inducing a therapeutic anti-cancer immune response in a patient with advanced cancer. But what is the evidence to support the “more-is-better” approach of multiple vaccinations? Since we are unaware of trials comparing the effect of a single vaccine versus multiple vaccinations on patient outcome, we considered that an anti-cancer immune response might provide a surrogate measure of the effectiveness of vaccination strategies. Since few large trials include immunological monitoring, the majority of information is gleaned from smaller trials in which an evaluation of immune responses to vaccine or tumor, before and at one or more times following the first vaccine was performed. In some studies there is convincing evidence that repeated administration of a specific vaccine can augment the immune response to antigens contained in the vaccine. In other settings multiple vaccinations can significantly reduce the immune response to one or more targets. Results from three large adjuvant vaccine studies support the potential detrimental effect of multiple vaccinations as clinical outcomes in the control arms were significantly better than that for treatment groups. Recent research has provided insights into mechanisms that are likely responsible for the reduced responses in the studies noted above, but supporting evidence from clinical specimens is generally lacking. Interpretation of these results is further complicated by the possibility that the dominant immune response may evolve to recognize epitopes not present in the vaccine. Nonetheless, the FDA-approval of the first therapeutic cancer vaccine and recent developments from preclinical models and clinical trials provide a substantial basis for optimism and a critical evaluation of cancer vaccine strategies. PMID:21952289

  3. Parents' vaccination comprehension and decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Julie S; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2008-03-17

    We report on 30 in-depth mental models interviews with parents discussing vaccination for their children, both in general terms and in response to communications drawn from sources supporting and opposing vaccines. We found that even parents favourable to vaccination can be confused by the ongoing debate, leading them to question their choices. Many parents lack basic knowledge of how vaccines work, and do not find the standard information provided to them to be particularly helpful in explaining it. Those with the greatest need to know about vaccination seem most vulnerable to confusing information. Opportunities for education may be missed if paediatricians do not appreciate parents' specific information needs.

  4. Vaccination-related shoulder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, Marko; Montalvo, Enoch

    2007-01-08

    We present two cases of shoulder pain and weakness following influenza and pneumococcal vaccine injections provided high into the deltoid muscle. Based on ultrasound measurements, we hypothesize that vaccine injected into the subdeltoid bursa caused a periarticular inflammatory response, subacromial bursitis, bicipital tendonitis and adhesive capsulitis. Resolution of symptoms followed corticosteroid injections to the subacromial space, bicipital tendon sheath and glenohumeral joint, followed by physical therapy. We conclude that the upper third of the deltoid muscle should not be used for vaccine injections, and the diagnosis of vaccination-related shoulder dysfunction should be considered in patients presenting with shoulder pain following a vaccination.

  5. Pediatric vaccines on the horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Bueno, Susana; Stull, Terrence L

    2010-09-01

    Vaccines have saved the lives of millions of children and continue to be essential interventions to control infectious diseases among people of all ages. The list of recommended vaccines for children has expanded in recent years; however, many viral, bacterial and parasitic infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Improved vaccines to prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis infections in children will soon be available. Recent scientific advances are being applied to design new childhood vaccines affording enhanced efficacy, safety and tolerability. Financial barriers and other obstacles to adequate vaccine access need to be eliminated to assure coverage for all children and adolescents.

  6. A defense of compulsory vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    Vaccine refusal harms and risks harming innocent bystanders. People are not entitled to harm innocents or to impose deadly risks on others, so in these cases there is nothing to be said for the right to refuse vaccination. Compulsory vaccination is therefore justified because non-vaccination can rightly be prohibited, just as other kinds of harmful and risky conduct are rightly prohibited. I develop an analogy to random gunfire to illustrate this point. Vaccine refusal, I argue, is morally similar to firing a weapon into the air and endangering innocent bystanders. By re-framing vaccine refusal as harmful and reckless conduct my aim is to shift the focus of the vaccine debate from non-vaccinators' religious and refusal rights to everyone else's rights against being infected with contagious illnesses. Religious freedom and rights of informed consent do not entitle non-vaccinators to harm innocent bystanders, and so coercive vaccination requirements are permissible for the sake of the potential victims of the anti-vaccine movement.

  7. [Preventive vaccinations for medical personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Goedecke, Marcel; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2014-05-01

    Vaccinations are among the most efficient and important preventive medical procedures. Modern vaccines are well tolerated. In Germany there are no longer laws for mandatory vaccinations, either for the general public or for medical personnel. Vaccinations are now merely "officially recommended" by the top health authorities on the basis of recommendations from the Standing Committee on Vaccinations (STIKO) of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) according to § 20 para 3 of the Protection against Infection law (IfSG). The management of vaccine damage due to officially recommended vaccinations is guaranteed by the Federal States. Whereas vaccinations in childhood are generally considered to be a matter of course, the willingness to accept them decreases markedly with increasing age. In the medical sector vaccinations against, for example, hepatitis B are well accepted while other vaccinations against, for example, whooping cough or influenza are not considered to be so important. The fact that vaccinations, besides offering protection for the medical personnel, may also serve to protect the patients entrusted to medical care from nosocomial infections is often ignored. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Veterinary and human vaccine evaluation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Edmond, K.; Gubbins, S.; Paton, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the universal importance of vaccines, approaches to human and veterinary vaccine evaluation differ markedly. For human vaccines, vaccine efficacy is the proportion of vaccinated individuals protected by the vaccine against a defined outcome under ideal conditions, whereas for veterinary vaccines the term is used for a range of measures of vaccine protection. The evaluation of vaccine effectiveness, vaccine protection assessed under routine programme conditions, is largely limited to human vaccines. Challenge studies under controlled conditions and sero-conversion studies are widely used when evaluating veterinary vaccines, whereas human vaccines are generally evaluated in terms of protection against natural challenge assessed in trials or post-marketing observational studies. Although challenge studies provide a standardized platform on which to compare different vaccines, they do not capture the variation that occurs under field conditions. Field studies of vaccine effectiveness are needed to assess the performance of a vaccination programme. However, if vaccination is performed without central co-ordination, as is often the case for veterinary vaccines, evaluation will be limited. This paper reviews approaches to veterinary vaccine evaluation in comparison to evaluation methods used for human vaccines. Foot-and-mouth disease has been used to illustrate the veterinary approach. Recommendations are made for standardization of terminology and for rigorous evaluation of veterinary vaccines. PMID:24741009

  9. Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Samuel, Miny; Wai, Kim Lay

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccination is recognized as the only practical measure for preventing Japanese encephalitis. Production shortage, costs, and issues of licensure impair vaccination programmes in many affected countries. Concerns over vaccine effectiveness and safety also have a negative impact...... on acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity. SEARCH STRATEGY: In March 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1......), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOSIS, and reference lists. We also attempted to contact corresponding authors and vaccine companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-RCTs, comparing Japanese encephalitis vaccines with placebo (inert agent or unrelated vaccine...

  10. Ensuring safety of DNA vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessels Stephen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1990 a new approach for vaccination was invented involving injection of plasmid DNA in vivo, which elicits an immune response to the encoded protein. DNA vaccination can overcome most disadvantages of conventional vaccine strategies and has potential for vaccines of the future. However, today 15 years on, a commercial product still has not reached the market. One possible explanation could be the technique's failure to induce an efficient immune response in humans, but safety may also be a fundamental issue. This review focuses on the safety of the genetic elements of DNA vaccines and on the safety of the microbial host for the production of plasmid DNA. We also propose candidates for the vaccine's genetic elements and for its microbial production host that can heighten the vaccine's safety and facilitate its entry to the market.

  11. Development of dengue DNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danko, Janine R; Beckett, Charmagne G; Porter, Kevin R

    2011-09-23

    Vaccination with plasmid DNA against infectious pathogens including dengue is an active area of investigation. By design, DNA vaccines are able to elicit both antibody responses and cellular immune responses capable of mediating long-term protection. Great technical improvements have been made in dengue DNA vaccine constructs and trials are underway to study these in the clinic. The scope of this review is to highlight the rich history of this vaccine platform and the work in dengue DNA vaccines accomplished by scientists at the Naval Medical Research Center. This work resulted in the only dengue DNA vaccine tested in a clinical trial to date. Additional advancements paving the road ahead in dengue DNA vaccine development are also discussed.

  12. [Pneumococcal vaccines. New conjugate vaccines for adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campins Martí, Magda

    2015-11-01

    Pneumococcal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and are one of the 10 leading causes of death worldwide. Children under 2 years have a higher incidence rate, followed by adults over 64 years. The main risk group are individuals with immunodeficiency, and those with anatomical or functional asplenia, but can also affect immunocompetent persons with certain chronic diseases. Significant progress has been made in the last 10 years in the prevention of these infections. Until a few years ago, only the 23-valent non-conjugate pneumococcal vaccine was available. Its results were controversial in terms of efficacy and effectiveness, and with serious limitations on the type of immune response induced. The current possibility of using the 13-valent conjugate vaccine in adults has led to greater expectations in improving the prevention of pneumococcal disease in these age groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida

    Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?......Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?...

  14. [Vaccination against viral hepatitis A and B in adults aged over 40 years--antibody persistence and immune memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlibek, R; Smetana, J; Bostíková, V; Splino, M

    2011-09-01

    Primary vaccination with combined vaccine against viral hepatitis A (VHA) and viral hepatitis B (VHB) induces higher anti-hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) antibody responses and similar anti-hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) antibody responses in adults aged over 40 years in comparison with concomitant monovalent vaccines against VHA and VHB. Th e objectives were to assess, in a clinical study, persistence of anti-HAV and anti-HBs antibodies in adults aged over 40 years four years after primary VHA/VHB vaccination and antibody response following a booster dose of the vaccine. Five hundred and ninety-six subjects aged > 40 years were vaccinated with three doses of the combined VHA/VHB vaccine at Months 0, 1, 6 (HAB group) or with concomitant VHA and VHB vaccines at Months 0, 6 and 0, 1, 6 (ENG+HAV and HBVX+VAQ, respectively). Blood samples were collected one month following primary vaccination (Month 7) and then at one-year intervals for four years after the booster dose with the same vaccine as used for the primary vaccination. The anti-HBs and anti-HAV antibody levels were determined prior to the booster dose and at days 14 and 30 after the booster dose. At Month 7, > 97% of study subjects were seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies in all groups analyzed. Four years after primary vaccination, anti-HAV antibody seropositivity persisted in > 93% of study subjects, increasing to > 99% after the booster dose. At Month 7, the highest proportion of study subjects with anti-HBs antibody levels > or = 10 mIU/ml was found in the HAB group (91.7% versus 79.7% in the ENG+HAV group versus 71.0% in the HBVX+VAQ group). Four years after vaccination, anti-HBs antibody levels of 10 mIU/ml persisted in 57.1% of the HAB study subjects in comparison with 40.1% and 26.6% of the study subjects in the ENG+HAV and HBVX+VAQ groups, respectively. One month after the booster dose, anti-HBs antibody levels increased and antibody levels > or = 10 mIU/ml was achived in 95.2% of study subjects in the

  15. Sex and Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavrel, Erik; Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2008-01-01

    This case study is centered upon the recent debate concerning the decision by Texas Governor Rick Perry to mandate the compulsory vaccination of girls in the Texas public school system against the human papillomavirus (HPV) prior to entering the sixth grade. The interrupted case method is particularly appropriate for this subject with the case…

  16. Vaccines Help Protect Us

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the importance of vaccines and how they work.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  17. Dissecting Cancer Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Couzin; 丁东

    2004-01-01

    @@ If there's one thing cancer vaccine developers would like to know, it's why only a handful of patients respond strongly to their inventions. Now at an immunology② meeting here, a team of scientists reported that a set of patients with metastatic melanoma③ may be revealing an answer to that mysterious question.

  18. T dose Vaccine Policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National Programme of Immunization (NPI), measles remains a disturbing cause ... or as a supplement is expected to offer a second opportunity to children who ... available in 1963, the world welcomed it with joy .... one dose of vaccine were not always protected from .... begins a long story Starting now is still early enough.

  19. Nanotechnology and vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Gyeong Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of conventional vaccines, improvements are clearly required due to concerns about the weak immunogenicity of these vaccines, intrinsic instability in vivo, toxicity, and the need for multiple administrations. To overcome such problems, nanotechnology platforms have recently been incorporated into vaccine development. Nanocarrier-based delivery systems offer an opportunity to enhance the humoral and cellular immune responses. This advantage is attributable to the nanoscale particle size, which facilitates uptake by phagocytic cells, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, leading to efficient antigen recognition and presentation. Modifying the surfaces of nanocarriers with a variety of targeting moieties permits the delivery of antigens to specific cell surface receptors, thereby stimulating specific and selective immune responses. In this review, we introduce recent advances in nanocarrier-based vaccine delivery systems, with a focus on the types of carriers, including liposomes, emulsions, polymer-based particles, and carbon-based nanomaterials. We describe the remaining challenges and possible breakthroughs, including the development of needle-free nanotechnologies and a fundamental understanding of the in vivo behavior and stability of the nanocarriers in nanotechnology-based delivery systems.

  20. Sex and Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavrel, Erik; Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2008-01-01

    This case study is centered upon the recent debate concerning the decision by Texas Governor Rick Perry to mandate the compulsory vaccination of girls in the Texas public school system against the human papillomavirus (HPV) prior to entering the sixth grade. The interrupted case method is particularly appropriate for this subject with the case…

  1. Nieuw vaccin tegen campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Het vaccin dat de kip moet beschermen tegen de bacterie Campylobacter werkt in het laboratorium. Dat wil bacterioloog Jaap Wagenaar wel kwijt. Wanneer het er komt en zelfs of het er komt, daarover laat Wagenaar zich niet uit. "Het is een hele klus om het immuunsysteem van kippen effectief op te

  2. Economics of vaccines revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten J.; Standaert, Baudouin A.

    2013-01-01

    Performing a total health economic analysis of a vaccine newly introduced into the market today is a challenge when using the conventional cost-effectiveness analysis we normally apply on pharmaceutical products. There are many reasons for that, such as: the uncertainty in the total benefit (direct

  3. Nieuw vaccin tegen campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Het vaccin dat de kip moet beschermen tegen de bacterie Campylobacter werkt in het laboratorium. Dat wil bacterioloog Jaap Wagenaar wel kwijt. Wanneer het er komt en zelfs of het er komt, daarover laat Wagenaar zich niet uit. "Het is een hele klus om het immuunsysteem van kippen effectief op te late

  4. Alphavirus-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2014-06-16

    Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA, as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans, attention has also been paid to the development of vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed conducting clinical trials in humans.

  5. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lundstrom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA, as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans, attention has also been paid to the development of vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed conducting clinical trials in humans.

  6. Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decavac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Tenivac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Why get vaccinated?Tetanus and diphtheria are very serious diseases. They are rare in the United States today, but people who do become ...

  7. [Vaccination against hepatitis A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balli, F; Di Biase, A R; Viola, L

    1996-01-01

    The epidemiology of hepatitis A, a disease endemic in various countries, is in a state of continuous change. Adults are more exposed to infection and considering the frequent absence of immunity, in contrast to children in whom the disease is almost always asymptomatic, the disease is often serious and prolonged with a mortality of up to 2.5%. The mode of transmission of HAV is predominantly the fecal-oral route; the virus is isolated during the prodromic period of the disease from the feces, blood, bile and seminal fluid. The virus can also be found in saliva (OMS '95); in addition it may also be transmitted by the maternal-fetal route. The HAV infects cells in vitro but does not cause a direct cytopathic effect. At the beginning of the acute phase of the disease the production of anti-HAV antibodies is of the IgM type followed later by IgG. Some studies have shown a potential role of cellular immunity in clearance of the virus from the hepatocytes and in the pathogenesis of the infection of HAV. The efficacy of immunoglobulin serum in the prevention of hepatitis A has been demonstrated since 1944. As regards active immunity two types of vaccinations have been prepared. One with live attenuated HAV carried by either bacteria or virus. The other, killed inactivated HAV, HAV capsule, antigenic subunit, synthetic peptides, anti-idiotypes or virosomes. The recent literature describe the vaccine produced by Merck Sharp & Dohme and by Smith Kline Beecham (SKB); both vaccines are made from HAV, grown in vitro, inactivated with formalin and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. The protection of the vaccine begins 14 days after administration and lasts from one month to one year. Numerous studies have been conducted which have shown that the vaccine is effective when given in 2 doses and confers protection against HAV for at least one year. The results have shown that the vaccination causes seroconversion in approximately 100% of subjects, and does not cause serious side

  8. Blood stage malaria vaccine eliciting high antigen-specific antibody concentrations confers no protection to young children in Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhards R Ogutu

    Full Text Available The antigen, falciparum malaria protein 1 (FMP1, represents the 42-kDa C-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1 of the 3D7 clone of P. falciparum. Formulated with AS02 (a proprietary Adjuvant System, it constitutes the FMP1/AS02 candidate malaria vaccine. We evaluated this vaccine's safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in African children.A randomised, double-blind, Phase IIb, comparator-controlled trial.The trial was conducted in 13 field stations of one mile radii within Kombewa Division, Nyanza Province, Western Kenya, an area of holoendemic transmission of P. falciparum. We enrolled 400 children aged 12-47 months in general good health.Children were randomised in a 1ratio1 fashion to receive either FMP1/AS02 (50 microg or Rabipur(R rabies vaccine. Vaccinations were administered on a 0, 1, and 2 month schedule. The primary study endpoint was time to first clinical episode of P. falciparum malaria (temperature >/=37.5 degrees C with asexual parasitaemia of >/=50,000 parasites/microL of blood occurring between 14 days and six months after a third dose. Case detection was both active and passive. Safety and immunogenicity were evaluated for eight months after first immunisations; vaccine efficacy (VE was measured over a six-month period following third vaccinations.374 of 400 children received all three doses and completed six months of follow-up. FMP1/AS02 had a good safety profile and was well-tolerated but more reactogenic than the comparator. Geometric mean anti-MSP-1(42 antibody concentrations increased from1.3 microg/mL to 27.3 microg/mL in the FMP1/AS02 recipients, but were unchanged in controls. 97 children in the FMP1/AS02 group and 98 controls had a primary endpoint episode. Overall VE was 5.1% (95% CI: -26% to +28%; p-value = 0.7.FMP1/AS02 is not a promising candidate for further development as a monovalent malaria vaccine. Future MSP-1(42 vaccine development should focus on other formulations and antigen constructs

  9. [Influenza vaccination. Effectiveness of current vaccines and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Tamames, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is an annual challenge for health-care systems, due to factors such as co-circulation of 2 influenza A subtypes jointly with 2 influenza B lineages; the antigenic drift of these virus, which eludes natural immunity, as well as immunity conferred by vaccination; together with influenza impact in terms of morbidity and mortality. Influenza vaccines have been available for more than 70 years and they have progressed in formulation, production and delivery route. Recommendations on vaccination are focused on those with a higher probability of severe disease, and have a progressively wider coverage, and classically based on inactivated vaccines, but with an increasing importance of attenuated live vaccines. More inactivated vaccines are becoming available, from adyuvanted and virosomal vaccines to intradermal delivery, cell-culture or quadrivalent. Overall vaccine effectiveness is about 65%, but varies depending on characteristics of vaccines, virus, population and the outcomes to be prevented, and ranges from less than 10% to almost 90%. Future challenges are formulations that confer more extensive and lasting protection, as well as increased vaccination coverage, especially in groups such as pregnant women and health-care professionals, as well as being extended to paediatrics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  10. Does intention to recommend HPV vaccines impact HPV vaccination rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feemster, Kristen A; Middleton, Maria; Fiks, Alexander G; Winters, Sarah; Kinsman, Sara B; Kahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Despite recommendations for routine vaccination, HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females have remained low. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine whether clinician intention to recommend HPV vaccines predicts HPV vaccine series initiation among previously unvaccinated 11 to 18 year-old girls (N=18,083) who were seen by a pediatric clinician (N=105) from a large primary care network within 3 years of vaccine introduction. We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, Cox Regression and standardized survival curves to measure the association between clinician intention and time to and rate of first HPV vaccine receipt among eligible females. All models adjusted for patient age, race/ethnicity, payor category, visit type, and practice location. Eighty-5 percent of eligible 11 to 12 year-old and 95% of 13 to 18 year-old girls were seen by a provider reporting high intention to recommend HPV vaccines. However, only 30% of the cohort initiated the HPV vaccine series and the mean number of days from first eligible visit to series initiation was 190 (95% C.I. 184.2, 195.4). After adjusting for covariates, high clinician intention was modestly associated with girls' likelihood of HPV vaccine series initiation (OR 1.36; 95 % C.I. 1.07, 1.71) and time to first HPV vaccination (HR 1.22; 95% 1.06, 1.40). Despite high intention to vaccinate among this cohort of pediatric clinicians, overall vaccination rates for adolescent girls remained low. These findings support ongoing efforts to develop effective strategies to translate clinician intention into timely HPV vaccine receipt.

  11. The effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccine in preventing hospitalizations and deaths presumably due to acute infectious diarrhea in Brazilian children: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Estêvão; Moscovici, Leonardo; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Alves, Domingos; Laprega, Milton Roberto; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus is the main etiologic agent of acute infectious diarrhea in children worldwide. Considering that a rotavirus vaccine (G1P8, strain RIX4414) was added to the Brazilian vaccination schedule in 2006, we aimed to study its effectiveness and safety regarding intestinal intussusception. A quasi-experimental trial was performed in which the primary outcome was the number of hospitalizations that were presumably due to acute infectious diarrhea per 100,000 children at risk (0-4 years old). The secondary outcomes included mortality due to acute infectious diarrhea and the intestinal intussusception rates in children in the same age range. We analyzed three scenarios: Health Division XIII of the State of São Paulo (DRS XIII) from 2002 to 2008, the State of São Paulo, and Brazil from 2002 to 2012. The averages of the hospitalization rates for 100,000 children in the pre- and post-vaccination periods were 1,413 and 959, respectively, for DRS XIII (RR=0.67), 312 and 249, respectively, for the State of São Paulo (RR=0.79), and 718 and 576, respectively, for Brazil (RR=0.8). The mortality rate per 100,000 children in the pre- and post-vaccination periods was 2.0 and 1.3, respectively, for DRS XIII (RR=0.66), 5.5 and 2.5, respectively, for the State of São Paulo (RR=0.47), and 15.0 and 8.0, respectively, for Brazil (RR=0.53). The average annual rates of intussusception for 100,000 children in DRS XIII were 28.0 and 22.0 (RR=0.77) in the pre- and post-vaccination periods, respectively. A monovalent rotavirus vaccine was demonstrated to be effective in preventing the hospitalizations and deaths of children that were presumably due to acute infectious diarrhea, without increasing the risk of intestinal intussusception.

  12. Brucellosis Vaccines: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanjani-Roushan Mohammad Reza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is considered as an important zoonotic and worldwide infection with more than half of million human cases, which it occurs more and more in animals like as wild and live stocks. Sheep, cattle, and goats are animal samples that listed. Symptoms of this disease in human are consisted of: undulant fever, back pains, faint, spondylitis, arthritis and orchitis. This infection causes abortion in livestock, and this point is one of the important economic losses. Reduction in milk production is another problem in this disease too. Materials and Methods: This study is conducted by reviewing of the literatures, which are related to this concern, and also visiting PubMed, ISI and other websites. Results: We must pay heed that most zoonoses are maintained in the animal reservoir. These diseases, such as leptospirosis, Q-fever, brucellosis etc. which among them brucellosis can transfer to human via close contact with infected animals or consumption of unpasteurized dairy. Therefore, eradication of this infection in human population is depended on omission of that in possible methods among animals reservoir. Such methods are like test-slaughter and vaccination of livestock. Hence, vaccination is not alone method for controlling, but it is probably economic one. Conclusion: Nowadays a vaccine which is effective for this disease control in human is not available. Of course presented some different vaccines for this infection in livestock that cleave live attenuated, killed bacteria and sub unit. Therefore, for eradication of this disease some vaccines with more effectiveness protection mid fewer side effects are necessary.

  13. A public-professional web-bridge for vaccines and vaccination: user concerns about vaccine safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Alvarez-Pasquín, María-José; Mena, Guillermo; Llupià, Anna; Aldea, Marta; Sequera, Victor-Guillermo; Sanz, Sergi; Tuells, Jose; Navarro-Alonso, José-Antonio; de Arísteguí, Javier; Bayas, José-María

    2012-05-28

    Vacunas.org (http://www.vacunas.org), a website founded by the Spanish Association of Vaccinology offers a personalized service called Ask the Expert, which answers any questions posed by the public or health professionals about vaccines and vaccination. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with questions on vaccination safety and determine the characteristics of questioners and the type of question asked during the period 2008-2010. A total of 1341 questions were finally included in the analysis. Of those, 30% were related to vaccine safety. Questions about pregnant women had 5.01 higher odds of asking about safety (95% CI 2.82-8.93) than people not belonging to any risk group. Older questioners (>50 years) were less likely to ask about vaccine safety compared to younger questioners (OR: 0.44, 95% CI 0.25-0.76). Questions made after vaccination or related to influenza (including H1N1) or travel vaccines were also associated with a higher likelihood of asking about vaccine safety. These results identify risk groups (pregnant women), population groups (older people) and some vaccines (travel and influenza vaccines, including H1N1) where greater efforts to provide improved, more-tailored vaccine information in general and on the Internet are required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 42 CFR 70.9 - Vaccination clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vaccination clinics. 70.9 Section 70.9 Public... INTERSTATE QUARANTINE § 70.9 Vaccination clinics. (a) The Director may establish vaccination clinics, through contract or otherwise, authorized to administer vaccines and/or other prophylaxis. (b) A vaccination...

  15. Swine flu vaccination for patients with cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In oncology, vaccination is accepted as an important preventive measure. As a tertiary prevention protocol, several vaccines are recommended for the oncology patients. The newest vaccine in medicine is swine flu vaccine which is developed for prevention of novel H1N1 influenza virus infection. In this paper, the author will briefly discuss on swine flu vaccination for oncology patients.

  16. Vaccine against human Papilloma Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Reina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At present two prophylactic human papilloma virus (HPV vaccines are commercially available. The Tetravalent vaccine against infection with four VPH types (6, 11, 16, and 18 distributed in the national program in Colombia and the Bivalent vaccine against the VPH types 16 and 18, respectively.  The efficacy and safety of both vaccines has periodically been assessed and they have been declared efficacious and safe by the health authorities of several countries and the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety ( GACVS of the World’s Health Organization (WHO.In its report of March 2014 the GACVS analyzed the evidence of the relationship between the  Human Papillomavirus Vaccine with  >175 million of doses distributed worldwide and autoimmune diseases, particularly Multiple Sclerosis, Aluminum as adjuvant, Vasculitis caused by vaccine DNA fragments and the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome described in Japan.   The Committee ratified the strict vaccine safety control and based on a thorough examination of existing evidence, reaffirmed that the risk-benefit profile remains favorable. The case of the children of Carmen de Bolivar in Colombia has been described by several authors in other countries as "Massive Psychogenic Event", which has absolute no relationship with the vaccine but its high media dissemination resulted into disastrous consequences for the national vaccination program

  17. Buccal and sublingual vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; Vrieling, Hilde; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Jiskoot, Wim; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-28

    Because of their large surface area and immunological competence, mucosal tissues are attractive administration and target sites for vaccination. An important characteristic of mucosal vaccination is its ability to elicit local immune responses, which act against infection at the site of pathogen entry. However, mucosal surfaces are endowed with potent and sophisticated tolerance mechanisms to prevent the immune system from overreacting to the many environmental antigens. Hence, mucosal vaccination may suppress the immune system instead of induce a protective immune response. Therefore, mucosal adjuvants and/or special antigen delivery systems as well as appropriate dosage forms are required in order to develop potent mucosal vaccines. Whereas oral, nasal and pulmonary vaccine delivery strategies have been described extensively, the sublingual and buccal routes have received considerably less attention. In this review, the characteristics of and approaches for sublingual and buccal vaccine delivery are described and compared with other mucosal vaccine delivery sites. We discuss recent progress and highlight promising developments in the search for vaccine formulations, including adjuvants and suitable dosage forms, which are likely critical for designing a successful sublingual or buccal vaccine. Finally, we outline the challenges, hurdles to overcome and formulation issues relevant for sublingual or buccal vaccine delivery.

  18. Vaccines for fish in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerset, Ingunn; Krossøy, Bjørn; Biering, Eirik; Frost, Petter

    2005-02-01

    Vaccination plays an important role in large-scale commercial fish farming and has been a key reason for the success of salmon cultivation. In addition to salmon and trout, commercial vaccines are available for channel catfish, European seabass and seabream, Japanese amberjack and yellowtail, tilapia and Atlantic cod. In general, empirically developed vaccines based on inactivated bacterial pathogens have proven to be very efficacious in fish. Fewer commercially available viral vaccines and no parasite vaccines exist. Substantial efficacy data are available for new fish vaccines and advanced technology has been implemented. However, before such vaccines can be successfully commercialized, several hurdles have to be overcome regarding the production of cheap but effective antigens and adjuvants, while bearing in mind environmental and associated regulatory concerns (e.g., those that limit the use of live vaccines). Pharmaceutical companies have performed a considerable amount of research on fish vaccines, however, limited information is available in scientific publications. In addition, salmonids dominate both the literature and commercial focus, despite their relatively small contribution to the total volume of farmed fish in the world. This review provides an overview of the fish vaccines that are currently commercially available and some viewpoints on how the field is likely to evolve in the near future.

  19. Vaccine-induced protection from egg production losses in commercial turkey breeder hens following experimental challenge with a triple-reassortant H3N2 avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Gonder, Eric; Liljebjelke, Karen; Lippert, Ron; Petkov, Daniel; Tilley, Becky

    2009-03-01

    Infections of avian influenza virus (AIV) in turkey breeder hens can cause a decrease in both egg production and quality, resulting in significant production losses. In North Carolina in 2003, a triple-reassortant H3N2 AIV containing human, swine, and avian gene segments was isolated from turkey breeder hens (A/turkey/NC/16108/03). This viral subtype was subsequently isolated from both turkeys and swine in Ohio in 2004, and in Minnesota in 2005, and was responsible for significant losses in turkey production. The objective of this study was to determine if currently available commercial, inactivated avian influenza H3 subtype oil-emulsion vaccines would protect laying turkey hens from egg production losses following challenge with the 2003 H3N2 field virus isolate from North Carolina. Laying turkey hens were vaccinated in the field with two injections of either a commercial monovalent (A/duck/Minnesota/79/79 [H3N4]) or autogenous bivalent (A/turkey/North Carolina/05 (H3N2)-A/turkey/North Carolina/88 [H1N1]) vaccine, at 26 and 30 wk of age, and subsequently challenged under BSL 3-Ag conditions at 32 wk of age. Vaccine-induced efficacy was determined as protection from a 50% decrease in egg production and from a decrease in egg quality within 21 days postchallenge. Results indicate that, following a natural route of challenge (eye drop and intranasal), birds vaccinated with the 2005 North Carolina H3N2 subtype were significantly protected from the drop in egg production observed in both the H3N4 vaccinated and sham-vaccinated hens. The results demonstrate that groups receiving vaccines containing either H3 subtype had a decreased number of unsettable eggs, increased hemagglutination inhibition titers following challenge, and decreased virus isolations from cloacal swabs as compared to the sham-vaccinated group. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the HA1 gene segment from the three H3 viruses used in these studies indicated that the two North Carolina

  20. Vaccine beliefs of parents who oppose compulsory vaccination.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were the following: (1) to describe the sociodemographic factors, vaccine beliefs, and behaviors that are associated with parental opposition to compulsory vaccination, and (2) to determine if the availability of a philosophical exemption in a parent's state of residence is associated with parental opposition to compulsory vaccination. METHODS: Data from the 2002 HealthStyles survey were analyzed. Chi-square analysis was used to identify significant associations bet...